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Sample records for briggs criterion

  1. "The Snowman" by Raymond Briggs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the classic children's book "The Snowman," by Raymond Briggs, and lists connections to the book in different formats; extension ideas; other picture books that feature snow; information books about snow; videos; a CD-ROM; Web sites related to the book; and Web sites with information about snow. (LRW)

  2. "The Snowman" by Raymond Briggs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the classic children's book "The Snowman," by Raymond Briggs, and lists connections to the book in different formats; extension ideas; other picture books that feature snow; information books about snow; videos; a CD-ROM; Web sites related to the book; and Web sites with information about snow. (LRW)

  3. Affirmative: In Support of Researching the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, John G.

    1989-01-01

    Updates 1985 review of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) noting recent criterion-based assessments of the MBTI remain largely unsystematic theoretically but generally positive. Claims more methodologically sophisticated approaches have been developed. Concludes that it seems premature to reject the MBTI owing either to its dichotomous approach to…

  4. Myers-Briggs typology and Jungian individuation.

    PubMed

    Myers, Steve

    2016-06-01

    Myers-Briggs typology is widely seen as equivalent to and representative of Jungian theory by the users of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and similar questionnaires. However, the omission of the transcendent function from the theory, and the use of typological functions as its foundation, has resulted in an inadvertent reframing of the process of individuation. This is despite some attempts to integrate individuation and typology, and reintroduce the transcendent function into Myers-Briggs theory. This paper examines the differing views of individuation in Myers-Briggs and Jungian theory, and some of the challenges of reconciling those differences, particularly in the context of normality. It proposes eight principles, drawn mainly from Jungian and classical post-Jungian work, that show how individuation as a process can be integrated with contemporary Myers-Briggs typology. These principles show individuation as being a natural process that can be encouraged outside of the analytic process. They make use of a wide range of opposites as well as typological functions, whilst being centred on the transcendent function. Central to the process is the alchemical image of the caduceus and a practical interpretation of the axiom of Maria, both of which Jung used to illustrate the process of individuation. © 2016, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  5. The Myers-Briggs Type of College Student Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darst, Kimberly Vess

    2001-01-01

    Determined the Myers-Briggs type for 149 undergraduate students holding leadership positions in student organizations. Found that college student leaders tent to be Extraverted, Sensing, Thinking, and Judging on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. (EV)

  6. The Myers-Briggs Type of College Student Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darst, Kimberly Vess

    2001-01-01

    Determined the Myers-Briggs type for 149 undergraduate students holding leadership positions in student organizations. Found that college student leaders tent to be Extraverted, Sensing, Thinking, and Judging on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. (EV)

  7. 75 FR 10318 - Briggs & Stratton Power Products Group, LLC., Home Power Division, a Subsidiary of Briggs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ..., Schweiger Warehouse, a Subsidiary of Briggs & Stratton Corporation Including On-Site Leased Workers of... the subject firm; Schweiger Warehouse, Jefferson, Wisconsin and the Watertown, Wisconsin locations. Accordingly, the Department is amending the certification to include workers of the Schweiger...

  8. Using the Myers Briggs Type Indicator - part of the solution.

    PubMed

    Allen, Judy

    1994-05-12

    The Myers Briggs Type Indicator, which is based on the work of Jung, is used in an infinite variety of settings to enhance learning, personal development and team building. This article describes its particular relevance to the nursing profession. (N.B. Isabel Myers used the name Isabel Briggs Myers for publication purposes. The Indicator is termed Myers Briggs in order to indicate the involvement of her mother in its development.).

  9. Dr. William Briggs: ophthalmic physician at St. Thomas' Hospital, London.

    PubMed

    Winstanley, J

    2001-01-01

    William Briggs, MD, established himself as one of the first ophthalmic physicians, whom today we would call a neuro-ophthalmologist, to practice in the United Kingdom. After graduating with an MD from Cambridge in 1677, and while a Fellow of Corpus Christi College, he carried out original studies in visual anatomy and physiology. He described and named the optic papilla and the retinal nerve fibers in his book Ophthalmographia, published in 1676. He published his New Theory of Vision in 1682. While at Cambridge, he was a contemporary and a friend of Isaac Newton, with whom Briggs worked but who, in matters of visual anatomy and physiology, came to reach different conclusions from Briggs. In 1683, Briggs came to London to practice as a physician at St. Thomas' Hospital, where he established a considerable reputation as an ophthalmologist. For political reasons he was forced to resign from the Hospital prematurely.

  10. Joanna Briggs Institute: an evidence-based practice database.

    PubMed

    Vardell, Emily; Malloy, Michele

    2013-01-01

    The Joanna Briggs Institute Evidence-Based Practice Database offers systematic reviews, practice recommendations, and consumer information designed to support evidence-based practice. A sample search was conducted within the Ovid platform to demonstrate functionality and available tools.

  11. One legacy of Lord Briggs is the value placed on nurse research.

    PubMed

    Adams, John

    2016-03-23

    The announcement of the death of Asa Briggs - Lord Briggs of Lewes - on March 15 brings to mind the debt the nursing profession owes his wise stewardship of a committee that examined aspects of the profession.

  12. The life and scientific contributions of Lyman J. Briggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, Edward R.; Nimmo, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Lyman J. Briggs (1874-1963), an early twentieth century physicist at the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), made many significant contributions to our understanding of soil-water and plant-water interactions. He began his career at the Bureau of Soils (BOS) in 1896. At age 23, Briggs published (1897) a description of the roles of surface tension and gravity in determining the state of static soilmoisture. Concepts he presented remain central to this subject more than 100 yr later. With J. W. McLane, Briggs developed the "moisture equivalent" concept (a precursor to the idea of field capacity) and a centrifuge apparatus for measuring it. Briggs left the BOS at the end of 1905, under pressure from Milton Whitney, and moved to the Bureau of Plant Industry. Briggs' multi-state experiments with H. L. Shantz on water-use efficiencies showed that in a climate like that of the Great Plains, plants use water more productively in the cooler north than in the warmer south. In 1920, he moved from the USDA to the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), rising to Director in 1933. Among his other contributions to the American scientific community was his leadership, beginning in 1939, of a top secret committee that evolved into the Manhattan Project to develop an atomic bomb during World War II. A life-long baseball fan, Briggs at age 84, studied the speed, spin, and deflection of the curve ball, aided by manager Cookie Lavagetto and the pitching staff of the Washington Senators; he published these findings in a paper in the American Journal of Physics in 1959.

  13. An assessment of the Myers-Briggs Type indicator.

    PubMed

    Carlyn, M

    1977-10-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the Myers-Briggs Type indicator is presented, including a description of the four personality scales measured by the instrument, a summary of the scoring process, and an extensive review of intercorrelation studies, reliability studies, and validity studies conducted with the Indicator. Results of the studies indicate that the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is an adequately reliable self-report inventory. The Extraversion-Introversion Sensation-Intuition, and Thinking-Feeling scales appear to be relatively independent of each other, measuring dimensions of personality which seem to be quite similar to those postulated by Carl Jung.

  14. Myers-Briggs Type Inventory Personality Preferences and Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Werner; Meth, Hilda

    1989-01-01

    A study to determine if there are any relationships between the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory personality preferences and academic performance in schools of pharmacy is discussed. Differences in academic performance that could be related to gender are reported. (Author/MLW)

  15. Myers-Briggs Type Inventory Personality Preferences and Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Werner; Meth, Hilda

    1989-01-01

    A study to determine if there are any relationships between the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory personality preferences and academic performance in schools of pharmacy is discussed. Differences in academic performance that could be related to gender are reported. (Author/MLW)

  16. Credible Immigration Policy Reform: A Response to Briggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orrenius, Pia M.; Zavodny, Madeline

    2012-01-01

    The authors agree with Vernon M. Briggs, Jr., that U.S. immigration policy has had unexpected consequences. The 1965 immigration reforms led to unanticipated chain migration from developing countries whereas the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act failed to slow unauthorized immigration. The result is a large foreign-born population with…

  17. An Assessment of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlyn, Marcia

    1977-01-01

    The Myers Briggs Type Indicator is a self-report inventory developed to measure variables in Carl Jung's personality typology. The four personality scales measured by the instrument, and the scoring process are described, and an extensive review of the intercorrelation, reliability, and validity research is presented. (Author/MV)

  18. The Utility of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittenger, David J.

    1993-01-01

    The Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is evaluated using a unified view of test validity that requires that validity be considered from an approach requiring many sources of corroboration. A review of available literature suggests insufficient evidence to support the tenets and claims about the utility of the MBTI. (SLD)

  19. Credible Immigration Policy Reform: A Response to Briggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orrenius, Pia M.; Zavodny, Madeline

    2012-01-01

    The authors agree with Vernon M. Briggs, Jr., that U.S. immigration policy has had unexpected consequences. The 1965 immigration reforms led to unanticipated chain migration from developing countries whereas the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act failed to slow unauthorized immigration. The result is a large foreign-born population with…

  20. The Myers-Briggs type indicator--a management tool.

    PubMed

    Costello, K

    1993-05-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator can be an enlightening experience for managers as it uncovers blind spots as well as provides insight into managerial styles. This tool offers a way to build communication patterns that meet nurse managers' needs and the needs of the people they supervise.

  1. Item validity of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, O C; Outcalt, D; Boyer, S L; Ware, R; Landis, D

    1984-06-01

    The present study presents a brief summary of four extensive psychometric analyses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) items. Positive empirical evidence supports the MBTI item validity. However, several measurement issues on item construction were raised to caution the future users.

  2. Unified tensile fracture criterion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z F; Eckert, J

    2005-03-11

    We find that the classical failure criteria, i.e., maximum normal stress criterion, Tresca criterion, Mohr-Coulomb criterion, and von Mises criterion, cannot satisfactorily explain the tensile fracture behavior of the bulk metallic glass (BMG) materials. For a better description, we propose an ellipse criterion as a new failure criterion to unify the four classical criteria above and apply it to exemplarily describe the tensile fracture behavior of BMGs as well as a variety of other materials. It is suggested that each of the classical failure criteria can be unified by the present ellipse criterion depending on the difference of the ratio alpha=tau(0)/sigma(0).

  3. Myers Briggs Type Indicator, burnout, and satisfaction in Illinois dentists.

    PubMed

    Baran, Ronald B

    2005-01-01

    There is conflicting research concerning satisfaction and burnout levels in dentistry. High levels of burnout can have deleterious effects on the dentist, his or her family, and patients. A random sample of Illinois general dentists was examined using the Myers Briggs Type Indicator, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Dentist Satisfaction Survey, and a demographic questionnaire. Areas examined were the frequency of types compared to a base population as well as the relationship of type to levels of satisfaction, burnout, and demographic items. Three of the 16 Myers Briggs types were overrepresented in this sample, while two types were underrepresented. Slightly less than half of the dentists were satisfied with their profession; 7.4% had reached significant levels of burnout and 83% perceived dentistry as being "very stressful." The personality types overrepresented in dentistry tended to have a higher level of satisfaction and a lower level of burnout compared to their cohort group.

  4. Rethinking communication apprehension: a Myers-Briggs perspective.

    PubMed

    Opt, S K; Loffredo, D A

    2000-09-01

    This study is an examination of relationships between Myers-Briggs personality type preferences, based on Jungian theory, and communication apprehension. Results showed that participants who preferred introversion or sensing reported significantly higher levels of communication apprehension in general and across the group, dyadic, meeting, and public contexts than did participants who preferred extraversion or intuition. In addition, participants who preferred feeling reported higher levels of communication anxiety in the public context than those who preferred thinking. Findings support the assumption that communication apprehension is biologically based, suggest that the Myers-Briggs type preference framework offers an alternative way of understanding communication apprehension, and point out the need for new approaches to understanding the phenomenon of communication apprehension.

  5. Range criterion for separability

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Kil-Chan

    2010-12-15

    Horodecki formulated a remarkable criterion for separability, which is called the range criterion. This range criterion was mostly used to show that some states with positive partial transpose are entangled. In this Brief Report, we show that the range criterion is also useful to find a convex combination of product states for a separable state. For this purpose, we give an example of density matrix, which is separable in a 2 x 3 system and entangled in a 3 x 2 system at the same time. Then we illustrate the usefulness of the range criterion with this example.

  6. Photo-induced chaos in the Briggs-Rauscher reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okazaki, Noriaki; Hanazaki, Ichiro

    1998-07-01

    Discovery of the photo-induced chaos in the Briggs-Rauscher system is reported. The chaotic oscillations were observed between the large- and the small-amplitude simple oscillatory states existent in low and high light intensity regions, respectively. Period-doubling sequence from the large-amplitude oscillations to the chaos was observed. Deterministic nature of the chaos was confirmed by the next-amplitude return map. The stretching and folding mechanism of the trajectories was revealed through the three-dimensional attractor reconstructed via the singular value decomposition method. The chemical origin of the photoinduced chaos is discussed based on the photoautocatalysis of HIO2.

  7. The Myers-Briggs type indicator and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Thorne, B M; Fyfe, J H; Carskadon, T G

    1987-01-01

    Researchers have for many years attempted to establish a relationship between coronary heart disease (CHD) and personality type. In our study, 103 subjects completed Form G of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Comparisons were made between 93 CHD patients and an age-appropriate control group (Group C) on each of the four MBTI dimensions: Extraversion-Introversion, Sensing-Intuition, Thinking-Feeling, and Judging-Perceiving. The comparison between CHD patients and Group C showed that CHD patients were significantly more likely to prefer sensing and feeling.

  8. Myers-Briggs personality types of art collectors.

    PubMed

    Gridley, Mark C

    2004-04-01

    27 art collectors (13 men, 14 women) completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Their age range was 37 to 86 years and the mean 59.5 yr. Seventy percent were classified as Intuition types instead of Sensation types (versus its 25% incidence in the general population). This corresponds to personality profiles of artists and the disproportionately high incidence of high scores on the related Openness to Experience factor in studies of creative personalities, thereby supporting the contention that persons creating art and appreciating art have personality traits in common.

  9. A Technical Review of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator(tm).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Thomas J.

    This paper describes the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), developed by I. Myers and K. Briggs (1940s) to assess personality type. Based on Jungian theory, the MBTI has become a tool for identifying the 16 different patterns of action into which every person fits. The 16 personality types are based on patterns of: (1) extraversion-introversion;…

  10. Myers-Briggs® Preferences and Academic Success in the First College Semester

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanborn, Debra K.

    2013-01-01

    This research examined aspects of Myers-Briggs® preferences and academic success in the first college semester. Academic aptitude as measured by precollege characteristics of ACT and class rank, academic performance during the first semester of college, and Myers-Briggs preference were analyzed for their significance within a learning community at…

  11. Myers-Briggs® Preferences and Academic Success in the First College Semester

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanborn, Debra K.

    2013-01-01

    This research examined aspects of Myers-Briggs® preferences and academic success in the first college semester. Academic aptitude as measured by precollege characteristics of ACT and class rank, academic performance during the first semester of college, and Myers-Briggs preference were analyzed for their significance within a learning community at…

  12. Generalized energy failure criterion.

    PubMed

    Qu, R T; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, P; Liu, Z Q; Zhang, Z F

    2016-03-21

    Discovering a generalized criterion that can predict the mechanical failure of various different structural materials is one of ultimate goals for scientists in both material and mechanics communities. Since the first study on the failure criterion of materials by Galileo, about three centuries have passed. Now we eventually find the "generalized energy criterion", as presented here, which appears to be one universal law for various different kinds of materials. The validity of the energy criterion for quantitatively predicting the failure is experimentally confirmed using a metallic glass. The generalized energy criterion reveals the competition and interaction between shear and cleavage, the two fundamental inherent failure mechanisms, and thus provides new physical insights into the failure prediction of materials and structural components.

  13. Myers Briggs Type indicator personality profiles in unipolar depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Janowsky, David S; Hong, Elliot; Morter, Shirley; Howe, Laura

    2002-10-01

    The current study was designed to compare the distribution of Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality types in patients with Unipolar Depression compared to normative data. The MBTI divides individuals into four dichotomous types: Extroverted and Introverted, Sensing and Intuitive, Thinking and Feeling, and Judging and Perceiving. This yields eight single-factor and sixteen four-factor types. One-hundred-thirty Unipolar Depressed patients were administered the MBTI-Form F. Unipolar Depressed patients were significantly more often Introverted, Sensing, Feeling, and Perceiving single-factor types respectively, and Introverted-Sensing-Feeling-Perceiving, and Introverted-Intuitive-Feeling-Perceiving four-factor types. The male Introverted-Sensing-Feeling-Perceiving four-factor type was the most dramatically over-represented. The MBTI effectively discriminates a patient group with Unipolar Depression from a normative population.

  14. A comparative view of the Myers-Briggs type indicator.

    PubMed

    Eicke, F J; Blake, G; Replogle, W

    1993-03-01

    Many family practice residency programs use the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) in the process of resident advising. The purpose of this study was to validate the MBTI with an alternative personality evaluation instrument. We evaluated 44 residents with both the MBTI and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) and computed correlation coefficients. The highest correlations between the two tests were for the Extraversion/Introversion dimension of personality (r = -.71). The 16PF factors of Tough Poise, Independence, and Superego/Control were also significantly correlated with items on the MBTI. The Anxiety dimension of the 16PF yielded no significant correlations with the MBTI. The Extraversion/Introversion variables of the MBTI and 16PF are highly correlated. Other variables on the 16PF and MBTI are also correlated.

  15. Recent assessments of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    PubMed

    Carlson, J G

    1985-08-01

    The present paper focuses on approximately two dozen recent published studies that examined reliability and validity of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) in clinical, counseling, and research settings. Several assessments of split-half and test-retest reliability of the standard Form F and shorter Form G of the Inventory have yielded generally satisfactory correlations for all four scales. A larger number of studies of construct validity of the MBTI have yielded support for research hypotheses in situations ranging from correlations of the MBTI with a personality inventory, to couples problems in a counseling setting, to line judgment in groups, and others. Therefore, the applications of the MBTI have been broad, although somewhat unsystematic, and with generally favorable validity assessment. Continued attempts to validate the instrument in a variety of settings are needed.

  16. Generalized energy failure criterion

    PubMed Central

    Qu, R. T.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, P.; Liu, Z. Q.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2016-01-01

    Discovering a generalized criterion that can predict the mechanical failure of various different structural materials is one of ultimate goals for scientists in both material and mechanics communities. Since the first study on the failure criterion of materials by Galileo, about three centuries have passed. Now we eventually find the “generalized energy criterion”, as presented here, which appears to be one universal law for various different kinds of materials. The validity of the energy criterion for quantitatively predicting the failure is experimentally confirmed using a metallic glass. The generalized energy criterion reveals the competition and interaction between shear and cleavage, the two fundamental inherent failure mechanisms, and thus provides new physical insights into the failure prediction of materials and structural components. PMID:26996781

  17. Self-Selection Patterns of College Roommates as Identified by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anchors, W. Scott; Hale, John, Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated patterns and processes by which students (N=422) made unassisted roommate pairings within residence halls using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Results indicated introverts, intuitives, feelers, and perceivers each tended to self-select. (BL)

  18. Seven Scales for the Minnesota-Briggs History Record With Reference Group Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Peter F.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    The Minnesota-Briggs History Record (M-B) is a self-administered history inventory. This monograph summarizes studies of the M-B and describes the development of seven scales based upon M-B items. (Authors)

  19. Seven Scales for the Minnesota-Briggs History Record With Reference Group Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Peter F.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    The Minnesota-Briggs History Record (M-B) is a self-administered history inventory. This monograph summarizes studies of the M-B and describes the development of seven scales based upon M-B items. (Authors)

  20. Using the Myers Briggs Type Indicator--part of the solution?

    PubMed

    Allen, J

    The Myers Briggs Type Indicator, which is based on the work of Jung, is used in an infinite variety of settings to enhance learning, personal development and team building. This article describes its particular relevance to the nursing profession.

  1. An Empirical Kaiser Criterion.

    PubMed

    Braeken, Johan; van Assen, Marcel A L M

    2016-03-31

    In exploratory factor analysis (EFA), most popular methods for dimensionality assessment such as the screeplot, the Kaiser criterion, or-the current gold standard-parallel analysis, are based on eigenvalues of the correlation matrix. To further understanding and development of factor retention methods, results on population and sample eigenvalue distributions are introduced based on random matrix theory and Monte Carlo simulations. These results are used to develop a new factor retention method, the Empirical Kaiser Criterion. The performance of the Empirical Kaiser Criterion and parallel analysis is examined in typical research settings, with multiple scales that are desired to be relatively short, but still reliable. Theoretical and simulation results illustrate that the new Empirical Kaiser Criterion performs as well as parallel analysis in typical research settings with uncorrelated scales, but much better when scales are both correlated and short. We conclude that the Empirical Kaiser Criterion is a powerful and promising factor retention method, because it is based on distribution theory of eigenvalues, shows good performance, is easily visualized and computed, and is useful for power analysis and sample size planning for EFA. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and dental school performance.

    PubMed

    Jones, A C; Courts, F J; Sandow, P L; Watson, R E

    1997-12-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was administered to 256 dental students, representing four classes, at the University of Florida College of Dentistry. The results of this psychological instrument were then correlated with overall dental school performance based on results from the National Dental Board Examinations Part I and II (NB-I, NB-II), yearly class rank, and specific academic difficulties as measured by the Student Performance Evaluation Committee. Introverted students were found to display a significantly increased performance on NB-I (p = .038) and NB-II (p = .044). They were also found, however, to demonstrate a progressively lower class rank over the four-year period than extroverted students and were more likely to experience major academic difficulties as well. Judging and sensing individuals were found to earn a higher class rank over the four-year period than perceiving and intuitive students, respectively. Perceiving students were found to exhibit major difficulties or were placed on probation more often than judging individuals. These results may prove useful in counseling students to recognize potential problems before they commence their dental education or to anticipate and address specific weaknesses during the course of their education.

  3. Pollen Dispersal by Catapult: Experiments of Lyman J. Briggs on the Flower of Mountain Laurel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmo, John R.; Hermann, Paula M.; Kirkham, M. B.; Landa, Edward R.

    2014-09-01

    The flower of Kalmia latifolia L. employs a catapult mechanism that flings its pollen to considerable distances. Physicist Lyman J. Briggs investigated this phenomenon in the 1950s after retiring as longtime director of the National Bureau of Standards, attempting to explain how hydromechanical effects inside the flower's stamen could make it possible. Briggs's unfinished manuscript implies that liquid under negative pressure generates stress, which, superimposed on the stress generated from the flower's growth habit, results in force adequate to propel the pollen as observed. With new data and biophysical understanding to supplement Briggs's experimental results and research notes, we show that his postulated negative-pressure mechanism did not play the exclusive and crucial role that he credited to it, though his revisited investigation sheds light on various related processes. Important issues concerning the development and reproductive function of Kalmia flowers remain unresolved, highlighting the need for further biophysical advances.

  4. Effects of Joint Interpretation of the Strong Interest Inventory and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator in Career Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Louise; Joyner, John W.; Seaman, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    Students completed either the Strong Interest Inventory (n=114) or Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (n=108), both (n=99), or none (n=106). Twelve weeks after interpretation, those who completed both showed more change, specificity, or certainty in their career goal. The Myers-Briggs proved as helpful as Strong in career decision making. (SK)

  5. Effects of Joint Interpretation of the Strong Interest Inventory and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator in Career Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Louise; Joyner, John W.; Seaman, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    Students completed either the Strong Interest Inventory (n=114) or Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (n=108), both (n=99), or none (n=106). Twelve weeks after interpretation, those who completed both showed more change, specificity, or certainty in their career goal. The Myers-Briggs proved as helpful as Strong in career decision making. (SK)

  6. Relationship between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Gregorc Style Delineator.

    PubMed

    Harasym, P H; Leong, E J; Juschka, B B; Lucier, G E; Lorscheider, F L

    1996-06-01

    The relationship between the Myers-briggs Type Indicator and Gregorc Style Delineator, and achievement was examined by administering these instruments to 259 first-year nursing students enrolled in an introductory human anatomy and physiology course. A principal component factor analysis using a varimax rotation of the scores from the two psychometric instruments, achievement examinations and an over-all grade point average indicated that each learning style from the Gregorc Style Delineator corresponds to certain traits on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. An individual who had a preference for the learning style of Concrete Sequential tended to have the traits of sensing and judging on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, while an individual who used the learning style of Concrete Random tended to have the traits of intuition and perceiving on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. One who had a preference for the learning style of Abstract Sequential tended to use the trait of thinking while another who used the learning style of Abstract Random tended to have the trait of feeling. The factor analysis also indicates no relationship of any scores of the traits on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator or learning styles of the Gregorc Style Delineator with the examination scores achieved in the human anatomy and physiology course or to the students' over-all grade point average. However, factor analysis indicates that the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator traits of Judging vs Perceiving collapsed into the Sensing vs Intuition scale, and that the Gregorc Style Delineator consists of two bipolar scales that are different from those proposed by Gregorc.

  7. Probabilistic Threshold Criterion

    SciTech Connect

    Gresshoff, M; Hrousis, C A

    2010-03-09

    The Probabilistic Shock Threshold Criterion (PSTC) Project at LLNL develops phenomenological criteria for estimating safety or performance margin on high explosive (HE) initiation in the shock initiation regime, creating tools for safety assessment and design of initiation systems and HE trains in general. Until recently, there has been little foundation for probabilistic assessment of HE initiation scenarios. This work attempts to use probabilistic information that is available from both historic and ongoing tests to develop a basis for such assessment. Current PSTC approaches start with the functional form of the James Initiation Criterion as a backbone, and generalize to include varying areas of initiation and provide a probabilistic response based on test data for 1.8 g/cc (Ultrafine) 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and LX-17 (92.5% TATB, 7.5% Kel-F 800 binder). Application of the PSTC methodology is presented investigating the safety and performance of a flying plate detonator and the margin of an Ultrafine TATB booster initiating LX-17.

  8. Unified Bohm criterion

    SciTech Connect

    Kos, L.; Tskhakaya, D. D.; Jelić, N.

    2015-09-15

    Recent decades have seen research into the conditions necessary for the formation of the monotonic potential shape in the sheath, appearing at the plasma boundaries like walls, in fluid, and kinetic approximations separately. Although either of these approaches yields a formulation commonly known as the much-acclaimed Bohm criterion (BC), the respective results involve essentially different physical quantities that describe the ion gas behavior. In the fluid approach, such a quantity is clearly identified as the ion directional velocity. In the kinetic approach, the ion behavior is formulated via a quantity (the squared inverse velocity averaged by the ion distribution function) without any clear physical significance, which is, moreover, impractical. In the present paper, we try to explain this difference by deriving a condition called here the Unified Bohm Criterion, which combines an advanced fluid model with an upgraded explicit kinetic formula in a new form of the BC. By introducing a generalized polytropic coefficient function, the unified BC can be interpreted in a form that holds, irrespective of whether the ions are described kinetically or in the fluid approximation.

  9. Myers-Briggs Attitude Typology: The Influence of Birth Order with Other Family Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansbury, Virginia K.; Coll, Kenneth M.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the influence of birth order with parenting style, age spacing, gender, and socioeconomic status on the Myers-Briggs attitude scales of Extroversion/Introversion and Judging/Perceiving. Results indicate that age spacing interacted with birth order to influence Extroversion/Introversion scores. Parenting style and gender interacted…

  10. Myers-Briggs Attitude Typology: The Influence of Birth Order with Other Family Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansbury, Virginia K.; Coll, Kenneth M.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the influence of birth order with parenting style, age spacing, gender, and socioeconomic status on the Myers-Briggs attitude scales of Extroversion/Introversion and Judging/Perceiving. Results indicate that age spacing interacted with birth order to influence Extroversion/Introversion scores. Parenting style and gender interacted…

  11. Enhancing Student Team Effectiveness: Application of Myers-Briggs Personality Assessment in Business Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Christie H.; Amato, Louis H.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between student perceptions of team learning experience and communication style. Student group learning perceptions were evaluated and team communication style was measured using dyads derived from Myers-Briggs personality profiles. Groups containing similar personalities were classified as compatible,…

  12. Myers-Briggs Type Indicators and Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory Correlations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    Astrologies ," Theology Today, page 292. 2. Ron Zemke, "Second Thoughts About the MBTI," Training, April 1993, page 43. 3. Otto Kroeger and Janet M. Theusen...March 1990): 30-32. Long, Thomas. "Myers-Briggs and Other Modern Astrologies ." Theology Today. 291-294. Reis, Dayr A. and John H. Button. "Bureaucracy and

  13. Age Group Differences and Estimated Frequencies of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, William H., III

    1995-01-01

    Reports results of analyses of key tables in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Atlas of Type Tables. Significant age group effects on every dimension indicates the need to reestimate population norms for each continuum on the MBTI for interpreting scores of people of various ages. (LKS)

  14. A Description and Evaluation of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stricker, Lawrence J.; Ross, John

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a Jungian-oriented self-report inventory which classifies people into dichotomous categories along four scales: extraversion-introversion, sensation-intuition, thinking-feeling, and judgment-perception. Introduced in 1942, the scoring and items have changed after several items analyses. Form F contains 51 phrase…

  15. Prediction of Academic Success with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). AIR Forum 1981 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hengstler, Dennis D.; And Others

    The relationship between personality characteristics and academic success of college freshmen at a predominantly female campus was studied, using the Myers-Briggs Type indicator (MBTI) to measure personality and first-year grade point average to measure academic success. The comparative effectiveness of the MBTI and the traditional predictors…

  16. Enhancing Student Team Effectiveness: Application of Myers-Briggs Personality Assessment in Business Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Christie H.; Amato, Louis H.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between student perceptions of team learning experience and communication style. Student group learning perceptions were evaluated and team communication style was measured using dyads derived from Myers-Briggs personality profiles. Groups containing similar personalities were classified as compatible,…

  17. Myers-Briggs Psychological Type and Achievement in Anatomy and Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harasym, P. H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Results from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) for 259 nursing students were compared with achievement on examinations in an anatomy and physiology course. Factor analysis demonstrated no relationship between examination scores and any of the individual personality traits purported to be measured by MBTI. Analysis of variance revealed no…

  18. Teacher's Myers-Briggs Personality Profiles: Identifying Effective Teacher Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Stephen; Morgan, Jackson; Richard, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Inventory (MBTI) and Beiderman Risk Taking (BRT) scale were administered to 58 teachers living in the state of Florida, USA. These teachers are considered part of prestigious group of educators who were nominated into the Florida League of Teachers by their superintendents/directors. Descriptive data includes frequency and…

  19. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator as a Measure of Aspects of Cognitive Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, John C.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationships between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) scales and established measures of field dependence-independence and cognitive complexity using female college students (N=79). Found subscales correlated significantly with measures of field dependence-independence but not with measure of cognitive complexity. Found MBTI measured…

  20. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: A Measure for Individuals and Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaulley, Mary H.

    1990-01-01

    Describes Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Looks at history and development of the MBTI, characteristics, scores, Jung's theory of lifelong development, the dynamic interaction of the four functions measured by the MBTI, the construction of the MBTI, use with groups, how to use type tables, and use of the MBTI in career counseling. (NB)

  1. Essentials of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator[R] Assessment. Essentials of Psychological Assessment Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quenk, Naomi L.

    This book provides step-by-step guidance on the administration, scoring, and interpretation of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator[R] (MBTI). The book also contains assessment of the test's strengths and weaknesses, advice on its clinical applications, and several case reports. The chapters are: (1) "Overview"; (2) "How To Administer…

  2. Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator in the Social Work Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviles, Christopher B.

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is one of the most popular measures of personality available today and has been taken by over 12 million people. The MBTI has been successfully utilized for personal and marriage counseling, conflict and stress management, and understanding learning styles. It is perfect for the social work classroom because…

  3. A Higher Order Analysis of the Factor Structure of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William L.; Mauzey, Edward; Johnson, Annabel M.; Murphy, Stanley D.; Zimmerman, Kurt J.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the higher order structure of Form G of the Myers Briggs Type Indicator. A third order component analysis of a sample (N=926) found two higher order components. This higher order analysis contributes to the research literature pertaining to the generalized structure of the personality measure. (Contains 44 references and 1 table.) (GCP)

  4. Properties of a photonic crystal formed in a solution featuring the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usanov, D. A.; Rytik, A. P.

    2016-06-01

    It is shown that a solution featuring the Briggs-Rauscher (BR) oscillating chemical reaction can exhibit the properties of a photonic crystal with alternating bandgap width. Thicknesses and dielectric permittivities of structural elements in the BR reaction solution have been determined by measuring the reflection and transmission spectra of microwave radiation in the range of 5-8 GHz.

  5. Utilizing the Myers-Briggs Personality Inventory in Employee Assistance Program Workplace Seminars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviles, Christopher B.

    Social work educators are being called upon more often to deliver employee workplace seminars for community agencies on a variety of topics ranging from burnout and stress management to improving workplace communication and managing workplace conflicts. One tool that addresses workplace communication is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). It…

  6. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Teaching-Learning Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaulley, Mary H.

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was developed specifically to make possible the implementation of Carl Jung's theory of type and is concerned mainly with conscious elements of the personality. It assumes that to function well, an individual must have a well-developed system for perception and a well-developed system for making decisions or…

  7. Survey of Librarians Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Form G Self-Scorable).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Alan

    A survey conducted in February 1990 asked 100 librarians to respond to a mailed Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), a widely used personality survey that determines Jungian personality types. The results of the MBTI can be applied to building work teams in the library. Forty-eight librarians responded to the survey. Their responses were tallied…

  8. Teacher's Myers-Briggs Personality Profiles: Identifying Effective Teacher Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Stephen; Morgan, Jackson; Richard, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Inventory (MBTI) and Beiderman Risk Taking (BRT) scale were administered to 58 teachers living in the state of Florida, USA. These teachers are considered part of prestigious group of educators who were nominated into the Florida League of Teachers by their superintendents/directors. Descriptive data includes frequency and…

  9. Differences in Myers-Briggs Personality Types among High School Band, Orchestra, and Choir Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLellan, Christin Reardon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore personality type differences among high school band, string orchestra, and choir students according to ensemble membership. Participants (N = 355) were high school students who had participated in their school's band, orchestra, or choir for 1 year or more. The author administered the Myers-Briggs Type…

  10. Opposition from Christians to Myers-Briggs Personality Typing: An Analysis and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, John B.

    2007-01-01

    Myers-Briggs personality typing is widely used in the Christian church as an aid to individual self-understanding and spiritual formation. However, some Christian leaders have expressed doubt about its validity in understanding human personality and also opposition to its use in nurturing spiritual growth. The aim of the work reported was to…

  11. Personality Characteristics of South Korean Students with Visual Impairments Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bak, Sunhi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study presented here was designed to determine whether there were significant differences in the frequency and preference scores of personality functions and the frequency of personality types, as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), by gender, school level, and level of visual function, of students with visual…

  12. Two Approaches to Examining the Stability of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Daniel W.; Forney, Deanna S.; Evans, Nancy J.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, two approaches are used to assess the stability of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator scores across 3 administrations (N = 231): longitudinal configural frequency analysis with categorical scores and generalizability theory with the Preference Clarity Indices and continuous scores. The results are generally positive. Evaluation of…

  13. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Score Reliability across Studies: A Meta-Analytic Reliability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capraro, Robert M.; Capraro, Mary Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Submitted the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) to a descriptive reliability generalization analysis to characterize the variability of measurement error in MBTI scores across administrations. In general the MBTI and its scales yielded scores with strong internal consistency and test-retest reliability estimates. (SLD)

  14. A Higher Order Analysis of the Factor Structure of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William L.; Mauzey, Edward; Johnson, Annabel M.; Murphy, Stanley D.; Zimmerman, Kurt J.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the higher order structure of Form G of the Myers Briggs Type Indicator. A third order component analysis of a sample (N=926) found two higher order components. This higher order analysis contributes to the research literature pertaining to the generalized structure of the personality measure. (Contains 44 references and 1 table.) (GCP)

  15. Interpreting the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to Help Clients in Understanding Their Strong Interest Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Charles C.

    2000-01-01

    Scores of 370 adults on the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) were correlated with General Occupational Theme (GOT) scores on the Strong Interest Inventory. Simple categorical MBTI scores were related modestly to Strong GOT scores as expected; individual continuous scores did not account for more variance in GOT than in categorical scores. (SK)

  16. Use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) with Physicians: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, David H.

    This document reviews the research on the use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), with medical students and physicians. The MBTI is a paper-and-pencil instrument based on C. G. Jung's theory of personality typology. The introductory section of the review describes the MBTI and explains its dimensions (extroverted versus introverted, sensing…

  17. General Psychology Assessment and Course Satisfaction Compared with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Gloria D.

    A study involving 211 students enrolled in eight sections of a general psychology course at Brevard Community College was conducted to determine if the course activities and testing methods were biased toward certain personality types, as defined by the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory (MBTI); and to evaluate the usefulness of the MBTI as a learning…

  18. Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and Jungian Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Correlation of Extraversion-Introversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Robert S.; Kelly, Thomas J.

    1976-01-01

    C. G. Jung and H. J. Eysenck developed concepts of extraversion-introversion from radically different theoretical orientations. It is hypothesized that given the methods and content similarity of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Extraversion-Introversion scales of the inventories will be significantly…

  19. Effects of additives on the oscillations of the Briggs-Rauscher reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervellati, R.; Furrow, S. D.

    2013-12-01

    Perturbations with chemical species that have dissimilar physico-chemical properties, such as bromide ions, polyphenols or iron complexes, are often used to investigate the detailed molecular mechanism of the Briggs-Rauscher (BR) oscillating reaction. We describe in this review the effects caused by some of these species and present their mechanistic interpretations. Some new original results are also reported.

  20. Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and Jungian Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Correlation of Extraversion-Introversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Robert S.; Kelly, Thomas J.

    1976-01-01

    C. G. Jung and H. J. Eysenck developed concepts of extraversion-introversion from radically different theoretical orientations. It is hypothesized that given the methods and content similarity of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Extraversion-Introversion scales of the inventories will be significantly…

  1. Relationship Between Personality Types on the Strong-Campbell and Myers-Briggs Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Michael; Weissman, Shel

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship between Holland's personality types as measured by the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory and Jung's personality types as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. College students' (N=394) responses to the two instruments revealed significant associations between certain types based on interests and preferences.…

  2. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Score Reliability across Studies: A Meta-Analytic Reliability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capraro, Robert M.; Capraro, Mary Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Submitted the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) to a descriptive reliability generalization analysis to characterize the variability of measurement error in MBTI scores across administrations. In general the MBTI and its scales yielded scores with strong internal consistency and test-retest reliability estimates. (SLD)

  3. Opposition from Christians to Myers-Briggs Personality Typing: An Analysis and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, John B.

    2007-01-01

    Myers-Briggs personality typing is widely used in the Christian church as an aid to individual self-understanding and spiritual formation. However, some Christian leaders have expressed doubt about its validity in understanding human personality and also opposition to its use in nurturing spiritual growth. The aim of the work reported was to…

  4. Predicting dentists' career choices using the Myers-Briggs type indicator.

    PubMed

    Grandy, T G; Westerman, G H; Ocanto, R A; Erskine, C G

    1996-02-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a psychological measure designed to determine personality preferences, learning styles and management styles and to assist with career choices. The authors surveyed 1,117 practicing dentists to determine if the MBTI was useful in determining which respondents were most likely to be specialists. They found no significant differences between general practitioners and specialists.

  5. Two Approaches to Examining the Stability of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Daniel W.; Forney, Deanna S.; Evans, Nancy J.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, two approaches are used to assess the stability of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator scores across 3 administrations (N = 231): longitudinal configural frequency analysis with categorical scores and generalizability theory with the Preference Clarity Indices and continuous scores. The results are generally positive. Evaluation of…

  6. Examination of the relationship between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and empathetic response.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, S J; Stephens, J C; Chew, A L; Downs, E

    1992-06-01

    This study investigated the potential relationship between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and level of empathetic responding. Analyses indicated that the Thinking-Feeling scale was significantly associated with ratings of empathy for 49 graduate students in counselor education. Sex and graduate grade point average were also related significantly to empathic responding. Results are discussed in terms of their significance for research.

  7. Differences in Myers-Briggs Personality Types among High School Band, Orchestra, and Choir Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLellan, Christin Reardon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore personality type differences among high school band, string orchestra, and choir students according to ensemble membership. Participants (N = 355) were high school students who had participated in their school's band, orchestra, or choir for 1 year or more. The author administered the Myers-Briggs Type…

  8. Correlations between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Neo Personality Inventory facets.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, D A; Anderson, P E; Tsagarakis, C I; Holland, C J

    1995-04-01

    Using data obtained from 48 male and 161 female undergraduate students in psychology, correlations between scores on the scales of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the facets of the Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness domains of the NEO Personality Inventory were low to moderate.

  9. Personality Characteristics of South Korean Students with Visual Impairments Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bak, Sunhi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study presented here was designed to determine whether there were significant differences in the frequency and preference scores of personality functions and the frequency of personality types, as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), by gender, school level, and level of visual function, of students with visual…

  10. Designing Criterion-Referenced Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Kelley

    2006-01-01

    Criterion-referenced assessment arguably results in greater reliability, validity and transparency than norm-referenced assessment. This article examines this assertion with reference to an example from a second year undergraduate law unit at the Queensland University of Technology, LWB236 Real Property A. When designing criterion-referenced…

  11. Generalized melting criterion for amorphization

    SciTech Connect

    Devanathan, R. |; Lam, N.Q.; Okamoto, P.R.; Meshii, M.

    1992-12-01

    We present a thermodynamic model of solid-state amorphization based on a generalization of the well-known Lindemann criterion. The original Lindemann criterion proposes that melting occurs when the root-mean-square amplitude of thermal displacement exceeds a critical value. This criterion can be generalized to include solid-state amorphization by taking into account the static displacements. In an effort to verify the generalized melting criterion, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations of radiation-induced amorphization in NiZr, NiZr{sub 2}, NiTi and FeTi using embedded-atom potentials. The average shear elastic constant G was calculated as a function of the total mean-square atomic displacement following random atom-exchanges and introduction of Frenkel pairs. Results provide strong support for the generalized melting criterion.

  12. Application of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to Medicine and Other Health Professions. Monograph I. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaulley, Mary H.

    This monograph is an overview and state of the art paper for the use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator in the health professions. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a questionnaire which makes it possible to test and put to practical use that part of the personality theory of C.G. Jung which is concerned with psychological type. Nine areas of…

  13. Use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to develop a continuing education department.

    PubMed

    Schoessler, M; Conedera, F; Bell, L F; Marshall, D; Gilson, M

    1993-01-01

    Myers-Briggs concepts are useful for understanding and managing individual and group strengths, preferences, and "blind spots." Requirements of the work to be accomplished can be matched to the strengths and preferences of the individual or group. Work groups can be selected to enhance individual strengths and to counterbalance blind spots. This article describes the experience of one hospital-based continuing education department that uses the Myers-Briggs Personality Trait Inventory to explore department members' strengths and preferences. Understanding individual preferences has helped group members to understand, anticipate, and work with one another. The ideal mix of profiles challenges and stimulates both the individual and the department. Maximizing diversity increases the potential for conflict between individuals with opposite preferences; recognizing strengths and blind spots, willingness to talk about work style differences, and a little humor all make peaceful coexistence possible.

  14. Over-representation of Myers Briggs Type Indicator introversion in social phobia patients.

    PubMed

    Janowsky, D S; Morter, S; Tancer, M

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to profile the personalities of patients with social phobia. Sixteen patients with social phobia were compared with a normative population of 55,971, and with 24 hospitalized Major Depressive Disorder inpatients, using the Myers Briggs Type Indicator. The Myers Briggs Type Indicator, a popular personality survey, divides individuals into eight categories: Extroverts versus Introverts, Sensors versus Intuitives, Thinkers versus Feelers, and Judgers versus Perceivers. Social phobia patients were significantly more often Introverts (93.7%) than were subjects in the normative population (46.2%). In addition, using continuous scores, the social phobia patients scored as significantly more introverted than did the patients with Major Depressive Disorder, who also scored as Introverted. Introversion is a major component of social phobia, and this observation may have both etiological and therapeutic significance.

  15. Relationship of Myers Briggs type indicator personality characteristics to suicidality in affective disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Janowsky, David S; Morter, Shirley; Hong, Liyi

    2002-01-01

    The current study characterized the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality profiles of 64 suicidal and 30 non-suicidal psychiatric inpatients with affective disorder diagnoses. The MBTI divides individuals categorically into eight personality preferences (Extroverted and Introverted, Sensing and Intuitive, Thinking and Feeling, and Judging and Perceiving). Compared to the group of non-suicidal affective disorder patients, suicidal affective disorder patients were significantly more Introverted and Perceiving using ANCOVA analyses, and significantly more Introverted alone using Chi Square analyses.

  16. Reexamination of relations between the Myers-Briggs type indicator and field dependence-independence.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, C P; McCutcheon, J W

    1988-12-01

    The Group Embedded Figures Test and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator were administered to 210 undergraduate and graduate students. Bivariate relations between the embedded figures test and the Indicator scales of Extraversion-Introversion (EI), Thinking-Feeling (TF), and Judgment-Perception (JP) were nonsignificant while the relation between scores on embedded figures and Sensing-Intuition (SN) was statistically significant. ESFP, ISFJ, and ESFJ types were significantly more field-dependent than the INFP and ENTP types.

  17. The correct kinetic Bohm criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnetzki, Uwe; Tsankov, Tsanko Vaskov

    2016-09-01

    Space charge sheaths are characteristic for bounded plasmas and are a key element in plasma-surface interactions. Hence, one of the most fundamental concepts in plasma physics - the Bohm criterion - is related to the definition of a sheath edge. However, its kinetic formulation is stirring controversies for a long time - from questioning its validity at high collisionality to claiming a divergence in its formulation. Here, based on a solution of the Boltzmann equation for ions with charge-exchange collisions and ionization both of these disputes are resolved: 1) The obtained form of the kinetic Bohm criterion removes the divergence in the ionic part. 2) It also introduces a new equally important term that describes collisional and geometric effects. This new term reestablishes the validity of the criterion at high collisionality. 3) It also restores agreement with the fluid counterpart of the criterion. The developed theory is supported by non-invasive spatially resolved measurements and a numerical model.

  18. Entropic criterion for model selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Chih-Yuan

    2006-10-01

    Model or variable selection is usually achieved through ranking models according to the increasing order of preference. One of methods is applying Kullback-Leibler distance or relative entropy as a selection criterion. Yet that will raise two questions, why use this criterion and are there any other criteria. Besides, conventional approaches require a reference prior, which is usually difficult to get. Following the logic of inductive inference proposed by Caticha [Relative entropy and inductive inference, in: G. Erickson, Y. Zhai (Eds.), Bayesian Inference and Maximum Entropy Methods in Science and Engineering, AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 707, 2004 (available from arXiv.org/abs/physics/0311093)], we show relative entropy to be a unique criterion, which requires no prior information and can be applied to different fields. We examine this criterion by considering a physical problem, simple fluids, and results are promising.

  19. General stability criterion for wetting.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Riccardo; Virga, Epifanio G

    2003-07-01

    We propose a general stability criterion for the wetting of solid substrates, both arbitrarily curved and inhomogeneous. In addition to the classical surface tension, the adhering drops can also exhibit a tension along the contact line where three phases meet, namely, the solid, the liquid, and the environment fluid. Moreover, we show how some stability issues currently debated in the specialized literature of disparate fields could profit from the application of this general criterion.

  20. Personality characteristics of hospice volunteers as measured by Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, C W; Shuff, I M

    1995-12-01

    A sample of hospice volunteers (n = 99) was administered the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Myers & McCaulley, 1985). Frequencies of types observed were compared to population sample (n = 1,105) frequencies. Results indicated that, as a whole, hospice volunteers preferred extraversion over introversion, intuition over sensing, and feeling over thinking. Analysis of four-and two-letter preference combinations also yielded statistically significant differences. Most notably, the sensing-intuitive function appeared pivotal in determining of hospice volunteering. Suggestions are offered as to why the sensing-intuition function appeared central to hospice volunteering. Results appeared consistent with Jungian personality theory.

  1. Communicator image and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator extraversion-introversion.

    PubMed

    Opt, Susan K; Loffredo, Donald A

    2003-11-01

    This study is an examination of the relationship between communicator image and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) dimensions of extraversion-introversion. The authors found that individuals who prefer extraversion tend to have a more positive communicator image than those who prefer introversion. The results of this study support other research results showing that personality preferences differ in communication behaviors and traits, which could have implications for the individual's comfort and success in society. Results of this research also support the contention that communication behavior has biological aspects.

  2. Criterion-Referenced Measurement: Redirections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellett, Frederick S., Jr.

    Basic issues in criterion-referenced measurement are addressed. In section II, issues involved in determining what a person does and can do are considered. A preliminary analysis of "can" is given which shows that there are several important senses of "can". In section III, results of an analysis of "ability" are…

  3. Criterion Reading Instructional Project (CRIP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linden Board of Education, NJ.

    This booklet describes the Linden Title I Program between the years 1971-1974, with a focus on the Criterion Reading Instructional Project (CRIP). The program (in Linden, New Jersey) evolved from a supplemental reading and mathematics program to a structured developmental program of language arts designed to meet the needs of primary grade…

  4. Developing Criterion-Referenced Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Bruce H.

    Criterion-referenced systems are founded on the belief that instruction should be based on the needs of individual pupils. If pupils' needs are to guide instruction, the system must identify the skills pupils need to learn and the sequence for their introduction. Additionally, there must be a way to identify the skills a pupil needs and those he…

  5. Kelly criterion revisited: optimal bets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowski, E. W.; Schroeder, M.

    2007-05-01

    Kelly criterion, that maximizes the expectation value of the logarithm of wealth for bookmaker bets, gives an advantage over different class of strategies. We use projective symmetries for a explanation of this fact. Kelly's approach allows for an interesting financial interpretation of the Boltzmann/Shannon entropy. A “no-go” hypothesis for big investors is suggested.

  6. Criterion-Referenced Measurement: Redirections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellett, Frederick S., Jr.

    Basic issues in criterion-referenced measurement are addressed. In section II, issues involved in determining what a person does and can do are considered. A preliminary analysis of "can" is given which shows that there are several important senses of "can". In section III, results of an analysis of "ability" are…

  7. Bibliography on Criterion Referenced Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellsworth, Randolph A.; Franz, Carleen

    This bibliography contains 262 references on Criterion Referenced Measurement (CRM) that were obtained from the following sources: (1) the author's personal files; (2) a bibliography compiled by Hsu and Boston (ERIC Document #ED 068 531) containing 52 references; (3) a bibliography compiled by Keller (ERIC Document #ED 060 041) containing 116…

  8. Marker selection by Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Nyholt, D R

    2001-01-01

    We carried out a discriminant analysis with identity by descent (IBD) at each marker as inputs, and the sib pair type (affected-affected versus affected-unaffected) as the output. Using simple logistic regression for this discriminant analysis, we illustrate the importance of comparing models with different number of parameters. Such model comparisons are best carried out using either the Akaike information criterion (AIC) or the Bayesian information criterion (BIC). When AIC (or BIC) stepwise variable selection was applied to the German Asthma data set, a group of markers were selected which provide the best fit to the data (assuming an additive effect). Interestingly, these 25-26 markers were not identical to those with the highest (in magnitude) single-locus lod scores.

  9. Incremental Validity of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator in Predicting Academic Major Selection of Undecided University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulver, Chad A.; Kelly, Kevin R.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the incremental validity of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) as a predictor of academic major choice. Undecided university students were administered the MBTI and Strong Interest Inventory (SII). Their academic major choice was recorded at the end of their fourth semester and categorized as realistic, investigative,…

  10. The Relationship of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to Scores on the National Teacher's Examination. AIR Forum 1981 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Linda K.; And Others

    The relationship of the dimensions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) to scores on the National Teacher's Examination (NTE) was examined. The MBTI classifies people on each of four indices: extraversion/introversion, sensing/intuition, thinking/feeling, and judgment/perception. A sample of 111 students, 90 percent of whom were black,…

  11. The Relationship of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to Scores on the National Teacher's Examination. AIR Forum 1981 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Linda K.; And Others

    The relationship of the dimensions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) to scores on the National Teacher's Examination (NTE) was examined. The MBTI classifies people on each of four indices: extraversion/introversion, sensing/intuition, thinking/feeling, and judgment/perception. A sample of 111 students, 90 percent of whom were black,…

  12. Comparing University Students and Community College Students Learning Styles and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbster, Douglas L.; And Others

    This document reports on a study to determine if there is a pattern between specific learning styles and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator preferences. The learning style inventory used for the study, "The Teaching and Learning Styles Survey for Adolescents (TLC)," is based on Jungian style preferences--thinker, feeler, sensor, and…

  13. The Devil Is in the Detail Regarding the Efficacy of Reading Recovery: A Rejoinder to Schwartz, Hobsbaum, Briggs, and Scull

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Meree; Wheldall, Kevin; Madelaine, Alison

    2009-01-01

    This rejoinder provides comment on issues raised by Schwartz, Hobsbaum, Briggs and Scull (2009) in their article about evidence-based practice and Reading Recovery (RR), written in response to Reynolds and Wheldall (2007). Particular attention is paid to the processes and findings of the What Works Clearinghouse evaluation of RR. The suggestion…

  14. "Presidential Address." Political Pawns in an Educational Endgame: Reflections on Bryant, Briggs, and Some Twentieth-Century School Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Karen

    2013-01-01

    "Newsweek" ran an article on "The Homosexual Teacher" in December 1978. At the end of a tumultuous two-year period framed by Anita Bryant's anti-gay campaign in South Florida and John Briggs' proposition to bar gay and lesbian educators from working in California public schools, reporters concluded, "Most homosexual…

  15. Considering Personality Type in Adult Learning: Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator in Instructor Preparation at PricewaterhouseCoopers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daisley, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the feasibility of using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) as a framework for instructor development in a professional services training environment. It explores the consistency of MBTI with common adult learning theory, addresses questions on MBTI's reliability and validity, and explores the applicability of MBTI to the…

  16. Gathering the Force Fields of Energy in Student Affairs: Staff Development Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNickle, Phyllis J.; Veltman, Gayle C.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses application of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) as a staff development tool at Wichita State University in Kansas. Describes procedure for implementing the MBTI in staff development and presents results from MBTI use with 39 staff members. Recommends that student affairs divisions at other institutions use the MBTI in staff…

  17. "Presidential Address." Political Pawns in an Educational Endgame: Reflections on Bryant, Briggs, and Some Twentieth-Century School Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Karen

    2013-01-01

    "Newsweek" ran an article on "The Homosexual Teacher" in December 1978. At the end of a tumultuous two-year period framed by Anita Bryant's anti-gay campaign in South Florida and John Briggs' proposition to bar gay and lesbian educators from working in California public schools, reporters concluded, "Most homosexual…

  18. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator[R] and Mainstream Psychology: Analysis and Evaluation of an Unresolved Hostility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, John B.

    2012-01-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI[R]) is widely used as a staff-development tool in the business and voluntary sectors. Its Psychological Type approach is found to be a valuable aid to understanding self and others and thus to enhancing effective team-working. This continuing and growing popularity is surprising in view of the disdain with…

  19. A Review of the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory: A Potential Training Tool for Human Services Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviles, Christopher B.

    The Myers-Briggs Type Inventory (MBTI) can be helpful in personal, career, and marriage counseling; conflict and stress management; team building; and understanding managerial and learning styles. It has great potential to be utilized in human services organizations for training purposes because it offers a way to conceptualize employee…

  20. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator as a Tool to Facilitate Learning Outcomes for Team Building in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Priscilla; Wood, Cindy; Thornton, Barry

    2007-01-01

    Globalization and domestic competition are forcing businesses to rethink the human resources utilization process, and one method for considering again this challenge is creating a team culture. One key to this process for human resources development is the understanding of how to create the most successful teams. The use of the Myers-Briggs Type…

  1. Considering Personality Type in Adult Learning: Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator in Instructor Preparation at PricewaterhouseCoopers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daisley, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the feasibility of using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) as a framework for instructor development in a professional services training environment. It explores the consistency of MBTI with common adult learning theory, addresses questions on MBTI's reliability and validity, and explores the applicability of MBTI to the…

  2. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator as a Tool to Facilitate Learning Outcomes for Team Building in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Priscilla; Wood, Cindy; Thornton, Barry

    2007-01-01

    Globalization and domestic competition are forcing businesses to rethink the human resources utilization process, and one method for considering again this challenge is creating a team culture. One key to this process for human resources development is the understanding of how to create the most successful teams. The use of the Myers-Briggs Type…

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Learning Style Preferences on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Learning Style Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Daniel W.; Evans, Nancy J.; Forney, Deanna S.

    2006-01-01

    The stability of learning style preferences, as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Learning Style Inventory (LSI), was examined using a configural frequency analysis of differences. Thirteen cohorts (222 graduate students) completed the instruments 3 times during their programs. Implications for use of learning style measures…

  4. Incremental Validity of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator in Predicting Academic Major Selection of Undecided University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulver, Chad A.; Kelly, Kevin R.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the incremental validity of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) as a predictor of academic major choice. Undecided university students were administered the MBTI and Strong Interest Inventory (SII). Their academic major choice was recorded at the end of their fourth semester and categorized as realistic, investigative,…

  5. Log-Linear Techniques for the Analysis of Categorical Data: A Demonstration with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Daniel W.

    2003-01-01

    Log-linear analysis (LLA) techniques for categorical variables are demonstrated and evaluated using data from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Symmetrical LLA and asymmetrical LLA address questions of association and inference, respectively. Configural frequency analysis is examined as a strategy for whole types research. LLA approaches seem…

  6. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator[R] and Mainstream Psychology: Analysis and Evaluation of an Unresolved Hostility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, John B.

    2012-01-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI[R]) is widely used as a staff-development tool in the business and voluntary sectors. Its Psychological Type approach is found to be a valuable aid to understanding self and others and thus to enhancing effective team-working. This continuing and growing popularity is surprising in view of the disdain with…

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Learning Style Preferences on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Learning Style Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Daniel W.; Evans, Nancy J.; Forney, Deanna S.

    2006-01-01

    The stability of learning style preferences, as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Learning Style Inventory (LSI), was examined using a configural frequency analysis of differences. Thirteen cohorts (222 graduate students) completed the instruments 3 times during their programs. Implications for use of learning style measures…

  8. The Multifactorial Nature of Extraversion-Introversion in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Eysenck Personality Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipps, Gary J.; Alexander, Ralph A.

    1987-01-01

    The construct validity of extraversion-introversion was explored, as measured by the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Eysenck Personality Inventory. Findings supported the complexity of extraversion-introversion. Two MBTI scales, Extraversion Introversion and Judging Perceiving, were factorially valid measures of impulsivity…

  9. Log-Linear Techniques for the Analysis of Categorical Data: A Demonstration with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Daniel W.

    2003-01-01

    Log-linear analysis (LLA) techniques for categorical variables are demonstrated and evaluated using data from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Symmetrical LLA and asymmetrical LLA address questions of association and inference, respectively. Configural frequency analysis is examined as a strategy for whole types research. LLA approaches seem…

  10. Uncertainty Relation and Inseparability Criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Ashutosh K.; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the Peres-Horodecki positive partial transpose criterion in the context of conserved quantities and derive a condition of inseparability for a composite bipartite system depending only on the dimensions of its subsystems, which leads to a bi-linear entanglement witness for the two qubit system. A separability inequality using generalized Schrodinger-Robertson uncertainty relation taking suitable operators, has been derived, which proves to be stronger than the bi-linear entanglement witness operator. In the case of mixed density matrices, it identically distinguishes the separable and non separable Werner states.

  11. Formation Criterion for Synthetic Jets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    formation data for the axisymmetric case were published over 50 years ago by Ingard and Labate.10 More recent studies33,34 suggest that L0/d > 1 for...with the axisymmetric data from Ingard and Labate10 and Smith et al.33 are compared in Fig. 7. It is found that the available data are consis- tent with...the jet formation criterion with an empirically determined constant K equal to approximately 0.16. The deviation of Ingard and Labate’s data at their

  12. The Joanna Briggs Institute Best Practice Information Sheet: music as an intervention in hospitals.

    PubMed

    2011-03-01

    This Best Practice Information Sheet aims to synthesize the best-available evidence on music as a therapeutic intervention for the management of anxiety or pain related to procedural or operative interventions. The information that is contained in this sheet has been derived from studies that were included in a systematic review that was conducted by The Joanna Briggs Institute. The original references can be sourced from the systematic review. Music as a therapeutic intervention is a development largely of the mid-20th century; however, it has existed in various forms in most cultures for many centuries. The Best Practice Information Sheet includes music-listening before a procedure or operation, during a procedure or operation, and after a procedure or operation. It excludes other forms of music therapy. Several recommendations for practice are made.

  13. Myers Briggs Type Indicator and Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire differences between bipolar patients and unipolar depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Janowsky, D S; Morter, S; Hong, L; Howe, L

    1999-12-01

    The current study was designed to compare personality differences between bipolar patients and unipolar depressed patients, as evaluated on the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ). A group of bipolar and a group of unipolar depressed patients filled out the MBTI, the TPQ, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the CAGE questionnaire. The two groups were compared with each other as to responses on the above surveys, and subgroups of bipolar depressed and bipolar patients with manic symptoms were also compared. Bipolar patients were found to be significantly more extroverted (p = 0.004) and less judging (p = 0.007) on the MBTI. They were significantly more novelty seeking (p = 0.004) and less harm avoidant (p = 0.002) on the TPQ. Of the above differences, only the TPQ harm avoidance scale appeared strongly linked to the patients' level of depression. Significant differences in personality exist between bipolar disorder and unipolar depressed patients.

  14. Relationship between Myers-Briggs psychological traits and use of course objectives in anatomy and physiology.

    PubMed

    Harasym, P H; Leong, E J; Lucier, G E; Lorscheider, F L

    1996-06-01

    The results from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), which identified preferred psychological traits for 131 nursing students, were compared to their usage levels of course objectives in an undergraduate course in anatomy and physiology. The three usage levels (user, occasional user, and nonuser) were also compared to exam scores in the course, overall grade point averages (GPA) in first-year nursing, and the various psychological traits measured by the MBTI. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated that users of objectives achieved significantly higher exam scores and maintained a higher GPA than occasional and nonusers. The MANOVA also indicated that users of course objectives preferred a sensing judging modality, whereas nonusers preferred an intuiting perceiving style to guide their studying and learning.

  15. Bipolarity in Jungian type theory and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    PubMed

    Girelli, S A; Stake, J E

    1993-04-01

    The standard form of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI; Myers & McCaulley, 1985) was constructed to measure introversion/extroversion, sensing/intuiting, and thinking/feeling as single, bipolar dimensions. We tested this assumption of bipolarity with a Likert form of the MBTI that allowed for the independent assessment of each attitude and function. A total of 106 female and 59 male undergraduate and graduate students completed the standard and Likert MBTI forms approximately 3 weeks apart. Evidence for the bipolarity of the introversion/extroversion dimension was weak, and findings did not support the bipolarity of the sensing/intuiting or thinking/feeling dimensions. Results provide evidence that high negative correlations within MBTI dimensions are an artifact of its forced-choice format. Implications of the findings for typology measurement are discussed.

  16. Myers-Briggs psychological type and achievement in anatomy and physiology.

    PubMed

    Harasym, P H; Leong, E J; Juschka, B B; Lucier, G E; Lorscheider, F L

    1995-06-01

    Results from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) for 259 nursing students were compared with their achievement on examinations in an undergraduate course in anatomy and physiology. Factor analysis demonstrated that no relationship existed between any of the eight individual personality traits purported to be measured by MBTI (i.e., E, Extrovert; I, Introvert; S, Sensing; N, Intuition; T, Thinking; F, Feeling; J, Judging; P, Perceiving) and examination scores in this course. The analysis also showed that the bipolar scales S vs. N and J vs. P collapsed into a single bipolar scale (S/J vs. N/P). This means that the MBTI is only capable of measuring three bipolar scales of personality traits instead of four scales as currently claimed. Contrary to other findings, results from an analysis of variance revealed no meaningful relationship between course achievement and psychological types.

  17. Bimodal score distributions and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: fact or artifact?

    PubMed

    Bess, Tammy L; Harvey, Robert J

    2002-02-01

    We examined Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) score distributions computed using item response theory (IRT) to assess the generalizability of earlier bimodality reports that have been cited in support of the "type" versus "trait" view of personality. Using the BILOG IRT program to score a sample of approximately 12,000 individuals who participated in leadership development programs, theta score distributions for the 4 dimensions of the MBTI computed using 10 (the BILOG default) versus 50 quadrature points were compared. Results indicated that past reports of bimodality were artifacts caused by BILOG's default use of a small number of quadrature points; when larger numbers of points were used, score distributions became strongly center-weighted. Although our findings are not supportive of the "type"-based hypothesis, the extremely high correlations between theta scores (rs > .996) suggest that no practical differences would be expected as a function of the number-of-quadrature-points decision.

  18. An improvement of Montel's criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Qiu, Huiling

    2008-07-01

    Let be a family of holomorphic functions in a domain D, and let a(z), b(z) be two holomorphic functions in D such that a(z)[not identical with]b(z), and a(z)[not identical with]a'(z) or b(z)[not identical with]b'(z). In this paper, we prove that: if, for each , f(z)-a(z) and f(z)-b(z) have no common zeros, f'(z)Da(z) whenever f(z)=a(z), and f'(z)=b(z) whenever f(z)=b(z) in D, then is normal in D. This result improves and generalizes the classical Montel's normality criterion, and the related results of Pang, Fang and the first author. Some examples are given to show the sharpness of our result.

  19. Counterexamples to the Sonic Criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elling, Volker

    2009-12-01

    We consider self-similar (pseudo-steady) shock reflection at an oblique wall. There are three parameters: wall corner angle, Mach number, angle of incident shock. Ever since Ernst Mach discovered the irregular reflection named after him, researchers have sought to predict precisely for which parameters the reflection is regular. Three conflicting proposals—the detachment, sonic and von Neumann criteria—have been studied extensively without a clear result. We demonstrate that the sonic criterion is not correct. We consider polytropic potential flow and prove that there is an open nonempty set of parameters that admit a global regular reflection with a reflected shock that is transonic. We also provide a clear physical reason: the flow type (sub- or supersonic) is not decisive; instead the reflected shock type (weak or strong) determines whether structural perturbations decay towards the reflection point.

  20. Separability criterion of tripartite qubit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Changshui; Song Heshan

    2005-08-15

    In this paper, we present a method to construct full separability criterion for tripartite systems of qubits. The spirit of our approach is that a tripartite pure state can be regarded as a three-order tensor that provides an intuitionistic mathematical formulation for the full separability of pure states. We extend the definition to mixed states and give out the corresponding full separability criterion. As applications, we discuss the separability of several bound entangled states, which shows that our criterion is feasible.

  1. Conducting systematic reviews of association (etiology): The Joanna Briggs Institute's approach.

    PubMed

    Moola, Sandeep; Munn, Zachary; Sears, Kim; Sfetcu, Raluca; Currie, Marian; Lisy, Karolina; Tufanaru, Catalin; Qureshi, Rubab; Mattis, Patrick; Mu, Peifan

    2015-09-01

    The systematic review of evidence is the research method which underpins the traditional approach to evidence-based healthcare. There is currently no uniform methodology for conducting a systematic review of association (etiology). This study outlines and describes the Joanna Briggs Institute's approach and guidance for synthesizing evidence related to association with a predominant focus on etiology and contributes to the emerging field of systematic review methodologies. It should be noted that questions of association typically address etiological or prognostic issues.The systematic review of studies to answer questions of etiology follows the same basic principles of systematic review of other types of data. An a priori protocol must inform the conduct of the systematic review, comprehensive searching must be performed and critical appraisal of retrieved studies must be carried out.The overarching objective of systematic reviews of etiology is to identify and synthesize the best available evidence on the factors of interest that are associated with a particular disease or outcome. The traditional PICO (population, interventions, comparators and outcomes) format for systematic reviews of effects does not align with questions relating to etiology. A systematic review of etiology should include the following aspects: population, exposure of interest (independent variable) and outcome (dependent variable).Studies of etiology are predominantly explanatory or predictive. The objective of reviews of explanatory or predictive studies is to contribute to, and improve our understanding of, the relationship of health-related events or outcomes by examining the association between variables. When interpreting possible associations between variables based on observational study data, caution must be exercised due to the likely presence of confounding variables or moderators that may impact on the results.As with all systematic reviews, there are various approaches to

  2. Common Criterion For Failure Of Different Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, Rodney B.

    1992-01-01

    Common scaling criterion found to relate some physical quantities characterizing tensile failures of three different solid propellant materials. Tensile failures of different rubbery propellants characterized by similar plots.

  3. The association between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Psychiatry as the specialty choice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chong; Richard, George; Durkin, Martin

    2016-02-06

    The purpose of this pilot study is to examine the association between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and prospective psychiatry residents. Forty-six American medical schools were contacted and asked to participate in this study. Data were collected and an aggregated list was compiled that included the following information: date of MBTI administration, academic year, MBTI form/version, residency match information and student demographic information. The data includes 835 American medical students who completed the MBTI survey and matched into a residency training program in the United States. All analyses were performed using R 3.1.2. The probability of an introvert matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of an extravert (p= 0.30). The probability of an intuitive individual matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of a sensing type (p=0.20). The probability of a feeling type matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of a thinking type (p= 0.50). The probability of a perceiving type matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of a judging type (p= 0.60). Further analyses may elicit more accurate information regarding the personality profile of prospective psychiatry residents. The improvement in communication, team dynamics, mentor-mentee relationships and reduction in workplace conflicts are possible with the awareness of MBTI personality profiles.

  4. Pollen dispersal by catapult: Experiments of Lyman J. Briggs on the flower of mountain laurel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimmo, John R.; Hermann, Paula M.; Kirkham, M.B.; Landa, Edward R.

    2014-01-01

    The flower of Kalmia latifolia L. employs a catapult mechanism that flings its pollen to considerable distances. Physicist Lyman J. Briggs investigated this phenomenon in the 1950s after retiring as longtime director of the National Bureau of Standards, attempting to explain how hydromechanical effects inside the flower’s stamen could make it possible. Briggs’s unfinished manuscript implies that liquid under negative pressure generates stress, which, superimposed on the stress generated from the flower’s growth habit, results in force adequate to propel the pollen as observed. With new data and biophysical understanding to supplement Briggs’s experimental results and research notes, we show that his postulated negative-pressure mechanism did not play the exclusive and crucial role that he credited to it, though his revisited investigation sheds light on various related processes. Important issues concerning the development and reproductive function of Kalmia flowers remain unresolved, highlighting the need for further biophysical advances.

  5. Myers-Briggs type and medical specialty choice: a new look at an old question.

    PubMed

    Stilwell, N A; Wallick, M M; Thal, S E; Burleson, J A

    2000-01-01

    Career development of health professionals is one of many uses of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), with many studies reported from the 1950s. Since 1977, no large-scale effort to collect data on the medical school population has been reported. To determine (a) changes in MBTI profiles of medical students over time, (b) differences between the profiles of men and women and the effects of the increased number of women in medical school, (c) possible associations between type and career choices, and (d) possible type differences of graduates selecting primary care and specialties. Twelve U.S. schools with data on 3,987 students contributed to a database of their graduates' MBTI type and specialty choice at Match. Compared with data from the 1950s, the type distribution of physicians has remained fairly stable, save for a trend toward more judging types. Women in medicine today are more representative of the general population on the feeling dimension than earlier, when medicine was more male-dominated. Women are more likely than men to choose primary care specialties, as are those with preference for introversion and feeling. Feeling types choose Family Medicine significantly more often than thinking types; male, extraverted, and thinking types choose surgical specialties. Of those selecting nonprimary care, male, extraverted, and thinking types choose surgical specialties significantly more than women, introverted, and feeling types. Type remains useful for understanding how some aspects of personality relate to medical specialty choice.

  6. The effect of counseling for interpersonal relationship using myers-briggs type indicator.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seon Suk; Kim, Bong Jo; Ju, Young Tae; Woo, Hyang Ok; Han, Jae Hee; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Hong, Soon Chan

    2011-03-01

    There are large differences between medical school curricula and those of other disciplines and graduate schools. Counseling program is designed to help participants understand their innate tendencies and have indirect experiences with the 16 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) types, which can lead to better interpersonal relationships. The experimental and control groups, which were sampled randomly, comprised 34 students each. Each group was consisted of 17 females and 17 males. We implemented a counseling program (understanding oneself, understanding others) only to the experimental group, not the control group. The effects of the program were analyzed by t-test and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 Window. For the Human relationship scale as a whole, the experimental group showed an increase from 3.641 to 3.846 (p=0.001). With regard to the subcategories, satisfaction increased from 3.705 to 4.022 (p=0.000), trust increased from 3.480 to 3.715 (p=0.015), intimacy increased from 3.833 to 4.019 (p=0.007), and openness increased from 3.435 to 3.700 (p=0.006). This program improved interpersonal relationships by helping new students understand each other, build a rapport, and understand their personalities well with open minded attitudes. Their relationships gradually became more intimate than awkward through this program.

  7. Pilot study of Myers Briggs Type Indicator personality profiling in emergency department senior medical staff.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Russell; Brown, Terry

    2005-06-01

    To study the viability of using the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) in senior ED medical staff and to examine what trends, if any, in personality types exist within the specialty. A pilot cross-sectional survey was undertaken during which a standard MBTI questionnaire was sent anonymously to a convenience sample of senior ED medical staff in Tasmania and South Australia. Completed surveys after a second mailing were analysed and the results collated. Of 82 senior ED medical staff surveyed, 68 returned completed questionnaires (response rate 83%). The single most common personality group in the cohort was the (Extrovert/Intuitive/Thinking/Judging) ENTJ type exhibited by 12 (17.7%, 95% CI 9.4-28.7%) clinicians in the cohort. This group is present at a rate of 3% in the general population. In terms of individual traits, Introversion was exhibited by 33 (48.5%, 95% CI 36.2-61%), Intuitive traits by 40 (58.8%, 95% CI 46.2-70.6%), Thinking traits by 40 (58.8%, 95% CI 46.2-70.6%) and Judging traits by 53 (77.9%, 95% CI 66.2-87.1%) of our cohort of senior ED medical staff. Our senior ED medical staff cohort suggests notable variations from the general population in terms of their MBTI profiles.

  8. The association between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Psychiatry as the specialty choice

    PubMed Central

    Richard, George; Durkin, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this pilot study is to examine the association between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and prospective psychiatry residents. Methods Forty-six American medical schools were contacted and asked to participate in this study. Data were collected and an aggregated list was compiled that included the following information: date of MBTI administration, academic year, MBTI form/version, residency match information and student demographic information. The data includes 835 American medical students who completed the MBTI survey and matched into a residency training program in the United States. All analyses were performed using R 3.1.2. Results The probability of an introvert matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of an extravert (p= 0.30). The probability of an intuitive individual matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of a sensing type (p=0.20). The probability of a feeling type matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of a thinking type (p= 0.50). The probability of a perceiving type matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of a judging type (p= 0.60). Conclusions Further analyses may elicit more accurate information regarding the personality profile of prospective psychiatry residents. The improvement in communication, team dynamics, mentor-mentee relationships and reduction in workplace conflicts are possible with the awareness of MBTI personality profiles. PMID:26851600

  9. The relationship between life satisfaction, self-consciousness, and the Myers-Briggs type inventory dimensions.

    PubMed

    Harrington, R; Loffredo, D A

    2001-07-01

    The study was an investigation of the relationship between psychological well-being, life satisfaction, self-consciousness, and the four Myers-Briggs Type Indicator dimensions (MBTI; I. B. Myers & M. H. McCaulley, 1985). The participants were 97 college students (79 women and 18 men whose mean age was 31.4 years). All the students were administered four instruments, the Psychological Well-Being Inventory (C. D. Ryff, 1989), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (E. Diener, R. A. Emmons, R. J. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985), the Self-Consciousness Scale-Revised (M. F. Scheier & C. S. Carver, 1985), and the MBTI (Form G Self-Scoring). MANOVAs revealed significant differences on three of the four dimensions of the MBTI with extraverts showing higher psychological well-being and life satisfaction and lower self-consciousness than introverts. Intuition types scored higher in psychological well-being and lower in self-consciousness than Sensing types. Judging types scored higher in psychological well-being than Perceiving types. Correlational analyses showed that most dimensions of psychological well-being were negatively related to self-consciousness. The relationship between life satisfaction and personality variables is discussed.

  10. Personality types of family practice residents as measured by the Myers-Briggs type indicator.

    PubMed

    Harris, D L; Ebbert, P

    1985-01-01

    This study was initiated to test the hypothesis that individuals currently choosing family practice as a career are likely to have different personality types than those who previously pursued general practice. Incoming residents to the University of Utah Family Practice Residency Program were compared to a group of private primary care physicians serving rural areas. Personality types were determined by administering the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to both groups. Results showed that the current resident group differed significantly from the primary care physician group and that the residents' personality types were similar to personality types of faculty in other studies. This raises the concern that many family practice residents may not choose to practice in underserved areas. Further studies need to follow personality types through medical school and residency training and into practice to help determine which prospective physicians are likely to choose a primary care career and a rural practice. This information may be useful in health manpower planning and in examining admissions policies of medical schools and residencies.

  11. Criterion Referenced Measures for Clinical Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pikulski, John J.

    This paper discusses criterion referenced tests' characteristics and their use in clinical evaluation. The distinction between diagnostic tests and criterion referenced measures is largely a matter of emphasis. Some authorities believe that in diagnostic testing the emphasis is upon an evaluation of an individual's strengths and weaknesses in…

  12. An Operational Definition of the Emergence Criterion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallotti, Gabriele

    2007-01-01

    Although acquisition criteria are a fundamental issue for SLA research, they have not always been adequately defined or elaborated in the literature. This article critically scrutinizes one such criterion, the emergence criterion, proposing an explicit, operational definition. After discussing emergence as a theoretical construct, the article…

  13. On a criterion for vortex breakdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spall, R. E.; Gatski, T. B.; Grosch, C. H.

    1987-01-01

    A criterion for the onset of vortex breakdown is proposed. Based upon previous experimental, computational, and theoretical studies, an appropriately defined local Rossby number is used to delineate the region where breakdown occurs. In addition, new numerical results are presented which further validate this criterion. A number of previous theoretical studies concentrating on inviscid standing-wave analyses for trailing wing-tip vortices are reviewed and reinterpreted in terms of the Rossby number criterion. Consistent with previous studies, the physical basis for the onset of breakdown is identified as the ability of the flow to sustain such waves. Previous computational results are reviewed and re-evaluated in terms of the proposed breakdown criterion. As a result, the cause of breakdown occurring near the inflow computational boundary, common to several numerical studies, is identified. Finally, previous experimental studies of vortex breakdown for both leading edge and trailing wing-tip vortices are reviewed and quantified in terms of the Rossby number criterion.

  14. An ethical criterion for geoscientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peppoloni, Silvia

    2013-04-01

    Anthropological researches have demonstrated that at some point in human history, man makes an evolutive jump in cultural sense: at first, he is able to perceive himself only as part of a community, later he becomes able to perceive himself as an individual. The analysis of the linguistic roots of the word "Ethics" discloses the traces of this evolutive transition and an original double meaning: on the one hand, "Ethics" contains a sense of belonging to the social fabric, on the other hand, it is related to the individual sphere. These two existential conditions (social and individual) unexpectedly co-exist in the word "Ethics". So, "Geo-Ethics" can be defined as the investigation and reflection on those values upon which to base appropriate behaviours and practices regarding the Geosphere (social dimension), but also as the analysis of the relationships between the geoscientist who acts and his own actions (individual dimension). Therefore, the meaning of the word "Geo-Ethics" calls upon geoscientists to face the responsibility of an ethical behaviour. What does this responsibility consist of and what motivations are necessary to push geoscientists to practice the Earth sciences in an ethical way? An ethical commitment exists if there is research of truth. In their activities, Geoscientists should be searchers and defenders of truth. If geoscientists give up this role, they completely empty of meaning their work. Ethical obligations arise from the possession of specific knowledge that has practical consequences. Geoscientists, as active and responsible part of society, have to serve society and the common good. The ethical criterion for a geoscientist should be rooted in his individual sphere, that is the source of any action even in the social sphere, and should have the intellectual honesty as main requirement. It includes: • respect for the truth that they look for and for other's ideas; • recognition of the value of others as valuable for themselves;

  15. Personality types of otolaryngology resident applicants as described by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    PubMed

    Zardouz, Shawn; German, Michael A; Wu, Edward C; Djalilian, Hamid R

    2011-05-01

    To assess the personality types of applicants to a single otolaryngology residency program using the Myers- Briggs Type Indicator. The personality types were compared with those of the general population and with physicians in other medical specialties. Cross-sectional survey. University hospital. A personality survey was emailed to 327 resident physician applicants over 2 consecutive years (2008- 2009). Analysis was accomplished by calculating prevalence estimates. Of the 327 anonymous surveys, 137 were completed (response rate = 42%). The Introverted/Sensing/Thinking/ Judging personality type was the most prevalent (14.6%), representing 13% of the general population. Prospective applicants displayed mostly Extroverted (E; 58%), Sensing (S; 54%), Thinking (T; 62%), and Judging (J; 61%) personality traits. Of the 16 personality types, statistically significant differences were found between otolaryngology resident applicants and the general population only for the Extroverted/Sensing/Thinking/ Perceiving (P = .002) personality type after correcting for multiple comparisons. The Intuitive (N; 46%) and Feeling (F; 38%) types correlated closely with the reported personality types of those individuals in non–primary care specialties, 47% and 28%, respectively. Extroverted (E) and Thinking (T) individuals appeared to prefer surgical specialties, which occurred in 58% and 62% of the applicants, respectively. There were no significant differences between male and female applicants. This study examines the personality types of medical students applying to an otolaryngology residency. The results support a highly structured, data-driven teaching preference among applicants. These results may allow for a better understanding of the personalities of medical students who are interested in otolaryngology.

  16. Age, criterion flexibility, and item recognition.

    PubMed

    North, Lione J; Olfman, Darlene; Caldera, Daniel R; Munoz, Emily; Light, Leah L

    2017-04-26

    We examined young and older adults' ability to flexibly adapt response criterion on a recognition test when the probability that a test item had been studied was cued by test color. One word color signaled that the probability of the test item being old was 70% and a second color signaled that the probability of the test item being new was 70%. Young and older adults demonstrated similar levels of criterion shifting in response to color cues. Moreover, although both young and older adults were slowed when test-item color incorrectly predicted test-item status, the extent of slowing did not differ across age group. Putative measures of cognitive control predicted recognition accuracy but not the degree to which criterion changed with test-item color. These results suggest that adaptive criterion shifting does not tax cognitive control or, if it does require effort, may be no more onerous for older than for young adults.

  17. The criterion of magnetism in semiconductor nanoobjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uspenskii, Yu. A.; Tikhonov, E. V.; Matsko, N. L.

    2015-06-01

    The Stoner criterion is known as a useful tool predicting the ferromagnetic state (FM) in metals. This criterion is not applied to nanoobjects, because of their discrete electron spectrum. In our paper we consider a generalization of this criterion, which can be applied to magnetism in semiconductor nanoobjects. To derive it, we compare total energies of the FM and non-magnetic states using many-body perturbation theory. The derived criterion has compact form and may be useful for prediction of ferromagnetism in nanoobjects. To check its precision, we performed first-principle calculations of several semiconductor nanoobjects in the FM and non-magnetic states and compared their results with predicted ones.

  18. [The otherness as a criterion of bioethics].

    PubMed

    Sadala, M L

    1999-12-01

    The present paper proposes questions about otherness as a fundamental criterion of Ethics and Bioethics, focusing on health care. The referencial mark used is the concept of otherness based on the Existencial Phenomenology.

  19. Griffith criterion for brittle fracture in graphene.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hanqing; Qi, H Jerry; Fan, Feifei; Zhu, Ting; Wang, Baolin; Wei, Yujie

    2015-03-11

    There are prevailing concerns with the critical dimensions when conventional theories break down. Here we find that the Griffith criterion remains valid for cracks down to 10 nm but overestimates the strength of shorter cracks. We observe the preferred crack extension along the zigzag edge in graphene, and explain this phenomenon by local strength-based failure rather than energy-based Griffith criterion. These results provide a mechanistic basis for reliable applications of graphene in miniaturized devices and nanocomposites.

  20. A Quantitative Criterion for Defining Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margot, Jean-Luc

    2015-12-01

    A simple metric can be used to determine whether a planet or exoplanet can clear its orbital zone during a characteristic time scale, such as the lifetime of the host star on the main sequence. This criterion requires only estimates of star mass, planet mass, and orbital period, making it possible to immediately classify 99% of all known exoplanets. All eight planets and all classifiable exoplanets satisfy the criterion. This metric may be useful in generalizing and simplifying the definition of a planet.

  1. A Quantitative Criterion for Defining Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margot, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    A simple metric can be used to determine whether a planet or exoplanet can clear its orbital zone during a characteristic time scale, such as the lifetime of the host star on the main sequence. This criterion requires only estimates of star mass, planet mass, and orbital period, making it possible to immediately classify 99% of all known exoplanets. All 8 planets and all classifiable exoplanets satisfy the criterion. This metric may be useful in generalizing and simplifying the definition of a planet.

  2. A partial replication of Lippin (1990) using the Myers-Briggs type indicator with a sample of female prisoners.

    PubMed

    Long, C K; Lenoir, C; Phung, T; Witherspoon, A D

    1995-10-01

    A sample of 108 women incarcerated in a state prison who volunteered to participate in an employment seminar were given the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Comparison of the distribution of types here and in Myers and McCaulley's 1985 sample using a Selection Ratio Type Table for analysis indicated an overrepresentation of ISTJ, ISFJ, and ISTP. The ESFP and ESFJ types were underrepresented. Further analysis of the types and the relationship to criminal offense was not significant. Results are compared with those of Lippin from 1990.

  3. Nonintellective intelligence and personality: variance shared by the Constructive Thinking Inventory and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    PubMed

    Spirrison, C L; Gordy, C C

    1994-04-01

    The Constructive Thinking Inventory (CTI; Epstein & Meier, 1989), a recently developed scale assessing patterns of habitual everyday thoughts, was compared with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI; Myers & McCaulley, 1985) to ascertain areas of common variance. CTI and MBTI data from 65 men and 109 women were evaluated. A series of standard multiple regression procedures indicated that, in most instances, CTI scales were predictive of MBTI continuous scores, although gender mediated several of the effects. The results suggest that the variance assessed by the CTI is similar to that addressed by traditional measures of personality but that the CTI partitions the variance in an atypical, yet coherent, manner.

  4. Examination of the relations of the Myers-Briggs type indicator and the NEO-4 Personality Inventory in a Polish sample.

    PubMed

    Klinkosz, Waldemar; Iskra, Justyna

    2010-10-01

    The present study was designed to replicate McCrae and Costa's research findings on the relation of NEO-4 domains with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator scales in a Polish sample of 300 psychology student volunteers (175 women, 125 men). Their mean age was 22.3 yr. (SD = 4.5). Correlations for scores on the MBTI scales with NEO-4 domains ranged from .72 to .02 for Extraversion, from -.60 to -.16 for Openness to experience, from -.56 to -.04 for Agreeableness, and from .55 to -.07 for Conscientiousness. Two domains assessed with the NEO-4 correspond to preferences measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

  5. Greedy Criterion in Orthogonal Greedy Learning.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Lin, Shaobo; Zeng, Jinshan; Liu, Xia; Fang, Yi; Xu, Zongben

    2017-02-23

    Orthogonal greedy learning (OGL) is a stepwise learning scheme that starts with selecting a new atom from a specified dictionary via the steepest gradient descent (SGD) and then builds the estimator through orthogonal projection. In this paper, we found that SGD is not the unique greedy criterion and introduced a new greedy criterion, called as ''δ-greedy threshold'' for learning. Based on this new greedy criterion, we derived a straightforward termination rule for OGL. Our theoretical study shows that the new learning scheme can achieve the existing (almost) optimal learning rate of OGL. Numerical experiments are also provided to support that this new scheme can achieve almost optimal generalization performance while requiring less computation than OGL.

  6. Filamentary and hierarchical pictures - Kinetic energy criterion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klypin, Anatoly A.; Melott, Adrian L.

    1992-01-01

    We present a new criterion for formation of second-generation filaments. The criterion called the kinetic energy ratio, KR, is based on comparison of peculiar velocities at different scales. We suggest that the clumpiness of the distribution in some cases might be less important than the 'coldness' or 'hotness' of the flow for formation of coherent structures. The kinetic energy ratio is analogous to the Mach number except for one essential difference. If at some scale KR is greater than 1, as estimated at the linear stage, then when fluctuations of this scale reach nonlinearity, the objects they produce must be anisotropic ('filamentary'). In the case of power-law initial spectra the kinetic ratio criterion suggests that the border line is the power-spectrum with the slope n = -1.

  7. Resilience as a universal criterion of health.

    PubMed

    Döring, Thomas F; Vieweger, Anja; Pautasso, Marco; Vaarst, Mette; Finckh, Maria R; Wolfe, Martin S

    2015-02-01

    To promote and maintain health in agricultural and food systems, appropriate criteria are needed for the description and assessment of the health of soils, plants, animals, humans and ecosystems. Here we identify the concept of resilience as a universally applicable and fundamentally important criterion of health in all relevant areas of agriculture. We discuss definitions of resilience for soils, plants, animals, humans and ecosystems, and explore ways in which resilience can be applied as a criterion of health in different agricultural contexts. We show how and why resilience can be seen as a key criterion of health. Based on this, we discuss how resilience can be used as a link between soil, plant, animal, human and ecosystem health. Finally, we highlight four key areas for future research on resilience in agriculture, namely spatial and temporal scaling of resilience; effects of diversity; the role of networks for resilience; and stakeholder involvement.

  8. Filamentary and hierarchical pictures - Kinetic energy criterion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klypin, Anatoly A.; Melott, Adrian L.

    1992-01-01

    We present a new criterion for formation of second-generation filaments. The criterion called the kinetic energy ratio, KR, is based on comparison of peculiar velocities at different scales. We suggest that the clumpiness of the distribution in some cases might be less important than the 'coldness' or 'hotness' of the flow for formation of coherent structures. The kinetic energy ratio is analogous to the Mach number except for one essential difference. If at some scale KR is greater than 1, as estimated at the linear stage, then when fluctuations of this scale reach nonlinearity, the objects they produce must be anisotropic ('filamentary'). In the case of power-law initial spectra the kinetic ratio criterion suggests that the border line is the power-spectrum with the slope n = -1.

  9. Holland's Vocational Preference Inventory and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator as Predictors of Vocational Choice among Master's of Business Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, David C.; Bartol, Kathryn M.

    1986-01-01

    Tested the ability of Holland's Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) to predict student business concentration. Significant discriminant analysis results were obtained for both instruments. Classification analyses supported the potential usefulness of the VPI for counseling students regarding…

  10. Concurrent Validity of Scores from an Adjectival Self-Description Checklist in Relation to Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce; Stone, Elizabeth

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is one of the most frequently used measures of personality. MBTI Form G and a self-descriptive adjectival checklist, the "Personal Preferences Self-Description Questionnaire" (PPSDQ), were administered to 191 college students. The four dimensions of personality measured by the MBTI are:…

  11. A Comparison of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Extraversion-Introversion Scale, and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 0 Scale (Social Introversion).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVay, Micheal R.

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Extraversion-Introversion scale was compared with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) 0 scale (Social Introversion) for 18 male and 66 female adult students in introductory courses in psychology, aged 17 to 83 years. A status survey design was used with a priori and post hoc groupings.…

  12. Teaching Teams To Be Teams: An Exercise Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Five-Factor Personality Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinebell, Sharon; Stecher, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Management students formed teams after completing exercises based on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Five-Factor Model of Personality. Team members examined how types and traits might affect performance. Most students indicated that understanding personality increased awareness of behavior. Teams that used extreme division of labor were…

  13. The Relationship between Personality Type and Software Usability Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The study attempted to determine if there is a relationship between user's psychological personality types, measured by the Myers Briggs Type Indicator[R] (MBTI[R]) and distinct measures of usability measured by the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI). The study was expected to provide an answer to the following basic research…

  14. The Relationship between Personality Type and Software Usability Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The study attempted to determine if there is a relationship between user's psychological personality types, measured by the Myers Briggs Type Indicator[R] (MBTI[R]) and distinct measures of usability measured by the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI). The study was expected to provide an answer to the following basic research…

  15. Teaching Teams To Be Teams: An Exercise Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Five-Factor Personality Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinebell, Sharon; Stecher, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Management students formed teams after completing exercises based on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Five-Factor Model of Personality. Team members examined how types and traits might affect performance. Most students indicated that understanding personality increased awareness of behavior. Teams that used extreme division of labor were…

  16. Using the Career Orientation and Planning Profile (COPP) and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) To Strengthen Adult Students' Knowledge of Self and of the Work World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayslip, Jo

    A study worked with three groups of female students to determine whether using the Career Orientation and Planning Profile (COPP) and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) would enable adults to make better career choices the second time around. The students were women in the Access to Careers and Training (ACT) program for unemployed or…

  17. Criterion-Referenced Test Items for Welding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Diane, Ed.

    This test item bank on welding contains test questions based upon competencies found in the Missouri Welding Competency Profile. Some test items are keyed for multiple competencies. These criterion-referenced test items are designed to work with the Vocational Instructional Management System. Questions have been statistically sampled and validated…

  18. Sufficient criterion for separability of bipartite states

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Kil-Chan

    2010-07-15

    We observe a convex subset of the set of all M x N separable states. On the basis of this observation, we give an alternative sufficient condition for separability of bipartite states. This criterion gives rise to a family of quantum channels which are entanglement breaking.

  19. A Criterion-Referenced Test for Archery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shifflett, Bethany; Schuman, Barbara J.

    1982-01-01

    A criterion-referenced test for a beginning archery class was developed and evaluated. Techniques for estimating test validity and reliability were applied to data. A method developed by R. A. Burk (1976) was used to establish a cutoff score that would distinguish between those mastering the class and nonmasters. (Authors/PP)

  20. A Criterion-Referenced Test for Archery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shifflett, Bethany; Schuman, Barbara J.

    1982-01-01

    A criterion-referenced test for a beginning archery class was developed and evaluated. Techniques for estimating test validity and reliability were applied to data. A method developed by R. A. Burk (1976) was used to establish a cutoff score that would distinguish between those mastering the class and nonmasters. (Authors/PP)

  1. An aerodynamic load criterion for airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    A simple aerodynamic bending moment envelope is derived for conventionally shaped airships. This criterion is intended to be used, much like the Naval Architect's standard wave, for preliminary estimates of longitudinal strength requirements. It should be useful in tradeoff studies between speed, fineness ratio, block coefficient, structure weight, and other such general parameters of airship design.

  2. POSTTRAINING PERFORMANCE CRITERION DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SIEGEL, ARTHUR I.

    IN THIS SUMMARY OF 22 RESEARCH REPORTS, THE DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF CRITERION INSTRUMENTS TO ASSESS THE TECHNICAL PROFICIENCY OF U.S. NAVY AERONAUTICAL SUPPORT PERSONNEL ARE DISCUSSED. THE STUDIES, SUMMARIZED IN TERMS OF THE CHRONOLOGICAL AND LOGICAL INTERRELATIONSHIPS INVOLVED, DEAL WITH PRELIMINARY AND FINAL FORMS OF TECHNICAL BEHAVIOR…

  3. 43 CFR 2440.2 - General criterion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... possible consistent with the purposes of the classification and the resource values of the lands. ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General criterion. 2440.2 Section 2440.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...

  4. 43 CFR 2440.2 - General criterion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... possible consistent with the purposes of the classification and the resource values of the lands. ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General criterion. 2440.2 Section 2440.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...

  5. 43 CFR 2440.2 - General criterion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... possible consistent with the purposes of the classification and the resource values of the lands. ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General criterion. 2440.2 Section 2440.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...

  6. The gradient deformation criterion for brittle fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuliev, V. D.; Morozov, E. M.

    2016-10-01

    A new fracture criterion based on the assumption that brittle fracture occurs when the strain gradient reaches its limiting value is formulated. The presence of a strain gradient at the boundary of a body's temperature drop is shown analytically. The results of an experiment with specimens under an abrupt change in temperature are presented.

  7. Aging: Sensitivity versus Criterion in Taste Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushnir, T.; Shapira, N.

    1983-01-01

    Employed the signal-detection paradigm as a model for investigating age-related biological versus cognitive effects on perceptual behavior. Old and young subjects reported the presence or absence of sugar in threshold level solutions and tap water. Older subjects displayed a higher detection threshold and obtained a stricter criterion of decision.…

  8. Aging: Sensitivity versus Criterion in Taste Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushnir, T.; Shapira, N.

    1983-01-01

    Employed the signal-detection paradigm as a model for investigating age-related biological versus cognitive effects on perceptual behavior. Old and young subjects reported the presence or absence of sugar in threshold level solutions and tap water. Older subjects displayed a higher detection threshold and obtained a stricter criterion of decision.…

  9. Contrasting Norm Referenced and Criterion Referenced Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Robert S.

    Differences in design between norm referenced measures (NRM) and criterion referenced measures (CRM) are reviewed, and some of the procedures proposed on designing and evaluating CRM are examined. Differences in design of NRM and CRM are said to arise from the different purposes that underlie each measure. In addition, there are differences among…

  10. The Joanna Briggs Institute Best Practice Information Sheet: the psychosocial and spiritual experiences of elderly individuals recovering from a stroke.

    PubMed

    2010-12-01

    This Best Practice Information Sheet aims to synthesize the best available evidence on the psychosocial and spiritual experiences of elderly individuals recovering from a stroke. The information that is contained in this sheet has been derived from studies that were included in a systematic review conducted by The Joanna Briggs Institute. Stroke is a major cause of death and disability and the risk of experiencing a stroke increases with age. A wide range of issues that are related to the experience of a stroke, from the perspective of the patient, have been identified in the research literature. This information sheet focuses on qualitative evidence on the short-term and long-term recovery process from the perspective of the elderly person, with the intention of assessing the evidence that would guide nursing practice.

  11. The Joanna Briggs Institute Best Practice Information Sheet: Nurse-led interventions to reduce cardiac risk factors in adults.

    PubMed

    2010-09-01

    This Best Practice Information Sheet updates and supersedes an earlier publication of the Joanna Briggs Institute in 2005. The information that is contained in this publication is based upon a systematic review of six randomized clinical trials. Additional information has been derived from a second systematic review; thus, in total, the information is derived from 22 randomized controlled trials. The original references can be sourced from the systematic reviews. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the major cause of illness in Western society and it is becoming increasingly important to establish effective strategies in order to reduce the incidence of CHD. Nurse-led clinics are becoming more prominent in community settings and the importance of nurse interventions in the management of CHD and risk factor reduction is recognized in terms of improved health outcomes for patients. However, the variation in outcome measures and inconsistent findings between some studies make it difficult to draw firm conclusions.

  12. Similarity between partners in real and perceived personality traits as measured by the Myers-Briggs type indicator.

    PubMed

    Nordvik, H

    1996-12-01

    From 90 couples, 90 male and 90 female subjects, two sets of scores on the four personality dimensions measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) were obtained by letting each person answer each item twice, first in the ordinary way and then as he or she believed the partner would answer the item. Correlations between partners' self-reported scores were all close to zero, whereas the correlations between the partner-reported scores and the self-reported scores were high for both males and females and for all the four dimensions measured by the MBTI, thus indicating that partners were not similar in personality traits, but they had a realistic perception of each other. The results support the hypothesis that mating is random in terms of personality traits.

  13. Existence criterion of genuine tripartite entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Changshui; Song Heshan

    2006-03-15

    In this paper, an intuitive mathematical formulation is provided to generalize the residual entanglement for tripartite systems of qubits [Phys. Rev. A 61, 052306 (2000)] to the tripartite systems in higher dimension. The spirit lies in the tensor treatment of tripartite pure states [Phys. Rev. A 72, 022333 (2005)]. A distinct characteristic of the present generalization is that the formulation for higher dimensional systems is invariant under permutation of the subsystems, hence is employed as a criterion to test the existence of genuine tripartite entanglement. Furthermore, the formulation for pure states can be conveniently extended to the case of mixed states by utilizing the Kronecker product approximate technique. As applications, we give the analytic approximation of the criterion for weakly mixed tripartite quantum states and consider the existence of genuine tripartite entanglement of some weakly mixed states.

  14. Generalized sheath criterion for arbitrary degenerate plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this research, we study the generalized sheath criterion for plasmas with an arbitrary degree of electron degeneracy and temperature, ranging from the classical dilute regime to the fully degenerate quantum plasmas. The latter may be relevant to warm dense matter and/or laboratory high energy density matter or even astrophysical stellar plasmas. The hydrostatic one dimensional model is used to establish the generalized Bohm's criterion for sheath entrance ion speed limits, and the small amplitude theory of the sheath problem, which accurately describes the sheath parameters for lower ion acoustic Mach numbers, is developed. Our results indicate that the sheath characteristic parameters such as electrostatic potential and density profiles, as well as the wall potential and the sheath length, are significantly affected by plasma parameters such as the ion and electron temperature and number densities in the plasma region. In particular, there are fundamental differences between sheath structures of the dilute classical plasmas and those of dense quantum ones.

  15. Stochastic Games with Average Payoff Criterion

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, M. K.; Bagchi, A.

    1998-11-15

    We study two-person stochastic games on a Polish state and compact action spaces and with average payoff criterion under a certain ergodicity condition. For the zero-sum game we establish the existence of a value and stationary optimal strategies for both players. For the nonzero-sum case the existence of Nash equilibrium in stationary strategies is established under certain separability conditions.

  16. General Stability Criterion for Inviscid Parallel Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Liang

    2007-01-01

    Arnol'd's second stability theorem is approached from an elementary point of view. First, a sufficient criterion for stability is found analytically as either -[mu][subscript 1] less than U[double prime]/U-U[subscript s] less than 0 or 0 less than U[double prime]/U-U[subscript s] in the flow, where U[subscript s] is the velocity at the inflection…

  17. General Stability Criterion for Inviscid Parallel Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Liang

    2007-01-01

    Arnol'd's second stability theorem is approached from an elementary point of view. First, a sufficient criterion for stability is found analytically as either -[mu][subscript 1] less than U[double prime]/U-U[subscript s] less than 0 or 0 less than U[double prime]/U-U[subscript s] in the flow, where U[subscript s] is the velocity at the inflection…

  18. Contemporary Views on Criterion-Referenced Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    slightly different area of application, Knipe (1973) sumarized the Grand Forks Learning System in which CRTs played a salient part. The Grand Forks School ...Knipe concluded: "The criterion-referenced test is the only Contemporary Views 54 type of test that a school district can use to determine if it is...mathematics and science curriculum for the elementary school ’ (6) "National Assessment of Educational Progress", CRTs designed to assess student.achievement

  19. Regularization Parameter Selections via Generalized Information Criterion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiyun; Li, Runze; Tsai, Chih-Ling

    2009-01-01

    We apply the nonconcave penalized likelihood approach to obtain variable selections as well as shrinkage estimators. This approach relies heavily on the choice of regularization parameter, which controls the model complexity. In this paper, we propose employing the generalized information criterion (GIC), encompassing the commonly used Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC), for selecting the regularization parameter. Our proposal makes a connection between the classical variable selection criteria and the regularization parameter selections for the nonconcave penalized likelihood approaches. We show that the BIC-type selector enables identification of the true model consistently, and the resulting estimator possesses the oracle property in the terminology of Fan and Li (2001). In contrast, however, the AIC-type selector tends to overfit with positive probability. We further show that the AIC-type selector is asymptotically loss efficient, while the BIC-type selector is not. Our simulation results confirm these theoretical findings, and an empirical example is presented. Some technical proofs are given in the online supplementary material. PMID:20676354

  20. Age Effects in Adaptive Criterion Learning.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Brittany S; Gutchess, Angela H

    2016-11-01

    Although prior work has examined age-related changes to criterion placement and flexibility, no study tested these constructs through a paradigm that employs adaptive feedback to encourage specific criterion changes. The goal of this study was to assess age differences in how young and older adults adapt and shift criteria in recognition memory decisions based on trial-by-trial feedback. Young and older adults completed an adaptive criterion learning paradigm. Over 3 study/test cycles, a biased feedback technique at test encouraged more liberal or strict responding by false-positive feedback toward false alarms or misses. Older adults were more conservative than young, even when feedback first encouraged a liberal response bias, and older adults adaptively placed criteria in response to biased feedback, much like young adults. After first being encouraged to respond conservatively, older adults shifted criteria less than young when feedback encouraged more lenient responding. These findings evidence labile adaptive criteria placement and criteria shifting with age. However, age-related tendencies toward conservative response biases may limit the extent to which criteria can be shifted in a lenient direction. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. On the hodological criterion for homology.

    PubMed

    Faunes, Macarena; Francisco Botelho, João; Ahumada Galleguillos, Patricio; Mpodozis, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Owen's pre-evolutionary definition of a homolog as "the same organ in different animals under every variety of form and function" and its redefinition after Darwin as "the same trait in different lineages due to common ancestry" entail the same heuristic problem: how to establish "sameness."Although different criteria for homology often conflict, there is currently a generalized acceptance of gene expression as the best criterion. This gene-centered view of homology results from a reductionist and preformationist concept of living beings. Here, we adopt an alternative organismic-epigenetic viewpoint, and conceive living beings as systems whose identity is given by the dynamic interactions between their components at their multiple levels of composition. We posit that there cannot be an absolute homology criterion, and instead, homology should be inferred from comparisons at the levels and developmental stages where the delimitation of the compared trait lies. In this line, we argue that neural connectivity, i.e., the hodological criterion, should prevail in the determination of homologies between brain supra-cellular structures, such as the vertebrate pallium.

  2. Social influences on adaptive criterion learning.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Brittany S; Dubé, Chad; Gutchess, Angela H

    2015-07-01

    People adaptively shift decision criteria when given biased feedback encouraging specific types of errors. Given that work on this topic has been conducted in nonsocial contexts, we extended the literature by examining adaptive criterion learning in both social and nonsocial contexts. Specifically, we compared potential differences in criterion shifting given performance feedback from social sources varying in reliability and from a nonsocial source. Participants became lax when given false positive feedback for false alarms, and became conservative when given false positive feedback for misses, replicating prior work. In terms of a social influence on adaptive criterion learning, people became more lax in response style over time if feedback was provided by a nonsocial source or by a social source meant to be perceived as unreliable and low-achieving. In contrast, people adopted a more conservative response style over time if performance feedback came from a high-achieving and reliable source. Awareness that a reliable and high-achieving person had not provided their feedback reduced the tendency to become more conservative, relative to those unaware of the source manipulation. Because teaching and learning often occur in a social context, these findings may have important implications for many scenarios in which people fine-tune their behaviors, given cues from others.

  3. Social influences on adaptive criterion learning

    PubMed Central

    Dubé, Chad; Gutchess, Angela H.

    2017-01-01

    People adaptively shift decision criteria when given biased feedback encouraging specific types of errors. Given that work on this topic has been conducted in nonsocial contexts, we extended the literature by examining adaptive criterion learning in both social and nonsocial contexts. Specifically, we compared potential differences in criterion shifting given performance feedback from social sources varying in reliability and from a nonsocial source. Participants became lax when given false positive feedback for false alarms, and became conservative when given false positive feedback for misses, replicating prior work. In terms of a social influence on adaptive criterion learning, people became more lax in response style over time if feedback was provided by a nonsocial source or by a social source meant to be perceived as unreliable and low-achieving. In contrast, people adopted a more conservative response style over time if performance feedback came from a high-achieving and reliable source. Awareness that a reliable and high-achieving person had not provided their feedback reduced the tendency to become more conservative, relative to those unaware of the source manipulation. Because teaching and learning often occur in a social context, these findings may have important implications for many scenarios in which people fine-tune their behaviors, given cues from others. PMID:25547757

  4. Blind equalization with criterion with memory nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuanjie; Nikias, Chrysostomos L.; Proakis, John G.

    1992-06-01

    Blind equalization methods usually combat the linear distortion caused by a nonideal channel via a transversal filter, without resorting to the a priori known training sequences. We introduce a new criterion with memory nonlinearity (CRIMNO) for the blind equalization problem. The basic idea of this criterion is to augment the Godard [or constant modulus algorithm (CMA)] cost function with additional terms that penalize the autocorrelations of the equalizer outputs. Several variations of the CRIMNO algorithms are derived, with the variations dependent on (1) whether the empirical averages or the single point estimates are used to approximate the expectations, (2) whether the recent or the delayed equalizer coefficients are used, and (3) whether the weights applied to the autocorrelation terms are fixed or are allowed to adapt. Simulation experiments show that the CRIMNO algorithm, and especially its adaptive weight version, exhibits faster convergence speed than the Godard (or CMA) algorithm. Extensions of the CRIMNO criterion to accommodate the case of correlated inputs to the channel are also presented.

  5. Regularization Parameter Selections via Generalized Information Criterion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiyun; Li, Runze; Tsai, Chih-Ling

    2010-03-01

    We apply the nonconcave penalized likelihood approach to obtain variable selections as well as shrinkage estimators. This approach relies heavily on the choice of regularization parameter, which controls the model complexity. In this paper, we propose employing the generalized information criterion (GIC), encompassing the commonly used Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC), for selecting the regularization parameter. Our proposal makes a connection between the classical variable selection criteria and the regularization parameter selections for the nonconcave penalized likelihood approaches. We show that the BIC-type selector enables identification of the true model consistently, and the resulting estimator possesses the oracle property in the terminology of Fan and Li (2001). In contrast, however, the AIC-type selector tends to overfit with positive probability. We further show that the AIC-type selector is asymptotically loss efficient, while the BIC-type selector is not. Our simulation results confirm these theoretical findings, and an empirical example is presented. Some technical proofs are given in the online supplementary material.

  6. On the hodological criterion for homology

    PubMed Central

    Faunes, Macarena; Francisco Botelho, João; Ahumada Galleguillos, Patricio; Mpodozis, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Owen's pre-evolutionary definition of a homolog as “the same organ in different animals under every variety of form and function” and its redefinition after Darwin as “the same trait in different lineages due to common ancestry” entail the same heuristic problem: how to establish “sameness.”Although different criteria for homology often conflict, there is currently a generalized acceptance of gene expression as the best criterion. This gene-centered view of homology results from a reductionist and preformationist concept of living beings. Here, we adopt an alternative organismic-epigenetic viewpoint, and conceive living beings as systems whose identity is given by the dynamic interactions between their components at their multiple levels of composition. We posit that there cannot be an absolute homology criterion, and instead, homology should be inferred from comparisons at the levels and developmental stages where the delimitation of the compared trait lies. In this line, we argue that neural connectivity, i.e., the hodological criterion, should prevail in the determination of homologies between brain supra-cellular structures, such as the vertebrate pallium. PMID:26157357

  7. On the definition of a criterion of immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Pradeu, Thomas; Carosella, Edgardo D

    2006-11-21

    The main objective of immunology is to establish why and when an immune response occurs, that is, to determine a criterion of immunogenicity. According to the consensus view, the proper criterion of immunogenicity lies in the discrimination between self and nonself. Here we challenge this consensus by suggesting a simpler and more comprehensive criterion, the criterion of continuity. Moreover, we show that this criterion may be considered as an interpretation of the immune "self." We conclude that immunologists can continue to speak of the self, provided that they admit that the self/nonself discrimination is not an adequate criterion of immunogenicity.

  8. The Role of the Myers-Briggs Personality Type and Emotional Intelligence in Marital Satisfaction among Married Female Students at Tehran University.

    PubMed

    Shirzad, Galin

    2016-10-01

    The present descriptive correlational study was conducted to predict the role of emotional intelligence and the Myers-Briggs personality type in marital satisfaction in married female students Tehran University in 2015. The study population consisted of all the married female students at Tehran University who visited Iran MBTI center between 22.04.2015 and 21.06.2015. A total of 140 students were selected as the study samples. Data were collected using the Myer-Briggs Type Indicator, the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire and the Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale and were then analyzed in SPSS-20 using the multivariate regression analysis. The results obtained showed that emotional intelligence (interpersonal and intra-personal skills) and personality type (extraverted and structured) can predict marital satisfaction.

  9. Beating the Stoner criterion using molecular interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma'Mari, Fatma Al; Moorsom, Timothy; Teobaldi, Gilberto; Deacon, William; Prokscha, Thomas; Luetkens, Hubertus; Lee, Steve; Sterbinsky, George E.; Arena, Dario A.; MacLaren, Donald A.; Flokstra, Machiel; Ali, Mannan; Wheeler, May C.; Burnell, Gavin; Hickey, Bryan J.; Cespedes, Oscar

    2015-08-01

    Only three elements are ferromagnetic at room temperature: the transition metals iron, cobalt and nickel. The Stoner criterion explains why iron is ferromagnetic but manganese, for example, is not, even though both elements have an unfilled 3d shell and are adjacent in the periodic table: according to this criterion, the product of the density of states and the exchange integral must be greater than unity for spontaneous spin ordering to emerge. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to alter the electronic states of non-ferromagnetic materials, such as diamagnetic copper and paramagnetic manganese, to overcome the Stoner criterion and make them ferromagnetic at room temperature. This effect is achieved via interfaces between metallic thin films and C60 molecular layers. The emergent ferromagnetic state exists over several layers of the metal before being quenched at large sample thicknesses by the material's bulk properties. Although the induced magnetization is easily measurable by magnetometry, low-energy muon spin spectroscopy provides insight into its distribution by studying the depolarization process of low-energy muons implanted in the sample. This technique indicates localized spin-ordered states at, and close to, the metal-molecule interface. Density functional theory simulations suggest a mechanism based on magnetic hardening of the metal atoms, owing to electron transfer. This mechanism might allow for the exploitation of molecular coupling to design magnetic metamaterials using abundant, non-toxic components such as organic semiconductors. Charge transfer at molecular interfaces may thus be used to control spin polarization or magnetization, with consequences for the design of devices for electronic, power or computing applications (see, for example, refs 6 and 7).

  10. Beating the Stoner criterion using molecular interfaces.

    PubMed

    Ma'Mari, Fatma Al; Moorsom, Timothy; Teobaldi, Gilberto; Deacon, William; Prokscha, Thomas; Luetkens, Hubertus; Lee, Steve; Sterbinsky, George E; Arena, Dario A; MacLaren, Donald A; Flokstra, Machiel; Ali, Mannan; Wheeler, May C; Burnell, Gavin; Hickey, Bryan J; Cespedes, Oscar

    2015-08-06

    Only three elements are ferromagnetic at room temperature: the transition metals iron, cobalt and nickel. The Stoner criterion explains why iron is ferromagnetic but manganese, for example, is not, even though both elements have an unfilled 3d shell and are adjacent in the periodic table: according to this criterion, the product of the density of states and the exchange integral must be greater than unity for spontaneous spin ordering to emerge. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to alter the electronic states of non-ferromagnetic materials, such as diamagnetic copper and paramagnetic manganese, to overcome the Stoner criterion and make them ferromagnetic at room temperature. This effect is achieved via interfaces between metallic thin films and C60 molecular layers. The emergent ferromagnetic state exists over several layers of the metal before being quenched at large sample thicknesses by the material's bulk properties. Although the induced magnetization is easily measurable by magnetometry, low-energy muon spin spectroscopy provides insight into its distribution by studying the depolarization process of low-energy muons implanted in the sample. This technique indicates localized spin-ordered states at, and close to, the metal-molecule interface. Density functional theory simulations suggest a mechanism based on magnetic hardening of the metal atoms, owing to electron transfer. This mechanism might allow for the exploitation of molecular coupling to design magnetic metamaterials using abundant, non-toxic components such as organic semiconductors. Charge transfer at molecular interfaces may thus be used to control spin polarization or magnetization, with consequences for the design of devices for electronic, power or computing applications (see, for example, refs 6 and 7).

  11. Generalized Bohm Criterion for Electronegative Complex Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chekour, S.; Tahraoui, A.

    2011-11-29

    In this work, we have generalized the computation of Bohm criterion for electronegative complex plasma. For this, we have established a one-dimensional, unmagnetized and stationary theoretical model where the positive ions and dust particles are modeled by fluid equations. The electrons and negative ions are considered in thermodynamic equilibrium; therefore they obey to Boltzmann's statistic. In this case, the numerical results show that the generalized Bohm velocity is small compared to the classical value. For electronegative dusty plasma, the corrections are less important.

  12. A criterion autoscheduler for long range planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sponsler, Jeffrey L.

    1994-01-01

    A constraint-based scheduling system called SPIKE is used to create long-term schedules for the Hubble Space Telescope. A meta-level scheduler called the Criterion Autoscheduler for Long range planning (CASL) was created to guide SPIKE's schedule generation according to the agenda of the planning scientists. It is proposed that sufficient flexibility exists in a schedule to allow high level planning heuristics to be applied without adversely affected crucial constraints such as spacecraft efficiency. This hypothesis is supported by test data which is described.

  13. Model selection criterion in survival analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabey, Uǧur; Tutkun, Nihal Ata

    2017-07-01

    Survival analysis deals with time until occurrence of an event of interest such as death, recurrence of an illness, the failure of an equipment or divorce. There are various survival models with semi-parametric or parametric approaches used in medical, natural or social sciences. The decision on the most appropriate model for the data is an important point of the analysis. In literature Akaike information criteria or Bayesian information criteria are used to select among nested models. In this study,the behavior of these information criterion is discussed for a real data set.

  14. Criterion-Referenced Testing in Foreign Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takala, Sauli

    A review of literature serves as the basis for a discussion of various aspects of criterion-referenced tests. The aspects discussed are: teaching and evaluation objectives, criterion- and norm-referenced measurement, stages in construction of criterion-referenced tests, construction and selection of items, test validity, and test reliability.…

  15. A Quantitative Criterion for Defining Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margot, Jean-Luc

    2015-11-01

    The IAU definition of 'planet' needs improvement because it is neither quantitative nor general. The current definition applies only to solar system bodies and does not allow for the classification of exoplanets. The current definition can also be misunderstood or misconstrued because of its qualitative nature (e.g., "has cleared the neighbourhood around its orbit").A simple metric can be used to determine whether a planet or exoplanet can clear its orbital zone during a characteristic time scale, such as the lifetime of the host star on the main sequence. This criterion requires only estimates of star mass, planet mass, and orbital period, making it possible to immediately classify 99% of all known exoplanets. All 8 planets and all classifiable exoplanets satisfy the criterion.I will describe the development of the metric and apply it to solar system bodies, exoplanets, and pulsar planets. I will then show how this metric could be used to quantify, generalize, and simplify the definition of 'planet'. A preprint is available at http://arxiv.org/abs/1507.06300

  16. Extensions and applications of the Bohm criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baalrud, Scott D.; Scheiner, Brett; Yee, Benjamin; Hopkins, Matthew; Barnat, Edward

    2015-04-01

    The generalized Bohm criterion is revisited in the context of incorporating kinetic effects of the electron and ion distribution functions into the theory. The underlying assumptions and results of two different approaches are compared: the conventional ‘kinetic Bohm criterion’ and a fluid-moment hierarchy approach. The former is based on the asymptotic limit of an infinitely thin sheath (λD/l = 0), whereas the latter is based on a perturbative expansion of a sheath that is thin compared to the plasma (λD/l ≪ 1). Here λD is the Debye length, which characterizes the sheath length scale, and l is a measure of the plasma or presheath length scale. The consequences of these assumptions are discussed in terms of how they restrict the class of distribution functions to which the resulting criteria can be applied. Two examples are considered to provide concrete comparisons between the two approaches. The first is a Tonks-Langmuir model including a warm ion source (Robertson 2009 Phys. Plasmas 16 103503). This highlights a substantial difference between the conventional kinetic theory, which predicts slow ions dominate at the sheath edge, and the fluid moment approach, which predicts slow ions have little influence. The second example considers planar electrostatic probes biased near the plasma potential using model equations and particle-in-cell simulations. This demonstrates a situation where electron kinetic effects alter the Bohm criterion, leading to a subsonic ion flow at the sheath edge.

  17. Kinematic criterion for breaking of shoaling waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberzon, Dan; Itay, Uri

    2016-11-01

    Validity of a kinematic criterion for breaking of shoaling waves was examined experimentally. Results obtained by simultaneous measurements of water surface velocity by PTV and of the propagation velocity of a steep crest up to the point of breaking inception during shoaling will be reported. The experiments performed in a large wave tank examining breaking behavior of gentle spillers during shoaling on three different slopes suggest a validity of the recently proposed kinematic criterion. The breaking inception was found to occur when the horizontal velocity of the water surface on the steep (local steepness of 0.41-0.6) crest reaches a threshold value of 0.85-0.95 of that of the crest propagation. The exact moment and position of breaking inception detected using a Phase Time Method (PTM), characterizing a unique shape of the local frequency fluctuations at the inception. Future implementation of the PTM method for detection of breaking events in irregular wave fields will be discussed. Supported by German-Israeli Foundation for Scientific Research and Development (GIF) Grant #2019392.

  18. Physician personality types in physical medicine and rehabilitation as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    PubMed

    Sliwa, J A; Shade-Zeldow, Y

    1994-01-01

    Personality is one variable that correlates with specialty selection and practice type. To test our hypothesis that there has been a change in the personality type of those entering Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) and to identify the academic potential of those in rehabilitation, we invited all residents and graduates of our training program to participate in a study of personality types within PM&R by completing a Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Thirty residents and 48 graduates completed the questionnaire. A wide range of personality types were represented in our sample. The most common types are shared by a number of other people-oriented, primary care specialties. There was a statistically significant difference between residents and graduates on two of the four MBTI indexes, with graduates more introverted (P < 0.05) and judging (P < 0.001) than the present residents. Intuition, previously correlated with research and academic practice, was the dominant process for the majority of graduates and residents. This would confirm, according to type theory, the academic potential of both graduates and residents in our training program.

  19. Reinterpreting the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator from the perspective of the five-factor model of personality.

    PubMed

    McCrae, R R; Costa, P T

    1989-03-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI; Myers & McCaulley, 1985) was evaluated from the perspectives of Jung's theory of psychological types and the five-factor model of personality as measured by self-reports and peer ratings on the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI; Costa & McCrae, 1985b). Data were provided by 267 men and 201 women ages 19 to 93. Consistent with earlier research and evaluations, there was no support for the view that the MBTI measures truly dichotomous preferences or qualitatively distinct types; instead, the instrument measures four relatively independent dimensions. The interpretation of the Judging-Perceiving index was also called into question. The data suggest that Jung's theory is either incorrect or inadequately operationalized by the MBTI and cannot provide a sound basis for interpreting it. However, correlational analyses showed that the four MBTI indices did measure aspects of four of the five major dimensions of normal personality. The five-factor model provides an alternative basis for interpreting MBTI findings within a broader, more commonly shared conceptual framework.

  20. A universal fracture criterion for high-strength materials

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Rui Tao; Zhang, Zhe Feng

    2013-01-01

    Recently developed advanced high-strength materials like metallic glasses, nanocrystalline metallic materials, and advanced ceramics usually fracture in a catastrophic brittle manner, which makes it quite essential to find a reasonable fracture criterion to predict their brittle failure behaviors. Based on the analysis of substantial experimental observations of fracture behaviors of metallic glasses and other high-strength materials, here we developed a new fracture criterion and proved it effective in predicting the critical fracture conditions under complex stress states. The new criterion is not only a unified one which unifies the three classical failure criteria, i.e., the maximum normal stress criterion, the Tresca criterion and the Mohr-Coulomb criterion, but also a universal criterion which has the ability to describe the fracture mechanisms of a variety of different high-strength materials under various external loading conditions.

  1. Discriminant Validity Assessment: Use of Fornell & Larcker criterion versus HTMT Criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, M. R. Ab; Sami, W.; Mohmad Sidek, M. H.

    2017-09-01

    Assessment of discriminant validity is a must in any research that involves latent variables for the prevention of multicollinearity issues. Fornell and Larcker criterion is the most widely used method for this purpose. However, a new method has emerged for establishing the discriminant validity assessment through heterotrait-monotrait (HTMT) ratio of correlations method. Therefore, this article presents the results of discriminant validity assessment using these methods. Data from previous study was used that involved 429 respondents for empirical validation of value-based excellence model in higher education institutions (HEI) in Malaysia. From the analysis, the convergent, divergent and discriminant validity were established and admissible using Fornell and Larcker criterion. However, the discriminant validity is an issue when employing the HTMT criterion. This shows that the latent variables under study faced the issue of multicollinearity and should be looked into for further details. This also implied that the HTMT criterion is a stringent measure that could detect the possible indiscriminant among the latent variables. In conclusion, the instrument which consisted of six latent variables was still lacking in terms of discriminant validity and should be explored further.

  2. Focusing criterion in DHM image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihailescu, M.; Mihale, N.; Popescu, R. C.; Acasandrei, A.; Paun, I. A.; Dinescu, M.; Scarlat, E.

    2015-02-01

    This study is presenting the theoretical approach and the practical results of a precise activity involved in the hologram reconstruction in order to find the optimally focused image of MG63 osteoblast-like cells cultivated on polymeric flat substrates. The morphology and dynamic of the cell is investigated by digital holographic microscopy (DHM) technique. The reconstruction is digitally performed using an algorithm based on the scalar theory of diffraction in the Fresnel approximation. The quality of the 3D images of the cells is crucially depending on the focusing capability of the reconstruction chain to fit the parameters of the optical recorder, particularly the focusing value. Our proposal to find the focused image is based on the images decomposition on gray levels and their histogram analysis. More precisely the focusing criterion is based on the evaluation of the form of this distribution.

  3. Nash equilibrium and multi criterion aerodynamic optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhili; Zhang, Lianhe

    2016-06-01

    Game theory and its particular Nash Equilibrium (NE) are gaining importance in solving Multi Criterion Optimization (MCO) in engineering problems over the past decade. The solution of a MCO problem can be viewed as a NE under the concept of competitive games. This paper surveyed/proposed four efficient algorithms for calculating a NE of a MCO problem. Existence and equivalence of the solution are analyzed and proved in the paper based on fixed point theorem. Specific virtual symmetric Nash game is also presented to set up an optimization strategy for single objective optimization problems. Two numerical examples are presented to verify proposed algorithms. One is mathematical functions' optimization to illustrate detailed numerical procedures of algorithms, the other is aerodynamic drag reduction of civil transport wing fuselage configuration by using virtual game. The successful application validates efficiency of algorithms in solving complex aerodynamic optimization problem.

  4. A proposed criterion for aircraft flight in turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, R. F.; Robinson, A. C.

    1971-01-01

    A proposed criterion for aircraft flight in turbulent conditions is presented. Subjects discussed are: (1) the problem of flight safety in turbulence, (2) new criterion for turbulence flight where existing ones seem adequate, and (3) computational problems associated with new criterion. Primary emphasis is placed on catastrophic occurrences in subsonic cruise with the aircraft under automatic control. A Monte Carlo simulation is used in the formulation and evaluation of probabilities of survival of an encounter with turbulence.

  5. Relationship between DHI production values and Myers-Briggs type indicator as a measure of management ability.

    PubMed

    Young, A J; Walters, J L

    2002-08-01

    Associations between owners' Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) preferences (E = extraversion vs. I = introversion; S = sensing vs. N = intuition; T = thinking vs F = feeling; J = judging vs. P = perceiving) and 21 Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) production variables were determined on 60 farms. Of 60 dairy farmers participating, 51 were from Holstein farms (85%) and nine from farms with other breeds, primarily Jersey. Cows were milked either twice (n = 44 herds, 73%) or three times (n = 16) per day. Farmers were evenly split between the "E" and "I" dimension, whereas 93% of the farmers were "S," 75% "T," and 62% "J.". Individuals with a preference for the "I" dimension were associated with higher peak and mature equivalent milk yield than those individuals with a preference for the "E" dimension. The "T" and "J" dimensions had a significantly higher percentage of the herd with records usable by USDA and a lower percentage of animals pregnant by the goal set by the dairy producer than the "F" and "P" dimensions. Herds managed by individuals with a combination preference of "E" and "P" produced 7 to 10 kg of 3.5% FCM/cow per day less or 1,820 to 2,752 kg/ cow RHA ECM less than other combinations of the "E-I" and "J-P" dimensions. Those herds also had longer days dry and a lower percentage of records usable by USDA, suggesting that the "E-P" preference is less favorably associated to those measures of herd performance. The MBTI had limited association with many DHI production variables, but relationships to measures of labor and business management should be examined.

  6. The PTSD supremacy: Criterion F in three Voyager cases.

    PubMed

    Gaughwin, Peter

    2009-04-01

    The aim is to consider whether the courts and experts in their application of Criterion F for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have applied it consistently in civil claims brought years after the event. Three cases for compensation relating to the Voyager disaster are considered. It appears, from the cases considered in this paper, that while courts consider that Criterion F is crucial in making a diagnosis of PTSD, there are some inconsistencies in terms of understanding and applying this criterion, both by the courts and experts. This may be because of a lack of guidance in psychiatric texts as to how to apply Criterion F. Criterion F is, after the satisfaction of Criterion A(1), arguably the most important of the criteria for PTSD for, while the symptoms referred to in Criteria B-D have been shown to be fairly easy to simulate, it is arguably harder to do this with Criterion F, particularly in cases that arise a long time after the event. It is important therefore that psychiatrists assessing persons so long after an event adhere rigorously to Criterion F, because it is based on facts open to objective corroboration, while criteria B, C and D tend to rely on subjective experiences which are the most sensitive to distortion. Thus, it is to be hoped that if DSM-V is to maintain a criterion of clinically significant distress or impairment in the majority of the disorders described therein, it will provide some assistance as to how this criteria should be applied.

  7. An Independent and Coordinated Criterion for Kinematic Aircraft Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Hagen, George

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a mathematical definition of an aircraft-separation criterion for kinematic-based horizontal maneuvers. It has been formally proved that kinematic maneu- vers that satisfy the new criterion are independent and coordinated for repulsiveness, i.e., the distance at closest point of approach increases whether one or both aircraft maneuver according to the criterion. The proposed criterion is currently used in NASA's Airborne Coordinated Resolution and Detection (ACCoRD) set of tools for the design and analysis of separation assurance systems.

  8. Ballistic Similitude Design Criterion for artillery projectiles

    SciTech Connect

    Hodapp, A.E. Jr.; LaFarge, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    A Sandia National Laboratories analytically derived and experimentally verified Ballistic Similitude Design Criterion (BSDC) is described herein. This BSDC, for projectiles of identical external shape, was used to guide development of the M753 8-inch Artillery Fired Atomic Projectile (AFAP) as a ballistically similar counterpart to the M650 8-inch rocket assisted conventional high explosive (HE) projectile. As required for similitude, the mean impact point of the M753 falls within the precision error region about the M650 mean impact point when the M753 is fired with standard equipment and M650 firing data. The M753 is the first AFAP that has been developed and proven to be ballistically similar to a conventional HE projectile. Since gross internal differences between the M753 and M650 make complete duplication of M650 mass properties impossible, a BSDC was required to identify which properties were necessary to match in order to achieve similitude. The effects of internal vibrating bodies, rotating band characteristics, muzzle exit conditions, the basic mass properties, and the effects of mass asymmetries were all considered in the development of the BSDC.

  9. Earthquake prediction: Criterion for a tilt anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, C.P.; Kohlenberger, C.W.

    1980-07-10

    A current approach to the problem of defining and detecting anomalous tilt behavior is presented. To establish what is considered to be normal tilt behavior, we isolate systematic signals such as hydrologic, thermal, tidal, cultural, and equipment-related effects from the tilt data. The kinds of tilt signals which remain after rejection of the systematic signals are designated by ourselves as residual tilt. Residual tilt consists of asystematic random noise and anomalous tilts. To affirm or deny the contention that an anomalous tilt is present in the data requires the formulation of a statistically valid judgment criteria. Our approach adopts the hypothesis that the random walk model is not significantly different from the residual tilt and allows the application of standard statistical tests to the problem of detecting anomalous varia ions in random noise. In our study of the data analyzed so far, we find that the boundary for detectability is inverse frequency dependent, and this limits the way in which anomalies can be treated. The fact that the magnitude of the anomaly decreases as the tilt data span increases suggests that further criterion development is necessary and tends to imply that longer anomalies will not be detected unless there is a correspondingly larger amplitude. From our studies of three earthquake-association anomalies this does not appear to be the case.

  10. Quality criterion for digital still camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezryadin, Sergey

    2007-02-01

    The main quality requirements for a digital still camera are color capturing accuracy, low noise level, and quantum efficiency. Different consumers assign different priorities to the listed parameters, and camera designers need clearly formulated methods for their evaluation. While there are procedures providing noise level and quantum efficiency estimation, there are no effective means for color capturing accuracy estimation. Introduced in this paper criterion allows to fill this gap. Luther-Ives condition for correct color reproduction system became known in the beginning of the last century. However, since no detector system satisfies Luther-Ives condition, there are always stimuli that are distinctly different for an observer, but which detectors are unable to distinguish. To estimate conformity of a detector set with Luther-Ives condition and calculate a measure of discrepancy, an angle between detector sensor sensitivity and Cohen's Fundamental Color Space may be used. In this paper, the divergence angle is calculated for some typical CCD sensors and a demonstration provided on how this angle might be reduced with a corrective filter. In addition, it is shown that with a specific corrective filter Foveon sensors turn into a detector system with a good Luther-Ives condition compliance.

  11. Bayesian information criterion for censored survival models.

    PubMed

    Volinsky, C T; Raftery, A E

    2000-03-01

    We investigate the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) for variable selection in models for censored survival data. Kass and Wasserman (1995, Journal of the American Statistical Association 90, 928-934) showed that BIC provides a close approximation to the Bayes factor when a unit-information prior on the parameter space is used. We propose a revision of the penalty term in BIC so that it is defined in terms of the number of uncensored events instead of the number of observations. For a simple censored data model, this revision results in a better approximation to the exact Bayes factor based on a conjugate unit-information prior. In the Cox proportional hazards regression model, we propose defining BIC in terms of the maximized partial likelihood. Using the number of deaths rather than the number of individuals in the BIC penalty term corresponds to a more realistic prior on the parameter space and is shown to improve predictive performance for assessing stroke risk in the Cardiovascular Health Study.

  12. Suboptimal Criterion Learning in Static and Dynamic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Stephen M.; Daw, Nathaniel D.

    2017-01-01

    Humans often make decisions based on uncertain sensory information. Signal detection theory (SDT) describes detection and discrimination decisions as a comparison of stimulus “strength” to a fixed decision criterion. However, recent research suggests that current responses depend on the recent history of stimuli and previous responses, suggesting that the decision criterion is updated trial-by-trial. The mechanisms underpinning criterion setting remain unknown. Here, we examine how observers learn to set a decision criterion in an orientation-discrimination task under both static and dynamic conditions. To investigate mechanisms underlying trial-by-trial criterion placement, we introduce a novel task in which participants explicitly set the criterion, and compare it to a more traditional discrimination task, allowing us to model this explicit indication of criterion dynamics. In each task, stimuli were ellipses with principal orientations drawn from two categories: Gaussian distributions with different means and equal variance. In the covert-criterion task, observers categorized a displayed ellipse. In the overt-criterion task, observers adjusted the orientation of a line that served as the discrimination criterion for a subsequently presented ellipse. We compared performance to the ideal Bayesian learner and several suboptimal models that varied in both computational and memory demands. Under static and dynamic conditions, we found that, in both tasks, observers used suboptimal learning rules. In most conditions, a model in which the recent history of past samples determines a belief about category means fit the data best for most observers and on average. Our results reveal dynamic adjustment of discrimination criterion, even after prolonged training, and indicate how decision criteria are updated over time. PMID:28046006

  13. Suboptimal Criterion Learning in Static and Dynamic Environments.

    PubMed

    Norton, Elyse H; Fleming, Stephen M; Daw, Nathaniel D; Landy, Michael S

    2017-01-01

    Humans often make decisions based on uncertain sensory information. Signal detection theory (SDT) describes detection and discrimination decisions as a comparison of stimulus "strength" to a fixed decision criterion. However, recent research suggests that current responses depend on the recent history of stimuli and previous responses, suggesting that the decision criterion is updated trial-by-trial. The mechanisms underpinning criterion setting remain unknown. Here, we examine how observers learn to set a decision criterion in an orientation-discrimination task under both static and dynamic conditions. To investigate mechanisms underlying trial-by-trial criterion placement, we introduce a novel task in which participants explicitly set the criterion, and compare it to a more traditional discrimination task, allowing us to model this explicit indication of criterion dynamics. In each task, stimuli were ellipses with principal orientations drawn from two categories: Gaussian distributions with different means and equal variance. In the covert-criterion task, observers categorized a displayed ellipse. In the overt-criterion task, observers adjusted the orientation of a line that served as the discrimination criterion for a subsequently presented ellipse. We compared performance to the ideal Bayesian learner and several suboptimal models that varied in both computational and memory demands. Under static and dynamic conditions, we found that, in both tasks, observers used suboptimal learning rules. In most conditions, a model in which the recent history of past samples determines a belief about category means fit the data best for most observers and on average. Our results reveal dynamic adjustment of discrimination criterion, even after prolonged training, and indicate how decision criteria are updated over time.

  14. A comparison of music education and music therapy majors: personality types as described by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and demographic profiles.

    PubMed

    Steele, Anita Louise; Young, Sylvester

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop both personality and demographic profiles for students who are interested in majoring in music education or music therapy. Two primary questions were addressed in the study: (a) Are there similarities and differences in the personality types of music education and music therapy majors as measured by the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI )? (b) Are there similarities and differences in demographic characteristics of music education and music therapy majors in regard to (i) principal instrument studied in college, (ii) grade point average, (iii) scholarship awards, (iv) high school participation in private study and (v) ensembles, (vi) church/community participation, and (vii) volunteerism in high school?

  15. A stochastic T cell response criterion

    PubMed Central

    Currie, James; Castro, Mario; Lythe, Grant; Palmer, Ed; Molina-París, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    The adaptive immune system relies on different cell types to provide fast and coordinated responses, characterized by recognition of pathogenic challenge, extensive cellular proliferation and differentiation, as well as death. T cells are a subset of the adaptive immune cellular pool that recognize immunogenic peptides expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells by means of specialized receptors on their membrane. T cell receptor binding to ligand determines T cell responses at different times and locations during the life of a T cell. Current experimental evidence provides support to the following: (i) sufficiently long receptor–ligand engagements are required to initiate the T cell signalling cascade that results in productive signal transduction and (ii) counting devices are at work in T cells to allow signal accumulation, decoding and translation into biological responses. In the light of these results, we explore, with mathematical models, the timescales associated with T cell responses. We consider two different criteria: a stochastic one (the mean time it takes to have had N receptor–ligand complexes bound for at least a dwell time, τ, each) and one based on equilibrium (the time to reach a threshold number N of receptor–ligand complexes). We have applied mathematical models to previous experiments in the context of thymic negative selection and to recent two-dimensional experiments. Our results indicate that the stochastic criterion provides support to the thymic affinity threshold hypothesis, whereas the equilibrium one does not, and agrees with the ligand hierarchy experimentally established for thymic negative selection. PMID:22745227

  16. A Difference Criterion for Dimensionality Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aved, A. J.; Blasch, E.; Peng, J.

    2015-12-01

    A dynamic data-driven geoscience application includes hyperspectral scene classification which has shown promising potential in many remote-sensing applications. A hyperspectral image of a scene spectral radiance is typically measured by hundreds of contiguous spectral bands or features, ranging from visible/near-infrared (VNIR) to shortwave infrared (SWIR). Spectral-reflectance measurements provide rich information for object detection and classification. On the other hand, they generate a large number of features, resulting in a high dimensional measurement space. However, a large number of features often poses challenges and can result in poor classification performance. This is due to the curse of dimensionality which requires model reduction, uncertainty quantification and optimization for real-world applications. In such situations, feature extraction or selection methods play an important role by significantly reducing the number of features for building classifiers. In this work, we focus on efficient feature extraction using the dynamic data-driven applications systems (DDDAS) paradigm. Many dimension reduction techniques have been proposed in the literature. A well-known technique is Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (LDA). LDA finds the projection matrix that simultaneously maximizes a within class scatter matrix and minimizes a between class scatter matrix. However, LDA requires matrix inverse which can be a major issue when the within matrix is singular. We propose a difference criterion for dimension reduction that does not require a matrix inverse for software implementation. We show how to solve the optimization problem with semi-definite programming. In addition, we establish an error bound for the proposed algorithm. We demonstrate the connection between relief feature selection and a two class formulation of multi-class problems, thereby providing a sound basis for observed benefits associated with this formulation. Finally, we provide

  17. An Optimal Design Approach to Criterion-Referenced Computerized Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiberg, Marie

    2003-01-01

    A criterion-referenced computerized test is expressed as a statistical hypothesis problem. This admits that it can be studied by using the theory of optimal design. The power function of the statistical test is used as a criterion function when designing the test. A formal proof is provided showing that all items should have the same item…

  18. A shear ductile fracture criterion for metal forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Yanshan; Yoon, Jeong Whan

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, an uncoupled shear ductile fracture criterion is developed for prediction of ductile fracture in sheet metal forming from shear to balanced biaxial tension. The ductile fracture criterion is calibrated by four tests of sheet metal: shear tests, uniaxial tension, plane strain tension and the Nakajima test. Specimens are designed for AA6082 T6 (t1.0) for the calibration of the proposed ductile fracture criterion. The calibrated ductile fracture criterion is then implemented into numerical simulation for the prediction of ductile fracture of the aluminum alloy. For the purpose of comparison, onset of ductile fracture is also estimated by MMC3, DF2012 and DF2014 criteria. The comparison indicates that the developed criterion can accurately predict onset of ductile fracture for all four loading conditions, but the other three criteria can only provide reasonable prediction for three tests. Accordingly, the newly developed ductile fracture criterion is suggested to be used in prediction of ductile fracture for sheet metal forming in wide loading condition from shear to the balanced biaxial tension. Discussion on calibration of this ductile fracture criterion also indicates that the ductile fracture criterion can be employed in estimation of ductile fracture for bulk metal forming processes with better predictability.

  19. Criterion for faithful teleportation with an arbitrary multiparticle channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Chi-Yee; Zhang, Zhan-Jun

    2009-08-01

    We present a general criterion which allows one to judge if an arbitrary multiparticle entanglement channel can be used to teleport faithfully an unknown quantum state of a given dimension. We also present a general multiparticle teleportation protocol which is applicable for all channel states satisfying this criterion.

  20. The Instructional Consequences of Criterion-Referenced Clarity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popham, W. James

    1994-01-01

    The instructional impact of criterion-referenced testing during the past three decades is reviewed, and a method of devising criterion-referenced tests is suggested that departs from the usual model. Adding verification along the lines of panel review that newly constructed test items do elicit appropriate information is suggested. (SLD)

  1. Criterion Referenced Testing: A Bibliography. TM Report 53.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Deborah Elena

    Within the last decade, a wealth of literature has appeared debating the merits, use, construction, and interpretation of criterion referenced tests. This is a bibliography of articles on a wide range of topics on criterion referenced testing subjects. Also included are articles on mastery and domain referenced testing. The articles cited were…

  2. A Rationale for Criterion-Referenced Proficiency Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Ray

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes some of the technical issues that add to the complexity of language testing. It focuses in particular on the criterion-referenced nature of the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines-Speaking; and it proposes a criterion-referenced interpretation of the ACTFL guidelines for reading and listening. It then demonstrates how using…

  3. The Epistemic Criterion: A Response to Michael Hand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooling, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    This article is a response to Michael Hand's critique in this issue of my response to his use of the epistemic criterion as the sole means for identifying whether or not an issue should be identified as controversial. I argue that he has misunderstood my intention in suggesting that I was seeking to replace the epistemic criterion. Rather my…

  4. Criterion-Related Validity: Assessing the Value of Subscores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Mark L.; Davenport, Ernest C., Jr.; Chang, Yu-Feng; Vue, Kory; Su, Shiyang

    2015-01-01

    Criterion-related profile analysis (CPA) can be used to assess whether subscores of a test or test battery account for more criterion variance than does a single total score. Application of CPA to subscore evaluation is described, compared to alternative procedures, and illustrated using SAT data. Considerations other than validity and reliability…

  5. A Rationale for Criterion-Referenced Proficiency Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Ray

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes some of the technical issues that add to the complexity of language testing. It focuses in particular on the criterion-referenced nature of the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines-Speaking; and it proposes a criterion-referenced interpretation of the ACTFL guidelines for reading and listening. It then demonstrates how using…

  6. Criterion I: Soil and water conservation on rangelands [Chapter 2

    Treesearch

    Michael G. (Sherm) Karl; Paul T. Tueller; Gerald E. Schuman; Mark R. Vinson; James L. Fogg; Ronald W. Shafer; David A. Pyke; D. Terrance Booth; Steven J. Borchard; William G. Ypsilantis; Richard H. Barrett

    2010-01-01

    The Sustainable Rangelands Roundtable (SRR) has explicitly included conservation and maintenance of soil and water resources as a criterion of rangeland sustainability. Within the soil/water criterion, 10 indicators ­ five soil-based and five water-based - were developed through the expert opinions of rangeland scientists, rangeland management agency personnel, non-...

  7. A System for Describing and Evaluating Criterion-Referenced Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosecoff, Jacqueline; And Others

    There are, at present, a number of tests that are labeled criterion referenced. These tests vary considerably in format, design, analysis, and function. In order to provide an efficient and objective procedure for describing, assessing, and comparing these measures, the Criterion Referenced Test Description and Evaluation (CRTDE) rating system was…

  8. Criterion-Referenced Measurement: Half a Century Wasted?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popham, W. James

    2014-01-01

    Fifty years ago, Robert Glaser introduced the concept of criterion-referenced measurement in an article in American Psychologist. Its early proponents predicted that this measurement strategy would revolutionize education. But has it lived up to its promise? W. James Popham explores this question by looking at the history of criterion-referenced…

  9. 46 CFR 174.020 - Alternate intact stability criterion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternate intact stability criterion. 174.020 Section 174.020 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... Alternate intact stability criterion. A barge need not comply with § 174.015 and subparts C and E of part...

  10. 46 CFR 174.020 - Alternate intact stability criterion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternate intact stability criterion. 174.020 Section 174.020 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... Alternate intact stability criterion. A barge need not comply with § 174.015 and subparts C and E of part...

  11. Criterion-Referenced Measurement: Half a Century Wasted?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popham, W. James

    2014-01-01

    Fifty years ago, Robert Glaser introduced the concept of criterion-referenced measurement in an article in American Psychologist. Its early proponents predicted that this measurement strategy would revolutionize education. But has it lived up to its promise? W. James Popham explores this question by looking at the history of criterion-referenced…

  12. Controlling for Degree of Learning: Differential Criterion Fall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Terry R.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Barrett, Maier, Ekstrand, and Pellegrino in 1975 reported relatively large drops in performance from the criterion trial to an immediate retention test using a study-test free-recall paradigm. The present experiment was designed to determine whether this criterion fall was associated with the use of a retrieval strategy involving short-term…

  13. University studies science course selection and academic achievement in relation to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skauge, Suzanne Elizabeth

    This research conducted at a southern regional university studied general education (University Studies - US) science course selection and academic success in US science in relation to Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) preference categories (SF, ST, NF and NT). Additionally, differences in type preferences among students with mathematics and/or reading competency were explored. Data was examined for 755 students enrolled in the freshman success seminar course between Fall 1989 and Spring 1995 who had completed the MBTI test as part of that class. US science courses examined were grouped by science study: earth science, biology, chemistry and physics. Academic success was defined as a grade of "C" or higher and proficiency criteria were dictated by the university catalog. The study's nonparametric test results did not find any significant differences between MBTI type preferences and the two main areas of focus, US science course selection and academic success in US science courses. However, significant proportional differences were found between type preferences in relation to student reading competency (sig. = .03), as well as, reading competency and academic success in science (sig. = .04) even though fairly weak relationships existed between the variables with contingency coefficients of .11 and .10 respectively. All other relationships tested proved not significant. Each type's course selection closely reflected the overall sample: Earth Science 52.3%, Biology 34%, Chemistry 7.5% and Physics 6.1%. Nearly one-fifth (19.7%) of the sample were not successful in their selected science course. Less than two-fifths (37.7%) of student sample were not mathematics and/or reading competent. Academically in science intuitive types tended to do better than sensing types and feeling types tended to better than thinking types (NF 2.41, NT 2.36, SF 2.29 and ST 2.23). Further analysis found the TF preference scale contributed more toward the significant differences in reading

  14. Development of an updated tensile neck injury criterion.

    PubMed

    Parr, Jeffrey C; Miller, Michael E; Schubert Kabban, Christine M; Pellettiere, Joseph A; Perry, Chris E

    2014-10-01

    Ejection neck safety remains a concern in military aviation with the growing use of helmet mounted displays (HMDs) worn for entire mission durations. The original USAF tensile neck injury criterion proposed by Carter et al. (4) is updated and an injury protection limit for tensile loading is presented to evaluate escape system and HMD safety. An existent tensile neck injury criterion was updated through the addition of newer post mortem human subject (PMHS) tensile loading and injury data and the application of Survival Analysis to account for censoring in this data. The updated risk function was constructed with a combined human subject (N = 208) and PMHS (N = 22) data set. An updated AIS 3+ tensile neck injury criterion is proposed based upon human and PMHS data. This limit is significantly more conservative than the criterion proposed by Carter in 2000, yielding a 5% risk of AIS 3+ injury at a force of 1136 N as compared to a corresponding force of 1559 N. The inclusion of recent PMHS data into the original tensile neck injury criterion results in an injury protection limit that is significantly more conservative, as recent PMHS data is substantially less censored than the PMHS data included in the earlier criterion. The updated tensile risk function developed in this work is consistent with the tensile risk function published by the Federal Aviation Administration used as the basis for their neck injury criterion for side facing aircraft seats.

  15. Failure Criterion for Brick Masonry: A Micro-Mechanics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawa, Marek

    2015-02-01

    The paper deals with the formulation of failure criterion for an in-plane loaded masonry. Using micro-mechanics approach the strength estimation for masonry microstructure with constituents obeying the Drucker-Prager criterion is determined numerically. The procedure invokes lower bound analysis: for assumed stress fields constructed within masonry periodic cell critical load is obtained as a solution of constrained optimization problem. The analysis is carried out for many different loading conditions at different orientations of bed joints. The performance of the approach is verified against solutions obtained for corresponding layered and block microstructures, which provides the upper and lower strength bounds for masonry microstructure, respectively. Subsequently, a phenomenological anisotropic strength criterion for masonry microstructure is proposed. The criterion has a form of conjunction of Jaeger critical plane condition and Tsai-Wu criterion. The model proposed is identified based on the fitting of numerical results obtained from the microstructural analysis. Identified criterion is then verified against results obtained for different loading orientations. It appears that strength of masonry microstructure can be satisfactorily described by the criterion proposed.

  16. Does the World Health Organization criterion adequately define glaucoma blindness?

    PubMed Central

    Mokhles, P; Schouten, JSAG; Beckers, HJM; Webers, CAB

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Blindness in glaucoma is difficult to assess with merely the use of the current World Health Organization (WHO) definition (a visual field restricted to 10° in a radius around central fixation), as this criterion does not cover other types of visual field loss that are encountered in clinical practice and also depict blindness. In this study, a 5-point ordinal scale was developed for the assessment of common visual field defect patterns, with the purpose of comparing blindness as outcome to the findings with the WHO criterion when applied to the same visual fields. The scores with the two methods were compared between two ophthalmologists. In addition, the variability between these assessors in assessing the different visual field types was determined. Methods Two glaucoma specialists randomly assessed a sample of 423 visual fields from 77 glaucoma patients, stripped of all indices and masked for all patient variables. They applied the WHO criterion and a 5-point ordinal scale to all visual fields for the probability of blindness. Results The WHO criterion was mostly found applicable and in good agreement for both assessors to visual fields depicting central island of vision or a temporal crescent. The percentage of blindness scores was higher when using the ordinal scale, 21.7% and 19.6% for assessors A and B, respectively, versus 14.4% and 11.3% for the WHO criterion. However, Kappa was lower, 0.71 versus 0.78 for WHO. Conclusions The WHO criterion is strictly applied and shows good agreement between assessors; however, blindness does not always fit this criterion. More visual fields are labeled as blind when a less stringent criterion is used, but this leads to more interobserver variability. A new criterion that describes the extent, location, and depth of visual field defects together with their consequence for the patient’s quality of life is needed for the classification of glaucoma blindness. PMID:28280297

  17. On the reduction criterion for random quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Jivulescu, Maria Anastasia Lupa, Nicolae; Nechita, Ion

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, we study the reduction criterion for detecting entanglement of large dimensional bipartite quantum systems. We first obtain an explicit formula for the moments of a random quantum state to which the reduction criterion has been applied. We show that the empirical eigenvalue distribution of this random matrix converges strongly to a limit that we compute, in three different asymptotic regimes. We then employ tools from free probability theory to study the asymptotic positivity of the reduction operators. Finally, we compare the reduction criterion with other entanglement criteria, via thresholds.

  18. Industry Software Trustworthiness Criterion Research Based on Business Trustworthiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin; Liu, Jun-fei; Jiao, Hai-xing; Shen, Yi; Liu, Shu-yuan

    To industry software Trustworthiness problem, an idea aiming to business to construct industry software trustworthiness criterion is proposed. Based on the triangle model of "trustworthy grade definition-trustworthy evidence model-trustworthy evaluating", the idea of business trustworthiness is incarnated from different aspects of trustworthy triangle model for special industry software, power producing management system (PPMS). Business trustworthiness is the center in the constructed industry trustworthy software criterion. Fusing the international standard and industry rules, the constructed trustworthy criterion strengthens the maneuverability and reliability. Quantitive evaluating method makes the evaluating results be intuitionistic and comparable.

  19. Energy Criterion for the Spectral Stability of Discrete Breathers.

    PubMed

    Kevrekidis, Panayotis G; Cuevas-Maraver, Jesús; Pelinovsky, Dmitry E

    2016-08-26

    Discrete breathers are ubiquitous structures in nonlinear anharmonic models ranging from the prototypical example of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model to Klein-Gordon nonlinear lattices, among many others. We propose a general criterion for the emergence of instabilities of discrete breathers analogous to the well-established Vakhitov-Kolokolov criterion for solitary waves. The criterion involves the change of monotonicity of the discrete breather's energy as a function of the breather frequency. Our analysis suggests and numerical results corroborate that breathers with increasing (decreasing) energy-frequency dependence are generically unstable in soft (hard) nonlinear potentials.

  20. Multi-criterion optimization for heel-toe running.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nenzi

    2005-08-01

    This paper presents an optimization procedure for multi-criterion analysis essential in many biomechanical studies. The optimization is illustrated with a heel-toe running analysis wherein the rate of load and the passive load on support leg are minimized concurrently. The goal of multi-criterion optimization is achieved by incorporating the criterion of Pareto optimality in the genetic algorithm. The proposed procedure can replace the popular weighted-sum approach for problems with multiple objectives. The selection of a final design from the Pareto optimum points (non-dominated designs) can be determined, based on the min-max objective deviation criterion. Nevertheless, a different decision can be made in the final selection without incurring recalculations. The scheme is readily adoptable for parallel computing, which deserves further study to reduce the execution time in a complex biomechanical analysis.

  1. Two Approaches to Criterion-Referenced Program Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Tom

    1982-01-01

    Describes two types of criterion-referenced testing that districts can use to measure achievement outcomes of their instructional programs: a random sampling assessment plan and an item-response theory assessment plan. (Author/JM)

  2. On the risk criterion and the index of risk

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.C.; Johnson, R.O.; Lee, D.W.

    1996-06-10

    The development of a means to quantify risk, the determination of a risk criterion, and the establishment of a method to compare risks are three essential components in a probabilistic safety assessment. In this paper, the quantitative definition of risk given by Kaplan and Garrick is converted from a table to a graph to accommodate Farmer`s method of constructing a risk criterion. Farmer`s criterion is limited to a straight line, but its slope is made a free parameter. The high-frequency small-consequence problem noted by Farmer is solved by using an auxiliary vertical line to exclude scenarios with insignificant consequences. To compare risks associated with various accident scenarios, an index of risk relative to the straight-line risk criterion is proposed and developed. The results allow various accident scenarios to be ranked according to their weighted risks and, in turn, provide a measure of the effectiveness of mitigation.

  3. Norm Referenced and Criterion Based Measures with Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacTurk, Robert H.; Neisworth, John T.

    1978-01-01

    Seventeen handicapped and nonhandicapped preschool children were given both the norm referenced Gesell Developmental Schedules and the criterion based HICOMP progress measure on a quarterly (10 week) basis. (Author/SBH)

  4. Criterion buys Akzo`s naphtha reforming catalysts business

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.

    1993-12-08

    In a move that further consolidates the refinery catalysts market, Criterion Catalyst (Houston) has bought Akzo`s reforming business for an undisclosed price. The acquisition gives Criterion-a joint venture between Shell and American Cyanamid-roughly 35% of the $50-million/year worldwide reforming market. Akzo says it is quitting the business to focus on larger refinery catalysts applications in hydroprocessing and fluid cracking catalysts.

  5. An approximate spin design criterion for monoplanes, 1 May 1939

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidman, O.; Donlan, C. J.

    1976-01-01

    An approximate empirical criterion, based on the projected side area and the mass distribution of the airplane, was formulated. The British results were analyzed and applied to American designs. A simpler design criterion, based solely on the type and the dimensions of the tail, was developed; it is useful in a rapid estimation of whether a new design is likely to comply with the minimum requirements for safety in spinning.

  6. GRAVITATIONAL FRAGMENTATION IN GALAXY MERGERS: A STABILITY CRITERION

    SciTech Connect

    Escala, Andres; Becerra, Fernando; Del Valle, Luciano; Castillo, Esteban

    2013-01-20

    We study the gravitational stability of gaseous streams in the complex environment of a galaxy merger, because mergers are known to be places of ongoing massive cluster formation and bursts of star formation. We find an analytic stability parameter for the case of gaseous streams orbiting around the merger remnant. We test our stability criterion using hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy mergers and obtain satisfactory results. We find that our criterion successfully predicts the streams that will be gravitationally unstable to fragmentation into clumps.

  7. Evaluation of the tensor polynomial failure criterion for composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.; Macdonald, D.; Nanyaro, A. P.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive experimental and analytical evaluation of the tensor polynomial failure criterion was undertaken to determine its capability for predicting the ultimate strength of laminated composite structures subject to a plane stress state. Results are presented demonstrating that a quadratic formulation is too conservative and a cubic representation is required. Strength comparisons with test data derived from glass/epoxy and graphite/epoxy tubular specimens are also provided to validate the cubic strength criterion.

  8. The Joint Null Criterion for Multiple Hypothesis Tests

    PubMed Central

    Leek, Jeffrey T.; Storey, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneously performing many hypothesis tests is a problem commonly encountered in high-dimensional biology. In this setting, a large set of p-values is calculated from many related features measured simultaneously. Classical statistics provides a criterion for defining what a “correct” p-value is when performing a single hypothesis test. We show here that even when each p-value is marginally correct under this single hypothesis criterion, it may be the case that the joint behavior of the entire set of p-values is problematic. On the other hand, there are cases where each p-value is marginally incorrect, yet the joint distribution of the set of p-values is satisfactory. Here, we propose a criterion defining a well behaved set of simultaneously calculated p-values that provides precise control of common error rates and we introduce diagnostic procedures for assessing whether the criterion is satisfied with simulations. Multiple testing p-values that satisfy our new criterion avoid potentially large study specific errors, but also satisfy the usual assumptions for strong control of false discovery rates and family-wise error rates. We utilize the new criterion and proposed diagnostics to investigate two common issues in high-dimensional multiple testing for genomics: dependent multiple hypothesis tests and pooled versus test-specific null distributions.

  9. Genetic and environmental influences on the continuous scales of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: an analysis based on twins reared apart.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, T J; Hur, Y M

    1998-04-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator was administered to a sample of 61 monozygotic twins reared apart (MZA), 49 dizygotic twins reared apart (DZA), and 92 spouses, who participated in the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart (MISTRA) from 1979 to 1995. Twins' scores on the continuous scales were subjected to behavior genetic model-fitting procedures. Extraversion-Introversion and Thinking-Feeling yielded heritabilities of about .60, consisting largely of nonadditive genetic variance. Sensing-Intuition and Judgment-Perception yielded heritabilities of about .40, consisting largely of additive genetic variance. Spouse correlations for three of the four scales were near zero and not statistically significant; one spouse correlation (Sensing-Intuition) was modestly positive and statistically significant.

  10. An improved failure criterion for biological and engineered staggered composites.

    PubMed

    Barthelat, Francois; Dastjerdi, Ahmad Khayer; Rabiei, Reza

    2013-02-01

    High-performance biological materials such as nacre, spider silk or bone have evolved a staggered microstructure consisting of stiff and strong elongated inclusions aligned with the direction of loading. This structure leads to useful combinations of stiffness, strength and toughness, and it is therefore increasingly mimicked in bio-inspired composites. The performance of staggered composites can be tuned; for example, their mechanical properties increase when the overlap between the inclusions is increased. However, larger overlaps may lead to excessive tensile stress and fracture of the inclusions themselves, a highly detrimental failure mode. Fracture of the inclusions has so far only been predicted using highly simplified models, which hinder our ability to properly design and optimize engineered staggered composites. In this work, we develop a new failure criterion that takes into account the complex stress field within the inclusions as well as initial defects. The model leads to an 'optimum criterion' for cases where the shear tractions on the inclusions is uniform, and a 'conservative' criterion for which the tractions are modelled as point forces at the ends of the overlap regions. The criterion can therefore be applied for a wide array of material behaviour at the interface, even if the details of the shear load transfer is not known. The new criterion is validated with experiments on staggered structures made of millimetre-thick alumina tablets, and by comparison with data on nacre. Formulated in a non-dimensional form, our new criterion can be applied on a wide variety of engineered staggered composites at any length scale. It also reveals new design guidelines, for example high aspect ratio inclusions with weak interfaces are preferable over inclusions with low aspect ratio and stronger interfaces. Together with existing models, this new criterion will lead to optimal designs that harness the full potential of bio-inspired staggered composites.

  11. Risk acceptance criterion for tanker oil spill risk reduction measures.

    PubMed

    Psarros, George; Skjong, Rolf; Vanem, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This paper is aimed at investigating whether there is ample support for the view that the acceptance criterion for evaluating measures for prevention of oil spills from tankers should be based on cost-effectiveness considerations. One such criterion can be reflected by the Cost of Averting a Tonne of oil Spilt (CATS) whereas its target value is updated by elaborating the inherent uncertainties of oil spill costs and establishing a value for the criterion's assurance factor. To this end, a value of $80,000/t is proposed as a sensible CATS criterion and the proposed value for the assurance factor F=1.5 is supported by the retrieved Protection and Indemnity (P&I) Clubs' Annual Reports. It is envisaged that this criterion would allow the conversion of direct and indirect costs into a non-market value for the optimal allocation of resources between the various parties investing in shipping. A review of previous cost estimation models on oil spills is presented and a probability distribution (log-normal) is fitted on the available oil spill cost data, where it should be made abundantly clear that the mean value of the distribution is used for deriving the updated CATS criterion value. However, the difference between the initial and the updated CATS criterion in the percentiles of the distribution is small. It is found through the current analysis that results are partly lower than the predicted values from the published estimation models. The costs are also found to depend on the type of accident, which is in agreement with the results of previous studies. Other proposals on acceptance criteria are reviewed and it is asserted that the CATS criterion can be considered as the best candidate. Evidence is provided that the CATS approach is practical and meaningful by including examples of successful applications in actual risk assessments. Finally, it is suggested that the criterion may be refined subject to more readily available cost data and experience gained from future

  12. Dubious decision evidence and criterion flexibility in recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Kantner, Justin; Vettel, Jean M.; Miller, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    When old–new recognition judgments must be based on ambiguous memory evidence, a proper criterion for responding “old” can substantially improve accuracy, but participants are typically suboptimal in their placement of decision criteria. Various accounts of suboptimal criterion placement have been proposed. The most parsimonious, however, is that subjects simply over-rely on memory evidence – however faulty – as a basis for decisions. We tested this account with a novel recognition paradigm in which old–new discrimination was minimal and critical errors were avoided by adopting highly liberal or conservative biases. In Experiment 1, criterion shifts were necessary to adapt to changing target probabilities or, in a “security patrol” scenario, to avoid either letting dangerous people go free (misses) or harming innocent people (false alarms). Experiment 2 added a condition in which financial incentives drove criterion shifts. Critical errors were frequent, similar across sources of motivation, and only moderately reduced by feedback. In Experiment 3, critical errors were only modestly reduced in a version of the security patrol with no study phase. These findings indicate that participants use even transparently non-probative information as an alternative to heavy reliance on a decision rule, a strategy that precludes optimal criterion placement. PMID:26441706

  13. A new tracer-density criterion for heterogeneous porous media

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barth, G.R.; Illangasekare, T.H.; Hill, M.C.; Rajaram, H.

    2001-01-01

    Tracerexperiments provide information about aquifer material properties vital for accurate site characterization. Unfortunately, density-induced sinking can distort tracer movement, leading to an inaccurate assessment of material properties. Yet existing criteria for selecting appropriate tracer concentrations are based on analysis of homogeneous media instead of media with heterogeneities typical of field sites. This work introduces a hydraulic-gradient correction for heterogeneous media and applies it to a criterion previously used to indicate density-induced instabilities in homogeneous media. The modified criterion was tested using a series of two-dimensional heterogeneous intermediate-scale tracer experiments and data from several detailed field tracer tests. The intermediate-scale experimental facility (10.0 ?? 1.2 ?? 0.06 m) included both homogeneous and heterogeneous (??2/In ?? = 1.22) zones. The field tracer tests were less heterogeneous (0.24 < ??2/ln ?? < 0.37), but measurements were sufficient to detect density-induced sinking. Evaluation of the modified criterion using the experiments and field tests demonstrates that the new criterion appears to account for the change in density-induced sinking due to heterogeneity. The criterion demonstrates the importance of accounting for heterogeneity to predict density-induced sinking and differences in the onset of density induced sinking in two-and three-dimensional systems.

  14. UPRE-variant: a novel criterion for parametric PSF estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Feng; Li, Zhifeng; Liu, Jiaqi; Meng, Gang; Zhao, Min

    2015-10-01

    We propose a variant of unbiased predictive risk estimate (UPRE) as a novel criterion for estimating a point spread function (PSF) from the degraded image only. Compared to the traditional unbiased estimates (e.g. UPRE and SURE), the key advantage of this variant is that it does not require the knowledge of noise variance. The PSF is obtained by minimizing this new objective functional over a family of smoother processings. Based on this estimated PSF, we then perform deconvolution using our recently developed SURE-LET algorithm. The novel criterion is exemplified with a number of parametric PSF. The experimental results demonstrate that the UPRE-variant minimization yields highly accurate estimates of the PSF parameters, which also result in a negligible loss of visual quality, compared to that obtained with the exact PSF. The highly competitive results outline the great potential of developing more powerful blind deconvolution algorithms based on this criterion.

  15. Judging Criterion of Controlled Structures with Closely Spaced Natural Frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Faxiang; Sun Limin

    2010-05-21

    The structures with closely spaced natural frequencies widely exist in civil engineering; however, the judging criterion of the density of closely spaced frequencies is in dispute. This paper suggests a judging criterion for structures with closely spaced natural frequencies based on the analysis on a controlled 2-DOF structure. The analysis results indicate that the optimal control gain of the structure with velocity feedback is dependent on the frequency density parameter of structure and the maximum attainable additional modal damping ratio is 1.72 times of the frequency density parameter when state feedback is applied. Based on a brief review on the previous researches, a judging criterion related the minimum frequency density parameter and the required mode damping ratio was proposed.

  16. Re-examining death: against a higher brain criterion.

    PubMed

    Fisher, J

    1999-12-01

    While there is increasing pressure on scarce health care resources, advances in medical science have blurred the boundary between life and death. Individuals can survive for decades without consciousness and individuals whose whole brains are dead can be supported for extended periods. One suggested response is to redefine death, justifying a higher brain criterion for death. This argument fails because it conflates two distinct notions about the demise of human beings--the one, biological and the other, ontological. Death is a biological phenomenon. This view entails the rejection of a higher brain criterion of death. Moreover, I claim that the justification of the whole brain (or brain stem) criterion of death is also cast into doubt by these advances in medical science. I proceed to argue that there is no need to redefine death in order to identify which treatments ought to be provided for the permanently and irreversibly unconscious. There are already clear treatment guidelines.

  17. Development of failure criterion for Kevlar-epoxy fabric laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.; Elliott, W. G.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the tensor polynomial failure criterion for composite laminate analysis is discussed. In particular, emphasis is given to the fabrication and testing of Kevlar-49 fabric (Style 285)/Narmco 5208 Epoxy. The quadratic-failure criterion with F(12)=0 provides accurate estimates of failure stresses for the Kevlar/Epoxy investigated. The cubic failure criterion was re-cast into an operationally easier form, providing the engineer with design curves that can be applied to laminates fabricated from unidirectional prepregs. In the form presented no interaction strength tests are required, although recourse to the quadratic model and the principal strength parameters is necessary. However, insufficient test data exists at present to generalize this approach for all undirectional prepregs and its use must be restricted to the generic materials investigated to-date.

  18. The role of word choice and criterion on intentional memory.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Hiroshi

    2015-02-01

    The relationship between the criterion for choosing and the self-choice effects (greater recall in a self-choice compared to a forced-choice condition) on intentional memory was examined. Thirty-three female nursing school volunteers were administered 24 word pairs in a 2 × 2 design to assess the influence of motivation upon free recall. When word pairs were presented to participants, they were asked to choose a word to-be-remembered, either in a self-choice condition or a forced-choice condition. Words chosen by the participants were recalled more often than those chosen by the experimenter (forced choice). Thus, the self-choice effect was greater for words chosen with a self-reference criterion compared to a metamemory criterion, supporting the integration hypothesis as the origin of the self-choice effect.

  19. Evaluation of failure criterion for graphite/epoxy fabric laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.; Wharram, G. E.

    1985-01-01

    The development and application of the tensor polynomial failure criterion for composite laminate analysis is described. Emphasis is given to the fabrication and testing of Narmco Rigidite 5208-WT300, a plain weave fabric of Thornel 300 Graphite fibers impregnated with Narmco 5208 Resin. The quadratic-failure criterion with F sub 12=0 provides accurate estimates of failure stresses for the graphite/epoxy investigated. The cubic failure criterion was recast into an operationally easier form, providing design curves that can be applied to laminates fabricated from orthotropic woven fabric prepregs. In the form presented, no interaction strength tests are required, although recourse to the quadratic model and the principal strength parameters is necessary. However, insufficient test data exist at present to generalize this approach for all prepreg constructions, and its use must be restricted to the generic materials and configurations investigated to date.

  20. Criticality and quenched disorder: Harris criterion versus rare regions.

    PubMed

    Vojta, Thomas; Hoyos, José A

    2014-02-21

    We employ scaling arguments and optimal fluctuation theory to establish a general relation between quantum Griffiths singularities and the Harris criterion for quantum phase transitions in disordered systems. If a clean critical point violates the Harris criterion, it is destabilized by weak disorder. At the same time, the Griffiths dynamical exponent z' diverges upon approaching the transition, suggesting unconventional critical behavior. In contrast, if the Harris criterion is fulfilled, power-law Griffiths singularities can coexist with clean critical behavior, but z' saturates at a finite value. We present applications of our theory to a variety of systems including quantum spin chains, classical reaction-diffusion systems and metallic magnets, and we discuss modifications for transitions above the upper critical dimension. Based on these results we propose a unified classification of phase transitions in disordered systems.

  1. Robust Criterion for the Existence of Nonhyperbolic Ergodic Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochi, Jairo; Bonatti, Christian; Díaz, Lorenzo J.

    2016-06-01

    We give explicit C 1-open conditions that ensure that a diffeomorphism possesses a nonhyperbolic ergodic measure with positive entropy. Actually, our criterion provides the existence of a partially hyperbolic compact set with one-dimensional center and positive topological entropy on which the center Lyapunov exponent vanishes uniformly. The conditions of the criterion are met on a C 1-dense and open subset of the set of diffeomorphisms having a robust cycle. As a corollary, there exists a C 1-open and dense subset of the set of non-Anosov robustly transitive diffeomorphisms consisting of systems with nonhyperbolic ergodic measures with positive entropy. The criterion is based on a notion of a blender defined dynamically in terms of strict invariance of a family of discs.

  2. Bohm's criterion in a collisional magnetized plasma with thermal ions

    SciTech Connect

    Hatami, M. M.; Shokri, B.

    2012-08-15

    Using the hydrodynamic model and considering a planar geometry, the modified Bohm's sheath criterion is investigated in a magnetized, collisional plasma consisting of electron and positive ions with finite temperature. It is assumed that the singly charged positive ions enter into the sheath region obliquely, i.e., their velocity at the sheath edge is not normal to the wall, and the electron densities obey Boltzmann relations. It is shown that there are both upper and lower limit for the Bohm entrance velocity of ions in this case and both of these limits depend on the magnitude and direction of the applied magnetic field. To determine the accuracy of our derived generalized Bohm's criterion, it reduced to some familiar physical condition. Also, using this generalized Bohm's criterion, the behavior of the electron and positive ion density distributions are studied in the sheath region.

  3. A bilinear failure criterion for mixed-mode delamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeder, James R.

    1993-01-01

    Many different failure criteria have been suggested for mixed-mode delamination toughness, but few sets of mixed-mode data exist that are consistent over the full range of Mode 1 opening load to Mode 2 shear load range. The mixed-mode bending (MMB) test was used to measure the delamination toughness of a brittle epoxy composite, a state-of-the-art toughened epoxy composite, and a tough thermoplastic composite over the full mixed-mode range. To gain insight into the different failure responses of the different materials, the delamination fracture surfaces were also examined. An evaluation of several failure criteria that have been reported in the literature was performed, and the range of responses modeled by each criterion was analyzed. A bilinear failure criterion was introduced based on a change in the failure mechanism observed from the delamination surfaces. The different criteria were compared to the failure response of the three materials tested. The responses of the two epoxies were best modeled with the new bilinear failure criterion. The failure response of the tough thermoplastic composite could be modeled well with the bilinear criterion but could also be modeled with the more simple linear failure criterion. Since the materials differed in their mixed-mode failure response, mixed-mode delamination testing will be needed to characterize a composite material. This paper presents consistent sets of mixed-mode data, provides a critical evaluation of the mixed-mode failure criteria, and should provide general guidance for selecting an appropriate criterion for other materials.

  4. Generalized Rayleigh criterion for non-axisymmetric centrifugal instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billant, Paul; Gallaire, François

    2005-10-01

    The well-known Rayleigh criterion is a necessary and sufficient condition for inviscid centrifugal instability of axisymmetric perturbations. We have generalized this criterion to disturbances of any azimuthal wavenumber m by means of large-axial-wavenumber WKB asymptotics. A sufficient condition for a free axisymmetric vortex with angular velocity Ω(r) to be unstable to a three-dimensional perturbation of azimuthal wavenumber m is that the real part of the growth rate [σ (r) =-imΩ(r)+√{-φ(r)}] is positive at the complex radius r{=}r_0 where ∂ σ (r)/∂ r=0, i.e. [φ'(r_0) =-2{i}mΩ'(r_0)√{-φ(r_0)},] where φ=(1/r^3)∂{r^4Ω^2}/∂ {r} is the Rayleigh discriminant, provided that some a posteriori checks are satisfied. The application of this new criterion to various classes of vortex profiles shows that the growth rate of non-axisymmetric disturbances decreases as m increases until a cutoff is reached. The criterion is in excellent agreement with numerical stability analyses of the Carton & McWilliams (1989) vortices and allows one to analyse the competition between the centrifugal instability and the shear instability. The generalized criterion is also valid for a vertical vortex in a stably stratified and rotating fluid, except that φ becomes φ=(1/r^3)∂{r^4(Ω+Ω_b)^2/∂r, where Ω_b is the background rotation about the vertical axis. The stratification is found to have no effect. For the Taylor Couette flow between two coaxial cylinders, the same criterion applies except that r_0 is real and equal to the inner cylinder radius. In sharp contrast, the maximum growth rate of non-axisymmetric disturbances is then independent of m.

  5. Paleomagnetism as a structural polarity criterion: application to Tunisian diapirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Bernard; Rouvier, Henri; Le Goff, Maxime; Smati, Amor; Hatira, Nouri; Laatar, Essaied; Mansouri, Abdelbaki; Perthuisot, Vincent

    2000-03-01

    In the Upper Aptian-Albian units, close to Triassic displaced bodies of northwestern Tunisia, the primary magnetization acquired during the Cretaceous period of normal magnetic polarity yields an unquestionable structural polarity criterion. The use of this criterion confirms the diapiric origin of these Triassic bodies and aids understanding of the evolution of the diapirs. It also appears to be a useful tool for the analysis of the geometry of overturning. An Eocene halokinesis on the platform south of the Tunisian Channel is also indicated by analysis of magnetic overprint in the Jebel Slata.

  6. Pauli criterion and the vector Aharonov{endash}Bohm effect

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.

    1996-12-01

    After discussing the commutation relations of the kinetic angular momentum of the electron in the vector Aharonov{endash}Bohm effect, the author shows that the Pauli criterion for admissibility of the wave function is inapplicable. The point is that the kinetic angular momentum does not satisfy the fundamental commutation relations of the angular momentum. The inapplicability of the Pauli criterion reflects the breakdown of the symmetry of the electron{close_quote}s motion around the solenoid. Copyright {copyright} 1996 Academic Press, Inc.

  7. Automatic control systems satisfying certain general criterions on transient behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boksenbom, Aaron S; Hood, Richard

    1952-01-01

    An analytic method for the design of automatic controls is developed that starts from certain arbitrary criterions on the behavior of the controlled system and gives those physically realizable equations that the control system can follow in order to realize this behavior. The criterions used are developed in the form of certain time integrals. General results are shown for systems of second order and of any number of degrees of freedom. Detailed examples for several cases in the control of a turbojet engine are presented.

  8. Creativity.4in1: Four-Criterion Construct of Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kharkhurin, Anatoliy V.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this theoretical article is to provide an extended definition of creativity that embraces potential cross-cultural variations in this construct. Creativity is defined as a 4-criterion construct, which includes attributes of novelty, utility, aesthetics, and authenticity. Novelty attribute stipulates that a creative work brings…

  9. Personal Career Orientation. Performance Objectives. Criterion Measures. Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Alveta; And Others

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of six terminal objectives for a personal career orientation course for seventh grade students. This 6- to 9-week course is designed to acquaint the student with personal qualities and characteristics necessary for success in the world of work.…

  10. Thinking about the Criterion Variable in Agenda-Setting Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelstein, Alex S.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the conceptual position of agenda-setting research, identifies methodological problems associated with it, and proposes a newly defined criterion variable--the "problematic situation"--as a cognitive approach to the metaphor that mass media tells people "what to think about." (SR)

  11. Electronics. Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Item Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Diane, Ed.

    This document contains 519 criterion-referenced multiple choice and true or false test items for a course in electronics. The test item bank is designed to work with both the Vocational Instructional Management System (VIMS) and the Vocational Administrative Management System (VAMS) in Missouri. The items are grouped into 15 units covering the…

  12. The Criterion Validity of Tasks of Basic Cognitive Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Dasen; Thompson, Lee A.; Detterman, Douglas K.

    2006-01-01

    The present study evaluated the criterion validity of the aggregated tasks of basic cognitive processes (TBCP). In age groups from 6 to 19 of the Woodcock-Johnson III Cognitive Abilities and Achievement Tests normative sample, the aggregated TBCP, i.e., the processing speed and working memory clusters, correlate with measures of scholastic…

  13. The Calibration of a Criterion-Referenced Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kifer, Edward; Bramble, William

    A latent trait model, the Rasch, was fitted to a criterion-referenced test. Approximately 90 percent of the items fit the model. Those items which fit the model were then calibrated. Based on the item calibration, individual ability estimates and the standard errors of those estimates were calculated. Using the ability estimates, it was possible,…

  14. An Empirical Investigation of Four Criterion-Referenced Testing Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Kenneth I.

    Since the primary purpose of classical testing is to rank order examinees consistently, the absolute value of the true score has been relatively unimportant. However, the major purpose of criterion referenced testing is to estimate the true capabilities of examinees to perform specific tasks. Hence, the problems of true score determination assume…

  15. Auto Mechanics. Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Item Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannehill, Dana, Ed.

    This document contains 546 criterion-referenced multiple choice and true or false test items for a course in auto mechanics. The test item bank is designed to work with both the Vocational Instructional Management System (VIMS) and Vocational Administrative Management System (VAMS) in Missouri. The items are grouped into 35 units covering the…

  16. DPI Criterion-Referenced Pre-Reading Screening Test: Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Irene; Williams, Virginia

    The DPI Criterion-Referenced Pre-Reading Screening Test is to be used as one means of identifying some strengths and weaknesses in certain areas of pre-reading skills. It is intended to be used as a screening instrument for beginning first graders. The areas of pre-reading skills to be screened are (1) auditory perception, (2) letter knowledge,…

  17. An Elementary Proof of a Criterion for Linear Disjointness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2013-01-01

    An elementary proof using matrix theory is given for the following criterion: if "F"/"K" and "L"/"K" are field extensions, with "F" and "L" both contained in a common extension field, then "F" and "L" are linearly disjoint over "K" if (and only if) some…

  18. An Elementary Proof of a Criterion for Linear Disjointness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2013-01-01

    An elementary proof using matrix theory is given for the following criterion: if "F"/"K" and "L"/"K" are field extensions, with "F" and "L" both contained in a common extension field, then "F" and "L" are linearly disjoint over "K" if (and only if) some…

  19. Subjective evaluation criterion for selecting affective features and modeling highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Liyuan; Yu, Hua; Huang, Qingming; Ye, Qixiang; Divakaran, Ajay

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a subjective evaluation criterion which is a guide for selecting affective features and modeling highlights. Firstly, the database of highlights ground truth is established, and both the randomness of the data set and the preparation of the subjects are considered. Secondly, commonly used affective features including visual, audio and editing features are extracted to express the highlights. Thirdly, subjective evaluation criterion is proposed based on the analysis of the average error method and pairwise comparisons method, especially the rationality of this criterion in our specific application is explained clearly according to the three detailed issues. Finally, evaluation experiments are designed on tennis and table tennis as examples. Based on the experiments, we prove that previous works on affective features and linear model highlights are effective. Furthermore, 82.0% (79.3%) affective accuracy is obtained fully automatically by computer which is a marvelous highlights ranking result. This result shows the subjective evaluation criterion is well designed for selecting affective features and modeling highlights.

  20. Technical Travails of Developing Criterion-Referenced Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popham, W. James

    Since mid-1971 the Instructional Objectives Exchange has been engaged in a major effort to develop and disseminate criterion-referenced tests in the fields of reading, mathematics, language arts, and social studies. This paper isolates the chief technical decision-alternatives faced in this project, such as: (1) the optimal number of tests to…

  1. Criterion III: Maintenance of rangeland productive capacity [Chapter 4

    Treesearch

    G. R. Evans; R. A. Washmgton-Allen; R. D. Child; J. E. Mitchell; B. R. Bobowskl; R. V. Loper; B. H. Allen-Diaz; D. W. Thompson; G. R. Welling; T. B. Reuwsaat

    2010-01-01

    Maintenance of rangeland productive capacity is one of five criteria established by the Sustainable Rangelands Roundtable (SRR) to monitor and assess rangeland sustainable management. Within this criterion, six indicators were developed through the Delphi Process and the expert opinions of academicians, rangeland scientists, rangeland management agency personnel, non-...

  2. Alignment of Lyapunov Vectors: A Quantitative Criterion to Predict Catastrophes?

    PubMed Central

    Beims, Marcus W.; Gallas, Jason A. C.

    2016-01-01

    We argue that the alignment of Lyapunov vectors provides a quantitative criterion to predict catastrophes, i.e. the imminence of large-amplitude events in chaotic time-series of observables generated by sets of ordinary differential equations. Explicit predictions are reported for a Rössler oscillator and for a semiconductor laser with optoelectronic feedback. PMID:27845435

  3. Alignment of Lyapunov Vectors: A Quantitative Criterion to Predict Catastrophes?

    PubMed

    Beims, Marcus W; Gallas, Jason A C

    2016-11-15

    We argue that the alignment of Lyapunov vectors provides a quantitative criterion to predict catastrophes, i.e. the imminence of large-amplitude events in chaotic time-series of observables generated by sets of ordinary differential equations. Explicit predictions are reported for a Rössler oscillator and for a semiconductor laser with optoelectronic feedback.

  4. Drafting. Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Item Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathew, Mary, Ed.

    This drafting criterion-referenced test item bank is keyed to the drafting competency profile developed by industry and education professionals in Missouri. The 12 references used for drafting the test items are listed. Test items are arranged under these categories: drafting room procedures; tools and equipment; basic drawing skills; geometric…

  5. Some Reliability Problems in a Criterion-Referenced Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roudabush, Glenn E.; Green, Donald Ross

    This paper describes the development of a criterion-referenced test. The Prescriptive Mathematics Inventory (PMI) was developed to measure 400 stated behavioral objectives. The test consists of three overlapping levels with the objectives chosen to cover 90 to 95 per cent of the mathematics curriculum nominally taught in grades 4 through 8. Each…

  6. Alignment of Lyapunov Vectors: A Quantitative Criterion to Predict Catastrophes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beims, Marcus W.; Gallas, Jason A. C.

    2016-11-01

    We argue that the alignment of Lyapunov vectors provides a quantitative criterion to predict catastrophes, i.e. the imminence of large-amplitude events in chaotic time-series of observables generated by sets of ordinary differential equations. Explicit predictions are reported for a Rössler oscillator and for a semiconductor laser with optoelectronic feedback.

  7. Criterion-Referenced Test Items for Graphic Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Diane, Ed.

    This test item bank on graphic arts contains test questions based upon competencies found in the Missouri Offset Lithography Competency Profile. Some test items are keyed for multiple competencies. These criterion-referenced test items are designed to work with the Vocational Instructional Management System. The tests cover the following 15…

  8. Establishing a Spinal Injury Criterion for Military Seats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    Hpr 14 OS 10:07a ESTABLISmNG A SPINAL INJURY CRITERION FOR MILITARY SEATS Martin Rapaport, Estrella Forster and Ann Schoenbeck Naval Air Warfare...University of Virginia in 1996 with research in automotive crashworthiness for disabled persons. ESTRELLA FORSTER Ms. Forster is the principal

  9. Criteria to Evaluate Interpretive Guides for Criterion-Referenced Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trapp, William J.

    2007-01-01

    This project provides a list of criteria for which the contents of interpretive guides written for customized, criterion-referenced tests can be evaluated. The criteria are based on the "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing" (1999) and examine the content breadth of interpretive guides. Interpretive guides written for…

  10. The Potential of Criterion-Referenced Tests with Projected Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behuniak, Peter; Tucker, Charlene

    1992-01-01

    Psychometrically linking a state criterion-referenced test (CRT) and a norm-referenced test (NRT) to yield NRT information through the CRT was studied with samples of 1,500 to 3,000 elementary school students per subject and grade level in Connecticut. A CRT/NRT link can create a focused and coherent assessment system. (SLD)

  11. A Criterion-Referenced Examination of Physician Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norcini, John J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A test of skill in reading electrocardiographs (ECGs) was developed as a physician competence (PC) test. The criterion-referenced test ranked 1,825 persons taking the 1983 Certifying Examination in Cardiovascular Diseases (CECD) as expected on the basis of prior education and examination scores on the CECD. The ECG test modestly correlated with…

  12. Criterion-Referenced Test Items for Auto Body.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannehill, Dana, Ed.

    This test item bank on auto body repair contains criterion-referenced test questions based upon competencies found in the Missouri Auto Body Competency Profile. Some test items are keyed for multiple competencies. The tests cover the following 26 competency areas in the auto body curriculum: auto body careers; measuring and mixing; tools and…

  13. Machine Shop. Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Item Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Diane, Ed.

    This drafting criterion-referenced test item bank is keyed to the machine shop competency profile developed by industry and education professionals in Missouri. The 16 references used for drafting the test items are listed. Test items are arranged under these categories: orientation to machine shop; performing mathematical calculations; performing…

  14. Orthogonality criterion for banishing hydrino states from standard quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, Antonio S.

    2007-10-01

    Orthogonality criterion is used to shown in a very simple and general way that anomalous bound-state solutions for the Coulomb potential (hydrino states) do not exist as bona fide solutions of the Schr\\"{o}dinger, Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations.

  15. Food Production and Services. Performance Objectives. Criterion Measures. Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, EuDell H.; And Others

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of eight terminal objectives for a food production and services course, which is designed to provide students with an opportunity to express and practice a broad range of food production and service occupations. Major concepts covered include…

  16. Signal Detection with Criterion Noise: Applications to Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Aaron S.; Diaz, Michael; Wee, Serena

    2009-01-01

    A tacit but fundamental assumption of the theory of signal detection is that criterion placement is a noise-free process. This article challenges that assumption on theoretical and empirical grounds and presents the noisy decision theory of signal detection (ND-TSD). Generalized equations for the isosensitivity function and for measures of…

  17. The Oral Interview - A Criterion-Referenced Test?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Pardee, Jr.

    The oral interview may be viewed as a criterion-referenced test for making either/or decisions about functional use of spoken language. Speech production can be tested by either the oral interview or the Valdis (1972) "Performance Objectives for Speaking," and dialogue between the two systems can be profitable. Current literature on…

  18. Criterion-Referenced Test Items for Small Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herd, Amon

    This notebook contains criterion-referenced test items for testing students' knowledge of small engines. The test items are based upon competencies found in the Missouri Small Engine Competency Profile. The test item bank is organized in 18 sections that cover the following duties: shop procedures; tools and equipment; fasteners; servicing fuel…

  19. Using Statistical Penalties In The Tsai-Wu Failure Criterion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, D. E.; Regl, R. R.; Iverson, M. P.; Phipps, B. E.

    1996-01-01

    Improved methods of applying statistical penalties when using Tsai-Wu failure criterion lead to more accurate predictions of failures of composite-material structural components under stress, and provide better safety factors for designing such components. Intended to ensure proper use of statistical penalties with respect to failure hypersurface.

  20. The Development of Criterion-Referenced Tests: Technical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popham, W. James

    Problems in constructing criterion referenced tests related to inadequate technical criteria, and guidelines for their solution are discussed. The need to select a well-defined domain of behaviors is emphasized as the key to test construction and to understanding students' test performance. Considerations must also be given to the most effective…

  1. Drafting. Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Item Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathew, Mary, Ed.

    This drafting criterion-referenced test item bank is keyed to the drafting competency profile developed by industry and education professionals in Missouri. The 12 references used for drafting the test items are listed. Test items are arranged under these categories: drafting room procedures; tools and equipment; basic drawing skills; geometric…

  2. Does the Bohm Criterion have meaning for collisional plasmas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severn, Greg; Yip, Chi-Shung; Nourgostar, Sirous; Hershkowitz, Noah

    2014-10-01

    Theorists view the Bohm criterion as approximately true, holding only for collisionless plasmas. The question of whether there exists a collisionally modified Bohm Criterion (CMBC) is often answered in the negative, and it is only a question of how the Bohm Criterion fails for the case of finite collisionality. The question is of importance considering that nearly all practical plasma processing applications involve plasmas of finite collisionality. There is, however, very little experimental work to help choose between competing models of how Bohm's Criterion fails. The question of critical importance is this: in plasmas of finite collisionality, do ions reach the Bohm speed at the location where the quasineutral plasma ends and where space charge appears? We have begun to examine the question experimentally in single ion species plasmas, and our goal is to vary the ion-neutral mean free path λ within the interval 1 < λ /λD <103 , where λD is the Debye length, and to present both plasma potential data and ion velocity distribution function profiles, measured by emissive probes and by LIF, respectively, to help us understand and assess the validity of theoretical claims. Work supported by NSF Grant No. PHY-1206421, CBET-0903783, and CBET-0903832, and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grant Nos. DE-FG02- 97ER54437 and DE FG02- 03ER54728.

  3. Child Care Services Guide. Performance Objectives. Criterion Measures. Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL.

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 14 terminal objectives for a high school child care services course. This course is designed to provide opportunities for exploring a broad range of child care, guidance, and service occupations. Major concepts include characteristics of…

  4. Auto Mechanics. Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Item Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannehill, Dana, Ed.

    This document contains 546 criterion-referenced multiple choice and true or false test items for a course in auto mechanics. The test item bank is designed to work with both the Vocational Instructional Management System (VIMS) and Vocational Administrative Management System (VAMS) in Missouri. The items are grouped into 35 units covering the…

  5. Criterion-Referenced Test Items for Small Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herd, Amon

    This notebook contains criterion-referenced test items for testing students' knowledge of small engines. The test items are based upon competencies found in the Missouri Small Engine Competency Profile. The test item bank is organized in 18 sections that cover the following duties: shop procedures; tools and equipment; fasteners; servicing fuel…

  6. Application of Weibull Criterion to failure prediction in compsites

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W. D.; Knight, Jr., C. E.

    1981-04-20

    Fiber-reinforced composite materials are being widely used in engineered structures. This report examines how the general form of the Weibull Criterion, including the evaluation of the parameters and the scaling of the parameter values, can be used for the prediction of component failure.

  7. Criterion-Referenced Test Items for Auto Body.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannehill, Dana, Ed.

    This test item bank on auto body repair contains criterion-referenced test questions based upon competencies found in the Missouri Auto Body Competency Profile. Some test items are keyed for multiple competencies. The tests cover the following 26 competency areas in the auto body curriculum: auto body careers; measuring and mixing; tools and…

  8. Signal Detection with Criterion Noise: Applications to Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Aaron S.; Diaz, Michael; Wee, Serena

    2009-01-01

    A tacit but fundamental assumption of the theory of signal detection is that criterion placement is a noise-free process. This article challenges that assumption on theoretical and empirical grounds and presents the noisy decision theory of signal detection (ND-TSD). Generalized equations for the isosensitivity function and for measures of…

  9. A Criterion-Referenced Examination of Physician Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norcini, John J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A test of skill in reading electrocardiographs (ECGs) was developed as a physician competence (PC) test. The criterion-referenced test ranked 1,825 persons taking the 1983 Certifying Examination in Cardiovascular Diseases (CECD) as expected on the basis of prior education and examination scores on the CECD. The ECG test modestly correlated with…

  10. Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Items for Building Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Diane, Ed.

    This test item bank is intended to help instructors construct criterion-referenced tests for secondary-level courses in building trades. The bank is keyed to the Missouri Building Trades Competency Profile, which was developed by industry and education professionals in Missouri, and is designed to be used in conjunction with the Vocational…

  11. Vocational Counselor Success Rate as a Criterion for Client Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Paul G.; Rubin, Stanford E.

    1977-01-01

    Provides insight into the desirability of assigning clients to counselors with a high proportion of successful closures with members of the clients' disability group. The criterion of desirability was the Cooper-Rubin suitability-of-placement index. Results indicated no positive relationship between counselors' proportion of successful closures…

  12. A criterion for joint optimization of identification and robust control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, D. S.; Yam, Y.; Mettler, E.

    1992-01-01

    A criterion for system identification is developed that is consistent with the intended used of the fitted model for modern robust control synthesis. Specifically, a joint optimization problem is posed which simultaneously solves the plant model estimate and control design, so as to optimize robust performance over the set of plants consistent with a specified experimental data set.

  13. Issues and Procedures in the Development of Criterion Referenced Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Stephen P.; Kosecoff, Jacqueline

    The basic steps and procedures in the development of criterion referenced tests (CRT), as well as the issues and problems associated with these activities are discussed. In the first section of the paper, the discussions focus upon the purpose and defining characteristics of CRTs, item construction and selection, improving item quality, content…

  14. Food Production and Services. Performance Objectives. Criterion Measures. Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, EuDell H.; And Others

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of eight terminal objectives for a food production and services course, which is designed to provide students with an opportunity to express and practice a broad range of food production and service occupations. Major concepts covered include…

  15. A consensus-based criterion standard for trauma center need.

    PubMed

    Lerner, E Brooke; Willenbring, Brian D; Pirrallo, Ronald G; Brasel, Karen J; Cady, Charles E; Colella, M Riccardo; Cooper, Arthur; Cushman, Jeremy T; Gourlay, David M; Jurkovich, Gregory J; Newgard, Craig D; Salomone, Jeffrey P; Sasser, Scott M; Shah, Manish N; Swor, Robert A; Wang, Stewart C

    2014-04-01

    In civilian trauma care, field triage is the process applied by prehospital care providers to identify patients who are likely to have severe injuries and immediately need the resources of a trauma center. Studies of the efficacy of field triage have used various measures to define trauma center need because no "criterion standard" exists, making cross-study comparisons difficult. This study aimed to develop a consensus-based functional criterion standard definition of trauma center need. Local and national experts were recruited for participation. Blinded key informant interviews were conducted in order of availability until no new themes emerged. Themes identified during the interviews were used to develop a Modified Delphi survey, which was electronically delivered via Survey Monkey. The trauma center need criteria were refined iteratively based on participant responses. Participants completed additional surveys until there was at least 80% agreement for each criterion. Fourteen experts were recruited. Five participated in key informant interviews. A Modified Delphi survey was administered five times (four modifications based on the expert's responses). After the fifth round, there was at least 82% agreement on each criterion. The final definition included 10 time-specific indicators: major surgery, advanced airway, blood products, admission for spinal cord injury, thoracotomy, pericardiocentesis, cesarean delivery, intracranial pressure monitoring, interventional radiology, and in-hospital death. We developed a consensus-based functional criterion standard definition of needing the resources of a trauma center, which may help to standardize field triage research and quality assurance in trauma systems as well as allow for cross study comparisons.

  16. A Gurson-type criterion for porous ductile solids containing arbitrary ellipsoidal voids—II: Determination of yield criterion parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madou, Komlanvi; Leblond, Jean-Baptiste

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to fully determine the parameters of the approximate homogenized yield criterion for porous ductile solids containing arbitrary ellipsoidal cavities proposed in Part I. This is done through improvements of the limit-analysis of some representative hollow cell presented there. The improvements are of two kinds. For hydrostatic loadings, the limit-analysis is refined by performing micromechanical finite element computations in a number of significant cases, so as to replace Leblond and Gologanu (2008)'s trial velocity field representing the expansion of the void by the exact, numerically determined one. For deviatoric loadings, limit-analysis is dropped and direct use is made of some general rigorous results for nonlinear composites derived by Ponte-Castaneda (1991), Willis (1991) and Michel and Suquet (1992) using the earlier work of Willis (1977) and the concept of "linear comparison material". This hybrid approach is thought to lead to the best possible expressions of the yield criterion parameters. The criterion proposed reduces to (variants of) classical approximate criteria proposed by Gurson (1977) and Gologanu et al. (1993, 1994, 1997) in the specific cases of spherical or spheroidal, prolate or oblate cavities. An overview of the validation of this criterion through micromechanical finite element computations is finally presented.

  17. Shifting the criterion is not the difficult part of trial-by-trial criterion shifts in recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Starns, Jeffrey J; Olchowski, James E

    2015-01-01

    In recognition memory, participants often fail to shift their response criterion within a test even when they see cues signaling whether they should expect weak or strong memory (e.g., Stretch & Wixted Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 24, 1397-1410, 1998b). We contrasted two possible accounts for this failure to shift. The first assumes that shifting the criterion requires effortful processing, so participants are unwilling to make shifts even when they expect different levels of strength. The second assumes that participants are unwilling to decide which strength category is indicated by the cue for each trial, so their expectations for memory strength do not change across trials. Targets appeared in different test formats ("cues") depending on whether they were studied once (weak) or five times (strong), and lures were evenly divided between the two formats. Some participants had two response keys for "old" and "new" (2-key), and others had to use different keys to respond "old" for the two strength cues (3-key). The goal of the 3-key condition was to force participants to decide which strength cue was presented on each trial. The 3-key participants had a lower false alarm rate for lures shown with the strong than with the weak cue, but the 2-key participants showed no evidence of a criterion shift. Response times were unaffected by trial-by-trial criterion shifts. We conclude that participants willingly shift their response criterion on the basis of changes in expected strength, but they are unwilling to decide which strength to expect unless they are compelled to do this by other aspects of the task.

  18. Establishment of an equivalence acceptance criterion for accelerated stability studies.

    PubMed

    Burdick, Richard K; Sidor, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the use of statistical equivalence testing for providing evidence of process comparability in an accelerated stability study is advocated over the use of a test of differences. The objective of such a study is to demonstrate comparability by showing that the stability profiles under nonrecommended storage conditions of two processes are equivalent. Because it is difficult at accelerated conditions to find a direct link to product specifications, and hence product safety and efficacy, an equivalence acceptance criterion is proposed that is based on the statistical concept of effect size. As with all statistical tests of equivalence, it is important to collect input from appropriate subject-matter experts when defining the acceptance criterion.

  19. A Generalized Evolution Criterion in Nonequilibrium Convective Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichiyanagi, Masakazu; Nisizima, Kunisuke

    1989-04-01

    A general evolution criterion, applicable to transport processes such as the conduction of heat and mass diffusion, is obtained as a direct version of the Le Chatelier-Braun principle for stationary states. The present theory is not based on any radical departure from the conventional one. The generalized theory is made determinate by proposing the balance equations for extensive thermodynamic variables which will reflect the character of convective systems under the assumption of local equilibrium. As a consequence of the introduction of source terms in the balance equations, there appear additional terms in the expression of the local entropy production, which are bilinear in terms of the intensive variables and the sources. In the present paper, we show that we can construct a dissipation function for such general cases, in which the premises of the Glansdorff-Prigogine theory are accumulated. The new dissipation function permits us to formulate a generalized evolution criterion for convective systems.

  20. A unified criterion for the growth and coalescence of microvoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, Léo; Leblond, Jean-Baptiste; Benzerga, A. Amine; Kondo, Djimédo

    2016-12-01

    A yield criterion is developed which unifies void growth and void coalescence theories. Standard void growth theory assumes that plastic flow is diffuse, if not prevalent everywhere within the matrix of the elementary cell considered. On the other hand, void coalescence theory assumes states of post-localized plasticity whereby plastic flow is restricted to intervoid ligaments. The new theory accommodates both scenarios through some appropriate choice of microscopic velocity fields. An important implication for actual evolution problems is a seamless transition from void growth to void coalescence. This is in contrast with previous hybrid approaches whereby abrupt transitions are associated with the presence of unavoidable corners in the effective yield surface. More generally, the new criterion is applicable to describe yielding in porous metal plasticity for both low and high void volume fractions.

  1. Bayesian Case-deletion Model Complexity and Information Criterion

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongtu; Ibrahim, Joseph G.; Chen, Qingxia

    2015-01-01

    We establish a connection between Bayesian case influence measures for assessing the influence of individual observations and Bayesian predictive methods for evaluating the predictive performance of a model and comparing different models fitted to the same dataset. Based on such a connection, we formally propose a new set of Bayesian case-deletion model complexity (BCMC) measures for quantifying the effective number of parameters in a given statistical model. Its properties in linear models are explored. Adding some functions of BCMC to a conditional deviance function leads to a Bayesian case-deletion information criterion (BCIC) for comparing models. We systematically investigate some properties of BCIC and its connection with other information criteria, such as the Deviance Information Criterion (DIC). We illustrate the proposed methodology on linear mixed models with simulations and a real data example. PMID:26180578

  2. Bayesian Case-deletion Model Complexity and Information Criterion.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongtu; Ibrahim, Joseph G; Chen, Qingxia

    2014-10-01

    We establish a connection between Bayesian case influence measures for assessing the influence of individual observations and Bayesian predictive methods for evaluating the predictive performance of a model and comparing different models fitted to the same dataset. Based on such a connection, we formally propose a new set of Bayesian case-deletion model complexity (BCMC) measures for quantifying the effective number of parameters in a given statistical model. Its properties in linear models are explored. Adding some functions of BCMC to a conditional deviance function leads to a Bayesian case-deletion information criterion (BCIC) for comparing models. We systematically investigate some properties of BCIC and its connection with other information criteria, such as the Deviance Information Criterion (DIC). We illustrate the proposed methodology on linear mixed models with simulations and a real data example.

  3. Analysis of constant false alarm rate sidelobe canceller criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, I. S.; Brennan, L. E.

    1985-05-01

    In this final report, the constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection criterion for a sidelobe canceller (SLC) system, introduced in the last quarterly progress report, is found completely and analyzed. This new detection test for radar exhibits the desirable CFAR property that its probability of a false alarm (PFA) is functionally independent of the covariance of the actual noise field encountered. As a consequence, such a CFAR SLC system is ideally suited to cope with the newly evolving smart jammer threat to radar. An important objective, set in the last quarterly progress report, was to find both the false alarm and signal detection probabilities of this test. The first and most important of these two goals has been met. The probability of a false alarm (or PFA) of this CFAR SLC detection criterion is derived in closed form in this report. The success in finding the PFA is due primarily to the use of a generalization of Cochran's theorem.

  4. Some properties of the computable cross-norm criterion for separability

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, Oliver

    2003-03-01

    The computable cross-norm (CCN) criterion is a powerful analytical and computable separability criterion for bipartite quantum states, which is also known to systematically detect bound entanglement. In certain aspects this criterion complements the well-known Peres positive partial transpose (PPT) criterion. In the present paper we study important analytical properties of the CCN criterion. We show that in contrast to the PPT criterion it is not sufficient in dimension 2x2. In higher dimensions, theorems connecting the fidelity of a quantum state with the CCN criterion are proved. We also analyze the behavior of the CCN criterion under local operations and identify the operations that leave it invariant. It turns out that the CCN criterion is in general not invariant under local operations.

  5. A New Improved Failure Criterion for Salt Rock Based on Energy Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, T. S.; Liang, W. G.

    2016-05-01

    A non-linear triple shear energy yield criterion for salt rock is presented in this paper. It is the development of the triple shear energy yield criterion, of which the Mohr-Coulomb criterion can be seen as a special case. The main factors affecting the primary strength of salt rock, such as the mean stress and the Lode angle, are considered in the non-linear triple shear energy yield criterion. The non-linear new criterion provides the non-linear change trend of salt strength both in the I 1- J 2 stress space and in the deviatoric plane. Comparative study between the non-linear criterion predictions and experimental results of salt rock shows that the non-linear triple shear energy yield criterion fits quite well with both conventional triaxial test data and the true triaxial test data. For Maha Sarakham salt, the predictive capability of the non-linear triple shear energy yield criterion is clearly better than that of some other criteria used by Sriapai, such as modified Lade criterion, 3-D Hoek, and Brown criterion, Drucker-Prager criterion et al. The availability of the non-linear triple shear energy yield criterion can also be confirmed by comparative analysis between theoretical values and experimental values for non-salt rocks. So the non-linear triple shear energy yield criterion is a general failure criterion for rocks fractured by shear stress.

  6. Convergent, discriminant, and criterion validity of DSM-5 traits.

    PubMed

    Yalch, Matthew M; Hopwood, Christopher J

    2016-10-01

    Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edi.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) contains a system for diagnosing personality disorder based in part on assessing 25 maladaptive traits. Initial research suggests that this aspect of the system improves the validity and clinical utility of the Section II Model. The Computer Adaptive Test of Personality Disorder (CAT-PD; Simms et al., 2011) contains many similar traits as the DSM-5, as well as several additional traits seemingly not covered in the DSM-5. In this study we evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity between the DSM-5 traits, as assessed by the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger et al., 2012), and CAT-PD in an undergraduate sample, and test whether traits included in the CAT-PD but not the DSM-5 provide incremental validity in association with clinically relevant criterion variables. Results supported the convergent and discriminant validity of the PID-5 and CAT-PD scales in their assessment of 23 out of 25 DSM-5 traits. DSM-5 traits were consistently associated with 11 criterion variables, despite our having intentionally selected clinically relevant criterion constructs not directly assessed by DSM-5 traits. However, the additional CAT-PD traits provided incremental information above and beyond the DSM-5 traits for all criterion variables examined. These findings support the validity of pathological trait models in general and the DSM-5 and CAT-PD models in particular, while also suggesting that the CAT-PD may include additional traits for consideration in future iterations of the DSM-5 system. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. A Dynamic Stability Criterion for Ice Shelves and Tidewater Glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassis, J. N.; Fricker, H. A.; Minster, J.

    2006-12-01

    The collapse of the Antarctic ice shelves could have dramatic consequences for the mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet and, as a result, sea level rise. It is therefore imperative to improve our knowledge of the mechanisms that lead to ice shelf retreat. The mechanism that has the potential to remove the largest amounts of mass rapidly is iceberg calving. However, the processes and mechanisms that lead to iceberg calving are still poorly understood. Motivated by the complexity of the short-time scale behavior of ice fracture we seek a dynamic stability criterion that predicts the onset of ice shelf retreat based on dimensional analysis. In our approach, rather than attempt to model the initiation and propagation of individual fractures, we look for a non-dimensional number that describes the overall ice shelf stability. We also make the assumption that the same criterion, valid for ice shelves, also applies to tidewater glaciers. This enables us to test our criterion against a larger set of ice shelves and calving glaciers. Our analysis predicts that retreat will occur when a non-dimensional number that we call the "terminus stability number", decreases below a critical value. We show that this criterion is valid for calving glaciers in Alaska, for several glaciers around Greenland as well as for three Antarctic ice shelves. This stability analysis has much in common with classic hydrodynamic stability theory, where the onset of instability is related to non-dimensional numbers that are largely independent of geometry or other situation specific variables.

  8. Best Practices in Utilizing the Changing Criterion Design.

    PubMed

    Klein, Liesa A; Houlihan, Daniel; Vincent, James L; Panahon, Carlos J

    2017-03-01

    The changing criterion design (CCD) has been a recognized format of single-case research for four decades. Published examples of the CCD have been limited and the structure of the design used in the literature has varied to a degree that might engender confusion. This review examines the structure of CCD studies published to date to identify prior implementation practices and identify best practices for future use.

  9. Criterion for mixed mode fracture in composite bonded joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, S.; Kochhar, N. K.

    1986-01-01

    A study was undertaken to characterize the debond growth mechanism of adhesively bonded composite joints under mode I, mixed mode I-II, and mode II static loadings. The bonded system consisted of graphite-epoxy composite adherends bonded with a toughened epoxy adhesive. The mode I, mode II and mixed mode I-II fracture energies of the tested adhesives were found to be equal to each other. The criterion for mixed mode fracture in composite bonded joints was found.

  10. Soft Clustering Criterion Functions for Partitional Document Clustering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-26

    of the corresponding clusters. We represent the documents using the vector- space model [35]. In this model, each document d is considered to be a...vector in the space of the distinct terms present in the collection. We employ the tf-idf term-weighting scheme that represents each document d as the...produce balanced clusters. In this paper, due to space constraints, we focus on only four out of these seven criterion functions, which are referred to as

  11. A new criterion for the metallicity of elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, C. N. R.; Ganguly, P.

    1986-01-01

    A vast majority of elements are metallic in the liquid state. The latent heat of vapourization, ΔH v, of such elements is greater than the critical value of ˜ 42 kJ mol -1 (0.44 eV mol -) which demarcates metals from non-metals. It is shown that ΔH v can be related to the Fermi energy as well as to the Herzfeld criterion involving atomic polarizability.

  12. An elementary proof of a criterion for linear disjointness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs, David E.

    2013-06-01

    An elementary proof using matrix theory is given for the following criterion: if F/K and L/K are field extensions, with F and L both contained in a common extension field, then F and L are linearly disjoint over K if (and only if) some K-vector space basis of F is linearly independent over L. The material in this note could serve as enrichment material for the unit on fields in a first course on abstract algebra.

  13. Criterion-based laparoscopic training reduces total training time.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Willem M; Buzink, Sonja N; Alevizos, Leonidas; de Hingh, Ignace H J T; Jakimowicz, Jack J

    2012-04-01

    The benefits of criterion-based laparoscopic training over time-oriented training are unclear. The purpose of this study is to compare these types of training based on training outcome and time efficiency. During four training sessions within 1 week (one session per day) 34 medical interns (no laparoscopic experience) practiced on two basic tasks on the Simbionix LAP Mentor virtual-reality (VR) simulator: 'clipping and grasping' and 'cutting'. Group C (criterion-based) (N = 17) trained to reach predefined criteria and stopped training in each session when these criteria were met, with a maximum training time of 1 h. Group T (time-based) (N = 17) trained for a fixed time of 1 h each session. Retention of skills was assessed 1 week after training. In addition, transferability of skills was established using the Haptica ProMIS augmented-reality simulator. Both groups improved their performance significantly over the course of the training sessions (Wilcoxon signed ranks, P < 0.05). Both groups showed skill transferability and skill retention. When comparing the performance parameters of group C and group T, their performances in the first, the last and the retention training sessions did not differ significantly (Mann-Whitney U test, P > 0.05). The average number of repetitions needed to meet the criteria also did not differ between the groups. Overall, group C spent less time training on the simulator than did group T (74:48 and 120:10 min, respectively; P < 0.001). Group C performed significantly fewer repetitions of each task, overall and in session 2, 3 and 4. Criterion-based training of basic laparoscopic skills can reduce the overall training time with no impact on training outcome, transferability or retention of skills. Criterion-based should be the training of choice in laparoscopic skills curricula.

  14. Numerical fracture simulation of bend specimens using a CTOD criterion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivakumar, K. N.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Stable crack growth in 50-mm-thick side-grooved three-point bend specimens of HY-130 steel is modeled numerically. A two-dimensional elastoplastic FEM formulation incorporating a CTOD fracture criterion is developed analytically, and the theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data in graphs. Good general agreement is obtained, except for the crack extension, which was typically overpredicted. The value of the J integral at crack initiation is found to be 83 kJ/sq m.

  15. Assessment of personality type and medical specialty choice among medical students from Karachi; using Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) tool.

    PubMed

    Jafrani, Sana; Zehra, Nosheen; Zehra, Muneeza; Abuzar Ali, Syed Muhmmad; Abubakar Mohsin, Saiyed Abdullah; Azhar, Rasheed

    2017-04-01

    To assess personality type of medical students and associate it with their choice of medical specialty. This cross-sectional study was conducted in February 2014 at one public and one private medical university of Karachi, and comprised medical students. A self- administered questionnaire based on Myers-Briggs type indicator was used to collect data which was analysed using SPSS 20. Of the 400 participants, there were 200(50%) each from public and private universities. Of all, 201(50.3%) students were found to be extroverted and 199(49.8%) were introverted personality types. Clinical fields were the main preference of students after their medical degree as selected by 317(79.2%) students; of the, Extroverted-Sensing-Feeling-Perceptive was the most common type identified in39(7.2%) students. Extroverted-Sensing-Feeling-Perceptive 11(2.8%), Extroverted-Sensing-Thinking-Judging 12(3%), Extroverted-Sensing-Feeling-Judging 5(1.3%), Introverted-Sensing-Feeling-Judging 6(1.5%), Introverted-Sensing-Thinking-Perceptive 7(1.8%) had preference for surgery, medicine, gynaecology, paediatrics and cardiology, respectively. Personality had significant impact on specialty and career choice.

  16. [Relationships between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) psychological type and marital satisfaction, divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation in clinic couples].

    PubMed

    Kong, Seong Sook

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) psychological type and marital satisfaction, divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation in couple visiting a clinic. Couples (n=62) who visited "M" couple clinic participated in the study. Data were collected from March to June 2009 using the Marital Satisfaction Scale, Marital Status Inventory, Positive Affect Inventory, and Conflict Regulation Inventory. The couples showed no significant differences in marital satisfaction, positive affect, and conflict regulation according to similarities between spouses in MBTI types. However, they showed significant differences in divorce proneness of husband according to a similarity in the Sensing/Intuition indicator. They also showed significant differences in divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation between the couples for ISTJ (Introversion, Sensing, Thinking, Judging) or ESTJ (Extraversion, Sensing, Thinking, Judging) types compared to other couples. When nurses counsel couples, they should understand that differences in psychological type between spouses affects their marital relationship. In addition, nurses should educate couples on the characteristics of each type according to the couple's types and help them to understand each other, especially for couples where one spouse is the ISTJ/ESTJ type. These interventions will improve marital satisfaction and prevent the divorce in these couples.

  17. The first quantitative rating system of the antioxidant capacity of beauty creams via the Briggs-Rauscher reaction: a crucial step towards evidence-based cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Cecchi, Teresa; Cecchi, Patrizio; Passamonti, Paolo

    2011-02-07

    Oxidative damage is the primary cause of skin aging. Skin care products are numerous and overwhelming, yet there is certain similarity among different formulations. Moisturizers are ubiquitous and the presence of particular added ingredients supports specific marketing claims. The antioxidant effects of botanical polyphenols possess tremendous marketing appeal, because oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the skin ability to neutralize them. The concept of evidence-based cosmetics lacks a widely accepted method to estimate the antioxidant capacity of the beauty cream. This was the motive force of the present study: for the first time we put forth a quantitative rating system of skin care products. The overall antioxidant power of 75 widely used and advertised beauty creams was comparatively measured via the oscillating Briggs-Rauscher (BR) reaction. Many dermocosmetic products confirmed their ability to ensure protection against free radicals, even if differences among various creams are striking and often not correlated with the their price. The method we developed is simple and cheap and it can allow dermatologists and consumers to compare and choose effectively; on the other hand, producers can used this method to select the most active antioxidant cosmetic agent to optimise the product performance.

  18. The Joanna Briggs Institute best practice information sheet: the effectiveness of pelvic floor muscle exercises on urinary incontinence in women following childbirth.

    PubMed

    2011-09-01

    This Best Practice Information Sheet is derived from 21 studies and aims to synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of pelvic floor muscle exercises on urinary incontinence in women following childbirth. The information that is contained in this sheet has been derived from studies that were included in a systematic review that was conducted by the Joanna Briggs Institute. The original references can be sourced from the systematic review. Pregnancy and childbirth are major risk factors for the development of urinary incontinence as the muscles of the pelvic floor become stretched and weakened. For some women, such incontinence after childbirth is temporary, but for others, their suffering can be of much longer-term duration. A number of risk factors has been identified for urinary incontinence following childbirth, including antenatal urinary incontinence, obesity, and significant perineal trauma. The aim of pelvic floor muscle exercises is to strengthen the perivaginal and perianal musculature in order to increase a woman's control of urinary leakage.

  19. Reaction routes leading to CO2 and CO in the Briggs-Rauscher oscillator: analogies between the oscillatory BR and BZ reactions.

    PubMed

    Muntean, Norbert; Szabó, Gabriella; Wittmann, Maria; Lawson, Thuy; Fülöp, János; Noszticzius, Zoltán; Onel, Lavinia

    2009-08-13

    With Fenton-type experiments, it is shown that the intense CO2/CO evolution in the Briggs-Rauscher (BR) reaction is due to decarboxylation/decarbonylation of organic free radicals. The metal ion applied in the Fenton-type experiments was Fe2+ or Ti3+ or Mn2+ combined with H2O2 or S2O(8)(2-) as a peroxide, whereas the organic substrate was malonic acid (MA) or a 1:1 mixture of MA and iodomalonic acid (IMA). Experiments with a complete BR system applying MA or the MA/IMA mixture indicate that practically all CO2 and CO comes from IMA. The decarboxylation/decarbonylation mechanisms of various iodomalonyl radicals can be analogous to that of the bromomalonyl radicals studied already in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction. It is found that an intense CO2/CO evolution requires the simultaneous presence of H2O2, IO3-, Mn2+, and IMA. It is suggested that the critical first step of this complex reaction takes place in the coordination sphere of Mn2+. That first step can initiate a chain reaction where organic and hydroperoxyl radicals are the chain carriers. A chain reaction was already found in a BZ oscillator as well. Therefore, the analogies between the BR and BZ oscillators are due to the fact that in both mechanisms, free radicals and, in most cases, also transition-metal complexes play an important role.

  20. A wall grid scale criterion for hypersonic aerodynamic heating calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianlong; Liu, Meng

    2017-07-01

    The theory of molecular motion was used to study the wall cell Reynolds number method, and it found that the height of the first grid point off wall is related to the molecular mean free path near wall. A wall grid scale criterion based on the molecular mean free path at the stagnation point was proposed by considering both the flow parameters and the wall temperature boundaries. The criterion was verified through numerical calculations and comparative analyses of the wall heat flux in different hypersonic flow fields. Research results draw the following conclusions: The optimal height of the first grid point off wall is a molecular mean free path. The influence of height of the first grid point off wall on aerodynamic heat is much greater than that of aerodynamic force. The criterion is not only effective for the wall heat flux predictions in air conditions, but also useful to that of non air environments. With the weakening of aerodynamic heating along the flow direction, the effect of wall grid scale on the wall heat flux gradually decreases.

  1. On the upper bound in the Bohm sheath criterion

    SciTech Connect

    Kotelnikov, I. A. Skovorodin, D. I.

    2016-02-15

    The question is discussed about the existence of an upper bound in the Bohm sheath criterion, according to which the Debye sheath at the interface between plasma and a negatively charged electrode is stable only if the ion flow velocity in plasma exceeds the ion sound velocity. It is stated that, with an exception of some artificial ionization models, the Bohm sheath criterion is satisfied as an equality at the lower bound and the ion flow velocity is equal to the speed of sound. In the one-dimensional theory, a supersonic flow appears in an unrealistic model of a localized ion source the size of which is less than the Debye length; however, supersonic flows seem to be possible in the two- and three-dimensional cases. In the available numerical codes used to simulate charged particle sources with a plasma emitter, the presence of the upper bound in the Bohm sheath criterion is not supposed; however, the correspondence with experimental data is usually achieved if the ion flow velocity in plasma is close to the ion sound velocity.

  2. Signal detection with criterion noise: Applications to recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Aaron S.; Diaz, Michael; Wee, Serena

    2010-01-01

    A tacit but fundamental assumption of the Theory of Signal Detection (TSD) is that criterion placement is a noise-free process. This paper challenges that assumption on theoretical and empirical grounds and presents the Noisy Decision Theory of Signal Detection (ND-TSD). Generalized equations for the isosensitivity function and for measures of discrimination that incorporate criterion variability are derived, and the model's relationship with extant models of decision-making in discrimination tasks is examined. An experiment that evaluates recognition memory for ensembles of word stimuli reveals that criterion noise is not trivial in magnitude and contributes substantially to variance in the slope of the isosensitivity function. We discuss how ND-TSD can help explain a number of current and historical puzzles in recognition memory, including the inconsistent relationship between manipulations of learning and the slope of the isosensitivity function, the lack of invariance of the slope with manipulations of bias or payoffs, the effects of aging on the decision-making process in recognition, and the nature of responding in Remember/Know decision tasks. ND-TSD poses novel and theoretically meaningful constraints on theories of recognition and decision-making more generally, and provides a mechanism for rapprochement between theories of decision-making that employ deterministic response rules and those that postulate probabilistic response rules. PMID:19159149

  3. Bayesian information criterion for longitudinal and clustered data.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard H

    2011-11-10

    When a number of models are fit to the same data set, one method of choosing the 'best' model is to select the model for which Akaike's information criterion (AIC) is lowest. AIC applies when maximum likelihood is used to estimate the unknown parameters in the model. The value of -2 log likelihood for each model fit is penalized by adding twice the number of estimated parameters. The number of estimated parameters includes both the linear parameters and parameters in the covariance structure. Another criterion for model selection is the Bayesian information criterion (BIC). BIC penalizes -2 log likelihood by adding the number of estimated parameters multiplied by the log of the sample size. For large sample sizes, BIC penalizes -2 log likelihood much more than AIC making it harder to enter new parameters into the model. An assumption in BIC is that the observations are independent. In mixed models, the observations are not independent. This paper develops a method for calculating the 'effective sample size' for mixed models based on Fisher's information. The effective sample size replaces the sample size in BIC and can vary from the number of subjects to the number of observations. A number of error models are considered based on a general mixed model including unstructured, compound symmetry.

  4. Job-Relatedness of a Posttraining Job Knowledge Criterion Used to Assess Validity and Test Fairness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Distefano, M. K., Jr.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Significant job-relatedness was found for a posttraining job knowledge test criterion. Content validity methods may be able to help solve the problem of criterion relevance in validation research by providing quantitative evidence of job-relatedness. (Author)

  5. ABET Criterion 3.f: how much curriculum content is enough?

    PubMed

    Barry, B E; Ohland, M W

    2012-06-01

    Even after multiple cycles of ABET accreditation, many engineering programs are unsure of how much curriculum content is needed to meet the requirements of ABET's Criterion 3.f (an understanding of professional and ethical responsibility). This study represents the first scholarly attempt to assess the impact of curriculum reform following the introduction of ABET Criterion 3.f. This study sought to determine how much professional and ethical responsibility curriculum content was used between 1995 and 2005, as well as how, when, why, and to what effect changes in the amount of content occurred. Subsequently, the study sought to evaluate if different amounts of curriculum content generated differing student outcomes. The amount of curriculum content used by each of the participating programs was identified during semi-structured interviews with program administrators and a review of ABET Self-Study documents. Quantitative methods were applied to determine if a relationship existed between the curriculum content and performance on a nationally administered, engineering-specific standardized examination. The findings indicate a statistical relationship, but a lack of structure between the amount of required content in the curriculum and performance on the examination. Additional findings were also generated regarding the way that programs interpret the Criterion 3.f feedback generated during accreditation visits. The primary impact of this study is that it dispels the myth that more courses or course time on professionalism and ethics will necessarily lead to positive engineering education outcomes. Much of the impetus to add more curriculum content results from a lack of conclusive feedback during ABET accreditation visits.

  6. The entropy rate admissibility criterion for solution of hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dafermos, C. M.

    1972-01-01

    The entropy rate admissibility criterion for solutions of hyperbolic conservation laws is numerically analyzed. The following admissibility criterion for solutions of hyperbolic conservation laws is proposed: a weak solution is admissible if the total entropy decays with the highest possible rate. The equivalence of this criterion and viscosity criterion is established for the single equation and the system of equations of one dimensional nonlinear elasticity.

  7. Shear velocity criterion for incipient motion of sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simoes, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    The prediction of incipient motion has had great importance to the theory of sediment transport. The most commonly used methods are based on the concept of critical shear stress and employ an approach similar, or identical, to the Shields diagram. An alternative method that uses the movability number, defined as the ratio of the shear velocity to the particle’s settling velocity, was employed in this study. A large amount of experimental data were used to develop an empirical incipient motion criterion based on the movability number. It is shown that this approach can provide a simple and accurate method of computing the threshold condition for sediment motion.

  8. Application of an enhanced Coordinate Modal Assurance Criterion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, David L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of the Coordinate Modal Assurance Criterion (COMAC) for spatial comparison of mode shapes. As is the case for the original COMAC, this enhanced COMAC helps identify degrees of freedom differences between test and analysis modes, but also overcomes some of the limitations of the original COMAC. The original COMAC cannot identify errors caused by scaling or polarity mistakes in the test data. Such mistakes are easily made during modal tests and not always easily detected since they do not affect the subjective quality of a frequency response function.

  9. Thermoeconomic analysis: A criterion for the selection of cogeneration systems

    SciTech Connect

    Luz-Silveira, J.; Balestieri, J.A.P.; Santos, A.H.M.; Almeida, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    The economical viability of three cogeneration schemes as supplying alternatives for a hypothetical industrial process has been studied. A cost appropriation method based on Valero`s studies (1986) has been used. This method enables the determination of exergetic flows, the Second Law efficiency of equipment and the monetary costs of the products acquired by the industrial process (steam and electrical energy). The criterion adopted for the selection is the global cost of the supplied products to the industrial process as regarding in Brazilian conditions.

  10. Width Criterion For Weld-Seam-Tracking Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincir, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    Image-processing algorithm in "through-torch-vision" (T3V) system developed to guide gas/tungsten arc welding robot along weld seam modified, according to proposal, reducing incidence of inaccurate tracking of weld seam. Developmental system intended to provide closed-loop control of motion of welding robot along weld seam on basis of lines in T3V image identified by use of image-processing algorithm and assumed to coincide with edges of weld seam. Use of width criterion prevents tracking of many false pairs of lines, with consequent decrease in incidence of inaccurate tracking and increase in confidence in weld-tracking capability of robotic welding system.

  11. Forecastability as a Design Criterion in Wind Resource Assessment: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to include the wind power forecasting ability, or 'forecastability,' of a site as a design criterion in wind resource assessment and wind power plant design stages. The Unrestricted Wind Farm Layout Optimization (UWFLO) methodology is adopted to maximize the capacity factor of a wind power plant. The 1-hour-ahead persistence wind power forecasting method is used to characterize the forecastability of a potential wind power plant, thereby partially quantifying the integration cost. A trade-off between the maximum capacity factor and the forecastability is investigated.

  12. Criterion for mixed mode fracture in composite bonded joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, S.; Kochhar, N. K.

    1986-01-01

    A study was undertaken to characterize the debond growth mechanism of adhesively bonded composite joints under mode I, mixed mode I-II, and mode II static loadings. The bonded system consisted of graphite/epoxy (T300/5208) composite adherends bonded with a toughened epoxy (EC 3445) adhesive. The mode I, mode II and mixed-mode I-II fracture energies of the tested adhesive were found to be equal to each other. Furthermore, the criterion for mixed mode fracture in composite bonded joints was determined.

  13. Discrete Lange-Newell criterion for dissipative systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndzana, Fabien, II; Mohamadou, Alidou; Kofané, Timoleon Crépin

    2009-05-01

    We report on the derivation of the discrete complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with first- and second-neighbor couplings using a nonlinear electrical network. Furthermore, we discuss theoretically and numerically modulational instability of plane carrier waves launched through the line. It is pointed out that the underlying analysis not only spells out the discrete Lange-Newell criterion by the means of the linear stability analysis at which the modulational instability occurs for the generation of a train of ultrashort pulses, but also characterizes the long-time dynamical behavior of the system when the instability grows.

  14. Failure criterion for materials with spatially correlated mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Faillettaz, J; Or, D

    2015-03-01

    The role of spatially correlated mechanical elements in the failure behavior of heterogeneous materials represented by fiber bundle models (FBMs) was evaluated systematically for different load redistribution rules. Increasing the range of spatial correlation for FBMs with local load sharing is marked by a transition from ductilelike failure characteristics into brittlelike failure. The study identified a global failure criterion based on macroscopic properties (external load and cumulative damage) that is independent of spatial correlation or load redistribution rules. This general metric could be applied to assess the mechanical stability of complex and heterogeneous systems and thus provide an important component for early warning of a class of geophysical ruptures.

  15. Free-surface stability criterion as affected by velocity distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng-Lung, Chen

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines how the velocity distribution of flow in open channels affects the kinematic and dynamic wave velocities, from which the various forms of the Vedernikov number V can be formulated. When V >1, disturbances created in open-channel flow will amplify in the form of roll waves; when V <1, some (though not all) disturbances will attenuate. A study of the Vedernikov stability criterion reveals that it can be readily deduced within the framework of the kinematic and dynamic wave theories by comparing the kinematic wave velocity to the corresponding dynamic wave velocity. -from Author

  16. Optimization of the Structures at Shakedown and Rosen's Optimality Criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawdin, Piotr; Atkociunas, Juozas; Liepa, Liudas

    2016-09-01

    Paper focuses on the problems of application of extreme energy principles and nonlinear mathematical programing in the theory of structural shakedown. By means of energy principles, which describes the true stress-strain state conditions of the structure, the dual mathematical models of analysis problems are formed (static and kinematic formulations). It is shown how common mathematical model of the structures optimization at shakedown with safety and serviceability constraints (according to the ultimate limit state (ULS) and serviceability limit state (SLS) requirements) on the basis of previously mentioned mathematical models is formed. The possibilities of optimization problem solution in the context of physical interpretation of optimality criterion of Rosen's algorithm are analyzed.

  17. Discrete Lange-Newell criterion for dissipative systems.

    PubMed

    Ndzana, Fabien I I; Mohamadou, Alidou; Kofané, Timoleon Crépin

    2009-05-01

    We report on the derivation of the discrete complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with first- and second-neighbor couplings using a nonlinear electrical network. Furthermore, we discuss theoretically and numerically modulational instability of plane carrier waves launched through the line. It is pointed out that the underlying analysis not only spells out the discrete Lange-Newell criterion by the means of the linear stability analysis at which the modulational instability occurs for the generation of a train of ultrashort pulses, but also characterizes the long-time dynamical behavior of the system when the instability grows.

  18. An empirical hypothesis of deformation rate ratio criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.

    1996-04-01

    Based on the experiences obtained from more than 10 years' monitoring of tunnel excavation in soft ground, and in order to solve the problem that the currently-used surrounding rock stability criteria have nothing to do with the rockbolts-shotcrete support operation, thus they are hard to be applied by in-situ engineers, the author puts forward a new empirical hypothesis of criterion for surrounding rock stability assessment. Then five case histories are described as references. Furthermore, the open complex giant system methodology is introduced to explain the theory and practice of empirical hypothesis.

  19. Elaboration and Application of a Theory of Criterion-Referenced Reliability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, Hubert T.

    The reliability of a criterion referenced test was defined as a measure of the degree to which the test discriminates between an individual's level of performance and a predetermined criterion level. The variances of observed and true scores were defined as the squared deviation of the score from the criterion. Based on these definitions and the…

  20. 16 CFR 1631.34 - Small carpets and rugs not meeting acceptance criterion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... acceptance criterion. 1631.34 Section 1631.34 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION...) Rules and Regulations § 1631.34 Small carpets and rugs not meeting acceptance criterion. (a) If any... acceptance criterion of such standard, it shall, prior to its introduction into commerce, be legibly...

  1. Characterizing the successful student in general chemistry and physical science classes in terms of Jung's personality types as identified by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Wayne David

    1998-11-01

    A student's success in a science class can depend upon previous experiences, motivation, and the level of interest in the subject. Since psychological type is intrinsic to a person's whole being, it can be influential upon the student's motivation and interests. Thus, a study of student psychological types versus the level of success in a class, as measured by a percentage, has potential to uncover certain personality characteristics which may be helpful to or which may hinder a student's learning environment. This study was initiated, using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, to evaluate any correlation between a student's personality type and his/her performance in a science class. A total of 1041 students from three classes: Chemistry 121/122, Chemistry 112, Physical Science 100, volunteered for the study. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the levels of significance among sixteen personality types' averages. The results reveal that for the Chemistry 1121/122 course, the average score of the INTJ personality type was 5.1 to 12.6 points higher than every other personality type. The ANOVA identifies 3 personality types with averages significantly below the INTJ at the p < 0.05 significance level. The ANOVA analysis for the Chemistry 112 course identified significances between student scores at p = 0.08. The significance level for the differences among scores for the Physical Science 100 course was determined at a level of p = 0.02. Significance levels for p < 0.05 and <0.01 were identified between several groups in this course. The data suggest, that although personality type may not predict a particular student's success in a science class, students with certain personality traits may be favored in a chemistry class due the structure of the instruction and the presentation of the subject matter.

  2. New criterion to select the South Atlantic Convergence Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraz, S. E.; Ambrizzi, T.; Rocha, R. P.

    2007-05-01

    The South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) is a climatic aspect of the intraseasonal scale that produces intense precipitation in Southeast Brazil during summer Austral. The SACZ is characterized for a high variability convective region located in eastern Cordilheiras of the Andes with northeast-southeast orientation. In addition extend Southeast Amazon until South Atlantic (Zhou and Lau 1998; Liebmann et al, 1999; Carvalho et al, 2004). The many works that studied SACZ (Carvalho, Jones e Liebmann, 2004; Jones et al, 2004, for example) long wave radiation (ROL), is used which proxy of precipitation. In the first moment, it describes the position of event; however the precipitation is more adequate, principally in the used data series obtain of the climatic models. A study of the characterization of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) is presented. It was determined 48 events of ZCAS between 1995 to 2005 during the November to March period. Based on rainfall data, a new criterion was defined in order to select the SACZ events and their results were compared with the previous events. The results indicated that the new criterion did a good job in representing the SACZ. For this reason, um test with climatic model data series (REGCM3 Model, Giorgi et al., 1993) is presented.

  3. SIF-based fracture criterion for interface cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xing

    2016-06-01

    The complex stress intensity factor K governing the stress field of an interface crack tip may be split into two parts, i.e., hat{K} and s^{-iɛ}, so that K=hat{K}s^{-iɛ}, s is a characteristic length and ɛ is the oscillatory index. hat{K} has the same dimension as the classical stress intensity factor and characterizes the interface crack tip field. That means a criterion for interface cracks may be formulated directly with hat{K}, as Irwin (ASME J. Appl. Mech. 24:361-364, 1957) did in 1957 for the classical fracture mechanics. Then, for an interface crack, it is demonstrated that the quasi Mode I and Mode II tip fields can be defined and distinguished from the coupled mode tip fields. Built upon SIF-based fracture criteria for quasi Mode I and Mode II, the stress intensity factor (SIF)-based fracture criterion for mixed mode interface cracks is proposed and validated against existing experimental results.

  4. Minimum shear stress range: a criterion for crack path determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, K.; Abdel Wahab, M.

    2017-05-01

    For problems under proportional mixed-mode conditions, various criteria are used to predict fatigue crack growth directions, most achieving reasonable accuracy. The crack propagation angle is often obtained by maximizing a quantity (for instance, energy or stresses) as function of the stress intensity factors KI and KII. This maximization is generally performed at the instant of maximum fatigue loading and a stress analysis at this instant is sufficient to predict the crack propagation angle and thus the fatigue crack growth direction. However, under non-proportional loading, the maximum values of KI and KII may occur at different instants of the fatigue cycle and so a simple analysis at the maximum loading instant is not appropriate; it is necessary to consider the entire loading cycle history. One possible criterion to treat problems under these circumstances is the minimum shear stress range criterion (MSSR). This paper presents a brief discussion of the most common criteria used for determination of crack propagation direction, focusing on an implementation of MSSR. Its performance is assessed in different conditions and the results are compared to literature data.

  5. Refocusing criterion via sparsity measurements in digital holography.

    PubMed

    Memmolo, Pasquale; Paturzo, Melania; Javidi, Bahram; Netti, Paolo A; Ferraro, Pietro

    2014-08-15

    Several automatic approaches have been proposed in the past to compute the refocus distance in digital holography (DH). However most of them are based on a maximization or minimization of a suitable amplitude image contrast measure, regarded as a function of the reconstruction distance parameter. Here we show that, by using the sparsity measure coefficient regarded as a refocusing criterion in the holographic reconstruction, it is possible to recover the focus plane and, at the same time, establish the degree of sparsity of digital holograms, when samples of the diffraction Fresnel propagation integral are used as a sparse signal representation. We employ a sparsity measurement coefficient known as Gini's index thus showing for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, its application in DH, as an effective refocusing criterion. Demonstration is provided for different holographic configurations (i.e., lens and lensless apparatus) and for completely different objects (i.e., a thin pure phase microscopic object as an in vitro cell, and macroscopic puppets) preparation.

  6. Stereological estimation of the orbital volume: a criterion standard study.

    PubMed

    Acer, Niyazi; Sahin, Bünyamin; Ergür, Hayati; Basaloglu, Hulki; Ceri, Nazli Gülriz

    2009-05-01

    Several methodologies have been proposed to assess the orbital volume (OV). However, we have not seen a criterion standard study evaluating the results of the methodologies for the assessment of OV. In the current study, the actual OV of 9 dry skulls was measured using the water filling method as the criterion standard. Consecutive computed tomographic sections at a thickness of 1.5 mm were used to estimate the OV by means of the point counting method. The mean (SD) of the OV measured by the water filling method was 17.84 (1.56) cm3. By using the point counting method, it was 17.05 (1.69) cm3. There was no statistically significant difference between sides (P > 0.001). The results of the OV values obtained by the two methods were compared statistically. The agreements between the two methods were also evaluated using the Bland-Altman plots. There was no statistically significant difference between the OV measurements obtained by the stereological technique and water filling method. The described method could be used for the assessment of OV in vivo.

  7. Environmental equity as a criterion for water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande, M.; Galvão, C.; Miranda, L.; Rufino, I.

    2014-09-01

    Environmental equity is a concept derived from the (un)equal exposure to environmental degradation by different social groups, usually minorities and low-income people exposed to major environmental risks, also known as environmental justice. It is assumed that no group of people, independent of race, ethnicity or socio-economic class, should support, either in concentrated or unevenly distributed form, the negative environmental impacts resulting from industrial, agricultural, commercial and infrastructure activities or government programs and policies. In this paper the concept of environmental equity is explored as a criterion for water management through the analysis of a typical coupled human-natural system: the Epitácio Pessoa Reservoir, located in the semi-arid region of Brazil. Inefficient water resource management has caused unequal access to water by the population, particularly during drought periods. However, census data indicate that population have practically the same access to water, which actually is not able to reflect the actual picture. This study argues that environmental equity can be an additional criterion to improve water management.

  8. A criterion to maximize the irreversible efficiency in heat engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragón-González, G.; Canales-Palma, A.; León-Galicia, A.; Musharrafie-Martínez, M.

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this work is to obtain a more precise calculation of the effective limits to the efficiency, of several cyclic heat engines. This calculation is based, first, on the equations describing the irreversible efficiency, and second, on a method which results from a general criterion to maximize this efficiency, applicable to several heat engines. With this method, we apply the criterion to maximize efficiencies; establish lower and upper bounds, corresponding to the efficiencies of Curzon-Ahlborn-like and Carnot-like heat engines; and, finally, find analytical or numerical expressions for the efficiencies etame and etamax. etamax is the maximum irreversible efficiency; etame is the efficiency in which the irreversible efficiency achieves its maximum, in a similar way to the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency (maximum work or power). The method was applied to a Brayton cycle, presenting internal dissipations of the working fluid and irreversibilities due to the finite-rate heat transfer between the heat engine and its reservoirs. Also, we applied this method to a Carnot cycle including the irreversibilities of a finite-rate heat transfer between the heat engine and its reservoirs, heat leak between the reservoirs, and internal dissipations of the working fluid. The results obtained for the Brayton cycle are more general and useful than those in the relevant literature.

  9. Satisfying the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen criterion with massive particles.

    PubMed

    Peise, J; Kruse, I; Lange, K; Lücke, B; Pezzè, L; Arlt, J; Ertmer, W; Hammerer, K; Santos, L; Smerzi, A; Klempt, C

    2015-11-27

    In 1935, Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) questioned the completeness of quantum mechanics by devising a quantum state of two massive particles with maximally correlated space and momentum coordinates. The EPR criterion qualifies such continuous-variable entangled states, where a measurement of one subsystem seemingly allows for a prediction of the second subsystem beyond the Heisenberg uncertainty relation. Up to now, continuous-variable EPR correlations have only been created with photons, while the demonstration of such strongly correlated states with massive particles is still outstanding. Here we report on the creation of an EPR-correlated two-mode squeezed state in an ultracold atomic ensemble. The state shows an EPR entanglement parameter of 0.18(3), which is 2.4 s.d. below the threshold 1/4 of the EPR criterion. We also present a full tomographic reconstruction of the underlying many-particle quantum state. The state presents a resource for tests of quantum nonlocality and a wide variety of applications in the field of continuous-variable quantum information and metrology.

  10. Multi-Criterion Preliminary Design of a Tetrahedral Truss Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. Chauncey

    1995-01-01

    An efficient method is presented for multi-criterion preliminary design and demonstrated for a tetrahedral truss platform. The present method requires minimal analysis effort and permits rapid estimation of optimized truss behavior for preliminary design. A 14-m-diameter, 3-ring truss platform represents a candidate reflector support structure for space-based science spacecraft. The truss members are divided into 9 groups by truss ring and position. Design variables are the cross-sectional area of all members in a group, and are either 1, 3 or 5 times the minimum member area. Non-structural mass represents the node and joint hardware used to assemble the truss structure. Taguchi methods are used to efficiently identify key points in the set of Pareto-optimal truss designs. Key points identified using Taguchi methods are the maximum frequency, minimum mass, and maximum frequency-to-mass ratio truss designs. Low-order polynomial curve fits through these points are used to approximate the behavior of the full set of Pareto-optimal designs. The resulting Pareto-optimal design curve is used to predict frequency and mass for optimized trusses. Performance improvements are plotted in frequency-mass (criterion) space and compared to results for uniform trusses. Application of constraints to frequency and mass and sensitivity to constraint variation are demonstrated.

  11. Effective Q criterion for disk stability in an external potential

    SciTech Connect

    Jog, Chanda J.

    2014-06-01

    The standard Q criterion (with Q > 1) describes the stability against local, axisymmetric perturbations in a disk supported by rotation and random motion. Most astrophysical disks, however, are under the influence of an external gravitational potential, which can significantly affect their stability. A typical example is a galactic disk embedded in a dark matter halo. Here, we do a linear perturbation analysis for a disk in an external potential and obtain a generalized dispersion relation and the effective stability criterion. An external potential, such as that due to the dark matter halo concentric with the disk, contributes to the unperturbed rotational field and significantly increases its stability. We obtain the values for the effective Q parameter for the Milky Way and for a low surface brightness galaxy, UGC 7321. We find that in each case the stellar disk by itself is barely stable and it is the dark matter halo that stabilizes the disk against local, axisymmetric gravitational instabilities. Thus, the dark matter halo is necessary to ensure local disk stability. This result has been largely missed so far because in practice the Q parameter for a galactic disk is obtained using the observed rotational field that already includes the effect of the halo.

  12. A simplified wave enhancement criterion for moving extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, Vladimir; Golubkin, Pavel; Chapron, Bertrand

    2015-11-01

    An analytical model is derived to efficiently describe the wave energy distribution along the main transects of a moving extreme weather event. The model essentially builds on a generalization of the self-similar wave growth model and the assumption of a strongly dominant single spectral mode in a given quadrant of the storm. The criterion to anticipate wave enhancement with the generation of trapped abnormal waves defined as gr/ur2≈cT>(ur/V>)1/q, with r, u, and V, radial distance, average sustained wind speed, and translation velocity, respectively. Constants q and cT follow the fetch-law definitions. If forced during a sufficient time scale interval, also defined from this generalized self-similar wave growth model, waves can be trapped and large amplification of the wave energy will occur in the front-right storm quadrant. Remarkably, the group velocity and corresponding wavelength of outrunning wave systems will become wind speed independent and solely related to the translating velocity. The resulting significant wave height also only weakly depends on wind speed, and more strongly on the translation velocity. Compared to altimeter satellite measurements, the proposed analytical solutions for the wave energy distribution demonstrate convincing agreement. As analytically developed, the wave enhancement criterion can provide a rapid evaluation to document the general characteristics of each storm, especially the expected wavefield asymmetry.

  13. Nonextensive statistics and the sheath criterion in collisional plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hatami, M. M.

    2015-01-15

    The Bohm criterion in an electropositive plasma containing nonextensively distributed electrons and warm ions is investigated by using a steady state two-fluid model. Taking into account the ion-neutral collisions and finite temperature of ions, a modified Bohm criterion is derived which limits both maximum and minimum allowable velocity of ions at the sheath edge (u{sub 0i}). It is found that the degree of nonextensivity of electrons (q) and temperature of positive ions (T{sub i}) affect only the lower limit of the entrance velocity of ions into the sheath while the degree of ion collisionality (α) influences both lower and upper limits of the ion velocities at the sheath edge. In addition, depending on the value of q, it is shown that the minimum velocity of positive ions at the sheath edge can be greater or smaller than its Maxwellian counterpart. Moreover, it is shown that, depending on the values of α and T{sub i}, the positive ions with subsonic velocity may enter the sheath for either q > 1 or −1 < q < 1. Finally, as a practical application, the density distribution of charged particles in the sheath region is studied for different values of u{sub 0i}, and it is shown that monotonical reduction of the positive ion density distribution occurs only when the velocity of positive ions at the sheath edge lies between two above mentioned limits.

  14. Gene Selection for Multiclass Prediction by Weighted Fisher Criterion

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Gene expression profiling has been widely used to study molecular signatures of many diseases and to develop molecular diagnostics for disease prediction. Gene selection, as an important step for improved diagnostics, screens tens of thousands of genes and identifies a small subset that discriminates between disease types. A two-step gene selection method is proposed to identify informative gene subsets for accurate classification of multiclass phenotypes. In the first step, individually discriminatory genes (IDGs) are identified by using one-dimensional weighted Fisher criterion (wFC). In the second step, jointly discriminatory genes (JDGs) are selected by sequential search methods, based on their joint class separability measured by multidimensional weighted Fisher criterion (wFC). The performance of the selected gene subsets for multiclass prediction is evaluated by artificial neural networks (ANNs) and/or support vector machines (SVMs). By applying the proposed IDG/JDG approach to two microarray studies, that is, small round blue cell tumors (SRBCTs) and muscular dystrophies (MDs), we successfully identified a much smaller yet efficient set of JDGs for diagnosing SRBCTs and MDs with high prediction accuracies (96.9% for SRBCTs and 92.3% for MDs, resp.). These experimental results demonstrated that the two-step gene selection method is able to identify a subset of highly discriminative genes for improved multiclass prediction. PMID:17713593

  15. Satisfying the Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen criterion with massive particles

    PubMed Central

    Peise, J.; Kruse, I.; Lange, K.; Lücke, B.; Pezzè, L.; Arlt, J.; Ertmer, W.; Hammerer, K.; Santos, L.; Smerzi, A.; Klempt, C.

    2015-01-01

    In 1935, Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) questioned the completeness of quantum mechanics by devising a quantum state of two massive particles with maximally correlated space and momentum coordinates. The EPR criterion qualifies such continuous-variable entangled states, where a measurement of one subsystem seemingly allows for a prediction of the second subsystem beyond the Heisenberg uncertainty relation. Up to now, continuous-variable EPR correlations have only been created with photons, while the demonstration of such strongly correlated states with massive particles is still outstanding. Here we report on the creation of an EPR-correlated two-mode squeezed state in an ultracold atomic ensemble. The state shows an EPR entanglement parameter of 0.18(3), which is 2.4 s.d. below the threshold 1/4 of the EPR criterion. We also present a full tomographic reconstruction of the underlying many-particle quantum state. The state presents a resource for tests of quantum nonlocality and a wide variety of applications in the field of continuous-variable quantum information and metrology. PMID:26612105

  16. A one-class kernel fisher criterion for outlier detection.

    PubMed

    Dufrenois, Franck

    2015-05-01

    Recently, Dufrenois and Noyer proposed a one class Fisher's linear discriminant to isolate normal data from outliers. In this paper, a kernelized version of their criterion is presented. Originally on the basis of an iterative optimization process, alternating between subspace selection and clustering, I show here that their criterion has an upper bound making these two problems independent. In particular, the estimation of the label vector is formulated as an unconstrained binary linear problem (UBLP) which can be solved using an iterative perturbation method. Once the label vector is estimated, an optimal projection subspace is obtained by solving a generalized eigenvalue problem. Like many other kernel methods, the performance of the proposed approach depends on the choice of the kernel. Constructed with a Gaussian kernel, I show that the proposed contrast measure is an efficient indicator for selecting an optimal kernel width. This property simplifies the model selection problem which is typically solved by costly (generalized) cross-validation procedures. Initialization, convergence analysis, and computational complexity are also discussed. Lastly, the proposed algorithm is compared with recent novelty detectors on synthetic and real data sets.

  17. A Multi Fluid Analysis of the Ignition Criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guazzotto, Luca; Betti, Riccardo

    2016-10-01

    In magnetic confinement nuclear fusion experiments, performance with respect to ignition is expressed in terms of the Lawson criterion, a zero-dimensional, single-fluid, steady-state power balance expressing the plasma properties needed for ignition through the energy confinement time τE and the plasma temperature and density. Several improvements to the classical criterion are investigated. Ions, electrons and α particles are allowed to have different energy confinement times and energy coupling times are expressed through physics-based relations. The effect of multi-fluid physics is examined in a steady-state analysis and for the time-dependent case, which requires a nonlinear treatment more detailed than the standard `` Ṫ vs . T'' single-fluid one. A one-dimensional analysis is also considered to investigate the importance of density and temperature profiles on the τE needed for ignition. Rather than by solving the 1D transport equations, this is done with a parametric study. This work was performed under DOE Grant DE-FG02-93ER54215.

  18. Generalized melting criterion for beam-induced amorphization

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, N. Q.; Okamoto, Paul R.

    1993-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that the mean-square static atomic displacements provide a generic measure of the enthalpy stored in the lattice in the form of chemical and topological disorder, and that the effect of the displacements on the softening of shear elastic constants is identical to that of heating. This finding lends support to a generalized form of the Lindemann phenomenological melting criterion and leads to a natural interpretion of crystalline-to-amorphous transformations as defect-induced melting of metastable crystals driven beyond a critical state of disorder where the melting temperature falls below the glass-transition temperature. Application of the generalized Lindemann criterion to both the crystalline and amorphous phases indicates that the enthalpies of the two phases become identical when their shear moduli become equal. This thermo-elastic rule provides a basis for predicting the relative susceptibility of compounds to amorphization in terms of their elastic properties as measured by Debye temperatures. The present approach can explain many of the basic findings on beam-induced amorphization of intermetallic compounds as well as amorphous phase formation associated with ion implantation, ion-beam mixing and other solid-state processes.

  19. The limits of the Bohm criterion in collisional plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Valentini, H.-B.; Kaiser, D.

    2015-05-15

    The sheath formation within a low-pressure collisional plasma is analysed by means of a two-fluid model. The Bohm criterion takes into account the effects of the electric field and the inertia of the ions. Numerical results yield that these effects contribute to the space charge formation, only, if the collisionality is lower than a relatively small threshold. It follows that a lower and an upper limit of the drift speed of the ions exist where the effects treated by Bohm can form a sheath. This interval becomes narrower as the collisionality increases and vanishes at the mentioned threshold. Above the threshold, the sheath is mainly created by collisions and the ionisation. Under these conditions, the sheath formation cannot be described by means of Bohm like criteria. In a few references, a so-called upper limit of the Bohm criterion is stated for collisional plasmas where the momentum equation of the ions is taken into account, only. However, the present paper shows that this limit results in an unrealistically steep increase of the space charge density towards the wall, and, therefore, it yields no useful limit of the Bohm velocity.

  20. Setting criterion thresholds for estimating prevalence: what is being validated?

    PubMed

    Gambino, Blase

    2014-09-01

    Much of the debate over how best to estimate the prevalence of problem gambling in the general population is driven by a number of misconceptions, misinterpretations, and questionable, sometimes erroneous assumptions. Among the latter is the failure to understand that what is being validated is not the test but the interpretation of test scores for a specific purpose. In addition there has been a lack of attention to defining the clinical and/or epidemiologic relevance of case definitions in terms of severity and other clinical attributes, a misunderstanding of how test values are interpreted when criterion thresholds or cut-off points are selected, and a failure to replicate the validation of criterion thresholds for defining cases of problem gambling. It is argued further that the distinction between dichotomy and continuum is a false choice, and any emphasis on overestimation is misdirected. Alternative methods for evaluating tests and estimating prevalence are described and a pragmatic empirical approach to the interpretation of prevalence estimates is recommended.

  1. Further Experimental Verification of A Proposed Localized Necking Criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Situ, Quan; Jain, Mukesh K.; Bruhis, Michael

    2007-05-01

    An approach to determine the forming limit diagram (FLD) using the concept of inflection point in the major strain rate curve was proposed earlier by the authors. Once the strain history of the element (either grid or speckle) from the localized site is obtained, the localized necking occurs when an inflection point in the major strain rate curve, or, maximum point in the second order of derivative of major strain, (ɛ̈1)max, is reached. Experimental verification with various strain paths such as uniaxial tensile, biaxial stretching, and plane strain was carried out as confirmation of this criterion. In this work, further validations are carried out with the following tests: (1) a roughened punch with sand paper over the dome surface for the baiaxial tension test, which produces a path far from dry condition and close to plane strain; (2) a punch stretching of a specimen with a central hole, which produces a path between the shear path and uniaxial tensile path; and (3) specimens with offset notches which lead to shear instability. The generation of FLD with proposed criterion demonstrates very little subjectivity. Also, this approach presents a definite numerical and physical meaning that explains the observation of typical events in major forming processes.

  2. Deviance Information Criterion (DIC) in Bayesian Multiple QTL Mapping.

    PubMed

    Shriner, Daniel; Yi, Nengjun

    2009-03-15

    Mapping multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) is commonly viewed as a problem of model selection. Various model selection criteria have been proposed, primarily in the non-Bayesian framework. The deviance information criterion (DIC) is the most popular criterion for Bayesian model selection and model comparison but has not been applied to Bayesian multiple QTL mapping. A derivation of the DIC is presented for multiple interacting QTL models and calculation of the DIC is demonstrated using posterior samples generated by Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms. The DIC measures posterior predictive error by penalizing the fit of a model (deviance) by its complexity, determined by the effective number of parameters. The effective number of parameters simultaneously accounts for the sample size, the cross design, the number and lengths of chromosomes, covariates, the number of QTL, the type of QTL effects, and QTL effect sizes. The DIC provides a computationally efficient way to perform sensitivity analysis and can be used to quantitatively evaluate if including environmental effects, gene-gene interactions, and/or gene-environment interactions in the prior specification is worth the extra parameterization. The DIC has been implemented in the freely available package R/qtlbim, which greatly facilitates the general usage of Bayesian methodology for genome-wide interacting QTL analysis.

  3. A procedure for seiche analysis with Bayesian information criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aichi, Masaatsu

    2016-04-01

    Seiche is a standing wave in enclosed or semi-enclosed water body. Its amplitude irregularly changes in time due to weather condition etc. Then, extracting seiche signal is not easy by usual methods for time series analysis such as fast Fourier transform (FFT). In this study, a new method for time series analysis with Bayesian information criterion was developed to decompose seiche, tide, long-term trend and residual components from time series data of tide stations. The method was developed based on the maximum marginal likelihood estimation of tide amplitudes, seiche amplitude, and trend components. Seiche amplitude and trend components were assumed that they gradually changes as second derivative in time was close to zero. These assumptions were incorporated as prior distributions. The variances of prior distributions were estimated by minimizing Akaike-Bayes information criterion (ABIC). The frequency of seiche was determined by Newton method with initial guess by FFT. The accuracy of proposed method was checked by analyzing synthetic time series data composed of known components. The reproducibility of the original components was quite well. The proposed method was also applied to the actual time series data of sea level observed by tide station and the strain of coastal rock masses observed by fiber Bragg grating sensor in Aburatsubo Bay, Japan. The seiche in bay and its response of rock masses were successfully extracted.

  4. Flat lens criterion by small-angle phase.

    PubMed

    Ott, Peter; Al Shakhs, Mohammed H; Lezec, Henri J; Chau, Kenneth J

    2014-12-01

    We show that a classical imaging criterion based on angular dependence of small-angle phase can be applied to any system composed of planar, uniform media to determine if it is a flat lens capable of forming a real paraxial image and to estimate the image location. The real paraxial image location obtained by this method shows agreement with past demonstrations of far-field flat-lens imaging and can even predict the location of super-resolved images in the near-field. The generality of this criterion leads to several new predictions: flat lenses for transverse-electric polarization using dielectric layers, a broadband flat lens working across the ultraviolet-visible spectrum, and a flat lens configuration with an image plane located up to several wavelengths from the exit surface. These predictions are supported by full-wave simulations. Our work shows that small-angle phase can be used as a generic metric to categorize and design flat lenses.

  5. Experimental Study on Peak Shear Strength Criterion for Rock Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Rong, Guan; Hou, Di; Peng, Jun; Zhou, Chuangbing

    2016-03-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) morphology of a rock joint has a great impact on its shear behavior. To study the relationship between the 3D morphological characteristics and the peak shear strength, several tilt tests were conducted on four groups of tensile fractures and direct shear tests were carried out under different constant normal loads (CNL). The normal load ranges from 0.325 to 8.0 MPa. In this study, fresh tensile fractures which were splitted from granite and sandstone samples were used. The morphology of each tensile fracture was measured before direct shear tests. A new peak shear strength criterion for rock joints is proposed using two 3D morphological parameters which are termed as the maximum apparent dip angle θ_{max}^{*} and the roughness parameter C. The calculated peak strengths using the proposed criterion match well with the observed values. In addition, a comparison of the proposed model with the Grasselli's model (2003) and Xia's model (2014) shows that the proposed model is easier in the form and gives a rational improvement. At last, direct shear test data of tensile fractures which are collected from Grasselli (2003) are used to verify the proposed model. It is seen that the proposed model has a reliable estimate of the peak shear strength of tensile fractures and presumably for rock joints.

  6. Job shop scheduling problem with late work criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piroozfard, Hamed; Wong, Kuan Yew

    2015-05-01

    Scheduling is considered as a key task in many industries, such as project based scheduling, crew scheduling, flight scheduling, machine scheduling, etc. In the machine scheduling area, the job shop scheduling problems are considered to be important and highly complex, in which they are characterized as NP-hard. The job shop scheduling problems with late work criterion and non-preemptive jobs are addressed in this paper. Late work criterion is a fairly new objective function. It is a qualitative measure and concerns with late parts of the jobs, unlike classical objective functions that are quantitative measures. In this work, simulated annealing was presented to solve the scheduling problem. In addition, operation based representation was used to encode the solution, and a neighbourhood search structure was employed to search for the new solutions. The case studies are Lawrence instances that were taken from the Operations Research Library. Computational results of this probabilistic meta-heuristic algorithm were compared with a conventional genetic algorithm, and a conclusion was made based on the algorithm and problem.

  7. A generalized smoothness criterion for acoustic-to-articulatory inversion

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Prasanta Kumar; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2010-01-01

    The many-to-one mapping from representations in the speech articulatory space to acoustic space renders the associated acoustic-to-articulatory inverse mapping non-unique. Among various techniques, imposing smoothness constraints on the articulator trajectories is one of the common approaches to handle the non-uniqueness in the acoustic-to-articulatory inversion problem. This is because, articulators typically move smoothly during speech production. A standard smoothness constraint is to minimize the energy of the difference of the articulatory position sequence so that the articulator trajectory is smooth and low-pass in nature. Such a fixed definition of smoothness is not always realistic or adequate for all articulators because different articulators have different degrees of smoothness. In this paper, an optimization formulation is proposed for the inversion problem, which includes a generalized smoothness criterion. Under such generalized smoothness settings, the smoothness parameter can be chosen depending on the specific articulator in a data-driven fashion. In addition, this formulation allows estimation of articulatory positions recursively over time without any loss in performance. Experiments with the MOCHA TIMIT database show that the estimated articulator trajectories obtained using such a generalized smoothness criterion have lower RMS error and higher correlation with the actual measured trajectories compared to those obtained using a fixed smoothness constraint. PMID:20968386

  8. PET image reconstruction: mean, variance, and optimal minimax criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huafeng; Gao, Fei; Guo, Min; Xue, Liying; Nie, Jing; Shi, Pengcheng

    2015-04-01

    Given the noise nature of positron emission tomography (PET) measurements, it is critical to know the image quality and reliability as well as expected radioactivity map (mean image) for both qualitative interpretation and quantitative analysis. While existing efforts have often been devoted to providing only the reconstructed mean image, we present a unified framework for joint estimation of the mean and corresponding variance of the radioactivity map based on an efficient optimal min-max criterion. The proposed framework formulates the PET image reconstruction problem to be a transformation from system uncertainties to estimation errors, where the minimax criterion is adopted to minimize the estimation errors with possibly maximized system uncertainties. The estimation errors, in the form of a covariance matrix, express the measurement uncertainties in a complete way. The framework is then optimized by ∞-norm optimization and solved with the corresponding H∞ filter. Unlike conventional statistical reconstruction algorithms, that rely on the statistical modeling methods of the measurement data or noise, the proposed joint estimation stands from the point of view of signal energies and can handle from imperfect statistical assumptions to even no a priori statistical assumptions. The performance and accuracy of reconstructed mean and variance images are validated using Monte Carlo simulations. Experiments on phantom scans with a small animal PET scanner and real patient scans are also conducted for assessment of clinical potential.

  9. A study of the atmospheric dispersion of a high release of krypton-85 above a complex coastal terrain, comparison with the predictions of Gaussian models (Briggs, Doury, ADMS4).

    PubMed

    Leroy, C; Maro, D; Hébert, D; Solier, L; Rozet, M; Le Cavelier, S; Connan, O

    2010-11-01

    Atmospheric releases of krypton-85, from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at the AREVA NC facility at La Hague (France), were used to test Gaussian models of dispersion. In 2001-2002, the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) studied the atmospheric dispersion of 15 releases, using krypton-85 as a tracer for plumes emitted from two 100-m-high stacks. Krypton-85 is a chemically inert radionuclide. Krypton-85 air concentration measurements were performed on the ground in the downwind direction, at distances between 0.36 and 3.3 km from the release, by neutral or slightly unstable atmospheric conditions. The standard deviation for the horizontal dispersion of the plume and the Atmospheric Transfer Coefficient (ATC) were determined from these measurements. The experimental results were compared with calculations using first generation (Doury, Briggs) and second generation (ADMS 4.0) Gaussian models. The ADMS 4.0 model was used in two configurations; one takes account of the effect of the built-up area, and the other the effect of the roughness of the surface on the plume dispersion. Only the Briggs model correctly reproduced the measured values for the width of the plume, whereas the ADMS 4.0 model overestimated it and the Doury model underestimated it. The agreement of the models with measured values of the ATC varied according to distance from the release point. For distances less than 2 km from the release point, the ADMS 4.0 model achieved the best agreement between model and measurement; beyond this distance, the best agreement was achieved by the Briggs and Doury models.

  10. Model Selection and Psychological Theory: A Discussion of the Differences between the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrieze, Scott I.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) in model selection and the appraisal of psychological theory. The focus is on latent variable models, given their growing use in theory testing and construction. Theoretical statistical results in regression are discussed, and more important…

  11. Model Selection and Psychological Theory: A Discussion of the Differences between the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrieze, Scott I.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) in model selection and the appraisal of psychological theory. The focus is on latent variable models, given their growing use in theory testing and construction. Theoretical statistical results in regression are discussed, and more important…

  12. A Reconsideration of the Extension Strain Criterion for Fracture and Failure of Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesseloo, J.; Stacey, T. R.

    2016-12-01

    The complex behaviours of rocks and rock masses have presented paradoxes to the rock engineer, including the fracturing of seemingly strong rock under low stress conditions, which often occurs near excavation boundaries. The extension strain criterion was presented as a fracture initiation criterion under these conditions (Stacey in Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 18:469-474, 1981). This criterion has been used successfully by some and criticised by others. In this paper, we review the literature on the extension strain criterion and present a case for the correct interpretation of the criterion and the conditions suitable for its use. We argue that the extension strain criterion can also be used to provide an indication of damage level under conditions of relatively low confining stress. We also present an augmentation of the criterion, the ultimate extension strain, which is applicable under extensional loading conditions when σ 2 is similar in magnitude to σ 1.

  13. Criterion Related Validity of Karate Specific Aerobic Test (KSAT)

    PubMed Central

    Chaabene, Helmi; Hachana, Younes; Franchini, Emerson; Tabben, Montassar; Mkaouer, Bessem; Negra, Yassine; Hammami, Mehrez; Chamari, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Karate is one the most popular combat sports in the world. Physical fitness assessment on a regular manner is important for monitoring the effectiveness of the training program and the readiness of karatekas to compete. Objectives: The aim of this research was to examine the criterion related to validity of the karate specific aerobic test (KSAT) as an indicator of aerobic level of karate practitioners. Patients and Methods: Cardiorespiratory responses, aerobic performance level through both treadmill laboratory test and YoYo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YoYoIRTL1) as well as time to exhaustion in the KSAT test (TE’KSAT) were determined in a total of fifteen healthy international karatekas (i.e. karate practitioners) (means ± SD: age: 22.2 ± 4.3 years; height: 176.4 ± 7.5 cm; body mass: 70.3 ± 9.7 kg and body fat: 13.2 ± 6%). Results: Peak heart rate obtained from KSAT represented ~99% of maximal heart rate registered during the treadmill test showing that KSAT imposes high physiological demands. There was no significant correlation between KSAT’s TE and relative (mL/min kg) treadmill maximal oxygen uptake (r = 0.14; P = 0.69; [small]). On the other hand, there was a significant relationship between KSAT’s TE and the velocity associated with VO2max (vVO2max) (r = 0.67; P = 0.03; [large]) as well as the velocity at VO2 corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold (vVO2 VAT) (r = 0.64; P = 0.04; [large]). Moreover, significant relationship was found between TE’s KSAT and both the total distance covered and parameters of intermittent endurance measured through YoYoIRTL1. Conclusions: The KSAT has not proved to have indirect criterion related validity as no significant correlations have been found between TE’s KSAT and treadmill VO2max. Nevertheless, as correlated to other aerobic fitness variables, KSAT can be considered as an indicator of karate specific endurance. The establishment of the criterion related validity of the KSAT

  14. The double high tide at Port Ellen: Doodson's criterion revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Hannah A. M.; Mattias Green, J. A.; Bowers, David G.

    2017-07-01

    Doodson proposed a minimum criterion to predict the occurrence of double high (or double low) waters when a higher-frequency tidal harmonic is added to the semi-diurnal tide. If the phasing of the harmonic is optimal, the condition for a double high water can be written bn2/a > 1 where b is the amplitude of the higher harmonic, a is the amplitude of the semi-diurnal tide, and n is the ratio of their frequencies. Here we expand this criterion to allow for (i) a phase difference ϕ between the semi-diurnal tide and the harmonic and (ii) the fact that the double high water will disappear in the event that b/a becomes large enough for the higher harmonic to be the dominant component of the tide. This can happen, for example, at places or times where the semi-diurnal tide is very small. The revised parameter is br2/a, where r is a number generally less than n, although equal to n when ϕ = 0. The theory predicts that a double high tide will form when this parameter exceeds 1 and then disappear when it exceeds a value of order n2 and the higher harmonic becomes dominant. We test these predictions against observations at Port Ellen in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland. For most of the data set, the largest harmonic of the semi-diurnal tide is the sixth diurnal component, for which n = 3. The principal lunar and solar semi-diurnal tides are about equal at Port Ellen and so the semi-diurnal tide becomes very small twice a month at neap tides (here defined as the smallest fortnightly tidal range). A double high water forms when br2/a first exceeds a minimum value of about 1.5 as neap tides are approached and then disappears as br2/a then exceeds a second limiting value of about 10 at neap tides in agreement with the revised criterion.

  15. Landau criterion for an anisotropic Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zeng-Qiang

    2017-03-01

    In this work we discuss the Landau criterion for anisotropic superfluidity. To this end we consider a pointlike impurity moving in a uniform Bose-Einstein condensate with either interparticle dipole-dipole interaction or Raman-induced spin-orbit coupling. In both cases we find that the Landau critical velocity vc is generally smaller than the sound velocity in the moving direction. Beyond vc, the energy dissipation rate is explicitly calculated via a perturbation approach. In the plane-wave phase of a spin-orbit-coupled Bose gas, the dissipationless motion is suppressed by the Raman coupling even in the direction orthogonal to the recoil momentum. Our predictions can be tested in the experiments with ultracold atoms.

  16. Xenon stability analysis using the generalized nyquist criterion

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yoocho; Park, Gooncherl; Chung, Changhyun ); Park, Jongkyun

    1990-06-01

    Xenon-induced spatial power oscillations caused by control rod movement may cause control problems in nuclear power plant operation. Many studies have been performed to assess the xenon stability analysis using the time-domain technique or the frequency-domain technique for the single-input/single-output (SISO) system. However, those methods are too complicated and thus too time consuming, or too simple to provide results according to control rod movement in a certain position. This study analyzes xenon axial stability using the modal expansion technique in the frequency domain with the generalized Nyquist criterion, which is suitable for a multi-input/multi-output (MIMO) system. To examine this model, an axial stability analysis has been performed for the pressurized water reactor core of YGN-1 in Korea. The studied design parameters are power level, control rod position, and core average burnup.

  17. Validation of criterion-referenced archery cutting scores.

    PubMed

    Ishee, J H; Titlow, L W

    1993-04-01

    This study investigated an empirical method for setting optimal cutting scores for a criterion-referenced archery test. The classification-outcome probabilities and approaches to validity suggested by Berk were utilized. Pretest scores were obtained on 35 uninstructed college-age women on six ends (six arrows each) from 20 yards (18.3 m) after an unrecorded warm-up end. Posttest scores were after 15 weeks of instruction. Score distributions were the primary determinant for accurately classifying students as true mastery and true nonmastery. Accuracy is a function of the amount of overlap between distributions. Using the point at which the distributions overlapped, classification accuracy was estimated. Probabilities associated with 80 points were p(TM) + p(TN) = .83 and p(FM) + p(FN) = .14. Scores above and below 80 points had lower probabilities of classification accuracy. Reliability estimated using Kappa was .59. Statistical validity of the cutting score (phi) was .68.

  18. Failure criterion of glass fabric reinforced plastic laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haga, O.; Hayashi, N.; Kasuya, K.

    1986-01-01

    Failure criteria are derived for several modes of failure (in unaxial tensile or compressive loading, or biaxial combined tensile-compressive loading) in the case of closely woven plain fabric, coarsely-woven plain fabric, or roving glass cloth reinforcements. The shear strength in the interaction formula is replaced by an equation dealing with tensile or compressive strength in the direction making a 45 degree angle with one of the anisotropic axes, for the uniaxial failure criteria. The interaction formula is useful as the failure criterion in combined tension-compression biaxial failure for the case of closely woven plain fabric laminates, but poor agreement is obtained in the case of coarsely woven fabric laminates.

  19. Criterion and incremental validity of the emotion regulation questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidis, Christos A.; Siegling, A. B.

    2015-01-01

    Although research on emotion regulation (ER) is developing, little attention has been paid to the predictive power of ER strategies beyond established constructs. The present study examined the incremental validity of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ; Gross and John, 2003), which measures cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, over and above the Big Five personality factors. It also extended the evidence for the measure's criterion validity to yet unexamined criteria. A university student sample (N = 203) completed the ERQ, a measure of the Big Five, and relevant cognitive and emotion-laden criteria. Cognitive reappraisal predicted positive affect beyond personality, as well as experiential flexibility and constructive self-assertion beyond personality and affect. Expressive suppression explained incremental variance in negative affect beyond personality and in experiential flexibility beyond personality and general affect. No incremental effects were found for worry, social anxiety, rumination, reflection, and preventing negative emotions. Implications for the construct validity and utility of the ERQ are discussed. PMID:25814967

  20. Preliminary Studies for Three Experiments at Treiman-Yang Criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kres, I. V.; Kondratyev, V. N.; Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear reactions with three bodies in their final state may proceed through different reaction mechanisms. The Feynman graph technique has been widely used to describe such reactions. However, it is very difficult in general to select the graphs that dominate in given process. The Treiman-Yang criterion is one of the most powerful experimental tests for verifying the pole approximation prediction when describing a quasi-free reaction mechanism. We propose the theoretical study of the H2(B10, α Be7)ns, H1(B11, α1α2)αs, He3(Be9, α1α2)αs reactions at different energies. The preliminary study helps to check the existence of a QF channel by using the TY creterion.

  1. Error sensitivity to refinement: a criterion for optimal grid adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchini, Paolo; Giannnetti, Flavio; Citro, Vincenzo

    2016-11-01

    Most indicators used for automatic grid refinement are suboptimal, in the sense that they do not really minimize the global solution error. This paper concerns with a new indicator, related to the sensitivity map of global stability problems, suitable for an optimal grid refinement that minimizes the global solution error. The new criterion is derived from the properties of the adjoint operator and provides a map of the sensitivity of the global error (or its estimate) to a local mesh refinement. Examples are presented for both a scalar partial differential equation and for the system of Navier-Stokes equations. In the last case, we also present a grid-adaptation algorithm based on the new estimator and on the FreeFem++ software that improves the accuracy of the solution of almost two order of magnitude by redistributing the nodes of the initial computational mesh.

  2. Threshold criterion for a space simulation beam-plasma discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szuszczewicz, E. P.; Walker, D. N.; Papadopoulos, K.; Bernstein, W.; Lin, C. S.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical study of the threshold characteristics of a space simulation beam-plasma discharge with emphasis on density profiles and a density-dependent ignition criterion. The study included various beam-plasma conditions covering beam currents from 8 to 85 mA, beam energies from 0.8 to 2.0 keV, and magnetic fields at 0.9 and 1.5 G. The study included experimental determinations of radial profiles of electron density for each of the selected conditions extending from a low-density, pre-beam-plasma discharge state to a strong beam-plasma discharge condition. The experimental results are shown to agree with detailed model calculations, which consider the beam-plasma discharge to be produced by large-amplitude electron plasma waves resulting from the beam-plasma interaction.

  3. Biomechanical analysis of injury criterion for child and adult dummies.

    PubMed

    Sances, A

    2000-01-01

    The development of human injury tolerance is difficult because of the physical differences between humans and animals, the available dummies, and tissue of the cadaver. Furthermore, human volunteer testing can clearly only be done at subinjurious levels. While considerable biomechanical injury evidence exists for the adult human based on cadaveric studies, little information is available for the pediatric population. However, some material is available from skull bone modulus studies and from the fetal tendon strength and early pediatric studies of the newborn. A review of living human, animal, and human cadaveric studies, which forms the basis for head-neck injury criterion are given. Examples of the use of the Hybrid III dummy for injury prediction such as in the Malibu rollover tests and air bag mechanisms show neck injury levels are considerably above the proposed Malibu 2000 N level.

  4. Criterion and incremental validity of the emotion regulation questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Christos A; Siegling, A B

    2015-01-01

    Although research on emotion regulation (ER) is developing, little attention has been paid to the predictive power of ER strategies beyond established constructs. The present study examined the incremental validity of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ; Gross and John, 2003), which measures cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, over and above the Big Five personality factors. It also extended the evidence for the measure's criterion validity to yet unexamined criteria. A university student sample (N = 203) completed the ERQ, a measure of the Big Five, and relevant cognitive and emotion-laden criteria. Cognitive reappraisal predicted positive affect beyond personality, as well as experiential flexibility and constructive self-assertion beyond personality and affect. Expressive suppression explained incremental variance in negative affect beyond personality and in experiential flexibility beyond personality and general affect. No incremental effects were found for worry, social anxiety, rumination, reflection, and preventing negative emotions. Implications for the construct validity and utility of the ERQ are discussed.

  5. Attractor radius, a new determination criterion of predictability limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Deqiang; Ding, Ruiqiang; Li, Jianping; Feng, Jie

    2014-05-01

    Firstly, the definition of the attractor radius was given and then the property of that the attractor radius (AR) in a given n-dimensional attractor A is a constant was proved in theory. Secondly, the SV of the square of the RMS difference was separated into two components - the systematic error and the attractor radius, and it was proved that the observed global climatological RMS (OCR) difference is not equal to 71% of the SV of the RMS difference when the systematic error is existed, however, it is always equal to 71% of the AR. Then the physical understanding of the AR and also the predictability limit determinated by it were discussed. Finally, the spatial distributions of the predictability limit calculated from CFSv2 data by different criterions were compared.

  6. A physically based failure criterion for laminated composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroll, L.; Hufenbach, W.

    1999-07-01

    The stress and strain fields in laminated composites can be described realistically with the help of a refined theory of elasticity for anisotropic materials. In contrast, the respective failure characteristics cannot be predicted satisfactorily based on the commonly used failure criteria. The main disadvantage of these generalized failure criteria, such as the quadratic failure criteria of Sakharov, Azzi/Tsai, Tsai/Wu, etc., is that they combine fundamentally different fracture mechanisms of the homogenized UD layer in one approximation by an interpolation polynomial. A completely different method for the formulation of realistic failure criteria, taking into account the heterogeneous anisotropic material structure relevant to the fracture, is based on the Mohr hypothesis for brittle materials that in fact only the stresses in the fracture plane induce failure. This physically based failure criterion not only considers the decisive eifference between the fiber fracture and the interfiber fracture, but also characterizes further fracture types in the plane parallel to the fibers.

  7. Continuous control of chaos based on the stability criterion.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong Jie; Liu, Yan Zhu; Peng, Jian Hua

    2004-06-01

    A method of chaos control based on stability criterion is proposed in the present paper. This method can stabilize chaotic systems onto a desired periodic orbit by a small time-continuous perturbation nonlinear feedback. This method does not require linearization of the system around the stabilized orbit and only an approximate location of the desired periodic orbit is required which can be automatically detected in the control process. The control can be started at any moment by choosing appropriate perturbation restriction condition. It seems that more flexibility and convenience are the main advantages of this method. The discussions on control of attitude motion of a spacecraft, Rössler system, and two coupled Duffing oscillators are given as numerical examples.

  8. Local versus average field failure criterion in amorphous polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yuesong; Mao, Yunzhe; Sun, Lin; Koslowski, Marisol

    2015-03-01

    There is extensive work developing laws that predict yielding in amorphous polymers, ranging from the pioneer experimental work of Sternstein et al (1968 Appl. Polym. Symp. 7 175-99) to the novel molecular dynamics simulations of Jaramillo et al (2012 Phys. Rev. B 85 024114). While atomistic models render damage criteria in terms of local values of the stress and strain fields, experiments provide yield conditions in terms of the average values of these fields. Unfortunately, it is not possible to compare these results due to the differences in time and length scales. Here, we use a micromechanical phase-field damage model with parameters calculated from atomistic simulations to connect atomistic and macroscopic scale experiments. The phase-field damage model is used to study failure in composite materials. We find that the yield criterion should be described in terms of local stress and strains fields and cannot be extended directly from applied stress field values to determine yield conditions.

  9. The diminishing criterion model for metacognitive regulation of time investment.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Rakefet

    2014-06-01

    According to the Discrepancy Reduction Model for metacognitive regulation, people invest time in cognitive tasks in a goal-driven manner until their metacognitive judgment, either judgment of learning (JOL) or confidence, meets their preset goal. This stopping rule should lead to judgments above the goal, regardless of invested time. However, in many tasks, time is negatively correlated with JOL and confidence, with low judgments after effortful processing. This pattern has often been explained as stemming from bottom-up fluency effects on the judgments. While accepting this explanation for simple tasks, like memorizing pairs of familiar words, the proposed Diminishing Criterion Model (DCM) challenges this explanation for complex tasks, like problem solving. Under the DCM, people indeed invest effort in a goal-driven manner. However, investing more time leads to increasing compromise on the goal, resulting in negative time-judgment correlations. Experiment 1 exposed that with word-pair memorization, negative correlations are found only with minimal fluency and difficulty variability, whereas in problem solving, they are found consistently. As predicted, manipulations of low incentives (Experiment 2) and time pressure (Experiment 3) in problem solving revealed greater compromise as more time was invested in a problem. Although intermediate confidence ratings rose during the solving process, the result was negative time-confidence correlations (Experiments 3, 4, and 5), and this was not eliminated by the opportunity to respond "don't know" (Experiments 4 and 5). The results suggest that negative time-judgment correlations in complex tasks stem from top-down regulatory processes with a criterion that diminishes with invested time. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. A Heuristic Criterion for Instability to Fragmentation in Rotating, Interstellar Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boss, Alan Paul

    1982-01-01

    A heuristic criterion, based on linear perturbation analysis, is applied to the initial growth of density perturbations in isothermal or adiabatic gas clouds, with initially uniform density and uniform rotation. The heuristic criterion is shown to be consistent with the available results from numerical calculations of cloud collapse. The criterion predicts that perturbations varying as cos (m(phi)) will be most likely to grow when )pi is small, unless the cloud is nearly pressureless.

  11. A heuristic criterion for instability to fragmentation in rotating, interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boss, A. P.

    1982-01-01

    A heuristic criterion, based on linear perturbation analysis, is applied to the initial growth of density perturbations in isothermal or adiabatic gas clouds, with initially uniform density and uniform rotation. The heuristic criterion is shown to be consistent with the available results from numerical calculations of cloud collapse. The criterion predicts that perturbations varying as cos(m-phi) will be most likely to grow when m is small, unless the cloud is nearly pressureless.

  12. The Criterion A problem revisited: controversies and challenges in defining and measuring psychological trauma.

    PubMed

    Weathers, Frank W; Keane, Terence M

    2007-04-01

    The Criterion A problem in the field of traumatic stress refers to the stressor criterion for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and involves a number of fundamental issues regarding the definition and measurement of psychological trauma. These issues first emerged with the introduction of PTSD as a diagnostic category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition (DSM-III; American Psychiatric Association, 1980) and continue to generate considerable controversy. In this article, the authors provide an update on the Criterion A problem, with particular emphasis on the evolution of the DSM definition of the stressor criterion and the ongoing debate regarding broad versus narrow conceptualizations of traumatic events.

  13. A Criterion for Maximally Six-Qubit Entangled States via Coefficient Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yan; Zha, Xin Wei; Li, Wei

    2017-03-01

    In a recent paper (J. Phys. A: Math. Theor 45, 075308 (2012)), Li et al. established the coefficient matrix of six-qubit entangled states. With an emphasis on six qubits, we present a new criterion for maximally six-qubit entangled states via those coefficient matrices. By calculating the determinants of coefficient matrix, one use the criterion that characterize these states. Moreover, the criterion via the coefficient matrices gives rise to the combination of maximally multi-qubit entangled state(MMES) and matrix, and we believe that the new criterion can play an important role in quantum information.

  14. Briggs, Henry (1561-1630)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mathematician, born in Worley Wood, Yorkshire, England. Professor at Cambridge, London (Gresham College) and Oxford. By pointing out how much more useful logarithms would be if (unlike JOHN NAPIER's original invention) they were to base 10, he was responsible for improving astronomers' ability to calculate. Published mathematical tables (logarithms, sines, tangents, secants) as an aid to such ca...

  15. A Physics-Based Temperature Stabilization Criterion for Thermal Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Steven L.; Ungar, Eugene K.

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft testing specifications differ greatly in the criteria they specify for stability in thermal balance tests. Some specify a required temperature stabilization rate (the change in temperature per unit time, dT/dt), some specify that the final steady-state temperature be approached to within a specified difference, delta T , and some specify a combination of the two. The particular values for temperature stabilization rate and final temperature difference also vary greatly between specification documents. A one-size-fits-all temperature stabilization rate requirement does not yield consistent results for all test configurations because of differences in thermal mass and heat transfer to the environment. Applying a steady-state temperature difference requirement is problematic because the final test temperature is not accurately known a priori, especially for powered configurations. In the present work, a simplified, lumped-mass analysis has been used to explore the applicability of these criteria. A new, user-friendly, physics-based approach is developed that allows the thermal engineer to determine when an acceptable level of temperature stabilization has been achieved. The stabilization criterion can be predicted pre-test but must be refined during test to allow verification that the defined level of temperature stabilization has been achieved.

  16. Sound speed criterion for two-phase critical flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, M.-S.; Park, S.-B.; Lee, H.-K.

    2004-09-01

    Critical flow simulation for non-homogeneous, non-equilibrium two-phase flows is improved by applying a new sound speed model which is derived from the characteristic analysis of hyperbolic two-fluid model. The hyperbolicity of two-fluid model was based on the concept of surface tension for the interfacial pressure jump terms in the momentum equations. Real eigenvalues obtained as the closed-form solution of characteristic polynomial represent the sound speeds in the bubbly flow regime that agree well with the existing experimental data. The analytic sound speed is consistent with that obtained by the earlier study of Nguyen et al. though there is a difference between them especially in the limiting condition. The present sound speed shows more reasonable result in that condition than Nguyen et al.'s does. The present critical flow criterion derived by the present sound speed is employed in the MARS code and is assessed by treating several nozzle flow tests. The assessment results, without any adjustment made by some discharge coefficients, demonstrate more accurate predictions of critical flow rate than those of the earlier critical flow calculations in the bubbly flow regime.

  17. A novel SURE-based criterion for parametric PSF estimation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Feng; Blu, Thierry

    2015-02-01

    We propose an unbiased estimate of a filtered version of the mean squared error--the blur-SURE (Stein's unbiased risk estimate)--as a novel criterion for estimating an unknown point spread function (PSF) from the degraded image only. The PSF is obtained by minimizing this new objective functional over a family of Wiener processings. Based on this estimated blur kernel, we then perform nonblind deconvolution using our recently developed algorithm. The SURE-based framework is exemplified with a number of parametric PSF, involving a scaling factor that controls the blur size. A typical example of such parametrization is the Gaussian kernel. The experimental results demonstrate that minimizing the blur-SURE yields highly accurate estimates of the PSF parameters, which also result in a restoration quality that is very similar to the one obtained with the exact PSF, when plugged into our recent multi-Wiener SURE-LET deconvolution algorithm. The highly competitive results obtained outline the great potential of developing more powerful blind deconvolution algorithms based on SURE-like estimates.

  18. Efficient and robust feature extraction by maximum margin criterion.

    PubMed

    Li, Haifeng; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Keshu

    2006-01-01

    In pattern recognition, feature extraction techniques are widely employed to reduce the dimensionality of data and to enhance the discriminatory information. Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) are the two most popular linear dimensionality reduction methods. However, PCA is not very effective for the extraction of the most discriminant features, and LDA is not stable due to the small sample size problem. In this paper, we propose some new (linear and nonlinear) feature extractors based on maximum margin criterion (MMC). Geometrically, feature extractors based on MMC maximize the (average) margin between classes after dimensionality reduction. It is shown that MMC can represent class separability better than PCA. As a connection to LDA, we may also derive LDA from MMC by incorporating some constraints. By using some other constraints, we establish a new linear feature extractor that does not suffer from the small sample size problem, which is known to cause serious stability problems for LDA. The kernelized (nonlinear) counterpart of this linear feature extractor is also established in the paper. Our extensive experiments demonstrate that the new feature extractors are effective, stable, and efficient.

  19. Robust principal component analysis based on maximum correntropy criterion.

    PubMed

    He, Ran; Hu, Bao-Gang; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Kong, Xiang-Wei

    2011-06-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) minimizes the mean square error (MSE) and is sensitive to outliers. In this paper, we present a new rotational-invariant PCA based on maximum correntropy criterion (MCC). A half-quadratic optimization algorithm is adopted to compute the correntropy objective. At each iteration, the complex optimization problem is reduced to a quadratic problem that can be efficiently solved by a standard optimization method. The proposed method exhibits the following benefits: 1) it is robust to outliers through the mechanism of MCC which can be more theoretically solid than a heuristic rule based on MSE; 2) it requires no assumption about the zero-mean of data for processing and can estimate data mean during optimization; and 3) its optimal solution consists of principal eigenvectors of a robust covariance matrix corresponding to the largest eigenvalues. In addition, kernel techniques are further introduced in the proposed method to deal with nonlinearly distributed data. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed method can outperform robust rotational-invariant PCAs based on L(1) norm when outliers occur.

  20. Nonlinear viscoelasticity and generalized failure criterion for biopolymer gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divoux, Thibaut; Keshavarz, Bavand; Manneville, Sébastien; McKinley, Gareth

    2016-11-01

    Biopolymer gels display a multiscale microstructure that is responsible for their solid-like properties. Upon external deformation, these soft viscoelastic solids exhibit a generic nonlinear mechanical response characterized by pronounced stress- or strain-stiffening prior to irreversible damage and failure, most often through macroscopic fractures. Here we show on a model acid-induced protein gel that the nonlinear viscoelastic properties of the gel can be described in terms of a 'damping function' which predicts the gel mechanical response quantitatively up to the onset of macroscopic failure. Using a nonlinear integral constitutive equation built upon the experimentally-measured damping function in conjunction with power-law linear viscoelastic response, we derive the form of the stress growth in the gel following the start up of steady shear. We also couple the shear stress response with Bailey's durability criteria for brittle solids in order to predict the critical values of the stress σc and strain γc for failure of the gel, and how they scale with the applied shear rate. This provides a generalized failure criterion for biopolymer gels in a range of different deformation histories. This work was funded by the MIT-France seed fund and by the CNRS PICS-USA scheme (#36939). BK acknowledges financial support from Axalta Coating Systems.

  1. Associative false recognition occurs without strategic criterion shifts.

    PubMed

    Gallo, D A; Roediger, H L; McDermott, K B

    2001-09-01

    In the DRM (Deese/Roediger and McDermott) false memory paradigm, subjects studied lists of words associated with nonpresented critical words. They were tested in one of four instructional conditions. In a standard condition, subjects were not warned about the DRM Effect. In three other conditions, they were told to avoid false recognition of critical words. One group was warned before study of the lists (affecting encoding and retrieval processes), and two groups were warned after study (affecting only retrieval processes). Replicating prior work, the warning before study considerably reduced false recognition. The warning after study also reduced false recognition, but only when critical items had never been studied; when critical items were studied in half the lists so that subjects had to monitor memory for their presence or absence, the warning after study had little effect on false recognition. Because warned subjects were trying to avoid false recognition, the high levels of false recognition in the latter condition cannot be due to strategically guessing that critical test items were studied. False memories in the DRM paradigm are not caused by such liberal criterion shifts.

  2. Nonlinear theoretical formulation of elastic stability criterion of crystal solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Li, Mo

    2012-03-01

    An elastic stability criterion is generally formulated based on local elasticity, where the second-order elastic constants of a crystalline system in an arbitrary deformed state are required. While simple in formalism, such a formulation demands extensive computational effort in either an ab initio calculation or an atomistic simulation and often lacks clear physical interpretation. Here, we present a nonlinear theoretical formulation employing higher-order elastic constants beyond the second-order ones; the elastic constants needed in the theory are those at a zero stress state or in any arbitrary deformed state, many of which are now available. We use the published second- and higher-order elastic constants of several cubic crystals, including Au, Al, and Cu, as well as diamond-structure Si, with transcription under different coordinate frames, to test the stability conditions of these crystals under uniaxial and hydrostatic loading. The stability region, ideal strength, and potential bifurcation mode of those cubic crystals under loading are obtained using this theory. The results obtained are in good agreement with the results from the ab initio calculation or embedded atom method. The overall good quality of the results confirms the desired utility of this new approach to predict elastic stability and related properties of crystalline materials without involving intense computation.

  3. Controllability, not chaos, key criterion for ocean state estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebbie, Geoffrey; Hsieh, Tsung-Lin

    2017-07-01

    The Lagrange multiplier method for combining observations and models (i.e., the adjoint method or 4D-VAR) has been avoided or approximated when the numerical model is highly nonlinear or chaotic. This approach has been adopted primarily due to difficulties in the initialization of low-dimensional chaotic models, where the search for optimal initial conditions by gradient-descent algorithms is hampered by multiple local minima. Although initialization is an important task for numerical weather prediction, ocean state estimation usually demands an additional task - a solution of the time-dependent surface boundary conditions that result from atmosphere-ocean interaction. Here, we apply the Lagrange multiplier method to an analogous boundary control problem, tracking the trajectory of the forced chaotic pendulum. Contrary to previous assertions, it is demonstrated that the Lagrange multiplier method can track multiple chaotic transitions through time, so long as the boundary conditions render the system controllable. Thus, the nonlinear timescale poses no limit to the time interval for successful Lagrange multiplier-based estimation. That the key criterion is controllability, not a pure measure of dynamical stability or chaos, illustrates the similarities between the Lagrange multiplier method and other state estimation methods. The results with the chaotic pendulum suggest that nonlinearity should not be a fundamental obstacle to ocean state estimation with eddy-resolving models, especially when using an improved first-guess trajectory.

  4. Centration-distortion error: a criterion of perceptual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Mecke, V

    This was a study to determine whether centration, as a perceptual process, could be a criterion for differentiating between neurologically impaired and emotionally disturbed children. Centration was defined by Piaget as a prolonged involuntary attachment of a sensory modality to one part of a field, causing perceptual errors of exaggerations and distortions. It is hypothesized that centration would affect motor behavior, producing effects on drawing tasks characterized by separation of designs or their parts, coincident with distortions of the figures drawn. The neurologically impaired children were identified as having primary difficulties with perception whereas the emotionally disturbed children would have primary difficulties with intellection. The centration-distortion error would characterize the drawing of the neurologically impaired but not those of the emotionally disturbed children. A sample of 44 children was selected, each with EEG records, psychological tests and psychiatric interviews used as differential criteria for the groups. Eleven children were diagnosed as having minimal brain damage, 33 as emotionally disturbed. Three psychologists scored the Bender Gestalt tests, blind, for indicators of brain injury and emotional disturbance as defined by Koppitz' criteria, and for the centration-distortion error. The hypothesis was upheld at the .001 level of confidence, validating an earlier pilot study.

  5. Akaike information criterion to select well-fit resist models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbine, Andrew; Fryer, David; Sturtevant, John

    2015-03-01

    In the field of model design and selection, there is always a risk that a model is over-fit to the data used to train the model. A model is well suited when it describes the physical system and not the stochastic behavior of the particular data collected. K-fold cross validation is a method to check this potential over-fitting to the data by calibrating with k-number of folds in the data, typically between 4 and 10. Model training is a computationally expensive operation, however, and given a wide choice of candidate models, calibrating each one repeatedly becomes prohibitively time consuming. Akaike information criterion (AIC) is an information-theoretic approach to model selection based on the maximized log-likelihood for a given model that only needs a single calibration per model. It is used in this study to demonstrate model ranking and selection among compact resist modelforms that have various numbers and types of terms to describe photoresist behavior. It is shown that there is a good correspondence of AIC to K-fold cross validation in selecting the best modelform, and it is further shown that over-fitting is, in most cases, not indicated. In modelforms with more than 40 fitting parameters, the size of the calibration data set benefits from additional parameters, statistically validating the model complexity.

  6. Some remarks on relativistic diffusion and the spectral dimension criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muniz, C. R.; Cunha, M. S.; Filho, R. N. Costa; Bezerra, V. B.

    2015-01-01

    The spectral dimension ds for high energies is calculated using the Relativistic Schrödinger Equation Analytically Continued (RSEAC) instead of the so-called Telegraph's equation (TE), in both ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) regimens. Regarding the TE, the recent literature presents difficulties related to its stochastic derivation and interpretation, advocating the use of the RSEAC to properly describe the relativistic diffusion phenomena. Taking into account that the Lorentz symmetry is broken in UV regime at Lifshitz point, we show that there exists a degeneracy in very high energies, meaning that both the RSEAC and TE correctly describe the diffusion processes at these energy scales, at least under the spectral dimension criterion. In fact, both the equations yield the same result, namely, ds=2 , a dimensional reduction that is compatible with several theories of quantum gravity. This result is reached even when one takes into account a cosmological model, as for example, the de Sitter universe. On the other hand, in the IR regimen, such degeneracy is lifted in favor of the approach via TE, due to the fact that only this equation provides the correct value for ds, which is equal to the actual number of spacetime dimensions, i.e., ds=4 , while RSEAC yields ds=3 , so that a diffusing particle described by this method experiences a three-dimensional spacetime.

  7. Failure Criterion of Rock with Multiple Friction Angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvieux, J.; Makhnenko, R. Y.; Labuz, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Paul-Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion is a linear function of the three principal stresses, and it can be written as AσI + BσII + CσIII = 1, where σI, σII, and σIII are the major, intermediate, and minor principal stresses and A, B, and C are material parameters related to the friction angles in compression and extension and the (theoretical) uniform triaxial tensile strength. Conventional triaxial compression (σII = σIII), extension (σI = σII), and plane strain (σI ≠ σII ≠ σIII) experiments were performed on dry Indiana limestone, and the stress states at failure were represented in principal stress space. Assuming isotropic behavior, a six-sided pyramidal failure surface was constructed by fitting a plane to the triaxial compression and extension data. The material parameters were determined, and the friction angle in extension was greater than the friction angle in compression, a sufficient condition for an intermediate stress effect. Multi-axial (plane strain) data were included and a twelve-sided failure surface with two different vertices was formed. The two vertices provide a change in the cross-section of the failure surface normal to the hydrostatic axis, which is often observed in failure of rock. The irregular dodecagon is associated with six parameters: two vertices and four friction angles.

  8. An opening criterion for dust gaps in protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dipierro, Giovanni; Laibe, Guillaume

    2017-08-01

    We aim to understand under which conditions a low-mass planet can open a gap in viscous dusty protoplanetary discs. For this purpose, we extend the theory of dust radial drift to include the contribution from the tides of an embedded planet and from the gas viscous forces. From this formalism, we derive (i) a grain-size-dependent criterion for dust gap opening in discs, (ii) an estimate of the location of the outer edge of the dust gap and (iii) an estimate of the minimum Stokes number above which low-mass planets are able to carve gaps that appear only in the dust disc. These analytical estimates are particularly helpful to appraise the minimum mass of a hypothetical planet carving gaps in discs observed at long wavelengths and high resolution. We validate the theory against 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of planet-disc interaction in a broad range of dusty protoplanetary discs. We find a remarkable agreement between the theoretical model and the numerical experiments.

  9. General criterion for the entanglement of two indistinguishable particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ghirardi, GianCarlo; Marinatto, Luca

    2004-07-01

    We relate the notion of entanglement for quantum systems composed of two identical constituents to the impossibility of attributing a complete set of properties to both particles. This implies definite constraints on the mathematical form of the state vector associated with the whole system. We then analyze separately the cases of fermion and boson systems, and we show how the consideration of both the Slater-Schmidt number of the fermionic and bosonic analog of the Schmidt decomposition of the global state vector and the von Neumann entropy of the one-particle reduced density operators can supply us with a consistent criterion for detecting entanglement. In particular, the consideration of the von Neumann entropy is particularly useful in deciding whether the correlations of the considered states are simply due to the indistinguishability of the particles involved or are a genuine manifestation of the entanglement. The treatment leads to a full clarification of the subtle aspects of entanglement of two identical constituents which have been a source of embarrassment and of serious misunderstandings in the recent literature.

  10. SALT DAMAGE CRITERION PROOF-OF-CONCEPT RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Kerry L. DeVries; Kirby D. Mellegard; Gary D. Callahan

    2001-12-01

    This document is the annual technical progress report for Department of Energy Contract No. DE-FC26-00NT41026 entitled Proof-of-Concept Research for an Advanced Design Criterion to Improve Working Gas Capacity for Natural Gas Storage Caverns in Salt Formations. This report covers the reporting period from October 1, 2000, through September 30, 2001. During this reporting period, the project was initiated and work was performed to develop structural models that will be used to evaluate two compressed natural gas storage caverns in the McIntosh Dome northwest of Mobile, Alabama. Information necessary to define the structural models include site-specific stress, temperature, geometry, stratigraphy, and operating scenarios in the dome and for the caverns. Additionally, material model development for the salt at the McIntosh Dome was initiated. Material model development activities include acquisition of salt core for testing, laboratory testing, and regression analyses to determine site-specific model parameter values that describe the behavior of salt around a storage cavern. Although not performed during this reporting period, the information and models developed will be used to perform advanced design storage cavern analyses for the Bay Gas caverns to determine the operating pressure ranges to maintain stable conditions.

  11. An Analytic Criterion for Turbulent Disruption of Planetary Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batygin, Konstantin; Adams, Fred C.

    2017-03-01

    Mean motion commensurabilities in multi-planet systems are an expected outcome of protoplanetary disk-driven migration, and their relative dearth in the observational data presents an important challenge to current models of planet formation and dynamical evolution. One natural mechanism that can lead to the dissolution of commensurabilities is stochastic orbital forcing, induced by turbulent density fluctuations within the nebula. While this process is qualitatively promising, the conditions under which mean motion resonances can be broken are not well understood. In this work, we derive a simple analytic criterion that elucidates the relationship among the physical parameters of the system, and find the conditions necessary to drive planets out of resonance. Subsequently, we confirm our findings with numerical integrations carried out in the perturbative regime, as well as direct N-body simulations. Our calculations suggest that turbulent resonance disruption depends most sensitively on the planet–star mass ratio. Specifically, for a disk with properties comparable to the early solar nebula with α ={10}-2, only planet pairs with cumulative mass ratios smaller than ({m}1+{m}2)/M≲ {10}-5∼ 3{M}\\oplus /{M}ȯ are susceptible to breaking resonance at semimajor axis of order a∼ 0.1 {au}. Although turbulence can sometimes compromise resonant pairs, an additional mechanism (such as suppression of resonance capture probability through disk eccentricity) is required to adequately explain the largely non-resonant orbital architectures of extrasolar planetary systems.

  12. Measuring unconscious cognition: Beyond the zero-awareness criterion

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Visual masking can be employed to manipulate observers’ awareness of critical stimuli in studies of masked priming. This paper discusses two different lines of attack for establishing unconscious cognition in such experiments. Firstly, simple dissociations between direct measures (D) of visual awareness and indirect measures (I) of processing per se occur when I has some nonzero value while D is at chance level; the traditional requirement of zero awareness is necessary for this criterion only. In contrast, double dissociations occur when some experimental manipulation has opposite effects on I and D, for instance, increasing priming effects despite decreasing prime identification performance (Schmidt & Vorberg, 2006). Double dissociations require much weaker measurement assumptions than other criteria. An attractive alternative to this dissociation approach would be to use tasks that are known to violate necessary conditions of visual awareness altogether. In particular, it is argued here that priming effects in speeded pointing movements (Schmidt, Niehaus, & Nagel, 2006) occur in the absence of the recurrent processing that is often assumed to be a necessary condition for awareness (for instance, DiLollo, Enns, & Rensink, 2000; Lamme & Roelfsema, 2000). Feedforward tasks such as this might thus be used to measure the time-course of unconscious processing directly, before intracortical feedback and awareness come into play. PMID:20517514

  13. Sheath formation criterion in magnetized electronegative plasmas with thermal ions

    SciTech Connect

    Hatami, M. M.; Shokri, B.

    2013-03-15

    Taking into account the effect of collisions and positive ion temperatures, the sheath formation criterion is investigated in a weakly magnetized electronegative plasma consisting of electrons, negative and positive ions by using the hydrodynamics equations. It is assumed that the electron and negative ion density distributions are the Boltzmann distribution with two different temperatures. Also, it is assumed that the velocity of positive ions at the sheath edge is not normal to the wall (oblique entrance). Our results show that a sheath region will be formed when the initial velocity of positive ions or the ion Mach number M lies in a specific interval with particular upper and lower limits. Also, it is shown that the presence of the magnetic field affects both of these limits. Moreover, as an practical application, the density distribution of charged particles in the sheath region is studied for an allowable value of M, and it is seen that monotonically reduction of the positive ion density distribution leading to the sheath formation occurs only when M lies between two above mentioned limits.

  14. A New Criterion for Demarcating Life from Non-Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hateren, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    Criteria for demarcating life from non-life are important for deciding whether new candidate systems, either discovered extraterrestrially or constructed in the laboratory, are genuinely alive or not. They are also important for understanding the origin of life and its evolution. Current criteria are either too restrictive or too extensive. The new criterion proposed here poses that a system is living when it is capable of utilizing active causation, at evolutionary or behavioural timescales. Active causation is produced when the organism uses an estimate of its own Darwinian fitness to modulate the variance of stochasticity that drives hereditary or behavioural changes. The changes are subsequently fed back to the fitness estimate and used in the next cycle of a feedback loop. The ability to use a self-estimated fitness in this way is an evolved property of the organism, and the way in which fitness is estimated is therefore controlled and stabilized by Darwinian evolution. The hereditary and behavioural trajectories resulting from this mechanism combine predictability with unpredictability, and the mechanism produces a form of self-directed agency in living organisms that is absent from non-living systems.

  15. Determining the Bohm criterion in plasmas with two ion species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baalrud, S. D.; Hegna, C. C.

    2011-02-01

    A model that uniquely determines the flow speed of each ion species at the sheath edge of two ion species plasmas is developed. In this analysis, ion-ion two-stream instabilities can play an important role because they significantly enhance the friction between ion species. Two-stream instabilities arise when the difference in flow speeds between the ion species exceeds a critical value: V1-V2≡ΔV≥ΔVc. The resultant instability-enhanced friction rapidly becomes so strong that ΔV cannot significantly exceed ΔVc. Using the condition provided by ΔV =ΔVc and the generalized Bohm criterion, the speed of each ion species is uniquely determined as it leaves a quasineutral plasma and enters a sheath. Previous work [S. D. Baalrud et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 205002 (2009)] considered the cold ion limit (Ti→0), in which case ΔVc→0 and each ion species obtains a common "system" sound speed at the sheath edge. Finite ion temperatures are accounted for in this work. The result is that ΔVc depends on the density and thermal speed of each ion species; ΔVc has a minimum when the density ratio of the two ion species is near one, and becomes larger as the density ratio deviates from unity. As ΔVc increases, the speed of each ion species approaches its individual sound speed at the sheath edge.

  16. Wang-Landau sampling: a criterion for halting the simulations.

    PubMed

    Caparica, A A

    2014-04-01

    In this work we propose a criterion to finish the simulations of the Wang-Landau sampling. Instead of determining a final modification factor for all simulations and every sample size, we investigate the behavior of the temperature of the peak of the specific heat during the simulations and finish them when this value varies below a given limit. As a result, different runs stop at different final modification factors. We show that in place of the temperature of the peak of the specific heat one can adopt alternatively the integrated heat transfer as a reference quantity. We apply this technique to the two-dimensional Ising model and a homopolymer. We verify that for the Ising model the mean order of the final modification factors is roughly the same for all lattice sizes, but for the homopolymer the order of the final modification factors increases with increasing polymer sizes. The results show that the simulations can be halted much earlier than is conventional in Wang-Landau sampling, but manifold finite-size simulations are required in order to obtain accurate results. A brief application to the three-dimensional Ising model is also available.

  17. A Topological Criterion for Filtering Information in Complex Brain Networks

    PubMed Central

    Latora, Vito; Chavez, Mario

    2017-01-01

    In many biological systems, the network of interactions between the elements can only be inferred from experimental measurements. In neuroscience, non-invasive imaging tools are extensively used to derive either structural or functional brain networks in-vivo. As a result of the inference process, we obtain a matrix of values corresponding to a fully connected and weighted network. To turn this into a useful sparse network, thresholding is typically adopted to cancel a percentage of the weakest connections. The structural properties of the resulting network depend on how much of the inferred connectivity is eventually retained. However, how to objectively fix this threshold is still an open issue. We introduce a criterion, the efficiency cost optimization (ECO), to select a threshold based on the optimization of the trade-off between the efficiency of a network and its wiring cost. We prove analytically and we confirm through numerical simulations that the connection density maximizing this trade-off emphasizes the intrinsic properties of a given network, while preserving its sparsity. Moreover, this density threshold can be determined a-priori, since the number of connections to filter only depends on the network size according to a power-law. We validate this result on several brain networks, from micro- to macro-scales, obtained with different imaging modalities. Finally, we test the potential of ECO in discriminating brain states with respect to alternative filtering methods. ECO advances our ability to analyze and compare biological networks, inferred from experimental data, in a fast and principled way. PMID:28076353

  18. An improved criterion for new particle formation in diverse environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang, C.; Riipinen, I.; Sihto, S.-L.; Kulmala, M.; McCormick, A.; McMurry, P.

    2010-03-15

    A dimensionless theory for new particle formation (NPF) was developed, using an aerosol population balance model incorporating recent developments in nucleation rates and measured particle growth rates. Based on this theoretical analysis, it was shown that a dimensionless parameter Lg, characterizing the ratio of the particle scavenging loss rate to the particle growth rate, exclusively determined whether or not NPF would occur on a particular day. This parameter determines the probability that a nucleated particle will grow to a detectable size before being lost by coagulation with the pre-existing aerosol. Cluster-cluster coagulation was shown to contribute negligibly to this survival probability under conditions pertinent to the atmosphere. Data acquired during intensive measurement campaigns in Tecamac (MILAGRO), Atlanta (ANARChE), Boulder, and Hyytiala (QUEST II, QUEST IV, and EUCAARI) were used to test the validity of Lg as an NPF criterion. Measurements included aerosol size distributions down to 3 nm and gas-phase sulfuric acid concentrations. The model was applied to 77 NPF events and 19 non-events (characterized by growth of pre-existing aerosol without NPF) measured in diverse environments with broad ranges in sulfuric acid concentrations, ultrafine number concentrations, aerosol surface areas, and particle growth rates (nearly two orders of magnitude). Across this diverse data set, a nominal value of Lg = 0.7 was found to determine the boundary for the occurrence of NPF, with NPF occurring when Lg < 0.7 and being suppressed when Lg > 0.7. Moreover, nearly 45% of measured Lg values associated with NPF fell in the relatively narrow range of 0.1 < Lg < 0.3.

  19. Performance of a Craving Criterion in DSM Alcohol Use Disorders*

    PubMed Central

    Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; Borges, Guilherme; Ye, Yu; Bond, Jason; Cremonte, Mariana; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Swiatkiewicz, Grazyna

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Adding a craving criterion—presently in the International Classification of Diseases, 1 0th Revision, diagnosis of alcohol dependence—has been under consideration as one possible improvement to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), and was recently proposed for inclusion by the DSM Substance-Related Disorders Work Group in the Fifth Revision of diagnostic criteria for alcohol use disorders. To inform cross-cultural applicability of this modification, performance of a craving criterion was examined in emergency departments in four countries manifesting distinctly different culturally based drinking patterns (Mexico, Poland, Argentina, United States). Method: Exploratory factor analysis and item response theory were used to examine psychometric properties and individual item characteristics of the 11 DSM-IV abuse and dependence criteria with and without craving for each country separately. Differential item functioning analysis was performed to examine differences in the difficulty of endorsement (severity) and discrimination of craving across countries. Results: Exploratory factor analysis found craving fit well within a one-dimensional solution, and factor loadings were high across all countries. Results from item-response theory analyses indicated that both discrimination and difficulty estimates for the craving item were located in the middle of the corresponding discrimination and difficulty ranges for the other 11 items for each country but did not substantially increase the efficiency (or information) of the overall diagnostic scheme. Across the four countries, no differential item functioning was found for difficulty, but significant differential item functioning was found for discrimination (similar to other DSM-IV criteria). Conclusions: Findings suggest that, although craving performed similarly across emergency departments in the four countries, it does not add much in identification of

  20. A Topological Criterion for Filtering Information in Complex Brain Networks.

    PubMed

    De Vico Fallani, Fabrizio; Latora, Vito; Chavez, Mario

    2017-01-01

    In many biological systems, the network of interactions between the elements can only be inferred from experimental measurements. In neuroscience, non-invasive imaging tools are extensively used to derive either structural or functional brain networks in-vivo. As a result of the inference process, we obtain a matrix of values corresponding to a fully connected and weighted network. To turn this into a useful sparse network, thresholding is typically adopted to cancel a percentage of the weakest connections. The structural properties of the resulting network depend on how much of the inferred connectivity is eventually retained. However, how to objectively fix this threshold is still an open issue. We introduce a criterion, the efficiency cost optimization (ECO), to select a threshold based on the optimization of the trade-off between the efficiency of a network and its wiring cost. We prove analytically and we confirm through numerical simulations that the connection density maximizing this trade-off emphasizes the intrinsic properties of a given network, while preserving its sparsity. Moreover, this density threshold can be determined a-priori, since the number of connections to filter only depends on the network size according to a power-law. We validate this result on several brain networks, from micro- to macro-scales, obtained with different imaging modalities. Finally, we test the potential of ECO in discriminating brain states with respect to alternative filtering methods. ECO advances our ability to analyze and compare biological networks, inferred from experimental data, in a fast and principled way.

  1. Problems in Criterion-Referenced Measurement. CSE Monograph Series in Evaluation, 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Chester W., Ed.; And Others

    Six essays on technical measurement problems in criterion referenced tests and four essays by psychometricians proposing solutions are presented: (1) "Criterion-Referenced Measurement" and Other Such Terms, by Marvin C. Alkin which is an overview of the first six papers; (2) Selecting Objectives and Generating Test Items for Objectives-Based…

  2. The quest to find the plasma edge and discover a collisionally modified Bohm criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, R. N.; Franklin

    2013-10-01

    The concepts of `plasma edge' and `collisionally modified Bohm criterion' have occupied attention for many years since the publication of work by Bohm that gave rise to the Bohm criterion. He acknowledged that his description of the plasma-sheath transition was incomplete. We summarize work that shows that neither concept has precision, at the same time giving a critique.

  3. A Criterion-Referenced Viewpoint on Standards/Cutscores in Language Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Fred; Lynch, Brian K.

    "Standard" is distinguished from "criterion" as it is used in criterion-referenced testing. The former is argued to refer to the real-world cutpoint at which a decision is made based on a test's result (e.g., exemption from a special training program). The latter is a skill or set of skills to which a test is referenced.…

  4. Evidence for the Criterion Validity and Clinical Utility of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (N = 299 and 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic…

  5. The New DSM-5 Impairment Criterion: A Challenge to Early Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zander, Eric; Bölte, Sven

    2015-01-01

    The possible effect of the DSM-5 impairment criterion on diagnosing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in young children was examined in 127 children aged 20-47 months with a DSM-IV-TR clinical consensus diagnosis of ASD. The composite score of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) served as a proxy for the DSM-5 impairment criterion. When…

  6. Six Single-Administration Reliability Coefficients for Criterion-Referenced Tests: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Steven M.; Mehrens, William A.

    Four criterion-referenced reliability coefficicents were compared to the Kuder-Richardson estimates and to each other. The Kuder-Richardson formulas 20 and 21, the Livingston, the Subkoviak and two Huynh coefficients were computed for a random sample of 33 criterion-referenced tests. The Subkoviak coefficient yielded the highest mean value;…

  7. 76 FR 15961 - Funding Priorities and Selection Criterion; Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... use rigorous methods to carry out multi-site research conducted under Proposed Priority Two. The..., we propose an additional criterion to address methods for carrying out multi-site research... Funding Priorities and Selection Criterion; Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Spinal...

  8. Criterion-Referenced and Norm-Referenced Assessments: Compatibility and Complementarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lok, Beatrice; McNaught, Carmel; Young, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    The tension between criterion-referenced and norm-referenced assessment is examined in the context of curriculum planning and assessment in outcomes-based approaches to higher education. This paper argues the importance of a criterion-referenced assessment approach once an outcomes-based approach has been adopted. It further discusses the…

  9. Working Memory in Children with Learning Disabilities: Rethinking the Criterion of Discrepancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehler, Claudia; Schuchardt, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    The criterion of discrepancy is used to distinguish children with learning disorders from children with intellectual disabilities. The justification of the criterion of discrepancy for the diagnosis of learning disorders relies on the conviction of fundamental differences between children with learning difficulties with versus without discrepancy…

  10. Computable criterion for partial entanglement in continuous-variable quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, Andreas; Huber, Marcus; Radic, Sasa; Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.

    2011-05-15

    A general and computable criterion for k-(in)separability in continuous multipartite quantum systems is presented. The criterion can be experimentally implemented with a finite and comparatively low number of local observables. We discuss in detail how the detection quality can be optimized.

  11. Assessing Fit and Dimensionality in Least Squares Metric Multidimensional Scaling Using Akaike's Information Criterion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody S.; Davison, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    Akaike's information criterion is suggested as a tool for evaluating fit and dimensionality in metric multidimensional scaling that uses least squares methods of estimation. This criterion combines the least squares loss function with the number of estimated parameters. Numerical examples are presented. The results from analyses of both simulation…

  12. A Controlled Evaluation of the Distress Criterion for Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilo, Carlos M.; White, Marney A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Research has examined various aspects of the validity of the research criteria for binge eating disorder (BED) but has yet to evaluate the utility of Criterion C, "marked distress about binge eating." This study examined the significance of the marked distress criterion for BED using 2 complementary comparison groups. Method:…

  13. Comparing the Pedagogical Benefits of Both Criterion and Teacher Feedback on Japanese EFL Students' Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffernan, Neil; Otoshi, Junko

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a classroom-based inquiry using quantitative methods conducted with Japanese EFL students' writing practice using ETS's Criterion. The purpose of the study is to examine the actual effects of teachers' feedback on students' writing on Criterion. Twelve university students in Japan participated in this study, while completing…

  14. Criterion-Referenced and Norm-Referenced Assessments: Compatibility and Complementarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lok, Beatrice; McNaught, Carmel; Young, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    The tension between criterion-referenced and norm-referenced assessment is examined in the context of curriculum planning and assessment in outcomes-based approaches to higher education. This paper argues the importance of a criterion-referenced assessment approach once an outcomes-based approach has been adopted. It further discusses the…

  15. Transformation of Both Predictor and Criterion Variables to a Simplified Regression Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ping, Chieh-min; Tucker, Ledyard R.

    Prediction for a number of criteria from a set of predictor variables in a system of regression equations is studied with the possibilities of linear transformations applied to both the criterion and predictor variables. Predictive composites representing a battery of predictor variables provide identical estimates of criterion scores as do the…

  16. Diagnostics of the Properties of Steel Articles According to the Criterion of Microhardness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astashchenko, V. I.; Shveev, A. I.; Shveeva, T. V.

    2016-09-01

    On the basis of metallographic monitoring of semimanufactured steel pieces and automobile parts, it is shown that prediction of the properties of articles on the basis of the criterion of microhardness of individual structural constituents and the difference in the values of the criterion represents an effective approach.

  17. Characteristics of Criterion-Referenced Instruments: Implications for Materials Selection for the Learning Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasi, Joyce F.

    Discussed are characteristics of criterion referenced reading tests for use with learning disabled (LD) children, and analyzed are the Basic Educational Skills Inventory (BESI), the Prescriptive Reading Inventory (PRI), and the Cooper-McGuire Diagnostic Work-Analysis Test (CooperMcGuire). Criterion referenced tests are defined; and problems in…

  18. Replacement Air Group Performance as a Criterion for Naval Aviation Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bale, Ronald M.; And Others

    The current criterion for prediction of performance of student naval aviators is the dichotomy of success versus failure in undergraduate flight training. This criterion has enabled the naval air training command to make reasonable estimates of the probability of an applicant or student completing flight training. However, a costly attrition…

  19. Educational Testing in America: What's Right, What's Wrong? A Criterion-Referenced Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popham, W. James

    1993-01-01

    Current successes and failures in U.S. educational measurement are reviewed, focusing on criterion-referenced testing. Pluses and minuses are listed for the following: (1) the move toward authentic assessment; (2) the dominance of criterion-referenced assessment; and (3) item response theory applications. Each area is a double-edged sword. (SLD)

  20. Problems in Criterion-Referenced Measurement. CSE Monograph Series in Evaluation, 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Chester W., Ed.; And Others

    Six essays on technical measurement problems in criterion referenced tests and four essays by psychometricians proposing solutions are presented: (1) "Criterion-Referenced Measurement" and Other Such Terms, by Marvin C. Alkin which is an overview of the first six papers; (2) Selecting Objectives and Generating Test Items for Objectives-Based…

  1. A Controlled Evaluation of the Distress Criterion for Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilo, Carlos M.; White, Marney A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Research has examined various aspects of the validity of the research criteria for binge eating disorder (BED) but has yet to evaluate the utility of Criterion C, "marked distress about binge eating." This study examined the significance of the marked distress criterion for BED using 2 complementary comparison groups. Method:…

  2. A Graph Theoretic Criterion for Determining the Number of Clusters in a Data Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine; Eckes, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    Procedures for determining the number of clusters in a data set are explored. A proposed stopping rule, the GRAPH criterion, is compared to four stopping rules currently in use. The GRAPH criterion's mathematically attractive properties and utility in solving the number-of-clusters problem are demonstrated. (SLD)

  3. Criterion 7: Legal, institutional, and economic framework for forest conservation and sustainable management

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    This criterion focuses on the social context of forests—the laws, policies, administrative rules, and social and economic institutions—that governs forest resource management and use. What society permits or restricts, encourages or discourages all influence the sustainability of forest resources. Criterion 7 captures this by turning attention to all the different...

  4. 10 CFR 140.85 - Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite. 140.85 Section 140.85 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS Extraordinary Nuclear Occurrences § 140.85 Criterion...

  5. The New DSM-5 Impairment Criterion: A Challenge to Early Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zander, Eric; Bölte, Sven

    2015-01-01

    The possible effect of the DSM-5 impairment criterion on diagnosing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in young children was examined in 127 children aged 20-47 months with a DSM-IV-TR clinical consensus diagnosis of ASD. The composite score of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) served as a proxy for the DSM-5 impairment criterion. When…

  6. Toward an Integration of Theory and Method for Criterion-Referenced Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambleton, Ronald K.; Novick, Melvin R.

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to synthesize some of the current thinking in the area of criterion-referenced testing as well as to provide the beginning of an integration of theory and method for such testing. Since criterion-referenced testing is viewed from a decision-theoretic point of view, approaches to reliability and validity…

  7. 46 CFR 170.173 - Criterion for vessels of unusual proportion and form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criterion for vessels of unusual proportion and form. 170.173 Section 170.173 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY STABILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL INSPECTED VESSELS Weather Criteria § 170.173 Criterion...

  8. Developing Performance Objectives and Criterion-Referenced Measures for Performance-Based Instruction in Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery. Div. of Vocational Education.

    Designed to provide guidance in the development of performance objectives and criterion-referenced measures, this booklet is intended for teachers, supervisory personnel, teacher trainers, and writers involved in developing performance-based instruction. To show the relationship of performance objectives and criterion-referenced measures to the…

  9. Systematic Criterion-Referenced Test Development in an English-Language Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumazawa, Takaaki

    2011-01-01

    Although classroom assessment is one of the most frequent practices carried out by teachers in all educational programs, limited research has been conducted to investigate the dependability and validity of criterion-referenced tests (CRTs). The main purpose of this study is to develop a criterion-referenced test for first-year Japanese university…

  10. An Investigation Into the Use of Criterion-Referenced Measurement in Vocational and Technical Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Gerald F.

    The paper investigates and analyses the current state of the art of criterion-referenced measurement (CRM), with a view to determining its use in training and instructional programs. It presents a reveiw of the literature pertaining to the following aspects: a brief history of CRM; a definition and comparison of criterion-referenced and…

  11. A Model for Estimating the Reliability and Validity of Criterion-Referenced Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonston, Leon P.; Randall, Robert S.

    A decision model designed to determine the reliability and validity of criterion referenced measures (CRMs) is presented. General procedures which pertain to the model are discussed as to: Measures of relationship, Reliability, Validity (content, criterion-oriented, and construct validation), and Item Analysis. The decision model is presented in…

  12. An Evaluation of Available Models for Estimating the Reliability and Validity of Criterion Referenced Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas

    New strategies for evaluation criterion referenced measures (CRM) are discussed. These strategies examine the following issues: (1) the use of normed referenced measures (NRM) as CRM and then estimating the reliability and validity of such measures in terms of variance from an arbitrarily specified criterion score, (2) estimation of the…

  13. The Testing of English as a Second/Foreign Language in the Criterion-Referenced Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Fred

    In the assessment of second/foreign language proficiency, we are entering the era of criterion-referenced assessment as language learning is being recognized as an integrative, multifaceted construct. Norm-referenced measurement (NRM) is compared with criterion-referenced measurement (CRM). CRM is characterized by attention to skill, whereas NRM…

  14. Evidence for the Criterion Validity and Clinical Utility of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (N = 299 and 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic…

  15. A Validity-Based Model for the Evaluation of a Criterion-Referenced Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schattgen, Sharon; And Others

    This paper describes a model for the evaluation and approval of a test battery for compliance with a midwestern state law mandating criterion-referenced testing of specific objectives. Standards specifying that the test scores must demonstrate content validity and criterion-related validity form the foundation of the model. The model also…

  16. Evaluation of Regression Models of Balance Calibration Data Using an Empirical Criterion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, Norbert; Volden, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    An empirical criterion for assessing the significance of individual terms of regression models of wind tunnel strain gage balance outputs is evaluated. The criterion is based on the percent contribution of a regression model term. It considers a term to be significant if its percent contribution exceeds the empirical threshold of 0.05%. The criterion has the advantage that it can easily be computed using the regression coefficients of the gage outputs and the load capacities of the balance. First, a definition of the empirical criterion is provided. Then, it is compared with an alternate statistical criterion that is widely used in regression analysis. Finally, calibration data sets from a variety of balances are used to illustrate the connection between the empirical and the statistical criterion. A review of these results indicated that the empirical criterion seems to be suitable for a crude assessment of the significance of a regression model term as the boundary between a significant and an insignificant term cannot be defined very well. Therefore, regression model term reduction should only be performed by using the more universally applicable statistical criterion.

  17. Working Memory in Children with Learning Disabilities: Rethinking the Criterion of Discrepancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehler, Claudia; Schuchardt, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    The criterion of discrepancy is used to distinguish children with learning disorders from children with intellectual disabilities. The justification of the criterion of discrepancy for the diagnosis of learning disorders relies on the conviction of fundamental differences between children with learning difficulties with versus without discrepancy…

  18. The New DSM-5 Impairment Criterion: A Challenge to Early Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Zander, Eric; Bölte, Sven

    2015-11-01

    The possible effect of the DSM-5 impairment criterion on diagnosing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in young children was examined in 127 children aged 20-47 months with a DSM-IV-TR clinical consensus diagnosis of ASD. The composite score of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) served as a proxy for the DSM-5 impairment criterion. When applying a mild level of impairment (cutoff: 1 SD below the mean on the VABS), 88 % of the cases fulfilled the impairment criterion. Sixty-nine percent fulfilled the impairment criterion at a moderate level (1.5 SDs) and 33 % at a severe level (2 SDs). Findings indicate that a strict application of the new DSM-5 impairment criterion might compromise early diagnosis of ASD.

  19. Generalized Majority Logic Criterion to Analyze the Statistical Strength of S-Boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Iqtadar; Shah, Tariq; Gondal, Muhammad Asif; Mahmood, Hasan

    2012-05-01

    The majority logic criterion is applicable in the evaluation process of substitution boxes used in the advanced encryption standard (AES). The performance of modified or advanced substitution boxes is predicted by processing the results of statistical analysis by the majority logic criteria. In this paper, we use the majority logic criteria to analyze some popular and prevailing substitution boxes used in encryption processes. In particular, the majority logic criterion is applied to AES, affine power affine (APA), Gray, Lui J, residue prime, S8 AES, Skipjack, and Xyi substitution boxes. The majority logic criterion is further extended into a generalized majority logic criterion which has a broader spectrum of analyzing the effectiveness of substitution boxes in image encryption applications. The integral components of the statistical analyses used for the generalized majority logic criterion are derived from results of entropy analysis, contrast analysis, correlation analysis, homogeneity analysis, energy analysis, and mean of absolute deviation (MAD) analysis.

  20. Laboratory study on new cathodic protection criterion proposed for prestressed concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J. Jr.; Funahashi, M.

    1994-12-31

    Bazzoni and Lazzari have proposed a new criterion for the cathodic protection of prestressed concrete. The criterion is based on the use of mixed metal-oxide-activated anodes which exhibit a stable polarized potential over a wide range of current densities when embedded in concrete. The criterion proposes that a ``safe`` anode/structure feeding voltage can be calculated that will both provide corrosion control in the area covered by the anode system and will prevent the steel reinforcement potential reaching values where hydrogen ions can be reduced to hydrogen and the consequent possibility of embrittlement of high strength prestressing members. This paper describes a laboratory study made to examine the validity of the proposed criterion. The results of the study appear to support criterion as both safe and effective for new prestressed concrete structures and possibly for existing structures as well.