"The Snowman" by Raymond Briggs.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brodie, Carolyn S.
2003-01-01
Discusses the classic children's book "The Snowman," by Raymond Briggs, and lists connections to the book in different formats; extension ideas; other picture books that feature snow; information books about snow; videos; a CD-ROM; Web sites related to the book; and Web sites with information about snow. (LRW)
Affirmative: In Support of Researching the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carlson, John G.
1989-01-01
Updates 1985 review of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) noting recent criterion-based assessments of the MBTI remain largely unsystematic theoretically but generally positive. Claims more methodologically sophisticated approaches have been developed. Concludes that it seems premature to reject the MBTI owing either to its dichotomous approach to…
The Myers-Briggs Type of College Student Leaders.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Darst, Kimberly Vess
2001-01-01
Determined the Myers-Briggs type for 149 undergraduate students holding leadership positions in student organizations. Found that college student leaders tent to be Extraverted, Sensing, Thinking, and Judging on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. (EV)
Myers-Briggs typology and Jungian individuation.
Myers, Steve
2016-06-01
Myers-Briggs typology is widely seen as equivalent to and representative of Jungian theory by the users of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and similar questionnaires. However, the omission of the transcendent function from the theory, and the use of typological functions as its foundation, has resulted in an inadvertent reframing of the process of individuation. This is despite some attempts to integrate individuation and typology, and reintroduce the transcendent function into Myers-Briggs theory. This paper examines the differing views of individuation in Myers-Briggs and Jungian theory, and some of the challenges of reconciling those differences, particularly in the context of normality. It proposes eight principles, drawn mainly from Jungian and classical post-Jungian work, that show how individuation as a process can be integrated with contemporary Myers-Briggs typology. These principles show individuation as being a natural process that can be encouraged outside of the analytic process. They make use of a wide range of opposites as well as typological functions, whilst being centred on the transcendent function. Central to the process is the alchemical image of the caduceus and a practical interpretation of the axiom of Maria, both of which Jung used to illustrate the process of individuation.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-03-05
..., Schweiger Warehouse, a Subsidiary of Briggs & Stratton Corporation Including On-Site Leased Workers of... the subject firm; Schweiger Warehouse, Jefferson, Wisconsin and the Watertown, Wisconsin locations. Accordingly, the Department is amending the certification to include workers of the Schweiger...
Using the Myers Briggs Type Indicator - part of the solution.
Allen, Judy
1994-05-12
The Myers Briggs Type Indicator, which is based on the work of Jung, is used in an infinite variety of settings to enhance learning, personal development and team building. This article describes its particular relevance to the nursing profession. (N.B. Isabel Myers used the name Isabel Briggs Myers for publication purposes. The Indicator is termed Myers Briggs in order to indicate the involvement of her mother in its development.).
Dr. William Briggs: ophthalmic physician at St. Thomas' Hospital, London.
Winstanley, J
2001-01-01
William Briggs, MD, established himself as one of the first ophthalmic physicians, whom today we would call a neuro-ophthalmologist, to practice in the United Kingdom. After graduating with an MD from Cambridge in 1677, and while a Fellow of Corpus Christi College, he carried out original studies in visual anatomy and physiology. He described and named the optic papilla and the retinal nerve fibers in his book Ophthalmographia, published in 1676. He published his New Theory of Vision in 1682. While at Cambridge, he was a contemporary and a friend of Isaac Newton, with whom Briggs worked but who, in matters of visual anatomy and physiology, came to reach different conclusions from Briggs. In 1683, Briggs came to London to practice as a physician at St. Thomas' Hospital, where he established a considerable reputation as an ophthalmologist. For political reasons he was forced to resign from the Hospital prematurely.
Joanna Briggs Institute: an evidence-based practice database.
Vardell, Emily; Malloy, Michele
2013-01-01
The Joanna Briggs Institute Evidence-Based Practice Database offers systematic reviews, practice recommendations, and consumer information designed to support evidence-based practice. A sample search was conducted within the Ovid platform to demonstrate functionality and available tools.
One legacy of Lord Briggs is the value placed on nurse research.
Adams, John
2016-03-23
The announcement of the death of Asa Briggs - Lord Briggs of Lewes - on March 15 brings to mind the debt the nursing profession owes his wise stewardship of a committee that examined aspects of the profession.
The life and scientific contributions of Lyman J. Briggs
Landa, Edward R.; Nimmo, John R.
2003-01-01
Lyman J. Briggs (1874-1963), an early twentieth century physicist at the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), made many significant contributions to our understanding of soil-water and plant-water interactions. He began his career at the Bureau of Soils (BOS) in 1896. At age 23, Briggs published (1897) a description of the roles of surface tension and gravity in determining the state of static soilmoisture. Concepts he presented remain central to this subject more than 100 yr later. With J. W. McLane, Briggs developed the "moisture equivalent" concept (a precursor to the idea of field capacity) and a centrifuge apparatus for measuring it. Briggs left the BOS at the end of 1905, under pressure from Milton Whitney, and moved to the Bureau of Plant Industry. Briggs' multi-state experiments with H. L. Shantz on water-use efficiencies showed that in a climate like that of the Great Plains, plants use water more productively in the cooler north than in the warmer south. In 1920, he moved from the USDA to the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), rising to Director in 1933. Among his other contributions to the American scientific community was his leadership, beginning in 1939, of a top secret committee that evolved into the Manhattan Project to develop an atomic bomb during World War II. A life-long baseball fan, Briggs at age 84, studied the speed, spin, and deflection of the curve ball, aided by manager Cookie Lavagetto and the pitching staff of the Washington Senators; he published these findings in a paper in the American Journal of Physics in 1959.
An assessment of the Myers-Briggs Type indicator.
Carlyn, M
1977-10-01
A comprehensive assessment of the Myers-Briggs Type indicator is presented, including a description of the four personality scales measured by the instrument, a summary of the scoring process, and an extensive review of intercorrelation studies, reliability studies, and validity studies conducted with the Indicator. Results of the studies indicate that the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is an adequately reliable self-report inventory. The Extraversion-Introversion Sensation-Intuition, and Thinking-Feeling scales appear to be relatively independent of each other, measuring dimensions of personality which seem to be quite similar to those postulated by Carl Jung.
Myers-Briggs Type Inventory Personality Preferences and Academic Performance.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lowenthal, Werner; Meth, Hilda
1989-01-01
A study to determine if there are any relationships between the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory personality preferences and academic performance in schools of pharmacy is discussed. Differences in academic performance that could be related to gender are reported. (Author/MLW)
Credible Immigration Policy Reform: A Response to Briggs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Orrenius, Pia M.; Zavodny, Madeline
2012-01-01
The authors agree with Vernon M. Briggs, Jr., that U.S. immigration policy has had unexpected consequences. The 1965 immigration reforms led to unanticipated chain migration from developing countries whereas the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act failed to slow unauthorized immigration. The result is a large foreign-born population with…
The Utility of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pittenger, David J.
1993-01-01
The Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is evaluated using a unified view of test validity that requires that validity be considered from an approach requiring many sources of corroboration. A review of available literature suggests insufficient evidence to support the tenets and claims about the utility of the MBTI. (SLD)
The Myers-Briggs type indicator--a management tool.
Costello, K
1993-05-01
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator can be an enlightening experience for managers as it uncovers blind spots as well as provides insight into managerial styles. This tool offers a way to build communication patterns that meet nurse managers' needs and the needs of the people they supervise.
Item validity of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
Tzeng, O C; Outcalt, D; Boyer, S L; Ware, R; Landis, D
1984-06-01
The present study presents a brief summary of four extensive psychometric analyses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) items. Positive empirical evidence supports the MBTI item validity. However, several measurement issues on item construction were raised to caution the future users.
An Assessment of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carlyn, Marcia
1977-01-01
The Myers Briggs Type Indicator is a self-report inventory developed to measure variables in Carl Jung's personality typology. The four personality scales measured by the instrument, and the scoring process are described, and an extensive review of the intercorrelation, reliability, and validity research is presented. (Author/MV)
The Distributed Criterion Design
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McDougall, Dennis
2006-01-01
This article describes and illustrates a novel form of the changing criterion design called the distributed criterion design, which represents perhaps the first advance in the changing criterion design in four decades. The distributed criterion design incorporates elements of the multiple baseline and A-B-A-B designs and is well suited to applied…
Unified tensile fracture criterion.
Zhang, Z F; Eckert, J
2005-03-11
We find that the classical failure criteria, i.e., maximum normal stress criterion, Tresca criterion, Mohr-Coulomb criterion, and von Mises criterion, cannot satisfactorily explain the tensile fracture behavior of the bulk metallic glass (BMG) materials. For a better description, we propose an ellipse criterion as a new failure criterion to unify the four classical criteria above and apply it to exemplarily describe the tensile fracture behavior of BMGs as well as a variety of other materials. It is suggested that each of the classical failure criteria can be unified by the present ellipse criterion depending on the difference of the ratio alpha=tau(0)/sigma(0).
Myers Briggs Type Indicator, burnout, and satisfaction in Illinois dentists.
Baran, Ronald B
2005-01-01
There is conflicting research concerning satisfaction and burnout levels in dentistry. High levels of burnout can have deleterious effects on the dentist, his or her family, and patients. A random sample of Illinois general dentists was examined using the Myers Briggs Type Indicator, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Dentist Satisfaction Survey, and a demographic questionnaire. Areas examined were the frequency of types compared to a base population as well as the relationship of type to levels of satisfaction, burnout, and demographic items. Three of the 16 Myers Briggs types were overrepresented in this sample, while two types were underrepresented. Slightly less than half of the dentists were satisfied with their profession; 7.4% had reached significant levels of burnout and 83% perceived dentistry as being "very stressful." The personality types overrepresented in dentistry tended to have a higher level of satisfaction and a lower level of burnout compared to their cohort group.
Rethinking communication apprehension: a Myers-Briggs perspective.
Opt, S K; Loffredo, D A
2000-09-01
This study is an examination of relationships between Myers-Briggs personality type preferences, based on Jungian theory, and communication apprehension. Results showed that participants who preferred introversion or sensing reported significantly higher levels of communication apprehension in general and across the group, dyadic, meeting, and public contexts than did participants who preferred extraversion or intuition. In addition, participants who preferred feeling reported higher levels of communication anxiety in the public context than those who preferred thinking. Findings support the assumption that communication apprehension is biologically based, suggest that the Myers-Briggs type preference framework offers an alternative way of understanding communication apprehension, and point out the need for new approaches to understanding the phenomenon of communication apprehension.
A Technical Review of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator(tm).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Denham, Thomas J.
This paper describes the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), developed by I. Myers and K. Briggs (1940s) to assess personality type. Based on Jungian theory, the MBTI has become a tool for identifying the 16 different patterns of action into which every person fits. The 16 personality types are based on patterns of: (1) extraversion-introversion;…
Myers-Briggs® Preferences and Academic Success in the First College Semester
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sanborn, Debra K.
2013-01-01
This research examined aspects of Myers-Briggs® preferences and academic success in the first college semester. Academic aptitude as measured by precollege characteristics of ACT and class rank, academic performance during the first semester of college, and Myers-Briggs preference were analyzed for their significance within a learning community at…
The Myers-Briggs type indicator and coronary heart disease.
Thorne, B M; Fyfe, J H; Carskadon, T G
1987-01-01
Researchers have for many years attempted to establish a relationship between coronary heart disease (CHD) and personality type. In our study, 103 subjects completed Form G of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Comparisons were made between 93 CHD patients and an age-appropriate control group (Group C) on each of the four MBTI dimensions: Extraversion-Introversion, Sensing-Intuition, Thinking-Feeling, and Judging-Perceiving. The comparison between CHD patients and Group C showed that CHD patients were significantly more likely to prefer sensing and feeling.
Myers-Briggs personality types of art collectors.
Gridley, Mark C
2004-04-01
27 art collectors (13 men, 14 women) completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Their age range was 37 to 86 years and the mean 59.5 yr. Seventy percent were classified as Intuition types instead of Sensation types (versus its 25% incidence in the general population). This corresponds to personality profiles of artists and the disproportionately high incidence of high scores on the related Openness to Experience factor in studies of creative personalities, thereby supporting the contention that persons creating art and appreciating art have personality traits in common.
Photo-induced chaos in the Briggs-Rauscher reaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okazaki, Noriaki; Hanazaki, Ichiro
1998-07-01
Discovery of the photo-induced chaos in the Briggs-Rauscher system is reported. The chaotic oscillations were observed between the large- and the small-amplitude simple oscillatory states existent in low and high light intensity regions, respectively. Period-doubling sequence from the large-amplitude oscillations to the chaos was observed. Deterministic nature of the chaos was confirmed by the next-amplitude return map. The stretching and folding mechanism of the trajectories was revealed through the three-dimensional attractor reconstructed via the singular value decomposition method. The chemical origin of the photoinduced chaos is discussed based on the photoautocatalysis of HIO2.
Generalized energy failure criterion.
Qu, R T; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, P; Liu, Z Q; Zhang, Z F
2016-03-21
Discovering a generalized criterion that can predict the mechanical failure of various different structural materials is one of ultimate goals for scientists in both material and mechanics communities. Since the first study on the failure criterion of materials by Galileo, about three centuries have passed. Now we eventually find the "generalized energy criterion", as presented here, which appears to be one universal law for various different kinds of materials. The validity of the energy criterion for quantitatively predicting the failure is experimentally confirmed using a metallic glass. The generalized energy criterion reveals the competition and interaction between shear and cleavage, the two fundamental inherent failure mechanisms, and thus provides new physical insights into the failure prediction of materials and structural components.
Generalized energy failure criterion
Qu, R. T.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, P.; Liu, Z. Q.; Zhang, Z. F.
2016-01-01
Discovering a generalized criterion that can predict the mechanical failure of various different structural materials is one of ultimate goals for scientists in both material and mechanics communities. Since the first study on the failure criterion of materials by Galileo, about three centuries have passed. Now we eventually find the “generalized energy criterion”, as presented here, which appears to be one universal law for various different kinds of materials. The validity of the energy criterion for quantitatively predicting the failure is experimentally confirmed using a metallic glass. The generalized energy criterion reveals the competition and interaction between shear and cleavage, the two fundamental inherent failure mechanisms, and thus provides new physical insights into the failure prediction of materials and structural components. PMID:26996781
Recent assessments of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
Carlson, J G
1985-08-01
The present paper focuses on approximately two dozen recent published studies that examined reliability and validity of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) in clinical, counseling, and research settings. Several assessments of split-half and test-retest reliability of the standard Form F and shorter Form G of the Inventory have yielded generally satisfactory correlations for all four scales. A larger number of studies of construct validity of the MBTI have yielded support for research hypotheses in situations ranging from correlations of the MBTI with a personality inventory, to couples problems in a counseling setting, to line judgment in groups, and others. Therefore, the applications of the MBTI have been broad, although somewhat unsystematic, and with generally favorable validity assessment. Continued attempts to validate the instrument in a variety of settings are needed.
Seven Scales for the Minnesota-Briggs History Record With Reference Group Data
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Briggs, Peter F.; And Others
1972-01-01
The Minnesota-Briggs History Record (M-B) is a self-administered history inventory. This monograph summarizes studies of the M-B and describes the development of seven scales based upon M-B items. (Authors)
Using the Myers Briggs Type Indicator--part of the solution?
Allen, J
The Myers Briggs Type Indicator, which is based on the work of Jung, is used in an infinite variety of settings to enhance learning, personal development and team building. This article describes its particular relevance to the nursing profession.
Self-Selection Patterns of College Roommates as Identified by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anchors, W. Scott; Hale, John, Jr.
1985-01-01
Investigated patterns and processes by which students (N=422) made unassisted roommate pairings within residence halls using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Results indicated introverts, intuitives, feelers, and perceivers each tended to self-select. (BL)
An Empirical Kaiser Criterion.
Braeken, Johan; van Assen, Marcel A L M
2016-03-31
In exploratory factor analysis (EFA), most popular methods for dimensionality assessment such as the screeplot, the Kaiser criterion, or-the current gold standard-parallel analysis, are based on eigenvalues of the correlation matrix. To further understanding and development of factor retention methods, results on population and sample eigenvalue distributions are introduced based on random matrix theory and Monte Carlo simulations. These results are used to develop a new factor retention method, the Empirical Kaiser Criterion. The performance of the Empirical Kaiser Criterion and parallel analysis is examined in typical research settings, with multiple scales that are desired to be relatively short, but still reliable. Theoretical and simulation results illustrate that the new Empirical Kaiser Criterion performs as well as parallel analysis in typical research settings with uncorrelated scales, but much better when scales are both correlated and short. We conclude that the Empirical Kaiser Criterion is a powerful and promising factor retention method, because it is based on distribution theory of eigenvalues, shows good performance, is easily visualized and computed, and is useful for power analysis and sample size planning for EFA. (PsycINFO Database Record
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and dental school performance.
Jones, A C; Courts, F J; Sandow, P L; Watson, R E
1997-12-01
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was administered to 256 dental students, representing four classes, at the University of Florida College of Dentistry. The results of this psychological instrument were then correlated with overall dental school performance based on results from the National Dental Board Examinations Part I and II (NB-I, NB-II), yearly class rank, and specific academic difficulties as measured by the Student Performance Evaluation Committee. Introverted students were found to display a significantly increased performance on NB-I (p = .038) and NB-II (p = .044). They were also found, however, to demonstrate a progressively lower class rank over the four-year period than extroverted students and were more likely to experience major academic difficulties as well. Judging and sensing individuals were found to earn a higher class rank over the four-year period than perceiving and intuitive students, respectively. Perceiving students were found to exhibit major difficulties or were placed on probation more often than judging individuals. These results may prove useful in counseling students to recognize potential problems before they commence their dental education or to anticipate and address specific weaknesses during the course of their education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Katz, Louise; Joyner, John W.; Seaman, Nancy
1999-01-01
Students completed either the Strong Interest Inventory (n=114) or Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (n=108), both (n=99), or none (n=106). Twelve weeks after interpretation, those who completed both showed more change, specificity, or certainty in their career goal. The Myers-Briggs proved as helpful as Strong in career decision making. (SK)
Pollen Dispersal by Catapult: Experiments of Lyman J. Briggs on the Flower of Mountain Laurel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nimmo, John R.; Hermann, Paula M.; Kirkham, M. B.; Landa, Edward R.
2014-09-01
The flower of Kalmia latifolia L. employs a catapult mechanism that flings its pollen to considerable distances. Physicist Lyman J. Briggs investigated this phenomenon in the 1950s after retiring as longtime director of the National Bureau of Standards, attempting to explain how hydromechanical effects inside the flower's stamen could make it possible. Briggs's unfinished manuscript implies that liquid under negative pressure generates stress, which, superimposed on the stress generated from the flower's growth habit, results in force adequate to propel the pollen as observed. With new data and biophysical understanding to supplement Briggs's experimental results and research notes, we show that his postulated negative-pressure mechanism did not play the exclusive and crucial role that he credited to it, though his revisited investigation sheds light on various related processes. Important issues concerning the development and reproductive function of Kalmia flowers remain unresolved, highlighting the need for further biophysical advances.
Kos, L.; Tskhakaya, D. D.; Jelić, N.
2015-09-15
Recent decades have seen research into the conditions necessary for the formation of the monotonic potential shape in the sheath, appearing at the plasma boundaries like walls, in fluid, and kinetic approximations separately. Although either of these approaches yields a formulation commonly known as the much-acclaimed Bohm criterion (BC), the respective results involve essentially different physical quantities that describe the ion gas behavior. In the fluid approach, such a quantity is clearly identified as the ion directional velocity. In the kinetic approach, the ion behavior is formulated via a quantity (the squared inverse velocity averaged by the ion distribution function) without any clear physical significance, which is, moreover, impractical. In the present paper, we try to explain this difference by deriving a condition called here the Unified Bohm Criterion, which combines an advanced fluid model with an upgraded explicit kinetic formula in a new form of the BC. By introducing a generalized polytropic coefficient function, the unified BC can be interpreted in a form that holds, irrespective of whether the ions are described kinetically or in the fluid approximation.
Probabilistic Threshold Criterion
Gresshoff, M; Hrousis, C A
2010-03-09
The Probabilistic Shock Threshold Criterion (PSTC) Project at LLNL develops phenomenological criteria for estimating safety or performance margin on high explosive (HE) initiation in the shock initiation regime, creating tools for safety assessment and design of initiation systems and HE trains in general. Until recently, there has been little foundation for probabilistic assessment of HE initiation scenarios. This work attempts to use probabilistic information that is available from both historic and ongoing tests to develop a basis for such assessment. Current PSTC approaches start with the functional form of the James Initiation Criterion as a backbone, and generalize to include varying areas of initiation and provide a probabilistic response based on test data for 1.8 g/cc (Ultrafine) 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and LX-17 (92.5% TATB, 7.5% Kel-F 800 binder). Application of the PSTC methodology is presented investigating the safety and performance of a flying plate detonator and the margin of an Ultrafine TATB booster initiating LX-17.
Relationship between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Gregorc Style Delineator.
Harasym, P H; Leong, E J; Juschka, B B; Lucier, G E; Lorscheider, F L
1996-06-01
The relationship between the Myers-briggs Type Indicator and Gregorc Style Delineator, and achievement was examined by administering these instruments to 259 first-year nursing students enrolled in an introductory human anatomy and physiology course. A principal component factor analysis using a varimax rotation of the scores from the two psychometric instruments, achievement examinations and an over-all grade point average indicated that each learning style from the Gregorc Style Delineator corresponds to certain traits on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. An individual who had a preference for the learning style of Concrete Sequential tended to have the traits of sensing and judging on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, while an individual who used the learning style of Concrete Random tended to have the traits of intuition and perceiving on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. One who had a preference for the learning style of Abstract Sequential tended to use the trait of thinking while another who used the learning style of Abstract Random tended to have the trait of feeling. The factor analysis also indicates no relationship of any scores of the traits on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator or learning styles of the Gregorc Style Delineator with the examination scores achieved in the human anatomy and physiology course or to the students' over-all grade point average. However, factor analysis indicates that the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator traits of Judging vs Perceiving collapsed into the Sensing vs Intuition scale, and that the Gregorc Style Delineator consists of two bipolar scales that are different from those proposed by Gregorc.
Utilizing the Myers-Briggs Personality Inventory in Employee Assistance Program Workplace Seminars.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aviles, Christopher B.
Social work educators are being called upon more often to deliver employee workplace seminars for community agencies on a variety of topics ranging from burnout and stress management to improving workplace communication and managing workplace conflicts. One tool that addresses workplace communication is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). It…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steele, Robert S.; Kelly, Thomas J.
1976-01-01
C. G. Jung and H. J. Eysenck developed concepts of extraversion-introversion from radically different theoretical orientations. It is hypothesized that given the methods and content similarity of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Extraversion-Introversion scales of the inventories will be significantly…
Use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) with Physicians: A Review of the Literature.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Howard, David H.
This document reviews the research on the use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), with medical students and physicians. The MBTI is a paper-and-pencil instrument based on C. G. Jung's theory of personality typology. The introductory section of the review describes the MBTI and explains its dimensions (extroverted versus introverted, sensing…
A Description and Evaluation of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stricker, Lawrence J.; Ross, John
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a Jungian-oriented self-report inventory which classifies people into dichotomous categories along four scales: extraversion-introversion, sensation-intuition, thinking-feeling, and judgment-perception. Introduced in 1942, the scoring and items have changed after several items analyses. Form F contains 51 phrase…
General Psychology Assessment and Course Satisfaction Compared with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Whitney, Gloria D.
A study involving 211 students enrolled in eight sections of a general psychology course at Brevard Community College was conducted to determine if the course activities and testing methods were biased toward certain personality types, as defined by the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory (MBTI); and to evaluate the usefulness of the MBTI as a learning…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Amato, Christie H.; Amato, Louis H.
2005-01-01
This article examines the relationship between student perceptions of team learning experience and communication style. Student group learning perceptions were evaluated and team communication style was measured using dyads derived from Myers-Briggs personality profiles. Groups containing similar personalities were classified as compatible,…
Teacher's Myers-Briggs Personality Profiles: Identifying Effective Teacher Personality Traits
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rushton, Stephen; Morgan, Jackson; Richard, Michael
2007-01-01
The Myers-Briggs Type Inventory (MBTI) and Beiderman Risk Taking (BRT) scale were administered to 58 teachers living in the state of Florida, USA. These teachers are considered part of prestigious group of educators who were nominated into the Florida League of Teachers by their superintendents/directors. Descriptive data includes frequency and…
Differences in Myers-Briggs Personality Types among High School Band, Orchestra, and Choir Members
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
MacLellan, Christin Reardon
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study was to explore personality type differences among high school band, string orchestra, and choir students according to ensemble membership. Participants (N = 355) were high school students who had participated in their school's band, orchestra, or choir for 1 year or more. The author administered the Myers-Briggs Type…
Opposition from Christians to Myers-Briggs Personality Typing: An Analysis and Evaluation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lloyd, John B.
2007-01-01
Myers-Briggs personality typing is widely used in the Christian church as an aid to individual self-understanding and spiritual formation. However, some Christian leaders have expressed doubt about its validity in understanding human personality and also opposition to its use in nurturing spiritual growth. The aim of the work reported was to…
Examination of the relationship between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and empathetic response.
Jenkins, S J; Stephens, J C; Chew, A L; Downs, E
1992-06-01
This study investigated the potential relationship between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and level of empathetic responding. Analyses indicated that the Thinking-Feeling scale was significantly associated with ratings of empathy for 49 graduate students in counselor education. Sex and graduate grade point average were also related significantly to empathic responding. Results are discussed in terms of their significance for research.
Predicting dentists' career choices using the Myers-Briggs type indicator.
Grandy, T G; Westerman, G H; Ocanto, R A; Erskine, C G
1996-02-01
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a psychological measure designed to determine personality preferences, learning styles and management styles and to assist with career choices. The authors surveyed 1,117 practicing dentists to determine if the MBTI was useful in determining which respondents were most likely to be specialists. They found no significant differences between general practitioners and specialists.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bak, Sunhi
2012-01-01
Introduction: The study presented here was designed to determine whether there were significant differences in the frequency and preference scores of personality functions and the frequency of personality types, as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), by gender, school level, and level of visual function, of students with visual…
Correlations between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Neo Personality Inventory facets.
MacDonald, D A; Anderson, P E; Tsagarakis, C I; Holland, C J
1995-04-01
Using data obtained from 48 male and 161 female undergraduate students in psychology, correlations between scores on the scales of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the facets of the Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness domains of the NEO Personality Inventory were low to moderate.
Two Approaches to Examining the Stability of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Scores
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Salter, Daniel W.; Forney, Deanna S.; Evans, Nancy J.
2005-01-01
In this study, two approaches are used to assess the stability of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator scores across 3 administrations (N = 231): longitudinal configural frequency analysis with categorical scores and generalizability theory with the Preference Clarity Indices and continuous scores. The results are generally positive. Evaluation of…
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Score Reliability across Studies: A Meta-Analytic Reliability.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Capraro, Robert M.; Capraro, Mary Margaret
2002-01-01
Submitted the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) to a descriptive reliability generalization analysis to characterize the variability of measurement error in MBTI scores across administrations. In general the MBTI and its scales yielded scores with strong internal consistency and test-retest reliability estimates. (SLD)
A Higher Order Analysis of the Factor Structure of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, William L.; Mauzey, Edward; Johnson, Annabel M.; Murphy, Stanley D.; Zimmerman, Kurt J.
2001-01-01
Examines the higher order structure of Form G of the Myers Briggs Type Indicator. A third order component analysis of a sample (N=926) found two higher order components. This higher order analysis contributes to the research literature pertaining to the generalized structure of the personality measure. (Contains 44 references and 1 table.) (GCP)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Healy, Charles C.
2000-01-01
Scores of 370 adults on the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) were correlated with General Occupational Theme (GOT) scores on the Strong Interest Inventory. Simple categorical MBTI scores were related modestly to Strong GOT scores as expected; individual continuous scores did not account for more variance in GOT than in categorical scores. (SK)
Relationship Between Personality Types on the Strong-Campbell and Myers-Briggs Instruments.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dillon, Michael; Weissman, Shel
1987-01-01
Examined relationship between Holland's personality types as measured by the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory and Jung's personality types as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. College students' (N=394) responses to the two instruments revealed significant associations between certain types based on interests and preferences.…
Effects of additives on the oscillations of the Briggs-Rauscher reaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cervellati, R.; Furrow, S. D.
2013-12-01
Perturbations with chemical species that have dissimilar physico-chemical properties, such as bromide ions, polyphenols or iron complexes, are often used to investigate the detailed molecular mechanism of the Briggs-Rauscher (BR) oscillating reaction. We describe in this review the effects caused by some of these species and present their mechanistic interpretations. Some new original results are also reported.
Myers-Briggs Attitude Typology: The Influence of Birth Order with Other Family Variables.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stansbury, Virginia K.; Coll, Kenneth M.
1998-01-01
Investigates the influence of birth order with parenting style, age spacing, gender, and socioeconomic status on the Myers-Briggs attitude scales of Extroversion/Introversion and Judging/Perceiving. Results indicate that age spacing interacted with birth order to influence Extroversion/Introversion scores. Parenting style and gender interacted…
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: A Measure for Individuals and Groups.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McCaulley, Mary H.
1990-01-01
Describes Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Looks at history and development of the MBTI, characteristics, scores, Jung's theory of lifelong development, the dynamic interaction of the four functions measured by the MBTI, the construction of the MBTI, use with groups, how to use type tables, and use of the MBTI in career counseling. (NB)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Quenk, Naomi L.
This book provides step-by-step guidance on the administration, scoring, and interpretation of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator[R] (MBTI). The book also contains assessment of the test's strengths and weaknesses, advice on its clinical applications, and several case reports. The chapters are: (1) "Overview"; (2) "How To Administer…
Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator in the Social Work Classroom.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aviles, Christopher B.
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is one of the most popular measures of personality available today and has been taken by over 12 million people. The MBTI has been successfully utilized for personal and marriage counseling, conflict and stress management, and understanding learning styles. It is perfect for the social work classroom because…
Survey of Librarians Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Form G Self-Scorable).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johns, Alan
A survey conducted in February 1990 asked 100 librarians to respond to a mailed Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), a widely used personality survey that determines Jungian personality types. The results of the MBTI can be applied to building work teams in the library. Forty-eight librarians responded to the survey. Their responses were tallied…
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Teaching-Learning Process.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McCaulley, Mary H.
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was developed specifically to make possible the implementation of Carl Jung's theory of type and is concerned mainly with conscious elements of the personality. It assumes that to function well, an individual must have a well-developed system for perception and a well-developed system for making decisions or…
Designing Criterion-Referenced Assessment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burton, Kelley
2006-01-01
Criterion-referenced assessment arguably results in greater reliability, validity and transparency than norm-referenced assessment. This article examines this assertion with reference to an example from a second year undergraduate law unit at the Queensland University of Technology, LWB236 Real Property A. When designing criterion-referenced…
Over-representation of Myers Briggs Type Indicator introversion in social phobia patients.
Janowsky, D S; Morter, S; Tancer, M
2000-01-01
The purpose of this study is to profile the personalities of patients with social phobia. Sixteen patients with social phobia were compared with a normative population of 55,971, and with 24 hospitalized Major Depressive Disorder inpatients, using the Myers Briggs Type Indicator. The Myers Briggs Type Indicator, a popular personality survey, divides individuals into eight categories: Extroverts versus Introverts, Sensors versus Intuitives, Thinkers versus Feelers, and Judgers versus Perceivers. Social phobia patients were significantly more often Introverts (93.7%) than were subjects in the normative population (46.2%). In addition, using continuous scores, the social phobia patients scored as significantly more introverted than did the patients with Major Depressive Disorder, who also scored as Introverted. Introversion is a major component of social phobia, and this observation may have both etiological and therapeutic significance.
Use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to develop a continuing education department.
Schoessler, M; Conedera, F; Bell, L F; Marshall, D; Gilson, M
1993-01-01
Myers-Briggs concepts are useful for understanding and managing individual and group strengths, preferences, and "blind spots." Requirements of the work to be accomplished can be matched to the strengths and preferences of the individual or group. Work groups can be selected to enhance individual strengths and to counterbalance blind spots. This article describes the experience of one hospital-based continuing education department that uses the Myers-Briggs Personality Trait Inventory to explore department members' strengths and preferences. Understanding individual preferences has helped group members to understand, anticipate, and work with one another. The ideal mix of profiles challenges and stimulates both the individual and the department. Maximizing diversity increases the potential for conflict between individuals with opposite preferences; recognizing strengths and blind spots, willingness to talk about work style differences, and a little humor all make peaceful coexistence possible.
The correct kinetic Bohm criterion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Czarnetzki, Uwe; Tsankov, Tsanko Vaskov
2016-09-01
Space charge sheaths are characteristic for bounded plasmas and are a key element in plasma-surface interactions. Hence, one of the most fundamental concepts in plasma physics - the Bohm criterion - is related to the definition of a sheath edge. However, its kinetic formulation is stirring controversies for a long time - from questioning its validity at high collisionality to claiming a divergence in its formulation. Here, based on a solution of the Boltzmann equation for ions with charge-exchange collisions and ionization both of these disputes are resolved: 1) The obtained form of the kinetic Bohm criterion removes the divergence in the ionic part. 2) It also introduces a new equally important term that describes collisional and geometric effects. This new term reestablishes the validity of the criterion at high collisionality. 3) It also restores agreement with the fluid counterpart of the criterion. The developed theory is supported by non-invasive spatially resolved measurements and a numerical model.
Janowsky, David S; Morter, Shirley; Hong, Liyi
2002-01-01
The current study characterized the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality profiles of 64 suicidal and 30 non-suicidal psychiatric inpatients with affective disorder diagnoses. The MBTI divides individuals categorically into eight personality preferences (Extroverted and Introverted, Sensing and Intuitive, Thinking and Feeling, and Judging and Perceiving). Compared to the group of non-suicidal affective disorder patients, suicidal affective disorder patients were significantly more Introverted and Perceiving using ANCOVA analyses, and significantly more Introverted alone using Chi Square analyses.
Schmidt, C P; McCutcheon, J W
1988-12-01
The Group Embedded Figures Test and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator were administered to 210 undergraduate and graduate students. Bivariate relations between the embedded figures test and the Indicator scales of Extraversion-Introversion (EI), Thinking-Feeling (TF), and Judgment-Perception (JP) were nonsignificant while the relation between scores on embedded figures and Sensing-Intuition (SN) was statistically significant. ESFP, ISFJ, and ESFJ types were significantly more field-dependent than the INFP and ENTP types.
Kelly criterion revisited: optimal bets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piotrowski, E. W.; Schroeder, M.
2007-05-01
Kelly criterion, that maximizes the expectation value of the logarithm of wealth for bookmaker bets, gives an advantage over different class of strategies. We use projective symmetries for a explanation of this fact. Kelly's approach allows for an interesting financial interpretation of the Boltzmann/Shannon entropy. A “no-go” hypothesis for big investors is suggested.
Developing Criterion-Referenced Programs.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Read, Bruce H.
Criterion-referenced systems are founded on the belief that instruction should be based on the needs of individual pupils. If pupils' needs are to guide instruction, the system must identify the skills pupils need to learn and the sequence for their introduction. Additionally, there must be a way to identify the skills a pupil needs and those he…
Criterion Reading Instructional Project (CRIP).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Linden Board of Education, NJ.
This booklet describes the Linden Title I Program between the years 1971-1974, with a focus on the Criterion Reading Instructional Project (CRIP). The program (in Linden, New Jersey) evolved from a supplemental reading and mathematics program to a structured developmental program of language arts designed to meet the needs of primary grade…
Criterion-Referenced Measurement: Redirections.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ellett, Frederick S., Jr.
Basic issues in criterion-referenced measurement are addressed. In section II, issues involved in determining what a person does and can do are considered. A preliminary analysis of "can" is given which shows that there are several important senses of "can". In section III, results of an analysis of "ability" are…
Bibliography on Criterion Referenced Measurement.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ellsworth, Randolph A.; Franz, Carleen
This bibliography contains 262 references on Criterion Referenced Measurement (CRM) that were obtained from the following sources: (1) the author's personal files; (2) a bibliography compiled by Hsu and Boston (ERIC Document #ED 068 531) containing 52 references; (3) a bibliography compiled by Keller (ERIC Document #ED 060 041) containing 116…
Personality characteristics of hospice volunteers as measured by Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
Mitchell, C W; Shuff, I M
1995-12-01
A sample of hospice volunteers (n = 99) was administered the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Myers & McCaulley, 1985). Frequencies of types observed were compared to population sample (n = 1,105) frequencies. Results indicated that, as a whole, hospice volunteers preferred extraversion over introversion, intuition over sensing, and feeling over thinking. Analysis of four-and two-letter preference combinations also yielded statistically significant differences. Most notably, the sensing-intuitive function appeared pivotal in determining of hospice volunteering. Suggestions are offered as to why the sensing-intuition function appeared central to hospice volunteering. Results appeared consistent with Jungian personality theory.
Communicator image and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator extraversion-introversion.
Opt, Susan K; Loffredo, Donald A
2003-11-01
This study is an examination of the relationship between communicator image and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) dimensions of extraversion-introversion. The authors found that individuals who prefer extraversion tend to have a more positive communicator image than those who prefer introversion. The results of this study support other research results showing that personality preferences differ in communication behaviors and traits, which could have implications for the individual's comfort and success in society. Results of this research also support the contention that communication behavior has biological aspects.
A universal criterion of melting.
Lubchenko, Vassiliy
2006-09-28
Melting is analyzed dynamically as a problem of localization at a liquid-solid interface. A Lindemann-like criterion of melting is derived in terms of particular vibrational amplitudes, which turn out to equal a universal quotient (about one-tenth) of the molecular spacing, at the interface. The near universality of the Lindemann ratio apparently arises owing to strongly overdamped dynamics near melting, and despite the anharmonic interactions being system-specific. A similar criterion is derived for structural displacements in the bulk of the solid, in particular the premelted layer; the criterion is no longer strictly universal, but still depends only on the harmonic properties of the solid. We further compute the dependence of the magnitude of the elemental molecular translations, in deeply supercooled fluids, on the temperature and the high frequency elastic constants. We show explicitly that the surface tension between distinct liquid states, near the glass transition of a supercooled liquid, is nearly evenly split between entropic and energetic contributions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aviles, Christopher B.
The Myers-Briggs Type Inventory (MBTI) can be helpful in personal, career, and marriage counseling; conflict and stress management; team building; and understanding managerial and learning styles. It has great potential to be utilized in human services organizations for training purposes because it offers a way to conceptualize employee…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sipps, Gary J.; Alexander, Ralph A.
1987-01-01
The construct validity of extraversion-introversion was explored, as measured by the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Eysenck Personality Inventory. Findings supported the complexity of extraversion-introversion. Two MBTI scales, Extraversion Introversion and Judging Perceiving, were factorially valid measures of impulsivity…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Daisley, Richard J.
2011-01-01
This article explores the feasibility of using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) as a framework for instructor development in a professional services training environment. It explores the consistency of MBTI with common adult learning theory, addresses questions on MBTI's reliability and validity, and explores the applicability of MBTI to the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Berry, Priscilla; Wood, Cindy; Thornton, Barry
2007-01-01
Globalization and domestic competition are forcing businesses to rethink the human resources utilization process, and one method for considering again this challenge is creating a team culture. One key to this process for human resources development is the understanding of how to create the most successful teams. The use of the Myers-Briggs Type…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Salter, Daniel W.; Evans, Nancy J.; Forney, Deanna S.
2006-01-01
The stability of learning style preferences, as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Learning Style Inventory (LSI), was examined using a configural frequency analysis of differences. Thirteen cohorts (222 graduate students) completed the instruments 3 times during their programs. Implications for use of learning style measures…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pulver, Chad A.; Kelly, Kevin R.
2008-01-01
This study examined the incremental validity of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) as a predictor of academic major choice. Undecided university students were administered the MBTI and Strong Interest Inventory (SII). Their academic major choice was recorded at the end of their fourth semester and categorized as realistic, investigative,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Salter, Daniel W.
2003-01-01
Log-linear analysis (LLA) techniques for categorical variables are demonstrated and evaluated using data from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Symmetrical LLA and asymmetrical LLA address questions of association and inference, respectively. Configural frequency analysis is examined as a strategy for whole types research. LLA approaches seem…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Herbster, Douglas L.; And Others
This document reports on a study to determine if there is a pattern between specific learning styles and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator preferences. The learning style inventory used for the study, "The Teaching and Learning Styles Survey for Adolescents (TLC)," is based on Jungian style preferences--thinker, feeler, sensor, and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reynolds, Meree; Wheldall, Kevin; Madelaine, Alison
2009-01-01
This rejoinder provides comment on issues raised by Schwartz, Hobsbaum, Briggs and Scull (2009) in their article about evidence-based practice and Reading Recovery (RR), written in response to Reynolds and Wheldall (2007). Particular attention is paid to the processes and findings of the What Works Clearinghouse evaluation of RR. The suggestion…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lloyd, John B.
2012-01-01
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI[R]) is widely used as a staff-development tool in the business and voluntary sectors. Its Psychological Type approach is found to be a valuable aid to understanding self and others and thus to enhancing effective team-working. This continuing and growing popularity is surprising in view of the disdain with…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McNickle, Phyllis J.; Veltman, Gayle C.
1988-01-01
Discusses application of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) as a staff development tool at Wichita State University in Kansas. Describes procedure for implementing the MBTI in staff development and presents results from MBTI use with 39 staff members. Recommends that student affairs divisions at other institutions use the MBTI in staff…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Graves, Karen
2013-01-01
"Newsweek" ran an article on "The Homosexual Teacher" in December 1978. At the end of a tumultuous two-year period framed by Anita Bryant's anti-gay campaign in South Florida and John Briggs' proposition to bar gay and lesbian educators from working in California public schools, reporters concluded, "Most homosexual…
Formation Criterion for Synthetic Jets
2005-10-01
formation data for the axisymmetric case were published over 50 years ago by Ingard and Labate.10 More recent studies33,34 suggest that L0/d > 1 for...with the axisymmetric data from Ingard and Labate10 and Smith et al.33 are compared in Fig. 7. It is found that the available data are consis- tent with...the jet formation criterion with an empirically determined constant K equal to approximately 0.16. The deviation of Ingard and Labate’s data at their
Uncertainty Relation and Inseparability Criterion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goswami, Ashutosh K.; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.
2017-02-01
We investigate the Peres-Horodecki positive partial transpose criterion in the context of conserved quantities and derive a condition of inseparability for a composite bipartite system depending only on the dimensions of its subsystems, which leads to a bi-linear entanglement witness for the two qubit system. A separability inequality using generalized Schrodinger-Robertson uncertainty relation taking suitable operators, has been derived, which proves to be stronger than the bi-linear entanglement witness operator. In the case of mixed density matrices, it identically distinguishes the separable and non separable Werner states.
Bipolarity in Jungian type theory and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
Girelli, S A; Stake, J E
1993-04-01
The standard form of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI; Myers & McCaulley, 1985) was constructed to measure introversion/extroversion, sensing/intuiting, and thinking/feeling as single, bipolar dimensions. We tested this assumption of bipolarity with a Likert form of the MBTI that allowed for the independent assessment of each attitude and function. A total of 106 female and 59 male undergraduate and graduate students completed the standard and Likert MBTI forms approximately 3 weeks apart. Evidence for the bipolarity of the introversion/extroversion dimension was weak, and findings did not support the bipolarity of the sensing/intuiting or thinking/feeling dimensions. Results provide evidence that high negative correlations within MBTI dimensions are an artifact of its forced-choice format. Implications of the findings for typology measurement are discussed.
Bimodal score distributions and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: fact or artifact?
Bess, Tammy L; Harvey, Robert J
2002-02-01
We examined Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) score distributions computed using item response theory (IRT) to assess the generalizability of earlier bimodality reports that have been cited in support of the "type" versus "trait" view of personality. Using the BILOG IRT program to score a sample of approximately 12,000 individuals who participated in leadership development programs, theta score distributions for the 4 dimensions of the MBTI computed using 10 (the BILOG default) versus 50 quadrature points were compared. Results indicated that past reports of bimodality were artifacts caused by BILOG's default use of a small number of quadrature points; when larger numbers of points were used, score distributions became strongly center-weighted. Although our findings are not supportive of the "type"-based hypothesis, the extremely high correlations between theta scores (rs > .996) suggest that no practical differences would be expected as a function of the number-of-quadrature-points decision.
Myers-Briggs psychological type and achievement in anatomy and physiology.
Harasym, P H; Leong, E J; Juschka, B B; Lucier, G E; Lorscheider, F L
1995-06-01
Results from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) for 259 nursing students were compared with their achievement on examinations in an undergraduate course in anatomy and physiology. Factor analysis demonstrated that no relationship existed between any of the eight individual personality traits purported to be measured by MBTI (i.e., E, Extrovert; I, Introvert; S, Sensing; N, Intuition; T, Thinking; F, Feeling; J, Judging; P, Perceiving) and examination scores in this course. The analysis also showed that the bipolar scales S vs. N and J vs. P collapsed into a single bipolar scale (S/J vs. N/P). This means that the MBTI is only capable of measuring three bipolar scales of personality traits instead of four scales as currently claimed. Contrary to other findings, results from an analysis of variance revealed no meaningful relationship between course achievement and psychological types.
Harasym, P H; Leong, E J; Lucier, G E; Lorscheider, F L
1996-06-01
The results from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), which identified preferred psychological traits for 131 nursing students, were compared to their usage levels of course objectives in an undergraduate course in anatomy and physiology. The three usage levels (user, occasional user, and nonuser) were also compared to exam scores in the course, overall grade point averages (GPA) in first-year nursing, and the various psychological traits measured by the MBTI. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated that users of objectives achieved significantly higher exam scores and maintained a higher GPA than occasional and nonusers. The MANOVA also indicated that users of course objectives preferred a sensing judging modality, whereas nonusers preferred an intuiting perceiving style to guide their studying and learning.
The Joanna Briggs Institute Best Practice Information Sheet: music as an intervention in hospitals.
2011-03-01
This Best Practice Information Sheet aims to synthesize the best-available evidence on music as a therapeutic intervention for the management of anxiety or pain related to procedural or operative interventions. The information that is contained in this sheet has been derived from studies that were included in a systematic review that was conducted by The Joanna Briggs Institute. The original references can be sourced from the systematic review. Music as a therapeutic intervention is a development largely of the mid-20th century; however, it has existed in various forms in most cultures for many centuries. The Best Practice Information Sheet includes music-listening before a procedure or operation, during a procedure or operation, and after a procedure or operation. It excludes other forms of music therapy. Several recommendations for practice are made.
Counterexamples to the Sonic Criterion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elling, Volker
2009-12-01
We consider self-similar (pseudo-steady) shock reflection at an oblique wall. There are three parameters: wall corner angle, Mach number, angle of incident shock. Ever since Ernst Mach discovered the irregular reflection named after him, researchers have sought to predict precisely for which parameters the reflection is regular. Three conflicting proposals—the detachment, sonic and von Neumann criteria—have been studied extensively without a clear result. We demonstrate that the sonic criterion is not correct. We consider polytropic potential flow and prove that there is an open nonempty set of parameters that admit a global regular reflection with a reflected shock that is transonic. We also provide a clear physical reason: the flow type (sub- or supersonic) is not decisive; instead the reflected shock type (weak or strong) determines whether structural perturbations decay towards the reflection point.
Separability criterion of tripartite qubit systems
Yu Changshui; Song Heshan
2005-08-15
In this paper, we present a method to construct full separability criterion for tripartite systems of qubits. The spirit of our approach is that a tripartite pure state can be regarded as a three-order tensor that provides an intuitionistic mathematical formulation for the full separability of pure states. We extend the definition to mixed states and give out the corresponding full separability criterion. As applications, we discuss the separability of several bound entangled states, which shows that our criterion is feasible.
Common Criterion For Failure Of Different Materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beyer, Rodney B.
1992-01-01
Common scaling criterion found to relate some physical quantities characterizing tensile failures of three different solid propellant materials. Tensile failures of different rubbery propellants characterized by similar plots.
Conducting systematic reviews of association (etiology): The Joanna Briggs Institute's approach.
Moola, Sandeep; Munn, Zachary; Sears, Kim; Sfetcu, Raluca; Currie, Marian; Lisy, Karolina; Tufanaru, Catalin; Qureshi, Rubab; Mattis, Patrick; Mu, Peifan
2015-09-01
The systematic review of evidence is the research method which underpins the traditional approach to evidence-based healthcare. There is currently no uniform methodology for conducting a systematic review of association (etiology). This study outlines and describes the Joanna Briggs Institute's approach and guidance for synthesizing evidence related to association with a predominant focus on etiology and contributes to the emerging field of systematic review methodologies. It should be noted that questions of association typically address etiological or prognostic issues.The systematic review of studies to answer questions of etiology follows the same basic principles of systematic review of other types of data. An a priori protocol must inform the conduct of the systematic review, comprehensive searching must be performed and critical appraisal of retrieved studies must be carried out.The overarching objective of systematic reviews of etiology is to identify and synthesize the best available evidence on the factors of interest that are associated with a particular disease or outcome. The traditional PICO (population, interventions, comparators and outcomes) format for systematic reviews of effects does not align with questions relating to etiology. A systematic review of etiology should include the following aspects: population, exposure of interest (independent variable) and outcome (dependent variable).Studies of etiology are predominantly explanatory or predictive. The objective of reviews of explanatory or predictive studies is to contribute to, and improve our understanding of, the relationship of health-related events or outcomes by examining the association between variables. When interpreting possible associations between variables based on observational study data, caution must be exercised due to the likely presence of confounding variables or moderators that may impact on the results.As with all systematic reviews, there are various approaches to
On a criterion for vortex breakdown
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spall, R. E.; Gatski, T. B.; Grosch, C. H.
1987-01-01
A criterion for the onset of vortex breakdown is proposed. Based upon previous experimental, computational, and theoretical studies, an appropriately defined local Rossby number is used to delineate the region where breakdown occurs. In addition, new numerical results are presented which further validate this criterion. A number of previous theoretical studies concentrating on inviscid standing-wave analyses for trailing wing-tip vortices are reviewed and reinterpreted in terms of the Rossby number criterion. Consistent with previous studies, the physical basis for the onset of breakdown is identified as the ability of the flow to sustain such waves. Previous computational results are reviewed and re-evaluated in terms of the proposed breakdown criterion. As a result, the cause of breakdown occurring near the inflow computational boundary, common to several numerical studies, is identified. Finally, previous experimental studies of vortex breakdown for both leading edge and trailing wing-tip vortices are reviewed and quantified in terms of the Rossby number criterion.
Harrington, R; Loffredo, D A
2001-07-01
The study was an investigation of the relationship between psychological well-being, life satisfaction, self-consciousness, and the four Myers-Briggs Type Indicator dimensions (MBTI; I. B. Myers & M. H. McCaulley, 1985). The participants were 97 college students (79 women and 18 men whose mean age was 31.4 years). All the students were administered four instruments, the Psychological Well-Being Inventory (C. D. Ryff, 1989), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (E. Diener, R. A. Emmons, R. J. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985), the Self-Consciousness Scale-Revised (M. F. Scheier & C. S. Carver, 1985), and the MBTI (Form G Self-Scoring). MANOVAs revealed significant differences on three of the four dimensions of the MBTI with extraverts showing higher psychological well-being and life satisfaction and lower self-consciousness than introverts. Intuition types scored higher in psychological well-being and lower in self-consciousness than Sensing types. Judging types scored higher in psychological well-being than Perceiving types. Correlational analyses showed that most dimensions of psychological well-being were negatively related to self-consciousness. The relationship between life satisfaction and personality variables is discussed.
Personality types of family practice residents as measured by the Myers-Briggs type indicator.
Harris, D L; Ebbert, P
1985-01-01
This study was initiated to test the hypothesis that individuals currently choosing family practice as a career are likely to have different personality types than those who previously pursued general practice. Incoming residents to the University of Utah Family Practice Residency Program were compared to a group of private primary care physicians serving rural areas. Personality types were determined by administering the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to both groups. Results showed that the current resident group differed significantly from the primary care physician group and that the residents' personality types were similar to personality types of faculty in other studies. This raises the concern that many family practice residents may not choose to practice in underserved areas. Further studies need to follow personality types through medical school and residency training and into practice to help determine which prospective physicians are likely to choose a primary care career and a rural practice. This information may be useful in health manpower planning and in examining admissions policies of medical schools and residencies.
The association between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Psychiatry as the specialty choice
Richard, George; Durkin, Martin
2016-01-01
Objectives The purpose of this pilot study is to examine the association between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and prospective psychiatry residents. Methods Forty-six American medical schools were contacted and asked to participate in this study. Data were collected and an aggregated list was compiled that included the following information: date of MBTI administration, academic year, MBTI form/version, residency match information and student demographic information. The data includes 835 American medical students who completed the MBTI survey and matched into a residency training program in the United States. All analyses were performed using R 3.1.2. Results The probability of an introvert matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of an extravert (p= 0.30). The probability of an intuitive individual matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of a sensing type (p=0.20). The probability of a feeling type matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of a thinking type (p= 0.50). The probability of a perceiving type matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of a judging type (p= 0.60). Conclusions Further analyses may elicit more accurate information regarding the personality profile of prospective psychiatry residents. The improvement in communication, team dynamics, mentor-mentee relationships and reduction in workplace conflicts are possible with the awareness of MBTI personality profiles. PMID:26851600
Pollen dispersal by catapult: Experiments of Lyman J. Briggs on the flower of mountain laurel
Nimmo, John R.; Hermann, Paula M.; Kirkham, M.B.; Landa, Edward R.
2014-01-01
The flower of Kalmia latifolia L. employs a catapult mechanism that flings its pollen to considerable distances. Physicist Lyman J. Briggs investigated this phenomenon in the 1950s after retiring as longtime director of the National Bureau of Standards, attempting to explain how hydromechanical effects inside the flower’s stamen could make it possible. Briggs’s unfinished manuscript implies that liquid under negative pressure generates stress, which, superimposed on the stress generated from the flower’s growth habit, results in force adequate to propel the pollen as observed. With new data and biophysical understanding to supplement Briggs’s experimental results and research notes, we show that his postulated negative-pressure mechanism did not play the exclusive and crucial role that he credited to it, though his revisited investigation sheds light on various related processes. Important issues concerning the development and reproductive function of Kalmia flowers remain unresolved, highlighting the need for further biophysical advances.
An ethical criterion for geoscientists
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peppoloni, Silvia
2013-04-01
Anthropological researches have demonstrated that at some point in human history, man makes an evolutive jump in cultural sense: at first, he is able to perceive himself only as part of a community, later he becomes able to perceive himself as an individual. The analysis of the linguistic roots of the word "Ethics" discloses the traces of this evolutive transition and an original double meaning: on the one hand, "Ethics" contains a sense of belonging to the social fabric, on the other hand, it is related to the individual sphere. These two existential conditions (social and individual) unexpectedly co-exist in the word "Ethics". So, "Geo-Ethics" can be defined as the investigation and reflection on those values upon which to base appropriate behaviours and practices regarding the Geosphere (social dimension), but also as the analysis of the relationships between the geoscientist who acts and his own actions (individual dimension). Therefore, the meaning of the word "Geo-Ethics" calls upon geoscientists to face the responsibility of an ethical behaviour. What does this responsibility consist of and what motivations are necessary to push geoscientists to practice the Earth sciences in an ethical way? An ethical commitment exists if there is research of truth. In their activities, Geoscientists should be searchers and defenders of truth. If geoscientists give up this role, they completely empty of meaning their work. Ethical obligations arise from the possession of specific knowledge that has practical consequences. Geoscientists, as active and responsible part of society, have to serve society and the common good. The ethical criterion for a geoscientist should be rooted in his individual sphere, that is the source of any action even in the social sphere, and should have the intellectual honesty as main requirement. It includes: • respect for the truth that they look for and for other's ideas; • recognition of the value of others as valuable for themselves;
[The otherness as a criterion of bioethics].
Sadala, M L
1999-12-01
The present paper proposes questions about otherness as a fundamental criterion of Ethics and Bioethics, focusing on health care. The referencial mark used is the concept of otherness based on the Existencial Phenomenology.
The criterion of magnetism in semiconductor nanoobjects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uspenskii, Yu. A.; Tikhonov, E. V.; Matsko, N. L.
2015-06-01
The Stoner criterion is known as a useful tool predicting the ferromagnetic state (FM) in metals. This criterion is not applied to nanoobjects, because of their discrete electron spectrum. In our paper we consider a generalization of this criterion, which can be applied to magnetism in semiconductor nanoobjects. To derive it, we compare total energies of the FM and non-magnetic states using many-body perturbation theory. The derived criterion has compact form and may be useful for prediction of ferromagnetism in nanoobjects. To check its precision, we performed first-principle calculations of several semiconductor nanoobjects in the FM and non-magnetic states and compared their results with predicted ones.
Griffith criterion for brittle fracture in graphene.
Yin, Hanqing; Qi, H Jerry; Fan, Feifei; Zhu, Ting; Wang, Baolin; Wei, Yujie
2015-03-11
There are prevailing concerns with the critical dimensions when conventional theories break down. Here we find that the Griffith criterion remains valid for cracks down to 10 nm but overestimates the strength of shorter cracks. We observe the preferred crack extension along the zigzag edge in graphene, and explain this phenomenon by local strength-based failure rather than energy-based Griffith criterion. These results provide a mechanistic basis for reliable applications of graphene in miniaturized devices and nanocomposites.
Spirrison, C L; Gordy, C C
1994-04-01
The Constructive Thinking Inventory (CTI; Epstein & Meier, 1989), a recently developed scale assessing patterns of habitual everyday thoughts, was compared with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI; Myers & McCaulley, 1985) to ascertain areas of common variance. CTI and MBTI data from 65 men and 109 women were evaluated. A series of standard multiple regression procedures indicated that, in most instances, CTI scales were predictive of MBTI continuous scores, although gender mediated several of the effects. The results suggest that the variance assessed by the CTI is similar to that addressed by traditional measures of personality but that the CTI partitions the variance in an atypical, yet coherent, manner.
Long, C K; Lenoir, C; Phung, T; Witherspoon, A D
1995-10-01
A sample of 108 women incarcerated in a state prison who volunteered to participate in an employment seminar were given the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Comparison of the distribution of types here and in Myers and McCaulley's 1985 sample using a Selection Ratio Type Table for analysis indicated an overrepresentation of ISTJ, ISFJ, and ISTP. The ESFP and ESFJ types were underrepresented. Further analysis of the types and the relationship to criminal offense was not significant. Results are compared with those of Lippin from 1990.
Klinkosz, Waldemar; Iskra, Justyna
2010-10-01
The present study was designed to replicate McCrae and Costa's research findings on the relation of NEO-4 domains with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator scales in a Polish sample of 300 psychology student volunteers (175 women, 125 men). Their mean age was 22.3 yr. (SD = 4.5). Correlations for scores on the MBTI scales with NEO-4 domains ranged from .72 to .02 for Extraversion, from -.60 to -.16 for Openness to experience, from -.56 to -.04 for Agreeableness, and from .55 to -.07 for Conscientiousness. Two domains assessed with the NEO-4 correspond to preferences measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
Filamentary and hierarchical pictures - Kinetic energy criterion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klypin, Anatoly A.; Melott, Adrian L.
1992-01-01
We present a new criterion for formation of second-generation filaments. The criterion called the kinetic energy ratio, KR, is based on comparison of peculiar velocities at different scales. We suggest that the clumpiness of the distribution in some cases might be less important than the 'coldness' or 'hotness' of the flow for formation of coherent structures. The kinetic energy ratio is analogous to the Mach number except for one essential difference. If at some scale KR is greater than 1, as estimated at the linear stage, then when fluctuations of this scale reach nonlinearity, the objects they produce must be anisotropic ('filamentary'). In the case of power-law initial spectra the kinetic ratio criterion suggests that the border line is the power-spectrum with the slope n = -1.
Resilience as a universal criterion of health.
Döring, Thomas F; Vieweger, Anja; Pautasso, Marco; Vaarst, Mette; Finckh, Maria R; Wolfe, Martin S
2015-02-01
To promote and maintain health in agricultural and food systems, appropriate criteria are needed for the description and assessment of the health of soils, plants, animals, humans and ecosystems. Here we identify the concept of resilience as a universally applicable and fundamentally important criterion of health in all relevant areas of agriculture. We discuss definitions of resilience for soils, plants, animals, humans and ecosystems, and explore ways in which resilience can be applied as a criterion of health in different agricultural contexts. We show how and why resilience can be seen as a key criterion of health. Based on this, we discuss how resilience can be used as a link between soil, plant, animal, human and ecosystem health. Finally, we highlight four key areas for future research on resilience in agriculture, namely spatial and temporal scaling of resilience; effects of diversity; the role of networks for resilience; and stakeholder involvement.
Greedy Criterion in Orthogonal Greedy Learning.
Xu, Lin; Lin, Shaobo; Zeng, Jinshan; Liu, Xia; Fang, Yi; Xu, Zongben
2017-02-23
Orthogonal greedy learning (OGL) is a stepwise learning scheme that starts with selecting a new atom from a specified dictionary via the steepest gradient descent (SGD) and then builds the estimator through orthogonal projection. In this paper, we found that SGD is not the unique greedy criterion and introduced a new greedy criterion, called as ''δ-greedy threshold'' for learning. Based on this new greedy criterion, we derived a straightforward termination rule for OGL. Our theoretical study shows that the new learning scheme can achieve the existing (almost) optimal learning rate of OGL. Numerical experiments are also provided to support that this new scheme can achieve almost optimal generalization performance while requiring less computation than OGL.
Aging: Sensitivity versus Criterion in Taste Perception.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kushnir, T.; Shapira, N.
1983-01-01
Employed the signal-detection paradigm as a model for investigating age-related biological versus cognitive effects on perceptual behavior. Old and young subjects reported the presence or absence of sugar in threshold level solutions and tap water. Older subjects displayed a higher detection threshold and obtained a stricter criterion of decision.…
An aerodynamic load criterion for airships
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodward, D. E.
1975-01-01
A simple aerodynamic bending moment envelope is derived for conventionally shaped airships. This criterion is intended to be used, much like the Naval Architect's standard wave, for preliminary estimates of longitudinal strength requirements. It should be useful in tradeoff studies between speed, fineness ratio, block coefficient, structure weight, and other such general parameters of airship design.
A Criterion-Referenced Test for Archery.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shifflett, Bethany; Schuman, Barbara J.
1982-01-01
A criterion-referenced test for a beginning archery class was developed and evaluated. Techniques for estimating test validity and reliability were applied to data. A method developed by R. A. Burk (1976) was used to establish a cutoff score that would distinguish between those mastering the class and nonmasters. (Authors/PP)
Criterion-Referenced Test Items for Welding.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Diane, Ed.
This test item bank on welding contains test questions based upon competencies found in the Missouri Welding Competency Profile. Some test items are keyed for multiple competencies. These criterion-referenced test items are designed to work with the Vocational Instructional Management System. Questions have been statistically sampled and validated…
POSTTRAINING PERFORMANCE CRITERION DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
SIEGEL, ARTHUR I.
IN THIS SUMMARY OF 22 RESEARCH REPORTS, THE DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF CRITERION INSTRUMENTS TO ASSESS THE TECHNICAL PROFICIENCY OF U.S. NAVY AERONAUTICAL SUPPORT PERSONNEL ARE DISCUSSED. THE STUDIES, SUMMARIZED IN TERMS OF THE CHRONOLOGICAL AND LOGICAL INTERRELATIONSHIPS INVOLVED, DEAL WITH PRELIMINARY AND FINAL FORMS OF TECHNICAL BEHAVIOR…
The gradient deformation criterion for brittle fracture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuliev, V. D.; Morozov, E. M.
2016-10-01
A new fracture criterion based on the assumption that brittle fracture occurs when the strain gradient reaches its limiting value is formulated. The presence of a strain gradient at the boundary of a body's temperature drop is shown analytically. The results of an experiment with specimens under an abrupt change in temperature are presented.
Contrasting Norm Referenced and Criterion Referenced Measures.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Randall, Robert S.
Differences in design between norm referenced measures (NRM) and criterion referenced measures (CRM) are reviewed, and some of the procedures proposed on designing and evaluating CRM are examined. Differences in design of NRM and CRM are said to arise from the different purposes that underlie each measure. In addition, there are differences among…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clinebell, Sharon; Stecher, Mary
2003-01-01
Management students formed teams after completing exercises based on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Five-Factor Model of Personality. Team members examined how types and traits might affect performance. Most students indicated that understanding personality increased awareness of behavior. Teams that used extreme division of labor were…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lindsey, William H.
2011-01-01
The study attempted to determine if there is a relationship between user's psychological personality types, measured by the Myers Briggs Type Indicator[R] (MBTI[R]) and distinct measures of usability measured by the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI). The study was expected to provide an answer to the following basic research…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martin, David C.; Bartol, Kathryn M.
1986-01-01
Tested the ability of Holland's Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) to predict student business concentration. Significant discriminant analysis results were obtained for both instruments. Classification analyses supported the potential usefulness of the VPI for counseling students regarding…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hayslip, Jo
A study worked with three groups of female students to determine whether using the Career Orientation and Planning Profile (COPP) and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) would enable adults to make better career choices the second time around. The students were women in the Access to Careers and Training (ACT) program for unemployed or…
Generalized sheath criterion for arbitrary degenerate plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.
2017-01-01
In this research, we study the generalized sheath criterion for plasmas with an arbitrary degree of electron degeneracy and temperature, ranging from the classical dilute regime to the fully degenerate quantum plasmas. The latter may be relevant to warm dense matter and/or laboratory high energy density matter or even astrophysical stellar plasmas. The hydrostatic one dimensional model is used to establish the generalized Bohm's criterion for sheath entrance ion speed limits, and the small amplitude theory of the sheath problem, which accurately describes the sheath parameters for lower ion acoustic Mach numbers, is developed. Our results indicate that the sheath characteristic parameters such as electrostatic potential and density profiles, as well as the wall potential and the sheath length, are significantly affected by plasma parameters such as the ion and electron temperature and number densities in the plasma region. In particular, there are fundamental differences between sheath structures of the dilute classical plasmas and those of dense quantum ones.
Existence criterion of genuine tripartite entanglement
Yu Changshui; Song Heshan
2006-03-15
In this paper, an intuitive mathematical formulation is provided to generalize the residual entanglement for tripartite systems of qubits [Phys. Rev. A 61, 052306 (2000)] to the tripartite systems in higher dimension. The spirit lies in the tensor treatment of tripartite pure states [Phys. Rev. A 72, 022333 (2005)]. A distinct characteristic of the present generalization is that the formulation for higher dimensional systems is invariant under permutation of the subsystems, hence is employed as a criterion to test the existence of genuine tripartite entanglement. Furthermore, the formulation for pure states can be conveniently extended to the case of mixed states by utilizing the Kronecker product approximate technique. As applications, we give the analytic approximation of the criterion for weakly mixed tripartite quantum states and consider the existence of genuine tripartite entanglement of some weakly mixed states.
Contemporary Views on Criterion-Referenced Testing
1979-10-01
slightly different area of application, Knipe (1973) sumarized the Grand Forks Learning System in which CRTs played a salient part. The Grand Forks School ...Knipe concluded: "The criterion-referenced test is the only Contemporary Views 54 type of test that a school district can use to determine if it is...mathematics and science curriculum for the elementary school ’ (6) "National Assessment of Educational Progress", CRTs designed to assess student.achievement
Stochastic Games with Average Payoff Criterion
Ghosh, M. K.; Bagchi, A.
1998-11-15
We study two-person stochastic games on a Polish state and compact action spaces and with average payoff criterion under a certain ergodicity condition. For the zero-sum game we establish the existence of a value and stationary optimal strategies for both players. For the nonzero-sum case the existence of Nash equilibrium in stationary strategies is established under certain separability conditions.
General Stability Criterion for Inviscid Parallel Flow
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sun, Liang
2007-01-01
Arnol'd's second stability theorem is approached from an elementary point of view. First, a sufficient criterion for stability is found analytically as either -[mu][subscript 1] less than U[double prime]/U-U[subscript s] less than 0 or 0 less than U[double prime]/U-U[subscript s] in the flow, where U[subscript s] is the velocity at the inflection…
Nordvik, H
1996-12-01
From 90 couples, 90 male and 90 female subjects, two sets of scores on the four personality dimensions measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) were obtained by letting each person answer each item twice, first in the ordinary way and then as he or she believed the partner would answer the item. Correlations between partners' self-reported scores were all close to zero, whereas the correlations between the partner-reported scores and the self-reported scores were high for both males and females and for all the four dimensions measured by the MBTI, thus indicating that partners were not similar in personality traits, but they had a realistic perception of each other. The results support the hypothesis that mating is random in terms of personality traits.
2010-12-01
This Best Practice Information Sheet aims to synthesize the best available evidence on the psychosocial and spiritual experiences of elderly individuals recovering from a stroke. The information that is contained in this sheet has been derived from studies that were included in a systematic review conducted by The Joanna Briggs Institute. Stroke is a major cause of death and disability and the risk of experiencing a stroke increases with age. A wide range of issues that are related to the experience of a stroke, from the perspective of the patient, have been identified in the research literature. This information sheet focuses on qualitative evidence on the short-term and long-term recovery process from the perspective of the elderly person, with the intention of assessing the evidence that would guide nursing practice.
2010-09-01
This Best Practice Information Sheet updates and supersedes an earlier publication of the Joanna Briggs Institute in 2005. The information that is contained in this publication is based upon a systematic review of six randomized clinical trials. Additional information has been derived from a second systematic review; thus, in total, the information is derived from 22 randomized controlled trials. The original references can be sourced from the systematic reviews. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the major cause of illness in Western society and it is becoming increasingly important to establish effective strategies in order to reduce the incidence of CHD. Nurse-led clinics are becoming more prominent in community settings and the importance of nurse interventions in the management of CHD and risk factor reduction is recognized in terms of improved health outcomes for patients. However, the variation in outcome measures and inconsistent findings between some studies make it difficult to draw firm conclusions.
Blind equalization with criterion with memory nonlinearity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yuanjie; Nikias, Chrysostomos L.; Proakis, John G.
1992-06-01
Blind equalization methods usually combat the linear distortion caused by a nonideal channel via a transversal filter, without resorting to the a priori known training sequences. We introduce a new criterion with memory nonlinearity (CRIMNO) for the blind equalization problem. The basic idea of this criterion is to augment the Godard [or constant modulus algorithm (CMA)] cost function with additional terms that penalize the autocorrelations of the equalizer outputs. Several variations of the CRIMNO algorithms are derived, with the variations dependent on (1) whether the empirical averages or the single point estimates are used to approximate the expectations, (2) whether the recent or the delayed equalizer coefficients are used, and (3) whether the weights applied to the autocorrelation terms are fixed or are allowed to adapt. Simulation experiments show that the CRIMNO algorithm, and especially its adaptive weight version, exhibits faster convergence speed than the Godard (or CMA) algorithm. Extensions of the CRIMNO criterion to accommodate the case of correlated inputs to the channel are also presented.
On the hodological criterion for homology.
Faunes, Macarena; Francisco Botelho, João; Ahumada Galleguillos, Patricio; Mpodozis, Jorge
2015-01-01
Owen's pre-evolutionary definition of a homolog as "the same organ in different animals under every variety of form and function" and its redefinition after Darwin as "the same trait in different lineages due to common ancestry" entail the same heuristic problem: how to establish "sameness."Although different criteria for homology often conflict, there is currently a generalized acceptance of gene expression as the best criterion. This gene-centered view of homology results from a reductionist and preformationist concept of living beings. Here, we adopt an alternative organismic-epigenetic viewpoint, and conceive living beings as systems whose identity is given by the dynamic interactions between their components at their multiple levels of composition. We posit that there cannot be an absolute homology criterion, and instead, homology should be inferred from comparisons at the levels and developmental stages where the delimitation of the compared trait lies. In this line, we argue that neural connectivity, i.e., the hodological criterion, should prevail in the determination of homologies between brain supra-cellular structures, such as the vertebrate pallium.
Social influences on adaptive criterion learning.
Cassidy, Brittany S; Dubé, Chad; Gutchess, Angela H
2015-07-01
People adaptively shift decision criteria when given biased feedback encouraging specific types of errors. Given that work on this topic has been conducted in nonsocial contexts, we extended the literature by examining adaptive criterion learning in both social and nonsocial contexts. Specifically, we compared potential differences in criterion shifting given performance feedback from social sources varying in reliability and from a nonsocial source. Participants became lax when given false positive feedback for false alarms, and became conservative when given false positive feedback for misses, replicating prior work. In terms of a social influence on adaptive criterion learning, people became more lax in response style over time if feedback was provided by a nonsocial source or by a social source meant to be perceived as unreliable and low-achieving. In contrast, people adopted a more conservative response style over time if performance feedback came from a high-achieving and reliable source. Awareness that a reliable and high-achieving person had not provided their feedback reduced the tendency to become more conservative, relative to those unaware of the source manipulation. Because teaching and learning often occur in a social context, these findings may have important implications for many scenarios in which people fine-tune their behaviors, given cues from others.
Regularization Parameter Selections via Generalized Information Criterion
Zhang, Yiyun; Li, Runze; Tsai, Chih-Ling
2009-01-01
We apply the nonconcave penalized likelihood approach to obtain variable selections as well as shrinkage estimators. This approach relies heavily on the choice of regularization parameter, which controls the model complexity. In this paper, we propose employing the generalized information criterion (GIC), encompassing the commonly used Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC), for selecting the regularization parameter. Our proposal makes a connection between the classical variable selection criteria and the regularization parameter selections for the nonconcave penalized likelihood approaches. We show that the BIC-type selector enables identification of the true model consistently, and the resulting estimator possesses the oracle property in the terminology of Fan and Li (2001). In contrast, however, the AIC-type selector tends to overfit with positive probability. We further show that the AIC-type selector is asymptotically loss efficient, while the BIC-type selector is not. Our simulation results confirm these theoretical findings, and an empirical example is presented. Some technical proofs are given in the online supplementary material. PMID:20676354
On the hodological criterion for homology
Faunes, Macarena; Francisco Botelho, João; Ahumada Galleguillos, Patricio; Mpodozis, Jorge
2015-01-01
Owen's pre-evolutionary definition of a homolog as “the same organ in different animals under every variety of form and function” and its redefinition after Darwin as “the same trait in different lineages due to common ancestry” entail the same heuristic problem: how to establish “sameness.”Although different criteria for homology often conflict, there is currently a generalized acceptance of gene expression as the best criterion. This gene-centered view of homology results from a reductionist and preformationist concept of living beings. Here, we adopt an alternative organismic-epigenetic viewpoint, and conceive living beings as systems whose identity is given by the dynamic interactions between their components at their multiple levels of composition. We posit that there cannot be an absolute homology criterion, and instead, homology should be inferred from comparisons at the levels and developmental stages where the delimitation of the compared trait lies. In this line, we argue that neural connectivity, i.e., the hodological criterion, should prevail in the determination of homologies between brain supra-cellular structures, such as the vertebrate pallium. PMID:26157357
On the definition of a criterion of immunogenicity.
Pradeu, Thomas; Carosella, Edgardo D
2006-11-21
The main objective of immunology is to establish why and when an immune response occurs, that is, to determine a criterion of immunogenicity. According to the consensus view, the proper criterion of immunogenicity lies in the discrimination between self and nonself. Here we challenge this consensus by suggesting a simpler and more comprehensive criterion, the criterion of continuity. Moreover, we show that this criterion may be considered as an interpretation of the immune "self." We conclude that immunologists can continue to speak of the self, provided that they admit that the self/nonself discrimination is not an adequate criterion of immunogenicity.
Beating the Stoner criterion using molecular interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma'Mari, Fatma Al; Moorsom, Timothy; Teobaldi, Gilberto; Deacon, William; Prokscha, Thomas; Luetkens, Hubertus; Lee, Steve; Sterbinsky, George E.; Arena, Dario A.; MacLaren, Donald A.; Flokstra, Machiel; Ali, Mannan; Wheeler, May C.; Burnell, Gavin; Hickey, Bryan J.; Cespedes, Oscar
2015-08-01
Only three elements are ferromagnetic at room temperature: the transition metals iron, cobalt and nickel. The Stoner criterion explains why iron is ferromagnetic but manganese, for example, is not, even though both elements have an unfilled 3d shell and are adjacent in the periodic table: according to this criterion, the product of the density of states and the exchange integral must be greater than unity for spontaneous spin ordering to emerge. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to alter the electronic states of non-ferromagnetic materials, such as diamagnetic copper and paramagnetic manganese, to overcome the Stoner criterion and make them ferromagnetic at room temperature. This effect is achieved via interfaces between metallic thin films and C60 molecular layers. The emergent ferromagnetic state exists over several layers of the metal before being quenched at large sample thicknesses by the material's bulk properties. Although the induced magnetization is easily measurable by magnetometry, low-energy muon spin spectroscopy provides insight into its distribution by studying the depolarization process of low-energy muons implanted in the sample. This technique indicates localized spin-ordered states at, and close to, the metal-molecule interface. Density functional theory simulations suggest a mechanism based on magnetic hardening of the metal atoms, owing to electron transfer. This mechanism might allow for the exploitation of molecular coupling to design magnetic metamaterials using abundant, non-toxic components such as organic semiconductors. Charge transfer at molecular interfaces may thus be used to control spin polarization or magnetization, with consequences for the design of devices for electronic, power or computing applications (see, for example, refs 6 and 7).
Beating the Stoner criterion using molecular interfaces.
Ma'Mari, Fatma Al; Moorsom, Timothy; Teobaldi, Gilberto; Deacon, William; Prokscha, Thomas; Luetkens, Hubertus; Lee, Steve; Sterbinsky, George E; Arena, Dario A; MacLaren, Donald A; Flokstra, Machiel; Ali, Mannan; Wheeler, May C; Burnell, Gavin; Hickey, Bryan J; Cespedes, Oscar
2015-08-06
Only three elements are ferromagnetic at room temperature: the transition metals iron, cobalt and nickel. The Stoner criterion explains why iron is ferromagnetic but manganese, for example, is not, even though both elements have an unfilled 3d shell and are adjacent in the periodic table: according to this criterion, the product of the density of states and the exchange integral must be greater than unity for spontaneous spin ordering to emerge. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to alter the electronic states of non-ferromagnetic materials, such as diamagnetic copper and paramagnetic manganese, to overcome the Stoner criterion and make them ferromagnetic at room temperature. This effect is achieved via interfaces between metallic thin films and C60 molecular layers. The emergent ferromagnetic state exists over several layers of the metal before being quenched at large sample thicknesses by the material's bulk properties. Although the induced magnetization is easily measurable by magnetometry, low-energy muon spin spectroscopy provides insight into its distribution by studying the depolarization process of low-energy muons implanted in the sample. This technique indicates localized spin-ordered states at, and close to, the metal-molecule interface. Density functional theory simulations suggest a mechanism based on magnetic hardening of the metal atoms, owing to electron transfer. This mechanism might allow for the exploitation of molecular coupling to design magnetic metamaterials using abundant, non-toxic components such as organic semiconductors. Charge transfer at molecular interfaces may thus be used to control spin polarization or magnetization, with consequences for the design of devices for electronic, power or computing applications (see, for example, refs 6 and 7).
A criterion autoscheduler for long range planning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sponsler, Jeffrey L.
1994-01-01
A constraint-based scheduling system called SPIKE is used to create long-term schedules for the Hubble Space Telescope. A meta-level scheduler called the Criterion Autoscheduler for Long range planning (CASL) was created to guide SPIKE's schedule generation according to the agenda of the planning scientists. It is proposed that sufficient flexibility exists in a schedule to allow high level planning heuristics to be applied without adversely affected crucial constraints such as spacecraft efficiency. This hypothesis is supported by test data which is described.
Generalized Bohm Criterion for Electronegative Complex Plasma
Chekour, S.; Tahraoui, A.
2011-11-29
In this work, we have generalized the computation of Bohm criterion for electronegative complex plasma. For this, we have established a one-dimensional, unmagnetized and stationary theoretical model where the positive ions and dust particles are modeled by fluid equations. The electrons and negative ions are considered in thermodynamic equilibrium; therefore they obey to Boltzmann's statistic. In this case, the numerical results show that the generalized Bohm velocity is small compared to the classical value. For electronegative dusty plasma, the corrections are less important.
Criterion-Referenced Testing in Foreign Language Teaching.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Takala, Sauli
A review of literature serves as the basis for a discussion of various aspects of criterion-referenced tests. The aspects discussed are: teaching and evaluation objectives, criterion- and norm-referenced measurement, stages in construction of criterion-referenced tests, construction and selection of items, test validity, and test reliability.…
Shirzad, Galin
2016-10-01
The present descriptive correlational study was conducted to predict the role of emotional intelligence and the Myers-Briggs personality type in marital satisfaction in married female students Tehran University in 2015. The study population consisted of all the married female students at Tehran University who visited Iran MBTI center between 22.04.2015 and 21.06.2015. A total of 140 students were selected as the study samples. Data were collected using the Myer-Briggs Type Indicator, the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire and the Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale and were then analyzed in SPSS-20 using the multivariate regression analysis. The results obtained showed that emotional intelligence (interpersonal and intra-personal skills) and personality type (extraverted and structured) can predict marital satisfaction.
Extensions and applications of the Bohm criterion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baalrud, Scott D.; Scheiner, Brett; Yee, Benjamin; Hopkins, Matthew; Barnat, Edward
2015-04-01
The generalized Bohm criterion is revisited in the context of incorporating kinetic effects of the electron and ion distribution functions into the theory. The underlying assumptions and results of two different approaches are compared: the conventional ‘kinetic Bohm criterion’ and a fluid-moment hierarchy approach. The former is based on the asymptotic limit of an infinitely thin sheath (λD/l = 0), whereas the latter is based on a perturbative expansion of a sheath that is thin compared to the plasma (λD/l ≪ 1). Here λD is the Debye length, which characterizes the sheath length scale, and l is a measure of the plasma or presheath length scale. The consequences of these assumptions are discussed in terms of how they restrict the class of distribution functions to which the resulting criteria can be applied. Two examples are considered to provide concrete comparisons between the two approaches. The first is a Tonks-Langmuir model including a warm ion source (Robertson 2009 Phys. Plasmas 16 103503). This highlights a substantial difference between the conventional kinetic theory, which predicts slow ions dominate at the sheath edge, and the fluid moment approach, which predicts slow ions have little influence. The second example considers planar electrostatic probes biased near the plasma potential using model equations and particle-in-cell simulations. This demonstrates a situation where electron kinetic effects alter the Bohm criterion, leading to a subsonic ion flow at the sheath edge.
Kinematic criterion for breaking of shoaling waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liberzon, Dan; Itay, Uri
2016-11-01
Validity of a kinematic criterion for breaking of shoaling waves was examined experimentally. Results obtained by simultaneous measurements of water surface velocity by PTV and of the propagation velocity of a steep crest up to the point of breaking inception during shoaling will be reported. The experiments performed in a large wave tank examining breaking behavior of gentle spillers during shoaling on three different slopes suggest a validity of the recently proposed kinematic criterion. The breaking inception was found to occur when the horizontal velocity of the water surface on the steep (local steepness of 0.41-0.6) crest reaches a threshold value of 0.85-0.95 of that of the crest propagation. The exact moment and position of breaking inception detected using a Phase Time Method (PTM), characterizing a unique shape of the local frequency fluctuations at the inception. Future implementation of the PTM method for detection of breaking events in irregular wave fields will be discussed. Supported by German-Israeli Foundation for Scientific Research and Development (GIF) Grant #2019392.
A universal fracture criterion for high-strength materials
Qu, Rui Tao; Zhang, Zhe Feng
2013-01-01
Recently developed advanced high-strength materials like metallic glasses, nanocrystalline metallic materials, and advanced ceramics usually fracture in a catastrophic brittle manner, which makes it quite essential to find a reasonable fracture criterion to predict their brittle failure behaviors. Based on the analysis of substantial experimental observations of fracture behaviors of metallic glasses and other high-strength materials, here we developed a new fracture criterion and proved it effective in predicting the critical fracture conditions under complex stress states. The new criterion is not only a unified one which unifies the three classical failure criteria, i.e., the maximum normal stress criterion, the Tresca criterion and the Mohr-Coulomb criterion, but also a universal criterion which has the ability to describe the fracture mechanisms of a variety of different high-strength materials under various external loading conditions.
Nash equilibrium and multi criterion aerodynamic optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Zhili; Zhang, Lianhe
2016-06-01
Game theory and its particular Nash Equilibrium (NE) are gaining importance in solving Multi Criterion Optimization (MCO) in engineering problems over the past decade. The solution of a MCO problem can be viewed as a NE under the concept of competitive games. This paper surveyed/proposed four efficient algorithms for calculating a NE of a MCO problem. Existence and equivalence of the solution are analyzed and proved in the paper based on fixed point theorem. Specific virtual symmetric Nash game is also presented to set up an optimization strategy for single objective optimization problems. Two numerical examples are presented to verify proposed algorithms. One is mathematical functions' optimization to illustrate detailed numerical procedures of algorithms, the other is aerodynamic drag reduction of civil transport wing fuselage configuration by using virtual game. The successful application validates efficiency of algorithms in solving complex aerodynamic optimization problem.
Sliwa, J A; Shade-Zeldow, Y
1994-01-01
Personality is one variable that correlates with specialty selection and practice type. To test our hypothesis that there has been a change in the personality type of those entering Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) and to identify the academic potential of those in rehabilitation, we invited all residents and graduates of our training program to participate in a study of personality types within PM&R by completing a Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Thirty residents and 48 graduates completed the questionnaire. A wide range of personality types were represented in our sample. The most common types are shared by a number of other people-oriented, primary care specialties. There was a statistically significant difference between residents and graduates on two of the four MBTI indexes, with graduates more introverted (P < 0.05) and judging (P < 0.001) than the present residents. Intuition, previously correlated with research and academic practice, was the dominant process for the majority of graduates and residents. This would confirm, according to type theory, the academic potential of both graduates and residents in our training program.
McCrae, R R; Costa, P T
1989-03-01
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI; Myers & McCaulley, 1985) was evaluated from the perspectives of Jung's theory of psychological types and the five-factor model of personality as measured by self-reports and peer ratings on the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI; Costa & McCrae, 1985b). Data were provided by 267 men and 201 women ages 19 to 93. Consistent with earlier research and evaluations, there was no support for the view that the MBTI measures truly dichotomous preferences or qualitatively distinct types; instead, the instrument measures four relatively independent dimensions. The interpretation of the Judging-Perceiving index was also called into question. The data suggest that Jung's theory is either incorrect or inadequately operationalized by the MBTI and cannot provide a sound basis for interpreting it. However, correlational analyses showed that the four MBTI indices did measure aspects of four of the five major dimensions of normal personality. The five-factor model provides an alternative basis for interpreting MBTI findings within a broader, more commonly shared conceptual framework.
A proposed criterion for aircraft flight in turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Porter, R. F.; Robinson, A. C.
1971-01-01
A proposed criterion for aircraft flight in turbulent conditions is presented. Subjects discussed are: (1) the problem of flight safety in turbulence, (2) new criterion for turbulence flight where existing ones seem adequate, and (3) computational problems associated with new criterion. Primary emphasis is placed on catastrophic occurrences in subsonic cruise with the aircraft under automatic control. A Monte Carlo simulation is used in the formulation and evaluation of probabilities of survival of an encounter with turbulence.
An Independent and Coordinated Criterion for Kinematic Aircraft Maneuvers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Hagen, George
2014-01-01
This paper proposes a mathematical definition of an aircraft-separation criterion for kinematic-based horizontal maneuvers. It has been formally proved that kinematic maneu- vers that satisfy the new criterion are independent and coordinated for repulsiveness, i.e., the distance at closest point of approach increases whether one or both aircraft maneuver according to the criterion. The proposed criterion is currently used in NASA's Airborne Coordinated Resolution and Detection (ACCoRD) set of tools for the design and analysis of separation assurance systems.
Quality criterion for digital still camera
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bezryadin, Sergey
2007-02-01
The main quality requirements for a digital still camera are color capturing accuracy, low noise level, and quantum efficiency. Different consumers assign different priorities to the listed parameters, and camera designers need clearly formulated methods for their evaluation. While there are procedures providing noise level and quantum efficiency estimation, there are no effective means for color capturing accuracy estimation. Introduced in this paper criterion allows to fill this gap. Luther-Ives condition for correct color reproduction system became known in the beginning of the last century. However, since no detector system satisfies Luther-Ives condition, there are always stimuli that are distinctly different for an observer, but which detectors are unable to distinguish. To estimate conformity of a detector set with Luther-Ives condition and calculate a measure of discrepancy, an angle between detector sensor sensitivity and Cohen's Fundamental Color Space may be used. In this paper, the divergence angle is calculated for some typical CCD sensors and a demonstration provided on how this angle might be reduced with a corrective filter. In addition, it is shown that with a specific corrective filter Foveon sensors turn into a detector system with a good Luther-Ives condition compliance.
Suboptimal Criterion Learning in Static and Dynamic Environments
Fleming, Stephen M.; Daw, Nathaniel D.
2017-01-01
Humans often make decisions based on uncertain sensory information. Signal detection theory (SDT) describes detection and discrimination decisions as a comparison of stimulus “strength” to a fixed decision criterion. However, recent research suggests that current responses depend on the recent history of stimuli and previous responses, suggesting that the decision criterion is updated trial-by-trial. The mechanisms underpinning criterion setting remain unknown. Here, we examine how observers learn to set a decision criterion in an orientation-discrimination task under both static and dynamic conditions. To investigate mechanisms underlying trial-by-trial criterion placement, we introduce a novel task in which participants explicitly set the criterion, and compare it to a more traditional discrimination task, allowing us to model this explicit indication of criterion dynamics. In each task, stimuli were ellipses with principal orientations drawn from two categories: Gaussian distributions with different means and equal variance. In the covert-criterion task, observers categorized a displayed ellipse. In the overt-criterion task, observers adjusted the orientation of a line that served as the discrimination criterion for a subsequently presented ellipse. We compared performance to the ideal Bayesian learner and several suboptimal models that varied in both computational and memory demands. Under static and dynamic conditions, we found that, in both tasks, observers used suboptimal learning rules. In most conditions, a model in which the recent history of past samples determines a belief about category means fit the data best for most observers and on average. Our results reveal dynamic adjustment of discrimination criterion, even after prolonged training, and indicate how decision criteria are updated over time. PMID:28046006
A Difference Criterion for Dimensionality Reduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aved, A. J.; Blasch, E.; Peng, J.
2015-12-01
A dynamic data-driven geoscience application includes hyperspectral scene classification which has shown promising potential in many remote-sensing applications. A hyperspectral image of a scene spectral radiance is typically measured by hundreds of contiguous spectral bands or features, ranging from visible/near-infrared (VNIR) to shortwave infrared (SWIR). Spectral-reflectance measurements provide rich information for object detection and classification. On the other hand, they generate a large number of features, resulting in a high dimensional measurement space. However, a large number of features often poses challenges and can result in poor classification performance. This is due to the curse of dimensionality which requires model reduction, uncertainty quantification and optimization for real-world applications. In such situations, feature extraction or selection methods play an important role by significantly reducing the number of features for building classifiers. In this work, we focus on efficient feature extraction using the dynamic data-driven applications systems (DDDAS) paradigm. Many dimension reduction techniques have been proposed in the literature. A well-known technique is Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (LDA). LDA finds the projection matrix that simultaneously maximizes a within class scatter matrix and minimizes a between class scatter matrix. However, LDA requires matrix inverse which can be a major issue when the within matrix is singular. We propose a difference criterion for dimension reduction that does not require a matrix inverse for software implementation. We show how to solve the optimization problem with semi-definite programming. In addition, we establish an error bound for the proposed algorithm. We demonstrate the connection between relief feature selection and a two class formulation of multi-class problems, thereby providing a sound basis for observed benefits associated with this formulation. Finally, we provide
A stochastic T cell response criterion
Currie, James; Castro, Mario; Lythe, Grant; Palmer, Ed; Molina-París, Carmen
2012-01-01
The adaptive immune system relies on different cell types to provide fast and coordinated responses, characterized by recognition of pathogenic challenge, extensive cellular proliferation and differentiation, as well as death. T cells are a subset of the adaptive immune cellular pool that recognize immunogenic peptides expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells by means of specialized receptors on their membrane. T cell receptor binding to ligand determines T cell responses at different times and locations during the life of a T cell. Current experimental evidence provides support to the following: (i) sufficiently long receptor–ligand engagements are required to initiate the T cell signalling cascade that results in productive signal transduction and (ii) counting devices are at work in T cells to allow signal accumulation, decoding and translation into biological responses. In the light of these results, we explore, with mathematical models, the timescales associated with T cell responses. We consider two different criteria: a stochastic one (the mean time it takes to have had N receptor–ligand complexes bound for at least a dwell time, τ, each) and one based on equilibrium (the time to reach a threshold number N of receptor–ligand complexes). We have applied mathematical models to previous experiments in the context of thymic negative selection and to recent two-dimensional experiments. Our results indicate that the stochastic criterion provides support to the thymic affinity threshold hypothesis, whereas the equilibrium one does not, and agrees with the ligand hierarchy experimentally established for thymic negative selection. PMID:22745227
Criterion-Referenced Measurement: Half a Century Wasted?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Popham, W. James
2014-01-01
Fifty years ago, Robert Glaser introduced the concept of criterion-referenced measurement in an article in American Psychologist. Its early proponents predicted that this measurement strategy would revolutionize education. But has it lived up to its promise? W. James Popham explores this question by looking at the history of criterion-referenced…
A Rationale for Criterion-Referenced Proficiency Testing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clifford, Ray
2016-01-01
This article summarizes some of the technical issues that add to the complexity of language testing. It focuses in particular on the criterion-referenced nature of the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines-Speaking; and it proposes a criterion-referenced interpretation of the ACTFL guidelines for reading and listening. It then demonstrates how using…
A System for Describing and Evaluating Criterion-Referenced Tests.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kosecoff, Jacqueline; And Others
There are, at present, a number of tests that are labeled criterion referenced. These tests vary considerably in format, design, analysis, and function. In order to provide an efficient and objective procedure for describing, assessing, and comparing these measures, the Criterion Referenced Test Description and Evaluation (CRTDE) rating system was…
Criterion Referenced Testing: A Bibliography. TM Report 53.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Porter, Deborah Elena
Within the last decade, a wealth of literature has appeared debating the merits, use, construction, and interpretation of criterion referenced tests. This is a bibliography of articles on a wide range of topics on criterion referenced testing subjects. Also included are articles on mastery and domain referenced testing. The articles cited were…
The Epistemic Criterion: A Response to Michael Hand
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cooling, Trevor
2014-01-01
This article is a response to Michael Hand's critique in this issue of my response to his use of the epistemic criterion as the sole means for identifying whether or not an issue should be identified as controversial. I argue that he has misunderstood my intention in suggesting that I was seeking to replace the epistemic criterion. Rather my…
An Optimal Design Approach to Criterion-Referenced Computerized Testing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wiberg, Marie
2003-01-01
A criterion-referenced computerized test is expressed as a statistical hypothesis problem. This admits that it can be studied by using the theory of optimal design. The power function of the statistical test is used as a criterion function when designing the test. A formal proof is provided showing that all items should have the same item…
A shear ductile fracture criterion for metal forming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lou, Yanshan; Yoon, Jeong Whan
2016-08-01
In this paper, an uncoupled shear ductile fracture criterion is developed for prediction of ductile fracture in sheet metal forming from shear to balanced biaxial tension. The ductile fracture criterion is calibrated by four tests of sheet metal: shear tests, uniaxial tension, plane strain tension and the Nakajima test. Specimens are designed for AA6082 T6 (t1.0) for the calibration of the proposed ductile fracture criterion. The calibrated ductile fracture criterion is then implemented into numerical simulation for the prediction of ductile fracture of the aluminum alloy. For the purpose of comparison, onset of ductile fracture is also estimated by MMC3, DF2012 and DF2014 criteria. The comparison indicates that the developed criterion can accurately predict onset of ductile fracture for all four loading conditions, but the other three criteria can only provide reasonable prediction for three tests. Accordingly, the newly developed ductile fracture criterion is suggested to be used in prediction of ductile fracture for sheet metal forming in wide loading condition from shear to the balanced biaxial tension. Discussion on calibration of this ductile fracture criterion also indicates that the ductile fracture criterion can be employed in estimation of ductile fracture for bulk metal forming processes with better predictability.
The Instructional Consequences of Criterion-Referenced Clarity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Popham, W. James
1994-01-01
The instructional impact of criterion-referenced testing during the past three decades is reviewed, and a method of devising criterion-referenced tests is suggested that departs from the usual model. Adding verification along the lines of panel review that newly constructed test items do elicit appropriate information is suggested. (SLD)
Young, A J; Walters, J L
2002-08-01
Associations between owners' Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) preferences (E = extraversion vs. I = introversion; S = sensing vs. N = intuition; T = thinking vs F = feeling; J = judging vs. P = perceiving) and 21 Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) production variables were determined on 60 farms. Of 60 dairy farmers participating, 51 were from Holstein farms (85%) and nine from farms with other breeds, primarily Jersey. Cows were milked either twice (n = 44 herds, 73%) or three times (n = 16) per day. Farmers were evenly split between the "E" and "I" dimension, whereas 93% of the farmers were "S," 75% "T," and 62% "J.". Individuals with a preference for the "I" dimension were associated with higher peak and mature equivalent milk yield than those individuals with a preference for the "E" dimension. The "T" and "J" dimensions had a significantly higher percentage of the herd with records usable by USDA and a lower percentage of animals pregnant by the goal set by the dairy producer than the "F" and "P" dimensions. Herds managed by individuals with a combination preference of "E" and "P" produced 7 to 10 kg of 3.5% FCM/cow per day less or 1,820 to 2,752 kg/ cow RHA ECM less than other combinations of the "E-I" and "J-P" dimensions. Those herds also had longer days dry and a lower percentage of records usable by USDA, suggesting that the "E-P" preference is less favorably associated to those measures of herd performance. The MBTI had limited association with many DHI production variables, but relationships to measures of labor and business management should be examined.
Steele, Anita Louise; Young, Sylvester
2008-01-01
The purpose of this study was to develop both personality and demographic profiles for students who are interested in majoring in music education or music therapy. Two primary questions were addressed in the study: (a) Are there similarities and differences in the personality types of music education and music therapy majors as measured by the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI )? (b) Are there similarities and differences in demographic characteristics of music education and music therapy majors in regard to (i) principal instrument studied in college, (ii) grade point average, (iii) scholarship awards, (iv) high school participation in private study and (v) ensembles, (vi) church/community participation, and (vii) volunteerism in high school?
Failure Criterion for Brick Masonry: A Micro-Mechanics Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawa, Marek
2015-02-01
The paper deals with the formulation of failure criterion for an in-plane loaded masonry. Using micro-mechanics approach the strength estimation for masonry microstructure with constituents obeying the Drucker-Prager criterion is determined numerically. The procedure invokes lower bound analysis: for assumed stress fields constructed within masonry periodic cell critical load is obtained as a solution of constrained optimization problem. The analysis is carried out for many different loading conditions at different orientations of bed joints. The performance of the approach is verified against solutions obtained for corresponding layered and block microstructures, which provides the upper and lower strength bounds for masonry microstructure, respectively. Subsequently, a phenomenological anisotropic strength criterion for masonry microstructure is proposed. The criterion has a form of conjunction of Jaeger critical plane condition and Tsai-Wu criterion. The model proposed is identified based on the fitting of numerical results obtained from the microstructural analysis. Identified criterion is then verified against results obtained for different loading orientations. It appears that strength of masonry microstructure can be satisfactorily described by the criterion proposed.
Does the World Health Organization criterion adequately define glaucoma blindness?
Mokhles, P; Schouten, JSAG; Beckers, HJM; Webers, CAB
2017-01-01
Purpose Blindness in glaucoma is difficult to assess with merely the use of the current World Health Organization (WHO) definition (a visual field restricted to 10° in a radius around central fixation), as this criterion does not cover other types of visual field loss that are encountered in clinical practice and also depict blindness. In this study, a 5-point ordinal scale was developed for the assessment of common visual field defect patterns, with the purpose of comparing blindness as outcome to the findings with the WHO criterion when applied to the same visual fields. The scores with the two methods were compared between two ophthalmologists. In addition, the variability between these assessors in assessing the different visual field types was determined. Methods Two glaucoma specialists randomly assessed a sample of 423 visual fields from 77 glaucoma patients, stripped of all indices and masked for all patient variables. They applied the WHO criterion and a 5-point ordinal scale to all visual fields for the probability of blindness. Results The WHO criterion was mostly found applicable and in good agreement for both assessors to visual fields depicting central island of vision or a temporal crescent. The percentage of blindness scores was higher when using the ordinal scale, 21.7% and 19.6% for assessors A and B, respectively, versus 14.4% and 11.3% for the WHO criterion. However, Kappa was lower, 0.71 versus 0.78 for WHO. Conclusions The WHO criterion is strictly applied and shows good agreement between assessors; however, blindness does not always fit this criterion. More visual fields are labeled as blind when a less stringent criterion is used, but this leads to more interobserver variability. A new criterion that describes the extent, location, and depth of visual field defects together with their consequence for the patient’s quality of life is needed for the classification of glaucoma blindness. PMID:28280297
On the reduction criterion for random quantum states
Jivulescu, Maria Anastasia Lupa, Nicolae; Nechita, Ion
2014-11-15
In this paper, we study the reduction criterion for detecting entanglement of large dimensional bipartite quantum systems. We first obtain an explicit formula for the moments of a random quantum state to which the reduction criterion has been applied. We show that the empirical eigenvalue distribution of this random matrix converges strongly to a limit that we compute, in three different asymptotic regimes. We then employ tools from free probability theory to study the asymptotic positivity of the reduction operators. Finally, we compare the reduction criterion with other entanglement criteria, via thresholds.
Energy Criterion for the Spectral Stability of Discrete Breathers.
Kevrekidis, Panayotis G; Cuevas-Maraver, Jesús; Pelinovsky, Dmitry E
2016-08-26
Discrete breathers are ubiquitous structures in nonlinear anharmonic models ranging from the prototypical example of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model to Klein-Gordon nonlinear lattices, among many others. We propose a general criterion for the emergence of instabilities of discrete breathers analogous to the well-established Vakhitov-Kolokolov criterion for solitary waves. The criterion involves the change of monotonicity of the discrete breather's energy as a function of the breather frequency. Our analysis suggests and numerical results corroborate that breathers with increasing (decreasing) energy-frequency dependence are generically unstable in soft (hard) nonlinear potentials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skauge, Suzanne Elizabeth
This research conducted at a southern regional university studied general education (University Studies - US) science course selection and academic success in US science in relation to Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) preference categories (SF, ST, NF and NT). Additionally, differences in type preferences among students with mathematics and/or reading competency were explored. Data was examined for 755 students enrolled in the freshman success seminar course between Fall 1989 and Spring 1995 who had completed the MBTI test as part of that class. US science courses examined were grouped by science study: earth science, biology, chemistry and physics. Academic success was defined as a grade of "C" or higher and proficiency criteria were dictated by the university catalog. The study's nonparametric test results did not find any significant differences between MBTI type preferences and the two main areas of focus, US science course selection and academic success in US science courses. However, significant proportional differences were found between type preferences in relation to student reading competency (sig. = .03), as well as, reading competency and academic success in science (sig. = .04) even though fairly weak relationships existed between the variables with contingency coefficients of .11 and .10 respectively. All other relationships tested proved not significant. Each type's course selection closely reflected the overall sample: Earth Science 52.3%, Biology 34%, Chemistry 7.5% and Physics 6.1%. Nearly one-fifth (19.7%) of the sample were not successful in their selected science course. Less than two-fifths (37.7%) of student sample were not mathematics and/or reading competent. Academically in science intuitive types tended to do better than sensing types and feeling types tended to better than thinking types (NF 2.41, NT 2.36, SF 2.29 and ST 2.23). Further analysis found the TF preference scale contributed more toward the significant differences in reading
Multi-criterion optimization for heel-toe running.
Wang, Nenzi
2005-08-01
This paper presents an optimization procedure for multi-criterion analysis essential in many biomechanical studies. The optimization is illustrated with a heel-toe running analysis wherein the rate of load and the passive load on support leg are minimized concurrently. The goal of multi-criterion optimization is achieved by incorporating the criterion of Pareto optimality in the genetic algorithm. The proposed procedure can replace the popular weighted-sum approach for problems with multiple objectives. The selection of a final design from the Pareto optimum points (non-dominated designs) can be determined, based on the min-max objective deviation criterion. Nevertheless, a different decision can be made in the final selection without incurring recalculations. The scheme is readily adoptable for parallel computing, which deserves further study to reduce the execution time in a complex biomechanical analysis.
Two Approaches to Criterion-Referenced Program Assessment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Haladyna, Tom
1982-01-01
Describes two types of criterion-referenced testing that districts can use to measure achievement outcomes of their instructional programs: a random sampling assessment plan and an item-response theory assessment plan. (Author/JM)
Norm Referenced and Criterion Based Measures with Preschoolers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
MacTurk, Robert H.; Neisworth, John T.
1978-01-01
Seventeen handicapped and nonhandicapped preschool children were given both the norm referenced Gesell Developmental Schedules and the criterion based HICOMP progress measure on a quarterly (10 week) basis. (Author/SBH)
Evaluation of the tensor polynomial failure criterion for composite materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tennyson, R. C.; Macdonald, D.; Nanyaro, A. P.
1978-01-01
A comprehensive experimental and analytical evaluation of the tensor polynomial failure criterion was undertaken to determine its capability for predicting the ultimate strength of laminated composite structures subject to a plane stress state. Results are presented demonstrating that a quadratic formulation is too conservative and a cubic representation is required. Strength comparisons with test data derived from glass/epoxy and graphite/epoxy tubular specimens are also provided to validate the cubic strength criterion.
Criterion buys Akzo`s naphtha reforming catalysts business
Rotman, D.
1993-12-08
In a move that further consolidates the refinery catalysts market, Criterion Catalyst (Houston) has bought Akzo`s reforming business for an undisclosed price. The acquisition gives Criterion-a joint venture between Shell and American Cyanamid-roughly 35% of the $50-million/year worldwide reforming market. Akzo says it is quitting the business to focus on larger refinery catalysts applications in hydroprocessing and fluid cracking catalysts.
An approximate spin design criterion for monoplanes, 1 May 1939
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seidman, O.; Donlan, C. J.
1976-01-01
An approximate empirical criterion, based on the projected side area and the mass distribution of the airplane, was formulated. The British results were analyzed and applied to American designs. A simpler design criterion, based solely on the type and the dimensions of the tail, was developed; it is useful in a rapid estimation of whether a new design is likely to comply with the minimum requirements for safety in spinning.
GRAVITATIONAL FRAGMENTATION IN GALAXY MERGERS: A STABILITY CRITERION
Escala, Andres; Becerra, Fernando; Del Valle, Luciano; Castillo, Esteban
2013-01-20
We study the gravitational stability of gaseous streams in the complex environment of a galaxy merger, because mergers are known to be places of ongoing massive cluster formation and bursts of star formation. We find an analytic stability parameter for the case of gaseous streams orbiting around the merger remnant. We test our stability criterion using hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy mergers and obtain satisfactory results. We find that our criterion successfully predicts the streams that will be gravitationally unstable to fragmentation into clumps.
An improved failure criterion for biological and engineered staggered composites.
Barthelat, Francois; Dastjerdi, Ahmad Khayer; Rabiei, Reza
2013-02-01
High-performance biological materials such as nacre, spider silk or bone have evolved a staggered microstructure consisting of stiff and strong elongated inclusions aligned with the direction of loading. This structure leads to useful combinations of stiffness, strength and toughness, and it is therefore increasingly mimicked in bio-inspired composites. The performance of staggered composites can be tuned; for example, their mechanical properties increase when the overlap between the inclusions is increased. However, larger overlaps may lead to excessive tensile stress and fracture of the inclusions themselves, a highly detrimental failure mode. Fracture of the inclusions has so far only been predicted using highly simplified models, which hinder our ability to properly design and optimize engineered staggered composites. In this work, we develop a new failure criterion that takes into account the complex stress field within the inclusions as well as initial defects. The model leads to an 'optimum criterion' for cases where the shear tractions on the inclusions is uniform, and a 'conservative' criterion for which the tractions are modelled as point forces at the ends of the overlap regions. The criterion can therefore be applied for a wide array of material behaviour at the interface, even if the details of the shear load transfer is not known. The new criterion is validated with experiments on staggered structures made of millimetre-thick alumina tablets, and by comparison with data on nacre. Formulated in a non-dimensional form, our new criterion can be applied on a wide variety of engineered staggered composites at any length scale. It also reveals new design guidelines, for example high aspect ratio inclusions with weak interfaces are preferable over inclusions with low aspect ratio and stronger interfaces. Together with existing models, this new criterion will lead to optimal designs that harness the full potential of bio-inspired staggered composites.
Dubious decision evidence and criterion flexibility in recognition memory
Kantner, Justin; Vettel, Jean M.; Miller, Michael B.
2015-01-01
When old–new recognition judgments must be based on ambiguous memory evidence, a proper criterion for responding “old” can substantially improve accuracy, but participants are typically suboptimal in their placement of decision criteria. Various accounts of suboptimal criterion placement have been proposed. The most parsimonious, however, is that subjects simply over-rely on memory evidence – however faulty – as a basis for decisions. We tested this account with a novel recognition paradigm in which old–new discrimination was minimal and critical errors were avoided by adopting highly liberal or conservative biases. In Experiment 1, criterion shifts were necessary to adapt to changing target probabilities or, in a “security patrol” scenario, to avoid either letting dangerous people go free (misses) or harming innocent people (false alarms). Experiment 2 added a condition in which financial incentives drove criterion shifts. Critical errors were frequent, similar across sources of motivation, and only moderately reduced by feedback. In Experiment 3, critical errors were only modestly reduced in a version of the security patrol with no study phase. These findings indicate that participants use even transparently non-probative information as an alternative to heavy reliance on a decision rule, a strategy that precludes optimal criterion placement. PMID:26441706
A new tracer-density criterion for heterogeneous porous media
Barth, G.R.; Illangasekare, T.H.; Hill, M.C.; Rajaram, H.
2001-01-01
Tracerexperiments provide information about aquifer material properties vital for accurate site characterization. Unfortunately, density-induced sinking can distort tracer movement, leading to an inaccurate assessment of material properties. Yet existing criteria for selecting appropriate tracer concentrations are based on analysis of homogeneous media instead of media with heterogeneities typical of field sites. This work introduces a hydraulic-gradient correction for heterogeneous media and applies it to a criterion previously used to indicate density-induced instabilities in homogeneous media. The modified criterion was tested using a series of two-dimensional heterogeneous intermediate-scale tracer experiments and data from several detailed field tracer tests. The intermediate-scale experimental facility (10.0 ?? 1.2 ?? 0.06 m) included both homogeneous and heterogeneous (??2/In ?? = 1.22) zones. The field tracer tests were less heterogeneous (0.24 < ??2/ln ?? < 0.37), but measurements were sufficient to detect density-induced sinking. Evaluation of the modified criterion using the experiments and field tests demonstrates that the new criterion appears to account for the change in density-induced sinking due to heterogeneity. The criterion demonstrates the importance of accounting for heterogeneity to predict density-induced sinking and differences in the onset of density induced sinking in two-and three-dimensional systems.
Bouchard, T J; Hur, Y M
1998-04-01
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator was administered to a sample of 61 monozygotic twins reared apart (MZA), 49 dizygotic twins reared apart (DZA), and 92 spouses, who participated in the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart (MISTRA) from 1979 to 1995. Twins' scores on the continuous scales were subjected to behavior genetic model-fitting procedures. Extraversion-Introversion and Thinking-Feeling yielded heritabilities of about .60, consisting largely of nonadditive genetic variance. Sensing-Intuition and Judgment-Perception yielded heritabilities of about .40, consisting largely of additive genetic variance. Spouse correlations for three of the four scales were near zero and not statistically significant; one spouse correlation (Sensing-Intuition) was modestly positive and statistically significant.
Evaluation of failure criterion for graphite/epoxy fabric laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tennyson, R. C.; Wharram, G. E.
1985-01-01
The development and application of the tensor polynomial failure criterion for composite laminate analysis is described. Emphasis is given to the fabrication and testing of Narmco Rigidite 5208-WT300, a plain weave fabric of Thornel 300 Graphite fibers impregnated with Narmco 5208 Resin. The quadratic-failure criterion with F sub 12=0 provides accurate estimates of failure stresses for the graphite/epoxy investigated. The cubic failure criterion was recast into an operationally easier form, providing design curves that can be applied to laminates fabricated from orthotropic woven fabric prepregs. In the form presented, no interaction strength tests are required, although recourse to the quadratic model and the principal strength parameters is necessary. However, insufficient test data exist at present to generalize this approach for all prepreg constructions, and its use must be restricted to the generic materials and configurations investigated to date.
Development of failure criterion for Kevlar-epoxy fabric laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tennyson, R. C.; Elliott, W. G.
1984-01-01
The development of the tensor polynomial failure criterion for composite laminate analysis is discussed. In particular, emphasis is given to the fabrication and testing of Kevlar-49 fabric (Style 285)/Narmco 5208 Epoxy. The quadratic-failure criterion with F(12)=0 provides accurate estimates of failure stresses for the Kevlar/Epoxy investigated. The cubic failure criterion was re-cast into an operationally easier form, providing the engineer with design curves that can be applied to laminates fabricated from unidirectional prepregs. In the form presented no interaction strength tests are required, although recourse to the quadratic model and the principal strength parameters is necessary. However, insufficient test data exists at present to generalize this approach for all undirectional prepregs and its use must be restricted to the generic materials investigated to-date.
Robust Criterion for the Existence of Nonhyperbolic Ergodic Measures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bochi, Jairo; Bonatti, Christian; Díaz, Lorenzo J.
2016-06-01
We give explicit C 1-open conditions that ensure that a diffeomorphism possesses a nonhyperbolic ergodic measure with positive entropy. Actually, our criterion provides the existence of a partially hyperbolic compact set with one-dimensional center and positive topological entropy on which the center Lyapunov exponent vanishes uniformly. The conditions of the criterion are met on a C 1-dense and open subset of the set of diffeomorphisms having a robust cycle. As a corollary, there exists a C 1-open and dense subset of the set of non-Anosov robustly transitive diffeomorphisms consisting of systems with nonhyperbolic ergodic measures with positive entropy. The criterion is based on a notion of a blender defined dynamically in terms of strict invariance of a family of discs.
Criticality and quenched disorder: Harris criterion versus rare regions.
Vojta, Thomas; Hoyos, José A
2014-02-21
We employ scaling arguments and optimal fluctuation theory to establish a general relation between quantum Griffiths singularities and the Harris criterion for quantum phase transitions in disordered systems. If a clean critical point violates the Harris criterion, it is destabilized by weak disorder. At the same time, the Griffiths dynamical exponent z' diverges upon approaching the transition, suggesting unconventional critical behavior. In contrast, if the Harris criterion is fulfilled, power-law Griffiths singularities can coexist with clean critical behavior, but z' saturates at a finite value. We present applications of our theory to a variety of systems including quantum spin chains, classical reaction-diffusion systems and metallic magnets, and we discuss modifications for transitions above the upper critical dimension. Based on these results we propose a unified classification of phase transitions in disordered systems.
The role of word choice and criterion on intentional memory.
Toyota, Hiroshi
2015-02-01
The relationship between the criterion for choosing and the self-choice effects (greater recall in a self-choice compared to a forced-choice condition) on intentional memory was examined. Thirty-three female nursing school volunteers were administered 24 word pairs in a 2 × 2 design to assess the influence of motivation upon free recall. When word pairs were presented to participants, they were asked to choose a word to-be-remembered, either in a self-choice condition or a forced-choice condition. Words chosen by the participants were recalled more often than those chosen by the experimenter (forced choice). Thus, the self-choice effect was greater for words chosen with a self-reference criterion compared to a metamemory criterion, supporting the integration hypothesis as the origin of the self-choice effect.
Judging Criterion of Controlled Structures with Closely Spaced Natural Frequencies
Xie Faxiang; Sun Limin
2010-05-21
The structures with closely spaced natural frequencies widely exist in civil engineering; however, the judging criterion of the density of closely spaced frequencies is in dispute. This paper suggests a judging criterion for structures with closely spaced natural frequencies based on the analysis on a controlled 2-DOF structure. The analysis results indicate that the optimal control gain of the structure with velocity feedback is dependent on the frequency density parameter of structure and the maximum attainable additional modal damping ratio is 1.72 times of the frequency density parameter when state feedback is applied. Based on a brief review on the previous researches, a judging criterion related the minimum frequency density parameter and the required mode damping ratio was proposed.
A bilinear failure criterion for mixed-mode delamination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reeder, James R.
1993-01-01
Many different failure criteria have been suggested for mixed-mode delamination toughness, but few sets of mixed-mode data exist that are consistent over the full range of Mode 1 opening load to Mode 2 shear load range. The mixed-mode bending (MMB) test was used to measure the delamination toughness of a brittle epoxy composite, a state-of-the-art toughened epoxy composite, and a tough thermoplastic composite over the full mixed-mode range. To gain insight into the different failure responses of the different materials, the delamination fracture surfaces were also examined. An evaluation of several failure criteria that have been reported in the literature was performed, and the range of responses modeled by each criterion was analyzed. A bilinear failure criterion was introduced based on a change in the failure mechanism observed from the delamination surfaces. The different criteria were compared to the failure response of the three materials tested. The responses of the two epoxies were best modeled with the new bilinear failure criterion. The failure response of the tough thermoplastic composite could be modeled well with the bilinear criterion but could also be modeled with the more simple linear failure criterion. Since the materials differed in their mixed-mode failure response, mixed-mode delamination testing will be needed to characterize a composite material. This paper presents consistent sets of mixed-mode data, provides a critical evaluation of the mixed-mode failure criteria, and should provide general guidance for selecting an appropriate criterion for other materials.
Automatic control systems satisfying certain general criterions on transient behavior
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boksenbom, Aaron S; Hood, Richard
1952-01-01
An analytic method for the design of automatic controls is developed that starts from certain arbitrary criterions on the behavior of the controlled system and gives those physically realizable equations that the control system can follow in order to realize this behavior. The criterions used are developed in the form of certain time integrals. General results are shown for systems of second order and of any number of degrees of freedom. Detailed examples for several cases in the control of a turbojet engine are presented.
Pauli criterion and the vector Aharonov{endash}Bohm effect
Li, C.
1996-12-01
After discussing the commutation relations of the kinetic angular momentum of the electron in the vector Aharonov{endash}Bohm effect, the author shows that the Pauli criterion for admissibility of the wave function is inapplicable. The point is that the kinetic angular momentum does not satisfy the fundamental commutation relations of the angular momentum. The inapplicability of the Pauli criterion reflects the breakdown of the symmetry of the electron{close_quote}s motion around the solenoid. Copyright {copyright} 1996 Academic Press, Inc.
Electronics. Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Item Bank.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Diane, Ed.
This document contains 519 criterion-referenced multiple choice and true or false test items for a course in electronics. The test item bank is designed to work with both the Vocational Instructional Management System (VIMS) and the Vocational Administrative Management System (VAMS) in Missouri. The items are grouped into 15 units covering the…
Creativity.4in1: Four-Criterion Construct of Creativity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kharkhurin, Anatoliy V.
2014-01-01
The purpose of this theoretical article is to provide an extended definition of creativity that embraces potential cross-cultural variations in this construct. Creativity is defined as a 4-criterion construct, which includes attributes of novelty, utility, aesthetics, and authenticity. Novelty attribute stipulates that a creative work brings…
The Oral Interview - A Criterion-Referenced Test?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lowe, Pardee, Jr.
The oral interview may be viewed as a criterion-referenced test for making either/or decisions about functional use of spoken language. Speech production can be tested by either the oral interview or the Valdis (1972) "Performance Objectives for Speaking," and dialogue between the two systems can be profitable. Current literature on…
Using Statistical Penalties In The Tsai-Wu Failure Criterion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richardson, D. E.; Regl, R. R.; Iverson, M. P.; Phipps, B. E.
1996-01-01
Improved methods of applying statistical penalties when using Tsai-Wu failure criterion lead to more accurate predictions of failures of composite-material structural components under stress, and provide better safety factors for designing such components. Intended to ensure proper use of statistical penalties with respect to failure hypersurface.
A Criterion-Referenced Examination of Physician Competence.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Norcini, John J.; And Others
1988-01-01
A test of skill in reading electrocardiographs (ECGs) was developed as a physician competence (PC) test. The criterion-referenced test ranked 1,825 persons taking the 1983 Certifying Examination in Cardiovascular Diseases (CECD) as expected on the basis of prior education and examination scores on the CECD. The ECG test modestly correlated with…
Criteria to Evaluate Interpretive Guides for Criterion-Referenced Tests
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Trapp, William J.
2007-01-01
This project provides a list of criteria for which the contents of interpretive guides written for customized, criterion-referenced tests can be evaluated. The criteria are based on the "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing" (1999) and examine the content breadth of interpretive guides. Interpretive guides written for…
Criterion-Referenced Test Items for Auto Body.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tannehill, Dana, Ed.
This test item bank on auto body repair contains criterion-referenced test questions based upon competencies found in the Missouri Auto Body Competency Profile. Some test items are keyed for multiple competencies. The tests cover the following 26 competency areas in the auto body curriculum: auto body careers; measuring and mixing; tools and…
Signal Detection with Criterion Noise: Applications to Recognition Memory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Benjamin, Aaron S.; Diaz, Michael; Wee, Serena
2009-01-01
A tacit but fundamental assumption of the theory of signal detection is that criterion placement is a noise-free process. This article challenges that assumption on theoretical and empirical grounds and presents the noisy decision theory of signal detection (ND-TSD). Generalized equations for the isosensitivity function and for measures of…
Machine Shop. Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Item Bank.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Diane, Ed.
This drafting criterion-referenced test item bank is keyed to the machine shop competency profile developed by industry and education professionals in Missouri. The 16 references used for drafting the test items are listed. Test items are arranged under these categories: orientation to machine shop; performing mathematical calculations; performing…
Orthogonality criterion for banishing hydrino states from standard quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Castro, Antonio S.
2007-10-01
Orthogonality criterion is used to shown in a very simple and general way that anomalous bound-state solutions for the Coulomb potential (hydrino states) do not exist as bona fide solutions of the Schr\\"{o}dinger, Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations.
Does the Bohm Criterion have meaning for collisional plasmas?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Severn, Greg; Yip, Chi-Shung; Nourgostar, Sirous; Hershkowitz, Noah
2014-10-01
Theorists view the Bohm criterion as approximately true, holding only for collisionless plasmas. The question of whether there exists a collisionally modified Bohm Criterion (CMBC) is often answered in the negative, and it is only a question of how the Bohm Criterion fails for the case of finite collisionality. The question is of importance considering that nearly all practical plasma processing applications involve plasmas of finite collisionality. There is, however, very little experimental work to help choose between competing models of how Bohm's Criterion fails. The question of critical importance is this: in plasmas of finite collisionality, do ions reach the Bohm speed at the location where the quasineutral plasma ends and where space charge appears? We have begun to examine the question experimentally in single ion species plasmas, and our goal is to vary the ion-neutral mean free path λ within the interval 1 < λ /λD <103 , where λD is the Debye length, and to present both plasma potential data and ion velocity distribution function profiles, measured by emissive probes and by LIF, respectively, to help us understand and assess the validity of theoretical claims. Work supported by NSF Grant No. PHY-1206421, CBET-0903783, and CBET-0903832, and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grant Nos. DE-FG02- 97ER54437 and DE FG02- 03ER54728.
Drafting. Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Item Bank.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mathew, Mary, Ed.
This drafting criterion-referenced test item bank is keyed to the drafting competency profile developed by industry and education professionals in Missouri. The 12 references used for drafting the test items are listed. Test items are arranged under these categories: drafting room procedures; tools and equipment; basic drawing skills; geometric…
Criterion-Referenced Test Items for Graphic Arts.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Diane, Ed.
This test item bank on graphic arts contains test questions based upon competencies found in the Missouri Offset Lithography Competency Profile. Some test items are keyed for multiple competencies. These criterion-referenced test items are designed to work with the Vocational Instructional Management System. The tests cover the following 15…
Criterion-Referenced Test Items for Small Engines.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Herd, Amon
This notebook contains criterion-referenced test items for testing students' knowledge of small engines. The test items are based upon competencies found in the Missouri Small Engine Competency Profile. The test item bank is organized in 18 sections that cover the following duties: shop procedures; tools and equipment; fasteners; servicing fuel…
Child Care Services Guide. Performance Objectives. Criterion Measures. Home Economics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL.
Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 14 terminal objectives for a high school child care services course. This course is designed to provide opportunities for exploring a broad range of child care, guidance, and service occupations. Major concepts include characteristics of…
The Calibration of a Criterion-Referenced Test.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kifer, Edward; Bramble, William
A latent trait model, the Rasch, was fitted to a criterion-referenced test. Approximately 90 percent of the items fit the model. Those items which fit the model were then calibrated. Based on the item calibration, individual ability estimates and the standard errors of those estimates were calculated. Using the ability estimates, it was possible,…
Auto Mechanics. Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Item Bank.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tannehill, Dana, Ed.
This document contains 546 criterion-referenced multiple choice and true or false test items for a course in auto mechanics. The test item bank is designed to work with both the Vocational Instructional Management System (VIMS) and Vocational Administrative Management System (VAMS) in Missouri. The items are grouped into 35 units covering the…
Alignment of Lyapunov Vectors: A Quantitative Criterion to Predict Catastrophes?
Beims, Marcus W.; Gallas, Jason A. C.
2016-01-01
We argue that the alignment of Lyapunov vectors provides a quantitative criterion to predict catastrophes, i.e. the imminence of large-amplitude events in chaotic time-series of observables generated by sets of ordinary differential equations. Explicit predictions are reported for a Rössler oscillator and for a semiconductor laser with optoelectronic feedback. PMID:27845435
The Criterion Validity of Tasks of Basic Cognitive Processes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Luo, Dasen; Thompson, Lee A.; Detterman, Douglas K.
2006-01-01
The present study evaluated the criterion validity of the aggregated tasks of basic cognitive processes (TBCP). In age groups from 6 to 19 of the Woodcock-Johnson III Cognitive Abilities and Achievement Tests normative sample, the aggregated TBCP, i.e., the processing speed and working memory clusters, correlate with measures of scholastic…
Alignment of Lyapunov Vectors: A Quantitative Criterion to Predict Catastrophes?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beims, Marcus W.; Gallas, Jason A. C.
2016-11-01
We argue that the alignment of Lyapunov vectors provides a quantitative criterion to predict catastrophes, i.e. the imminence of large-amplitude events in chaotic time-series of observables generated by sets of ordinary differential equations. Explicit predictions are reported for a Rössler oscillator and for a semiconductor laser with optoelectronic feedback.
Food Production and Services. Performance Objectives. Criterion Measures. Home Economics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bryant, EuDell H.; And Others
Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of eight terminal objectives for a food production and services course, which is designed to provide students with an opportunity to express and practice a broad range of food production and service occupations. Major concepts covered include…
A criterion for joint optimization of identification and robust control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bayard, D. S.; Yam, Y.; Mettler, E.
1992-01-01
A criterion for system identification is developed that is consistent with the intended used of the fitted model for modern robust control synthesis. Specifically, a joint optimization problem is posed which simultaneously solves the plant model estimate and control design, so as to optimize robust performance over the set of plants consistent with a specified experimental data set.
Issues and Procedures in the Development of Criterion Referenced Tests.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klein, Stephen P.; Kosecoff, Jacqueline
The basic steps and procedures in the development of criterion referenced tests (CRT), as well as the issues and problems associated with these activities are discussed. In the first section of the paper, the discussions focus upon the purpose and defining characteristics of CRTs, item construction and selection, improving item quality, content…
DPI Criterion-Referenced Pre-Reading Screening Test: Manual.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reynolds, Irene; Williams, Virginia
The DPI Criterion-Referenced Pre-Reading Screening Test is to be used as one means of identifying some strengths and weaknesses in certain areas of pre-reading skills. It is intended to be used as a screening instrument for beginning first graders. The areas of pre-reading skills to be screened are (1) auditory perception, (2) letter knowledge,…
An Elementary Proof of a Criterion for Linear Disjointness
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dobbs, David E.
2013-01-01
An elementary proof using matrix theory is given for the following criterion: if "F"/"K" and "L"/"K" are field extensions, with "F" and "L" both contained in a common extension field, then "F" and "L" are linearly disjoint over "K" if (and only if) some…
Starns, Jeffrey J; Olchowski, James E
2015-01-01
In recognition memory, participants often fail to shift their response criterion within a test even when they see cues signaling whether they should expect weak or strong memory (e.g., Stretch & Wixted Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 24, 1397-1410, 1998b). We contrasted two possible accounts for this failure to shift. The first assumes that shifting the criterion requires effortful processing, so participants are unwilling to make shifts even when they expect different levels of strength. The second assumes that participants are unwilling to decide which strength category is indicated by the cue for each trial, so their expectations for memory strength do not change across trials. Targets appeared in different test formats ("cues") depending on whether they were studied once (weak) or five times (strong), and lures were evenly divided between the two formats. Some participants had two response keys for "old" and "new" (2-key), and others had to use different keys to respond "old" for the two strength cues (3-key). The goal of the 3-key condition was to force participants to decide which strength cue was presented on each trial. The 3-key participants had a lower false alarm rate for lures shown with the strong than with the weak cue, but the 2-key participants showed no evidence of a criterion shift. Response times were unaffected by trial-by-trial criterion shifts. We conclude that participants willingly shift their response criterion on the basis of changes in expected strength, but they are unwilling to decide which strength to expect unless they are compelled to do this by other aspects of the task.
Some properties of the computable cross-norm criterion for separability
Rudolph, Oliver
2003-03-01
The computable cross-norm (CCN) criterion is a powerful analytical and computable separability criterion for bipartite quantum states, which is also known to systematically detect bound entanglement. In certain aspects this criterion complements the well-known Peres positive partial transpose (PPT) criterion. In the present paper we study important analytical properties of the CCN criterion. We show that in contrast to the PPT criterion it is not sufficient in dimension 2x2. In higher dimensions, theorems connecting the fidelity of a quantum state with the CCN criterion are proved. We also analyze the behavior of the CCN criterion under local operations and identify the operations that leave it invariant. It turns out that the CCN criterion is in general not invariant under local operations.
A unified criterion for the growth and coalescence of microvoids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morin, Léo; Leblond, Jean-Baptiste; Benzerga, A. Amine; Kondo, Djimédo
2016-12-01
A yield criterion is developed which unifies void growth and void coalescence theories. Standard void growth theory assumes that plastic flow is diffuse, if not prevalent everywhere within the matrix of the elementary cell considered. On the other hand, void coalescence theory assumes states of post-localized plasticity whereby plastic flow is restricted to intervoid ligaments. The new theory accommodates both scenarios through some appropriate choice of microscopic velocity fields. An important implication for actual evolution problems is a seamless transition from void growth to void coalescence. This is in contrast with previous hybrid approaches whereby abrupt transitions are associated with the presence of unavoidable corners in the effective yield surface. More generally, the new criterion is applicable to describe yielding in porous metal plasticity for both low and high void volume fractions.
A Generalized Evolution Criterion in Nonequilibrium Convective Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ichiyanagi, Masakazu; Nisizima, Kunisuke
1989-04-01
A general evolution criterion, applicable to transport processes such as the conduction of heat and mass diffusion, is obtained as a direct version of the Le Chatelier-Braun principle for stationary states. The present theory is not based on any radical departure from the conventional one. The generalized theory is made determinate by proposing the balance equations for extensive thermodynamic variables which will reflect the character of convective systems under the assumption of local equilibrium. As a consequence of the introduction of source terms in the balance equations, there appear additional terms in the expression of the local entropy production, which are bilinear in terms of the intensive variables and the sources. In the present paper, we show that we can construct a dissipation function for such general cases, in which the premises of the Glansdorff-Prigogine theory are accumulated. The new dissipation function permits us to formulate a generalized evolution criterion for convective systems.
Bayesian Case-deletion Model Complexity and Information Criterion
Zhu, Hongtu; Ibrahim, Joseph G.; Chen, Qingxia
2015-01-01
We establish a connection between Bayesian case influence measures for assessing the influence of individual observations and Bayesian predictive methods for evaluating the predictive performance of a model and comparing different models fitted to the same dataset. Based on such a connection, we formally propose a new set of Bayesian case-deletion model complexity (BCMC) measures for quantifying the effective number of parameters in a given statistical model. Its properties in linear models are explored. Adding some functions of BCMC to a conditional deviance function leads to a Bayesian case-deletion information criterion (BCIC) for comparing models. We systematically investigate some properties of BCIC and its connection with other information criteria, such as the Deviance Information Criterion (DIC). We illustrate the proposed methodology on linear mixed models with simulations and a real data example. PMID:26180578
Establishment of an equivalence acceptance criterion for accelerated stability studies.
Burdick, Richard K; Sidor, Leslie
2013-01-01
In this article, the use of statistical equivalence testing for providing evidence of process comparability in an accelerated stability study is advocated over the use of a test of differences. The objective of such a study is to demonstrate comparability by showing that the stability profiles under nonrecommended storage conditions of two processes are equivalent. Because it is difficult at accelerated conditions to find a direct link to product specifications, and hence product safety and efficacy, an equivalence acceptance criterion is proposed that is based on the statistical concept of effect size. As with all statistical tests of equivalence, it is important to collect input from appropriate subject-matter experts when defining the acceptance criterion.
Analysis of constant false alarm rate sidelobe canceller criterion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reed, I. S.; Brennan, L. E.
1985-05-01
In this final report, the constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection criterion for a sidelobe canceller (SLC) system, introduced in the last quarterly progress report, is found completely and analyzed. This new detection test for radar exhibits the desirable CFAR property that its probability of a false alarm (PFA) is functionally independent of the covariance of the actual noise field encountered. As a consequence, such a CFAR SLC system is ideally suited to cope with the newly evolving smart jammer threat to radar. An important objective, set in the last quarterly progress report, was to find both the false alarm and signal detection probabilities of this test. The first and most important of these two goals has been met. The probability of a false alarm (or PFA) of this CFAR SLC detection criterion is derived in closed form in this report. The success in finding the PFA is due primarily to the use of a generalization of Cochran's theorem.
An elementary proof of a criterion for linear disjointness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dobbs, David E.
2013-06-01
An elementary proof using matrix theory is given for the following criterion: if F/K and L/K are field extensions, with F and L both contained in a common extension field, then F and L are linearly disjoint over K if (and only if) some K-vector space basis of F is linearly independent over L. The material in this note could serve as enrichment material for the unit on fields in a first course on abstract algebra.
Convergent, discriminant, and criterion validity of DSM-5 traits.
Yalch, Matthew M; Hopwood, Christopher J
2016-10-01
Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edi.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) contains a system for diagnosing personality disorder based in part on assessing 25 maladaptive traits. Initial research suggests that this aspect of the system improves the validity and clinical utility of the Section II Model. The Computer Adaptive Test of Personality Disorder (CAT-PD; Simms et al., 2011) contains many similar traits as the DSM-5, as well as several additional traits seemingly not covered in the DSM-5. In this study we evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity between the DSM-5 traits, as assessed by the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger et al., 2012), and CAT-PD in an undergraduate sample, and test whether traits included in the CAT-PD but not the DSM-5 provide incremental validity in association with clinically relevant criterion variables. Results supported the convergent and discriminant validity of the PID-5 and CAT-PD scales in their assessment of 23 out of 25 DSM-5 traits. DSM-5 traits were consistently associated with 11 criterion variables, despite our having intentionally selected clinically relevant criterion constructs not directly assessed by DSM-5 traits. However, the additional CAT-PD traits provided incremental information above and beyond the DSM-5 traits for all criterion variables examined. These findings support the validity of pathological trait models in general and the DSM-5 and CAT-PD models in particular, while also suggesting that the CAT-PD may include additional traits for consideration in future iterations of the DSM-5 system. (PsycINFO Database Record
Soft Clustering Criterion Functions for Partitional Document Clustering
2004-05-26
of the corresponding clusters. We represent the documents using the vector- space model [35]. In this model, each document d is considered to be a...vector in the space of the distinct terms present in the collection. We employ the tf-idf term-weighting scheme that represents each document d as the...produce balanced clusters. In this paper, due to space constraints, we focus on only four out of these seven criterion functions, which are referred to as
Criterion for mixed mode fracture in composite bonded joints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mall, S.; Kochhar, N. K.
1986-01-01
A study was undertaken to characterize the debond growth mechanism of adhesively bonded composite joints under mode I, mixed mode I-II, and mode II static loadings. The bonded system consisted of graphite-epoxy composite adherends bonded with a toughened epoxy adhesive. The mode I, mode II and mixed mode I-II fracture energies of the tested adhesives were found to be equal to each other. The criterion for mixed mode fracture in composite bonded joints was found.
Numerical fracture simulation of bend specimens using a CTOD criterion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shivakumar, K. N.; Newman, J. C., Jr.
1989-01-01
Stable crack growth in 50-mm-thick side-grooved three-point bend specimens of HY-130 steel is modeled numerically. A two-dimensional elastoplastic FEM formulation incorporating a CTOD fracture criterion is developed analytically, and the theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data in graphs. Good general agreement is obtained, except for the crack extension, which was typically overpredicted. The value of the J integral at crack initiation is found to be 83 kJ/sq m.
Signal detection with criterion noise: Applications to recognition memory
Benjamin, Aaron S.; Diaz, Michael; Wee, Serena
2010-01-01
A tacit but fundamental assumption of the Theory of Signal Detection (TSD) is that criterion placement is a noise-free process. This paper challenges that assumption on theoretical and empirical grounds and presents the Noisy Decision Theory of Signal Detection (ND-TSD). Generalized equations for the isosensitivity function and for measures of discrimination that incorporate criterion variability are derived, and the model's relationship with extant models of decision-making in discrimination tasks is examined. An experiment that evaluates recognition memory for ensembles of word stimuli reveals that criterion noise is not trivial in magnitude and contributes substantially to variance in the slope of the isosensitivity function. We discuss how ND-TSD can help explain a number of current and historical puzzles in recognition memory, including the inconsistent relationship between manipulations of learning and the slope of the isosensitivity function, the lack of invariance of the slope with manipulations of bias or payoffs, the effects of aging on the decision-making process in recognition, and the nature of responding in Remember/Know decision tasks. ND-TSD poses novel and theoretically meaningful constraints on theories of recognition and decision-making more generally, and provides a mechanism for rapprochement between theories of decision-making that employ deterministic response rules and those that postulate probabilistic response rules. PMID:19159149
Cecchi, Teresa; Cecchi, Patrizio; Passamonti, Paolo
2011-02-07
Oxidative damage is the primary cause of skin aging. Skin care products are numerous and overwhelming, yet there is certain similarity among different formulations. Moisturizers are ubiquitous and the presence of particular added ingredients supports specific marketing claims. The antioxidant effects of botanical polyphenols possess tremendous marketing appeal, because oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the skin ability to neutralize them. The concept of evidence-based cosmetics lacks a widely accepted method to estimate the antioxidant capacity of the beauty cream. This was the motive force of the present study: for the first time we put forth a quantitative rating system of skin care products. The overall antioxidant power of 75 widely used and advertised beauty creams was comparatively measured via the oscillating Briggs-Rauscher (BR) reaction. Many dermocosmetic products confirmed their ability to ensure protection against free radicals, even if differences among various creams are striking and often not correlated with the their price. The method we developed is simple and cheap and it can allow dermatologists and consumers to compare and choose effectively; on the other hand, producers can used this method to select the most active antioxidant cosmetic agent to optimise the product performance.
2011-09-01
This Best Practice Information Sheet is derived from 21 studies and aims to synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of pelvic floor muscle exercises on urinary incontinence in women following childbirth. The information that is contained in this sheet has been derived from studies that were included in a systematic review that was conducted by the Joanna Briggs Institute. The original references can be sourced from the systematic review. Pregnancy and childbirth are major risk factors for the development of urinary incontinence as the muscles of the pelvic floor become stretched and weakened. For some women, such incontinence after childbirth is temporary, but for others, their suffering can be of much longer-term duration. A number of risk factors has been identified for urinary incontinence following childbirth, including antenatal urinary incontinence, obesity, and significant perineal trauma. The aim of pelvic floor muscle exercises is to strengthen the perivaginal and perianal musculature in order to increase a woman's control of urinary leakage.
Muntean, Norbert; Szabó, Gabriella; Wittmann, Maria; Lawson, Thuy; Fülöp, János; Noszticzius, Zoltán; Onel, Lavinia
2009-08-13
With Fenton-type experiments, it is shown that the intense CO2/CO evolution in the Briggs-Rauscher (BR) reaction is due to decarboxylation/decarbonylation of organic free radicals. The metal ion applied in the Fenton-type experiments was Fe2+ or Ti3+ or Mn2+ combined with H2O2 or S2O(8)(2-) as a peroxide, whereas the organic substrate was malonic acid (MA) or a 1:1 mixture of MA and iodomalonic acid (IMA). Experiments with a complete BR system applying MA or the MA/IMA mixture indicate that practically all CO2 and CO comes from IMA. The decarboxylation/decarbonylation mechanisms of various iodomalonyl radicals can be analogous to that of the bromomalonyl radicals studied already in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction. It is found that an intense CO2/CO evolution requires the simultaneous presence of H2O2, IO3-, Mn2+, and IMA. It is suggested that the critical first step of this complex reaction takes place in the coordination sphere of Mn2+. That first step can initiate a chain reaction where organic and hydroperoxyl radicals are the chain carriers. A chain reaction was already found in a BZ oscillator as well. Therefore, the analogies between the BR and BZ oscillators are due to the fact that in both mechanisms, free radicals and, in most cases, also transition-metal complexes play an important role.
Job-Relatedness of a Posttraining Job Knowledge Criterion Used to Assess Validity and Test Fairness.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Distefano, M. K., Jr.; And Others
1980-01-01
Significant job-relatedness was found for a posttraining job knowledge test criterion. Content validity methods may be able to help solve the problem of criterion relevance in validation research by providing quantitative evidence of job-relatedness. (Author)
The entropy rate admissibility criterion for solution of hyperbolic conservation laws
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dafermos, C. M.
1972-01-01
The entropy rate admissibility criterion for solutions of hyperbolic conservation laws is numerically analyzed. The following admissibility criterion for solutions of hyperbolic conservation laws is proposed: a weak solution is admissible if the total entropy decays with the highest possible rate. The equivalence of this criterion and viscosity criterion is established for the single equation and the system of equations of one dimensional nonlinear elasticity.
ABET Criterion 3.f: how much curriculum content is enough?
Barry, B E; Ohland, M W
2012-06-01
Even after multiple cycles of ABET accreditation, many engineering programs are unsure of how much curriculum content is needed to meet the requirements of ABET's Criterion 3.f (an understanding of professional and ethical responsibility). This study represents the first scholarly attempt to assess the impact of curriculum reform following the introduction of ABET Criterion 3.f. This study sought to determine how much professional and ethical responsibility curriculum content was used between 1995 and 2005, as well as how, when, why, and to what effect changes in the amount of content occurred. Subsequently, the study sought to evaluate if different amounts of curriculum content generated differing student outcomes. The amount of curriculum content used by each of the participating programs was identified during semi-structured interviews with program administrators and a review of ABET Self-Study documents. Quantitative methods were applied to determine if a relationship existed between the curriculum content and performance on a nationally administered, engineering-specific standardized examination. The findings indicate a statistical relationship, but a lack of structure between the amount of required content in the curriculum and performance on the examination. Additional findings were also generated regarding the way that programs interpret the Criterion 3.f feedback generated during accreditation visits. The primary impact of this study is that it dispels the myth that more courses or course time on professionalism and ethics will necessarily lead to positive engineering education outcomes. Much of the impetus to add more curriculum content results from a lack of conclusive feedback during ABET accreditation visits.
Failure criterion for materials with spatially correlated mechanical properties.
Faillettaz, J; Or, D
2015-03-01
The role of spatially correlated mechanical elements in the failure behavior of heterogeneous materials represented by fiber bundle models (FBMs) was evaluated systematically for different load redistribution rules. Increasing the range of spatial correlation for FBMs with local load sharing is marked by a transition from ductilelike failure characteristics into brittlelike failure. The study identified a global failure criterion based on macroscopic properties (external load and cumulative damage) that is independent of spatial correlation or load redistribution rules. This general metric could be applied to assess the mechanical stability of complex and heterogeneous systems and thus provide an important component for early warning of a class of geophysical ruptures.
Thermoeconomic analysis: A criterion for the selection of cogeneration systems
Luz-Silveira, J.; Balestieri, J.A.P.; Santos, A.H.M.; Almeida, R.A.
1996-12-31
The economical viability of three cogeneration schemes as supplying alternatives for a hypothetical industrial process has been studied. A cost appropriation method based on Valero`s studies (1986) has been used. This method enables the determination of exergetic flows, the Second Law efficiency of equipment and the monetary costs of the products acquired by the industrial process (steam and electrical energy). The criterion adopted for the selection is the global cost of the supplied products to the industrial process as regarding in Brazilian conditions.
Criterion for mixed mode fracture in composite bonded joints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mall, S.; Kochhar, N. K.
1986-01-01
A study was undertaken to characterize the debond growth mechanism of adhesively bonded composite joints under mode I, mixed mode I-II, and mode II static loadings. The bonded system consisted of graphite/epoxy (T300/5208) composite adherends bonded with a toughened epoxy (EC 3445) adhesive. The mode I, mode II and mixed-mode I-II fracture energies of the tested adhesive were found to be equal to each other. Furthermore, the criterion for mixed mode fracture in composite bonded joints was determined.
Width Criterion For Weld-Seam-Tracking Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lincir, Mark R.
1993-01-01
Image-processing algorithm in "through-torch-vision" (T3V) system developed to guide gas/tungsten arc welding robot along weld seam modified, according to proposal, reducing incidence of inaccurate tracking of weld seam. Developmental system intended to provide closed-loop control of motion of welding robot along weld seam on basis of lines in T3V image identified by use of image-processing algorithm and assumed to coincide with edges of weld seam. Use of width criterion prevents tracking of many false pairs of lines, with consequent decrease in incidence of inaccurate tracking and increase in confidence in weld-tracking capability of robotic welding system.
A new yield criterion for the concrete materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
François, Marc
2008-05-01
The yield criterion proposed depends upon two material constants and is proven to be smooth and convex under a simple condition. These properties induce a mathematical robustness that allows a further use in a damage mechanics model. The analytical gradient and Hessian are given. The obtained yield surface is relevant to Kupfer's biaxial testings on concrete. The identification procedure, with respect to the classical uniaxial tension and compression testings, is detailed. To cite this article: M. François, C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).
Discrete Lange-Newell criterion for dissipative systems.
Ndzana, Fabien I I; Mohamadou, Alidou; Kofané, Timoleon Crépin
2009-05-01
We report on the derivation of the discrete complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with first- and second-neighbor couplings using a nonlinear electrical network. Furthermore, we discuss theoretically and numerically modulational instability of plane carrier waves launched through the line. It is pointed out that the underlying analysis not only spells out the discrete Lange-Newell criterion by the means of the linear stability analysis at which the modulational instability occurs for the generation of a train of ultrashort pulses, but also characterizes the long-time dynamical behavior of the system when the instability grows.
Optimization of the Structures at Shakedown and Rosen's Optimality Criterion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alawdin, Piotr; Atkociunas, Juozas; Liepa, Liudas
2016-09-01
Paper focuses on the problems of application of extreme energy principles and nonlinear mathematical programing in the theory of structural shakedown. By means of energy principles, which describes the true stress-strain state conditions of the structure, the dual mathematical models of analysis problems are formed (static and kinematic formulations). It is shown how common mathematical model of the structures optimization at shakedown with safety and serviceability constraints (according to the ultimate limit state (ULS) and serviceability limit state (SLS) requirements) on the basis of previously mentioned mathematical models is formed. The possibilities of optimization problem solution in the context of physical interpretation of optimality criterion of Rosen's algorithm are analyzed.
Forecastability as a Design Criterion in Wind Resource Assessment: Preprint
Zhang, J.; Hodge, B. M.
2014-04-01
This paper proposes a methodology to include the wind power forecasting ability, or 'forecastability,' of a site as a design criterion in wind resource assessment and wind power plant design stages. The Unrestricted Wind Farm Layout Optimization (UWFLO) methodology is adopted to maximize the capacity factor of a wind power plant. The 1-hour-ahead persistence wind power forecasting method is used to characterize the forecastability of a potential wind power plant, thereby partially quantifying the integration cost. A trade-off between the maximum capacity factor and the forecastability is investigated.
Shear velocity criterion for incipient motion of sediment
Simoes, Francisco J.
2014-01-01
The prediction of incipient motion has had great importance to the theory of sediment transport. The most commonly used methods are based on the concept of critical shear stress and employ an approach similar, or identical, to the Shields diagram. An alternative method that uses the movability number, defined as the ratio of the shear velocity to the particle’s settling velocity, was employed in this study. A large amount of experimental data were used to develop an empirical incipient motion criterion based on the movability number. It is shown that this approach can provide a simple and accurate method of computing the threshold condition for sediment motion.
Free-surface stability criterion as affected by velocity distribution
Cheng-Lung, Chen
1995-01-01
This paper examines how the velocity distribution of flow in open channels affects the kinematic and dynamic wave velocities, from which the various forms of the Vedernikov number V can be formulated. When V >1, disturbances created in open-channel flow will amplify in the form of roll waves; when V <1, some (though not all) disturbances will attenuate. A study of the Vedernikov stability criterion reveals that it can be readily deduced within the framework of the kinematic and dynamic wave theories by comparing the kinematic wave velocity to the corresponding dynamic wave velocity. -from Author
An empirical hypothesis of deformation rate ratio criterion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, S.
1996-04-01
Based on the experiences obtained from more than 10 years' monitoring of tunnel excavation in soft ground, and in order to solve the problem that the currently-used surrounding rock stability criteria have nothing to do with the rockbolts-shotcrete support operation, thus they are hard to be applied by in-situ engineers, the author puts forward a new empirical hypothesis of criterion for surrounding rock stability assessment. Then five case histories are described as references. Furthermore, the open complex giant system methodology is introduced to explain the theory and practice of empirical hypothesis.
Elaboration and Application of a Theory of Criterion-Referenced Reliability.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lovett, Hubert T.
The reliability of a criterion referenced test was defined as a measure of the degree to which the test discriminates between an individual's level of performance and a predetermined criterion level. The variances of observed and true scores were defined as the squared deviation of the score from the criterion. Based on these definitions and the…
16 CFR 1631.34 - Small carpets and rugs not meeting acceptance criterion.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... acceptance criterion. 1631.34 Section 1631.34 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION...) Rules and Regulations § 1631.34 Small carpets and rugs not meeting acceptance criterion. (a) If any... acceptance criterion of such standard, it shall, prior to its introduction into commerce, be legibly...
SIF-based fracture criterion for interface cracks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Xing
2016-06-01
The complex stress intensity factor K governing the stress field of an interface crack tip may be split into two parts, i.e., hat{K} and s^{-iɛ}, so that K=hat{K}s^{-iɛ}, s is a characteristic length and ɛ is the oscillatory index. hat{K} has the same dimension as the classical stress intensity factor and characterizes the interface crack tip field. That means a criterion for interface cracks may be formulated directly with hat{K}, as Irwin (ASME J. Appl. Mech. 24:361-364, 1957) did in 1957 for the classical fracture mechanics. Then, for an interface crack, it is demonstrated that the quasi Mode I and Mode II tip fields can be defined and distinguished from the coupled mode tip fields. Built upon SIF-based fracture criteria for quasi Mode I and Mode II, the stress intensity factor (SIF)-based fracture criterion for mixed mode interface cracks is proposed and validated against existing experimental results.
A one-class kernel fisher criterion for outlier detection.
Dufrenois, Franck
2015-05-01
Recently, Dufrenois and Noyer proposed a one class Fisher's linear discriminant to isolate normal data from outliers. In this paper, a kernelized version of their criterion is presented. Originally on the basis of an iterative optimization process, alternating between subspace selection and clustering, I show here that their criterion has an upper bound making these two problems independent. In particular, the estimation of the label vector is formulated as an unconstrained binary linear problem (UBLP) which can be solved using an iterative perturbation method. Once the label vector is estimated, an optimal projection subspace is obtained by solving a generalized eigenvalue problem. Like many other kernel methods, the performance of the proposed approach depends on the choice of the kernel. Constructed with a Gaussian kernel, I show that the proposed contrast measure is an efficient indicator for selecting an optimal kernel width. This property simplifies the model selection problem which is typically solved by costly (generalized) cross-validation procedures. Initialization, convergence analysis, and computational complexity are also discussed. Lastly, the proposed algorithm is compared with recent novelty detectors on synthetic and real data sets.
Setting criterion thresholds for estimating prevalence: what is being validated?
Gambino, Blase
2014-09-01
Much of the debate over how best to estimate the prevalence of problem gambling in the general population is driven by a number of misconceptions, misinterpretations, and questionable, sometimes erroneous assumptions. Among the latter is the failure to understand that what is being validated is not the test but the interpretation of test scores for a specific purpose. In addition there has been a lack of attention to defining the clinical and/or epidemiologic relevance of case definitions in terms of severity and other clinical attributes, a misunderstanding of how test values are interpreted when criterion thresholds or cut-off points are selected, and a failure to replicate the validation of criterion thresholds for defining cases of problem gambling. It is argued further that the distinction between dichotomy and continuum is a false choice, and any emphasis on overestimation is misdirected. Alternative methods for evaluating tests and estimating prevalence are described and a pragmatic empirical approach to the interpretation of prevalence estimates is recommended.
Environmental equity as a criterion for water management
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grande, M.; Galvão, C.; Miranda, L.; Rufino, I.
2014-09-01
Environmental equity is a concept derived from the (un)equal exposure to environmental degradation by different social groups, usually minorities and low-income people exposed to major environmental risks, also known as environmental justice. It is assumed that no group of people, independent of race, ethnicity or socio-economic class, should support, either in concentrated or unevenly distributed form, the negative environmental impacts resulting from industrial, agricultural, commercial and infrastructure activities or government programs and policies. In this paper the concept of environmental equity is explored as a criterion for water management through the analysis of a typical coupled human-natural system: the Epitácio Pessoa Reservoir, located in the semi-arid region of Brazil. Inefficient water resource management has caused unequal access to water by the population, particularly during drought periods. However, census data indicate that population have practically the same access to water, which actually is not able to reflect the actual picture. This study argues that environmental equity can be an additional criterion to improve water management.
Satisfying the Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen criterion with massive particles
Peise, J.; Kruse, I.; Lange, K.; Lücke, B.; Pezzè, L.; Arlt, J.; Ertmer, W.; Hammerer, K.; Santos, L.; Smerzi, A.; Klempt, C.
2015-01-01
In 1935, Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) questioned the completeness of quantum mechanics by devising a quantum state of two massive particles with maximally correlated space and momentum coordinates. The EPR criterion qualifies such continuous-variable entangled states, where a measurement of one subsystem seemingly allows for a prediction of the second subsystem beyond the Heisenberg uncertainty relation. Up to now, continuous-variable EPR correlations have only been created with photons, while the demonstration of such strongly correlated states with massive particles is still outstanding. Here we report on the creation of an EPR-correlated two-mode squeezed state in an ultracold atomic ensemble. The state shows an EPR entanglement parameter of 0.18(3), which is 2.4 s.d. below the threshold 1/4 of the EPR criterion. We also present a full tomographic reconstruction of the underlying many-particle quantum state. The state presents a resource for tests of quantum nonlocality and a wide variety of applications in the field of continuous-variable quantum information and metrology. PMID:26612105
Refocusing criterion via sparsity measurements in digital holography.
Memmolo, Pasquale; Paturzo, Melania; Javidi, Bahram; Netti, Paolo A; Ferraro, Pietro
2014-08-15
Several automatic approaches have been proposed in the past to compute the refocus distance in digital holography (DH). However most of them are based on a maximization or minimization of a suitable amplitude image contrast measure, regarded as a function of the reconstruction distance parameter. Here we show that, by using the sparsity measure coefficient regarded as a refocusing criterion in the holographic reconstruction, it is possible to recover the focus plane and, at the same time, establish the degree of sparsity of digital holograms, when samples of the diffraction Fresnel propagation integral are used as a sparse signal representation. We employ a sparsity measurement coefficient known as Gini's index thus showing for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, its application in DH, as an effective refocusing criterion. Demonstration is provided for different holographic configurations (i.e., lens and lensless apparatus) and for completely different objects (i.e., a thin pure phase microscopic object as an in vitro cell, and macroscopic puppets) preparation.
Multi-Criterion Preliminary Design of a Tetrahedral Truss Platform
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, K. Chauncey
1995-01-01
An efficient method is presented for multi-criterion preliminary design and demonstrated for a tetrahedral truss platform. The present method requires minimal analysis effort and permits rapid estimation of optimized truss behavior for preliminary design. A 14-m-diameter, 3-ring truss platform represents a candidate reflector support structure for space-based science spacecraft. The truss members are divided into 9 groups by truss ring and position. Design variables are the cross-sectional area of all members in a group, and are either 1, 3 or 5 times the minimum member area. Non-structural mass represents the node and joint hardware used to assemble the truss structure. Taguchi methods are used to efficiently identify key points in the set of Pareto-optimal truss designs. Key points identified using Taguchi methods are the maximum frequency, minimum mass, and maximum frequency-to-mass ratio truss designs. Low-order polynomial curve fits through these points are used to approximate the behavior of the full set of Pareto-optimal designs. The resulting Pareto-optimal design curve is used to predict frequency and mass for optimized trusses. Performance improvements are plotted in frequency-mass (criterion) space and compared to results for uniform trusses. Application of constraints to frequency and mass and sensitivity to constraint variation are demonstrated.
A simplified wave enhancement criterion for moving extreme events
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kudryavtsev, Vladimir; Golubkin, Pavel; Chapron, Bertrand
2015-11-01
An analytical model is derived to efficiently describe the wave energy distribution along the main transects of a moving extreme weather event. The model essentially builds on a generalization of the self-similar wave growth model and the assumption of a strongly dominant single spectral mode in a given quadrant of the storm. The criterion to anticipate wave enhancement with the generation of trapped abnormal waves defined as gr/ur2≈cT
Gene Selection for Multiclass Prediction by Weighted Fisher Criterion
2007-01-01
Gene expression profiling has been widely used to study molecular signatures of many diseases and to develop molecular diagnostics for disease prediction. Gene selection, as an important step for improved diagnostics, screens tens of thousands of genes and identifies a small subset that discriminates between disease types. A two-step gene selection method is proposed to identify informative gene subsets for accurate classification of multiclass phenotypes. In the first step, individually discriminatory genes (IDGs) are identified by using one-dimensional weighted Fisher criterion (wFC). In the second step, jointly discriminatory genes (JDGs) are selected by sequential search methods, based on their joint class separability measured by multidimensional weighted Fisher criterion (wFC). The performance of the selected gene subsets for multiclass prediction is evaluated by artificial neural networks (ANNs) and/or support vector machines (SVMs). By applying the proposed IDG/JDG approach to two microarray studies, that is, small round blue cell tumors (SRBCTs) and muscular dystrophies (MDs), we successfully identified a much smaller yet efficient set of JDGs for diagnosing SRBCTs and MDs with high prediction accuracies (96.9% for SRBCTs and 92.3% for MDs, resp.). These experimental results demonstrated that the two-step gene selection method is able to identify a subset of highly discriminative genes for improved multiclass prediction. PMID:17713593
A Multi Fluid Analysis of the Ignition Criterion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guazzotto, Luca; Betti, Riccardo
2016-10-01
In magnetic confinement nuclear fusion experiments, performance with respect to ignition is expressed in terms of the Lawson criterion, a zero-dimensional, single-fluid, steady-state power balance expressing the plasma properties needed for ignition through the energy confinement time τE and the plasma temperature and density. Several improvements to the classical criterion are investigated. Ions, electrons and α particles are allowed to have different energy confinement times and energy coupling times are expressed through physics-based relations. The effect of multi-fluid physics is examined in a steady-state analysis and for the time-dependent case, which requires a nonlinear treatment more detailed than the standard `` Ṫ vs . T'' single-fluid one. A one-dimensional analysis is also considered to investigate the importance of density and temperature profiles on the τE needed for ignition. Rather than by solving the 1D transport equations, this is done with a parametric study. This work was performed under DOE Grant DE-FG02-93ER54215.
Nonextensive statistics and the sheath criterion in collisional plasmas
Hatami, M. M.
2015-01-15
The Bohm criterion in an electropositive plasma containing nonextensively distributed electrons and warm ions is investigated by using a steady state two-fluid model. Taking into account the ion-neutral collisions and finite temperature of ions, a modified Bohm criterion is derived which limits both maximum and minimum allowable velocity of ions at the sheath edge (u{sub 0i}). It is found that the degree of nonextensivity of electrons (q) and temperature of positive ions (T{sub i}) affect only the lower limit of the entrance velocity of ions into the sheath while the degree of ion collisionality (α) influences both lower and upper limits of the ion velocities at the sheath edge. In addition, depending on the value of q, it is shown that the minimum velocity of positive ions at the sheath edge can be greater or smaller than its Maxwellian counterpart. Moreover, it is shown that, depending on the values of α and T{sub i}, the positive ions with subsonic velocity may enter the sheath for either q > 1 or −1 < q < 1. Finally, as a practical application, the density distribution of charged particles in the sheath region is studied for different values of u{sub 0i}, and it is shown that monotonical reduction of the positive ion density distribution occurs only when the velocity of positive ions at the sheath edge lies between two above mentioned limits.
A criterion to maximize the irreversible efficiency in heat engines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aragón-González, G.; Canales-Palma, A.; León-Galicia, A.; Musharrafie-Martínez, M.
2003-02-01
The purpose of this work is to obtain a more precise calculation of the effective limits to the efficiency, of several cyclic heat engines. This calculation is based, first, on the equations describing the irreversible efficiency, and second, on a method which results from a general criterion to maximize this efficiency, applicable to several heat engines. With this method, we apply the criterion to maximize efficiencies; establish lower and upper bounds, corresponding to the efficiencies of Curzon-Ahlborn-like and Carnot-like heat engines; and, finally, find analytical or numerical expressions for the efficiencies etame and etamax. etamax is the maximum irreversible efficiency; etame is the efficiency in which the irreversible efficiency achieves its maximum, in a similar way to the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency (maximum work or power). The method was applied to a Brayton cycle, presenting internal dissipations of the working fluid and irreversibilities due to the finite-rate heat transfer between the heat engine and its reservoirs. Also, we applied this method to a Carnot cycle including the irreversibilities of a finite-rate heat transfer between the heat engine and its reservoirs, heat leak between the reservoirs, and internal dissipations of the working fluid. The results obtained for the Brayton cycle are more general and useful than those in the relevant literature.
PET image reconstruction: mean, variance, and optimal minimax criterion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Huafeng; Gao, Fei; Guo, Min; Xue, Liying; Nie, Jing; Shi, Pengcheng
2015-04-01
Given the noise nature of positron emission tomography (PET) measurements, it is critical to know the image quality and reliability as well as expected radioactivity map (mean image) for both qualitative interpretation and quantitative analysis. While existing efforts have often been devoted to providing only the reconstructed mean image, we present a unified framework for joint estimation of the mean and corresponding variance of the radioactivity map based on an efficient optimal min-max criterion. The proposed framework formulates the PET image reconstruction problem to be a transformation from system uncertainties to estimation errors, where the minimax criterion is adopted to minimize the estimation errors with possibly maximized system uncertainties. The estimation errors, in the form of a covariance matrix, express the measurement uncertainties in a complete way. The framework is then optimized by ∞-norm optimization and solved with the corresponding H∞ filter. Unlike conventional statistical reconstruction algorithms, that rely on the statistical modeling methods of the measurement data or noise, the proposed joint estimation stands from the point of view of signal energies and can handle from imperfect statistical assumptions to even no a priori statistical assumptions. The performance and accuracy of reconstructed mean and variance images are validated using Monte Carlo simulations. Experiments on phantom scans with a small animal PET scanner and real patient scans are also conducted for assessment of clinical potential.
Job shop scheduling problem with late work criterion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piroozfard, Hamed; Wong, Kuan Yew
2015-05-01
Scheduling is considered as a key task in many industries, such as project based scheduling, crew scheduling, flight scheduling, machine scheduling, etc. In the machine scheduling area, the job shop scheduling problems are considered to be important and highly complex, in which they are characterized as NP-hard. The job shop scheduling problems with late work criterion and non-preemptive jobs are addressed in this paper. Late work criterion is a fairly new objective function. It is a qualitative measure and concerns with late parts of the jobs, unlike classical objective functions that are quantitative measures. In this work, simulated annealing was presented to solve the scheduling problem. In addition, operation based representation was used to encode the solution, and a neighbourhood search structure was employed to search for the new solutions. The case studies are Lawrence instances that were taken from the Operations Research Library. Computational results of this probabilistic meta-heuristic algorithm were compared with a conventional genetic algorithm, and a conclusion was made based on the algorithm and problem.
Experimental Study on Peak Shear Strength Criterion for Rock Joints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Jie; Rong, Guan; Hou, Di; Peng, Jun; Zhou, Chuangbing
2016-03-01
The three-dimensional (3D) morphology of a rock joint has a great impact on its shear behavior. To study the relationship between the 3D morphological characteristics and the peak shear strength, several tilt tests were conducted on four groups of tensile fractures and direct shear tests were carried out under different constant normal loads (CNL). The normal load ranges from 0.325 to 8.0 MPa. In this study, fresh tensile fractures which were splitted from granite and sandstone samples were used. The morphology of each tensile fracture was measured before direct shear tests. A new peak shear strength criterion for rock joints is proposed using two 3D morphological parameters which are termed as the maximum apparent dip angle θ_{max}^{*} and the roughness parameter C. The calculated peak strengths using the proposed criterion match well with the observed values. In addition, a comparison of the proposed model with the Grasselli's model (2003) and Xia's model (2014) shows that the proposed model is easier in the form and gives a rational improvement. At last, direct shear test data of tensile fractures which are collected from Grasselli (2003) are used to verify the proposed model. It is seen that the proposed model has a reliable estimate of the peak shear strength of tensile fractures and presumably for rock joints.
A generalized smoothness criterion for acoustic-to-articulatory inversion
Ghosh, Prasanta Kumar; Narayanan, Shrikanth
2010-01-01
The many-to-one mapping from representations in the speech articulatory space to acoustic space renders the associated acoustic-to-articulatory inverse mapping non-unique. Among various techniques, imposing smoothness constraints on the articulator trajectories is one of the common approaches to handle the non-uniqueness in the acoustic-to-articulatory inversion problem. This is because, articulators typically move smoothly during speech production. A standard smoothness constraint is to minimize the energy of the difference of the articulatory position sequence so that the articulator trajectory is smooth and low-pass in nature. Such a fixed definition of smoothness is not always realistic or adequate for all articulators because different articulators have different degrees of smoothness. In this paper, an optimization formulation is proposed for the inversion problem, which includes a generalized smoothness criterion. Under such generalized smoothness settings, the smoothness parameter can be chosen depending on the specific articulator in a data-driven fashion. In addition, this formulation allows estimation of articulatory positions recursively over time without any loss in performance. Experiments with the MOCHA TIMIT database show that the estimated articulator trajectories obtained using such a generalized smoothness criterion have lower RMS error and higher correlation with the actual measured trajectories compared to those obtained using a fixed smoothness constraint. PMID:20968386
A Reconsideration of the Extension Strain Criterion for Fracture and Failure of Rock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wesseloo, J.; Stacey, T. R.
2016-12-01
The complex behaviours of rocks and rock masses have presented paradoxes to the rock engineer, including the fracturing of seemingly strong rock under low stress conditions, which often occurs near excavation boundaries. The extension strain criterion was presented as a fracture initiation criterion under these conditions (Stacey in Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 18:469-474, 1981). This criterion has been used successfully by some and criticised by others. In this paper, we review the literature on the extension strain criterion and present a case for the correct interpretation of the criterion and the conditions suitable for its use. We argue that the extension strain criterion can also be used to provide an indication of damage level under conditions of relatively low confining stress. We also present an augmentation of the criterion, the ultimate extension strain, which is applicable under extensional loading conditions when σ 2 is similar in magnitude to σ 1.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vrieze, Scott I.
2012-01-01
This article reviews the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) in model selection and the appraisal of psychological theory. The focus is on latent variable models, given their growing use in theory testing and construction. Theoretical statistical results in regression are discussed, and more important…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riley, Wayne David
1998-11-01
A student's success in a science class can depend upon previous experiences, motivation, and the level of interest in the subject. Since psychological type is intrinsic to a person's whole being, it can be influential upon the student's motivation and interests. Thus, a study of student psychological types versus the level of success in a class, as measured by a percentage, has potential to uncover certain personality characteristics which may be helpful to or which may hinder a student's learning environment. This study was initiated, using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, to evaluate any correlation between a student's personality type and his/her performance in a science class. A total of 1041 students from three classes: Chemistry 121/122, Chemistry 112, Physical Science 100, volunteered for the study. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the levels of significance among sixteen personality types' averages. The results reveal that for the Chemistry 1121/122 course, the average score of the INTJ personality type was 5.1 to 12.6 points higher than every other personality type. The ANOVA identifies 3 personality types with averages significantly below the INTJ at the p < 0.05 significance level. The ANOVA analysis for the Chemistry 112 course identified significances between student scores at p = 0.08. The significance level for the differences among scores for the Physical Science 100 course was determined at a level of p = 0.02. Significance levels for p < 0.05 and <0.01 were identified between several groups in this course. The data suggest, that although personality type may not predict a particular student's success in a science class, students with certain personality traits may be favored in a chemistry class due the structure of the instruction and the presentation of the subject matter.
Criterion Related Validity of Karate Specific Aerobic Test (KSAT)
Chaabene, Helmi; Hachana, Younes; Franchini, Emerson; Tabben, Montassar; Mkaouer, Bessem; Negra, Yassine; Hammami, Mehrez; Chamari, Karim
2015-01-01
Background: Karate is one the most popular combat sports in the world. Physical fitness assessment on a regular manner is important for monitoring the effectiveness of the training program and the readiness of karatekas to compete. Objectives: The aim of this research was to examine the criterion related to validity of the karate specific aerobic test (KSAT) as an indicator of aerobic level of karate practitioners. Patients and Methods: Cardiorespiratory responses, aerobic performance level through both treadmill laboratory test and YoYo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YoYoIRTL1) as well as time to exhaustion in the KSAT test (TE’KSAT) were determined in a total of fifteen healthy international karatekas (i.e. karate practitioners) (means ± SD: age: 22.2 ± 4.3 years; height: 176.4 ± 7.5 cm; body mass: 70.3 ± 9.7 kg and body fat: 13.2 ± 6%). Results: Peak heart rate obtained from KSAT represented ~99% of maximal heart rate registered during the treadmill test showing that KSAT imposes high physiological demands. There was no significant correlation between KSAT’s TE and relative (mL/min kg) treadmill maximal oxygen uptake (r = 0.14; P = 0.69; [small]). On the other hand, there was a significant relationship between KSAT’s TE and the velocity associated with VO2max (vVO2max) (r = 0.67; P = 0.03; [large]) as well as the velocity at VO2 corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold (vVO2 VAT) (r = 0.64; P = 0.04; [large]). Moreover, significant relationship was found between TE’s KSAT and both the total distance covered and parameters of intermittent endurance measured through YoYoIRTL1. Conclusions: The KSAT has not proved to have indirect criterion related validity as no significant correlations have been found between TE’s KSAT and treadmill VO2max. Nevertheless, as correlated to other aerobic fitness variables, KSAT can be considered as an indicator of karate specific endurance. The establishment of the criterion related validity of the KSAT
Leroy, C; Maro, D; Hébert, D; Solier, L; Rozet, M; Le Cavelier, S; Connan, O
2010-11-01
Atmospheric releases of krypton-85, from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at the AREVA NC facility at La Hague (France), were used to test Gaussian models of dispersion. In 2001-2002, the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) studied the atmospheric dispersion of 15 releases, using krypton-85 as a tracer for plumes emitted from two 100-m-high stacks. Krypton-85 is a chemically inert radionuclide. Krypton-85 air concentration measurements were performed on the ground in the downwind direction, at distances between 0.36 and 3.3 km from the release, by neutral or slightly unstable atmospheric conditions. The standard deviation for the horizontal dispersion of the plume and the Atmospheric Transfer Coefficient (ATC) were determined from these measurements. The experimental results were compared with calculations using first generation (Doury, Briggs) and second generation (ADMS 4.0) Gaussian models. The ADMS 4.0 model was used in two configurations; one takes account of the effect of the built-up area, and the other the effect of the roughness of the surface on the plume dispersion. Only the Briggs model correctly reproduced the measured values for the width of the plume, whereas the ADMS 4.0 model overestimated it and the Doury model underestimated it. The agreement of the models with measured values of the ATC varied according to distance from the release point. For distances less than 2 km from the release point, the ADMS 4.0 model achieved the best agreement between model and measurement; beyond this distance, the best agreement was achieved by the Briggs and Doury models.
Threshold criterion for a space simulation beam-plasma discharge
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Szuszczewicz, E. P.; Walker, D. N.; Papadopoulos, K.; Bernstein, W.; Lin, C. S.
1982-01-01
An experimental and theoretical study of the threshold characteristics of a space simulation beam-plasma discharge with emphasis on density profiles and a density-dependent ignition criterion. The study included various beam-plasma conditions covering beam currents from 8 to 85 mA, beam energies from 0.8 to 2.0 keV, and magnetic fields at 0.9 and 1.5 G. The study included experimental determinations of radial profiles of electron density for each of the selected conditions extending from a low-density, pre-beam-plasma discharge state to a strong beam-plasma discharge condition. The experimental results are shown to agree with detailed model calculations, which consider the beam-plasma discharge to be produced by large-amplitude electron plasma waves resulting from the beam-plasma interaction.
A physically based failure criterion for laminated composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kroll, L.; Hufenbach, W.
1999-07-01
The stress and strain fields in laminated composites can be described realistically with the help of a refined theory of elasticity for anisotropic materials. In contrast, the respective failure characteristics cannot be predicted satisfactorily based on the commonly used failure criteria. The main disadvantage of these generalized failure criteria, such as the quadratic failure criteria of Sakharov, Azzi/Tsai, Tsai/Wu, etc., is that they combine fundamentally different fracture mechanisms of the homogenized UD layer in one approximation by an interpolation polynomial. A completely different method for the formulation of realistic failure criteria, taking into account the heterogeneous anisotropic material structure relevant to the fracture, is based on the Mohr hypothesis for brittle materials that in fact only the stresses in the fracture plane induce failure. This physically based failure criterion not only considers the decisive eifference between the fiber fracture and the interfiber fracture, but also characterizes further fracture types in the plane parallel to the fibers.
Landau criterion for an anisotropic Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Zeng-Qiang
2017-03-01
In this work we discuss the Landau criterion for anisotropic superfluidity. To this end we consider a pointlike impurity moving in a uniform Bose-Einstein condensate with either interparticle dipole-dipole interaction or Raman-induced spin-orbit coupling. In both cases we find that the Landau critical velocity vc is generally smaller than the sound velocity in the moving direction. Beyond vc, the energy dissipation rate is explicitly calculated via a perturbation approach. In the plane-wave phase of a spin-orbit-coupled Bose gas, the dissipationless motion is suppressed by the Raman coupling even in the direction orthogonal to the recoil momentum. Our predictions can be tested in the experiments with ultracold atoms.
Error sensitivity to refinement: a criterion for optimal grid adaptation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luchini, Paolo; Giannnetti, Flavio; Citro, Vincenzo
2016-11-01
Most indicators used for automatic grid refinement are suboptimal, in the sense that they do not really minimize the global solution error. This paper concerns with a new indicator, related to the sensitivity map of global stability problems, suitable for an optimal grid refinement that minimizes the global solution error. The new criterion is derived from the properties of the adjoint operator and provides a map of the sensitivity of the global error (or its estimate) to a local mesh refinement. Examples are presented for both a scalar partial differential equation and for the system of Navier-Stokes equations. In the last case, we also present a grid-adaptation algorithm based on the new estimator and on the FreeFem++ software that improves the accuracy of the solution of almost two order of magnitude by redistributing the nodes of the initial computational mesh.
Continuous control of chaos based on the stability criterion.
Yu, Hong Jie; Liu, Yan Zhu; Peng, Jian Hua
2004-06-01
A method of chaos control based on stability criterion is proposed in the present paper. This method can stabilize chaotic systems onto a desired periodic orbit by a small time-continuous perturbation nonlinear feedback. This method does not require linearization of the system around the stabilized orbit and only an approximate location of the desired periodic orbit is required which can be automatically detected in the control process. The control can be started at any moment by choosing appropriate perturbation restriction condition. It seems that more flexibility and convenience are the main advantages of this method. The discussions on control of attitude motion of a spacecraft, Rössler system, and two coupled Duffing oscillators are given as numerical examples.
Biomechanical analysis of injury criterion for child and adult dummies.
Sances, A
2000-01-01
The development of human injury tolerance is difficult because of the physical differences between humans and animals, the available dummies, and tissue of the cadaver. Furthermore, human volunteer testing can clearly only be done at subinjurious levels. While considerable biomechanical injury evidence exists for the adult human based on cadaveric studies, little information is available for the pediatric population. However, some material is available from skull bone modulus studies and from the fetal tendon strength and early pediatric studies of the newborn. A review of living human, animal, and human cadaveric studies, which forms the basis for head-neck injury criterion are given. Examples of the use of the Hybrid III dummy for injury prediction such as in the Malibu rollover tests and air bag mechanisms show neck injury levels are considerably above the proposed Malibu 2000 N level.
Attractor radius, a new determination criterion of predictability limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Deqiang; Ding, Ruiqiang; Li, Jianping; Feng, Jie
2014-05-01
Firstly, the definition of the attractor radius was given and then the property of that the attractor radius (AR) in a given n-dimensional attractor A is a constant was proved in theory. Secondly, the SV of the square of the RMS difference was separated into two components - the systematic error and the attractor radius, and it was proved that the observed global climatological RMS (OCR) difference is not equal to 71% of the SV of the RMS difference when the systematic error is existed, however, it is always equal to 71% of the AR. Then the physical understanding of the AR and also the predictability limit determinated by it were discussed. Finally, the spatial distributions of the predictability limit calculated from CFSv2 data by different criterions were compared.
Failure criterion of glass fabric reinforced plastic laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haga, O.; Hayashi, N.; Kasuya, K.
1986-01-01
Failure criteria are derived for several modes of failure (in unaxial tensile or compressive loading, or biaxial combined tensile-compressive loading) in the case of closely woven plain fabric, coarsely-woven plain fabric, or roving glass cloth reinforcements. The shear strength in the interaction formula is replaced by an equation dealing with tensile or compressive strength in the direction making a 45 degree angle with one of the anisotropic axes, for the uniaxial failure criteria. The interaction formula is useful as the failure criterion in combined tension-compression biaxial failure for the case of closely woven plain fabric laminates, but poor agreement is obtained in the case of coarsely woven fabric laminates.
Validation of criterion-referenced archery cutting scores.
Ishee, J H; Titlow, L W
1993-04-01
This study investigated an empirical method for setting optimal cutting scores for a criterion-referenced archery test. The classification-outcome probabilities and approaches to validity suggested by Berk were utilized. Pretest scores were obtained on 35 uninstructed college-age women on six ends (six arrows each) from 20 yards (18.3 m) after an unrecorded warm-up end. Posttest scores were after 15 weeks of instruction. Score distributions were the primary determinant for accurately classifying students as true mastery and true nonmastery. Accuracy is a function of the amount of overlap between distributions. Using the point at which the distributions overlapped, classification accuracy was estimated. Probabilities associated with 80 points were p(TM) + p(TN) = .83 and p(FM) + p(FN) = .14. Scores above and below 80 points had lower probabilities of classification accuracy. Reliability estimated using Kappa was .59. Statistical validity of the cutting score (phi) was .68.
Preliminary Studies for Three Experiments at Treiman-Yang Criterion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kres, I. V.; Kondratyev, V. N.; Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.
2016-05-01
Nuclear reactions with three bodies in their final state may proceed through different reaction mechanisms. The Feynman graph technique has been widely used to describe such reactions. However, it is very difficult in general to select the graphs that dominate in given process. The Treiman-Yang criterion is one of the most powerful experimental tests for verifying the pole approximation prediction when describing a quasi-free reaction mechanism. We propose the theoretical study of the H2(B10, α Be7)ns, H1(B11, α1α2)αs, He3(Be9, α1α2)αs reactions at different energies. The preliminary study helps to check the existence of a QF channel by using the TY creterion.
Criterion and incremental validity of the emotion regulation questionnaire
Ioannidis, Christos A.; Siegling, A. B.
2015-01-01
Although research on emotion regulation (ER) is developing, little attention has been paid to the predictive power of ER strategies beyond established constructs. The present study examined the incremental validity of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ; Gross and John, 2003), which measures cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, over and above the Big Five personality factors. It also extended the evidence for the measure's criterion validity to yet unexamined criteria. A university student sample (N = 203) completed the ERQ, a measure of the Big Five, and relevant cognitive and emotion-laden criteria. Cognitive reappraisal predicted positive affect beyond personality, as well as experiential flexibility and constructive self-assertion beyond personality and affect. Expressive suppression explained incremental variance in negative affect beyond personality and in experiential flexibility beyond personality and general affect. No incremental effects were found for worry, social anxiety, rumination, reflection, and preventing negative emotions. Implications for the construct validity and utility of the ERQ are discussed. PMID:25814967
Local versus average field failure criterion in amorphous polymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Yuesong; Mao, Yunzhe; Sun, Lin; Koslowski, Marisol
2015-03-01
There is extensive work developing laws that predict yielding in amorphous polymers, ranging from the pioneer experimental work of Sternstein et al (1968 Appl. Polym. Symp. 7 175-99) to the novel molecular dynamics simulations of Jaramillo et al (2012 Phys. Rev. B 85 024114). While atomistic models render damage criteria in terms of local values of the stress and strain fields, experiments provide yield conditions in terms of the average values of these fields. Unfortunately, it is not possible to compare these results due to the differences in time and length scales. Here, we use a micromechanical phase-field damage model with parameters calculated from atomistic simulations to connect atomistic and macroscopic scale experiments. The phase-field damage model is used to study failure in composite materials. We find that the yield criterion should be described in terms of local stress and strains fields and cannot be extended directly from applied stress field values to determine yield conditions.
The diminishing criterion model for metacognitive regulation of time investment.
Ackerman, Rakefet
2014-06-01
According to the Discrepancy Reduction Model for metacognitive regulation, people invest time in cognitive tasks in a goal-driven manner until their metacognitive judgment, either judgment of learning (JOL) or confidence, meets their preset goal. This stopping rule should lead to judgments above the goal, regardless of invested time. However, in many tasks, time is negatively correlated with JOL and confidence, with low judgments after effortful processing. This pattern has often been explained as stemming from bottom-up fluency effects on the judgments. While accepting this explanation for simple tasks, like memorizing pairs of familiar words, the proposed Diminishing Criterion Model (DCM) challenges this explanation for complex tasks, like problem solving. Under the DCM, people indeed invest effort in a goal-driven manner. However, investing more time leads to increasing compromise on the goal, resulting in negative time-judgment correlations. Experiment 1 exposed that with word-pair memorization, negative correlations are found only with minimal fluency and difficulty variability, whereas in problem solving, they are found consistently. As predicted, manipulations of low incentives (Experiment 2) and time pressure (Experiment 3) in problem solving revealed greater compromise as more time was invested in a problem. Although intermediate confidence ratings rose during the solving process, the result was negative time-confidence correlations (Experiments 3, 4, and 5), and this was not eliminated by the opportunity to respond "don't know" (Experiments 4 and 5). The results suggest that negative time-judgment correlations in complex tasks stem from top-down regulatory processes with a criterion that diminishes with invested time.
Toropova, Alla P; Toropov, Andrey A
2017-02-11
New criterion of the predictive potential of quantitative structure-property/activity relationships (QSPRs/QSARs) is suggested. This criterion is calculated with utilization of the correlation coefficient between experimental and calculated values of endpoint for the calibration set, with taking into account the positive and negative dispersions between experimental and calculated values. The utilization of this criterion improves the predictive potential of QSAR models of dermal permeability coefficient, logKp (cm/h).
A Criterion for Maximally Six-Qubit Entangled States via Coefficient Matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Yan; Zha, Xin Wei; Li, Wei
2017-03-01
In a recent paper (J. Phys. A: Math. Theor 45, 075308 (2012)), Li et al. established the coefficient matrix of six-qubit entangled states. With an emphasis on six qubits, we present a new criterion for maximally six-qubit entangled states via those coefficient matrices. By calculating the determinants of coefficient matrix, one use the criterion that characterize these states. Moreover, the criterion via the coefficient matrices gives rise to the combination of maximally multi-qubit entangled state(MMES) and matrix, and we believe that the new criterion can play an important role in quantum information.
Weathers, Frank W; Keane, Terence M
2007-04-01
The Criterion A problem in the field of traumatic stress refers to the stressor criterion for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and involves a number of fundamental issues regarding the definition and measurement of psychological trauma. These issues first emerged with the introduction of PTSD as a diagnostic category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition (DSM-III; American Psychiatric Association, 1980) and continue to generate considerable controversy. In this article, the authors provide an update on the Criterion A problem, with particular emphasis on the evolution of the DSM definition of the stressor criterion and the ongoing debate regarding broad versus narrow conceptualizations of traumatic events.
A Physics-Based Temperature Stabilization Criterion for Thermal Testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rickman, Steven L.; Ungar, Eugene K.
2009-01-01
Spacecraft testing specifications differ greatly in the criteria they specify for stability in thermal balance tests. Some specify a required temperature stabilization rate (the change in temperature per unit time, dT/dt), some specify that the final steady-state temperature be approached to within a specified difference, delta T , and some specify a combination of the two. The particular values for temperature stabilization rate and final temperature difference also vary greatly between specification documents. A one-size-fits-all temperature stabilization rate requirement does not yield consistent results for all test configurations because of differences in thermal mass and heat transfer to the environment. Applying a steady-state temperature difference requirement is problematic because the final test temperature is not accurately known a priori, especially for powered configurations. In the present work, a simplified, lumped-mass analysis has been used to explore the applicability of these criteria. A new, user-friendly, physics-based approach is developed that allows the thermal engineer to determine when an acceptable level of temperature stabilization has been achieved. The stabilization criterion can be predicted pre-test but must be refined during test to allow verification that the defined level of temperature stabilization has been achieved.
Measuring unconscious cognition: Beyond the zero-awareness criterion
Schmidt, Thomas
2008-01-01
Visual masking can be employed to manipulate observers’ awareness of critical stimuli in studies of masked priming. This paper discusses two different lines of attack for establishing unconscious cognition in such experiments. Firstly, simple dissociations between direct measures (D) of visual awareness and indirect measures (I) of processing per se occur when I has some nonzero value while D is at chance level; the traditional requirement of zero awareness is necessary for this criterion only. In contrast, double dissociations occur when some experimental manipulation has opposite effects on I and D, for instance, increasing priming effects despite decreasing prime identification performance (Schmidt & Vorberg, 2006). Double dissociations require much weaker measurement assumptions than other criteria. An attractive alternative to this dissociation approach would be to use tasks that are known to violate necessary conditions of visual awareness altogether. In particular, it is argued here that priming effects in speeded pointing movements (Schmidt, Niehaus, & Nagel, 2006) occur in the absence of the recurrent processing that is often assumed to be a necessary condition for awareness (for instance, DiLollo, Enns, & Rensink, 2000; Lamme & Roelfsema, 2000). Feedforward tasks such as this might thus be used to measure the time-course of unconscious processing directly, before intracortical feedback and awareness come into play. PMID:20517514
Centration-distortion error: a criterion of perceptual dysfunction.
Mecke, V
This was a study to determine whether centration, as a perceptual process, could be a criterion for differentiating between neurologically impaired and emotionally disturbed children. Centration was defined by Piaget as a prolonged involuntary attachment of a sensory modality to one part of a field, causing perceptual errors of exaggerations and distortions. It is hypothesized that centration would affect motor behavior, producing effects on drawing tasks characterized by separation of designs or their parts, coincident with distortions of the figures drawn. The neurologically impaired children were identified as having primary difficulties with perception whereas the emotionally disturbed children would have primary difficulties with intellection. The centration-distortion error would characterize the drawing of the neurologically impaired but not those of the emotionally disturbed children. A sample of 44 children was selected, each with EEG records, psychological tests and psychiatric interviews used as differential criteria for the groups. Eleven children were diagnosed as having minimal brain damage, 33 as emotionally disturbed. Three psychologists scored the Bender Gestalt tests, blind, for indicators of brain injury and emotional disturbance as defined by Koppitz' criteria, and for the centration-distortion error. The hypothesis was upheld at the .001 level of confidence, validating an earlier pilot study.
Failure Criterion of Rock with Multiple Friction Angles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harvieux, J.; Makhnenko, R. Y.; Labuz, J. F.
2015-12-01
The Paul-Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion is a linear function of the three principal stresses, and it can be written as AσI + BσII + CσIII = 1, where σI, σII, and σIII are the major, intermediate, and minor principal stresses and A, B, and C are material parameters related to the friction angles in compression and extension and the (theoretical) uniform triaxial tensile strength. Conventional triaxial compression (σII = σIII), extension (σI = σII), and plane strain (σI ≠ σII ≠ σIII) experiments were performed on dry Indiana limestone, and the stress states at failure were represented in principal stress space. Assuming isotropic behavior, a six-sided pyramidal failure surface was constructed by fitting a plane to the triaxial compression and extension data. The material parameters were determined, and the friction angle in extension was greater than the friction angle in compression, a sufficient condition for an intermediate stress effect. Multi-axial (plane strain) data were included and a twelve-sided failure surface with two different vertices was formed. The two vertices provide a change in the cross-section of the failure surface normal to the hydrostatic axis, which is often observed in failure of rock. The irregular dodecagon is associated with six parameters: two vertices and four friction angles.
Some remarks on relativistic diffusion and the spectral dimension criterion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muniz, C. R.; Cunha, M. S.; Filho, R. N. Costa; Bezerra, V. B.
2015-01-01
The spectral dimension ds for high energies is calculated using the Relativistic Schrödinger Equation Analytically Continued (RSEAC) instead of the so-called Telegraph's equation (TE), in both ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) regimens. Regarding the TE, the recent literature presents difficulties related to its stochastic derivation and interpretation, advocating the use of the RSEAC to properly describe the relativistic diffusion phenomena. Taking into account that the Lorentz symmetry is broken in UV regime at Lifshitz point, we show that there exists a degeneracy in very high energies, meaning that both the RSEAC and TE correctly describe the diffusion processes at these energy scales, at least under the spectral dimension criterion. In fact, both the equations yield the same result, namely, ds=2 , a dimensional reduction that is compatible with several theories of quantum gravity. This result is reached even when one takes into account a cosmological model, as for example, the de Sitter universe. On the other hand, in the IR regimen, such degeneracy is lifted in favor of the approach via TE, due to the fact that only this equation provides the correct value for ds, which is equal to the actual number of spacetime dimensions, i.e., ds=4 , while RSEAC yields ds=3 , so that a diffusing particle described by this method experiences a three-dimensional spacetime.
SALT DAMAGE CRITERION PROOF-OF-CONCEPT RESEARCH
Kerry L. DeVries; Kirby D. Mellegard; Gary D. Callahan
2001-12-01
This document is the annual technical progress report for Department of Energy Contract No. DE-FC26-00NT41026 entitled Proof-of-Concept Research for an Advanced Design Criterion to Improve Working Gas Capacity for Natural Gas Storage Caverns in Salt Formations. This report covers the reporting period from October 1, 2000, through September 30, 2001. During this reporting period, the project was initiated and work was performed to develop structural models that will be used to evaluate two compressed natural gas storage caverns in the McIntosh Dome northwest of Mobile, Alabama. Information necessary to define the structural models include site-specific stress, temperature, geometry, stratigraphy, and operating scenarios in the dome and for the caverns. Additionally, material model development for the salt at the McIntosh Dome was initiated. Material model development activities include acquisition of salt core for testing, laboratory testing, and regression analyses to determine site-specific model parameter values that describe the behavior of salt around a storage cavern. Although not performed during this reporting period, the information and models developed will be used to perform advanced design storage cavern analyses for the Bay Gas caverns to determine the operating pressure ranges to maintain stable conditions.
Nonlinear viscoelasticity and generalized failure criterion for biopolymer gels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Divoux, Thibaut; Keshavarz, Bavand; Manneville, Sébastien; McKinley, Gareth
2016-11-01
Biopolymer gels display a multiscale microstructure that is responsible for their solid-like properties. Upon external deformation, these soft viscoelastic solids exhibit a generic nonlinear mechanical response characterized by pronounced stress- or strain-stiffening prior to irreversible damage and failure, most often through macroscopic fractures. Here we show on a model acid-induced protein gel that the nonlinear viscoelastic properties of the gel can be described in terms of a 'damping function' which predicts the gel mechanical response quantitatively up to the onset of macroscopic failure. Using a nonlinear integral constitutive equation built upon the experimentally-measured damping function in conjunction with power-law linear viscoelastic response, we derive the form of the stress growth in the gel following the start up of steady shear. We also couple the shear stress response with Bailey's durability criteria for brittle solids in order to predict the critical values of the stress σc and strain γc for failure of the gel, and how they scale with the applied shear rate. This provides a generalized failure criterion for biopolymer gels in a range of different deformation histories. This work was funded by the MIT-France seed fund and by the CNRS PICS-USA scheme (#36939). BK acknowledges financial support from Axalta Coating Systems.
An Analytic Criterion for Turbulent Disruption of Planetary Resonances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batygin, Konstantin; Adams, Fred C.
2017-03-01
Mean motion commensurabilities in multi-planet systems are an expected outcome of protoplanetary disk-driven migration, and their relative dearth in the observational data presents an important challenge to current models of planet formation and dynamical evolution. One natural mechanism that can lead to the dissolution of commensurabilities is stochastic orbital forcing, induced by turbulent density fluctuations within the nebula. While this process is qualitatively promising, the conditions under which mean motion resonances can be broken are not well understood. In this work, we derive a simple analytic criterion that elucidates the relationship among the physical parameters of the system, and find the conditions necessary to drive planets out of resonance. Subsequently, we confirm our findings with numerical integrations carried out in the perturbative regime, as well as direct N-body simulations. Our calculations suggest that turbulent resonance disruption depends most sensitively on the planet–star mass ratio. Specifically, for a disk with properties comparable to the early solar nebula with α ={10}-2, only planet pairs with cumulative mass ratios smaller than ({m}1+{m}2)/M≲ {10}-5∼ 3{M}\\oplus /{M}ȯ are susceptible to breaking resonance at semimajor axis of order a∼ 0.1 {au}. Although turbulence can sometimes compromise resonant pairs, an additional mechanism (such as suppression of resonance capture probability through disk eccentricity) is required to adequately explain the largely non-resonant orbital architectures of extrasolar planetary systems.
Associative false recognition occurs without strategic criterion shifts.
Gallo, D A; Roediger, H L; McDermott, K B
2001-09-01
In the DRM (Deese/Roediger and McDermott) false memory paradigm, subjects studied lists of words associated with nonpresented critical words. They were tested in one of four instructional conditions. In a standard condition, subjects were not warned about the DRM Effect. In three other conditions, they were told to avoid false recognition of critical words. One group was warned before study of the lists (affecting encoding and retrieval processes), and two groups were warned after study (affecting only retrieval processes). Replicating prior work, the warning before study considerably reduced false recognition. The warning after study also reduced false recognition, but only when critical items had never been studied; when critical items were studied in half the lists so that subjects had to monitor memory for their presence or absence, the warning after study had little effect on false recognition. Because warned subjects were trying to avoid false recognition, the high levels of false recognition in the latter condition cannot be due to strategically guessing that critical test items were studied. False memories in the DRM paradigm are not caused by such liberal criterion shifts.
Sheath formation criterion in magnetized electronegative plasmas with thermal ions
Hatami, M. M.; Shokri, B.
2013-03-15
Taking into account the effect of collisions and positive ion temperatures, the sheath formation criterion is investigated in a weakly magnetized electronegative plasma consisting of electrons, negative and positive ions by using the hydrodynamics equations. It is assumed that the electron and negative ion density distributions are the Boltzmann distribution with two different temperatures. Also, it is assumed that the velocity of positive ions at the sheath edge is not normal to the wall (oblique entrance). Our results show that a sheath region will be formed when the initial velocity of positive ions or the ion Mach number M lies in a specific interval with particular upper and lower limits. Also, it is shown that the presence of the magnetic field affects both of these limits. Moreover, as an practical application, the density distribution of charged particles in the sheath region is studied for an allowable value of M, and it is seen that monotonically reduction of the positive ion density distribution leading to the sheath formation occurs only when M lies between two above mentioned limits.
A novel SURE-based criterion for parametric PSF estimation.
Xue, Feng; Blu, Thierry
2015-02-01
We propose an unbiased estimate of a filtered version of the mean squared error--the blur-SURE (Stein's unbiased risk estimate)--as a novel criterion for estimating an unknown point spread function (PSF) from the degraded image only. The PSF is obtained by minimizing this new objective functional over a family of Wiener processings. Based on this estimated blur kernel, we then perform nonblind deconvolution using our recently developed algorithm. The SURE-based framework is exemplified with a number of parametric PSF, involving a scaling factor that controls the blur size. A typical example of such parametrization is the Gaussian kernel. The experimental results demonstrate that minimizing the blur-SURE yields highly accurate estimates of the PSF parameters, which also result in a restoration quality that is very similar to the one obtained with the exact PSF, when plugged into our recent multi-Wiener SURE-LET deconvolution algorithm. The highly competitive results obtained outline the great potential of developing more powerful blind deconvolution algorithms based on SURE-like estimates.
Design of cellular porous biomaterials for wall shear stress criterion.
Chen, Yuhang; Zhou, Shiwei; Cadman, Joseph; Li, Qing
2010-11-01
The microfluidic environment provided by implanted prostheses has a decisive influence on the viability, proliferation and differentiation of cells. In bone tissue engineering, for instance, experiments have confirmed that a certain level of wall shear stress (WSS) is more advantageous to osteoblastic differentiation. This paper proposes a level-set-based topology optimization method to regulate fluidic WSS distribution for design of cellular biomaterials. The topological boundary of fluid phase is represented by a level-set model embedded in a higher-dimensional scalar function. WSS is determined by the computational fluid dynamics analysis in the scale of cellular base cells. To achieve a uniform WSS distribution at the solid-fluid interface, the difference between local and target WSS is taken as the design criterion, which determines the speed of the boundary evolution in the level-set model. The examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented method and exhibit a considerable potential in the design optimization and fabrication of new prosthetic cellular materials for bioengineering applications.
Sound speed criterion for two-phase critical flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, M.-S.; Park, S.-B.; Lee, H.-K.
2004-09-01
Critical flow simulation for non-homogeneous, non-equilibrium two-phase flows is improved by applying a new sound speed model which is derived from the characteristic analysis of hyperbolic two-fluid model. The hyperbolicity of two-fluid model was based on the concept of surface tension for the interfacial pressure jump terms in the momentum equations. Real eigenvalues obtained as the closed-form solution of characteristic polynomial represent the sound speeds in the bubbly flow regime that agree well with the existing experimental data. The analytic sound speed is consistent with that obtained by the earlier study of Nguyen et al. though there is a difference between them especially in the limiting condition. The present sound speed shows more reasonable result in that condition than Nguyen et al.'s does. The present critical flow criterion derived by the present sound speed is employed in the MARS code and is assessed by treating several nozzle flow tests. The assessment results, without any adjustment made by some discharge coefficients, demonstrate more accurate predictions of critical flow rate than those of the earlier critical flow calculations in the bubbly flow regime.
Nonlinear theoretical formulation of elastic stability criterion of crystal solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Hao; Li, Mo
2012-03-01
An elastic stability criterion is generally formulated based on local elasticity, where the second-order elastic constants of a crystalline system in an arbitrary deformed state are required. While simple in formalism, such a formulation demands extensive computational effort in either an ab initio calculation or an atomistic simulation and often lacks clear physical interpretation. Here, we present a nonlinear theoretical formulation employing higher-order elastic constants beyond the second-order ones; the elastic constants needed in the theory are those at a zero stress state or in any arbitrary deformed state, many of which are now available. We use the published second- and higher-order elastic constants of several cubic crystals, including Au, Al, and Cu, as well as diamond-structure Si, with transcription under different coordinate frames, to test the stability conditions of these crystals under uniaxial and hydrostatic loading. The stability region, ideal strength, and potential bifurcation mode of those cubic crystals under loading are obtained using this theory. The results obtained are in good agreement with the results from the ab initio calculation or embedded atom method. The overall good quality of the results confirms the desired utility of this new approach to predict elastic stability and related properties of crystalline materials without involving intense computation.
General criterion for the entanglement of two indistinguishable particles
Ghirardi, GianCarlo; Marinatto, Luca
2004-07-01
We relate the notion of entanglement for quantum systems composed of two identical constituents to the impossibility of attributing a complete set of properties to both particles. This implies definite constraints on the mathematical form of the state vector associated with the whole system. We then analyze separately the cases of fermion and boson systems, and we show how the consideration of both the Slater-Schmidt number of the fermionic and bosonic analog of the Schmidt decomposition of the global state vector and the von Neumann entropy of the one-particle reduced density operators can supply us with a consistent criterion for detecting entanglement. In particular, the consideration of the von Neumann entropy is particularly useful in deciding whether the correlations of the considered states are simply due to the indistinguishability of the particles involved or are a genuine manifestation of the entanglement. The treatment leads to a full clarification of the subtle aspects of entanglement of two identical constituents which have been a source of embarrassment and of serious misunderstandings in the recent literature.
Efficient and robust feature extraction by maximum margin criterion.
Li, Haifeng; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Keshu
2006-01-01
In pattern recognition, feature extraction techniques are widely employed to reduce the dimensionality of data and to enhance the discriminatory information. Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) are the two most popular linear dimensionality reduction methods. However, PCA is not very effective for the extraction of the most discriminant features, and LDA is not stable due to the small sample size problem. In this paper, we propose some new (linear and nonlinear) feature extractors based on maximum margin criterion (MMC). Geometrically, feature extractors based on MMC maximize the (average) margin between classes after dimensionality reduction. It is shown that MMC can represent class separability better than PCA. As a connection to LDA, we may also derive LDA from MMC by incorporating some constraints. By using some other constraints, we establish a new linear feature extractor that does not suffer from the small sample size problem, which is known to cause serious stability problems for LDA. The kernelized (nonlinear) counterpart of this linear feature extractor is also established in the paper. Our extensive experiments demonstrate that the new feature extractors are effective, stable, and efficient.
Robust principal component analysis based on maximum correntropy criterion.
He, Ran; Hu, Bao-Gang; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Kong, Xiang-Wei
2011-06-01
Principal component analysis (PCA) minimizes the mean square error (MSE) and is sensitive to outliers. In this paper, we present a new rotational-invariant PCA based on maximum correntropy criterion (MCC). A half-quadratic optimization algorithm is adopted to compute the correntropy objective. At each iteration, the complex optimization problem is reduced to a quadratic problem that can be efficiently solved by a standard optimization method. The proposed method exhibits the following benefits: 1) it is robust to outliers through the mechanism of MCC which can be more theoretically solid than a heuristic rule based on MSE; 2) it requires no assumption about the zero-mean of data for processing and can estimate data mean during optimization; and 3) its optimal solution consists of principal eigenvectors of a robust covariance matrix corresponding to the largest eigenvalues. In addition, kernel techniques are further introduced in the proposed method to deal with nonlinearly distributed data. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed method can outperform robust rotational-invariant PCAs based on L(1) norm when outliers occur.
A New Criterion for Demarcating Life from Non-Life
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Hateren, J. H.
2013-12-01
Criteria for demarcating life from non-life are important for deciding whether new candidate systems, either discovered extraterrestrially or constructed in the laboratory, are genuinely alive or not. They are also important for understanding the origin of life and its evolution. Current criteria are either too restrictive or too extensive. The new criterion proposed here poses that a system is living when it is capable of utilizing active causation, at evolutionary or behavioural timescales. Active causation is produced when the organism uses an estimate of its own Darwinian fitness to modulate the variance of stochasticity that drives hereditary or behavioural changes. The changes are subsequently fed back to the fitness estimate and used in the next cycle of a feedback loop. The ability to use a self-estimated fitness in this way is an evolved property of the organism, and the way in which fitness is estimated is therefore controlled and stabilized by Darwinian evolution. The hereditary and behavioural trajectories resulting from this mechanism combine predictability with unpredictability, and the mechanism produces a form of self-directed agency in living organisms that is absent from non-living systems.
A Topological Criterion for Filtering Information in Complex Brain Networks
Latora, Vito; Chavez, Mario
2017-01-01
In many biological systems, the network of interactions between the elements can only be inferred from experimental measurements. In neuroscience, non-invasive imaging tools are extensively used to derive either structural or functional brain networks in-vivo. As a result of the inference process, we obtain a matrix of values corresponding to a fully connected and weighted network. To turn this into a useful sparse network, thresholding is typically adopted to cancel a percentage of the weakest connections. The structural properties of the resulting network depend on how much of the inferred connectivity is eventually retained. However, how to objectively fix this threshold is still an open issue. We introduce a criterion, the efficiency cost optimization (ECO), to select a threshold based on the optimization of the trade-off between the efficiency of a network and its wiring cost. We prove analytically and we confirm through numerical simulations that the connection density maximizing this trade-off emphasizes the intrinsic properties of a given network, while preserving its sparsity. Moreover, this density threshold can be determined a-priori, since the number of connections to filter only depends on the network size according to a power-law. We validate this result on several brain networks, from micro- to macro-scales, obtained with different imaging modalities. Finally, we test the potential of ECO in discriminating brain states with respect to alternative filtering methods. ECO advances our ability to analyze and compare biological networks, inferred from experimental data, in a fast and principled way. PMID:28076353
A Topological Criterion for Filtering Information in Complex Brain Networks.
De Vico Fallani, Fabrizio; Latora, Vito; Chavez, Mario
2017-01-01
In many biological systems, the network of interactions between the elements can only be inferred from experimental measurements. In neuroscience, non-invasive imaging tools are extensively used to derive either structural or functional brain networks in-vivo. As a result of the inference process, we obtain a matrix of values corresponding to a fully connected and weighted network. To turn this into a useful sparse network, thresholding is typically adopted to cancel a percentage of the weakest connections. The structural properties of the resulting network depend on how much of the inferred connectivity is eventually retained. However, how to objectively fix this threshold is still an open issue. We introduce a criterion, the efficiency cost optimization (ECO), to select a threshold based on the optimization of the trade-off between the efficiency of a network and its wiring cost. We prove analytically and we confirm through numerical simulations that the connection density maximizing this trade-off emphasizes the intrinsic properties of a given network, while preserving its sparsity. Moreover, this density threshold can be determined a-priori, since the number of connections to filter only depends on the network size according to a power-law. We validate this result on several brain networks, from micro- to macro-scales, obtained with different imaging modalities. Finally, we test the potential of ECO in discriminating brain states with respect to alternative filtering methods. ECO advances our ability to analyze and compare biological networks, inferred from experimental data, in a fast and principled way.
A Validity-Based Model for the Evaluation of a Criterion-Referenced Test.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schattgen, Sharon; And Others
This paper describes a model for the evaluation and approval of a test battery for compliance with a midwestern state law mandating criterion-referenced testing of specific objectives. Standards specifying that the test scores must demonstrate content validity and criterion-related validity form the foundation of the model. The model also…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heffernan, Neil; Otoshi, Junko
2015-01-01
This paper reports on a classroom-based inquiry using quantitative methods conducted with Japanese EFL students' writing practice using ETS's Criterion. The purpose of the study is to examine the actual effects of teachers' feedback on students' writing on Criterion. Twelve university students in Japan participated in this study, while completing…
Replacement Air Group Performance as a Criterion for Naval Aviation Training.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bale, Ronald M.; And Others
The current criterion for prediction of performance of student naval aviators is the dichotomy of success versus failure in undergraduate flight training. This criterion has enabled the naval air training command to make reasonable estimates of the probability of an applicant or student completing flight training. However, a costly attrition…
Educational Testing in America: What's Right, What's Wrong? A Criterion-Referenced Perspective.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Popham, W. James
1993-01-01
Current successes and failures in U.S. educational measurement are reviewed, focusing on criterion-referenced testing. Pluses and minuses are listed for the following: (1) the move toward authentic assessment; (2) the dominance of criterion-referenced assessment; and (3) item response theory applications. Each area is a double-edged sword. (SLD)
Evidence for the Criterion Validity and Clinical Utility of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J.
2012-01-01
In this study, the authors evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (N = 299 and 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic…
The New DSM-5 Impairment Criterion: A Challenge to Early Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zander, Eric; Bölte, Sven
2015-01-01
The possible effect of the DSM-5 impairment criterion on diagnosing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in young children was examined in 127 children aged 20-47 months with a DSM-IV-TR clinical consensus diagnosis of ASD. The composite score of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) served as a proxy for the DSM-5 impairment criterion. When…
Diagnostics of the Properties of Steel Articles According to the Criterion of Microhardness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Astashchenko, V. I.; Shveev, A. I.; Shveeva, T. V.
2016-09-01
On the basis of metallographic monitoring of semimanufactured steel pieces and automobile parts, it is shown that prediction of the properties of articles on the basis of the criterion of microhardness of individual structural constituents and the difference in the values of the criterion represents an effective approach.
10 CFR 140.85 - Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite. 140.85 Section 140.85 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS Extraordinary Nuclear Occurrences § 140.85 Criterion...
A Graph Theoretic Criterion for Determining the Number of Clusters in a Data Set.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine; Eckes, Thomas
1992-01-01
Procedures for determining the number of clusters in a data set are explored. A proposed stopping rule, the GRAPH criterion, is compared to four stopping rules currently in use. The GRAPH criterion's mathematically attractive properties and utility in solving the number-of-clusters problem are demonstrated. (SLD)
Transformation of Both Predictor and Criterion Variables to a Simplified Regression Structure.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ping, Chieh-min; Tucker, Ledyard R.
Prediction for a number of criteria from a set of predictor variables in a system of regression equations is studied with the possibilities of linear transformations applied to both the criterion and predictor variables. Predictive composites representing a battery of predictor variables provide identical estimates of criterion scores as do the…
Problems in Criterion-Referenced Measurement. CSE Monograph Series in Evaluation, 3.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harris, Chester W., Ed.; And Others
Six essays on technical measurement problems in criterion referenced tests and four essays by psychometricians proposing solutions are presented: (1) "Criterion-Referenced Measurement" and Other Such Terms, by Marvin C. Alkin which is an overview of the first six papers; (2) Selecting Objectives and Generating Test Items for Objectives-Based…
Working Memory in Children with Learning Disabilities: Rethinking the Criterion of Discrepancy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maehler, Claudia; Schuchardt, Kirsten
2011-01-01
The criterion of discrepancy is used to distinguish children with learning disorders from children with intellectual disabilities. The justification of the criterion of discrepancy for the diagnosis of learning disorders relies on the conviction of fundamental differences between children with learning difficulties with versus without discrepancy…
Criterion-Referenced and Norm-Referenced Assessments: Compatibility and Complementarity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lok, Beatrice; McNaught, Carmel; Young, Kenneth
2016-01-01
The tension between criterion-referenced and norm-referenced assessment is examined in the context of curriculum planning and assessment in outcomes-based approaches to higher education. This paper argues the importance of a criterion-referenced assessment approach once an outcomes-based approach has been adopted. It further discusses the…
The quest to find the plasma edge and discover a collisionally modified Bohm criterion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franklin, R. N.; Franklin
2013-10-01
The concepts of `plasma edge' and `collisionally modified Bohm criterion' have occupied attention for many years since the publication of work by Bohm that gave rise to the Bohm criterion. He acknowledged that his description of the plasma-sheath transition was incomplete. We summarize work that shows that neither concept has precision, at the same time giving a critique.
Evaluation of Regression Models of Balance Calibration Data Using an Empirical Criterion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ulbrich, Norbert; Volden, Thomas R.
2012-01-01
An empirical criterion for assessing the significance of individual terms of regression models of wind tunnel strain gage balance outputs is evaluated. The criterion is based on the percent contribution of a regression model term. It considers a term to be significant if its percent contribution exceeds the empirical threshold of 0.05%. The criterion has the advantage that it can easily be computed using the regression coefficients of the gage outputs and the load capacities of the balance. First, a definition of the empirical criterion is provided. Then, it is compared with an alternate statistical criterion that is widely used in regression analysis. Finally, calibration data sets from a variety of balances are used to illustrate the connection between the empirical and the statistical criterion. A review of these results indicated that the empirical criterion seems to be suitable for a crude assessment of the significance of a regression model term as the boundary between a significant and an insignificant term cannot be defined very well. Therefore, regression model term reduction should only be performed by using the more universally applicable statistical criterion.
Computable criterion for partial entanglement in continuous-variable quantum systems
Gabriel, Andreas; Huber, Marcus; Radic, Sasa; Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.
2011-05-15
A general and computable criterion for k-(in)separability in continuous multipartite quantum systems is presented. The criterion can be experimentally implemented with a finite and comparatively low number of local observables. We discuss in detail how the detection quality can be optimized.
A Controlled Evaluation of the Distress Criterion for Binge Eating Disorder
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grilo, Carlos M.; White, Marney A.
2011-01-01
Objective: Research has examined various aspects of the validity of the research criteria for binge eating disorder (BED) but has yet to evaluate the utility of Criterion C, "marked distress about binge eating." This study examined the significance of the marked distress criterion for BED using 2 complementary comparison groups. Method:…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Downing, Steven M.; Mehrens, William A.
Four criterion-referenced reliability coefficicents were compared to the Kuder-Richardson estimates and to each other. The Kuder-Richardson formulas 20 and 21, the Livingston, the Subkoviak and two Huynh coefficients were computed for a random sample of 33 criterion-referenced tests. The Subkoviak coefficient yielded the highest mean value;…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ding, Cody S.; Davison, Mark L.
2010-01-01
Akaike's information criterion is suggested as a tool for evaluating fit and dimensionality in metric multidimensional scaling that uses least squares methods of estimation. This criterion combines the least squares loss function with the number of estimated parameters. Numerical examples are presented. The results from analyses of both simulation…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery. Div. of Vocational Education.
Designed to provide guidance in the development of performance objectives and criterion-referenced measures, this booklet is intended for teachers, supervisory personnel, teacher trainers, and writers involved in developing performance-based instruction. To show the relationship of performance objectives and criterion-referenced measures to the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Day, Gerald F.
The paper investigates and analyses the current state of the art of criterion-referenced measurement (CRM), with a view to determining its use in training and instructional programs. It presents a reveiw of the literature pertaining to the following aspects: a brief history of CRM; a definition and comparison of criterion-referenced and…
A Model for Estimating the Reliability and Validity of Criterion-Referenced Measures.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edmonston, Leon P.; Randall, Robert S.
A decision model designed to determine the reliability and validity of criterion referenced measures (CRMs) is presented. General procedures which pertain to the model are discussed as to: Measures of relationship, Reliability, Validity (content, criterion-oriented, and construct validation), and Item Analysis. The decision model is presented in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oakland, Thomas
New strategies for evaluation criterion referenced measures (CRM) are discussed. These strategies examine the following issues: (1) the use of normed referenced measures (NRM) as CRM and then estimating the reliability and validity of such measures in terms of variance from an arbitrarily specified criterion score, (2) estimation of the…
The Testing of English as a Second/Foreign Language in the Criterion-Referenced Era.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davidson, Fred
In the assessment of second/foreign language proficiency, we are entering the era of criterion-referenced assessment as language learning is being recognized as an integrative, multifaceted construct. Norm-referenced measurement (NRM) is compared with criterion-referenced measurement (CRM). CRM is characterized by attention to skill, whereas NRM…
The Yeh-Stratton Criterion for Stress Concentrations on Fiber -Reinforced Composite Materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yeh, Hsieng-Yang
1996-01-01
The Yeh-Stratton criterion developed from a yielding criterion is modified to a generalized failure criterion and applied to fiber-reinforced composites with a central crack or a circular cutout under tensile loadings. The purpose of a material failure criterion is to establish a theoretical margin of safety and to be validated by experiments. It is necessary to obtain the crack tip stress field before a failure criterion of composite materials is applied. However, the crack tip stress field is complicated since there are numerous factors that influence the crack tip stress distribution. The understanding of the factors that contribute to crack tip stress field is of critical importance in analyzing composite laminates.
Barshan, Billur
2008-12-15
An objective error criterion is proposed for evaluating the accuracy of maps of unknown environments acquired by making range measurements with different sensing modalities and processing them with different techniques. The criterion can also be used for the assessment of goodness of fit of curves or shapes fitted to map points. A demonstrative example from ultrasonic mapping is given based on experimentally acquired time-of-flight measurements and compared with a very accurate laser map, considered as absolute reference. The results of the proposed criterion are compared with the Hausdorff metric and the median error criterion results. The error criterion is sufficiently general and flexible that it can be applied to discrete point maps acquired with other mapping techniques and sensing modalities as well.
Laboratory study on new cathodic protection criterion proposed for prestressed concrete
Wagner, J. Jr.; Funahashi, M.
1994-12-31
Bazzoni and Lazzari have proposed a new criterion for the cathodic protection of prestressed concrete. The criterion is based on the use of mixed metal-oxide-activated anodes which exhibit a stable polarized potential over a wide range of current densities when embedded in concrete. The criterion proposes that a ``safe`` anode/structure feeding voltage can be calculated that will both provide corrosion control in the area covered by the anode system and will prevent the steel reinforcement potential reaching values where hydrogen ions can be reduced to hydrogen and the consequent possibility of embrittlement of high strength prestressing members. This paper describes a laboratory study made to examine the validity of the proposed criterion. The results of the study appear to support criterion as both safe and effective for new prestressed concrete structures and possibly for existing structures as well.
Generalized Majority Logic Criterion to Analyze the Statistical Strength of S-Boxes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hussain, Iqtadar; Shah, Tariq; Gondal, Muhammad Asif; Mahmood, Hasan
2012-05-01
The majority logic criterion is applicable in the evaluation process of substitution boxes used in the advanced encryption standard (AES). The performance of modified or advanced substitution boxes is predicted by processing the results of statistical analysis by the majority logic criteria. In this paper, we use the majority logic criteria to analyze some popular and prevailing substitution boxes used in encryption processes. In particular, the majority logic criterion is applied to AES, affine power affine (APA), Gray, Lui J, residue prime, S8 AES, Skipjack, and Xyi substitution boxes. The majority logic criterion is further extended into a generalized majority logic criterion which has a broader spectrum of analyzing the effectiveness of substitution boxes in image encryption applications. The integral components of the statistical analyses used for the generalized majority logic criterion are derived from results of entropy analysis, contrast analysis, correlation analysis, homogeneity analysis, energy analysis, and mean of absolute deviation (MAD) analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murdin, P.
2000-11-01
Mathematician, born in Worley Wood, Yorkshire, England. Professor at Cambridge, London (Gresham College) and Oxford. By pointing out how much more useful logarithms would be if (unlike JOHN NAPIER's original invention) they were to base 10, he was responsible for improving astronomers' ability to calculate. Published mathematical tables (logarithms, sines, tangents, secants) as an aid to such ca...
Efficiency of Event-Based Sampling According to Error Energy Criterion
Miskowicz, Marek
2010-01-01
The paper belongs to the studies that deal with the effectiveness of the particular event-based sampling scheme compared to the conventional periodic sampling as a reference. In the present study, the event-based sampling according to a constant energy of sampling error is analyzed. This criterion is suitable for applications where the energy of sampling error should be bounded (i.e., in building automation, or in greenhouse climate monitoring and control). Compared to the integral sampling criteria, the error energy criterion gives more weight to extreme sampling error values. The proposed sampling principle extends a range of event-based sampling schemes and makes the choice of particular sampling criterion more flexible to application requirements. In the paper, it is proved analytically that the proposed event-based sampling criterion is more effective than the periodic sampling by a factor defined by the ratio of the maximum to the mean of the cubic root of the signal time-derivative square in the analyzed time interval. Furthermore, it is shown that the sampling according to energy criterion is less effective than the send-on-delta scheme but more effective than the sampling according to integral criterion. On the other hand, it is indicated that higher effectiveness in sampling according to the selected event-based criterion is obtained at the cost of increasing the total sampling error defined as the sum of errors for all the samples taken. PMID:22294925
Efficiency of event-based sampling according to error energy criterion.
Miskowicz, Marek
2010-01-01
The paper belongs to the studies that deal with the effectiveness of the particular event-based sampling scheme compared to the conventional periodic sampling as a reference. In the present study, the event-based sampling according to a constant energy of sampling error is analyzed. This criterion is suitable for applications where the energy of sampling error should be bounded (i.e., in building automation, or in greenhouse climate monitoring and control). Compared to the integral sampling criteria, the error energy criterion gives more weight to extreme sampling error values. The proposed sampling principle extends a range of event-based sampling schemes and makes the choice of particular sampling criterion more flexible to application requirements. In the paper, it is proved analytically that the proposed event-based sampling criterion is more effective than the periodic sampling by a factor defined by the ratio of the maximum to the mean of the cubic root of the signal time-derivative square in the analyzed time interval. Furthermore, it is shown that the sampling according to energy criterion is less effective than the send-on-delta scheme but more effective than the sampling according to integral criterion. On the other hand, it is indicated that higher effectiveness in sampling according to the selected event-based criterion is obtained at the cost of increasing the total sampling error defined as the sum of errors for all the samples taken.
Tobacyk, Jerome J; Livingston, Mary M; Robbins, James E
2008-10-01
English-language versions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Form G) measure of psychological type and the NEO-FFI measure of the Big Five personality factors were completed by 57 Polish university students fluent in the English language. The pattern of correlations between MBTI and NEO-FFI scales for the Polish sample was compared to the pattern of correlations for measures of these same constructs reported for Americans. Four of the five significant relationships between MBTI and NEO-FFI scales reported in the American sample were also recorded in the Polish sample: MBTI Extraversion-Introversion with NEO Extraversion, MBTI Sensing-Intuition and MBTI Judging-Perceiving with NEO-Openness, and MBTI Judging-Perceiving with NEO Conscientiousness. Pending replication with a larger, more representative sample, this preliminary study supports the validity of psychological type in Polish society.
Ancients' Criterion of Earliest Visibility of the Lunar Crescent - how Good is it
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilyas, M.
Earliest visibility of the lunar crescent is an important calendrical element. It was needed in all early calendars and remains in use on some lunar calendars today. An astronomical criterion of earliest lunar visibility was therefore evolved quite early, using observations, right from the Babylonian era. Recently, an improved and comprehensive global criterion of earliest visibility, developed by the author, has been used to generate an extensive inverted moonset lag data set. These data, as a function of latitude and season, all for the first time provide a useful comparison with the simple ancient criterion.
Latent Class Analysis of Incomplete Data via an Entropy-Based Criterion.
Larose, Chantal; Harel, Ofer; Kordas, Katarzyna; Dey, Dipak K
2016-09-01
Latent class analysis is used to group categorical data into classes via a probability model. Model selection criteria then judge how well the model fits the data. When addressing incomplete data, the current methodology restricts the imputation to a single, pre-specified number of classes. We seek to develop an entropy-based model selection criterion that does not restrict the imputation to one number of clusters. Simulations show the new criterion performing well against the current standards of AIC and BIC, while a family studies application demonstrates how the criterion provides more detailed and useful results than AIC and BIC.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Wenlin; Li, Chong; Song, Heshan
2015-02-01
We propose a quantitative criterion to determine whether the coupled quantum systems can achieve complete synchronization or phase synchronization in the process of analyzing quantum synchronization. Adopting the criterion, we discuss the quantum synchronization effects between optomechanical systems and find that the error between the systems and the fluctuation of error is sensitive to coupling intensity by calculating the largest Lyapunov exponent of the model and quantum fluctuation, respectively. By taking the appropriate coupling intensity, we can control quantum synchronization even under different logical relationships between switches. Finally, we simulate the dynamical evolution of the system to verify the quantum synchronization criterion and to show the ability of synchronization control.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Chen; Chen, Yong
2015-05-01
In the work of Amann, Schmiedl and Seifert (2010 J. Chem. Phys. 132 041102), the authors derived a sufficient criterion to identify a non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) in a three-state Markov system based on the coarse-grained information of two-state trajectories. In this paper, we present a mathematical derivation and provide a probabilistic interpretation of the Amann-Schmiedl-Seifert (ASS) criterion. Moreover, the ASS criterion is compared with some other criterions for a NESS.
Yeh-Stratton Criterion for Stress Concentrations on Fiber-Reinforced Composite Materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yeh, Hsien-Yang; Richards, W. Lance
1996-01-01
This study investigated the Yeh-Stratton Failure Criterion with the stress concentrations on fiber-reinforced composites materials under tensile stresses. The Yeh-Stratton Failure Criterion was developed from the initial yielding of materials based on macromechanics. To investigate this criterion, the influence of the materials anisotropic properties and far field loading on the composite materials with central hole and normal crack were studied. Special emphasis was placed on defining the crack tip stress fields and their applications. The study of Yeh-Stratton criterion for damage zone stress fields on fiber-reinforced composites under tensile loading was compared with several fracture criteria; Tsai-Wu Theory, Hoffman Theory, Fischer Theory, and Cowin Theory. Theoretical predictions from these criteria are examined using experimental results.
A Consistent Information Criterion for Support Vector Machines in Diverging Model Spaces
Zhang, Xiang; Wu, Yichao; Wang, Lan; Li, Runze
2015-01-01
Information criteria have been popularly used in model selection and proved to possess nice theoretical properties. For classification, Claeskens et al. (2008) proposed support vector machine information criterion for feature selection and provided encouraging numerical evidence. Yet no theoretical justification was given there. This work aims to fill the gap and to provide some theoretical justifications for support vector machine information criterion in both fixed and diverging model spaces. We first derive a uniform convergence rate for the support vector machine solution and then show that a modification of the support vector machine information criterion achieves model selection consistency even when the number of features diverges at an exponential rate of the sample size. This consistency result can be further applied to selecting the optimal tuning parameter for various penalized support vector machine methods. Finite-sample performance of the proposed information criterion is investigated using Monte Carlo studies and one real-world gene selection problem. PMID:27239164
Focus detection criterion for refocusing in multi-wavelength digital holography.
Xu, Li; Mater, Mike; Ni, Jun
2011-08-01
The majority of focus detection criteria reported is based on amplitude contrast. Due to phase wrapping, phase contrast was previously reported unsuitable for focus finding tasks. By taking the advantage of multi-wavelength digital holography, we propose a new focus detection criterion based on phase contrast. Experimental results are presented to prove the feasibility of the developed criterion. Possible applications of the developed technology include inspecting machined surfaces in the auto industry.
The Beale-Kato-Majda Criterion for the 3D Magneto-Hydrodynamics Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Qionglei; Miao, Changxing; Zhang, Zhifei
2007-11-01
We study the blow-up criterion of smooth solutions to the 3D MHD equations. By means of the Littlewood-Paley decomposition, we prove a Beale-Kato-Majda type blow-up criterion of smooth solutions via the vorticity of velocity only, namely sup_{jinmathbb{Z}}int_0^T\\|Δ_j(nabla× u)\\|_infty dt, where Δ j is the frequency localization operator in the Littlewood-Paley decomposition.
A texture-analysis-based design method for self-adaptive focus criterion function.
Liang, Q; Qu, Y F
2012-05-01
Autofocusing (AF) criterion functions are critical to the performance of a passive autofocusing system in automatic video microscopy. Most of the autofocusing criterion functions proposed are dependent on the imaging system and image captured by the objective being focused or ranged. This dependence destabilizes the performance of the system when the criterion functions are applied to objectives with different characteristics. In this paper, a new design method for autofocusing criterion functions is introduced. This method enables the system to have the ability to tell the texture directional information of the objective. Based on this information, the optimal focus criterion function specific to one texture direction is designed, voiding blindly using autofocusing functions which cannot perform well when applied to the certain surface and can even lead to failure of the whole process. In this way, we improved the self-adaptability, robustness, reliability and focusing accuracy of the algorithm. First, the grey-level co-occurrence matrices of real-time images are calculated in four directions. Next, the contrast values of the four matrices are computed and then compared. The result reflects the directional information of the measured objective surfaces. Finally, with the directional information, an adaptive criterion function is constructed. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the new focus algorithm, we conducted experiments on different texture surfaces and compared the results with those obtained by existing algorithms. The proposed algorithm excellently performs with different measured objectives.
Failure Study of Composite Materials by the Yeh-Stratton Criterion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yeh, Hsien-Yang; Richards, W. Lance
1997-01-01
The newly developed Yeh-Stratton (Y-S) Strength Criterion was used to study the failure of composite materials with central holes and normal cracks. To evaluate the interaction parameters for the Y-S failure theory, it is necessary to perform several biaxial loading tests. However, it is indisputable that the inhomogeneous and anisotropic nature of composite materials have made their own contribution to the complication of the biaxial testing problem. To avoid the difficulties of performing many biaxial tests and still consider the effects of the interaction term in the Y-S Criterion, a simple modification of the Y-S Criterion was developed. The preliminary predictions by the modified Y-S Criterion were relatively conservative compared to the testing data. Thus, the modified Y-S Criterion could be used as a design tool. To further understand the composite failure problem, an investigation of the damage zone in front of the crack tip coupled with the Y-S Criterion is imperative.
A comparison of criterion standard methods to diagnose acute heart failure.
Collins, Sean P; Lindsell, Christopher J; Yealy, Donald M; Maron, David J; Naftilan, Allen J; McPherson, John A; Storrow, Alan B
2012-01-01
The authors sought to compare and contrast the clinical criterion standards currently used in a cohort of emergency department (ED) patients to diagnose acute heart failure syndromes (AHFS). In a prospective observational study of patients with signs and symptoms of AHFS, 3 criterion standards were examined: (1) the treating ED physician's diagnosis; (2) the hospital discharge diagnosis; and (3) a diagnosis based on medical record review by a panel of cardiologists. Using Cohen's kappa (κ) coefficient, the authors assessed agreement and then compared the different standards by repeatedly setting one as the criterion standard and the other two as index tests. A total of 483 patients were enrolled. Across all criterion standards, patients with AHFS were more likely to have a history of AHFS, congestion on physical examination and chest radiography, and elevated natriuretic peptide levels than those without AHFS. The standards agreed well (cardiology review vs hospital discharge diagnosis, κ=0.74; cardiology review vs ED diagnosis, κ=0.66; ED diagnosis vs hospital discharge diagnosis κ=0.59). Each method had similar sensitivity but differing specificities. Different criterion standards identify different patients from among those being evaluated for AHFS. Researchers should consider this when choosing between the various criterion standard approaches when evaluating new index tests.
A multiple maximum scatter difference discriminant criterion for facial feature extraction.
Song, Fengxi; Zhang, David; Mei, Dayong; Guo, Zhongwei
2007-12-01
Maximum scatter difference (MSD) discriminant criterion was a recently presented binary discriminant criterion for pattern classification that utilizes the generalized scatter difference rather than the generalized Rayleigh quotient as a class separability measure, thereby avoiding the singularity problem when addressing small-sample-size problems. MSD classifiers based on this criterion have been quite effective on face-recognition tasks, but as they are binary classifiers, they are not as efficient on large-scale classification tasks. To address the problem, this paper generalizes the classification-oriented binary criterion to its multiple counterpart--multiple MSD (MMSD) discriminant criterion for facial feature extraction. The MMSD feature-extraction method, which is based on this novel discriminant criterion, is a new subspace-based feature-extraction method. Unlike most other subspace-based feature-extraction methods, the MMSD computes its discriminant vectors from both the range of the between-class scatter matrix and the null space of the within-class scatter matrix. The MMSD is theoretically elegant and easy to calculate. Extensive experimental studies conducted on the benchmark database, FERET, show that the MMSD out-performs state-of-the-art facial feature-extraction methods such as null space method, direct linear discriminant analysis (LDA), eigenface, Fisherface, and complete LDA.
A Criterion for Brittle Failure of Rocks Using the Theory of Critical Distances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castro, Jorge; Cicero, Sergio; Sagaseta, César
2016-01-01
This paper presents a new analytical criterion for brittle failure of rocks and heavily over-consolidated soils. Griffith's model of a randomly oriented defect under a biaxial stress state is used to keep the criterion simple. The Griffith's criterion is improved because the maximum tensile strength is not evaluated at the boundary of the defect but at a certain distance from the boundary, known as half of the critical distance. This fracture criterion is known as the point method, and is part of the theory of critical distances, which is utilised in fracture mechanics. The proposed failure criterion has two parameters: the inherent tensile strength, σ 0, and the ratio of the half-length of the initial crack/flaw to the critical distance, a/ L. These parameters are difficult to measure but they may be correlated with the uniaxial compressive and tensile strengths, σ c and σ t. The proposed criterion is able to reproduce the common range of strength ratios for rocks and heavily overconsolidated soils ( σ c/ σ t = 3-50) and the influence of several microstructural rock properties, such as texture and porosity. Good agreement with laboratory tests reported in the literature is found for tensile and low-confining stresses.
Salloum, Alison; Scheeringa, Michael S.; Cohen, Judith A.; Storch, Eric A.
2014-01-01
Background In order to develop Stepped Care Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT), a definition of early response/non-response is needed to guide decisions about the need for subsequent treatment. Objective The purpose of this article is to (1) establish criterion for defining an early indicator of response/nonresponse to the first step within Stepped Care TF-CBT, and (2) to explore the preliminary clinical utility of the early response/non-response criterion. Method Data from two studies were used: (1) treatment outcome data from a clinical trial in which 17 young children (ages 3 to 6 years) received therapist-directed CBT for children with PTSS were examined to empirically establish the number of posttraumatic stress symptoms to define early treatment response/non-response; and (2) three case examples with young children in Stepped Care TF-CBT were used to explore the utility of the treatment response criterion. Results For defining the responder status criterion, an algorithm of either 3 or fewer PTSS on a clinician-rated measure or being below the clinical cutoff score on a parent-rated measure of childhood PTSS, and being rated as improved, much improved or free of symptoms functioned well for determining whether or not to step up to more intensive treatment. Case examples demonstrated how the criterion were used to guide subsequent treatment, and that responder status criterion after Step One may or may not be aligned with parent preference. Conclusion Although further investigation is needed, the responder status criterion for young children used after Step One of Stepped Care TF-CBT appears promising. PMID:25663796
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Liwen; Lin, Tong; Jiang, Yingqiao; Bi, Fujun
2013-11-01
This work used a new criterion to analyze 162 varieties (222 batches) of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs based on the European Standard EN 13751 (2009. Foodstuffs—Detection of Irradiated Food Using Photostimulated Luminescence. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium). The characteristics of PSL signals are described, and a new criterion is established. Compared to EN 13751, the new criterion uses clearer definition to evaluate instead of the ambiguous descriptions in EN Standard, such as "much greater than" and "within the same order of magnitude". Moreover, the accuracy of the new criterion is as good as or better than EN Standard in regard to classifying irradiated and non-irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. It can help to avoid false positive result when a non-irradiated herb got a screening PSL measurement above 5000 counts/60 s. This new criterion of photostimulated luminescence method can be applied to identify the irradiation status of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, even if the medicinal herbs were irradiated at a low dose (0.3 kGy) or stored in the dark at room temperature for 24 months after the irradiation treatment.
Mazel, Vincent; Diarra, Harona; Busignies, Virginie; Tchoreloff, Pierre
2014-08-15
Several tests can be used to study the strength of pharmaceutical tablets. Equations exist in the literature to transform the failure force measured into a failure stress which can be considered as a characteristic of the strength of the material. For each failure test, the stress state at failure is different, and as a consequence, the failure stresses obtained are also different. It would thus be interesting to find a failure criterion to unify the different results. In this study four different tests were performed on pharmaceutical compacts of various densities: diametral compression, three-point flexure, biaxial flexure and uniaxial compressive tests. The Drucker-Prager criterion was tested as a possible fracture envelope. The results showed that this criterion is well suited to explain the failures obtained by diametral compression, three-point flexure and biaxial flexure. Nevertheless, for the uniaxial compressive test, the use of this criterion led to a significative underestimation of the experimental value of the failure stress. As a consequence, the Drucker-Prager criterion must be used with caution and is not able to explain all the failures that can occur in a pharmaceutical compact.
New Criterion for Evaluating the Peak Shear Strength of Rock Joints Under Different Contact States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Zhi Cheng; Wong, Louis Ngai Yuen
2016-04-01
In practice, the peak shear strength of rock joints is not dictated only by the surface roughness, but also the degree of matching between the joint surfaces. The latter is due to alteration/dislocation caused by external factors, such as the vibration due to nearby blasting, excavation or earthquake. In the present study, the peak shear strengths of rock joints under different contact states are investigated by direct shear test using artificial rock joints. The rock joints under different contact states are modeled by imposing varying magnitude of horizontal dislocation along the shear direction between the upper and lower rock blocks. The peak shear strength was found to decrease with increasing dislocation. A new empirical shear strength criterion is put forward to capture the peak shear strength of un-matching rock joints as an extension of a previously published peak shear strength criterion for matching rock joints by the first author and his co-workers. In the present proposed criterion, a new joint contact state coefficient, which is a function of the normalized dislocation and the quantified three-dimensional roughness metric of joint surface, is proposed. The good agreement between calculated values and test results indicates that the proposed criterion is capable of estimating the peak shear strength of rock joints under different contact states. The proposed criterion is expressed in a quantitative way and the required parameters can be easily determined in the laboratory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Chuan; Liang, Ming; Wang, Tianyang
2015-12-01
The defective bearing signatures can be detected by resonance demodulation of the vibration signals. The decision of the bearing fault detection largely depends on the quality of the identified resonant frequency band. Two key issues in locating the resonance frequency band are the proper segmentation of the frequency spectrum of interest and the criterion used to guide the search for the resonance band. To deal with the two issues, this paper proposes a criterion fusion approach to guide the spectral segmentation process. With the proposed approach, the frequency spectrum of the bearing signal is first divided into initial fine segments which are then adaptively merged into different subsets using an enhanced bottom-up segmentation technique. To guide the spectral segmentation and merging process, three commonly used criteria, i.e., kurtosis, smoothness index and crest factor are fused into a synthesized cost function using an entropy-based method. The final frequency band delivered by this approach has a good coverage of the resonant band and is then used to demodulate bearing signals. Both simulated and experimental signals have been employed to evaluate the proposed approach, which has also been compared to single-criterion methods. The comparison indicates that the fused criterion yields better results than those from the single-criterion.
A Review of the CTOA/CTOD Fracture Criterion: Why it Works
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.; James, M. A.
2001-01-01
The CTOA/CTOD fracture criterion is one of the oldest fracture criteria applied to fracture of metallic materials with cracks. During the past two decades, the use of elastic-plastic finite-element analyses to simulate fracture of laboratory specimens and structural components using the CTOA criterion has expanded rapidly. But the early applications were restricted to two-dimensional analyses, assuming either plane-stress or plane-strain behavior, which lead to generally non-constant values of CTOA, especially in the early stages crack extension. Later, the non-constant CTOA values were traced to inappropriate state-of-stress (or constraint) assumptions in the crack-front region and severe crack tunneling in thin-sheet materials. More recently, the CTOA fracture criterion has been used with three-dimensional analyses to study constraint effects, crack tunneling, and the fracture process. The constant CTOA criterion (from crack initiation to failure) has been successfully applied to numerous structural applications, such as aircraft fuselages and pipelines. But why does the "constant CTOA" fracture criterion work so well? This paper reviews the results from several studies, discusses the issues of why CTOA works, and discusses its limitations.
PTSD's risky behavior criterion: Relation with DSM-5 PTSD symptom clusters and psychopathology.
Contractor, Ateka A; Weiss, Nicole H; Dranger, Paula; Ruggero, Camilo; Armour, Cherie
2017-03-06
A new symptom criterion of reckless and self-destructive behaviors (E2) was recently added to posttraumatic stress disorder's (PTSD) diagnostic criteria in DSM-5, which is unsurprising given the well-established relation between PTSD and risky behaviors. Researchers have questioned the significance and incremental validity of this symptom criterion within PTSD's symptomatology. Unprecedented to our knowledge, we aim to compare trauma-exposed groups differing on their endorsement status of the risky behavior symptom on several psychopathology constructs (PTSD, depression, distress tolerance, rumination, anger). The sample included 123 trauma-exposed participants seeking mental health treatment (M age=35.70; 68.30% female) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing PTSD symptoms, depression, rumination, distress tolerance, and anger. Results of independent samples t-tests indicated that participants who endorsed the E2 criterion at a clinically significant level reported significantly greater PTSD subscale severity; depression severity; rumination facets of repetitive thoughts, counterfactual thinking, and problem-focused thinking; and anger reactions; and significantly less absorption and regulation (distress tolerance facets) compared to participants who did not endorse the E2 criterion at a clinically significant level. Results indicate the utility of the E2 criterion in identifying trauma-exposed individual with greater posttraumatic distress, and emphasize the importance of targeting such behaviors in treatment.
Contribution of criterion A2 to PTSD screening in the presence of traumatic events.
Pereda, Noemí; Forero, Carlos G
2012-10-01
Criterion A2 according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4(th) ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1994) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) aims to assess the individual's subjective appraisal of an event, but it has been claimed that it might not be sufficiently specific for diagnostic purposes. We analyse the contribution of Criterion A2 and DSM-IV criteria to detect PTSD for the most distressing life events experienced by our subjects. Young adults (N = 1,033) reported their most distressing life events, together with PTSD criteria (Criteria A2, B, C, D, E, and F). PTSD prevalence and criterion specificity and agreement with probable diagnoses were estimated. Our results indicate 80.30% of the individuals experienced traumatic events and met one or more PTSD criteria; 13.22% cases received a positive diagnosis of PTSD. Criterion A2 showed poor agreement with the final probable PTSD diagnosis (correlation with PTSD .13, specificity = .10); excluding it from PTSD diagnosis did not the change the estimated disorder prevalence significantly. Based on these findings it appears that Criterion A2 is scarcely specific and provides little information to confirm a probable PTSD case.
Tascon, Marcos; Benavente, Fernando; Castells, Cecilia B; Gagliardi, Leonardo G
2016-08-19
In capillary electrophoresis (CE), resolution (Rs) and selectivity (α) are criteria often used in practice to optimize separations. Nevertheless, when these and other proposed parameters are considered as an elementary criterion for optimization by mathematical maximization, certain issues and inconsistencies appear. In the present work we analyzed the pros and cons of using these parameters as elementary criteria for mathematical optimization of capillary electrophoretic separations. We characterized the requirements of an ideal criterion to qualify separations within the framework of mathematical optimizations and, accordingly, propose: -1- a new elementary criterion (t') and -2- a method to extend this elementary criterion to compose a global function that simultaneously qualifies many different aspects, also called multicriteria optimization function (MCOF). In order to demonstrate this new concept, we employed a group of six alkaloids with closely related structures (harmine, harmaline, harmol, harmalol, harmane and norharmane). On the basis of this system, we present a critical comparison between the new optimization criterion t' and the former elementary criteria. Finally, aimed at validating the proposed methods, we composed an MCOF in which the capillary-electrophoretic separation of the six model compounds is mathematically optimized as a function of pH as the unique variable. Experimental results subsequently confirmed the accuracy of the model.
Formability Prediction of Advanced High Strength Steel with a New Ductile Fracture Criterion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lou, Yanshan; Lim, Sungjun; Huh, Jeehyang; Huh, Hoon
2011-08-01
A ductile fracture criterion is newly proposed to accurately predict forming limit diagrams (FLD) of sheet metals. The new ductile fracture criterion is based on the effect of the non-dimensional stress triaxiality, the stress concentration factor and the effective plastic strain on the nucleation, growth and coalescence of voids. The new ductile fracture criterion has been applied to estimate the formability of four kind advanced high strength steels (AHSS): DP780, DP980, TRIP590, and TWIP980. FLDs predicted are compared with experimental results and those predicted by other ductile fracture criteria. The comparison demonstrates that FLDs predicted by the new ductile fracture criterion are in better agreement with experimental FLDs than those predicted by other ductile fracture criteria. The better agreement of FLDs predicted by the new ductile fracture criterion is because conventional ductile fracture criteria were proposed for fracture prediction in bulk metal forming while the new one is proposed to predict the onset of fracture in sheet metal forming processes.
Prediction of Shrinkage Pore Volume Fraction Using a Dimensionless Niyama Criterion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carlson, Kent D.; Beckermann, Christoph
2009-01-01
A method is presented to use a dimensionless form of the well-known Niyama criterion to directly predict the amount of shrinkage porosity that forms during solidification of metal alloy castings. The main advancement offered by this method is that it avoids the need to know the threshold Niyama value below which shrinkage porosity forms; such threshold values are generally unknown and alloy dependent. The dimensionless criterion accounts for both the local thermal conditions (as in the original Niyama criterion) and the properties and solidification characteristics of the alloy. Once a dimensionless Niyama criterion value is obtained from casting simulation results, the corresponding shrinkage pore volume fraction can be determined knowing only the solid fraction-temperature curve and the total solidification shrinkage of the alloy. Curves providing the shrinkage pore volume percentage as a function of the dimensionless Niyama criterion are given for WCB steel, aluminum alloy A356, and magnesium alloy AZ91D. The present method is used in a general-purpose casting simulation software package to predict shrinkage porosity in three-dimensional (3-D) castings. Comparisons between simulated and experimental shrinkage porosity results for a WCB steel plate casting demonstrate that this method can reasonably predict shrinkage. Additional simulations for magnesium alloy AZ91D illustrate that this method is applicable to a wide variety of alloys and casting conditions.
A new criterion for failure of materials by environment-induced cracking
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, D. P.
1973-01-01
A new criterion has been developed for predicting failure of materials by environment-induced cracking. The criterion has been developed by the use of fracture mechanics concepts and assumes that the relationship between crack-growth rate and stress intensity can be described by three separable regions of behavior as first suggested by Wiederhorn. The analytical form of the criterion relates failure time to the initial crack length and the critical crack length or alternatively, to the initial stress intensity and the fracture toughness for various conditions of stress and the environmental variables. The analytical expression is examined by the use of some experimental data on the hydrogen-induced cracking of Ti-5Al-2.5 Sn, and it is demonstrated that the expression predicts the general expected form of the relationship between the normalized stress intensity parameter and the failure time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pommatau, Gilles
2014-06-01
The present paper deals with the industrial application, via a software developed by Thales Alenia Space, of a new failure criterion named "Tsai-Hill equivalent criterion" for composite structural parts of satellites. The first part of the paper briefly describes the main hypothesis and the possibilities in terms of failure analysis of the software. The second parts reminds the quadratic and conservative nature of the new failure criterion, already presented in ESA conference in a previous paper. The third part presents the statistical calculation possibilities of the software, and the associated sensitivity analysis, via results obtained on different composites. Then a methodology, proposed to customers and agencies, is presented with its limitations and advantages. It is then conclude that this methodology is an efficient industrial way to perform mechanical analysis on quasi-isotropic composite parts.
A semi-empirical stability criterion for real planetary systems with eccentric orbits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giuppone, C. A.; Morais, M. H. M.; Correia, A. C. M.
2013-12-01
We test a crossing orbit stability criterion for eccentric planetary systems, based on Wisdom's criterion of first-order mean motion resonance overlap. We show that this criterion fits the stability regions in real exoplanet systems quite well. In addition, we show that elliptical orbits can remain stable even for regions where the apocentre distance of the inner orbit is larger than the pericentre distance of the outer orbit, as long as the initial orbits are aligned. The analytical expressions provided here can be used to put rapid constraints on the stability zones of multiplanetary systems. As a byproduct of this research, we further show that the amplitude variations of the eccentricity can be used as a fast-computing stability indicator.
The criterion-calibration model of cue interaction in contingency judgments.
Hannah, Samuel D; Allan, Lorraine G
2011-05-01
Siegel, Allan, Hannah, and Crump (2009) demonstrated that cue interaction effects in human contingency judgments reflect processing that occurs after the acquisition of information. This finding is in conflict with a broad class of theories. We present a new postacquisition model, the criterion-calibration model, that describes cue interaction effects as involving shifts in a report criterion. The model accounts for the Siegel et al. data and outperforms the only other postacquisition model of cue interaction, Stout and Miller's (2007) SOCR model. We present new data from an experiment designed to evaluate a prediction of the two models regarding reciprocal cue interaction effects. The new data provide further support for the criterion-calibration model.
Application of melt ejection criterion in simulation of micromachining with laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semak, Vladimir V.; Schriempf, J. T.; Knorovsky, G. A.; MacCallum, D. O.
2003-07-01
The theoretical criterion defining the threshold pulse energy and beam intensity required for melt ejection is proposed. The results of numerical simulation present dependencies of the threshold pulse energy and beam intensity as functions of laser pulse duration and beam radius. The experimental verification of proposed criterion is described and the comparison of theoretical predictions and measurements is presented. The criterion is applied for simulation of laser drilling metal foil with thickness in the range 25 μm - 125 μm using laser beam with 12 μm beam radius and pulse durations 10 ns and 100 ns. The computational results are used to interpret the results of experimental study of laser drilling of 125 μm aluminum foil using a single mode beam of a XeCl laser performed at the Nederlands Centrum voor Laser Research (NCLR) and the University of Twente. Additional results on Nd:YAG spot welds in pure Ni are also presented.
A new multiobjective performance criterion used in PID tuning optimization algorithms
Sahib, Mouayad A.; Ahmed, Bestoun S.
2015-01-01
In PID controller design, an optimization algorithm is commonly employed to search for the optimal controller parameters. The optimization algorithm is based on a specific performance criterion which is defined by an objective or cost function. To this end, different objective functions have been proposed in the literature to optimize the response of the controlled system. These functions include numerous weighted time and frequency domain variables. However, for an optimum desired response it is difficult to select the appropriate objective function or identify the best weight values required to optimize the PID controller design. This paper presents a new time domain performance criterion based on the multiobjective Pareto front solutions. The proposed objective function is tested in the PID controller design for an automatic voltage regulator system (AVR) application using particle swarm optimization algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed performance criterion can highly improve the PID tuning optimization in comparison with traditional objective functions. PMID:26843978
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Segenreich, S. A.; Mcintosh, S. C., Jr.
1975-01-01
A rigorous optimality criterion is derived and a hybrid weight-reduction algorithm developed for the weight minimization of lifting surfaces with a constraint on flutter speed. The weight-reduction algorithm incorporates a simple recursion formula derived from the optimality criterion. Monotonic weight reduction is accomplished by dynamically adjusting a parameter in the recursion formula so as to achieve a predetermined weight decrease. The algorithm thus combines the simplicity of optimality-criterion methods with the convergence characteristics of mathematical-programming methods. The imposition of the flutter constraint is simplified by forcing to zero the imaginary part of the flutter eigenvalue, with the airspeed fixed. Four examples are discussed. The results suggest that significant improvements in efficiency are possible, in comparison with techniques based purely on mathematical programming.
An error criterion for the pointing of axially symmetric spacecraft payloads
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coffey, T. C.
1983-12-01
In connection with approaches to minimize the pointing error of the actual orientation of a spacecraft antenna or sensor with respect to the direction of interest, most investigators choose to structure their analysis around one of three conventional measures of the pointing error covariance matrix. The considered investigation is concerned with the development of an error criterion which is 'tailor-made' to the pointing application. The error criterion developed takes special account of the fact that most spacecraft components which require pointing are symmetrical about the boresight axis. This new criterion J(Phi) does not penalize rotation errors about the boresight axis. Moreover, J(Phi) is a measure of the statistical expectation of the mean-square boresight deflection error for that pointing direction which maximizes this error, given a statistically specified set of spacecraft attitude errors. The cost function J(Phi) is compared and related to three more commonly used
Failure Criterion For Isotropic Time Dependent Materials Which Accounts for Multi-Axial Loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richardson, D. E.; Anderson, G. L.; Macon, D. J.
2003-01-01
The Space Shuttle's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) nozzle program has recently conducted testing to characterize the effects of multi-axial loading, temperature and time on the failure characteristics of TIGA321, EA913NA, EA946 (three filled epoxy adhesives). From the test data a "Multi-Axial, Temperature, and Time Dependent" or MATT failure criterion was developed. It is shown that this criterion simplifies, for constant load and constant load rate conditions, into a form that can be easily used for stress analysis. Failure for TIGA321 and EA913NA are characterized below their glass transition temperature. Failure for EA946 is characterized for conditions that pass through its glass transition. The MATT failure criterion is shown to be accurate for a wide range of conditions for these adhesives.
A new multiobjective performance criterion used in PID tuning optimization algorithms.
Sahib, Mouayad A; Ahmed, Bestoun S
2016-01-01
In PID controller design, an optimization algorithm is commonly employed to search for the optimal controller parameters. The optimization algorithm is based on a specific performance criterion which is defined by an objective or cost function. To this end, different objective functions have been proposed in the literature to optimize the response of the controlled system. These functions include numerous weighted time and frequency domain variables. However, for an optimum desired response it is difficult to select the appropriate objective function or identify the best weight values required to optimize the PID controller design. This paper presents a new time domain performance criterion based on the multiobjective Pareto front solutions. The proposed objective function is tested in the PID controller design for an automatic voltage regulator system (AVR) application using particle swarm optimization algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed performance criterion can highly improve the PID tuning optimization in comparison with traditional objective functions.
Mean-square convergence analysis of ADALINE training with minimum error entropy criterion.
Chen, Badong; Zhu, Yu; Hu, Jinchun
2010-07-01
Recently, the minimum error entropy (MEE) criterion has been used as an information theoretic alternative to traditional mean-square error criterion in supervised learning systems. MEE yields nonquadratic, nonconvex performance surface even for adaptive linear neuron (ADALINE) training, which complicates the theoretical analysis of the method. In this paper, we develop a unified approach for mean-square convergence analysis for ADALINE training under MEE criterion. The weight update equation is formulated in the form of block-data. Based on a block version of energy conservation relation, and under several assumptions, we carry out the mean-square convergence analysis of this class of adaptation algorithm, including mean-square stability, mean-square evolution (transient behavior) and the mean-square steady-state performance. Simulation experimental results agree with the theoretical predictions very well.
Probability cueing influences miss rate and decision criterion in visual searches
Ishibashi, Kazuya; Kita, Shinichi
2014-01-01
In visual search tasks, the ratio of target-present to target-absent trials has an important effect on miss rates. The low prevalence effect indicates that we are more likely to miss a target when it occurs rarely rather than frequently. In this study, we examined whether probability cueing modulates the miss rate and the observer's criterion. The results indicated that probability cueing affects miss rates, the average observer's criterion, and reaction time for target-absent trials. These results clearly demonstrate that probability cueing modulates two parameters (i.e., the decision criterion and the quitting threshold) and produces a low prevalence effect. Taken together, the current study and previous studies suggest that the miss rate is not just affected by global prevalence; it is also affected by probability cueing. PMID:25469223
Fenech, C M; Keaveny, T M
1999-08-01
In a long-term effort to develop a complete multi-axial failure criterion for human trabecular bone, the overall goal of this study was to compare the ability of a simple cellular solid mechanistic criterion versus the Tsai-Wu, Principal Strain, and von Mises phenomenological criteria--all normalized to minimize effects of interspecimen heterogeneity of strength--to predict the on-axis axial-shear failure properties of bovine trabecular bone. The Cellular Solid criterion that was developed here assumed that vertical trabeculae failed due to a linear superposition of axial compression/tension and bending stresses, induced by the apparent level axial and shear loading, respectively. Twenty-seven bovine tibial trabecular bone specimens were destructively tested on-axis without end artifacts, loaded either in combined tension-torsion (n = 10), compression-torsion (n = 11), or uniaxially (n = 6). For compression-shear, the mean (+/- S.D.) percentage errors between measured values and criterion predictions were 7.7 +/- 12.6 percent, 19.7 +/- 23.2 percent, 22.8 +/- 18.9 percent, and 82.4 +/- 64.5 percent for the Cellular Solid, Tsai-Wu, Principal Strain, and von Mises criteria, respectively; corresponding mean errors for tension-shear were -5.2 +/- 11.8 percent, 14.3 +/- 12.5 percent, 6.9 +/- 7.6 percent, and 57.7 +/- 46.3 percent. Statistical analysis indicated that the Cellular Solid criterion was the best performer for compression-shear, and performed as well as the Principal Strain criterion for tension-shear. These data should substantially improve the ability to predict axial-shear failure of dense trabecular bone. More importantly, the results firmly establish the importance of cellular solid analysis for understanding and predicting the multiaxial failure behavior of trabecular bone.
Childhood trauma and personality disorder criterion counts: a co-twin control analysis.
Berenz, Erin C; Amstadter, Ananda B; Aggen, Steven H; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Gardner, Charles O; Kendler, Kenneth S
2013-11-01
Correlational studies consistently report relationships between childhood trauma (CT) and most personality disorder (PD) criteria and diagnoses. However, it is not clear whether CT is directly related to PDs or whether common familial factors (i.e., shared environment and/or genetic factors) better account for that relationship. The current study used a cotwin control design to examine support for a direct effect of CT on PD criterion counts. Participants were from the Norwegian Twin Registry (N = 2,780), including a subset (n = 898) of twin pairs (449 pairs, 45% monozygotic [MZ]) discordant for CT meeting DSM-IV Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Criterion A. All participants completed the Norwegian version of the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality. Significant associations between CT and all PD criterion counts were detected in the general sample; however, the magnitude of observed effects was small, with CT accounting for no more than approximately 1% of variance in PD criterion counts. A significant, yet modest, interactive effect was detected for sex and CT on Schizoid and Schizotypal PD criterion counts, with CT being related to these disorders among women but not men. After common familial factors were accounted for in the discordant twin sample, CT was significantly related to Borderline and Antisocial PD criterion counts, but no other disorders; however, the magnitude of observed effects was quite modest (r2 = .006 for both outcomes), indicating that the small effect observed in the full sample is likely better accounted for by common genetic and/or environmental factors. CT does not appear to be a key factor in PD etiology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, L.; Sun, X. Y.; Liu, Y. W.
2016-12-01
In order to shed light on understanding the subgrid-scale (SGS) modelling methodology, we analyze and define the concepts of assumption and restriction in the modelling procedure, then show by a generalized derivation that if there are multiple stationary restrictions in a modelling, the corresponding assumption function must satisfy a criterion of orthogonality. Numerical tests using one-dimensional nonlinear advection equation are performed to validate this criterion. This study is expected to inspire future research on generally guiding the SGS modelling methodology.
Geometry of the transition criterion of shock wave reflection over a wedge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, T.; Jiao, X.; Yu, D.
2015-01-01
The hysteresis phenomena of shock wave reflection observed during recent numerical and experimental investigations are analyzed in this paper using dynamical system theory. It is found through the analysis that the geometry of the transition criterion of shock wave reflection over a wedge has the shape of a butterfly. Knowledge of the geometry can provide important information on the hysteresis behavior of shock wave reflection. The geometry of the transition criterion can be used not only for the explanation of already known hysteresis behavior of shock wave reflection, but also for the prediction of novel hysteresis phenomena.
Network-based criterion for the success of cooperation in an evolutionary prisoner's dilemma.
Devlin, Stephen; Treloar, Thomas
2012-08-01
We consider an evolutionary prisoner's dilemma on a random network. We introduce a simple quantitative network-based parameter and show that it effectively predicts the success of cooperation in simulations on the network. The criterion is shown to be accurate on a variety of networks with degree distributions ranging from regular to Poisson to scale free. The parameter allows for comparisons of random networks regardless of their underlying topology. Finally, we draw analogies between the criterion for the success of cooperation introduced here and existing criteria in other contexts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Anhui; Li, Yangrong
The paper is devoted to establishing a combination of sufficient criterion for the existence and upper semi-continuity of random attractors for stochastic lattice dynamical systems. By relying on a family of random systems itself, we first set up the abstract result when it is convergent, uniformly absorbing and uniformly random when asymptotically null in the phase space. Then we apply the results to the second-order lattice dynamical system driven by multiplicative white noise. It is indicated that the criterion depending on the dynamical system itself seems more applicable than the existing ones to lattice differential models.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tennyson, R. C.; Nanyaro, A. P.; Wharram, G. E.
1980-01-01
A comparative failure analysis is presented based on the application of quadratic and cubic forms of the tensor polynomial lamina strength criterion to various composite structural configurations in a plane stress state. Failure loads have been predicted for off-angle laminates under simple loading conditions and for symmetric-balanced laminates subject to varying degrees of biaxial tension, including configurations subject to multimode failures. Some experimental data are also provided to support these calculations. From these results, the necessity of employing a cubic strength criterion to accurately predict the failure of composite laminae is demonstrated.
Analyses of S-Box in Image Encryption Applications Based on Fuzzy Decision Making Criterion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rehman, Inayatur; Shah, Tariq; Hussain, Iqtadar
2014-06-01
In this manuscript, we put forward a standard based on fuzzy decision making criterion to examine the current substitution boxes and study their strengths and weaknesses in order to decide their appropriateness in image encryption applications. The proposed standard utilizes the results of correlation analysis, entropy analysis, contrast analysis, homogeneity analysis, energy analysis, and mean of absolute deviation analysis. These analyses are applied to well-known substitution boxes. The outcome of these analyses are additional observed and a fuzzy soft set decision making criterion is used to decide the suitability of an S-box to image encryption applications.
1978-01-01
mve405b 8.329 1.991 10 0.7208 70 mve405c 9.087 1.222 10 0.4934 69 22 In classical test theory,0( 21 ( Kuder - Richardson )) is always smaller than or...Therefore, it is important and necessary to explore reliable methods that will help to improve the quality of CAI lessons. 2 CRITERION-REFERENCED TEST ...referenced testing has gained much attention from educational measurement and testing specialists in recent years. The object of criterion-referenced
Distribution of sea wave heights: Effects of a new criterion of defining discrete waves
Pires-Silva, A.A.; Medina, J.R.
1996-12-31
Wind-generated surface gravity wave heights and periods are non-observable variables. Notwithstanding, their role in sea environment characterization and consequently in ocean and coastal engineering design criteria is crucial. A new criterion of defining discrete waves from sea surface elevation time series, called orbital criterion, is applied to wave rider buoys records measured off the west coast of Portugal. The method uses the Hilbert Transform and the representation of the time series in the complex plane. Statistics and distributions of wave heights estimated with z-u-c and orbital criteria are employed in assessing the influence of the discretization criteria on the statistical characterization of random waves.
Brain death is not death: a critique of the concept, criterion, and tests of brain death.
Joffe, Ari R
2009-01-01
This paper suggests that there are insurmountable problems for brain death as a criterion of death. The following are argued: (1) brain death does not meet an accepted concept of death, and is not the loss of integration of the organism as a whole; (2) brain death does not meet the criterion of brain death itself; brain death is not the irreversible loss of all critical functions of the entire brain; and (3) brain death may, however rarely, be reversible. I conclude that brain death, while a devastating neurological state with a dismal prognosis, is not death.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Cong; Shang, De-Guang; Wang, Xiao-Wei
2015-02-01
An improved high-cycle multiaxial fatigue criterion based on the critical plane was proposed in this paper. The critical plane was defined as the plane of maximum shear stress (MSS) in the proposed multiaxial fatigue criterion, which is different from the traditional critical plane based on the MSS amplitude. The proposed criterion was extended as a fatigue life prediction model that can be applicable for ductile and brittle materials. The fatigue life prediction model based on the proposed high-cycle multiaxial fatigue criterion was validated with experimental results obtained from the test of 7075-T651 aluminum alloy and some references.
Food and Nutrition (Intermediate). Performance Objectives and Criterion-Referenced Test Items.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.
This document contains competencies and criterion-referenced test items for the Intermediate Food and Nutrition semester course in Missouri that were derived from the duties and tasks of the Missouri homemaker and identified and validated by home economics teachers and subject matter specialists. The guide is designed to assist home economics…
Family and Individual Health. Performance Objectives and Criterion-Referenced Test Items.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.
This document contains competencies and criterion-referenced test items for the Family/Individual Health semester course in Missouri that were derived from the duties and tasks of the Missouri homemaker and identified and validated by home economics teachers and subject-matter specialists. The guide is designed to assist home economics teachers in…
Continuing My Journey on Designing and Refining Criterion-Referenced Assessment Rubrics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burton, Kelley
2015-01-01
The article "Designing criterion-referenced assessment" (Burton, 2006) appeared in the "Journal of Learning Design," Volume 1, Issue 2 in 2006. Nine years later, Associate Professor Burton reflects upon her original article. when the article was written, the author worked at the Queensland University of Technology (QUT). At…
Learning Patterns as Criterion for Forming Work Groups in 3D Simulation Learning Environments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maria Cela-Ranilla, Jose; Molías, Luis Marqués; Cervera, Mercè Gisbert
2016-01-01
This study analyzes the relationship between the use of learning patterns as a grouping criterion to develop learning activities in the 3D simulation environment at University. Participants included 72 Spanish students from the Education and Marketing disciplines. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests were conducted. The process was…
Comparing Four Estimates of the Criterion-Referenced Standard for a Written Test.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hughes, Francis P.
Four procedures were used to estimate a criterion-referenced standard for a multiple-choice examination developed by the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). Two experimental procedures, the NBME method and a modification of the Guerin method, and the Angoff and Ebel procedures were evaluated on the consistency of the estimates they…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Francis, Alexandria S.; Holmes, Susan E.
Discrepancies among the standards produced by different criterion-referenced standard-setting techniques may be the result of a failure to adequately define the minimally competent candidate. Current research in this area is reviewed in terms of three categories: studies in which no formal assistance in conceptualization is given to judges,…
The Law Encounter Severity Scale (LESS): A Criterion for Criminal Behavior and Recidivism.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Witherspoon, A. D.; And Others
Followup studies of released offenders in the community have frequently provided poor indices of recidivism because of their failure to discriminate between different kinds of violations and adjustment to the community. To develop a new criterion for measuring recidivism, information on the postrelease behavior of 142 adult male felons was…
The 3rd National Assessment of Reading and Literature Versus Norm- and Criterion-Referenced Testing.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Petrosky, Anthony R.
In discussing the third national assessment of reading and literature, four major points can be made. First, norm-referenced tests and criterion-referenced tests ignore serious ethical and measurement problems, namely, we don't know enough about individual differences to do such testing and the outcome, social class tracking, is ethically…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leslie-Pelecky, D.; Hehn, J. G.
2005-12-01
Community attitudes and outcomes regarding NSF'{s} broader impacts criterion could be improved significantly by emphasizing the motivation for implementing this requirement and the potential benefits to the research community, and achieving more consistent application of the criterion by improving proposer, reviewer and program officer understanding of the criterion. An organized and easily accessible '{}Toolbox'{} for broader impacts activities would help researchers develop and evaluate effective activities by building on the existing knowledge base. Institution-centered (disciplinary societies, colleges and universities, research centers, etc.) infrastructure can be an outstanding resource for assisting researchers in fulfilling the broader impacts criterion. These organizations leverage existing programs and experience, and have an important role as bridges between researchers and the results of discipline-based education research. The professionals directing these organizations are valuable resources and should be encouraged to build networks to share information and ideas. These statements represent outcomes of a workshop held in May 2005 supported by the Office of Multidisciplinary Activities of NSF/MPS. Action items developed from this workshop will be presented to stimulate questions and discussion.
10 CFR 840.5 - Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite. 840.5 Section 840.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.5... nuclear, or byproduct material; or (2) DOE finds that $2,500,000 or more of damage offsite has been...
A More Practical Pedagogical Ideal: Searching for a Criterion of Deweyan Growth
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ralston, Shane Jesse
2011-01-01
When Dewey scholars and educational theorists appeal to the value of educative growth, what exactly do they mean? Is an individual's growth contingent on receiving a formal education? Is growth too abstract a goal for educators to pursue? Richard Rorty contended that the request for a "criterion of growth" is a mistake made by John Dewey's…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kelly, William E.; Lutz, Daniel
2014-01-01
The concurrent criterion validity of the Ausburg Multidimensional Personality Instrument (AMPI) clinical scales was examined. The AMPI and several scales purportedly measuring the same or similar constructs as those of the AMPI clinical scales were administered to two samples of college students (N = 134 and N = 118). The correlations between the…
A Cross-Validation of MMPI Scales of Aggression on Male Criminal Criterion Groups
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Deiker, Thomas E.
1974-01-01
The 13 basic Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) scales, 21 experimental scales of hostility and control, and four response-bias scales are cross-validated on 168 male criminals assigned to four aggressive criterion groups (nonviolent, threat, battery, and homicide). (Author)
A Study of the Criterion Validity of the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fernandez, Alberto Luis; Scheffel, Debora L.
2003-01-01
Evaluated the criterion validity of the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (S. Mattis, 1988) with a concurrent study to obtain a cut-off score for an Argentinean population by administering a battery of tests to 60 memory disorder patients. Findings demonstrate high convergent validity with another measure and show an appropriate cut score for use with…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hopkins, Mary A.; Brock, Robert J.
Described in the discussion draft is a performance based criterion referenced curriculum for teaching vocational skills to trainable mentally retarded (TMR) students which was developed jointly by the University of Wisconsin at Stout and the Menomonie Public School Administration. Explained in the introduction are three evaluation inventories in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Salloum, Alison; Scheeringa, Michael S.; Cohen, Judith A.; Storch, Eric A.
2015-01-01
Background: In order to develop Stepped Care trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), a definition of early response/non-response is needed to guide decisions about the need for subsequent treatment. Objective: The purpose of this article is to (1) establish criterion for defining an early indicator of response/non-response to the…
1980-06-01
science research institute RESEARCH REPORT EVALUATING CREDIT APPLICATIONS: A Z’ VALIDATION OF MULTIATTRIBUTE UTILITY TECHNIQUES AGAINST A REAL WORLD...8217_, ", ’- .’.- .. .- ... . .. ,-*,. . .. EVALUATING CREDIT APPLICATIONS: A VALIDATION OF MULTIATTRIBUTE UTILITY TECHNIQUES AGAINST A REAL WORLD CRITERION...validation of multiattribute utility elicitation techniques. The techniques tested were the Holistic Orthogonal Parameter Estimation (HOPE) technique
Soliton stability criterion for generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quintero, Niurka R.; Mertens, Franz G.; Bishop, A. R.
2015-01-01
A stability criterion for solitons of the driven nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) has been conjectured. The criterion states that p'(v ) <0 is a sufficient condition for instability, while p'(v ) >0 is a necessary condition for stability; here, v is the soliton velocity and p =P /N , where P and N are the soliton momentum and norm, respectively. To date, the curve p (v ) was calculated approximately by a collective coordinate theory, and the criterion was confirmed by simulations. The goal of this paper is to calculate p (v ) exactly for several classes and cases of the generalized NLSE: a soliton moving in a real potential, in particular a time-dependent ramp potential, and a time-dependent confining quadratic potential, where the nonlinearity in the NLSE also has a time-dependent coefficient. Moreover, we investigate a logarithmic and a cubic NLSE with a time-independent quadratic potential well. In the latter case, there is a bisoliton solution that consists of two solitons with asymmetric shapes, forming a bound state in which the shapes and the separation distance oscillate. Finally, we consider a cubic NLSE with parametric driving. In all cases, the p (v ) curve is calculated either analytically or numerically, and the stability criterion is confirmed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mertens, Franz G.; Quintero, Niurka R.; Barashenkov, I. V.; Bishop, A. R.
2011-08-01
We investigate the dynamics of traveling oscillating solitons of the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation under an external spatiotemporal forcing of the form f(x,t)=aexp[iK(t)x]. For the case of time-independent forcing, a stability criterion for these solitons, which is based on a collective coordinate theory, was recently conjectured. We show that the proposed criterion has a limited applicability and present a refined criterion which is generally applicable, as confirmed by direct simulations. This includes more general situations where K(t) is harmonic or biharmonic, with or without a damping term in the NLS equation. The refined criterion states that the soliton will be unstable if the “stability curve” p(v), where p(t) and v(t) are the normalized momentum and the velocity of the soliton, has a section with a negative slope. In the case of a constant K and zero damping, we use the collective coordinate solutions to compute a “phase portrait” of the soliton where its dynamics is represented by two-dimensional projections of its trajectories in the four-dimensional space of collective coordinates. We conjecture, and confirm by simulations, that the soliton is unstable if a section of the resulting closed curve on the portrait has a negative sense of rotation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Seonghoon; Kolen, Michael J.
2007-01-01
Under item response theory, the characteristic curve methods (Haebara and Stocking-Lord methods) are used to link two ability scales from separate calibrations. The linking methods use their respective criterion functions that can be defined differently according to the symmetry- and distribution-related schemes. The symmetry-related scheme…
10 CFR 140.85 - Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite. 140.85 Section 140.85 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL... practical to restore to use, (4) Financial loss resulting from protective actions appropriate to reduce...
Measures and Interpretations of Vigilance Performance: Evidence Against the Detection Criterion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balakrishnan, J. D.
1998-01-01
Operators' performance in a vigilance task is often assumed to depend on their choice of a detection criterion. When the signal rate is low this criterion is set high, causing the hit and false alarm rates to be low. With increasing time on task the criterion presumably tends to increase even further, thereby further decreasing the hit and false alarm rates. Virtually all of the empirical evidence for this simple interpretation is based on estimates of the bias measure Beta from signal detection theory. In this article, I describe a new approach to studying decision making that does not require the technical assumptions of signal detection theory. The results of this new analysis suggest that the detection criterion is never biased toward either response, even when the signal rate is low and the time on task is long. Two modifications of the signal detection theory framework are considered to account for this seemingly paradoxical result. The first assumes that the signal rate affects the relative sizes of the variances of the information distributions; the second assumes that the signal rate affects the logic of the operator's stopping rule. Actual or potential applications of this research include the improved training and performance assessment of operators in areas such as product quality control, air traffic control, and medical and clinical diagnosis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL.
Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are presented for each of five terminal objectives for a 12- to 18-week course designed to provide students in grades 8 or 9 with opportunities to explore a broad range of clothing management, production, and service occupations. The course was designed to provide…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pizzo, Matthew J.; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly; Blundell, Pamela J.
2009-01-01
The differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL) schedule is commonly used to assess impulsivity, hyperactivity, and the cognitive effects of pharmacological treatments on performance. A DRL schedule requires subjects to wait a certain minimum amount of time between successive responses to receive reinforcement. The DRL criterion value, which…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steinheiser, Frederick H., Jr.; And Others
Alternative mathematical models for scoring and decision making with criterion referenced tests are described, especially as they concern appropriate test length and methods of establishing statistically valid cutting scores. Several of these approaches are reviewed and compared on formal-analytic and empirical grounds: (1) Block's approach to…
Statistical Techniques for Criterion-Referenced Tests. Final Report. October, 1976-October, 1977.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilcox, Rand R.
Three statistical problems related to criterion-referenced testing are investigated: estimation of the likelihood of a false-positive or false-negative decision with a mastery test, estimation of true scores in the Compound Binomial Error Model, and comparison of the examinees to a control. Two methods for estimating the likelihood of…
Confidence Intervals for the Proportion of Mastery in Criterion-Referenced Measurement.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Feldt, Leonard S.
1996-01-01
A relatively simple method is developed to obtain confidence intervals for a student's proportion of domain mastery in criterion-referenced or mastery measurement situations. The method uses the binomial distribution as a model for the student's scores under hypothetically repeated assessments, and it makes use of widely available "F"…
Evaluation of Weighted Scale Reliability and Criterion Validity: A Latent Variable Modeling Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Raykov, Tenko
2007-01-01
A method is outlined for evaluating the reliability and criterion validity of weighted scales based on sets of unidimensional measures. The approach is developed within the framework of latent variable modeling methodology and is useful for point and interval estimation of these measurement quality coefficients in counseling and education…
Child Development, Care and Guidance. Performance Objectives and Criterion-Referenced Test Items.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.
This document contains competencies and criterion-referenced test items for the Child Development, Care and Guidance semester course in Missouri that were derived from the duties and tasks of the Missouri homemaker and identified and validated by home economics teachers and subject matter specialists. The guide is designed to assist home economics…
A Latent Trait Look at Pretest-Posttest Validation of Criterion-referenced Test Items.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van der Linden, Wim J.
1981-01-01
Using criterion-referenced test item data collected in an empirical study, differences in item selection between Cox and Vargas' pretest-posttest validity index and a latent trait approach (evaluation of the item information function for the mastery score) are analyzed. (Author/GK)
An Item Response Model for Nominal Data Based on the Rising Selection Ratios Criterion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Revuelta, Javier
2005-01-01
Complete response vectors of all answer options in multiple-choice items can be used to estimate ability. The rising selection ratios criterion is necessary for scoring individuals because it implies that estimated ability always increases when the correct alternative is selected. This paper introduces the generalized DLT model, which assumes…
A comparison between criterion functions for linear classifiers, with an application to neural nets
Barnard, E.; Casasent, D. )
1989-09-01
A variety of criterion functions (or scalar performance measures) have been suggested for the design of nonparametric linear classifiers. The classification performance of the most important of these on a typical two-class problem are investigated. The results of the investigation are then applied to the analysis and synthesis of neural-net classifiers.classifiers.
A novel criterion for evaluating the beam quality of high energy laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Kai; Sun, Quan; Xu, Xiaojun
2016-10-01
In this paper, a novel criterion for evaluating the beam quality of high energy laser is proposed, which is called "power outside the large bucket", POLB for short. The novel criterion does not demonstrate the divergence of the beam but focuses on the high spatial frequency wavefront aberration of the beam. The POLB values of the laser beams with various aberrations are calculated. It shows that the more high spatial frequency components in the aberration the larger POLB value is. Moreover, it is theoretically analyzed that the laser beams with various aberrations are corrected by ideal adaptive optics (AO) systems with different deformation mirror (DM) actuator numbers. It is shown that the residual error of the corrected wavefront aberration with many high spatial frequency components is quite large. Finally, the dependence of the residual wavefront error on the POLB value is investigated. Only if the POLB is smaller than 3.8/3.4/2.5/1.7 the residual error of the wavefront may be smaller than λ/10, which is corrected by an ideal AO system with 127/61/37/19 actuators. It is necessary to employ a complicated AO system for improving the laser beam of which the POLB value is large. The novel evaluating criterion POLB is able to demonstrate the amount of high spatial frequency aberration and the residual wavefront error corrected by AO system. It is an accessible and useful criterion for evaluating the beam quality of high energy lasers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, Jean
In a 1973 Smithsonian behavioral science project, observational methods were used to record school group behaviors during docent guided tours in the National Museum of History and Technology. The purpose of this exploratory study was to reveal the natural museum habitat and criterion behaviors of visiting fourth through sixth graders. Children's…
The Criterion-Related Validity of a Computer-Based Approach for Scoring Concept Maps
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clariana, Roy B.; Koul, Ravinder; Salehi, Roya
2006-01-01
This investigation seeks to confirm a computer-based approach that can be used to score concept maps (Poindexter & Clariana, 2004) and then describes the concurrent criterion-related validity of these scores. Participants enrolled in two graduate courses (n=24) were asked to read about and research online the structure and function of the heart…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Murray, Gregory V.; Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.
2014-01-01
One option for length of individual mathematics class periods is the schedule type selected for Algebra I classes. This study examined the relationship between student achievement, as indicated by Algebra I Criterion-Referenced Test scores, and the schedule type for Algebra I classes. Data obtained from the Utah State Office of Education included…
easyCBM® Reading Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Grades 2-5. Technical Report #1310
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald
2013-01-01
In this technical report, we present the results of a study to gather criterion-related evidence for Grade 2-5 easyCBM® reading measures. We used correlations to examine the relation between the easyCBM® measures and other published measures with known reliability and validity evidence, including the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests and the Dynamic…
easyCBM® Reading Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Grades K-1. Technical Report #1309
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald
2013-01-01
In this technical report, we present the results of a study to gather criterion-related evidence for Grade K-1 easyCBM® reading measures. We used correlations to examine the relation between the easyCBM® measures and other published measures with known reliability and validity evidence, including the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy…
46 CFR 170.173 - Criterion for vessels of unusual proportion and form.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criterion for vessels of unusual proportion and form. 170.173 Section 170.173 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY STABILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL INSPECTED VESSELS Weather Criteria § 170.173...
10 CFR 840.5 - Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite. 840.5 Section 840.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.5... nuclear, or byproduct material; or (2) DOE finds that $2,500,000 or more of damage offsite has been...
10 CFR 840.5 - Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite. 840.5 Section 840.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.5... nuclear, or byproduct material; or (2) DOE finds that $2,500,000 or more of damage offsite has been...
10 CFR 840.5 - Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite. 840.5 Section 840.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.5... nuclear, or byproduct material; or (2) DOE finds that $2,500,000 or more of damage offsite has been...
10 CFR 840.5 - Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite. 840.5 Section 840.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.5... nuclear, or byproduct material; or (2) DOE finds that $2,500,000 or more of damage offsite has been...
The Assessment of Self Concepts of Educational Achievement by a Criterion Referenced Approach.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Norwich, Brahm
Self-concept ideas can be reformulated and integrated into an objectives oriented model of school learning. Bloom's model (1976) involving mastery learning already incorporates self-concept elements, but needs to be developed theoretically to include norm-referenced as well as criterion-referenced approaches to assessing self-concepts. This…
A Criterion-Related Validity Study of the OASIS-2 Interest Schedule.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levinson, Edward M.; And Others
1994-01-01
Describes correlational analyses between Self-Directed Search (SDS) and the second edition of the Occupational Aptitude Survey and Interest Schedule (OASIS-2). Scales generally correlate significantly at an acceptable level for establishing criterion-related validity. Implications for practitioners using the OASIS-2 are discussed. Includes 26…
Criterion-Related Validity of Curriculum-Based Measures in Writing for Secondary School Students.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Espin, Christine A.; Scierka, Barbara J.; Skare, Stacey; Halverson, Nola
1999-01-01
Examines criterion-related validity of curriculum-based measures in written expression for secondary students. Finds a combination of measures was better than any single measure for predicting students' general performance in written expression; and 3 measures added to the prediction of students' general writing proficiency (number of characters…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dobbins, Ian G.; Kroll, Neal E. A.
2005-01-01
Superior detection and rejection of 1 versus another class of items during recognition is called the mirror effect. Some mirror effects may involve strategic criterion adjustments based on item distinctiveness and its relation to memorability. Three experiments demonstrated mirror effects for known versus unknown scenes and 1 suggested a similar…
Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Items for Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Diane, Ed.
These criterion-referenced test (CRT) items for air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration are keyed to the Missouri Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Competency Profile. The items are designed to work with both the Vocational Instructional Management System and Vocational Administrative Management System. For word processing and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL.
Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of seven terminal objectives for a 6- to 9-week orientation to home economics occupations course for seventh grade students. The titles of the seven terminal objectives are Overview, Human Care Cluster, Food and Nutrition, Home Service Cluster,…
Reviewing Employee Turnover: Focusing on Proximal Withdrawal States and an Expanded Criterion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hom, Peter W.; Mitchell, Terence R.; Lee, Thomas W.; Griffeth, Rodger W.
2012-01-01
We reconceptualize employee turnover to promote researchers' understanding and prediction of why employees quit or stay in employing institutions. A literature review identifies shortcomings with prevailing turnover dimensions. In response, we expand the conceptual domain of the turnover criterion to include multiple types of turnover (notably,…
16 CFR 1631.34 - Small carpets and rugs not meeting acceptance criterion.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE SURFACE FLAMMABILITY OF SMALL CARPETS AND RUGS (FF 2-70) Rules and Regulations § 1631.34 Small carpets and rugs not meeting acceptance criterion. (a) If any small carpet or rug as defined in the Standard for the Surface Flammability of Small Carpets and...
16 CFR 1631.34 - Small carpets and rugs not meeting acceptance criterion.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE SURFACE FLAMMABILITY OF SMALL CARPETS AND RUGS (FF 2-70) Rules and Regulations § 1631.34 Small carpets and rugs not meeting acceptance criterion. (a) If any small carpet or rug as defined in the Standard for the Surface Flammability of Small Carpets and...
Criterion Validation of a Written Multiple-Choice Test of Spanish/English Bilingual Skills.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Doyle, Teresa F.; Lin, Thung-Rung
Supervisory performance appraisals may be of limited utility in the validation of bilingual tests because incumbents are often hired to be the only employee in a unit who possesses the skills necessary to do the job. In an effort to provide criterion-related validity for four equivalent forms of a Spanish/English bilingual test for school district…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Simpson, Mary; Arnold, Brian
1983-01-01
Suggests that failure to learn is often the result of inappropriateness of level of instruction and deficiencies in instructional procedures and educational strategies, and differentiates between the functions of criterion referenced tests and diagnostic tests. Results are reported from two studies of the teaching of osmosis and photosynthesis.…
A Case for Transforming the Criterion of a Predictive Validity Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Patterson, Brian F.; Kobrin, Jennifer L.
2011-01-01
This study presents a case for applying a transformation (Box and Cox, 1964) of the criterion used in predictive validity studies. The goals of the transformation were to better meet the assumptions of the linear regression model and to reduce the residual variance of fitted (i.e., predicted) values. Using data for the 2008 cohort of first-time,…
Criterion-Referenced Assessment for Language Organization: An Example of Evidence-Based Practice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klecan-Aker, Joan S.; Colson, Karen
2009-01-01
Reliable criterion-referenced assessments are critical as one of the first steps in evidence-based practice. These assessments must also be valid. One of the most important skills to measure in school-age children with language disabilities is the ability to organize language in the form of narratives. The purpose of this paper is to describe a…
D.P.I. Primary Reading Criterion-Referenced Screening Test, Levels 1, 2, 3.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown Education Center, Louisville, KY.
The Diagnostic Prescriptive Individualized (D.P.I.) Primary Reading Criterion-Referenced Screening Test Levels 1, 2 and 3 are diagnostic tests geared toward aiding the teacher of grade 1 and 2 children in identifying the academic strengths, weaknesses, and needs of each student. These tests are concerned with the overall screening of skills of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, HyeSun; Geisinger, Kurt F.
2016-01-01
The current study investigated the impact of matching criterion purification on the accuracy of differential item functioning (DIF) detection in large-scale assessments. The three matching approaches for DIF analyses (block-level matching, pooled booklet matching, and equated pooled booklet matching) were employed with the Mantel-Haenszel…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Distefano, M. K., Jr.; And Others
1983-01-01
Demonstrated the use of quantitative content validity procedures in the development of a job-related behavioral rating scale criterion for entry-level psychiatric aides. Found that 78 of 83 items were significantly job-relevant using the computation procedures of both Lawshe and Aiken. (JAC)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rolider, Ahmos; Van Houten, Ron
1986-01-01
Two components of a gradually faded awakening procedure for treating bedwetting were tested with six children aged 4-11. Thorough awakening was more effective than partial awakening. A second experiment on advancing awakening time produced similar results between a stringent 6 consecutive dry night criterion and a more lenient 6 dry night…
V-TECS Criterion-Referenced Test Item Bank for Radiologic Technology Occupations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reneau, Fred; And Others
This Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States (V-TECS) criterion-referenced test item bank provides 696 multiple-choice items and 33 matching items for radiologic technology occupations. These job titles are included: radiologic technologist, chief; radiologic technologist; nuclear medicine technologist; radiation therapy technologist;…
An Extension of the Beale-Kato-Majda Criterion for the Euler Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planchon, Fabrice
The Beale-Kato-Majda criterion asserts that smooth solutions to the Euler equations remain bounded past T as long as is finite, ohgr; being the vorticity. We show how to replace this by a weaker statement, on , where Δj is a frequency localization around .
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Muhich, Dolores
1976-01-01
Criterion Referenced Measurement (CRM) in the initial acquisition of the psychomotor skill of typewriting demonstrated speed gains from 8 hours of instruction distributed over a 6-week interval for 4 male adolescent underachievers of above- and below-average intelligence. (Author)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meredith, Keith E.; Sabers, Darrell L.
Data required for evaluating a Criterion Referenced Measurement (CRM) is described with a matrix. The information within the matrix consists of the "pass-fail" decisions of two CRMs. By differentially defining these two CRMs, different concepts of reliability and validity can be examined. Indices suggested for analyzing the matrix are listed with…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harris, Larry P.; Wolf, Steven R.
1979-01-01
The article focuses on the controversy over norm-referenced v criterion-referenced measures (CRM) in assessment of learning disorders. The authors contend that while the reliability of CRMs is generally indisputable, the validity of measures designed from local curricula is still dependent on the intuitive judgments of teachers. (Author/SBH)
Evaluation of Self-Perceptions of Creativity: Is It a Useful Criterion?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reiter-Palmon, Roni; Robinson-Morral, Erika J.; Kaufman, James C.; Santo, Jonathan B.
2012-01-01
Self-evaluations or self-perceptions of creativity have been used in the past both as predictors of creative performance and as criteria. Four measures utilizing self-perceptions of creativity were assessed for their usefulness as criterion measures of creativity. Analyses provided evidence of domain specificity of self-perceptions. The scales…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levy, Deborah L.; Bowman, Elizabeth A.; Abel, Larry; Krastoshevsky, Olga; Krause, Verena; Mendell, Nancy R.
2008-01-01
The "co-familiality" criterion for an endophenotype has two requirements: (1) clinically unaffected relatives as a group should show both a shift in mean performance and an increase in variance compared with controls; (2) performance scores should be heritable. Performance on the antisaccade task is one of several candidate endophenotypes for…
Laboratory Investigation on Shear Behavior of Rock Joints and a New Peak Shear Strength Criterion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiaobo; Jiang, Qinghui; Chen, Na; Wei, Wei; Feng, Xixia
2016-09-01
In this study, shear tests on artificial rock joints with different roughness were conducted under five normal stress levels. Test results showed that the shear strength of rock joints had a positive correlation with roughness and the applied normal stress. Observation of joint specimens after shear tests indicated that asperity damage was mainly located in the steep areas facing the shear direction. The damaged joint surfaces tend to be rough, which implies that tensile failure plays an important role in shear behavior. As a result of the anisotropic characteristic of joint roughness, two quantitative 2D roughness parameters, i.e., the revised root-mean-square of asperity angle tan-1( Z 2r) and the maximum contact coefficient C m, were proposed considering the shear direction. The proposed roughness parameters can capture the difference of roughness in forward and reverse directions along a single joint profile. The normalized tensile strength and the proposed roughness parameters were used to perform a rational derivation of peak dilatancy angle. A negative exponential-type function was found to be appropriate to model the peak dilatancy angle. Using the new model of peak dilatancy angle, we obtained a new criterion for peak shear strength of rock joints. The good agreement between test results and predicted results by the new criterion indicated that the proposed criterion is capable of estimating the peak shear strength of rock joints. Comparisons between the new criterion and published models from available literature revealed that the proposed criterion has a good accuracy for predicting the peak shear strength of joints investigated in this study.
Vrieze, Scott I.
2012-01-01
This article reviews the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) in model selection and the appraisal of psychological theory. The focus is on latent variable models given their growing use in theory testing and construction. We discuss theoretical statistical results in regression and illustrate more important issues with novel simulations involving latent variable models including factor analysis, latent profile analysis, and factor mixture models. Asymptotically, the BIC is consistent, in that it will select the true model if, among other assumptions, the true model is among the candidate models considered. The AIC is not consistent under these circumstances. When the true model is not in the candidate model set the AIC is effcient, in that it will asymptotically choose whichever model minimizes the mean squared error of prediction/estimation. The BIC is not effcient under these circumstances. Unlike the BIC, the AIC also has a minimax property, in that it can minimize the maximum possible risk in finite sample sizes. In sum, the AIC and BIC have quite different properties that require different assumptions, and applied researchers and methodologists alike will benefit from improved understanding of the asymptotic and finite-sample behavior of these criteria. The ultimate decision to use AIC or BIC depends on many factors, including: the loss function employed, the study's methodological design, the substantive research question, and the notion of a true model and its applicability to the study at hand. PMID:22309957
Vrieze, Scott I
2012-06-01
This article reviews the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) in model selection and the appraisal of psychological theory. The focus is on latent variable models, given their growing use in theory testing and construction. Theoretical statistical results in regression are discussed, and more important issues are illustrated with novel simulations involving latent variable models including factor analysis, latent profile analysis, and factor mixture models. Asymptotically, the BIC is consistent, in that it will select the true model if, among other assumptions, the true model is among the candidate models considered. The AIC is not consistent under these circumstances. When the true model is not in the candidate model set the AIC is efficient, in that it will asymptotically choose whichever model minimizes the mean squared error of prediction/estimation. The BIC is not efficient under these circumstances. Unlike the BIC, the AIC also has a minimax property, in that it can minimize the maximum possible risk in finite sample sizes. In sum, the AIC and BIC have quite different properties that require different assumptions, and applied researchers and methodologists alike will benefit from improved understanding of the asymptotic and finite-sample behavior of these criteria. The ultimate decision to use the AIC or BIC depends on many factors, including the loss function employed, the study's methodological design, the substantive research question, and the notion of a true model and its applicability to the study at hand.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...
Romanowich, Paul; Lamb, R J
2014-08-01
Incentives have been successfully used to reduce smoking in hard-to-treat (HTT) smokers by progressively reinforcing lower levels of breath carbon monoxide (CO). When compared with schedules only providing incentives for smoking abstinence, using a progressive (percentile) criterion facilitates longer periods of smoking abstinence. However, participants receiving incentives for lower breath CO levels on percentile schedules typically earn more for their first abstinent breath CO sample relative to participants receiving incentives only for smoking abstinence. Many studies show that larger incentive magnitude increases abstinence rates. The present study tested the effects of different incentive schedules on rates of abstinence maintenance while holding the initial incentive magnitude constant for 93 HTT smokers to eliminate initial abstinence incentive magnitude as a potential confound. Smokers were randomized to percentile, fixed criterion, or random incentive schedules. The incentive magnitude for the first abstinent breath CO sample (<3 ppm) was $5 for percentile and fixed criterion incentive participants, and then increased by $0.50 for each consecutive abstinent breath CO sample. All groups had similar patterns of meeting the abstinence criterion for at least 1 visit. However, once this abstinence criterion was met, abstinence was more likely to be maintained by fixed criterion incentive participants. Unlike previous studies comparing percentile and fixed criterion schedules, percentile incentive schedules were not associated with longer periods of abstinence relative to fixed criterion incentive schedules. Further studies that manipulate initial incentive magnitude are needed to test whether the difference between the current and previous studies was due to initial incentive magnitude.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mullins, Cecil J., Ed.; Winn, William R., Ed.
These conference proceedings contain statements from those concerned with various aspects of research on job performance measures. Following introductory remarks, the formal presentations of work and ideas include "Air Training Command Interest in the Criterion Problem," by Donald E. Meyer, "The Criterion Problem: A Personnel…
Lemly, A Dennis; Skorupa, Joseph P
2007-10-01
The US Environmental Protection Agency is developing a national water quality criterion for selenium that is based on concentrations of the element in fish tissue. Although this approach offers advantages over the current water-based regulations, it also presents new challenges with respect to implementation. A comprehensive protocol that answers the "what, where, and when" is essential with the new tissue-based approach in order to ensure proper acquisition of data that apply to the criterion. Dischargers will need to understand selenium transport, cycling, and bioaccumulation in order to effectively monitor for the criterion and, if necessary, develop site-specific standards. This paper discusses 11 key issues that affect the implementation of a tissue-based criterion, ranging from the selection of fish species to the importance of hydrological units in the sampling design. It also outlines a strategy that incorporates both water column and tissue-based approaches. A national generic safety-net water criterion could be combined with a fish tissue-based criterion for site-specific implementation. For the majority of waters nationwide, National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permitting and other activities associated with the Clean Water Act could continue without the increased expense of sampling and interpreting biological materials. Dischargers would do biotic sampling intermittently (not a routine monitoring burden) on fish tissue relative to the fish tissue criterion. Only when the fish tissue criterion is exceeded would a full site-specific analysis including development of intermedia translation factors be necessary.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Zhuan
2016-12-01
This paper is devoted to the investigation of the regularity criterion to the two-dimensional (2D) Euler-Boussinesq equations with supercritical dissipation. By making use of the Littlewood-Paley technique, we provide an improved regularity criterion involving the temperature at the scaling invariant level, which improves the previous results.
Criterion distances and environmental correlates of active commuting to school in children
2011-01-01
Background Active commuting to school can contribute to daily physical activity levels in children. Insight into the determinants of active commuting is needed, to promote such behavior in children living within a feasible commuting distance from school. This study determined feasible distances for walking and cycling to school (criterion distances) in 11- to 12-year-old Belgian children. For children living within these criterion distances from school, the correlation between parental perceptions of the environment, the number of motorized vehicles per family and the commuting mode (active/passive) to school was investigated. Methods Parents (n = 696) were contacted through 44 randomly selected classes of the final year (sixth grade) in elementary schools in East- and West-Flanders. Parental environmental perceptions were obtained using the parent version of Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Youth (NEWS-Y). Information about active commuting to school was obtained using a self-reported questionnaire for parents. Distances from the children's home to school were objectively measured with Routenet online route planner. Criterion distances were set at the distance in which at least 85% of the active commuters lived. After the determination of these criterion distances, multilevel analyses were conducted to determine correlates of active commuting to school within these distances. Results Almost sixty percent (59.3%) of the total sample commuted actively to school. Criterion distances were set at 1.5 kilometers for walking and 3.0 kilometers for cycling. In the range of 2.01 - 2.50 kilometers household distance from school, the number of passive commuters exceeded the number of active commuters. For children who were living less than 3.0 kilometers away from school, only perceived accessibility by the parents was positively associated with active commuting to school. Within the group of active commuters, a longer distance to school was associated with
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Battaglia, Eleonora; Bonollo, Franco; Ferro, Paolo
2017-03-01
Defects, particularly porosity and oxides, in high-pressure die casting can seriously compromise the in-service behavior and durability of products subjected to static or cyclic loadings. In this study, the influence of dimension, orientation, and position of casting defects on the mechanical properties of an AlSi12(b) (EN-AC 44100) aluminum alloy commercial component has been studied. A finite element model has been carried out in order to calculate the stress distribution induced by service loads and identify the crack initiation zones. Castings were qualitatively classified on the basis of porosities distribution detected by X-ray technique and oxides observed on fracture surfaces of specimens coming from fatigue and tensile tests. A damage criterion has been formulated which considers the influence of defects position and orientation on the mechanical strength of the components. Using the proposed damage criterion, it was possible to describe the mechanical behavior of the castings with good accuracy.
Application of the Electrical Network Frequency (ENF) Criterion. A case of a digital recording.
Kajstura, Mateusz; Trawinska, Agata; Hebenstreit, Jacek
2005-12-20
One of the new methods of investigating the authenticity of evidential digital audio recordings uses the Electrical Network Frequency (ENF) Criterion. It is based on analysing the signal corresponding to the fundamental frequency of the current in the electrical network, which is present in a recording and comparing it with appropriate, reliable reference. Studies carried out at the Institute of Forensic Research in Cracow were aimed at validating this method, that is, assessing its usefulness in forensic examinations of evidential digital recordings in Poland. These studies enabled us to develop and implement a procedure for using the ENF Criterion method to assess the integrity of digital recordings and to establish when these recordings were made.
A2 diagnostic criterion for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder.
Adler, Amy B; Wright, Kathleen M; Bliese, Paul D; Eckford, Rachel; Hoge, Charles W
2008-06-01
Individuals trained to respond to a potentially traumatic event may not experience the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) A2 diagnostic criterion of fear, helplessness, or horror and yet may still report significant PTSD symptoms. The present study included interviews with 202 soldiers returning from a year in Iraq. Although reporting an A2 response was associated with higher PTSD Checklist scores, there were no significant differences in the percentage of subjects who met cutoff criteria for PTSD. The most common alternative A2 responses were related to military training and anger. The A2 criterion for PTSD should be expanded so as not to underestimate the number of individuals trained for high-risk occupations who might benefit from treatment.
An error criterion for determining sampling rates in closed-loop control systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brecher, S. M.
1972-01-01
The determination of an error criterion which will give a sampling rate for adequate performance of linear, time-invariant closed-loop, discrete-data control systems was studied. The proper modelling of the closed-loop control system for characterization of the error behavior, and the determination of an absolute error definition for performance of the two commonly used holding devices are discussed. The definition of an adequate relative error criterion as a function of the sampling rate and the parameters characterizing the system is established along with the determination of sampling rates. The validity of the expressions for the sampling interval was confirmed by computer simulations. Their application solves the problem of making a first choice in the selection of sampling rates.
An Optimal Partial Differential Equations-based Stopping Criterion for Medical Image Denoising.
Khanian, Maryam; Feizi, Awat; Davari, Ali
2014-01-01
Improving the quality of medical images at pre- and post-surgery operations are necessary for beginning and speeding up the recovery process. Partial differential equations-based models have become a powerful and well-known tool in different areas of image processing such as denoising, multiscale image analysis, edge detection and other fields of image processing and computer vision. In this paper, an algorithm for medical image denoising using anisotropic diffusion filter with a convenient stopping criterion is presented. In this regard, the current paper introduces two strategies: utilizing the efficient explicit method due to its advantages with presenting impressive software technique to effectively solve the anisotropic diffusion filter which is mathematically unstable, proposing an automatic stopping criterion, that takes into consideration just input image, as opposed to other stopping criteria, besides the quality of denoised image, easiness and time. Various medical images are examined to confirm the claim.
Carnevale, Federico; de Lafuente, Victor; Romo, Ranulfo; Barak, Omri; Parga, Néstor
2015-05-20
Under uncertainty, the brain uses previous knowledge to transform sensory inputs into the percepts on which decisions are based. When the uncertainty lies in the timing of sensory evidence, however, the mechanism underlying the use of previously acquired temporal information remains unknown. We study this issue in monkeys performing a detection task with variable stimulation times. We use the neural correlates of false alarms to infer the subject's response criterion and find that it modulates over the course of a trial. Analysis of premotor cortex activity shows that this modulation is represented by the dynamics of population responses. A trained recurrent network model reproduces the experimental findings and demonstrates a neural mechanism to benefit from temporal expectations in perceptual detection. Previous knowledge about the probability of stimulation over time can be intrinsically encoded in the neural population dynamics, allowing a flexible control of the response criterion over time.
External Single-Set Components Analysis Of Multiple Criterion/Multiple Predictor Variables.
Fornell, C
1979-07-01
Although much progress has been made in clarifying the properties of canonical correlation analysis in order to enhance its applicability, there are several remaining problems. Canonical variates do not always represent the observed variables even though the canonical correlation is high. In addition, canonical solutions are often difficult to interpret. This paper presents a method designed to deal with these two problems. Instead of maximizing the correlation between unobserved variates, the sum of squared inter-set loadings is maximized. Contrary to the canonical correlation solution, this method ensures that the shared variance between predictor variates and criterion variables is maximal. Instead of extracting variates from both criterion and predictor variables, only one set of components (from the predictor variables) is constructed. Without loss of common variance, an orthogonal rotation is applied to the resulting loadings in order to simplify structure.
The Frequency Component of Water Quality Criterion Compliance Assessment Should be Data Driven
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qian, Song S.
2015-07-01
A numerical water quality criterion in the U.S. consists of three components representing magnitude, duration, and frequency. While magnitude and duration are well defined and conceptually unambiguous, the meaning of the frequency component is often debatable. We interpret the frequency component as a tool for accounting for uncertainty in estimating the mean concentration of a water quality constituent, after revisiting early works on environmental standards and criteria. Based on this interpretation, we illustrate management-related issues when using the default frequency of one exceedance in 3 years in compliance assessment. We propose a data-driven approach for estimating an appropriate frequency to ensure a consistent level of confidence in a water's compliance of a water quality criterion. The data-driven frequency is determined by water quality constituent concentration distribution characteristics and sample size. The method is illustrated using two examples.
Corrections to the Eckhaus' stability criterion for one-dimensional stationary structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malomed, B. A.; Staroselsky, I. E.; Konstantinov, A. B.
1989-01-01
Two amendments to the well-known Eckhaus' stability criterion for small-amplitude non-linear structures generated by weak instability of a spatially uniform state of a non-equilibrium one-dimensional system against small perturbations with finite wavelengths are obtained. Firstly, we evaluate small corrections to the main Eckhaus' term which, on the contrary so that term, do not have a universal form. Comparison of those non-universal corrections with experimental or numerical results gives a possibility to select a more relevant form of an effective nonlinear evolution equation. In particular, the comparison with such results for convective rolls and Taylor vortices gives arguments in favor of the Swift-Hohenberg equation. Secondly, we derive an analog of the Eckhaus criterion for systems degenerate in the sense that in an expansion of their non-linear parts in powers of dynamical variables, the second and third degree terms are absent.
Unified criterion for security of secret sharing in terms of violation of Bell inequalities
Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Zukowski, Marek
2003-09-01
In secret sharing protocols, a secret is to be distributed among several partners such that leaving out any number of them, the rest do not have the complete information. Strong multiqubit correlations in the state by which secret sharing is carried out had been proposed as a criterion for security of such protocols against individual attacks by an eavesdropper. However we show that states with weak multiqubit correlations can also be used for secure secret sharing. That our state has weak multiqubit correlations is shown from the perspective of violation of local realism, and also by showing that its higher-order correlations are described by lower ones. We then present a unified criterion for security of secret sharing in terms of violation of local realism, which works when the secret sharing state is the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state (with strong multiqubit correlations), as well as states of a different class (with weak multiqubit correlations)
A Breakdown Criterion of Free Molecular Flows and an Optimum Analysis of EBPVD
Li Shuaihui; Fan Jing; Shu Yonghua
2008-12-31
Two important issues in electron beam physical vapor deposition (EBPVD) are addressed. The first issue is a validity condition of the classical cosine law widely used in the engineering context. This requires a breakdown criterion of the free molecular assumption on which the cosine law is established. Using the analytical solution of free molecular effusion flow, the number of collisions (N{sub c}) for a particle moving from an evaporative source to a substrate is estimated that is proven inversely proportional to the local Knudsen number at the evaporation surface. N{sub c} = 1 is adopted as a breakdown criterion of the free molecular assumption, and it is verified by experimental data and DSMC results. The second issue is how to realize the uniform distributions of thickness and component over a large-area thin film. Our analysis shows that at relatively low evaporation rates the goal is easy achieved through arranging the evaporative source positions properly and rotating the substrate.
A multiloop generalization of the circle criterion for stability margin analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Safonov, M. G.; Athans, M.
1981-01-01
In order to provide a theoretical tool well suited for use in characterizing the stability margins (e.g., gain and phase margins) of multiloop feedback systems, multiloop input-output stability results generalizing the circle stability criterion are considered. Generalized conic sectors with 'centers' and 'radii' determined by linear dynamical operators are employed to enable an engineer to specify the stability margins which he desires as a frequency-dependent convex set of modeling errors (including nonlinearities, gain variations, and phase variations) which the system must be able to tolerate in each feedback loop without instability. The resulting stability criterion gives sufficient conditions for closed-loop stability in the presence of such frequency-dependent modeling errors, even when the modeling errors occur simultaneously in all loops.
A Statistics-Based Cracking Criterion of Resin-Bonded Silica Sand for Casting Process Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Huimin; Lu, Yan; Ripplinger, Keith; Detwiler, Duane; Luo, Alan A.
2017-02-01
Cracking of sand molds/cores can result in many casting defects such as veining. A robust cracking criterion is needed in casting process simulation for predicting/controlling such defects. A cracking probability map, relating to fracture stress and effective volume, was proposed for resin-bonded silica sand based on Weibull statistics. Three-point bending test results of sand samples were used to generate the cracking map and set up a safety line for cracking criterion. Tensile test results confirmed the accuracy of the safety line for cracking prediction. A laboratory casting experiment was designed and carried out to predict cracking of a cup mold during aluminum casting. The stress-strain behavior and the effective volume of the cup molds were calculated using a finite element analysis code ProCAST®. Furthermore, an energy dispersive spectroscopy fractographic examination of the sand samples confirmed the binder cracking in resin-bonded silica sand.
Learning image based surrogate relevance criterion for atlas selection in segmentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Tingting; Ruan, Dan
2016-06-01
Picking geometrically relevant atlases from the whole training set is crucial to multi-atlas based image segmentation, especially with extensive data of heterogeneous quality in the Big Data era. Unfortunately, there is very limited understanding of how currently used image similarity criteria reveal geometric relevance, let alone the optimization of them. This paper aims to develop a good image based surrogate relevance criterion to best reflect the underlying inaccessible geometric relevance in a learning context. We cast this surrogate learning problem into an optimization framework, by encouraging the image based surrogate to behave consistently with geometric relevance during training. In particular, we desire a criterion to be small for image pairs with similar geometry and large for those with significantly different segmentation geometry. Validation experiments on corpus callosum segmentation demonstrate the improved quality of the learned surrogate compared to benchmark surrogate candidates.
A criterion for the onset of slugging in horizontal stratified air-water countercurrent flow
Chun, Moon-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Ryung; Kim, Yang-Seok
1995-09-01
This paper presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of wave height and transition criterion from wavy to slug flow in horizontal air-water countercurrent stratified flow conditions. A theoretical formula for the wave height in a stratified wavy flow regime has been developed using the concept of total energy balance over a wave crest to consider the shear stress acting on the interface of two fluids. From the limiting condition of the formula for the wave height, a necessary criterion for transition from a stratified wavy flow to a slug flow has been derived. A series of experiments have been conducted changing the non-dimensional water depth and the flow rates of air in a horizontal pipe and a duct. Comparisons between the measured data and the predictions of the present theory show that the agreement is within {plus_minus}8%.
Wavelength selection in injection-driven Hele-Shaw flows: A maximum amplitude criterion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dias, Eduardo; Miranda, Jose
2013-11-01
As in most interfacial flow problems, the standard theoretical procedure to establish wavelength selection in the viscous fingering instability is to maximize the linear growth rate. However, there are important discrepancies between previous theoretical predictions and existing experimental data. In this work we perform a linear stability analysis of the radial Hele-Shaw flow system that takes into account the combined action of viscous normal stresses and wetting effects. Most importantly, we introduce an alternative selection criterion for which the selected wavelength is determined by the maximum of the interfacial perturbation amplitude. The effectiveness of such a criterion is substantiated by the significantly improved agreement between theory and experiments. We thank CNPq (Brazilian Sponsor) for financial support.
An algebraic criterion for the onset of chaos in nonlinear dynamic systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Unal, A.; Tobak, M.
1987-01-01
The correspondence between iterated integrals and a noncommutative algebra is used to recast the given dynamical system from the time domain to the Laplace-Borel transform domain. It is then shown that the following algebraic criterion has to be satisfied for the outset of chaos: the limit (as tau approaches infinity and x sub 0 approaches infinity) of ((sigma(k=0) (tau sup k) / (k* x sub 0 sup k)) G II G = 0, where G is the generating power series of the trajectories, the symbol II is the shuffle product (le melange) of the noncommutative algebra, x sub 0 is a noncommutative variable, and tau is the correlation parameter. In the given equation, symbolic forms for both G and II can be obtained by use of one of the currently available symbolic languages such as PLI, REDUCE, and MACSYMA. Hence, the criterion is a computer-algebraic one.
A multiloop generalization of the circle criterion for stability margin analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Safonov, M. G.; Athans, M.
1979-01-01
In order to provide a theoretical tool suited for characterizing the stability margins of multiloop feedback systems, multiloop input-output stability results generalizing the circle stability criterion are considered. Generalized conic sectors with 'centers' and 'radii' determined by linear dynamical operators are employed to specify the stability margins as a frequency dependent convex set of modeling errors (including nonlinearities, gain variations and phase variations) which the system must be able to tolerate in each feedback loop without instability. The resulting stability criterion gives sufficient conditions for closed loop stability in the presence of frequency dependent modeling errors, even when the modeling errors occur simultaneously in all loops. The stability conditions yield an easily interpreted scalar measure of the amount by which a multiloop system exceeds, or falls short of, its stability margin specifications.
Experimental evaluation of the tensor polynomial criterion for designing composite structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tennyson, R. C.
1977-01-01
A comprehensive experimental and analytical evaluation of the tensor polynomial failure criterion was undertaken to determine its capability for predicting the ultimate strength of a composite limina subject to a plane stress state. Results are presented demonstrating that a quadratic formulation is too conservative and a cubic representation is required. Strength comparisons with test data derived from glass/epoxy and graphite/epoxy tubular specimens are also provided to validate the cubic strength criterion. Environmental effects including ambient temperature, exposure to vacuum, length of post-cure time, and rate of cool down were also investigated. Behavior changes associated with polymer (epoxy) matrix composites were determined in terms of variations in stiffness and tensile strength.
Accuracy of visual estimates of joint angle and angular velocity using criterion movements.
Morrison, Craig S; Knudson, Duane; Clayburn, Colby; Haywood, Philip
2005-06-01
A descriptive study to document undergraduate physical education majors' (22.8 +/- 2.4 yr. old) estimates of sagittal plane elbow angle and angular velocity of elbow flexion visually was performed. 42 subjects rated videotape replays of 30 movements organized into three speeds of movement and two criterion elbow angles. Video images of the movements were analyzed with Peak Motus to measure actual values of elbow angles and peak angular velocity. Of the subjects 85.7% had speed ratings significantly correlated with true peak elbow angular velocity in all three angular velocity conditions. Few (16.7%) subjects' ratings of elbow angle correlated significantly with actual angles. Analysis of the subjects with good ratings showed the accuracy of visual ratings was significantly related to speed, with decreasing accuracy for slower speeds of movement. The use of criterion movements did not improve the small percentage of novice observers who could accurately estimate body angles during movement.
Using the ENF Criterion for Determining the Time of Recording of Short Digital Audio Recordings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huijbregtse, Maarten; Geradts, Zeno
The Electric Network Frequency (ENF) Criterion is a recently developed forensic technique for determining the time of recording of digital audio recordings, by matching the ENF pattern from a questioned recording with an ENF pattern database. In this paper we discuss its inherent limitations in the case of short - i.e., less than 10 minutes in duration - digital audio recordings. We also present a matching procedure based on the correlation coefficient, as a more robust alternative to squared error matching.
The quartic piecewise-linear criterion for the multiaxial yield behavior of human trabecular bone.
Sanyal, Arnav; Scheffelin, Joanna; Keaveny, Tony M
2015-01-01
Prior multiaxial strength studies on trabecular bone have either not addressed large variations in bone volume fraction and microarchitecture, or have not addressed the full range of multiaxial stress states. Addressing these limitations, we utilized micro-computed tomography (lCT) based nonlinear finite element analysis to investigate the complete 3D multiaxial failure behavior of ten specimens (5mm cube) of human trabecular bone, taken from three anatomic sites and spanning a wide range of bone volume fraction (0.09–0.36),mechanical anisotropy (range of E3/E1¼3.0–12.0), and microarchitecture. We found that most of the observed variation in multiaxial strength behavior could be accounted for by normalizing the multiaxial strength by specimen-specific values of uniaxial strength (tension,compression in the longitudinal and transverse directions). Scatter between specimens was reduced further when the normalized multiaxial strength was described in strain space.The resulting multiaxial failure envelope in this normalized-strain space had a rectangular boxlike shape for normal–normal loading and either a rhomboidal box like shape or a triangular shape for normal-shear loading, depending on the loading direction. The finite element data were well described by a single quartic yield criterion in the 6D normalized strain space combined with a piecewise linear yield criterion in two planes for normalshear loading (mean error SD: 4.660.8% for the finite element data versus the criterion).This multiaxial yield criterion in normalized-strain space can be used to describe the complete 3D multiaxial failure behavior of human trabecular bone across a wide range of bone volume fraction, mechanical anisotropy, and microarchitecture.
Method of characteristics for the 3D perfect plasticity problem with the von Mises yield criterion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verveyko, N. D.; Kuptsov, A. V.
2009-04-01
We present a linearized system of partial differential equations for the three-dimensional perfect plasticity problem with the von Mises yield criterion. We construct the characteristics of the three-dimensional problem, obtain differential relations along the characteristic planes, and devise a consistent stable finite-difference scheme. The use of conditions on the stress discontinuity surfaces permits simultaneously solving the Cauchy, Goursat, and mixed problems.
Development of a Strain Rate Dependent Long Bone Injury Criterion for Use with the ATB Model.
1982-01-12
of safety; or some other criterion such as maximum strain or strain energy . At present the ultimate strength, reduced by a factor of safety, is thought...NOT STORED IN THE ARRAY 00000410 - OR WRITTEN TO THE DISK OR PRINTER. 00000420 00000430 NP = THE NUMBER O? RECORDS THAT OCCUR BETWEEN PAGE HEADERS...00000220 00000230 POTATE "OTHER CONSTRAINT FORCE" LOCATION TO X-AXIAL COORDINATES 00000240 WITH THE ORIGIN AT THE. PROXIMAL JOINT 00000250 00000260 DO 3 I
1982-12-01
multiattribute value functions. Operations Research, 1979, 27, 810-822. Fishburn, P. Utility theory for decision making. New York: Wiley, 1970...Psychology, 1980, 21, 66-82. v. Winterfeldt, D. and Fischer, G.W. Multiattribute utility theory : models and assessment procedres. In D. Wendt and...plicative value functions: A criterion _____________ validation of multiattribute utility 6. 7EPPORMING ONG. RgPeR? NUgMBER techn iclues 82-1 AijWOR*JS
An Anisotropic Partial Regularity Criterion for the Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kukavica, Igor; Rusin, Walter; Ziane, Mohammed
2017-03-01
In this paper, we address the partial regularity of suitable weak solutions of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. We prove an interior regularity criterion involving only one component of the velocity. Namely, if ( u, p) is a suitable weak solution and a certain scale-invariant quantity involving only u 3 is small on a space-time cylinder {{Qr^{*}}(x_0,t_0)}, then u is regular at ( x 0, t 0).
An excitation spectrum criterion for the vibration-induced fatigue of small bore pipes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moussou, P.
2003-09-01
The purpose of the study is to determine an easy-to-use criterion to evaluate the risk of vibration-induced fatigue of small bore pipes. The failure mechanism considered is the resonant amplification of a stationary broadband excitation by the main pipe, leading to bending stresses above the fatigue limit of the steel. Based on the Euler beam theory, a simple model is built up for the natural mode shapes of the small bore pipe close to its root. It is shown that the velocity spectrum at the root of the small bore pipe is equal to the r.m.s. value of the bending stress multiplied by a function of the natural frequency, the damping coefficient, the speed of elastic waves in the steel, Young's modulus and a nondimensional factor weakly depending on the geometry of the small bore pipe. A maximum velocity spectrum can then be deduced, assuming that a small bore pipe vibrates mainly on its natural mode shapes. The maximum excitation spectrum is defined for each frequency f as the one which would generate a maximum bending stress equal to the endurance limit of the steel, would the small bore pipe have a natural frequency equal to f. Using envelope values of the nondimensional factor, the stress intensification factor, the peak factor and the endurance limit of the steel, one obtains the following maximum velocity spectrum for the stainless steel: v<6mm/s/sqrt(f), and the following maximum velocity spectrum for the ferritic steel: v<2.7mm/s/sqrt(f). The velocity spectrum criterion appears less penalizing than the 12mm/s criterion and more conservative than the strict enforcement of the ANSI-OM3 standard. Comparisons with former plant studies show that the velocity spectrum criterion leads to the correct fatigue diagnosis.
2007-11-02
BAROREFLEX SENSITIVITY ESTIMATION BY THE TRANSFER FUNCTION METHOD REVISED: EFFECT OF CHANGING THE COHERENCE CRITERION G.D. Pinna1, R. Maestri1, G...In this study we appraised three new criteria for the computation of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) using the transfer function magnitude (TFM) method... Baroreflex sensitivity , spectral analysis, transfer function I. INTRODUCTION Among the different spectral methods proposed so far for the estimation of
On the Gap-opening Criterion of Migrating Planets in Protoplanetary Disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malik, M.; Meru, F.; Mayer, L.; Meyer, M.
2015-03-01
We perform two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations to quantitatively explore the torque balance criterion for gap-opening (as formulated by Crida et al.) in a variety of disks when considering a migrating planet. We find that even when the criterion is satisfied, there are instances when planets still do not open gaps. We stress that gap-opening is not only dependent on whether a planet has the ability to open a gap, but whether it can do so quickly enough. This can be expressed as an additional condition on the gap-opening timescale, {{t}gap}, versus the crossing time, {{t}cross}, i.e., the time it takes the planet to cross the region which it is carving out. While this point has been briefly made in the previous literature, our results quantify it for a range of protoplanetary disk properties and planetary masses, demonstrating how crucial it is for gap-opening. This additional condition has important implications for the survival of planets formed by core accretion in low mass disks as well as giant planets or brown dwarfs formed by gravitational instability in massive disks. It is particularly important for planets with intermediate masses susceptible to Type III-like migration. For some observed transition disks or disks with gaps, we expect that estimates on the potential planet masses based on the torque balance gap-opening criterion alone may not be sufficient. With consideration of this additional timescale criterion theoretical studies may find a reduced planet survivability or that planets may migrate further inwards before opening a gap.
Ignition criterion and safety prediction of explosives under low velocity impact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Danzhu; Chen, Pengwan; Zhou, Qiang; Dai, Kaida
2013-09-01
Due to the complexity of impact-induced reaction, it is difficult to predict and evaluate the ignition and safety of explosives under low velocity impact. Plastic deformation is very important to explosive ignition under impact loading. At low strain rates, plastic deformation can be treated as an isothermal process. The deformation under high-strain-rate is usually seen as an adiabatic process, and the deformation work is transformed into heat with the attendant temperature increase of the explosive. In this paper, we proposed an ignition criterion in terms of effective plastic work and specific plastic power to predict the ignition of explosives under low velocity impact. The plastic work begins to accumulate, when the specific plastic power (i.e., the plastic strain rate) in a local region meets a threshold value; and when the plastic work is sufficient enough, the ignition occurs. The criterion parameters are determined by numerical simulation using LS-DYNA. Numerical simulation is compared with experimental data in order to calibrate the numerical model. The threshold values of this ignition criterion for different configurations are determined. In order to evaluate the validity of the criterion, the predictions of the ignition time, ignition zone, threshold velocities in Steven test with different PBX size designs and various projectiles, as well as the ignition threshold conditions in a modified drop weight test, Susan test, and Spigot test, are carried out. The predicted results show a good agreement with experimental results, and the errors of the ignition threshold are less than 15% for all the experimental configurations.
A termination criterion for parameter estimation in stochastic models in systems biology.
Zimmer, Christoph; Sahle, Sven
2015-11-01
Parameter estimation procedures are a central aspect of modeling approaches in systems biology. They are often computationally expensive, especially when the models take stochasticity into account. Typically parameter estimation involves the iterative optimization of an objective function that describes how well the model fits some measured data with a certain set of parameter values. In order to limit the computational expenses it is therefore important to apply an adequate stopping criterion for the optimization process, so that the optimization continues at least until a reasonable fit is obtained, but not much longer. In the case of stochastic modeling, at least some parameter estimation schemes involve an objective function that is itself a random variable. This means that plain convergence tests are not a priori suitable as stopping criteria. This article suggests a termination criterion suited to optimization problems in parameter estimation arising from stochastic models in systems biology. The termination criterion is developed for optimization algorithms that involve populations of parameter sets, such as particle swarm or evolutionary algorithms. It is based on comparing the variance of the objective function over the whole population of parameter sets with the variance of repeated evaluations of the objective function at the best parameter set. The performance is demonstrated for several different algorithms. To test the termination criterion we choose polynomial test functions as well as systems biology models such as an Immigration-Death model and a bistable genetic toggle switch. The genetic toggle switch is an especially challenging test case as it shows a stochastic switching between two steady states which is qualitatively different from the model behavior in a deterministic model.
2011-11-01
closed-form approximate yield criteria were obtained for both spherical and cylindrical voids. Numerical studies have been conducted to verify and...developed criterion for plastic anisotropic med- ia displaying strength–differential effects is assessed through com- parison with numerical results...element X, composed of a homogeneous rigid-plastic matrix and a traction-free void. The matrix material is described by a convex yield function u(r) in