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Sample records for bright greenish yellow

  1. Hyperspectral bright greenish-yellow fluorescence (BGYF) imaging of aflatoxin contaminated corn kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Haibo; Hruska, Zuzana; Brown, Robert L.; Cleveland, Thomas E.

    2006-10-01

    Aflatoxin contaminated corn poses a serious threat to both domestic animals and humans, because of its carcinogenic properties. Traditionally, corn kernels have been examined for evidence of bright greenish-yellow fluorescence (BGYF), which is an indication of possible presence of Aspergillus flavus, one of the aflatoxin producing strains of fungi, when illuminated with a high-intensity ultra-violet light. The BGYF test is typically the first step that leads to an in-depth chemical analysis for possible aflatoxin contamination. The objective of the present study was to analyze hyperspectral BGYF response of corn kernels under UVA excitation. The target corn samples were collected from a commercial corn field in 2005 and showed abundant BGYF response. The BGYF positive kernels were manually picked out and imaged under a visible near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system under UV radiation with excitation wavelength centered at 365 nm. Initial results exhibited strong emission spectra with peaks centered from 500 nm to 515 nm wavelength range for BGYF positive kernels. Aflatoxin levels on the BGYF positive and negative corn kernels (used as control) were measured subsequently with high performance liquid chromatography. The mean aflatoxin concentration level was 5114 ppb for the BGYF positive and undetectable for the normal kernels.

  2. Microfluidic White Organic Light-Emitting Diode Based on Integrated Patterns of Greenish-Blue and Yellow Solvent-Free Liquid Emitters

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Naofumi; Kasahara, Takashi; Edura, Tomohiko; Oshima, Juro; Ishimatsu, Ryoichi; Tsuwaki, Miho; Imato, Toshihiko; Shoji, Shuichi; Mizuno, Jun

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated a novel microfluidic white organic light-emitting diode (microfluidic WOLED) based on integrated sub-100-μm-wide microchannels. Single-μm-thick SU-8-based microchannels, which were sandwiched between indium tin oxide (ITO) anode and cathode pairs, were fabricated by photolithography and heterogeneous bonding technologies. 1-Pyrenebutyric acid 2-ethylhexyl ester (PLQ) was used as a solvent-free greenish-blue liquid emitter, while 2,8-di-tert-butyl-5,11-bis(4-tert-butylphenyl)-6,12-diphenyltetracene (TBRb)-doped PLQ was applied as a yellow liquid emitter. In order to form the liquid white light-emitting layer, the greenish-blue and yellow liquid emitters were alternately injected into the integrated microchannels. The fabricated electro-microfluidic device successfully exhibited white electroluminescence (EL) emission via simultaneous greenish-blue and yellow emissions under an applied voltage of 100 V. A white emission with Commission Internationale de l’Declairage (CIE) color coordinates of (0.40, 0.42) was also obtained; the emission corresponds to warm-white light. The proposed device has potential applications in subpixels of liquid-based microdisplays and for lighting. PMID:26439164

  3. Microfluidic White Organic Light-Emitting Diode Based on Integrated Patterns of Greenish-Blue and Yellow Solvent-Free Liquid Emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Naofumi; Kasahara, Takashi; Edura, Tomohiko; Oshima, Juro; Ishimatsu, Ryoichi; Tsuwaki, Miho; Imato, Toshihiko; Shoji, Shuichi; Mizuno, Jun

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrated a novel microfluidic white organic light-emitting diode (microfluidic WOLED) based on integrated sub-100-μm-wide microchannels. Single-μm-thick SU-8-based microchannels, which were sandwiched between indium tin oxide (ITO) anode and cathode pairs, were fabricated by photolithography and heterogeneous bonding technologies. 1-Pyrenebutyric acid 2-ethylhexyl ester (PLQ) was used as a solvent-free greenish-blue liquid emitter, while 2,8-di-tert-butyl-5,11-bis(4-tert-butylphenyl)-6,12-diphenyltetracene (TBRb)-doped PLQ was applied as a yellow liquid emitter. In order to form the liquid white light-emitting layer, the greenish-blue and yellow liquid emitters were alternately injected into the integrated microchannels. The fabricated electro-microfluidic device successfully exhibited white electroluminescence (EL) emission via simultaneous greenish-blue and yellow emissions under an applied voltage of 100 V. A white emission with Commission Internationale de l’Declairage (CIE) color coordinates of (0.40, 0.42) was also obtained; the emission corresponds to warm-white light. The proposed device has potential applications in subpixels of liquid-based microdisplays and for lighting.

  4. One-pot synthesis of highly greenish-yellow fluorescent nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots for pyrophosphate sensing via competitive coordination with Eu(3+) ions.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liping; Song, Xinhong; Chen, Yiying; Rong, Mingcong; Zhao, Tingting; Jiang, Yaqi; Wang, Yiru; Chen, Xi

    2015-10-01

    Highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) with greenish-yellow emission and quantum yield of 13.2% have been synthesized via a one-pot hydrothermal method. The obtained N-GQDs displayed excellent optical properties, high photostability and resistance to strong ion strength. Based on the higher affinity of pyrophosphate (PPi) than carboxyl and amido groups on the surface of the N-GQDs to Eu(3+), a Eu(3+)-modulated N-GQD off-on fluorescent probe for PPi detection was constructed with a detection limit of 0.074 μM. The detection process was simple in design, easy to operate, and showed a highly selective response to PPi in the presence of co-existing anions. This work widens the applications of N-GQDs with versatile functionality and reactivity in clinical diagnostics and as biosensors.

  5. Yellow steam and electrical pipes across from Bright Angel Lodge. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Yellow steam and electrical pipes across from Bright Angel Lodge. Note control valve to right of control box, view E. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  6. Effect of ATP Sulfurylase Overexpression in Bright Yellow 2 Tobacco Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Hatzfeld, Yves; Cathala, Nicole; Grignon, Claude; Davidian, Jean-Claude

    1998-01-01

    To determine if the ATP sulfurylase reaction is a regulatory step for the SO42−-assimilation pathway in plants, an Arabidopsis thaliana ATP sulfurylase cDNA, APS2, was fused to the 35S promoter of the cauliflower mosaic virus and introduced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation into isolated Bright Yellow 2 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells. The ATP sulfurylase activity in transgenic cells was 8-fold that in control cells, and was correlated with the expression of a specific polypeptide revealed by western analysis using an anti-ATP sulfurylase antibody. The molecular mass of this polypeptide agreed with that for the overexpressed mature protein. ATP sulfurylase overexpression had no effect on [35S]SO42− influx or ATP sulfurylase activity regulation by S availability, except that ATP sulfurylase activity variations in response to S starvation in transgenic cells were 8 times higher than in the wild type. There were also no differences in cell growth or sensitivity to SeO42− (a toxic SO42− analog) between transgenic and wild-type cells. We propose that in Bright Yellow 2 tobacco cells, the ATP sulfurylase derepression by S deficiency may involve a posttranscriptional mechanism, and that the ATP sulfurylase abundance is not limiting for cell metabolism. PMID:9536047

  7. 7 CFR 29.1025 - Greenish (V).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Greenish (V). 29.1025 Section 29.1025 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... greenish tinge or a pale green color affecting 20 percent or more of its surface may be described...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3030 - Greenish (V).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Greenish (V). 29.3030 Section 29.3030 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... pale green color affecting 20 percent or more of its surface may be described as greenish. (See Rule 17.)...

  9. 7 CFR 29.2525 - Greenish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Greenish. 29.2525 Section 29.2525 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-tinged tobacco. Any leaf which has a greenish tinge or a pale green color affecting 20 percent or more...

  10. Bright-Yellow-Emissive N-Doped Carbon Dots: Preparation, Cellular Imaging, and Bifunctional Sensing.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kai; Sun, Shan; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Yuhui; Cai, Congzhong; Lin, Hengwei

    2015-10-21

    Fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) have attracted much attention in recent years because of their superior optical and chemical properties, thus demonstrating many potential applications. However, the previously reported CDs mostly show strong emission only in the blue-light region, and the long-wavelength (i.e., yellow- to red-light) emissions are usually very weak. Such a drawback restricts their further applications, particularly in the biology-relevant fields. Herein, a rare example of N-doped CDs that emit bright-yellow fluorescence (i.e., y-CDs) is reported using 1,2,4-triaminobenzene as carbon precursor. The as-prepared y-CDs exhibit not only respectable emission quantum yield and highly optical stabilities but superior biocompatibility and biolabeling potentials. In addition, the y-CDs are found to show an interesting "ON-OFF-ON" three-state emission with the stepwise addition of Ag(+) and cysteine (Cys), indicating potential applications as a bifunctional sensing platform. Thanks to the highly intense emission of y-CDs, the gradual quenching and restoration of their fluorescence with the addition of Ag(+) and further Cys could also be observed with the naked eye. More importantly, the ensemble of the y-CDs and Ag(+) demonstrates practicability for the highly selective and sensitive detection of Cys in human plasma samples with satisfactory results. PMID:26426200

  11. Acid-growth response and alpha-expansins in suspension cultures of bright yellow 2 tobacco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, B. M.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    The possibility that Bright Yellow 2 (BY2) tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) suspension-cultured cells possess an expansin-mediated acid-growth mechanism was examined by multiple approaches. BY2 cells grew three times faster upon treatment with fusicoccin, which induces an acidification of the cell wall. Exogenous expansins likewise stimulated BY2 cell growth 3-fold. Protein extracted from BY2 cell walls possessed the expansin-like ability to induce extension of isolated walls. In western-blot analysis of BY2 wall protein, one band of 29 kD was recognized by anti-expansin antibody. Six different classes of alpha-expansin mRNA were identified in a BY2 cDNA library. Northern-blot analysis indicated moderate to low abundance of multiple alpha-expansin mRNAs in BY2 cells. From these results we conclude that BY2 suspension-cultured cells have the necessary components for expansin-mediated cell wall enlargement.

  12. Complete nucleotide sequences of a new bipartite begomovirus from Malvastrum sp. plants with bright yellow mosaic symptoms in South Texas.

    PubMed

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Villegas, Cecilia; Gregg, Lori; Murray, K Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Two isolates of a novel bipartite begomovirus, tentatively named malvastrum bright yellow mosaic virus (MaBYMV), were molecularly characterized from naturally infected plants of the genus Malvastrum showing bright yellow mosaic disease symptoms in South Texas. Six complete DNA-A and five DNA-B genome sequences of MaBYMV obtained from the isolates ranged in length from 2,608 to 2,609 nucleotides (nt) and 2,578 to 2,605 nt, respectively. Both genome segments shared a 178- to 180-nt common region. In pairwise comparisons, the complete DNA-A and DNA-B sequences of MaBYMV were most similar (87-88 % and 79-81 % identity, respectively) and phylogenetically related to the corresponding sequences of sida mosaic Sinaloa virus-[MX-Gua-06]. Further analysis revealed that MaBYMV is a putative recombinant virus, thus supporting the notion that malvaceous hosts may be influencing the evolution of several begomoviruses. The design of new diagnostic primers enabled the detection of MaBYMV in cohorts of Bemisia tabaci collected from symptomatic Malvastrum sp. plants, thus implicating whiteflies as potential vectors of the virus. PMID:27016928

  13. Cross-talk between the cytosolic mevalonate and the plastidial methylerythritol phosphate pathways in tobacco bright yellow-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Hemmerlin, Andréa; Hoeffler, Jean-François; Meyer, Odile; Tritsch, Denis; Kagan, Isabelle A; Grosdemange-Billiard, Catherine; Rohmer, Michel; Bach, Thomas J

    2003-07-18

    In plants, two pathways are utilized for the synthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate, the universal precursor for isoprenoid biosynthesis. The key enzyme of the cytoplasmic mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway is 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGR). Treatment of Tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (TBY-2) cells by the HMGR-specific inhibitor mevinolin led to growth reduction and induction of apparent HMGR activity, in parallel to an increase in protein representing two HMGR isozymes. Maximum induction was observed at 24 h. 1-Deoxy-d-xylulose (DX), the dephosphorylated first precursor of the plastidial 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway, complemented growth inhibition by mevinolin in the low millimolar concentration range. Furthermore, DX partially re-established feedback repression of mevinolin-induced HMGR activity. Incorporation studies with [1,1,1,4-2H4]DX showed that sterols, normally derived from MVA, in the presence of mevinolin are synthesized via the MEP pathway. Fosmidomycin, an inhibitor of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase, the second enzyme of the MEP pathway, was utilized to study the reverse complementation. Growth inhibition by fosmidomycin of TBY-2 cells could be partially overcome by MVA. Chemical complementation was further substantiated by incorporation of [2-13C]MVA into plastoquinone, representative of plastidial isoprenoids. Best rates of incorporation of exogenous stably labeled precursors were observed in the presence of both inhibitors, thereby avoiding internal isotope dilution.

  14. PIXE analysis of Chinese ancient greenish white porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Lin; Ding, Xun-liang; Feng, Song-lin; Cheng, Huang-sheng; Zhang, Wen-Jiang; Fan, Chang-Sheng

    2006-03-01

    This paper reports the results about the PIXE analysis of major, minor and trace elements of Chinese ancient greenish white porcelain and blue-and-white porcelain produced in Hutian Kiln (Jingdezhen district, Jiangxi province) during 10th-14th centuries. The porcelain body and greenish white glaze from northern Song (AD 960), southern Song (AD 1037-1276), early Yuan (AD 1279-1320), later Yuan (AD 1320-1368) were investigated together with white-and-blue glaze from Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644). The obtained data were further analyzed by factor analysis.

  15. Differential responses to high- and low-dose ultraviolet-B stress in tobacco Bright Yellow-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Shinya; Kojo, Kei H.; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Endo, Masaki; Toki, Seiichi; Isoda, Hiroko; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV)-B irradiation leads to DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, growth inhibition, and cell death. To evaluate the UV-B stress–induced changes in plant cells, we developed a model system based on tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells. Both low-dose UV-B (low UV-B: 740 J m−2) and high-dose UV-B (high UV-B: 2960 J m−2) inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell death; these effects were more pronounced at high UV-B. Flow cytometry showed cell cycle arrest within 1 day after UV-B irradiation; neither low- nor high-UV-B–irradiated cells entered mitosis within 12 h. Cell cycle progression was gradually restored in low-UV-B–irradiated cells but not in high-UV-B–irradiated cells. UV-A irradiation, which activates cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) photolyase, reduced inhibition of cell proliferation by low but not high UV-B and suppressed high-UV-B–induced cell death. UV-B induced CPD formation in a dose-dependent manner. The amounts of CPDs decreased gradually within 3 days in low-UV-B–irradiated cells, but remained elevated after 3 days in high-UV-B–irradiated cells. Low UV-B slightly increased the number of DNA single-strand breaks detected by the comet assay at 1 day after irradiation, and then decreased at 2 and 3 days after irradiation. High UV-B increased DNA fragmentation detected by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay 1 and 3 days after irradiation. Caffeine, an inhibitor of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) checkpoint kinases, reduced the rate of cell death in high-UV-B–irradiated cells. Our data suggest that low-UV-B–induced CPDs and/or DNA strand-breaks inhibit DNA replication and proliferation of BY-2 cells, whereas larger contents of high-UV-B–induced CPDs and/or DNA strand-breaks lead to cell death. PMID:25954287

  16. Highly bright yellow-green-emitting CuInS₂ colloidal quantum dots with core/shell/shell architecture for white light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Hyun; Hong, Ara; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Yang, Heesun; Lee, Kwangyeol; Jang, Ho Seong

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we report bright yellow-green-emitting CuInS2 (CIS)-based quantum dots (QDs) and two-band white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using them. To achieve high quantum efficiency (QE) of yellow-green-emitting CIS QDs, core/shell/shell strategy was introduced to high quality CIS cores (QE = 31.7%) synthesized by using metal-oleate precursors and 1-dodecanethiol. The CIS/ZnS/ZnS QDs showed a high QE of 80.0% and a peak wavelength of 559 nm under the excitation of 450 nm, which is well matched with dominant wavelength of blue LEDs. The formation of core/shell/shell structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy analyses. Intense and broad yellow-green emission band of the CIS/ZnS/ZnS is beneficial for bright two-band white light. When the CIS/ZnS/ZnS was coated on the blue LEDs, the fabricated white LED showed bright natural white light (luminous efficacy (η(L)) = 80.3 lm·W(-1), color rendering index (R(a)) = 73, correlated color temperature (T(c)) = 6140 K). The QD-white LED package showed a high light conversion efficiency of 72.6%. In addition, the CIS/ZnS/ZnS-converted white LED showed relatively stable white light against the variation of forward bias currents of 20-150 mA [color coordinates (x, y) = (0.3320-0.3207, 0.2997-0.2867), R(a) = 70-72, T(c) = 5497-6375 K]. PMID:25757746

  17. Farnesol-Induced Cell Death and Stimulation of 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A Reductase Activity in Tobacco cv Bright Yellow-2 Cells12

    PubMed Central

    Hemmerlin, Andréa; Bach, Thomas J.

    2000-01-01

    Growth inhibition of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Bright Yellow-2) cells by mevinolin, a specific inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) could be partially overcome by the addition of farnesol. However, farnesol alone inhibited cell division and growth as measured by determination of fresh weight increase. When 7-d-old tobacco cv Bright Yellow-2 cells were diluted 40-fold into fresh culture, the cells exhibited a dose-dependent sensitivity to farnesol, with 25 μm sufficient to cause 100% cell death, as measured by different staining techniques, cytometry, and monitoring of fragmentation of genomic DNA. Cells were less sensitive to the effects of farnesol when diluted only 4-fold. Farnesol was absorbed by the cells, as examined by [1-3H]farnesol uptake, with a greater relative enrichment by the more diluted cells. Both mevinolin and farnesol treatments stimulated apparent HMGR activity. The stimulation by farnesol was also reflected in corresponding changes in the steady-state levels of HMGR mRNA and enzyme protein with respect to HMGR gene expression and enzyme protein accumulation. PMID:10938345

  18. Production of Reactive Oxygen Species, Alteration of Cytosolic Ascorbate Peroxidase, and Impairment of Mitochondrial Metabolism Are Early Events in Heat Shock-Induced Programmed Cell Death in Tobacco Bright-Yellow 2 Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Vacca, Rosa Anna; de Pinto, Maria Concetta; Valenti, Daniela; Passarella, Salvatore; Marra, Ersilia; De Gara, Laura

    2004-01-01

    To gain some insight into the mechanisms by which plant cells die as a result of abiotic stress, we exposed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright-Yellow 2 cells to heat shock and investigated cell survival as a function of time after heat shock induction. Heat treatment at 55°C triggered processes leading to programmed cell death (PCD) that was complete after 72 h. In the early phase, cells undergoing PCD showed an immediate burst in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide (O2·-) anion production. Consistently, death was prevented by the antioxidants ascorbate (ASC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Actinomycin D and cycloheximide, inhibitors of transcription and translation, respectively, also prevented cell death, but with a lower efficiency. Induction of PCD resulted in gradual oxidation of endogenous ASC; this was accompanied by a decrease in both the amount and the specific activity of the cytosolic ASC peroxidase (cAPX). A reduction in cAPX gene expression was also found in the late PCD phase. Moreover, changes of cAPX kinetic properties were found in PCD cells. Production of ROS in PCD cells was accompanied by early inhibition of glucose (Glc) oxidation, with a strong impairment of mitochondrial function as shown by an increase in cellular NAD(P)H fluorescence, and by failure of mitochondria isolated from cells undergoing PCD to generate membrane potential and to oxidize succinate in a manner controlled by ADP. Thus, we propose that in the early phase of tobacco Bright-Yellow 2 cell PCD, ROS production occurs, perhaps because of damage of the cell antioxidant system, with impairment of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:15020761

  19. Cytochrome c Is Released in a Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Manner and Is Degraded via Caspase-Like Proteases in Tobacco Bright-Yellow 2 Cells en Route to Heat Shock-Induced Cell Death1

    PubMed Central

    Vacca, Rosa Anna; Valenti, Daniela; Bobba, Antonella; Merafina, Riccardo Sandro; Passarella, Salvatore; Marra, Ersilia

    2006-01-01

    To gain some insight into the mechanism of plant programmed cell death, certain features of cytochrome c (cyt c) release were investigated in heat-shocked tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright-Yellow 2 cells in the 2- to 6-h time range. We found that 2 h after heat shock, cyt c is released from intact mitochondria into the cytoplasm as a functionally active protein. Such a release did not occur in the presence of superoxide anion dismutase and catalase, thus showing that it depends on reactive oxygen species (ROS). Interestingly, ROS production due to xanthine plus xanthine oxidase results in cyt c release in sister control cultures. Maximal cyt c release was found 2 h after heat shock; later, activation of caspase-3-like protease was found to increase with time. Activation of this protease did not occur in the presence of ROS scavenger enzymes. The released cyt c was found to be progressively degraded in a manner prevented by either the broad-range caspase inhibitor (zVAD-fmk) or the specific inhibitor of caspase-3 (AC-DEVD-CHO), which have no effect on cyt c release. In the presence of these inhibitors, a significant increase in survival of the cells undergoing programmed cell death was found. We conclude that ROS can trigger release of cyt c, but do not cause cell death, which requires caspase-like activation. PMID:16531480

  20. The darkening of zinc yellow: XANES speciation of chromium in artist;s paints after light and chemical exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Zanella, Luciana; Casadio, Francesca; Gray, Kimberly A.; Warta, Richard; Ma, Qing; Gaillard, Jean-François

    2012-03-14

    The color darkening of selected brushstrokes of the masterpiece A Sunday on La Grande Jatte - 1884 (by Georges Seurat) has been attributed to the alteration of the chromate pigment zinc yellow. The pigment originally displays a bright greenish-yellow color but may undergo, after aging, darkening to a dull, ocher tone. We used XANES to probe the oxidation state of Cr on paint reconstructions, and show that color changes are associated with the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Paint mixtures containing the pigment and linseed oil to mimic mixtures used in La Grande Jatte were subjected to artificial aging in the presence of light, SO{sub 2}, and variable air humidity - 50 and 90% relative humidity. High relative humidity led to the largest degree of Cr(VI) reduction whereas low relative humidity promoted light-induced alterations. These results are corroborated by visible reflectance measurements on the same laboratory samples and contribute to a better understanding of the chemical reactivity of chromate pigments, which are present in many historical works of art.

  1. Highly efficient greenish-blue platinum-based phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes on a high triplet energy platform

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y. L. Gong, S. White, R.; Lu, Z. H.; Wang, X.; Wang, S.; Yang, C.

    2014-04-28

    We have demonstrated high-efficiency greenish-blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) based on a dimesitylboryl-functionalized C^N chelate Pt(II) phosphor, Pt(m-Bptrz)(t-Bu-pytrz-Me). Using a high triplet energy platform and optimized double emissive zone device architecture results in greenish-blue PHOLEDs that exhibit an external quantum efficiency of 24.0% and a power efficiency of 55.8 lm/W. This record high performance is comparable with that of the state-of-the-art Ir-based sky-blue organic light-emitting diodes.

  2. Highly efficient greenish-blue platinum-based phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes on a high triplet energy platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Y. L.; Gong, S.; Wang, X.; White, R.; Yang, C.; Wang, S.; Lu, Z. H.

    2014-04-01

    We have demonstrated high-efficiency greenish-blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) based on a dimesitylboryl-functionalized C^N chelate Pt(II) phosphor, Pt(m-Bptrz)(t-Bu-pytrz-Me). Using a high triplet energy platform and optimized double emissive zone device architecture results in greenish-blue PHOLEDs that exhibit an external quantum efficiency of 24.0% and a power efficiency of 55.8 lm/W. This record high performance is comparable with that of the state-of-the-art Ir-based sky-blue organic light-emitting diodes.

  3. Yellow fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... against yellow fever. Some countries require proof of vaccination to gain entry. If you will be traveling to an area where yellow fever is common: Sleep in screened housing Use mosquito repellents Wear ...

  4. Yellow Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... tropical and subtropical areas in South America and Africa. The virus is transmitted to people by the ... fever Maps of Yellow fever endemic areas in Africa and South America Yellow fever vaccination Prevention Vaccine ...

  5. Laser-induced Greenish-Blue Photoluminescence of Mesoporous Silicon Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yan-Ru; Zheng, Minrui; Bai, Fan; Liu, Junjun; Tok, Eng-Soon; Huang, Zhifeng; Sow, Chorng-Haur

    2014-05-01

    Solid silicon nanowires and their luminescent properties have been widely studied, but lesser is known about the optical properties of mesoporous silicon nanowires (mp-SiNWs). In this work, we present a facile method to generate greenish-blue photoluminescence (GB-PL) by fast scanning a focused green laser beam (wavelength of 532 nm) on a close-packed array of mp-SiNWs to carry out photo-induced chemical modification. The threshold of laser power is 5 mW to excite the GB-PL, whose intensity increases with laser power in the range of 5-105 mW. The quenching of GB-PL comes to occur beyond 105 mW. The in-vacuum annealing effectively excites the GB-PL in the pristine mp-SiNWs and enhances the GB-PL of the laser-modified mp-SiNWs. A complex model of the laser-induced surface modification is proposed to account for the laser-power and post-annealing effect. Moreover, the fast scanning of focused laser beam enables us to locally tailor mp-SiNWs en route to a wide variety of micropatterns with different optical functionality, and we demonstrate the feasibility in the application of creating hidden images.

  6. Laser-induced greenish-blue photoluminescence of mesoporous silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yan-Ru; Zheng, Minrui; Bai, Fan; Liu, Junjun; Tok, Eng-Soon; Huang, Zhifeng; Sow, Chorng-Haur

    2014-05-13

    Solid silicon nanowires and their luminescent properties have been widely studied, but lesser is known about the optical properties of mesoporous silicon nanowires (mp-SiNWs). In this work, we present a facile method to generate greenish-blue photoluminescence (GB-PL) by fast scanning a focused green laser beam (wavelength of 532 nm) on a close-packed array of mp-SiNWs to carry out photo-induced chemical modification. The threshold of laser power is 5 mW to excite the GB-PL, whose intensity increases with laser power in the range of 5-105 mW. The quenching of GB-PL comes to occur beyond 105 mW. The in-vacuum annealing effectively excites the GB-PL in the pristine mp-SiNWs and enhances the GB-PL of the laser-modified mp-SiNWs. A complex model of the laser-induced surface modification is proposed to account for the laser-power and post-annealing effect. Moreover, the fast scanning of focused laser beam enables us to locally tailor mp-SiNWs en route to a wide variety of micropatterns with different optical functionality, and we demonstrate the feasibility in the application of creating hidden images.

  7. Yellow fever.

    PubMed

    Monath, Thomas P; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

    2015-03-01

    Yellow fever, a mosquito-borne flavivirus disease occurs in tropical areas of South America and Africa. It is a disease of major historical importance, but remains a threat to travelers to and residents of endemic areas despite the availability of an effective vaccine for nearly 70 years. An important aspect is the receptivity of many non-endemic areas to introduction and spread of yellow fever. This paper reviews the clinical aspects, pathogenesis, and epidemiology of yellow fever, with an emphasis on recent changes in the distribution and incidence of the disease. Recent knowledge about yellow fever 17D vaccine mechanism of action and safety are discussed.

  8. [Yellow fever].

    PubMed

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Fiorino, Sirio

    2007-06-01

    After the discovery of the New World, yellow fever proved to be an important risk factor of morbidity and mortality for Caribbean populations. In the following centuries epidemic risk, expanded by sea trade and travel, progressively reached the settlements in North America and Brazil as well as the Atlantic seaboard of tropical and equatorial Africa. In the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth century epidemics of yellow fever were reported in some coastal towns in the Iberian peninsula, French coast, Great Britain and Italy, where, in 1804 at Leghorn, only one epidemic was documented. Prevention and control programs against yellow fever, developed at the beginning of the twentieth century in Cuba and in Panama, were a major breakthrough in understanding definitively its aetiology and pathogenesis. Subsequently, further advances in knowledge of yellow fever epidemiology were obtained when French scientists, working in West and Central Africa, showed that monkeys were major hosts of the yellow fever virus (the wild yellow fever virus), besides man. In addition, advances in research, contributing to the development of vaccines against the yellow fever virus in the first half of the nineteenth century, are reported in this paper. PMID:17599002

  9. Rainbow brightness.

    PubMed

    Gedzelman, S D

    1982-08-15

    A theory for the brightness of rainbows is presented. The light reaching the observer consists of a beam of singly scattered sunlight, originating from the directly illuminated portion of a rainswath, which, in turn, has suffered depletion by scattering or absorption in its path through the atmosphere. The model incorporates the relevant features of cloud geometry and solar position in relation to the observer appropriate to rainbows. The model helps explain why the bottom (or near-horizon portion) of the rainbow tends to be both brighter and redder than the top (or horizontal portion furthest above the ground) when the sun is near the horizon. The greater brightness of the bottom of the bow derives principally from the greater length of the directly illuminated part of the rainswath near the horizon, while the increased redness of the bow's bottom is due to the severe depletion of the short-wavelength contribution to the rainbow beam in its passage through the atmosphere. PMID:20396168

  10. Yellow nails (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Yellow nails are seen in the 'yellow nail syndrome' in which there is thickening and yellow to yellow-green discoloration of all nails. Lymphedema, especially of the ankles, and compromised respiration ...

  11. Yellow nail syndrome (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Yellow nail syndrome is characterized by yellow nails that lack a cuticle, grow slowly, and are loose or detached (onycholysis). Yellow nail syndrome is most commonly associated with lung disorders, and ...

  12. A strongly greenish-blue-emitting Cu4Cl4 cluster with an efficient spin-orbit coupling (SOC): fast phosphorescence versus thermally activated delayed fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu-Lin; Yu, Rongmin; Wu, Xiao-Yuan; Liang, Dong; Jia, Ji-Hui; Lu, Can-Zhong

    2016-05-01

    In this communication, we report a new greenish-blue-emitting Cu(i) complex, Cu4Cl4(NP)2, a with high photoluminescence quantum yield of 90% and a short decay time of 9.9 μs. Due to the strong SOC combined with the small activation energy ΔEST, the emission at room temperature consists of approximately equivalent fast phosphorescence and TADF. PMID:27086679

  13. Alcian yellow as a fluorescent dye.

    PubMed

    Stockert, J C; Del Castillo, P; Armas-Portela, R

    1989-01-01

    Fluorescence characteristics of the cationic dye Alcian yellow are described. Under ultraviolet excitation, the chromatin and basophilic cytoplasm from cell smears show a blue-white emission, which depends on the presence of nucleic acids. Glycosaminoglycans-containing structures (mast cell granules, cartilage matrix) appear brightly fluorescent. The excitation at 320 less than or equal to lambda less than or equal to 340 nm is the most suitable, and the emission wavelength shows dependence on the dye concentration.

  14. BrightFocus Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alzheimer’s Disease Research Program Macular Degeneration Research Program National Glaucoma Research Program Molecular Neurodegeneration ... Foundation BrightFocus Foundation 22512 Gateway Center Drive Clarksburg, MD ...

  15. Brightness of Moonlight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garstang, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    Measurement of the brightness of moonlight by comparison with lamp-light from a low wattage light bulb is an elementary project in astronomy which illustrates scientific principles for the freshman level. Two methods used for the comparison (shadow brightness method and grease spot method) are explained, with suggestions and expected answers. (DH)

  16. Cantharellus chicagoensis sp. nov. is supported by molecular and morphological analysis as a new yellow chanterelle in midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Leacock, Patrick R; Riddell, Jill; Wilson, Andrew W; Zhang, Rui; Ning, Chen; Mueller, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    Recent molecular systematic studies of Cantharellus cibarius sensu lato have revealed previously unknown species in different regions of North America. This study investigates yellow chanterelles in the Midwest using phylogenetic analysis of three DNA regions: nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and 28S sequences and translation elongation factor 1α gene (EF1α). This analysis reveals a locally common taxon Cantharellus chicagoensis sp. nov. as distinct from sympatric species present in northeastern Illinois, northwestern Indiana and Wisconsin. This chanterelle features a pileus that often has a greenish yellow margin when immature, a squamulose disk when mature, a yellow spore print and the absence of a fragrant odor. Multiple Cantharellus specimens group with C. flavus and C. phasmatis, expanding their known range, and others with C. roseocanus Our observations highlight the diversity of Cantharellus in midwestern USA and further document the need for additional systematic focus on the region's fungi. PMID:27153882

  17. Simultaneous brightness contrast of foraging Papilio butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Takahashi, Yuki; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the sense of brightness in the foraging Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus. We presented two red discs of different intensity on a grey background to butterflies, and trained them to select one of the discs. They were successfully trained to select either a high intensity or a low intensity disc. The trained butterflies were tested on their ability to perceive brightness in two different protocols: (i) two orange discs of different intensity presented on the same intensity grey background and (ii) two orange discs of the same intensity separately presented on a grey background that was either higher or lower in intensity than the training background. The butterflies trained to high intensity red selected the orange disc of high intensity in protocol 1, and the disc on the background of low intensity grey in protocol 2. We obtained similar results in another set of experiments with purple discs instead of orange discs. The choices of the butterflies trained to low intensity red were opposite to those just described. Taken together, we conclude that Papilio has the ability to learn brightness and darkness of targets independent of colour, and that they have the so-called simultaneous brightness contrast. PMID:22179808

  18. Star Light, Star Bright.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iadevaia, David G.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a technique for obtaining a rough measure of the brightness among different stars. Materials needed include a standard 35-mm camera, a plastic ruler, and a photo enlarger. Although a telescope can be used, it is not essential. (JN)

  19. Flower-like morphology of blue and greenish-gray ZnCoxAl2-xO4 nanopigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahba, Adel Maher; Imam, N. G.; Mohamed, Mohamed Bakr

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, ZnCoxAl2 - xO4 (x = 0.00-1.50) nanosized pigments were synthesized for the first time by citrate-precursor autocombustion method and heat treatment at 900 °C. In this new nanopigment system the vacancies participate in the spinel structure since the divalent cobalt ions substitute the trivalent Al ions. Structural, microstructural and optical properties were investigated using XRD, FTIR, TEM, HRSEM, XRF, and PL techniques. XRD and FTIR spectra proved the formation of a pure cubic spinel phase. Size of the synthesized nano-crystals ranges from 15 to 60 nm, which is further confirmed with TEM micrographs. HRSEM confirms the microporous nature with flower-like morphology of the prepared nanopigments. Cation distribution has been suggested for the whole samples that matches quite well with XRD and IR experimental data. PL results show that the ZnCoxAl2 - xO4 pigments have good potential for use as a yellow-orange phosphor for displays and/or white light-emitting diodes.

  20. Bright patches on Ariel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Distinct bright patches are visible on Ariel, the brightest of Uranus' five largest satellites. Voyager 2 obtained this image Jan. 22, 1986, from a distance of 2.52 million kilometers (1.56 million miles). The clear-filter image, obtained with the narrow-angle camera, shows a resolution of 47 km (29 miles). Ariel is about 1,300 km (800 mi) in diameter. This image shows several distinct bright areas that reflect nearly 45 percent of the incident sunlight; on average, the satellite displays a reflectivity of about 25-30 percent. The bright areas are probably fresh water ice, perhaps excavated by impacts. The south pole of Ariel is slightly off center of the disk in this view. Voyager 2 will obtain its best views of the satellite on Jan. 24, at a closest-approach distance of 127,000 km (79,000 mi). The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  1. [Physical and antioxidant characteristics of black (Brassica nigra) and yellow mustard (Brassica alba) seeds and their products].

    PubMed

    Mejia-Garibay, Beatriz; Guerrero-Beltrán, José Ángel; Palou, Enrique; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2015-06-01

    The composition, some physical properties (density, refraction index, and color), antioxidant capacity (DPPH), and fatty acid profile of seeds of black (Brassica nigra) or yellow mustard (Brassica alba) were evaluated, as well as for their oils and residues from oil extraction. Density of the black and yellow mustard oils were 0.912 ± 0.01 and 0.916 ± 0.01 g/mL, respectively; their refraction indexes were 1.4611 ± 0.01 and 1.4617 ± 0.01, respectively; being not significantly different (p > 0.05) between two mustards. Color parameters of the black and yellow mustard oils presented greenish-yellow tones and reddish-yellow tones, respectively; regarding antioxidant activities, these ranged from 25 mg equivalents of Trolox/100 gin the yellow mustard oil to 1,366 mg equivalents of Trolox/100 g in the residues from oil extraction of black seed mustard. The fatty acid profile of the black mustard seed revealed that its predomipant fatty acid is oleic (22.96%), followed by linoleic (6.63%) and linolenic (3.22%), whereas foryellow mustard seed the major fatty acid is erucic (6.87%), followed by oleic (5.08%) and linoleic (1.87%) acids. PMID:26817385

  2. High Brightness Test Stand

    SciTech Connect

    Birx, D.L.; Caporaso, G.J.; Boyd, J.K.; Hawkins, S.A.; Poor, S.E.; Reginato, L.L.; Rogers, D. Jr.; Smith, M.W.

    1985-08-07

    The High Brightness Test Stand is a 2 MeV, less than or equal to 10 kA electron accelerator module. This accelerator module, designed as an upgrade prototype for the Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA), combines solid state nonlinear magnetic drives with state-of-the-art induction linac technology. The facility serves a dual role, as it not only provides a test bed for this new technology, but is used to develop high brightness electron optics. We will both further describe the accelerator, as well as present some of the preliminary electron optics measurements.

  3. Greenish-blue fluorescence of 6-(4-aminophenyl)-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-methoxynicotinonitrile: Synthesis, spectroscopy, crystal structure, and fluorescence property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwunwong, T.; Chantrapromma, S.; Fun, H.-K.

    2015-12-01

    The title compound, C20H17N3O2, was synthesized by the cyclization of a chalcone derivative with malononitrile, and was characterized by 1H NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy techniques. The crystal structure was determined by single crystal X-ray structure determination. In the crystal packing, the molecules are linked by N-H···N hydrogen bonds forming a two dimensional network parallel to the (1 0-2) plane. The crystal structure is further stabilized by weak C-H···π interactions. The compound exhibits greenish-blue fluorescence in acetonitrile with an emission wavelength at 476 nm when was excited at 365 nm.

  4. Brightness predictions for comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Daniel W. E.; Marsden, Brian G.; Morris, Charles S.

    2001-02-01

    Daniel W E Green, Brian G Marsden and Charles S Morris write with the aim of illuminating the issue of cometary light curves and brightness predictions, following the publication in this journal last October of the letter by John McFarland (2000).

  5. A Bright Shining Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurowitz, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Sometimes students come up with crazy ideas. When this author first started teaching at Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology in Virginia five years ago, she had a sophomore share such an idea with her. He wanted to put solar panels on the school's roof as a way to reduce the school's carbon footprint and set a bright clean…

  6. Bright Fireball Over Georgia

    NASA Video Gallery

    A camera in Cartersville, Ga., captured this view of a bright fireball over Georgia on the night of Mar. 7, 2012, at approx. 10:19:11 EST. The meteor was first recorded at an altitude of 51.5 miles...

  7. Bright Streak on Amalthea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These two images of Jupiter's small, irregularly shaped moon Amalthea, obtained by the camera onboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft in August 1999(left) and November 1999 (right), form a 'stereo pair' that helps scientists determine this moon's shape and the topography of its surface features. Features as small as 3.8 kilometers (2.4 miles) across can be resolved in these images, making them among the highest-resolution images ever taken of Amalthea.

    The large impact crater visible in both images, near the right-hand edge of Amalthea's disk, is about 40 kilometers (about 29 miles) across; two ridges, tall enough to cast shadows, extend from the top of the crater in a V-shape reminiscent of a 'rabbit ears' television antenna. To the left of these ridges, in the top center portion of Amalthea's disk, is a second large impact crater similar in size to the first crater. To the left of this second crater is a linear 'streak' of relatively bright material about 50 kilometers (31 miles) long. In previous spacecraft images of Amalthea taken from other viewing directions, this bright feature was thought to be a small, round, bright 'spot' and was given the name Ida. These new images reveal for the first time that Ida is actually a long, linear 'streak.' This bright streak may represent material ejected during the formation of the adjacent impact crater, or it may just mark the crest of a local ridge. Other patches of relatively bright material can be seen elsewhere on Amalthea's disk, although none of these other bright spots has Ida's linear shape.

    In both images, sunlight is coming from the left and north is approximately up. Note that the north pole of Amalthea is missing in the right-hand image (it was cut off by the edge of the camera frame). The bright streak, Ida, is on the side of the moon that faces permanently away from Jupiter, and the crater near the right-hand edge of the disk is in the center of Amalthea's leading side (the side of the moon that 'leads

  8. Yellow fever: an update.

    PubMed

    Monath, T P

    2001-08-01

    Yellow fever, the original viral haemorrhagic fever, was one of the most feared lethal diseases before the development of an effective vaccine. Today the disease still affects as many as 200,000 persons annually in tropical regions of Africa and South America, and poses a significant hazard to unvaccinated travellers to these areas. Yellow fever is transmitted in a cycle involving monkeys and mosquitoes, but human beings can also serve as the viraemic host for mosquito infection. Recent increases in the density and distribution of the urban mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, as well as the rise in air travel increase the risk of introduction and spread of yellow fever to North and Central America, the Caribbean and Asia. Here I review the clinical features of the disease, its pathogenesis and pathophysiology. The disease mechanisms are poorly understood and have not been the subject of modern clinical research. Since there is no specific treatment, and management of patients with the disease is extremely problematic, the emphasis is on preventative vaccination. As a zoonosis, yellow fever cannot be eradicated, but reduction of the human disease burden is achievable through routine childhood vaccination in endemic countries, with a low cost for the benefits obtained. The biological characteristics, safety, and efficacy of live attenuated, yellow fever 17D vaccine are reviewed. New applications of yellow fever 17D virus as a vector for foreign genes hold considerable promise as a means of developing new vaccines against other viruses, and possibly against cancers. PMID:11871403

  9. Bright field illumination system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Edward D. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A Bright Field Illumination system for inspecting a range of characteristically different kinds of defects, depressions, and ridges in a selected material surface. The system has an illumination source placed near a first focus of an elliptical reflector. In addition, a camera facing the inspected area is placed near the illumination source and the first focus. The second focus of the elliptical reflector is located at a distance approximately twice the elliptical reflector's distance above the inspected surface. The elliptical reflector directs the light from the source onto the inspected surface. Due to the shape of the elliptical reflector, light that is specularly reflected from the inspected surface is directed into the camera is which located at the position of the reflected second focus of the ellipse. This system creates a brightly lighted background field against which damage sites appear as high contrast dark objects which can be easily detected by a person or an automated inspection system. In addition, the Bright Field Illumination system and method can be used in combination with a vision inspection system providing for multiplexed illumination and data handling of multiple kinds of surface characteristics including abrupt and gradual surface variations and differences between measured characteristics of different kinds and prior instruments.

  10. Kiloamp high-brightness beams

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G.J.

    1987-01-01

    Brightness preservation of high-current relativistic electron beams under two different types of transport is discussed. Recent progress in improving the brightness of laser-guided beams in the Advanced Test Accelerator is reviewed. A strategy for the preservation of the brightness of space-charge-dominated beams in a solenoidal transport system is presented.

  11. Brighter yellow blue tits make better parents.

    PubMed Central

    Senar, J C; Figuerola, J; Pascual, J

    2002-01-01

    Whether or not bird ornaments are a signal for direct (e.g. good parents) or indirect (e.g. good genes) benefits to prospective partners in sexual selection is controversial. Carotene coloration in Parus species is directly related to the ingestion of caterpillars, so that a brightly carotene-coloured tit may be signalling its ability to find caterpillars, a main high-quality food source for good fledgling development, and hence its parental abilities. If carotene-based plumage coloration is related to the good-parent hypothesis, we predict that yellow plumage brightness of tit fathers should be positively correlated to their investment in offspring provisioning. Here, we use cross-fostering experiments in blue tits (Parus caeruleus) to show that chick development (as measured by tarsus length) is related to yellowness of the foster father, but not to that of the genetic parents. Using these data, we were able to measure, for the first time to our knowledge, the separate contribution of genetic and environmental factors (i.e. parental plumage coloration) to chick development, and hence parental investment. Our data, which relate carotenoid coloration to models of good parents, and data from other authors, which relate ultraviolet coloration to good-genes models, stress that different kinds of coloration within an individual may provide different units of information to prospective females. PMID:11839194

  12. Low surface brightness galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderhulst, J. M.; Deblok, W. J. G.; Mcgaugh, S. S.; Bothun, G. D.

    1993-01-01

    A program to investigate the properties of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies involving surface photometry in U, B, V, R, I, and H-alpha, HI imaging with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) and the very large array (VLA) and spectrophotometry of H2 regions in LSB galaxies is underway. The goal is to verify the idea that LSB galaxies have low star formation rates because the local gas density falls below the critical density for star formation, and to study the stellar population and abundances in LSB galaxies. Such information should help understanding the evolutionary history of LSB galaxies. Some preliminary results are reported.

  13. the sub-Plinian Greenish Pumice eruption (19,065±105 yr cal BP) of Mount Somma - Vesuvius. Geochemical and textural constrains.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdanowicz, Géraldine; Boudon, Georges; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Cioni, Raffaello; Mundula, Filippo; Orsi, Giovanni; Civetta, Lucia

    2016-04-01

    Researches are currently focused on large intensity and stable eruptive columns as for Plinian event. But the large variability in deposits issued from sub-Plinian eruptions needs more observations, theoretical and experimental investigations to be better described and enhances criteria of classification and the knowledge on processes at the origin of this unsteadiness of various timescales. Here, we focus on the well-known example of sub-Plinian eruption exhibiting by Mount Somma-Vesuvius: the Greenish Pumice eruption (GP). On the basis of coupled geochemical and textural analyses we investigate the volatile behavior (H2O, CO2 and halogen (F, Cl)) to better constrain (1) the magma reservoir location and pre-eruptive state and (2) the sub-Plinian eruptive style through a detailed study of the degassing processes in relation with the dynamic of the eruptive column. Results evidence that Cl act as a geobarometer for the trachytic-phonolitic melt involved during the eruption indicating that magma reservoir was at 100 MPa (Cl buffer value: 5300 ±130 ppm) and wholly H2O-saturated (pre-eruptive H2O content between 3.8 and 5.2 wt%). The eruption dynamic is clearly explained by open-system degassing processes responsible of the eruptive column instability, correlated to textural heterogeneities of the eruptive products reflecting conduit heterogeneity (smaller diameter and higher horizontal gradient in magma ascent velocity).

  14. High brightness electron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1995-07-01

    High energy physics accelerators and free electron lasers put increased demands on the electron beam sources. This paper describes the present research on attaining intense bright electron beams using photoinjectors. Recent results from the experimental programs will be given. The performance advantages and difficulties presently faced by researchers will be discussed, and the following topics will be covered. Progress has been made in photocathode materials, both in lifetime and quantum efficiency. Cesium telluride has demonstrated significantly longer lifetimes than cesium antimonide at 10{sup {minus}8} torr. However, the laser system is more difficult because cesium telluride requires quadrupled YLF instead of the doubled YLF required for cesium antimonide. The difficulty in using photoinjectors is primarily the drive laser, in particular the amplitude stability. Finally, emittance measurements of photoinjector systems can be complicated by the non-thermal nature of the electron beam. An example of the difficulty in measuring beam emittance is given.

  15. High brightness electron accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, Richard L.; Carlsten, Bruce E.; Young, Lloyd M.

    1994-01-01

    A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of acclerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electons as the electrons enter the first cavity.

  16. A high brightness photoinjector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Sage, Gregory Peter

    Linear colliders, future electron acceleration schemes, and short pulse, ultrawideband millimeter-wave sources require very bright electron beams. Conventional electron injectors including thermionic cathodes and RF bunchers or DC guns have intrinsic limitations which preclude their usage for many of these applications. RF photoinjectors have shown their ability to produce relativistic electron beams with low emittance and energy spread. However, previously developed RF photoinjectors are also subject to significant limitations. These include extreme sensitivity to timing between the RF in the accelerator structure and the drive laser, low efficiency with respect to the number and charge of the electron bunches produced by the injector, and high cost associated with both the RF drive and laser systems. The presently described system has addressed these issues by combining state-of-the-art capabilities in the laser and RF systems, photocathode materials, and new concepts for synchronization. Phase jitter generated by sources including Klystron modulator voltage fluctuation has been measured in detail, and schemes for alleviating this problem have undergone initial proof-of-principle testing. New concepts for the drive laser system have been tested which will lead to further improvements in performance, simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and compactness. The analytical and experimental work associated with the development of a high brightness, high gradient electron accelerator is presented. The presentation emphasizes the systematic progress toward the original design goals of the project, as well as the state-of-the-art innovations characterizing the system. The linear electron accelerator system is based on a 1 1/2 cell side-wall coupled, π-mode standing wave accelerator structure, driven by a 20 MW SLAC Klystron operating at 8.548 GHz, a Ti:Sapphire laser oscillator, and an 8-pass, chirped pulse Ti:Sapphire laser amplifier. Simulations show an rms transverse

  17. How Bright Is the Sun?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berr, Stephen

    1991-01-01

    Presents a sequence of activities designed to allow eighth grade students to deal with one of the fundamental relationships that govern energy distribution. Activities guide students to measure light bulb brightness, discover the inverse square law, compare light bulb light to candle light, and measure sun brightness. (two references) (MCO)

  18. Ceres' Yellow Spots - Observations with Dawn Framing Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Michael; Schäfer, Tanja; Cloutis, Edward A.; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Platz, Thomas; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; Hoffmann, Martin; Thangjam, Guneshwar S.; Kneissl, Thomas; Nathues, Andreas; Mengel, Kurt; Williams, David A.; Kallisch, Jan; Ripken, Joachim; Russell, Christopher T.

    2016-04-01

    The Framing Camera (FC) onboard the Dawn spacecraft acquired several spectral data sets of (1) Ceres with increasing spatial resolution (up to 135 m/pixel with nearly global coverage). The FC is equipped with seven color filters (0.4-1.0 μm) plus one panchromatic ('clear') filter [1]. We produced spectral mosaics using photometrically corrected FC color filter images as described in [2]. Even early FC color mosaics obtained during Dawn's approach unexpectedly exhibited quite a diversity of surface materials on Ceres. Besides the ordinary cerean surface material, potentially composed of ammoniated phyllosilicates [3] or some other alteration product of carbonaceous chondrites [4], a large number of bright spots were found on Ceres [5]. These spots are substantially brighter than the average surface (exceeding its triple standard deviation), with the spots within Occator crater being the brightest and most prominent examples (reflectance more than 10 times the average of Ceres). We observed bright spots which are different by their obvious yellow color. This yellow color appears both in a 'true color' RGB display (R=0.65, G=0.55, B=0.44 μm) as well as in a false color display (R=0.97, G=0.75, B=0.44 μm) using a linear 2% stretch. Their spectra show a steep red slope between 0.44 and 0.55 μm (UV drop-off). On the contrary to these yellow spots, the vast majority of bright spots appears white in the aforementioned color displays and exhibit blue sloped spectra, except for a shallow UV drop-off. Thus, yellow spots are easily distinguishable from white spots and the remaining cerean surface by their high values in the ratio 0.55/0.44 μm. We found 8 occurrences of yellow spots on Ceres. Most of them (>70 individual spots) occur both inside and outside crater Dantu, where white spots are also found in the immediate vicinity. Besides Dantu, further occurrences with only a few yellow spots were found at craters Ikapati and Gaue. Less definite occurrences are found at 97

  19. Yellow flowers generated by expression of the aurone biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Ono, Eiichiro; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Nakamura, Noriko; Fukui, Yuko; Yonekura-Sakakibara, Keiko; Yamaguchi, Masaatsu; Nakayama, Toru; Tanaka, Takaharu; Kusumi, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yoshikazu

    2006-07-18

    Flower color is most often conferred by colored flavonoid pigments. Aurone flavonoids confer a bright yellow color on flowers such as snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) and dahlia (Dahlia variabilis). A. majus aureusidin synthase (AmAS1) was identified as the key enzyme that catalyzes aurone biosynthesis from chalcones, but transgenic flowers overexpressing AmAS1 gene failed to produce aurones. Here, we report that chalcone 4'-O-glucosyltransferase (4'CGT) is essential for aurone biosynthesis and yellow coloration in vivo. Coexpression of the Am4'CGT and AmAS1 genes was sufficient for the accumulation of aureusidin 6-O-glucoside in transgenic flowers (Torenia hybrida). Furthermore, their coexpression combined with down-regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in yellow flowers. An Am4'CGT-GFP chimeric protein localized in the cytoplasm, whereas the AmAS1(N1-60)-RFP chimeric protein was localized to the vacuole. We therefore conclude that chalcones are 4'-O-glucosylated in the cytoplasm, their 4'-O-glucosides transported to the vacuole, and therein enzymatically converted to aurone 6-O-glucosides. This metabolic pathway is unique among the known examples of flavonoid, including anthocyanin biosynthesis because, for all other compounds, the carbon backbone is completed before transport to the vacuole. Our findings herein not only demonstrate the biochemical basis of aurone biosynthesis but also open the way to engineering yellow flowers for major ornamental species lacking this color variant. PMID:16832053

  20. Yellow-emitting NaCaPO4:Mn2+ phosphor for field emission displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guogang; Xu, Xingong; Peng, Chong; Shang, Mengmeng; Geng, Dongling; Cheng, Ziyong; Chen, Jun; Lin, Jun

    2011-08-01

    Yellow-emitting NaCaPO4:Mn2+ phosphors were prepared by the Pechini sol-gel process. Under low voltage electron beam excitation, the NaCaPO4: Mn2+ phosphor screen shows bright yellow emission (centering at 560 nm due to the 4T1→6A1 transition of Mn2+) with the CIE color coordinate (0.428, 0.552), which has a higher color purity than commercial yellow-emitting FED phosphor (Zn, CdS):Ag+. The color range and chromaticity saturation may be greatly enhanced when the yellow-emitting NaCaPO4: Mn2+ is added as an additional phosphor of the typical tricolor FEDs phosphors, which make them have potential to improve the display quality of full-color FEDs.

  1. In Situ Mosaic Brightness Correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Robert G.; Lorre, Jean J.

    2012-01-01

    In situ missions typically have pointable, mast-mounted cameras, which are capable of taking panoramic mosaics comprised of many individual frames. These frames are mosaicked together. While the mosaic software applies radiometric correction to the images, in many cases brightness/contrast seams still exist between frames. This is largely due to errors in the radiometric correction, and the absence of correction for photometric effects in the mosaic processing chain. The software analyzes the overlaps between adjacent frames in the mosaic and determines correction factors for each image in an attempt to reduce or eliminate these brightness seams.

  2. High brightness picosecond electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Merano, M.; Collin, S.; Renucci, P.; Gatri, M.; Sonderegger, S.; Crottini, A.; Ganiere, J.D.; Deveaud, B.

    2005-08-15

    We have developed a high brightness picosecond electron gun. We have used it to replace the thermionic electron gun of a commercial scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to perform time-resolved cathodoluminescence experiments. Picosecond electron pulses are produced, at a repetition rate of 80.7 MHz, by femtosecond mode-locked laser pulses focused on a metal photocathode. This system has a normalized axial brightness of 93 A/cm{sup 2} sr kV, allowing for a spatial resolution of 50 nm in the secondary electron imaging mode of the SEM. The temporal width of the electron pulse is 12 ps.

  3. Asymmetries in blue-yellow color perception and in the color of 'the dress'.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Alissa D; Spillmann, Lothar; Werner, John S; Webster, Michael A

    2015-06-29

    The perception of color poses daunting challenges, because the light spectrum reaching the eye depends on both the reflectance of objects and the spectrum of the illuminating light source. Solving this problem requires sophisticated inferences about the properties of lighting and surfaces, and many striking examples of 'color constancy' illustrate how our vision compensates for variations in illumination to estimate the color of objects (for example [1-3]). We discovered a novel property of color perception and constancy, involving how we experience shades of blue versus yellow. We found that surfaces are much more likely to be perceived as white or gray when their color is varied along bluish directions, compared with equivalent variations along yellowish (or reddish or greenish) directions. This selective bias may reflect a tendency to attribute bluish tints to the illuminant rather than the object, consistent with an inference that indirect lighting from the sky and in shadows tends to be bluish. The blue-yellow asymmetry has striking effects on the appearance of images when their colors are reversed, turning white to yellow and silver to gold, and helps account for the variation among observers in the colors experienced in 'the dress' image that recently consumed the internet. Observers variously describe the dress as blue-black or white-gold, and this has been explained by whether the dress appears to be in direct lighting or shade (for example [5]). We show that these individual differences and potential lighting interpretations also depend on the special ambiguity of blue, for simply reversing the image colors causes almost all observers to report the lighter stripes as yellowish.

  4. Asymmetries in blue-yellow color perception and in the color of 'the dress'.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Alissa D; Spillmann, Lothar; Werner, John S; Webster, Michael A

    2015-06-29

    The perception of color poses daunting challenges, because the light spectrum reaching the eye depends on both the reflectance of objects and the spectrum of the illuminating light source. Solving this problem requires sophisticated inferences about the properties of lighting and surfaces, and many striking examples of 'color constancy' illustrate how our vision compensates for variations in illumination to estimate the color of objects (for example [1-3]). We discovered a novel property of color perception and constancy, involving how we experience shades of blue versus yellow. We found that surfaces are much more likely to be perceived as white or gray when their color is varied along bluish directions, compared with equivalent variations along yellowish (or reddish or greenish) directions. This selective bias may reflect a tendency to attribute bluish tints to the illuminant rather than the object, consistent with an inference that indirect lighting from the sky and in shadows tends to be bluish. The blue-yellow asymmetry has striking effects on the appearance of images when their colors are reversed, turning white to yellow and silver to gold, and helps account for the variation among observers in the colors experienced in 'the dress' image that recently consumed the internet. Observers variously describe the dress as blue-black or white-gold, and this has been explained by whether the dress appears to be in direct lighting or shade (for example [5]). We show that these individual differences and potential lighting interpretations also depend on the special ambiguity of blue, for simply reversing the image colors causes almost all observers to report the lighter stripes as yellowish. PMID:25981792

  5. Physical Properties of Bright Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittichová, J.; Meech, K. J.

    2002-09-01

    We will show preliminary results from a program of long-term observation of the dust coma activity of bright comets. One and half years of observation of 32 selected comets in B, V, R, I filters are used for the study of the physical properties and the dust activity of their comae at a range of heliocentric distances from 0.99 to 8.61 AU. This enables us to compare the activity of different cometary nuclei at similar solar radiation conditions. As shown in the Table, the selected comets belong to different cometary populations from the point of view of their active age (near parabolic orbits versus short-period orbits, outbursts of brightness, disruption of nuclei) and orbital parameters (the eccentricity from 0.04 to 1.01 AU, the perihelion distance from 0.34 to 8.24 AU). The knowledge of physical properties of cometary nuclei and coma are very important to our understanding of the environment in the outer solar system during the era of formation. The comet dataset of 1128 images will enable us to study thermal evolution of the small dust particles, their dynamical parameters and size distribution as a function of time and grain size at different heliocentric distances. Our future goal is to model the near-nucleus particle region using a Finston-Probstein dust model. Since our observations are still in progress at this time we will present only preliminary results of brightness and color changes for several selected bright comets.

  6. Bright Transients discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Denneau, L.; Stalder, B.; Heinze, A.; Sherstyuk, A.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-04-01

    Seven bright transients have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  7. Bright Transients discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-03-01

    Seven bright transients have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  8. Bright Transients discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Young, D. R.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-08-01

    Six bright transients have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  9. Bright Beginnings. WWC Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Bright Beginnings is an early childhood curriculum, based in part on High/Scope[R] and Creative Curriculum[R], with an additional emphasis on literacy skills. The curriculum consists of nine thematic units designed to enhance children's cognitive, social, emotional, and physical development, and each unit includes concept maps, literacy lessons,…

  10. StarBright Learning Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalinowski, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This article features StarBright Learning Exchange, a program that provides a cross-cultural exchange between Australian and South African early childhood educators. The program was originated when its president, Carol Allen, and her colleague, Karen Williams, decided that they could no longer sit by and watch the unfolding social catastrophe that…

  11. Teradiode's high brightness semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Robin K.; Chann, Bien; Burgess, James; Lochman, Bryan; Zhou, Wang; Cruz, Mike; Cook, Rob; Dugmore, Dan; Shattuck, Jeff; Tayebati, Parviz

    2016-03-01

    TeraDiode is manufacturing multi-kW-class ultra-high brightness fiber-coupled direct diode lasers for industrial applications. A fiber-coupled direct diode laser with a power level of 4,680 W from a 100 μm core diameter, <0.08 numerical aperture (NA) output fiber at a single center wavelength was demonstrated. Our TeraBlade industrial platform achieves world-record brightness levels for direct diode lasers. The fiber-coupled output corresponds to a Beam Parameter Product (BPP) of 3.5 mm-mrad and is the lowest BPP multi-kW-class direct diode laser yet reported. This laser is suitable for industrial materials processing applications, including sheet metal cutting and welding. This 4-kW fiber-coupled direct diode laser has comparable brightness to that of industrial fiber lasers and CO2 lasers, and is over 10x brighter than state-of-the-art direct diode lasers. We have also demonstrated novel high peak power lasers and high brightness Mid-Infrared Lasers.

  12. Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using proteins crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the unexpected hypothesis that the virus releases its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have fairly flat coats, but in TYNV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early stuties of TYMV, but McPherson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central void on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides linked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the void. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine

  13. Brightness-equalized quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung Jun; Zahid, Mohammad U.; Le, Phuong; Ma, Liang; Entenberg, David; Harney, Allison S.; Condeelis, John; Smith, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    As molecular labels for cells and tissues, fluorescent probes have shaped our understanding of biological structures and processes. However, their capacity for quantitative analysis is limited because photon emission rates from multicolour fluorophores are dissimilar, unstable and often unpredictable, which obscures correlations between measured fluorescence and molecular concentration. Here we introduce a new class of light-emitting quantum dots with tunable and equalized fluorescence brightness across a broad range of colours. The key feature is independent tunability of emission wavelength, extinction coefficient and quantum yield through distinct structural domains in the nanocrystal. Precise tuning eliminates a 100-fold red-to-green brightness mismatch of size-tuned quantum dots at the ensemble and single-particle levels, which substantially improves quantitative imaging accuracy in biological tissue. We anticipate that these materials engineering principles will vastly expand the optical engineering landscape of fluorescent probes, facilitate quantitative multicolour imaging in living tissue and improve colour tuning in light-emitting devices. PMID:26437175

  14. A New Sky Brightness Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, David L.; McKenna, D.

    2006-12-01

    A good estimate of sky brightness and its variations throughout the night, the months, and even the years is an essential bit of knowledge both for good observing and especially as a tool in efforts to minimize sky brightness through local action. Hence a stable and accurate monitor can be a valuable and necessary tool. We have developed such a monitor, with the financial help of Vatican Observatory and Walker Management. The device is now undergoing its Beta test in preparation for production. It is simple, accurate, well calibrated, and automatic, sending its data directly to IDA over the internet via E-mail . Approximately 50 such monitors will be ready soon for deployment worldwide including most major observatories. Those interested in having one should enquire of IDA about details.

  15. On the surface brightness and geometric albedo of some Martian areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumme, K.

    1976-01-01

    High-quality photographs of Mars (red, yellow, green, and blue) are used to analyze the surface, limb, and south-polar-cap brightness of Mars. The surface brightness can be fitted with the Lommel-Seeliger reflection law. For the limb and polar-cap brightness, the method suggested by Lumme (1974) has been used to correct for smearing effects. It is found that the brightness increases noticeably when approaching the limb, that the upper limit to optical thickness of the atmosphere in the blue is 0.16, and that the corresponding single-scattering albedo is 0.55, both with uncertainties of about 15%. Values for the geometric albedo and the phase function (at 37-deg phase angle) are also obtained for both the atmosphere and the ground for a central meridian of 0 deg. The south polar cap in September 1973 was nearly circular, with a radius of about 8 deg (heliocentric longitude of 0 deg) and geometric albedos of 0.68 (red), 0.68 (yellow), 0.60 (green), and 0.53 (blue).

  16. Iapetus Bright and Dark Terrains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Saturn's outermost large moon, Iapetus, has a bright, heavily cratered icy terrain and a dark terrain, as shown in this Voyager 2 image taken on August 22, 1981. Amazingly, the dark material covers precisely the side of Iapetus that leads in the direction of orbital motion around Saturn (except for the poles), whereas the bright material occurs on the trailing hemisphere and at the poles. The bright terrain is made of dirty ice, and the dark terrain is surfaced by carbonaceous molecules, according to measurements made with Earth-based telescopes. Iapetus' dark hemisphere has been likened to tar or asphalt and is so dark that no details within this terrain were visible to Voyager 2. The bright icy hemisphere, likened to dirty snow, shows many large impact craters. The closest approach by Voyager 2 to Iapetus was a relatively distant 600,000 miles, so that our best images, such as this, have a resolution of about 12 miles. The dark material is made of organic substances, probably including poisonous cyano compounds such as frozen hydrogen cyanide polymers. Though we know a little about the dark terrain's chemical nature, we do not understand its origin. Two theories have been developed, but neither is fully satisfactory--(1) the dark material may be organic dust knocked off the small neighboring satellite Phoebe and 'painted' onto the leading side of Iapetus as the dust spirals toward Saturn and Iapetus hurtles through the tenuous dust cloud, or (2) the dark material may be made of icy-cold carbonaceous 'cryovolcanic' lavas that were erupted from Iapetus' interior and then blackened by solar radiation, charged particles, and cosmic rays. A determination of the actual cause, as well as discovery of any other geologic features smaller than 12 miles across, awaits the Cassini Saturn orbiter to arrive in 2004.

  17. GPM Intercalibrated Radiometer Brightness Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, Erich Franz; Chou, Joyce

    2013-04-01

    One of the keys to consistent precipitation retrieval from passive microwave radiometer measurements (whether imagers or sounders) is accurate, long-term consistent brightness temperature retrievals. This becomes doubly important when there measurements are taken from radiometers on multiple platforms, from multiple agencies, with many different purposes. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission addresses this issue directly with the production of intercalibrated brightness temperatures from all the partner satellites contributing to the GPM mission. These intercalibrated brightness temperatures are given the product designation: 1C within GPM. This paper will describe the GPM approach to intercalibration 1C products. The intercalibration and creation of the products uses a 5-step methodology: comparison of the partner standard products (either Tb or Ta) with the GPM reference standard; determination of adjustments that should be made to each product to create consistent brightness temperatures; re-orbitization of all orbits (in non-realtime) to be in the standard GPM south-south orbit; application of the adjustments to the partner provide 1B(or 1A) products; production of 1C products in HDF5 using a "standard" logical format for any radiometer regardless of its 1B format. This paper describes each of these steps and provides the background for them. It discusses in some detail the current 1C logical format and why this format facilitates use by downstream product algorithms and end-users. Most importantly it provides the analysis approach established by the GPM inter-calibration working group in establishing the adjustments to be made at the 1C level. Finally, using DMSP F16-18, it provides examples of the 1C products and discusses the adjustments that are made.

  18. LSST Site: Sky Brightness Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Jamison; Claver, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is an upcoming robotic survey telescope. At the telescope site on Cerro Pachon in Chile there are currently three photodiodes and a Canon camera with a fisheye lens, and both the photodiodes and Canon monitor the night sky continuously. The NIST-calibrated photodiodes directly measure the flux from the sky, and the sky brightness can also be obtained from the Canon images via digital aperture photometry. Organizing and combining the two data sets gives nightly information of the development of sky brightness across a swath of the electromagnetic spectrum, from blue to near infrared light, and this is useful for accurately predicting the performance of the LSST. It also provides data for models of moonlight and twilight sky brightness. Code to accomplish this organization and combination was successfully written in Python, but due to the backlog of data not all of the nights were processed by the end of the summer.Burke was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  19. Differential color brightness as a body orientation cue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbour, Christopher G.; Coss, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    Ninety male and female college students reclining on their backs in the dark were disoriented when positioned on a rotating platform under a slowly rotating disk that filled their entire visual field. Half of the disk was painted with a brighter value (about 69 percent higher luminance level) of the color on the other half. The effects of red, blue, and yellow were examined. Subjects wearing frosted goggles viewed the illuminated disk for three rotations. The disk was stopped when the subjects felt that they were right side up. A significant proportion of subjects selected the disk position in which the brighter side of each of the three colors filled their upper visual field. These results suggest that color brightness as well as lighting variation could provide Space Station crew members with body orientation cues as they move around.

  20. Smog Yellows Taj Mahal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Built as a monument to the favorite wife of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, the Taj Mahal has watched over the city of Agra, India, since the mid-seventeenth century with its pillars of gleaming white marble. By the spring of 2007, however, one of the world's most visited landmarks was turning yellow, and a panel of India's parliament had little trouble identifying the culprit: pollution. The panel blamed particles of soot and dirt suspended high in the atmosphere for the Taj Mahal's dinginess. The Taj Mahal's home, Agra, sits not far from the base of the Himalaya, and smog regularly collects along the southern side of the mountain range. On May 16, 2007, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the area around Agra, India. The closeup image shows the immediate vicinity of the Taj Majal. The larger image shows the surrounding area. In both pictures, dingy, gray-beige haze obscures the satellite's view of the land surface. India had tried to minimize the adverse impact of air pollution on the famous landmark. According to the BBC, in the late 1990s, India's Supreme Court ordered the closure of thousands of iron foundries and kilns that had belched smoke near the monument. Many of the 3 million tourists who visited the Taj Majal each year approached the monument on horse-drawn carriages or battery-operated buses as fossil-fuel-powered vehicles could not drive within 2 kilometers (1.5 miles). Since those efforts have failed to save the Taj Majal's complexion, Indian officials have considered applying a cleansing mud pack to the monument's surface to draw out the dirt. As India industrializes, smog results, and the Taj Mahal's gleaming whiteness is only one casualty. Pollution has been blamed for a decrease in Indian rice harvests, which had soared during the 'Green Revolution' of the 1960s and 1970s. Haze and dust also appear to bring on the region's monsoon rains earlier than normal.

  1. Io's Sodium Cloud (Clear and Green-Yellow Filters)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The green-yellow filter and clear filter images of Io which were released over the past two days were originally exposed on the same frame. The camera pointed in slightly different directions for the two exposures, placing a clear filter image of Io on the top half of the frame, and a green-yellow filter image of Io on the bottom half of the frame. This picture shows that entire original frame in false color, the most intense emission appearing white.

    East is to the right. Most of Io's visible surface is in shadow, though one can see part of an illuminated crescent on its western side. The burst of white light near Io's eastern equatorial edge (most distinctive in the green filter image) is sunlight scattered by the plume of the volcano Prometheus.

    There is much more bright light near Io in the clear filter image, since that filter's wider wavelength range admits more scattered light from Prometheus' sunlit plume and Io's illuminated crescent. Thus in the clear filter image especially, Prometheus's plume was bright enough to produce several white spikes which extend radially outward from the center of the plume emission. These spikes are artifacts produced by the optics of the camera. Two of the spikes in the clear filter image appear against Io's shadowed surface, and the lower of these is pointing towards a bright round spot. That spot corresponds to thermal emission from the volcano Pele.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  2. High brightness beams and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes the present research on attaining intense bright electron beams. Thermionic systems are briefly covered. Recent and past results from the photoinjector programs are given. The performance advantages and difficulties presently faced by researchers using photoinjectors is discussed. The progress that has been made in photocathode materials, both in lifetime and quantum efficiency, is covered. Finally, a discussion of emittance measurements of photoinjector systems and how the measurement is complicated by the non-thermal nature of the electron beam is presented.

  3. Yellow flowers generated by expression of the aurone biosynthetic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Eiichiro; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Nakamura, Noriko; Fukui, Yuko; Yonekura-Sakakibara, Keiko; Yamaguchi, Masaatsu; Nakayama, Toru; Tanaka, Takaharu; Kusumi, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yoshikazu

    2006-01-01

    Flower color is most often conferred by colored flavonoid pigments. Aurone flavonoids confer a bright yellow color on flowers such as snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) and dahlia (Dahlia variabilis). A. majus aureusidin synthase (AmAS1) was identified as the key enzyme that catalyzes aurone biosynthesis from chalcones, but transgenic flowers overexpressing AmAS1 gene failed to produce aurones. Here, we report that chalcone 4′-O-glucosyltransferase (4′CGT) is essential for aurone biosynthesis and yellow coloration in vivo. Coexpression of the Am4′CGT and AmAS1 genes was sufficient for the accumulation of aureusidin 6-O-glucoside in transgenic flowers (Torenia hybrida). Furthermore, their coexpression combined with down-regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in yellow flowers. An Am4′CGT-GFP chimeric protein localized in the cytoplasm, whereas the AmAS1(N1-60)-RFP chimeric protein was localized to the vacuole. We therefore conclude that chalcones are 4′-O-glucosylated in the cytoplasm, their 4′-O-glucosides transported to the vacuole, and therein enzymatically converted to aurone 6-O-glucosides. This metabolic pathway is unique among the known examples of flavonoid, including anthocyanin biosynthesis because, for all other compounds, the carbon backbone is completed before transport to the vacuole. Our findings herein not only demonstrate the biochemical basis of aurone biosynthesis but also open the way to engineering yellow flowers for major ornamental species lacking this color variant. PMID:16832053

  4. Cholestatic presentation of yellow phosphorus poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, C P; Goel, Amit; Basu, Debdatta

    2014-01-01

    Yellow phosphorus, a component of certain pesticide pastes and fireworks, is well known to cause hepatotoxicity. Poisoning with yellow phosphorus classically manifests with acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure which may need liver transplantation. We present a case of yellow phosphorus poisoning in which a patient presented with florid clinical features of cholestasis highlighting the fact that cholestasis can rarely be a presenting feature of yellow phosphorus hepatotoxicity. PMID:24554916

  5. HUBBLE FINDS MANY BRIGHT CLOUDS ON URANUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A recent Hubble Space Telescope view reveals Uranus surrounded by its four major rings and by 10 of its 17 known satellites. This false-color image was generated by Erich Karkoschka using data taken on August 8, 1998, with Hubble's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer. Hubble recently found about 20 clouds - nearly as many clouds on Uranus as the previous total in the history of modern observations. The orange-colored clouds near the prominent bright band circle the planet at more than 300 mph (500 km/h), according to team member Heidi Hammel (MIT). One of the clouds on the right-hand side is brighter than any other cloud ever seen on Uranus. The colors in the image indicate altitude. Team member Mark Marley (New Mexico State University) reports that green and blue regions show where the atmosphere is clear and sunlight can penetrate deep into Uranus. In yellow and grey regions the sunlight reflects from a higher haze or cloud layer. Orange and red colors indicate very high clouds, such as cirrus clouds on Earth. The Hubble image is one of the first images revealing the precession of the brightest ring with respect to a previous image [LINK to PRC97-36a]. Precession makes the fainter part of the ring (currently on the upper right-hand side) slide around Uranus once every nine months. The fading is caused by ring particles crowding and hiding each other on one side of their eight-hour orbit around Uranus. The blue, green and red components of this false-color image correspond to exposures taken at near-infrared wavelengths of 0.9, 1.1, and 1.7 micrometers. Thus, regions on Uranus appearing blue, for example, reflect more sunlight at 0.9 micrometer than at the longer wavelengths. Apparent colors on Uranus are caused by absorption of methane gas in its atmosphere, an effect comparable to absorption in our atmosphere which can make distant clouds appear red. Credit: Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona) and NASA

  6. Blackberry Yellow Vein Disease Complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new virus disease has emerged in the Midsouth and Southeastern United States and was named blackberry yellow vein disease (BYVD). Originally, it was thought the disease was caused by Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) as the virus was found in many diseased plants and symptoms were very similar to thos...

  7. Anionic porphyrin as a new powerful cell death inducer of Tobacco Bright Yellow-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Riou, C; Calliste, C A; Da Silva, A; Guillaumot, D; Rezazgui, O; Sol, V; Leroy-Lhez, S

    2014-04-01

    For the first time, the behaviour of tobacco cell suspensions submitted to four porphyrins was described. The potential killer effect of these photosensitizers on tobacco cells was evaluated. Biological results were correlated with photophysical properties and the reactive oxygen species production capacity of tested compounds. Surprisingly, the anionic free-base porphyrin showed the strongest phototoxic effect.

  8. A series of color tunable yellow-orange-red-emitting SrWO4:RE (Sm3+, Eu3+-Sm3+) phosphor for near ultraviolet and blue light-based warm white light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yandong; Liu, Yonghao; Yang, Rui

    2016-03-01

    A series of wide-range-tunable light emissive SrWO4:Sm3+, SrWO4:Sm3+,Eu3+ phosphors were synthesized via the simple co-precipitation method. The charge compensation can greatly improve SrWO4: Sm3+ phosphors luminous intensity. The critical distance, ηT and energy transfer mechanism of SrWO4:0.01Sm3+,0.12Eu3+ were studied. These obtained phosphors exhibit a high luminous efficiency, purity and lower color temperature of the comfortable warm white LEDs. Hues varying have been generated by appropriately tuning the Sm3+ ions concentration, excitation wavelength or Sm3+, Eu3+ co-doping, which have the color tunable wide gamut light covering the yellow-green, greenish-yellow, yellow, yellow orange, orange, reddish orange and red chromaticity region. In particular, SrWO4:0.01Sm3+,0.12Eu3+ phosphors excited at 404 and 480 nm have higher color saturation than commercially available Y2O2S:Eu3+ red phosphor. These phosphors can be excited efficiently using commercial ultraviolet, blue laser diodes and LEDs, and can be used for developing new color light sources, fluorescent display devices, ultraviolet-sensors and tunable visible lasers.

  9. How Bright Can Supernovae Get?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    Supernovae enormous explosions associated with the end of a stars life come in a variety of types with different origins. A new study has examined how the brightest supernovae in the Universe are produced, and what limits might be set on their brightness.Ultra-Luminous ObservationsRecent observations have revealed many ultra-luminous supernovae, which haveenergies that challenge our abilities to explain them usingcurrent supernova models. An especially extreme example is the 2015 discovery of the supernova ASASSN-15lh, which shone with a peak luminosity of ~2*1045 erg/s, nearly a trillion times brighter than the Sun. ASASSN-15lh radiated a whopping ~2*1052 erg in the first four months after its detection.How could a supernova that bright be produced? To explore the answer to that question, Tuguldur Sukhbold and Stan Woosley at University of California, Santa Cruz, have examined the different sources that could produce supernovae and calculated upper limits on the potential luminosities ofeach of these supernova varieties.Explosive ModelsSukhbold and Woosley explore multiple different models for core-collapse supernova explosions, including:Prompt explosionA stars core collapses and immediately explodes.Pair instabilityElectron/positron pair production at a massive stars center leads to core collapse. For high masses, radioactivity can contribute to delayed energy output.Colliding shellsPreviously expelled shells of material around a star collide after the initial explosion, providing additional energy release.MagnetarThe collapsing star forms a magnetar a rapidly rotating neutron star with an incredibly strong magnetic field at its core, which then dumps energy into the supernova ejecta, further brightening the explosion.They then apply these models to different types of stars.Setting the LimitThe authors show that the light curve of ASASSN-15lh (plotted in orange) can be described by a model (black curve) in which a magnetar with an initial spin period of 0.7 ms

  10. [Bright light therapy for elderly].

    PubMed

    Okawa, Masako

    2015-06-01

    Bright light therapy (BLT) holds considerable promise for sleep problems in the elderly. BLT for community-dwelling patients with Alzheimer's disease showed significant improvement in sleep parameters. In the institutional setting, BLT was effective in reducing daytime nap duration. Morning BLT was found to advance the peak circadian rhythm and increase activity level in daytime and melatonin level at night. Light therapy could be used in combination with other nonpharmacological methods such as social activities, outside walking, physical exercises, which showed greater effects than independent BLT on sleep and cognitive function. BLT treatment strategy was proposed in the present paper. We should pay more attentions to BLT in community setting for mental and physical well-being. PMID:26065132

  11. Quantum communication with macroscopically bright nonclassical states.

    PubMed

    Usenko, Vladyslav C; Ruppert, Laszlo; Filip, Radim

    2015-11-30

    We analyze homodyne detection of macroscopically bright multimode nonclassical states of light and propose their application in quantum communication. We observe that the homodyne detection is sensitive to a mode-matching of the bright light to the highly intense local oscillator. Unmatched bright modes of light result in additional noise which technically limits detection of Gaussian entanglement at macroscopic level. When the mode-matching is sufficient, we show that multimode quantum key distribution with bright beams is feasible. It finally merges the quantum communication with classical optical technology of visible beams of light.

  12. Adjusting the tasseled cap brightness and greenness factors for atmospheric path radiance and absorption on a pixel by pixel basis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, R. D.; Slater, P. N.; Pinter, P. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A radiative transfer model was used to convert ground measured reflectances into the radiance at the top of the atmosphere, for several levels of atmospheric path radiance. The radiance in MSS7 (0.8 to 1.1 m) was multiplied by the transmission fraction for atmospheres having different levels of precipitable water. The radiance values were converted to simulated LANDSAT digital counts for four path radiance levels and four levels of precipitable water. These values were used to calculate the Kauth-Thomas brightness, greenness, yellowness, and nonsuch factors. Brightness was affected by surface conditions and path radiance. Greenness was affected by surface conditions, path radiance, and precipitable water. Yellowness was affected by path radiance and nonsuch by precipitable water, and both factors changed only slightly with surface conditions. Yellowness and nonsuch were used to adjust brightness and greenness to produce factors that were affected only by surface conditions such as soils and vegetation, and not by path radiance and precipitable water.

  13. Spatial Brightness Perception of Trichromatic Stimuli

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, Michael P.; Houser, Kevin W.

    2012-11-16

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of tuning optical radiation on brightness perception for younger (18-25 years of age) and older (50 years of age or older) observers. Participants made forced-choice evaluations of the brightness of a full factorial of stimulus pairs selected from two groups of four metameric stimuli. The large-field stimuli were created by systematically varying either the red or the blue primary of an RGB LED mixture. The results indicate that light stimuli of equal illuminance and chromaticity do not appear equally bright to either younger or older subjects. The rank-order of brightness is not predicted by any current model of human vision or theory of brightness perception including Scotopic to Photopic or Cirtopic to Photopic ratio theory, prime color theory, correlated color temperature, V(λ)-based photometry, color quality metrics, linear brightness models, or color appearance models. Age may affect brightness perception when short-wavelength primaries are used, especially those with a peak wavelength shorter than 450 nm. The results suggest further development of metrics to predict brightness perception is warranted, and that including age as a variable in predictive models may be valuable.

  14. Contrast adaptation to luminance and brightness modulations.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takehiro; Nakayama, Kazuki; Kawashima, Yuki; Yamauchi, Yasuki

    2016-03-01

    Perceptual brightness and color contrast decrease after seeing a light temporally modulating along a certain direction in a color space, a phenomenon known as contrast adaptation. We investigated whether contrast adaptation along the luminance direction arises from modulation of luminance signals or apparent brightness signals. The stimulus consisted of two circles on a gray background presented on a CRT monitor. In the adaptation phase, the luminance and chromaticity of one circle were temporally modulated, while the other circle was kept at a constant luminance and color metameric with an equal-energy white. We employed two types of temporal modulations, namely, in luminance and brightness. Chromaticity was sinusoidally modulated along the L-M axis, leading to dissociation between luminance and brightness (the Helmholtz-Kohlrausch effect). In addition, luminance modulation was minimized in the brightness modulation, while brightness modulation was minimized in the luminance modulation. In the test phase, an asymmetric matching method was used to measure the magnitude of contrast adaptation for both modulations. Our results showed that, although contrast adaptation along the luminance direction occurred for both modulations, contrast adaptation for luminance modulation was significantly stronger than that for the brightness modulation regardless of the temporal frequency of the adaptation modulation. These results suggest that luminance modulation is more influential in contrast adaptation than brightness modulation.

  15. Bright Sparks of Our Future!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riordan, Naoimh

    2016-04-01

    My name is Naoimh Riordan and I am the Vice Principal of Rockboro Primary School in Cork City, South of Ireland. I am a full time class primary teacher and I teach 4th class, my students are aged between 9-10 years. My passion for education has developed over the years and grown towards STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) subjects. I believe these subjects are the way forward for our future. My passion and beliefs are driven by the unique after school programme that I have developed. It is titled "Sparks" coming from the term Bright Sparks. "Sparks" is an after school programme with a difference where the STEM subjects are concentrated on through lessons such as Science, Veterinary Science Computer Animation /Coding, Eco engineering, Robotics, Magical Maths, Chess and Creative Writing. All these subjects are taught through activity based learning and are one-hour long each week for a ten-week term. "Sparks" is fully inclusive and non-selective which gives all students of any level of ability an opportunity to engage into these subjects. "Sparks" is open to all primary students in County Cork. The "Sparks" after school programme is taught by tutors from the different Universities and Colleges in Cork City. It works very well because the tutor brings their knowledge, skills and specialised equipment from their respective universities and in turn the tutor gains invaluable teaching practise, can trial a pilot programme in a chosen STEM subject and gain an insight into what works in the physical classroom.

  16. Titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ataya, Ali; Kline, Kristopher P; Cope, Jessica; Alnuaimat, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease of unclear etiology. We describe a patient who develops yellow nail syndrome, with primary nail and sinus manifestations, shortly after amalgam dental implants. A study of the patient's nail shedding showed elevated nail titanium levels. The patient had her dental implants removed and had complete resolution of her sinus symptoms with no change in her nail findings. Since the patient's nail findings did not resolve we do not believe titanium exposure is a cause of her yellow nail syndrome but perhaps a possible relationship exists between titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome that requires further studies.

  17. Titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ataya, Ali; Kline, Kristopher P.; Cope, Jessica; Alnuaimat, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease of unclear etiology. We describe a patient who develops yellow nail syndrome, with primary nail and sinus manifestations, shortly after amalgam dental implants. A study of the patient's nail shedding showed elevated nail titanium levels. The patient had her dental implants removed and had complete resolution of her sinus symptoms with no change in her nail findings. Since the patient's nail findings did not resolve we do not believe titanium exposure is a cause of her yellow nail syndrome but perhaps a possible relationship exists between titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome that requires further studies. PMID:26744684

  18. Flesh color inheritance and gene interactions among canary yellow, pale yellow and red watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two loci, C and i-C were previously reported to determine flesh color between canary yellow and red watermelon. Recently LCYB was found as a color determinant gene for canary yellow (C) and co-dominant CAPS marker was developed to identify canary yellow and red alleles. Another report suggested th...

  19. [Yellow fever epidemiology in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mondet, B

    2001-08-01

    We have carried out a meticulous time-space-analysis of the incidence of yellow fever in humans in Brazil from 1954 to 1972 and especially from 1973 to 1999. This study has added to our knowledge of the epidemiology of yellow fever and enabled us to redefine epidemiological zones and determine their geographical limits. The endemic area is located within the Amazon basin; here cases are scattered and generally limited in number. However, there are also "foci of endemic emergence" within this area, where cases are less rare, although occurrence remains irregular. The epidemic area is for the most part situated outside the Amazon basin, to the north east and particularly to the south. It has been divided into two parts according to whether the occurrence of yellow fever is cyclic or sporadic. The epidemics, which are all sylvatic, follow either a circular path (in the forest area) or a linear path (in forest-galleries of the savannah area). The study of the development of the 3 main epidemics (1972-74; 1979-82; 1986-92) in the cyclic emergence area showed that, on each occasion, the yellow fever virus appeared at a particularly active outbreak site located in the "serra dos Carajás", and from there, it followed the courses of the Tocantins and Araguaia rivers upstream, moving southwards during the "pre-epidemic phase" which may be visible due to the occurrence of a few cases, or may remain invisible. Subsequently the virus reached the emergence area, where it appeared in the form of epidemics. In this zone, it also followed privileged south-western pathways, moving from one hydraulic basin to another along the upstream courses of the rivers. Almost exactly the same pathways have been identified for each of the 3 epidemics studied. The distances travelled by the virus over a period of one year--when it goes rapidly--can reach several hundred kilometers. On the other hand, it may be stationary for a period of one or two consecutive years, occasionally three, remaining

  20. Just How Bright Is a Laser?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Baak, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to quantify the subjective sensation of brightness of the spot projected by a helium-neon laser and compares this with conventional sources of light. Provides an exercise in using the blackbody radiation formulas. (JRH)

  1. New Observations of Subarcsecond Photospheric Bright Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, T. E.; Schrijver, C. J.; Shine, R. A.; Tarbell, T. D.; Title, A. M.; Scharmer, G.

    1995-01-01

    We have used an interference filter centered at 4305 A within the bandhead of the CH radical (the 'G band') and real-time image selection at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope on La Palma to produce very high contrast images of subarcsecond photospheric bright points at all locations on the solar disk. During the 6 day period of 1993 September 15-20 we observed active region NOAA 7581 from its appearance on the East limb to a near-disk-center position on September 20. A total of 1804 bright points were selected for analysis from the disk center image using feature extraction image processing techniques. The measured Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) distribution of the bright points in the image is lognormal with a modal value of 220 km (0 sec .30) and an average value of 250 km (0 sec .35). The smallest measured bright point diameter is 120 km (0 sec .17) and the largest is 600 km (O sec .69). Approximately 60% of the measured bright points are circular (eccentricity approx. 1.0), the average eccentricity is 1.5, and the maximum eccentricity corresponding to filigree in the image is 6.5. The peak contrast of the measured bright points is normally distributed. The contrast distribution variance is much greater than the measurement accuracy, indicating a large spread in intrinsic bright-point contrast. When referenced to an averaged 'quiet-Sun' area in the image, the modal contrast is 29% and the maximum value is 75%; when referenced to an average intergranular lane brightness in the image, the distribution has a modal value of 61% and a maximum of 119%. The bin-averaged contrast of G-band bright points is constant across the entire measured size range. The measured area of the bright points, corrected for pixelation and selection effects, covers about 1.8% of the total image area. Large pores and micropores occupy an additional 2% of the image area, implying a total area fraction of magnetic proxy features in the image of 3.8%. We discuss the implications of this

  2. New Observations of Subarcsecond Photospheric Bright Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, T. E.; Schrijver, C. J.; Shine, R. A.; Tarbell, T. D.; Title, A. M.; Scharmer, G.

    1995-01-01

    We have used an interference filter centered at 4305 A within the bandhead of the CH radical (the 'G band') and real-time image selection at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope on La Palma to produce very high contrast images of subarcsecond photospheric bright points at all locations on the solar disk. During the 6 day period of 15-20 Sept. 1993 we observed active region NOAA 7581 from its appearance on the East limb to a near-disk-center position on 20 Sept. A total of 1804 bright points were selected for analysis from the disk center image using feature extraction image processing techniques. The measured FWHM distribution of the bright points in the image is lognormal with a modal value of 220 km (0.30 sec) and an average value of 250 km (0.35 sec). The smallest measured bright point diameter is 120 km (0.17 sec) and the largest is 600 km (O.69 sec). Approximately 60% of the measured bright points are circular (eccentricity approx. 1.0), the average eccentricity is 1.5, and the maximum eccentricity corresponding to filigree in the image is 6.5. The peak contrast of the measured bright points is normally distributed. The contrast distribution variance is much greater than the measurement accuracy, indicating a large spread in intrinsic bright-point contrast. When referenced to an averaged 'quiet-Sun' area in the image, the modal contrast is 29% and the maximum value is 75%; when referenced to an average intergranular lane brightness in the image, the distribution has a modal value of 61% and a maximum of 119%. The bin-averaged contrast of G-band bright points is constant across the entire measured size range. The measured area of the bright points, corrected for pixelation and selection effects, covers about 1.8% of the total image area. Large pores and micropores occupy an additional 2% of the image area, implying a total area fraction of magnetic proxy features in the image of 3.8%. We discuss the implications of this area fraction measurement in the context of

  3. Several evolutionary channels for bright planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richer, Michael G.; McCall, Marshall L.

    2016-08-01

    The populations of bright planetary nebulae in the discs of spirals appear to differ in their spectral properties from those in ellipticals and the bulges of spirals. The bright planetary nebulae from the bulge of the Milky Way are entirely compatible with those observed in the discs of spiral galaxies. The similarity might be explained if the bulge of the Milky Way evolved secularly from the disc, in which case the bulge should be regarded as a pseudo-bulge.

  4. Evolution of bulgeless low surface brightness galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xu; Hammer, Francois; Yang, Yanbin; Liang, Yanchun

    2015-08-01

    We study the environment, the morphology and stellar population of bulgeless low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies in a volume-limited sample. The differences of environments between LSB and high surface brightness (HSB) galaxies are not obvious, suggesting they may locate in similar environments. The stellar populations of LSB galaxies in low density region are similar with those of LSB galaxies in high density region. Irregular LSB galaxies have more young stars and are more metal-poor than the regular LSB galaxies.

  5. Observations and diagnostics in high brightness beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cianchi, A.; Anania, M. P.; Bisesto, F.; Castellano, M.; Chiadroni, E.; Pompili, R.; Shpakov, V.

    2016-09-01

    The brightness is a figure of merit largely used in the light sources, like FEL (Free Electron Lasers), but it is also fundamental in several other applications, as for instance Compton backscattering sources, beam driven plasma accelerators and THz sources. Advanced diagnostics are essential tools in the development of high brightness beams. 6D electron beam diagnostics will be reviewed with emphasis on emittance measurement.

  6. Determining the bivariate brightness distribution of galaxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, P. J.; Phillipps, S.

    1995-04-01

    In this paper we describe a set of criteria which we propose a sample of galaxies must satisfy if it is to be useful for determining the bivariate brightness distribution (BBD) of galaxies in luminosity and surface brightness and we consider the prospects for deriving such a sample. First, we note that determinations of the galaxy luminosity function can be seriously in error if surface brightness (visibility) selection effects are ignored. We suggest that a determination of the BBD is a more physically useful aim. A straightforward way to obtain the BBD would be to determine a luminosity function in a set of narrow surface brightness bins. We propose a set of criteria which the sample of galaxies in each surface brightness bin must satisfy if it is to be reliably used in such a determination. Each sample should be restricted to a well defined range in morphological type, the measured isophotal size and magnitude and the surface brightness of each galaxy should be corrected to a common galactic inclination, all galaxies should have measured redshifts and the sample should be complete to a known isophotal size and/or magnitude. We then describe a rigorous method for selecting samples which satisfy these criteria from existing catalogues of galaxies. We apply this method to the ESO-LV catalogue and find that from the intial sample of 11000 galaxies with a disk component we can only find 5 subsamples in half-magnitude wide surface brightness bins which satisfy our proposed criteria. The largest derived subsample contains only 27 galaxies, far too few to determine a luminosity function at its surface brightness. We suggest that had our proposed criteria been applied to the samples used in previous determinations of the BBD or the galaxy luminosity function then sample sizes would have been greatly reduced. For this reason, we suggest that the conclusions of previous work should be treated with caution.

  7. Energy-exchange collisions of dark-bright-bright vector solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, R.; Manikandan, N.; Aravinthan, K.

    2015-12-01

    We find a dark component guiding the practically interesting bright-bright vector one-soliton to two different parametric domains giving rise to different physical situations by constructing a more general form of three-component dark-bright-bright mixed vector one-soliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with nine free real parameters. Moreover our main investigation of the collision dynamics of such mixed vector solitons by constructing the multisoliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with the help of Hirota technique reveals that the dark-bright-bright vector two-soliton supports energy-exchange collision dynamics. In particular the dark component preserves its initial form and the energy-exchange collision property of the bright-bright vector two-soliton solution of the Manakov model during collision. In addition the interactions between bound state dark-bright-bright vector solitons reveal oscillations in their amplitudes. A similar kind of breathing effect was also experimentally observed in the Bose-Einstein condensates. Some possible ways are theoretically suggested not only to control this breathing effect but also to manage the beating, bouncing, jumping, and attraction effects in the collision dynamics of dark-bright-bright vector solitons. The role of multiple free parameters in our solution is examined to define polarization vector, envelope speed, envelope width, envelope amplitude, grayness, and complex modulation of our solution. It is interesting to note that the polarization vector of our mixed vector one-soliton evolves in sphere or hyperboloid depending upon the initial parametric choices.

  8. Energy-exchange collisions of dark-bright-bright vector solitons.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, R; Manikandan, N; Aravinthan, K

    2015-12-01

    We find a dark component guiding the practically interesting bright-bright vector one-soliton to two different parametric domains giving rise to different physical situations by constructing a more general form of three-component dark-bright-bright mixed vector one-soliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with nine free real parameters. Moreover our main investigation of the collision dynamics of such mixed vector solitons by constructing the multisoliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with the help of Hirota technique reveals that the dark-bright-bright vector two-soliton supports energy-exchange collision dynamics. In particular the dark component preserves its initial form and the energy-exchange collision property of the bright-bright vector two-soliton solution of the Manakov model during collision. In addition the interactions between bound state dark-bright-bright vector solitons reveal oscillations in their amplitudes. A similar kind of breathing effect was also experimentally observed in the Bose-Einstein condensates. Some possible ways are theoretically suggested not only to control this breathing effect but also to manage the beating, bouncing, jumping, and attraction effects in the collision dynamics of dark-bright-bright vector solitons. The role of multiple free parameters in our solution is examined to define polarization vector, envelope speed, envelope width, envelope amplitude, grayness, and complex modulation of our solution. It is interesting to note that the polarization vector of our mixed vector one-soliton evolves in sphere or hyperboloid depending upon the initial parametric choices.

  9. [Pleuritis in yellow nail syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kossakowski, C A; Schmiegelow, P; Müller, K-M

    2012-03-01

    A 76-year-old man presented clinically with coughing and shortness of breath and was diagnosed radiologically to have massive pleural effusion as a combined feature of yellow nail syndrome. A lung biopsy was taken and revealed histologically: chronic non-specific inflammation in the pleuropulmonary border, intrapleural edema with eightfold pleural thickening in comparison to normal, angiogenesis in both the nutritive and functional intrapleural blood vessels, no abnormalities of lymphatic vessels with normal topographical distribution as detected by immunohistochemistry for antibody D2-40, granulomatous chronic foreign body reaction as a consequence of pleural effusion therapy by talcum pleurodesis.The histopathological findings of chronic non-specific pleuritis with angiogenesis and increased permeability of blood vessels led to massive intrapleural edema with pleural effusion. Abnormalities of lymphatic vessels could not be confirmed. Considering the features of this disease, they are probably secondary to chronic r infectious or immunological inflammation or paraneoplastic complications with angiogenesis (in about 19%). PMID:22048329

  10. Experimental therapies for yellow fever

    PubMed Central

    Julander, Justin G.

    2013-01-01

    A number of viruses in the family Flaviviridae are the focus of efforts to develop effective antiviral therapies. Success has been achieved with inhibitors for the treatment of hepatitis C, and there is interest in clinical trials of drugs against dengue fever. Antiviral therapies have also been evaluated in patients with Japanese encephalitis and West Nile encephalitis. However, no treatment has been developed against the prototype flavivirus, yellow fever virus (YFV). Despite the availability of the live, attenuated 17D vaccine, thousands of cases of YF continue to occur each year in Africa and South America, with a significant mortality rate. In addition, a small number of vaccinees develop severe systemic infections with the 17D virus. This paper reviews current efforts to develop antiviral therapies, either directly targeting the virus or blocking detrimental host responses to infection. PMID:23237991

  11. [Pleuritis in yellow nail syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kossakowski, C A; Schmiegelow, P; Müller, K-M

    2012-03-01

    A 76-year-old man presented clinically with coughing and shortness of breath and was diagnosed radiologically to have massive pleural effusion as a combined feature of yellow nail syndrome. A lung biopsy was taken and revealed histologically: chronic non-specific inflammation in the pleuropulmonary border, intrapleural edema with eightfold pleural thickening in comparison to normal, angiogenesis in both the nutritive and functional intrapleural blood vessels, no abnormalities of lymphatic vessels with normal topographical distribution as detected by immunohistochemistry for antibody D2-40, granulomatous chronic foreign body reaction as a consequence of pleural effusion therapy by talcum pleurodesis.The histopathological findings of chronic non-specific pleuritis with angiogenesis and increased permeability of blood vessels led to massive intrapleural edema with pleural effusion. Abnormalities of lymphatic vessels could not be confirmed. Considering the features of this disease, they are probably secondary to chronic r infectious or immunological inflammation or paraneoplastic complications with angiogenesis (in about 19%).

  12. Microwave Brightness Temperatures of Tilted Convective Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Ye; Haferman, Jeffrey L.; Olson, William S.; Kummerow, Christian D.

    1998-01-01

    Aircraft and ground-based radar data from the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Coupled-Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) show that convective systems are not always vertical. Instead, many are tilted from vertical. Satellite passive microwave radiometers observe the atmosphere at a viewing angle. For example, the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) on Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites and the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) on the TRMM satellite have an incident angle of about 50deg. Thus, the brightness temperature measured from one direction of tilt may be different than that viewed from the opposite direction due to the different optical depth. This paper presents the investigation of passive microwave brightness temperatures of tilted convective systems. To account for the effect of tilt, a 3-D backward Monte Carlo radiative transfer model has been applied to a simple tilted cloud model and a dynamically evolving cloud model to derive the brightness temperature. The radiative transfer results indicate that brightness temperature varies when the viewing angle changes because of the different optical depth. The tilt increases the displacements between high 19 GHz brightness temperature (Tb(sub 19)) due to liquid emission from lower level of cloud and the low 85 GHz brightness temperature (Tb(sub 85)) due to ice scattering from upper level of cloud. As the resolution degrades, the difference of brightness temperature due to the change of viewing angle decreases dramatically. The dislocation between Tb(sub 19) and Tb(sub 85), however, remains prominent.

  13. The Sky Brightness Data Archive (SBDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craine, Eric R.; Craine, Erin M.; Craine, Brian L.

    2011-05-01

    Although many astronomers have long been sensitive to issues of light pollution and deteriorating sky quality it is only in recent years that such interest has extended to other groups including, among others, ecologists, health professionals, and urban planners. Issues of light pollution and loss of dark skies are starting to appear in the scientific literature in the context of health and behavior impacts on both human and animal life. Nonetheless, a common deficiency in most such studies is the absence of historical or baseline data against which to compare sky brightness trends and temporal changes. To address this deficiency we have begun to collect a variety of types of quantitative sky brightness data for insertion in an international sky brightness archive that can be accessed for research projects which are dependent upon an understanding of the nature of local light pollution issues. To aid this process we have developed a mobile sky brightness meter which automatically logs sky brightness and observation location. The device can be stationary for long periods of time or can be easily transported for continuous sky brightness measurement from ground vehicles, boats, or aircraft. The sampling rate is typically about 0.25Hz. We present here examples of different modes of sky brightness measurement, various means of displaying and analyzing such data, ways to interpret natural astronomical phenomena apparent in the data, and suggest a number of complementary scientific projects that may capture the interest of both professional and amateur scientists. Finally, we discuss the status of the archive and ways that potential contributors may submit their observations for publication in the archive.

  14. A clinicopathological study of human yellow fever*

    PubMed Central

    Francis, T. I.; Moore, D. L.; Edington, G. M.; Smith, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    During an epidemic of yellow fever in the Jos Plateau area of Nigeria, 9 adult males with clinically diagnosed yellow fever were studied by haematological, biochemical, virological, serological, and liver biopsy methods. The ages of the patients ranged from 20 to 55 years and the duration of illness was 3-62 days. No virus was isolated from any patient but all patients should biochemical evidence of severe hepatocellular damage. Leucopenia was a feature of the late acute stage of the disease. Five sera had antibodies to yellow fever at titres greater than 1: 32, 3 of them being monospecific for yellow fever. The classical histological features of yellow fever were present only in the acute or late acute stages, when complement-fixation tests may be negative. With convalescence and the production of complement-fixing antibodies in high titres, the histological features resembled those of a persisting nonspecific hepatitis. In an endemic area, the histological features of yellow fever will depend on the stage of the disease and a picture of nonspecific hepatitis would not exclude yellow fever in the absence of confirmation from serological tests. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2AFig. 2BFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:4538039

  15. A selective deficit in the appreciation and recognition of brightness: brightness agnosia?

    PubMed

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; Nys, Gudrun M S; van der Smagt, Maarten J; de Haan, Edward H F

    2009-01-01

    We report a patient with extensive brain damage in the right hemisphere who demonstrated a severe impairment in the appreciation of brightness. Acuity, contrast sensitivity as well as luminance discrimination were normal, suggesting her brightness impairment is not a mere consequence of low-level sensory impairments. The patient was not able to indicate the darker or the lighter of two grey squares, even though she was able to see that they differed. In addition, she could not indicate whether the lights in a room were switched on or off, nor was she able to differentiate between normal greyscale images and inverted greyscale images. As the patient recognised objects, colours, and shapes correctly, the impairment is specific for brightness. As low-level, sensory processing is normal, this specific deficit in the recognition and appreciation of brightness appears to be of a higher, cognitive level, the level of semantic knowledge. This appears to be the first report of 'brightness agnosia'.

  16. Brightness discrimination in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Lind, Olle; Karlsson, Sandra; Kelber, Almut

    2013-01-01

    Birds have excellent spatial acuity and colour vision compared to other vertebrates while spatial contrast sensitivity is relatively poor for unknown reasons. Contrast sensitivity describes the detection of gratings of varying spatial frequency. It is unclear whether bird brightness discrimination between large uniform fields is poor as well. Here we show that budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) need a Michelson contrast of 0.09 to discriminate between large spatially separated achromatic fields in bright light conditions. This is similar to the peak contrast sensitivity of 10.2 (0.098 Michelson contrast) for achromatic grating stimuli established in earlier studies. The brightness discrimination threshold described in Weber fractions is 0.18, which is modest compared to other vertebrates. PMID:23349946

  17. High-brightness electron injectors: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The last decade has seen increased emphasis on the development of high-brightness electron beams because of rigorous requirements of the new generation of colliders and the advent of free-electron lasers. This talk describes the approaches now being explored for attaining intense, bright electron beams. The methods for producing bright electron beams include photocathode-based, short-pulse injectors; dc electrostatic accelerator sources; long-pulse beams, which are then compressed in time using subharmonic bunching; combining first and third harmonics in an accelerator to attain the equivalent of high-gradient dc fields; and LaB/sub 6/ rf guns. For several of the approaches, the temporal length of the electron pulse is decreased after acceleration to relativistic energies by impressing an energy spread on the electron bunch and using a nonisochronous beam-transport system to increase the peak current. 37 refs., 7 figs.

  18. A brightness exceeding simulated Langmuir limit

    SciTech Connect

    Nakasuji, Mamoru

    2013-08-15

    When an excitation of the first lens determines a beam is parallel beam, a brightness that is 100 times higher than Langmuir limit is measured experimentally, where Langmuir limits are estimated using a simulated axial cathode current density which is simulated based on a measured emission current. The measured brightness is comparable to Langmuir limit, when the lens excitation is such that an image position is slightly shorter than a lens position. Previously measured values of brightness for cathode apical radii of curvature 20, 60, 120, 240, and 480 μm were 8.7, 5.3, 3.3, 2.4, and 3.9 times higher than their corresponding Langmuir limits, respectively, in this experiment, the lens excitation was such that the lens and the image positions were 180 mm and 400 mm, respectively. From these measured brightness for three different lens excitation conditions, it is concluded that the brightness depends on the first lens excitation. For the electron gun operated in a space charge limited condition, some of the electrons emitted from the cathode are returned to the cathode without having crossed a virtual cathode. Therefore, method that assumes a Langmuir limit defining method using a Maxwellian distribution of electron velocities may need to be revised. For the condition in which the values of the exceeding the Langmuir limit are measured, the simulated trajectories of electrons that are emitted from the cathode do not cross the optical axis at the crossover, thus the law of sines may not be valid for high brightness electron beam systems.

  19. The historical investigation of cometary brightness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, David W.

    1998-12-01

    The interpretation of the way in which the brightness of a comet varied as a function of both its heliocentric and geocentric distance was essentially started by Isaac Newton in his book Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, published in 1687. Astronomers have argued about the form of this variability ever since, and for many years it was regarded as an important clue as to the physical nature of the cometary nucleus and its decay process. This paper reviews our understanding of the causes of cometary brightness variability between about 1680 and the 1950s.

  20. Evolution of bulgeless low surface brightness galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, X.; Hammer, F.; Yang, Y. B.; Liang, Y. C.

    Based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR 7, we investigate the environment, morphology, and stellar population of bulgeless low surface-brightness (LSB) galaxies in a volume-limited sample with redshift ranging from 0.024 to 0.04 and M r <= -18.8. We find that, for bulgeless galaxies, the surface brightness does not depend on the environment. Irregular LSB galaxies have more young stars and are more metal-poor than regular LSB galaxies. These results suggest that the evolution of LSB galaxies may be driven by their dynamics, including mergers rather than by their large-scale environment.

  1. Observed brightness distributions in overcast skies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Raymond L; Devan, David E

    2008-12-01

    Beneath most overcasts, clouds' motions and rapidly changing optical depths complicate mapping their angular distributions of luminance L(v) and visible-wavelength radiance L. Fisheye images of overcast skies taken with a radiometer-calibrated digital camera provide a useful new approach to solving this problem. Maps calculated from time-averaged images of individual overcasts not only show their brightness distributions in unprecedented detail, but they also help solve a long-standing puzzle about where brightness maxima of overcasts are actually located. When combined with simulated radiance distributions from MODTRAN4, our measured radiances also let us estimate the gradients of cloud thickness observed in some overcasts.

  2. Richard Bright and his neurological studies.

    PubMed

    Pearce, J M S

    2009-01-01

    Richard Bright was one of the famous triumvirate of Guy's Hospital physicians in the Victorian era. Remembered for his account of glomerulonephritis (Bright's disease) he also made many important and original contributions to medicine and neurology. These included his work on cortical epileptogenesis, descriptions of simple partial (Jacksonian) seizures, infantile convulsions, and a variety of nervous diseases. Most notable were his reports of neurological studies including papers on traumatic tetanus, syringomyelia, arteries of the brain, contractures of spinal origin, tumours of the base of the brain, and narcolepsy. His career and these contributions are outlined.

  3. Richard Bright in Hungary: a reevaluation.

    PubMed

    Nagy, J; Sonkodi, S

    1997-01-01

    Richard Bright, the highly respected physician and nephrologist at Guy's Hospital, had a strong liking for travel. In 1815 he traveled in Hungary and made very important observations about the country. His 762-page book, entitled Travels from Vienna through Lower Hungary has detailed, sometimes appreciative, sometimes very critical remarks and comments on Hungarian history, art, archeology, religion, the situation of nationalities, education, social conditions, law, farming, and mining. The Hungarians cherished the memory of Bright's travel in their country as reflected in several papers and on two commemorative tablets recognizing him as a true and sincere friend of Hungary.

  4. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  5. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  6. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  7. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  8. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  9. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  10. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  11. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  12. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  13. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  14. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  15. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  16. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  17. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  18. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  19. Teachable Fiction Comes to Yellow Sky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tietz, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Proposes that teachable fiction is efficient, strategically sound, and very visual. Analyzes Stephen Crane's "The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky" to show it fulfills these three characteristics. Suggests the story should be taught later in the semester. (PM)

  20. Lost Trust: A Yellow Fever Patient Response

    PubMed Central

    Runge, John S.

    2013-01-01

    In the 19th century, yellow fever thrived in the tropical, urban trade centers along the American Gulf Coast. Industrializing and populated, New Orleans and Memphis made excellent habitats for the yellow fever-carrying Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and the virulence they imparted on their victims. Known for its jaundice and black, blood-filled vomit, the malady terrorized the region for decades, sometimes claiming tens of thousands of lives during the near annual summertime outbreaks. In response to the failing medical community, a small, pronounced population of sick and healthy laypeople openly criticized the efforts to rid the Gulf region of yellow jack. Utilizing newspapers and cartoons to vocalize their opinions, these critics doubted and mocked the medical community, contributing to the regional and seasonal dilemma yellow fever posed for the American South. These sentient expressions prove to be an early example of patient distrust toward caregivers, a current problem in clinical heath care. PMID:24348220

  1. Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using protein crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the enexpected hypothesis that the virus release its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have farly flat coats, but in TYMV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early studies of TYMV, but McPhereson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central viod on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides liked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the voild. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine.

  2. Brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2016-01-01

    According to the literature, while calculating the brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers, one needs to account for the so-called 'depth-of-field' effects. In fact, the particle beam cross-section varies along the wiggler. It is usually stated that the effective photon source size increases accordingly, while the brightness is reduced. Here we claim that this is a misconception originating from an analysis of the wiggler source based on geometrical arguments, regarded as almost self-evident. According to electrodynamics, depth-of-field effects do not exist: we demonstrate this statement both theoretically and numerically, using a well-known first-principle computer code. This fact shows that under the usually accepted approximations, the description of the wiggler brightness turns out to be inconsistent even qualitatively. Therefore, there is a need for a well-defined procedure for computing the brightness from a wiggler source. We accomplish this task based on the use of a Wigner function formalism. We exemplify this formalism in simple limiting cases. We consider the problem of the calculation of the wiggler source size by means of numerical simulations alone, which play the same role of an experiment. We report a significant numerical disagreement between exact calculations and approximations currently used in the literature.

  3. Polyvinylpyrrolidone dewaxing aid for bright stocks

    SciTech Connect

    Achia, B.U.; Shaw, D.H.

    1980-05-20

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone having a number average molecular weight ranging from about 150,000 to 400,000 has been found to be an effective dewaxing aid for bright stock in ketone dewaxing processes. Using as little as 100 ppm based on the waxy oil can result in almost a 50% increase in the filter rate of the dewaxed oils from the wax.

  4. Sky brightness during eclipses: a review.

    PubMed

    Silverman, S M; Mullen, E G

    1975-12-01

    This paper is abstracted from the introductory section of "Sky Brightness During Eclipses: A Compendium from the Literature," AFCRL-TR-74-0363, Special Reports 180, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Hanscom AFB, Massachusetts 01731. This report should be consulted for fuller details and tables.

  5. Alberta Associations for Bright Children Members' Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Association for Bright Children, Edmonton.

    This handbook is designed to provide information to parents of gifted children in Alberta, Canada. The handbook outlines the mission and objectives of the Alberta Associations for Bright Children and describes the structure of the non-profit organization. The booklet then addresses: (1) the characteristics of gifted children; (2) the rights of…

  6. Sky brightness during eclipses: a review.

    PubMed

    Silverman, S M; Mullen, E G

    1975-12-01

    This paper is abstracted from the introductory section of "Sky Brightness During Eclipses: A Compendium from the Literature," AFCRL-TR-74-0363, Special Reports 180, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Hanscom AFB, Massachusetts 01731. This report should be consulted for fuller details and tables. PMID:20155120

  7. Probable Bright Supernovae discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-01-01

    Three bright transients, which are probable supernovae, have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  8. Probable Bright Supernova discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Young, D. R.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-09-01

    A bright transient, which is a probable supernova, has been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  9. Bright Meteor Lights Up Atlanta Skies

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows a very bright meteor that streaked over the skies of Atlanta, Ga., on the night of Aug. 28, 2011. The view is from an all sky camera in Cartersville, Ga., operated by NASA’s Mars...

  10. Yellowing disease in zucchini squash produced by mixed infections of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus and Cucumber vein yellowing virus.

    PubMed

    Gil-Salas, Francisco M; Peters, Jeff; Boonham, Neil; Cuadrado, Isabel M; Janssen, Dirk

    2011-11-01

    Zucchini squash is host to Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), a member of the genus Crinivirus, and Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV), a member of the genus Ipomovirus, both transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Field observations suggest the appearance of new symptoms observed on leaves of zucchini squash crops when both viruses were present. When infected during controlled experiments with CYSDV only, zucchini plants showed no obvious symptoms and the virus titer decreased between 15 and 45 days postinoculation (dpi), after which it was no longer detected. CVYV caused inconspicuous symptoms restricted to vein clearing on some of the apical leaves and the virus accumulated progressively between 15 and 60 dpi. Similar accumulations of virus followed single inoculations with the potyvirus Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and plants showed severe stunting, leaf deformation, and mosaic yellowing. However, in mixed infections with CYSDV and CVYV, intermediate leaves showed chlorotic mottling which evolved later to rolling, brittleness, and complete yellowing of the leaf lamina, with exception of the veins. No consistent alteration of CVYV accumulation was detected but the amounts of CYSDV increased ≈100-fold and remained detectable at 60 dpi. Such synergistic effects on the titer of the crinivirus and symptom expression were not observed when co-infected with ZYMV.

  11. Circadian Phase-Shifting Effects of Bright Light, Exercise, and Bright Light + Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Christopher E.; Elliott, Jeffrey A.; Zielinski, Mark R.; Devlin, Tina M.; Moore, Teresa A.

    2016-01-01

    Limited research has compared the circadian phase-shifting effects of bright light and exercise and additive effects of these stimuli. The aim of this study was to compare the phase-delaying effects of late night bright light, late night exercise, and late evening bright light followed by early morning exercise. In a within-subjects, counterbalanced design, 6 young adults completed each of three 2.5-day protocols. Participants followed a 3-h ultra-short sleep-wake cycle, involving wakefulness in dim light for 2h, followed by attempted sleep in darkness for 1 h, repeated throughout each protocol. On night 2 of each protocol, participants received either (1) bright light alone (5,000 lux) from 2210–2340 h, (2) treadmill exercise alone from 2210–2340 h, or (3) bright light (2210–2340 h) followed by exercise from 0410–0540 h. Urine was collected every 90 min. Shifts in the 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) cosine acrophase from baseline to post-treatment were compared between treatments. Analyses revealed a significant additive phase-delaying effect of bright light + exercise (80.8 ± 11.6 [SD] min) compared with exercise alone (47.3 ± 21.6 min), and a similar phase delay following bright light alone (56.6 ± 15.2 min) and exercise alone administered for the same duration and at the same time of night. Thus, the data suggest that late night bright light followed by early morning exercise can have an additive circadian phase-shifting effect. PMID:27103935

  12. Genetic engineering of yellow betalain pigments beyond the species barrier

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsuka, Takashi; Yamada, Eri; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Imamura, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Mariko; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Tsujimura, Ikuko; Saito, Misa; Sakamoto, Yuichi; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Nishihara, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Betalains are one of the major plant pigment groups found in some higher plants and higher fungi. They are not produced naturally in any plant species outside of the order Caryophyllales, nor are they produced by anthocyanin-accumulating Caryophyllales. Here, we attempted to reconstruct the betalain biosynthetic pathway as a self-contained system in an anthocyanin-producing plant species. The combined expressions of a tyrosinase gene from shiitake mushroom and a DOPA 4,5-dioxygenase gene from the four-o'clock plant resulted in successful betalain production in cultured cells of tobacco BY2 and Arabidopsis T87. Transgenic tobacco BY2 cells were bright yellow because of the accumulation of betaxanthins. LC-TOF-MS analyses showed that proline-betaxanthin (Pro-Bx) accumulated as the major betaxanthin in these transgenic BY2 cells. Transgenic Arabidopsis T87 cells also produced betaxanthins, but produced lower levels than transgenic BY2 cells. These results illustrate the success of a novel genetic engineering strategy for betalain biosynthesis. PMID:23760173

  13. Image mosaic with color and brightness correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yili; Xu, Dan; Pan, Zhigeng

    2004-03-01

    Image mosaic is comprised of building a large field of view from a sequence of smaller images. It can be performed by registering, projective warping, resampling and compositing a serials of images. Due to the many possible factors for color and brightness variations when taking images, it is possible to lead to misalignment and obtain poor stitching result. Despite image mosaic can be manually adjusted using some photo editors like PhotoShop, this is not only tedious but also requires skills, knowledge and experience. Automatic adjustment is therefore desirable. By converting images to lαβ space and applying a special statistical analysis, color and brightness correction can be done automatically and improved image mosaic can be obtained.

  14. Brightness increase in an LCD stereo display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rallison, Richard D.; Schicker, Scott R.

    1994-05-01

    A practical head mounted display (HMD) has to be light enough and bright enough to wear and view without undue strain on the users head or eyes. A 10 pound CRT based helmet is not always out of the question but binocular or stereo HMDs using LCDs rather than CRTs need only weigh in at around one pound complete with electronics and are far more comfortable to wear. The space bandwidth product or pixel count of LCDs is now approaching that of CRT type displays but LCDs could use a big boost in brightness, especially for see thru designs. The see thru or head up style has many user advantages and this paper addresses ways to more efficiently transmit photons from the source to the eye in one such design. All of the components that are used to improve performance may be made holographically or in an alternate fashion. The most practical method of construction is probably a toss up for some components.

  15. N-bright-bright and N-dark-dark solitons of the coupled generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnu Priya, N.; Senthilvelan, M.

    2016-07-01

    We construct N-bright-bright and N-dark-dark soliton solutions of an integrable two coupled generalized nonlinear Schrödinger (CGNLS) equation for arbitrary values of system parameters. These solutions are more general than the reported one. While the bright-bright solitons are captured in the focusing regime of CGNLS equation, the dark-dark soliton solutions are identified in the defocusing regime. We present N-bright-bright solitons in the Gram determinant forms and prove that these determinant forms satisfy the Hirota bilinear equations.

  16. Australia 31-GHz brightness temperature exceedance statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B. L.

    1988-01-01

    Water vapor radiometer measurements were made at DSS 43 during an 18 month period. Brightness temperatures at 31 GHz were subjected to a statistical analysis which included correction for the effects of occasional water on the radiometer radome. An exceedance plot was constructed, and the 1 percent exceedance statistics occurs at 120 K. The 5 percent exceedance statistics occurs at 70 K, compared with 75 K in Spain. These values are valid for all of the three month groupings that were studied.

  17. Nonlinear Brightness Optimization in Compton Scattering

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hartemann, Fred V.; Wu, Sheldon S. Q.

    2013-07-26

    In Compton scattering light sources, a laser pulse is scattered by a relativistic electron beam to generate tunable x and gamma rays. Because of the inhomogeneous nature of the incident radiation, the relativistic Lorentz boost of the electrons is modulated by the ponderomotive force during the interaction, leading to intrinsic spectral broadening and brightness limitations. We discuss these effects, along with an optimization strategy to properly balance the laser bandwidth, diffraction, and nonlinear ponderomotive force.

  18. UV-bright stars in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landsman, Wayne B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper highlights globular cluster studies with Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) in three areas: the discrepancy between observed ultraviolet HB magnitudes and predictions of theoretical HB models; the discovery of two hot subdwarfs in NGC 1851, a globular not previously known to contain such stars; and spectroscopic follow up of newly identified UV-bright stars in M79 and w Cen. I also present results of a recent observation of NGC 6397 with the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometer.

  19. Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Bright Source List

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malina, Roger F.; Marshall, Herman L.; Antia, Behram; Christian, Carol A.; Dobson, Carl A.; Finley, David S.; Fruscione, Antonella; Girouard, Forrest R.; Hawkins, Isabel; Jelinsky, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    Initial results from the analysis of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) all-sky survey (58-740 A) and deep survey (67-364 A) are presented through the EUVE Bright Source List (BSL). The BSL contains 356 confirmed extreme ultraviolet (EUV) point sources with supporting information, including positions, observed EUV count rates, and the identification of possible optical counterparts. One-hundred twenty-six sources have been detected longward of 200 A.

  20. Low-Dispersion Observations of Bright Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, Edward L.

    Seven US2 observing shifts are being requested to obtain low-dispersion SWP and LWP spectra of approximately 15 bright, nearby early-type stars. The targets are taken from the 10-year old effective temperature and bolometric correction study of Code, Davis, Bless, and Hanbury Brown (CDBB). The CDBB stars represent the only sample of stars for which angular diameter measurements are available. The stars which we plan to observe have been unobservable with the low-dispersion mode of IUE in the past because of their extreme brightness; however, the recent refinements in the fast-trailing technique now allow optimally exposed spectra to be obtained. With the new spectra and with Archival spectra which are available for some of the less bright CDBB stars, we plan to repeat the earlier effective temperature and bolometric correction determinations, taking advantage of the higher photometric stability and higher resolution of IUE over previous ultraviolet missions and utilizing improvements in the ground-based optical/lR data and calibrations. This study will tie the large IUE database into a system of fundamental stellar effective temperature and bolometric correction determinations.

  1. Personal audio with a planar bright zone.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Philip; Jackson, Philip J B; Olik, Marek; Pedersen, Jan Abildgaard

    2014-10-01

    Reproduction of multiple sound zones, in which personal audio programs may be consumed without the need for headphones, is an active topic in acoustical signal processing. Many approaches to sound zone reproduction do not consider control of the bright zone phase, which may lead to self-cancellation problems if the loudspeakers surround the zones. Conversely, control of the phase in a least-squares sense comes at a cost of decreased level difference between the zones and frequency range of cancellation. Single-zone approaches have considered plane wave reproduction by focusing the sound energy in to a point in the wavenumber domain. In this article, a planar bright zone is reproduced via planarity control, which constrains the bright zone energy to impinge from a narrow range of angles via projection in to a spatial domain. Simulation results using a circular array surrounding two zones show the method to produce superior contrast to the least-squares approach, and superior planarity to the contrast maximization approach. Practical performance measurements obtained in an acoustically treated room verify the conclusions drawn under free-field conditions. PMID:25324075

  2. Bright Ray Craters in Ganymede's Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    GANYMEDE COLOR PHOTOS: This color picture as acquired by Voyager 1 during its approach to Ganymede on Monday afternoon (the 5th of March). At ranges between about 230 to 250 thousand km. The images show detail on the surface with a resolution of four and a half km. This picture is of a region in the northern hemisphere near the terminator. It shows a variety of impact structures, including both razed and unrazed craters, and the odd, groove-like structures discovered by Voyager in the lighter regions. The most striking features are the bright ray craters which have a distinctly 'bluer' color appearing white against the redder background. Ganymede's surface is known to contain large amounts of surface ice and it appears that these relatively young craters have spread bright fresh ice materials over the surface. Likewise, the lighter color and reflectivity of the grooved areas suggests that here, too, there is cleaner ice. We see ray craters with all sizes of ray patterns, ranging from extensive systems of the crater in the southern part of this picture, which has rays at least 300-500 kilometers long, down to craters which have only faint remnants of bright ejects patterns (such as several of the craters in the southern half of PIA01516; P21262). This variation suggests that, as on the Moon, there are processes which act to darken ray material, probably 'gardening' by micrometeoroid impact. JPL manages and controls the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  3. Search for bright stars with infrared excess

    SciTech Connect

    Raharto, Moedji

    2014-03-24

    Bright stars, stars with visual magnitude smaller than 6.5, can be studied using small telescope. In general, if stars are assumed as black body radiator, then the color in infrared (IR) region is usually equal to zero. Infrared data from IRAS observations at 12 and 25μm (micron) with good flux quality are used to search for bright stars (from Bright Stars Catalogues) with infrared excess. In magnitude scale, stars with IR excess is defined as stars with IR color m{sub 12}−m{sub 25}>0; where m{sub 12}−m{sub 25} = −2.5log(F{sub 12}/F{sub 25})+1.56, where F{sub 12} and F{sub 25} are flux density in Jansky at 12 and 25μm, respectively. Stars with similar spectral type are expected to have similar color. The existence of infrared excess in the same spectral type indicates the existence of circum-stellar dust, the origin of which is probably due to the remnant of pre main-sequence evolution during star formation or post AGB evolution or due to physical process such as the rotation of those stars.

  4. Bright light activates a trigeminal nociceptive pathway

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Keiichiro; Tashiro, Akimasa; Chang, Zheng; Bereiter, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Bright light can cause ocular discomfort and/or pain; however, the mechanism linking luminance to trigeminal nerve activity is not known. In this study we identify a novel reflex circuit necessary for bright light to excite nociceptive neurons in superficial laminae of trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc/C1). Vc/C1 neurons encoded light intensity and displayed a long delay (>10 s) for activation. Microinjection of lidocaine into the eye or trigeminal root ganglion (TRG) inhibited light responses completely, whereas topical application onto the ocular surface had no effect. These findings indicated that light-evoked Vc/C1 activity was mediated by an intraocular mechanism and transmission through the TRG. Disrupting local vasomotor activity by intraocular microinjection of the vasoconstrictive agents, norepinephrine or phenylephrine, blocked light-evoked neural activity, whereas ocular surface or intra-TRG microinjection of norepinephrine had no effect. Pupillary muscle activity did not contribute since light-evoked responses were not altered by atropine. Microinjection of lidocaine into the superior salivatory nucleus diminished light-evoked Vc/C1 activity and lacrimation suggesting that increased parasympathetic outflow was critical for light-evoked responses. The reflex circuit also required input through accessory visual pathways since both Vc/C1 activity and lacrimation were prevented by local blockade of the olivary pretectal nucleus. These findings support the hypothesis that bright light activates trigeminal nerve activity through an intraocular mechanism driven by a luminance-responsive circuit and increased parasympathetic outflow to the eye. PMID:20206444

  5. Bright and Dark Slopes on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Ridges on the edge of Ganymede's north polar cap show bright east-facing slopes and dark west-facing slopes with troughs of darker material below the larger ridges. North is to the top. The bright slopes may be due to grain size differences, differences in composition between the original surface and the underlying material, frost deposition, or illumination effects. The large 2.4 kilometer (1.5 mile) diameter crater in this image shows frost deposits located on the north-facing rim slope, away from the sun. A smaller 675 meter (2200 foot) diameter crater in the center of the image is surrounded by a bright deposit which may be ejecta from the impact. Ejecta deposits such as this are uncommon for small craters on Ganymede. This image measures 18 by 19 kilometers (11 by 12 miles) and has a resolution of 45 meters (148 feet) per pixel. NASA's Galileo spacecraft obtained this image on September 6, 1996 during its second orbit around Jupiter.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  6. Brightness Changes in Sun-like Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Stephen M.; Henry, Gregory W.

    1998-01-01

    Does the Sun's energy output vary with time? Are observable climatic changes on the earth caused by changes in the Sun? Can we gain greater insight into this relation-ship by studying other stars with properties similar to the Sun's? In recent years, satellite observations have shown that the solar irradiance varies in phase with the 1 l-year sunspot cycle. The Sun is brighter by about O.l% at the peak of the sunspot cycle when solar magnetic activity is at its maximum. Over longer intervals, changes in the cart h's climate and solar magnetic activity seem to be correlated. We are using automatic photoelectric telescopes to measure brightness changes in a sample of 150 Sun-like stars. Lowell Observatory astronomers have also observed about 30 of these same stars with a manual telescope in a program that began 10 years before ours. Since these two data sets were acquired with different instruments and so have significant systematic differences, we developed software to combine them accurately and, therefore, extend our observational time coverage. We show sample results of brightness variations over 14 years in several Sun-like stars with different ages. Longitudinal studies like these, combined with cross-sectional studies of the larger sample of stars, may eventually allow us to infer with confidence the Sun's long-term brightness history and its impact on the earth's climate.

  7. Increasing use of yellow colors in Kyoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akita, Munehira; Nara, Iwao

    2002-06-01

    Colors used for commercial signboards, displayed outdoors as well as indoors through windows, such as a store sign, an advertising sign, a sky sign, a poster, a placard, and a billboard were extensively surveyed in Kyoto City, Japan, in 1998. The survey showed that various kinds of yellow painted signs have increased rapidly and invaded a center area and suburbs of the city. Vivid yellow, what we called it the Y98 virus, is specially considered a color unpleasantly matched to the city image of Kyoto which was the capital of Japan for nearly 1000 years (794 to 1868) and is endowed with cultural and historic heritage. Discussions trying to find out what we could do to prevent the rapid spread of a big commercial display painted with vivid yellows what we called 'the Y98 virus' over the city will be summarized in a main text.

  8. Selective myelosuppression following yellow phosphorus ingestion.

    PubMed

    Basheer, Aneesh; Mookkappan, Sudhagar; Padhi, Somanath; Iqbal, Nayyar

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity from accidental and intentional ingestion of yellow phosphorus, ubiquitously present in fireworks and rodenticides, has recently become more frequent. Gastrointestinal, renal, neurologic, and cardiovascular manifestations are common, with mortality of 23 per cent to 73 per cent. Reports of haematological abnormalities are rare. We report only the second case of severe neutropenia secondary to selective myelosuppression in a 14-year-old girl following intentional ingestion of yellow phosphorus. Leucocyte counts recovered spontaneously without further complications. Our case indicates that, besides hepatic and renal function monitoring, physicians should meticulously monitor blood counts in such cases for early detection of marrow suppression. Further studies are required to elucidate the complex mechanisms and significance of this unusual toxicity of yellow phosphorus. PMID:25848404

  9. Incubation periods of Yellow fever virus.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Michael A; Arana-Vizcarrondo, Neysarí; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Staples, J Erin

    2010-07-01

    Yellow fever virus is a global health threat due to its endemicity in parts of Africa and South America where human infections occur in residents and travelers. To understand yellow fever dynamics, it is critical to characterize the incubation periods of the virus in vector mosquitoes and humans. Here, we compare four statistical models of the yellow fever incubation periods fitted with historical data. The extrinsic incubation period in the urban vector Aedes aegypti was best characterized with a temperature-dependent Weibull model with a median of 10 days at 25 degrees C (middle 95% = 2.0-37 days). The intrinsic incubation period, fitted with a log-normal model, had a median of 4.3 days (middle 95% = 2.3-8.6 days). These estimates and their associated statistical models provide a quantitative basis to assist in exposure assessments, model potential outbreaks, and evaluate the effectiveness of public health interventions.

  10. Yellow fever vaccination in the Americas.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Outbreaks of yellow fever in recent years in the Americas have prompted concern about the possible urbanization of jungle fever. Vaccination, using the 17D strain of yellow fever virus, provides an effective, practical method of large scale protection against the disease. Because yellow fever can reappear in certain areas after a 2-year dormancy period, some countries maintain routine vaccination programs in areas where jungle yellow fever is endemic. The size of the endemic area (approximately half of South America), transportation and communication difficulties, and the inability to ensure a reliable cold chain are problems facing these programs. In addition, the problem of reaching dispersed and isolated populations has been addressed by the use of mobile teams, radio monitoring, and educational methods. During yellow fever outbreaks, many countries institute massive vaccination campaigns, targeted at temporary workers and migrants. Because epidemics in South America may involve extensive areas, these campaigns may not effectively address the problem. The ped-o-jet injector method, used in Brazil and Colombia, should be used in outbreak situations, as it is effective for large-scale vaccination. Vaccine by needle, suggested for maintenance programs, should be administered to those above 1 year of age. An efficient monitoring method to avoid revaccination, and to assess immunity, should be developed. The 17D strain produces seroconversion in 95% of recipients, and most is prepared in Brazil and Colombia. But, problems with storage methods, instability in seed lots, and difficulties in large-scale production were identified in 1981 by the Pan American Health Organization and WHO. The group recommended modernization of current production techniques and further research to develop a vaccine that could be produced in cell cultures. Brazil and Colombia have acted on these recommendations, modernizing vaccine production and researching thermostabilizing media for

  11. 7 CFR 51.2000 - Clean and bright.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean and bright. 51.2000 Section 51.2000 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing....2000 Clean and bright. Clean and bright means that the individual filbert and the lot as a whole...

  12. 7 CFR 51.2000 - Clean and bright.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean and bright. 51.2000 Section 51.2000 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing....2000 Clean and bright. Clean and bright means that the individual filbert and the lot as a whole...

  13. Dark and Bright Ridges on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This high-resolution image of Jupiter's moon Europa, taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft camera, shows dark, relatively smooth region at the lower right hand corner of the image which may be a place where warm ice has welled up from below. The region is approximately 30 square kilometers in area. An isolated bright hill stands within it. The image also shows two prominent ridges which have different characteristics; youngest ridge runs from left to top right and is about 5 kilometers in width (about 3.1 miles). The ridge has two bright, raised rims and a central valley. The rims of the ridge are rough in texture. The inner and outer walls show bright and dark debris streaming downslope, some of it forming broad fans. This ridge overlies and therefore must be younger than a second ridge running from top to bottom on the left side of the image. This dark 2 km wide ridge is relatively flat, and has smaller-scale ridges and troughs along its length.

    North is to the top of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from the upper left. This image, centered at approximately 14 degrees south latitude and 194 degrees west longitude, covers an area approximately 15 kilometers by 20 kilometers (9 miles by 12 miles). The resolution is 26 meters (85 feet) per picture element. This image was taken on December 16, 1997 at a range of 1300 kilometers (800 miles) by Galileo's solid state imaging system.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  14. High brightness LED in confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakili, Ali; Xiong, Daxi; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2015-03-01

    We have introduced a novel illumination system for line scanning confocal microscopy. Confocal microscopy is a popular imaging tool in many applications specifically in medical imaging. Line scanning confocal microscopes have been proven to provide images with resolution comparable to point scanning microscopes. In the point scanning microscopes, the light is focused onto a diffraction limited spot. A pinhole is placed conjugate to the diffraction limited spot, in front of the detector to reject the light coming from out-of-focus planes. Therefore, confocal microscopy can provide optical sectioning. The size of the pinhole determines the amount of light that reaches the detector. A large pinhole results in a blurry image since more of the out-of-focus light contribute to the image. On the other hand, a smaller pinhole rejects more of the light, leading to a lower signal-to-noise ratio. Ideally it is desired to deliver a larger amount of optical power to the diffraction limited spot to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and have a smaller pinhole to reject more of the out-of-focus light. This is the property of the illumination system. In order to get a good signal-to noise ratio in the image, the light source has to provide sufficient radiance. We have introduced a new illumination system utilizing a high brightness LED in the line scanning confocal microscope. High brightness LEDs provide more optical power compared to ordinary LEDs from a smaller area; they have higher radiance. Preliminary results from our line scanning confocal microscope show that the high brightness LED is able to provide enough radiance to obtain an image with resolution comparable with the same microscope utilizing the laser diode. However, in high frame-rate application higher radiance or lower-noise detection system is required.

  15. [A case of Yellow fever in 1887].

    PubMed

    Hansen, Sven Erik

    2015-01-01

    A young Danish sailor died from yellow fever in Barbados in 1887. The Shipmaster's letter to the family with a description of the course of the disease, which has been preserved, is presented here together with a photo of the sailor and a painting of the Danish sailing-ship. PMID:27086445

  16. Yellowing reaction in encapsulant of photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Shigekuni, T.; Kumano, M.

    1997-12-31

    To clarify the mechanism of the yellowing reaction in encapsulant used for photovoltaic (PV) modules, a low molecular weight substance in EVA (Ethylene vinyl acetate) under accelerated weathering test (Dew cycle test, 1000 hours) with yellow change and virgin EVA were extracted with methanol. Extracts were chemically analyzed by GCIR (Gas Chromatography Infrared-Ray spectroscopic analysis), GC-AED (Gas Chromatography Atomic Emission Detector), and FDMS (Field Desorption Mass Spectroscopy). The conditions of this accelerated test were based on JIS-K9117. The analysis results showed that 2,6-di-t-butyl-4-methyl phenol of antioxidant and 2-hydroxy-4-octoxy-benzophenone of UV absorbent were consumed after the weathering test and that 3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde having yellow color was newly produced. A mechanism of the yellowing reaction in encapsulant was presented here that 2,6-di-t-N-O radical from Bis-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinyl sebacate to produce 3,5 di-t-butyl-4-hydroxy benzaldehyde.

  17. Chaos may make black holes bright

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Janna

    1999-09-01

    Black holes cannot be seen directly since they absorb light and emit none, the very quality which earned them their name. We suggest that black holes may be seen indirectly through a chaotic defocusing of light. A black hole can capture light from a luminous companion in chaotic orbits before scattering the light in random directions. To a distant observer, the black hole would appear to light up. If the companion were a bright radio pulsar, this estimate suggests the black hole echo could be detectable.

  18. Bright solitary waves in malignant gliomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-García, Víctor M.; Calvo, Gabriel F.; Belmonte-Beitia, Juan; Diego, David; Pérez-Romasanta, Luis

    2011-08-01

    We put forward a nonlinear wave model describing the fundamental dynamical features of an aggressive type of brain tumors. Our model accounts for the invasion of normal tissue by a proliferating and propagating rim of active glioma cancer cells in the tumor boundary and the subsequent formation of a necrotic core. By resorting to numerical simulations, phase space analysis, and exact solutions we prove that bright solitary tumor waves develop in such systems. Possible implications of our model as a tool to extract relevant patient specific tumor parameters in combination with standard preoperative clinical imaging are also discussed.

  19. Two-color bright squeezed vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Agafonov, Ivan N.; Chekhova, Maria V.

    2010-07-15

    In a strongly pumped nondegenerate traveling-wave optical parametric amplifier, we produce a two-color squeezed vacuum with up to millions of photons per pulse. Our approach to registering this macroscopic quantum state is direct detection of a large number of transverse and longitudinal modes, which is achieved by making the detection time and area much larger than the coherence time and area, respectively. Using this approach, we obtain a record value of twin-beam squeezing for direct detection of bright squeezed vacuum. This makes direct detection of macroscopic squeezed vacuum a practical tool for quantum information applications.

  20. Raman beam combining for laser brightness enhancement

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, Jay W.; Allen, Graham S.; Pax, Paul H.; Heebner, John E.; Sridharan, Arun K.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Barty, Chrisopher B. J.

    2015-10-27

    An optical source capable of enhanced scaling of pulse energy and brightness utilizes an ensemble of single-aperture fiber lasers as pump sources, with each such fiber laser operating at acceptable pulse energy levels. Beam combining involves stimulated Raman scattering using a Stokes' shifted seed beam, the latter of which is optimized in terms of its temporal and spectral properties. Beams from fiber lasers can thus be combined to attain pulses with peak energies in excess of the fiber laser self-focusing limit of 4 MW while retaining the advantages of a fiber laser system of high average power with good beam quality.

  1. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  2. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  3. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  4. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  5. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  6. 21 CFR 172.490 - Yellow prussiate of soda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.490 Yellow prussiate of soda. (a) The food additive yellow prussiate of... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Yellow prussiate of soda. 172.490 Section...

  7. 21 CFR 573.1020 - Yellow prussiate of soda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.1020 Yellow prussiate of soda. Yellow prussiate of soda (sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yellow prussiate of soda. 573.1020 Section...

  8. 21 CFR 573.1020 - Yellow prussiate of soda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.1020 Yellow prussiate of soda. Yellow prussiate of soda (sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yellow prussiate of soda. 573.1020 Section...

  9. 21 CFR 573.1020 - Yellow prussiate of soda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.1020 Yellow prussiate of soda. Yellow prussiate of soda (sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yellow prussiate of soda. 573.1020 Section...

  10. 21 CFR 573.1020 - Yellow prussiate of soda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.1020 Yellow prussiate of soda. Yellow prussiate of soda (sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow prussiate of soda. 573.1020 Section...

  11. 21 CFR 573.1020 - Yellow prussiate of soda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.1020 Yellow prussiate of soda. Yellow prussiate of soda (sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yellow prussiate of soda. 573.1020 Section...

  12. 49 CFR 173.188 - White or yellow phosphorus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Inner water-tight metal cans containing not over 0.5 kg (1 pound) of phosphorus with screw-top closures... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false White or yellow phosphorus. 173.188 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.188 White or yellow phosphorus. Phosphorus, white or yellow, when offered...

  13. 49 CFR 173.188 - White or yellow phosphorus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Inner water-tight metal cans containing not over 0.5 kg (1 pound) of phosphorus with screw-top closures... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false White or yellow phosphorus. 173.188 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.188 White or yellow phosphorus. Phosphorus, white or yellow, when offered...

  14. 49 CFR 173.188 - White or yellow phosphorus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false White or yellow phosphorus. 173.188 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.188 White or yellow phosphorus. Phosphorus, white or yellow, when offered for transportation or transported by rail, highway, or water, must be packaged in water or dry in...

  15. 49 CFR 173.188 - White or yellow phosphorus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false White or yellow phosphorus. 173.188 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.188 White or yellow phosphorus. Phosphorus, white or yellow, when offered for transportation or transported by rail, highway, or water, must be packaged in water or dry in...

  16. 49 CFR 173.188 - White or yellow phosphorus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false White or yellow phosphorus. 173.188 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.188 White or yellow phosphorus. Phosphorus, white or yellow, when offered for transportation or transported by rail, highway, or water, must be packaged in water or dry in...

  17. Unusual manifestation of the yellow nail syndrome - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Papaiordanou, Francine; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Miyaoka, Mariana Yumi; Yang, Jeane Jeong Hoon; Pires, Mario Cezar

    2014-01-01

    The yellow nail syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the classic triad of yellow and dystrophic nails, lymphedema and pleural effusion. We report in this paper a case of yellow nail syndrome, presenting the classic triad of the disease, associated with an unusual lymph accumulation in the abdomen region. PMID:24937826

  18. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color....

  19. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color....

  20. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color....

  1. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color....

  2. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color....

  3. 49 CFR 172.440 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. 172.440 Section 172... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.440 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label must be as follows: EC02MR91.034 (b) In addition to complying...

  4. 49 CFR 172.440 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. 172.440 Section 172... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.440 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label must be as follows: EC02MR91.034 (b) In addition to complying...

  5. 49 CFR 172.438 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label. 172.438 Section 172... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.438 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II must be as follows: EC02MR91.033 (b) In addition to complying with §...

  6. 49 CFR 172.440 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. 172.440 Section 172... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.440 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label must be as follows: EC02MR91.034 (b) In addition to complying...

  7. 49 CFR 172.440 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. 172.440 Section 172... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.440 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label must be as follows: EC02MR91.034 (b) In addition to complying...

  8. 49 CFR 172.440 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. 172.440 Section 172... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.440 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label must be as follows: EC02MR91.034 (b) In addition to complying...

  9. 49 CFR 172.438 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label. 172.438 Section 172... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.438 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II must be as follows: EC02MR91.033 (b) In addition to complying with §...

  10. 49 CFR 172.438 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label. 172.438 Section 172... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.438 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II must be as follows: EC02MR91.033 (b) In addition to complying with §...

  11. 49 CFR 172.438 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label. 172.438 Section 172... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.438 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II must be as follows: EC02MR91.033 (b) In addition to complying with §...

  12. 49 CFR 172.438 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label. 172.438 Section 172... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.438 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II must be as follows: EC02MR91.033 (b) In addition to complying with §...

  13. A novel emaravirus is associated with redbud yellow ringspot disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow ringspot is the only virus-like disease reported in redbud (Cercis spp.) with symptoms including vein clearing, chlorotic ringspots and oak-leaf pattern. A putative new emaravirus was present in 48 of 48l trees displaying typical yellow ringspot symptoms and the name redbud yellow ringspot as...

  14. Coronal Bright Points Associated with Minifilament Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Junchao; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Bi, Yi; Li, Haidong; Yang, Bo; Yang, Dan

    2014-12-01

    Coronal bright points (CBPs) are small-scale, long-lived coronal brightenings that always correspond to photospheric network magnetic features of opposite polarity. In this paper, we subjectively adopt 30 CBPs in a coronal hole to study their eruptive behavior using data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. About one-quarter to one-third of the CBPs in the coronal hole go through one or more minifilament eruption(s) (MFE(s)) throughout their lifetimes. The MFEs occur in temporal association with the brightness maxima of CBPs and possibly result from the convergence and cancellation of underlying magnetic dipoles. Two examples of CBPs with MFEs are analyzed in detail, where minifilaments appear as dark features of a cool channel that divide the CBPs along the neutral lines of the dipoles beneath. The MFEs show the typical rising movements of filaments and mass ejections with brightenings at CBPs, similar to large-scale filament eruptions. Via differential emission measure analysis, it is found that CBPs are heated dramatically by their MFEs and the ejected plasmas in the MFEs have average temperatures close to the pre-eruption BP plasmas and electron densities typically near 109 cm-3. These new observational results indicate that CBPs are more complex in dynamical evolution and magnetic structure than previously thought.

  15. Globe at Night - Sky Brightness Monitoring Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Sze Leung; Pun, Jason Chun Shing; SO, Chu-wing; Shibata, Yukiko; Walker, Constance Elaine; Agata, Hidehiko

    2015-08-01

    The Global at Night - Sky Brightness Monitoring Network (GaN-MN) is an international project for long-term monitoring of night sky conditions around the world. The GaN-MN consists of fixed monitoring stations each equipped with a Sky Quality Meter - Lensed Ethernet (SQM-LE), which is a specialized light sensor for night sky brightness (NSB) measurement. NSB data are continuously collected at high sampling frequency throughout the night, and these data will be instantly made available to the general public to provide a real-time snapshot of the global light pollution condition. A single data collection methodology, including data sampling frequency, data selection criteria, device design and calibration, and schemes for data quality control, was adopted to ensure uniformity in the data collected. This is essential for a systematic and global study of the level of light pollution. The data collected will also provide the scientific backbone in our efforts to contribute to dark sky conservation through education to the general public and policy makers. The GaN-MN project is endorsed by the IAU IYL Executive Committee Working Group as a major Cosmic Light program in the International Year of Light.

  16. A high brightness field emission display

    SciTech Connect

    Palevsky, A.

    1996-12-31

    The military requirement for avionics display performance requires that displays be legible with 10,000 foot-candles (fc) bright light shining into the pilot`s eyes, or 10,000 fc shining directly on the display. The contrast ratio under these conditions must be at least 4.66:1. In addition, instant-on operation is sought for temperatures as low as {minus}54 C. Currently these specifications can barely be met by monochrome CRTs whose use is counter-indicated by other factors. No color display can achieve optimum performance in the areas mentioned, nor do any current contenders, primarily AMLCD`s, have any prospects of achieving full compliance. The FED being developed by Raytheon shows strong promise of being able to achieve the brightness and contrast ratios desired. The FED is also inherently able to provide instant-on functionality at any terrestrial temperature and does not require any heating at low temperatures. The technical objective of the Raytheon development program is to develop a high performance, full color, FED Panel that meets the performance and environmental operating condition requirements specified for military and other high performance display applications.

  17. Sublimation in bright spots on (1) Ceres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathues, A.; Hoffmann, M.; Schaefer, M.; Le Corre, L.; Reddy, V.; Platz, T.; Cloutis, E. A.; Christensen, U.; Kneissl, T.; Li, J.-Y.; Mengel, K.; Schmedemann, N.; Schaefer, T.; Russell, C. T.; Applin, D. M.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Izawa, M. R. M.; Keller, H. U.; O'Brien, D. P.; Pieters, C. M.; Raymond, C. A.; Ripken, J.; Schenk, P. M.; Schmidt, B. E.; Sierks, H.; Sykes, M. V.; Thangjam, G. S.; Vincent, J.-B.

    2015-12-01

    The dwarf planet (1) Ceres, the largest object in the main asteroid belt with a mean diameter of about 950 kilometres, is located at a mean distance from the Sun of about 2.8 astronomical units (one astronomical unit is the Earth-Sun distance). Thermal evolution models suggest that it is a differentiated body with potential geological activity. Unlike on the icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn, where tidal forces are responsible for spewing briny water into space, no tidal forces are acting on Ceres. In the absence of such forces, most objects in the main asteroid belt are expected to be geologically inert. The recent discovery of water vapour absorption near Ceres and previous detection of bound water and OH near and on Ceres (refs 5, 6, 7) have raised interest in the possible presence of surface ice. Here we report the presence of localized bright areas on Ceres from an orbiting imager. These unusual areas are consistent with hydrated magnesium sulfates mixed with dark background material, although other compositions are possible. Of particular interest is a bright pit on the floor of crater Occator that exhibits probable sublimation of water ice, producing haze clouds inside the crater that appear and disappear with a diurnal rhythm. Slow-moving condensed-ice or dust particles may explain this haze. We conclude that Ceres must have accreted material from beyond the ‘snow line’, which is the distance from the Sun at which water molecules condense.

  18. Sublimation in bright spots on (1) Ceres.

    PubMed

    Nathues, A; Hoffmann, M; Schaefer, M; Le Corre, L; Reddy, V; Platz, T; Cloutis, E A; Christensen, U; Kneissl, T; Li, J-Y; Mengel, K; Schmedemann, N; Schaefer, T; Russell, C T; Applin, D M; Buczkowski, D L; Izawa, M R M; Keller, H U; O'Brien, D P; Pieters, C M; Raymond, C A; Ripken, J; Schenk, P M; Schmidt, B E; Sierks, H; Sykes, M V; Thangjam, G S; Vincent, J-B

    2015-12-10

    The dwarf planet (1) Ceres, the largest object in the main asteroid belt with a mean diameter of about 950 kilometres, is located at a mean distance from the Sun of about 2.8 astronomical units (one astronomical unit is the Earth-Sun distance). Thermal evolution models suggest that it is a differentiated body with potential geological activity. Unlike on the icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn, where tidal forces are responsible for spewing briny water into space, no tidal forces are acting on Ceres. In the absence of such forces, most objects in the main asteroid belt are expected to be geologically inert. The recent discovery of water vapour absorption near Ceres and previous detection of bound water and OH near and on Ceres (refs 5-7) have raised interest in the possible presence of surface ice. Here we report the presence of localized bright areas on Ceres from an orbiting imager. These unusual areas are consistent with hydrated magnesium sulfates mixed with dark background material, although other compositions are possible. Of particular interest is a bright pit on the floor of crater Occator that exhibits probable sublimation of water ice, producing haze clouds inside the crater that appear and disappear with a diurnal rhythm. Slow-moving condensed-ice or dust particles may explain this haze. We conclude that Ceres must have accreted material from beyond the 'snow line', which is the distance from the Sun at which water molecules condense.

  19. Coronal bright points associated with minifilament eruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Junchao; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Bi, Yi; Li, Haidong; Yang, Bo; Yang, Dan

    2014-12-01

    Coronal bright points (CBPs) are small-scale, long-lived coronal brightenings that always correspond to photospheric network magnetic features of opposite polarity. In this paper, we subjectively adopt 30 CBPs in a coronal hole to study their eruptive behavior using data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. About one-quarter to one-third of the CBPs in the coronal hole go through one or more minifilament eruption(s) (MFE(s)) throughout their lifetimes. The MFEs occur in temporal association with the brightness maxima of CBPs and possibly result from the convergence and cancellation of underlying magnetic dipoles. Two examples of CBPs with MFEs are analyzed in detail, where minifilaments appear as dark features of a cool channel that divide the CBPs along the neutral lines of the dipoles beneath. The MFEs show the typical rising movements of filaments and mass ejections with brightenings at CBPs, similar to large-scale filament eruptions. Via differential emission measure analysis, it is found that CBPs are heated dramatically by their MFEs and the ejected plasmas in the MFEs have average temperatures close to the pre-eruption BP plasmas and electron densities typically near 10{sup 9} cm{sup –3}. These new observational results indicate that CBPs are more complex in dynamical evolution and magnetic structure than previously thought.

  20. Small bright charged colloidal quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wei; Liu, Heng; Guyot-Sionnest, Philippe

    2014-01-28

    Using electrochemical charge injection, the fluorescence lifetimes of negatively charged core/shell CdTe/CdSe QDs are measured as a function of core size and shell thickness. It is found that the ensemble negative trion lifetimes reach a maximum (∼4.5 ns) for an intermediate shell thickness. This leads to the smallest particles (∼4.5 nm) with the brightest trion to date. Single dot measurements show that the negative charge suppresses blinking and that the trion can be as bright as the exciton at room temperature. In contrast, the biexciton lifetimes remain short and exhibit only a monotonous increase with shell thickness, showing no correlation with the negative trion decays. The suppression of the Auger process in small negatively charged CdTe/CdSe quantum dots is unprecedented and a significant departure from prior results with ultrathick CdSe/CdS core/shell or dot-in-rod structures. The proposed reason for the optimum shell thickness is that the electron-hole overlap is restricted to the CdTe core while the electron is tuned to have zero kinetic energy in the core for that optimum shell thickness. The different trend of the biexciton lifetime is not explained but tentatively attributed to shorter-lived positive trions at smaller sizes. These results improve our understanding of multiexciton recombination in colloidal quantum dots and may lead to the design of bright charged QDs for more efficient light-emitting devices.

  1. Sublimation in bright spots on (1) Ceres.

    PubMed

    Nathues, A; Hoffmann, M; Schaefer, M; Le Corre, L; Reddy, V; Platz, T; Cloutis, E A; Christensen, U; Kneissl, T; Li, J-Y; Mengel, K; Schmedemann, N; Schaefer, T; Russell, C T; Applin, D M; Buczkowski, D L; Izawa, M R M; Keller, H U; O'Brien, D P; Pieters, C M; Raymond, C A; Ripken, J; Schenk, P M; Schmidt, B E; Sierks, H; Sykes, M V; Thangjam, G S; Vincent, J-B

    2015-12-10

    The dwarf planet (1) Ceres, the largest object in the main asteroid belt with a mean diameter of about 950 kilometres, is located at a mean distance from the Sun of about 2.8 astronomical units (one astronomical unit is the Earth-Sun distance). Thermal evolution models suggest that it is a differentiated body with potential geological activity. Unlike on the icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn, where tidal forces are responsible for spewing briny water into space, no tidal forces are acting on Ceres. In the absence of such forces, most objects in the main asteroid belt are expected to be geologically inert. The recent discovery of water vapour absorption near Ceres and previous detection of bound water and OH near and on Ceres (refs 5-7) have raised interest in the possible presence of surface ice. Here we report the presence of localized bright areas on Ceres from an orbiting imager. These unusual areas are consistent with hydrated magnesium sulfates mixed with dark background material, although other compositions are possible. Of particular interest is a bright pit on the floor of crater Occator that exhibits probable sublimation of water ice, producing haze clouds inside the crater that appear and disappear with a diurnal rhythm. Slow-moving condensed-ice or dust particles may explain this haze. We conclude that Ceres must have accreted material from beyond the 'snow line', which is the distance from the Sun at which water molecules condense. PMID:26659183

  2. At Bright Band Inside Victoria Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A layer of light-toned rock exposed inside Victoria Crater in the Meridiani Planum region of Mars appears to mark where the surface was at the time, many millions of years ago, when an impact excavated the crater. NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drove to this bright band as the science team's first destination for the rover during investigations inside the crater.

    Opportunity's left front hazard-identification camera took this image just after the rover finished a drive of 2.25 meters (7 feet, 5 inches) during the rover's 1,305th Martian day, or sol, (Sept. 25, 2007). The rocks beneath the rover and its extended robotic arm are part of the bright band.

    Victoria Crater has a scalloped shape of alternating alcoves and promontories around the crater's circumference. Opportunity descended into the crater two weeks earlier, within an alcove called 'Duck Bay.' Counterclockwise around the rim, just to the right of the arm in this image, is a promontory called 'Cabo Frio.'

  3. Wavelet dispersion and bright-spot detection

    SciTech Connect

    Luh, P.C.

    1989-03-01

    Since Ostrander in 1984 showed that the variations in reflectivity as a function of offset can be used for bright-spot validation, it has been known that these variations are often sensitive to errors in acquisition and processing of prestack seismic data. This presentation shows that even with perfect measurements, the bright-spot signal will be altered because the wavelet disperses as it propagates through an attenuating overburden. This in turn affects the slope term of the amplitude vs. offset (AVO) variation. For any single reflector, the dispersion of its propagated signal as a function of offset can be decomposed into a product of the vertical and horizontal dispersions. The vertical dispersion is the dispersion that a zero-offset arrival suffers through its propagation, and the horizontal dispersion is the additional dispersion that a nonzero-offset arrival must suffer further because of the residual normal moveout time. Numerical examples using a frequency-independent attenuation law show that even for a relatively high-Q or low-loss overburden, the horizontal dispersion alone can distort the AVO signal. This distortion cannot be taken care of by velocity analysis. A preferred method to overcome the dispersion effect would be to apply Q compensation on prestack seismic data before movement.

  4. Synchrotron brightness distribution of turbulent radio jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriksen, R. N.; Bridle, A. H.; Chan, K. L.

    1981-01-01

    Radio jets are considered as turbulent mixing regions and it is proposed that the essential small scale viscous dissipation in these jets is by emission of MHD waves and by their subsequent strong damping due, at least partly, to gyro-resonant acceleration of supra-thermal particles. A formula relating the synchrotron surface brightness of a radio jet to the turbulent power input is deduced from physical postulates, and is tested against the data for NGC315 and 3C31 (NGC383). The predicted brightness depends essentially on the collimation behavior of the jet, and, to a lesser extent, on the CH picture of a 'high' nozzle with accelerating flow. The conditions for forming a large scale jet at a high nozzle from a much smaller scale jet are discussed. The effect of entrainment on the prediction is discussed with the use of similarity solutions. Although entrainment is inevitably associated with the turbulent jet, it may or may not be a dominant factor depending on the ambient density profile.

  5. Evaluation of HWRF Synthetic Satellite Brightness Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musgrave, K. D.; Knaff, J. A.; Slocum, C. J.; Grasso, L. D.; Demaria, M.

    2014-12-01

    The regions within and surrounding tropical cyclones (TCs) tend to be devoid of in situ measurements, making satellite observations particularly useful within these data sparse regions. Forecasters and researchers have used these observations for decades to evaluate and understand the structural evolution of TCs. Synthetic satellite brightness temperatures are produced by the Hurricane Weather Research and Forecast (HWRF) model using the Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) and provided for four different channels corresponding to channels available from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). This presentation will focus on the comparison between the HWRF synthetic satellite brightness temperatures and the observed GOES-13 10.7μm (infrared) and 6.48μm (water vapor) bands, highlighting the differences between the large-scale and storm-scale environments, and evaluating the structure of TCs as represented by the simulated satellite imagery. Disclaimer: The views, opinions, and findings contained in this article are those of the authors and should not be construed as an official National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) or U.S. Government position, policy, or decision.

  6. Bright crater outflows: Possible emplacement mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chadwick, D. John; Schaber, Gerald G.; Strom, Robert G.; Duval, Darla M.

    1992-01-01

    Lobate features with a strong backscatter are associated with 43 percent of the impact craters cataloged in Magellan's cycle 1. Their apparent thinness and great lengths are consistent with a low-viscosity material. The longest outflow yet identified is about 600 km in length and flows from the 90-km-diameter crater Addams. There is strong evidence that the outflows are largely composed of impact melt, although the mechanisms of their emplacement are not clearly understood. High temperatures and pressures of target rocks on Venus allow for more melt to be produced than on other terrestrial planets because lower shock pressures are required for melting. The percentage of impact craters with outflows increases with increasing crater diameter. The mean diameter of craters without outflows is 14.4 km, compared with 27.8 km for craters with outflows. No craters smaller than 3 km, 43 percent of craters in the 10- to 30-km-diameter range, and 90 percent in the 80- to 100-km-diameter range have associated bright outflows. More melt is produced in the more energetic impact events that produce larger craters. However, three of the four largest craters have no outflows. We present four possible mechanisms for the emplacement of bright outflows. We believe this 'shotgun' approach is justified because all four mechanisms may indeed have operated to some degree.

  7. Study of the brightness of trumpet tones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirson, Emilie; Petiot, Jean-François; Gilbert, Joël

    2005-10-01

    This study focuses on a particular attribute of trumpet tones, the brightness, and on the physical characteristics of the instrument thought to govern its magnitude. On the one hand, an objective study was carried out with input impedance measurements, and, on the other hand, a subjective study with hearing tests and a panel of subjects. To create a set of different trumpets a variable depth mouthpiece was developed whose depth can be easily and continuously adjusted from ``deep'' to ``shallow.'' Using this mouthpiece and the same trumpet, several instruments were generated which may be played in three ways: (i) by a musician, (ii) by an artificial mouth, and (iii) using physical modeling simulations. The influence of the depth of the mouthpiece on the perception of the trumpet's tones was investigated, and the ability of a musician, the artificial mouth, or physical modeling simulations to demonstrate perceptively noticeable differences was assessed. Physical characteristics extracted from the impedance curves are finally proposed to explain the brightness of trumpet tones. As a result, the physical modeling simulations now seem to be mature enough to exhibit coherent and subtle perceptual differences between tones. This opens the door to virtual acoustics for instrument makers.

  8. LARGER PLANET RADII INFERRED FROM STELLAR ''FLICKER'' BRIGHTNESS VARIATIONS OF BRIGHT PLANET-HOST STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Bastien, Fabienne A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua

    2014-06-10

    Most extrasolar planets have been detected by their influence on their parent star, typically either gravitationally (the Doppler method) or by the small dip in brightness as the planet blocks a portion of the star (the transit method). Therefore, the accuracy with which we know the masses and radii of extrasolar planets depends directly on how well we know those of the stars, the latter usually determined from the measured stellar surface gravity, log g. Recent work has demonstrated that the short-timescale brightness variations ({sup f}licker{sup )} of stars can be used to measure log g to a high accuracy of ∼0.1-0.2 dex. Here, we use flicker measurements of 289 bright (Kepmag < 13) candidate planet-hosting stars with T {sub eff} = 4500-6650 K to re-assess the stellar parameters and determine the resulting impact on derived planet properties. This re-assessment reveals that for the brightest planet-host stars, Malmquist bias contaminates the stellar sample with evolved stars: nearly 50% of the bright planet-host stars are subgiants. As a result, the stellar radii, and hence the radii of the planets orbiting these stars, are on average 20%-30% larger than previous measurements had suggested.

  9. Does Stevens's Power Law for Brightness Extend to Perceptual Brightness Averaging?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Stevens's power law ([Psi][infinity][Phi][beta]) captures the relationship between physical ([Phi]) and perceived ([Psi]) magnitude for many stimulus continua (e.g., luminance and brightness, weight and heaviness, area and size). The exponent ([beta]) indicates whether perceptual magnitude grows more slowly than physical magnitude ([beta] less…

  10. New Distant Comet Headed for Bright Encounter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-08-01

    How Impressive Will Comet Hale-Bopp Become in 1997 ? A very unusual comet was discovered last month, on its way from the outer reaches of the solar system towards the Sun. Although it is still situated beyond the orbit of Jupiter, it is so bright that it can be observed in even small telescopes. It has been named `Hale-Bopp' after the discoverers and is already of great interest to cometary astronomers. No less than seven telescopes have been used at the ESO La Silla observatory for the first observations of the new object. Together with data gathered at other sites, their aim is to elucidate the nature of this comet and also to determine whether there is reason to hope that it will become a bright and beautiful object in the sky from late 1996 and well into 1997. Further observations are now being planned at ESO and elsewhere to monitor closely the behaviour of this celestial visitor during the coming months. Discovery circumstances The comet was discovered on 23 July 1995, nearly simultaneously by two American amateur astronomers, Alan Hale of Cloudcroft (New Mexico) and Thomas Bopp of Glendale (Arizona). Although the chronology is slightly uncertain, it appears that Hale first saw it some 10 - 20 minutes before Bopp, at 06:10 - 06:15 UT on that day. In any case, he informed the IAU Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams (CBAT) in Cambridge (Massachussetts) about his discovery by email already at 06:50 UT, while Bopp's message was filed more than 2 hours later, after he had driven back to his home, 140 km from where he had been observing. Upon receipt of these messages, Brian Marsden at the CBAT assigned the designation `1995 O1' (indicating that it is the first comet found in the second half of July 1995). After further sightings had been made by other observers, and according to the venerable astronomical tradition, the new object was named after the discoverers. The magnitude, reported as 10.5 by Hale, is not unusual for a comet that is discovered within

  11. WIDGET: Ultra Bright Optical Transients Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urata, Y.; Lin, H.-M.; Tashiro, M.; Widget Team

    2010-12-01

    The WIDeField telescope for Gamma-ray burst Early Timing (WIDGET) is used for a fully automated, ultra-wide-field survey aimed at detecting the prompt optical emission associated with Gamma-ray Bursts (GRB). WIDGET surveys the HETE-2 and Swift/BAT pointing directions covering a total field of view of 62x62 degree every 10 seconds using an unfiltered system. This monitoring survey allows exploration of the optical emission before the gamma-ray trigger. At the same time, WIDGET is the quite unique instrument to explore ultra-bright optical transients with high time resolution. Combination with the MAXI survey, WIDGET has higher potential to make simultaneous discoveries of optical counterparts for high energy transients. We developed the serendipitous transient finding pipeline. We report the preliminary results.

  12. Brightness temperature for 166 radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jun-Hui; Huang, Yong; Yuan, Yu-Hai; Yang, Jiang-He; Liu, Yi; Tao, Jun; Gao, Ying; Hua, Tong-Xu; Lin, Rui-Guang; Zhang, Jiang-Shui; Zhang, Jing-Yi; Qin, Yi-Ping

    2009-07-01

    Using the database of the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory (UMRAO) at three radio frequencies (4.8, 8 and 14.5 GHz), we determined the short-term variability timescales for 166 radio sources. The timescales are 0.15 d (2007+777) to 176.17 d (0528-250) with an average timescale of Δtobs = 17.1 ± 16.5 d for the whole sample. The timescales are used to calculate the brightness temperatures, TB. The value of log TB is in the range of log TB = 10.47 to 19.06 K. In addition, we also estimated the boosting factor for the sources. The correlation between the polarization and the Doppler factor is also discussed.

  13. High brightness angled cavity quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Heydari, D.; Bai, Y.; Bandyopadhyay, N.; Slivken, S.; Razeghi, M.

    2015-03-02

    A quantum cascade laser (QCL) with an output power of 203 W is demonstrated in pulsed mode at 283 K with an angled cavity. The device has a ridge width of 300 μm, a cavity length of 5.8 mm, and a tilt angle of 12°. The back facet is high reflection coated, and the front facet is anti-reflection coated. The emitting wavelength is around 4.8 μm. In distinct contrast to a straight cavity broad area QCL, the lateral far field is single lobed with a divergence angle of only 3°. An ultrahigh brightness value of 156 MW cm{sup −2 }sr{sup −1} is obtained, which marks the brightest QCL to date.

  14. Bright photoluminescent hybrid mesostructured silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Miletto, Ivana; Bottinelli, Emanuela; Caputo, Giuseppe; Coluccia, Salvatore; Gianotti, Enrica

    2012-07-28

    Bright photoluminescent mesostructured silica nanoparticles were synthesized by the incorporation of fluorescent cyanine dyes into the channels of MCM-41 mesoporous silica. Cyanine molecules were introduced into MCM-41 nanoparticles by physical adsorption and covalent grafting. Several photoluminescent nanoparticles with different organic loadings have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen physisorption porosimetry. A detailed photoluminescence study with the analysis of fluorescence lifetimes was carried out to elucidate the cyanine molecules distribution within the pores of MCM-41 nanoparticles and the influence of the encapsulation on the photoemission properties of the guests. The results show that highly stable photoluminescent hybrid materials with interesting potential applications as photoluminescent probes for diagnostics and imaging can be prepared by both methods. PMID:22706523

  15. High brightness angled cavity quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heydari, D.; Bai, Y.; Bandyopadhyay, N.; Slivken, S.; Razeghi, M.

    2015-03-01

    A quantum cascade laser (QCL) with an output power of 203 W is demonstrated in pulsed mode at 283 K with an angled cavity. The device has a ridge width of 300 μm, a cavity length of 5.8 mm, and a tilt angle of 12°. The back facet is high reflection coated, and the front facet is anti-reflection coated. The emitting wavelength is around 4.8 μm. In distinct contrast to a straight cavity broad area QCL, the lateral far field is single lobed with a divergence angle of only 3°. An ultrahigh brightness value of 156 MW cm-2 sr-1 is obtained, which marks the brightest QCL to date.

  16. Modelling Solar and Stellar Brightness Variabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, K. L.; Shapiro, A. I.; Krivova, N. A.; Solanki, S. K.

    2016-04-01

    Total and spectral solar irradiance, TSI and SSI, have been measured from space since 1978. This is accompanied by the development of models aimed at replicating the observed variability by relating it to solar surface magnetism. Despite significant progress, there remains persisting controversy over the secular change and the wavelength-dependence of the variation with impact on our understanding of the Sun's influence on the Earth's climate. We highlight the recent progress in TSI and SSI modelling with SATIRE. Brightness variations have also been observed for Sun-like stars. Their analysis can profit from knowledge of the solar case and provide additional constraints for solar modelling. We discuss the recent effort to extend SATIRE to Sun-like stars.

  17. Hybrid quantum repeater using bright coherent light.

    PubMed

    van Loock, P; Ladd, T D; Sanaka, K; Yamaguchi, F; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, W J; Yamamoto, Y

    2006-06-23

    We describe a quantum repeater protocol for long-distance quantum communication. In this scheme, entanglement is created between qubits at intermediate stations of the channel by using a weak dispersive light-matter interaction and distributing the outgoing bright coherent-light pulses among the stations. Noisy entangled pairs of electronic spin are then prepared with high success probability via homodyne detection and postselection. The local gates for entanglement purification and swapping are deterministic and measurement-free, based upon the same coherent-light resources and weak interactions as for the initial entanglement distribution. Finally, the entanglement is stored in a nuclear-spin-based quantum memory. With our system, qubit-communication rates approaching 100 Hz over 1280 km with fidelities near 99% are possible for reasonable local gate errors.

  18. Dark Skies, Bright Kids Year 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittle, Lauren E.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Borish, H. Jacob; Burkhardt, Andrew; Firebaugh, Ariel; Hancock, Danielle; Rochford Hayes, Christian; Linden, Sean; Liss, Sandra; Matthews, Allison; Prager, Brian; Pryal, Matthew; Sokal, Kimberly R.; Troup, Nicholas William; Wenger, Trey

    2016-01-01

    We present updates from our seventh year of operation including new club content, continued assessments, and our fifth annual Star Party. Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) is an entirely volunteer-run outreach organization based out of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Virginia. Our core mission is to enhance elementary science education and literacy in Central Virginia through fun, hands-on activities that introduce basic Astronomy concepts. Our primary focus is hosting an 8-10 week after-school astronomy club at underserved elementary and middle schools. Each week, DSBK volunteers take the role of coaches to introduce astronomy-related concepts ranging from the Solar System to galaxies to astrobiology, and to lead students in interactive learning activities. Another hallmark of DSBK is hosting our Annual Central Virginia Star Party, a free event open to the community featuring star-gazing and planetarium shows.

  19. Bright Soil Near 'McCool'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    While driving eastward toward the northwestern flank of 'McCool Hill,' the wheels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit churned up the largest amount of bright soil discovered so far in the mission. This image from Spirit's panoramic camera (Pancam), taken on the rover's 788th Martian day, or sol, of exploration (March 22, 2006), shows the strikingly bright tone and large extent of the materials uncovered.

    Several days earlier, Spirit's wheels unearthed a small patch of light-toned material informally named 'Tyrone.' In images from Spirit's panoramic camera, 'Tyrone' strongly resembled both 'Arad' and 'Paso Robles,' two patches of light-toned soils discovered earlier in the mission. Spirit found 'Paso Robles' in 2005 while climbing 'Cumberland Ridge' on the western slope of 'Husband Hill.' In early January 2006, the rover discovered 'Arad' on the basin floor just south of 'Husband Hill.' Spirit's instruments confirmed that those soils had a salty chemistry dominated by iron-bearing sulfates. Spirit's Pancam and miniature thermal emission spectrometer examined this most recent discovery, and researchers will compare its properties with the properties of those other deposits.

    These discoveries indicate that salty, light-toned soil deposits might be widely distributed on the flanks and valley floors of the 'Columbia Hills' region in Gusev Crater on Mars. The salts, which are easily mobilized and concentrated in liquid solution, may record the past presence of water. So far, these enigmatic materials have generated more questions than answers, however, and as Spirit continues to drive across this region in search of a safe winter haven, the team continues to formulate and test hypotheses to explain the rover's most fascinating recent discovery.

    This view is an approximately true-color rendering that combines separate images taken through the Pancam's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  20. Statistical Properties of Solar Coronal Bright Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alipour, N.; Safari, H.

    2015-07-01

    Here, we aim to study the statistical properties (i.e., spatial, temporal, and magnetic structures) of extreme ultraviolet coronal bright points (CBPs) observed by SDO during a 4.4 yr period (2010 June 1 to 2014 October 31). We developed the automatic detection method for CBPs based on the machine-learning technique and Zernike image moments. The average number and the mean density of CBPs are estimated to be about 572 (per full disk image taken at 193 Å) and 1.9× {10}-4 Mm‑2, respectively. There is a negative correlation (‑0.7) between the number of CBPs and the number of sunspots. The size and lifetime frequency distribution of CBPs show the lognormal and power-law (exponent equal to ‑1.6) behaviors, respectively. The relationship between the lifetime and size of CBPs is clearly treated by a power-law function with an exponent equal to 0.13. Around 1.3% of the solar surface is covered by the bright cores of CBPs and 2.6% of that is covered by their total area. About 52% of CBPs have lifetimes of less than 20 minutes and the remaining 48% have mean lifetimes of 6 hr. More than 95% of CBPs with lifetimes of less than 20 hr and nine CBPs with lifetimes of more than 72 hr are detected. The average number of the new CBPs emerging every 45 s in the whole of the Sun is about 27 ± 3. The temporal self-affinity of the time series of CBPs that emerged, indexed by the Hurst exponent determined using both detrended fluctuation analysis and R/S analysis, is 0.78. This long-temporal correlation suggests that CBPs form a system of self-organized criticality.

  1. The GPM Common Calibrated Brightness Temperature Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, John; Berg, Wesley; Huffman, George; Kummerow, Chris; Stocker, Erich

    2005-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) project will provide a core satellite carrying the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and will use microwave observations from a constellation of other satellites. Each partner with a satellite in the constellation will have a calibration that meets their own requirements and will decide on the format to archive their brightness temperature (Tb) record in GPM. However, GPM multi-sensor precipitation algorithms need to input intercalibrated Tb's in order to avoid differences among sensors introducing artifacts into the longer term climate record of precipitation. The GPM Common Calibrated Brightness Temperature Product is intended to address this problem by providing intercalibrated Tb data, called "Tc" data, where the "c" stands for common. The precipitation algorithms require a Tc file format that is both generic and flexible enough to accommodate the different passive microwave instruments. The format will provide detailed information on the processing history in order to allow future researchers to have a record of what was done. The format will be simple, including the main items of scan time, latitude, longitude, and Tc. It will also provide spacecraft orientation, spacecraft location, orbit, and instrument scan type (cross-track or conical). Another simplification is to store data in real numbers, avoiding the ambiguity of scaled data. Finally, units and descriptions will be provided in the product. The format is built on the concept of a swath, which is a series of scans that have common geolocation and common scan geometry. Scan geometry includes pixels per scan, sensor orientation, scan type, and incidence angles. The Tc algorithm and data format are being tested using the pre-GPM Precipitation Processing System (PPS) software to generate formats and 1/0 routines. In the test, data from SSM/I, TMI, AMSR-E, and WindSat are being processed and written as Tc products.

  2. New Distant Comet Headed for Bright Encounter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-08-01

    How Impressive Will Comet Hale-Bopp Become in 1997 ? A very unusual comet was discovered last month, on its way from the outer reaches of the solar system towards the Sun. Although it is still situated beyond the orbit of Jupiter, it is so bright that it can be observed in even small telescopes. It has been named `Hale-Bopp' after the discoverers and is already of great interest to cometary astronomers. No less than seven telescopes have been used at the ESO La Silla observatory for the first observations of the new object. Together with data gathered at other sites, their aim is to elucidate the nature of this comet and also to determine whether there is reason to hope that it will become a bright and beautiful object in the sky from late 1996 and well into 1997. Further observations are now being planned at ESO and elsewhere to monitor closely the behaviour of this celestial visitor during the coming months. Discovery circumstances The comet was discovered on 23 July 1995, nearly simultaneously by two American amateur astronomers, Alan Hale of Cloudcroft (New Mexico) and Thomas Bopp of Glendale (Arizona). Although the chronology is slightly uncertain, it appears that Hale first saw it some 10 - 20 minutes before Bopp, at 06:10 - 06:15 UT on that day. In any case, he informed the IAU Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams (CBAT) in Cambridge (Massachussetts) about his discovery by email already at 06:50 UT, while Bopp's message was filed more than 2 hours later, after he had driven back to his home, 140 km from where he had been observing. Upon receipt of these messages, Brian Marsden at the CBAT assigned the designation `1995 O1' (indicating that it is the first comet found in the second half of July 1995). After further sightings had been made by other observers, and according to the venerable astronomical tradition, the new object was named after the discoverers. The magnitude, reported as 10.5 by Hale, is not unusual for a comet that is discovered within

  3. Measurement of night sky brightness in southern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampf, Daniel; Rowell, Gavin; Wild, Neville; Sudholz, Tristan; Horns, Dieter; Tluczykont, Martin

    2011-09-01

    Night sky brightness is a major source of noise both for Cherenkov telescopes as well as for wide-angle Cherenkov detectors. Therefore, it is important to know the level of night sky brightness at potential sites for future experiments. The measurements of night sky brightness presented here were carried out at Fowler's Gap, a research station in New South Wales, Australia, which is a potential site for the proposed TenTen Cherenkov telescope system and the planned wide-angle Cherenkov detector system HiSCORE. A portable instrument was developed and measurements of the night sky brightness were taken in February and August 2010. Brightness levels were measured for a range of different sky regions and in various spectral bands. The night sky brightness in the relevant wavelength regime for photomultipliers was found to be at the same level as measured in similar campaigns at the established Cherenkov telescope sites of Khomas, Namibia, and at La Palma. The brightness of dark regions in the sky is about 2 × 10 12 photons/(s sr m 2) between 300 nm and 650 nm, and up to four times brighter in bright regions of the sky towards the galactic plane. The brightness in V band is 21.6 magnitudes per arcsec 2 in the dark regions. All brightness levels are averaged over the field of view of the instrument of about 1.3 × 10 -3 sr. The spectrum of the night sky brightness was found to be dominated by longer wavelengths, which allows to apply filters to separate the night sky brightness from the blue Cherenkov light. The possible gain in the signal to noise ratio was found to be up to 1.2, assuming an ideal low-pass filter.

  4. Effects of hue, saturation, and brightness on preference: a study on Goethe's color circle with RGB color space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camgoz, Nilgun; Yener, Cengiz

    2002-06-01

    In order to investigate preference responses for foreground- background color relationships, 85 university undergraduates in Ankara, Turkey, viewed 6 background colors (red, yellow, green, cyan, blue, and magenta) on which color squares of differing hues, saturations, and brightnesses were presented. All the background colors had maximum brightness (100%) and maximum saturation (100%). Subjects were asked to show the color square they preferred on the presented background color viewed through a computer monitor. The experimental setup consisted of a computer monitor located in a windowless room, illuminated with cove lighting. The findings of the experiment show that the brightness 100%- saturation 100% range is significantly preferred the most (p-value < 0.03). Thus, color squares that are most saturated and brightest are preferred on backgrounds of most saturated and brightest colors. Regardless of the background colors viewed, the subjects preferred blue the most (p-value < 0.01). Findings of the study are also discussed with pertinent research on the field. Through this analysis, an understanding of foreground-background color relationships in terms of preference is sought.

  5. Investigation of the moving structures in a coronal bright point

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, Zongjun; Guo, Yang

    2014-10-10

    We have explored the moving structures in a coronal bright point (CBP) observed by the Solar Dynamic Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on 2011 March 5. This CBP event has a lifetime of ∼20 minutes and is bright with a curved shape along a magnetic loop connecting a pair of negative and positive fields. AIA imaging observations show that a lot of bright structures are moving intermittently along the loop legs toward the two footpoints from the CBP brightness core. Such moving bright structures are clearly seen at AIA 304 Å. In order to analyze their features, the CBP is cut along the motion direction with a curved slit which is wide enough to cover the bulk of the CBP. After integrating the flux along the slit width, we get the spacetime slices at nine AIA wavelengths. The oblique streaks starting from the edge of the CBP brightness core are identified as moving bright structures, especially on the derivative images of the brightness spacetime slices. They seem to originate from the same position near the loop top. We find that these oblique streaks are bi-directional, simultaneous, symmetrical, and periodic. The average speed is about 380 km s{sup –1}, and the period is typically between 80 and 100 s. Nonlinear force-free field extrapolation shows the possibility that magnetic reconnection takes place during the CBP, and our findings indicate that these moving bright structures could be the observational outflows after magnetic reconnection in the CBP.

  6. High Brightness Neutron Source for Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Cremer, J. T.; Piestrup, Melvin, A.; Gary, Charles, K.; Harris, Jack, L. Williams, David, J.; Jones, Glenn, E.; Vainionpaa, J. , H.; Fuller, Michael, J.; Rothbart, George, H.; Kwan, J., W.; Ludewigt, B., A.; Gough, R.., A..; Reijonen, Jani; Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2008-12-08

    This research and development program was designed to improve nondestructive evaluation of large mechanical objects by providing both fast and thermal neutron sources for radiography. Neutron radiography permits inspection inside objects that x-rays cannot penetrate and permits imaging of corrosion and cracks in low-density materials. Discovering of fatigue cracks and corrosion in piping without the necessity of insulation removal is possible. Neutron radiography sources can provide for the nondestructive testing interests of commercial and military aircraft, public utilities and petrochemical organizations. Three neutron prototype neutron generators were designed and fabricated based on original research done at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The research and development of these generators was successfully continued by LBNL and Adelphi Technology Inc. under this STTR. The original design goals of high neutron yield and generator robustness have been achieved, using new technology developed under this grant. In one prototype generator, the fast neutron yield and brightness was roughly 10 times larger than previously marketed neutron generators using the same deuterium-deuterium reaction. In another generator, we integrate a moderator with a fast neutron source, resulting in a high brightness thermal neutron generator. The moderator acts as both conventional moderator and mechanical and electrical support structure for the generator and effectively mimics a nuclear reactor. In addition to the new prototype generators, an entirely new plasma ion source for neutron production was developed. First developed by LBNL, this source uses a spiral antenna to more efficiently couple the RF radiation into the plasma, reducing the required gas pressure so that the generator head can be completely sealed, permitting the possible use of tritium gas. This also permits the generator to use the deuterium-tritium reaction to produce 14-MeV neutrons with increases

  7. The role of the Fraunhofer lines in solar brightness variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, A. I.; Solanki, S. K.; Krivova, N. A.; Tagirov, R. V.; Schmutz, W. K.

    2015-09-01

    Context. The solar brightness varies on timescales from minutes to decades. A clear identification of the physical processes behind such variations is needed for developing and improving physics-based models of solar brightness variability and reconstructing solar brightness in the past. This is, in turn, important for better understanding the solar-terrestrial and solar-stellar connections. Aims: We estimate the relative contributions of the continuum, molecular, and atomic lines to the solar brightness variations on different timescales. Methods: Our approach is based on the assumption that variability of the solar brightness on timescales greater than a day is driven by the evolution of the solar surface magnetic field. We calculated the solar brightness variations employing the solar disc area coverage of magnetic features deduced from the MDI/SOHO observations. The brightness contrasts of magnetic features relative to the quiet Sun were calculated with a non-LTE radiative transfer code as functions of disc position and wavelength. By consecutive elimination of molecular and atomic lines from the radiative transfer calculations, we assessed the role of these lines in producing solar brightness variability. Results: We show that the variations in Fraunhofer lines define the amplitude of the solar brightness variability on timescales greater than a day and even the phase of the total solar irradiance variability over the 11-year cycle. We also demonstrate that molecular lines make substantial contribution to solar brightness variability on the 11-year activity cycle and centennial timescales. In particular, our model indicates that roughly a quarter of the total solar irradiance variability over the 11-year cycle originates in molecular lines. The maximum of the absolute spectral brightness variability on timescales greater than a day is associated with the CN violet system between 380 and 390 nm.

  8. Discovery of a bright eclipsing cataclysmic variable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sing, D. K.; Green, E. M.; Howell, S. B.; Holberg, J. B.; Lopez-Morales, M.; Shaw, J. S.; Schmidt, G. D.

    2007-11-01

    Aims:We report on the discovery of J0644+3344, a bright, deeply-eclipsing cataclysmic variable (CV) binary. Methods: Optical photometric and spectroscopic observations were obtained to determine the nature and characteristics of this CV. Results: Spectral signatures of both binary components and an accretion disk can be seen at optical wavelengths. The optical spectrum shows broad H I, He I, and He II accretion disk emission lines with deep narrow absorption components from H I, He I, Mg II, and Ca II. The absorption lines are seen throughout the orbital period, disappearing only during primary eclipse. These absorption lines are either the result of an optically-thick inner accretion disk or from the photosphere of the primary star. Radial velocity measurements show that the H I, He I, and Mg II absorption lines phase with the primary star, while weak absorption features in the continuum, between Hα and Hβ, phase with the secondary star. Radial velocity solutions give a 150±4 km s-1 semi-amplitude for the primary star and 192.8±5.6 km s-1 for the secondary, resulting in a primary to secondary mass ratio of q = 1.285. The individual stellar masses are 0.63-0.69 M⊙ for the primary and 0.49-0.54 M⊙ for the secondary, with the uncertainty largely due to the inclination. Conclusions: The bright eclipsing nature of this binary has helped provide masses for both components with an accuracy rarely achieved for CVs. This binary most closely resembles a nova-like UX UMa or SW Sex type of CV. J0644+3344, however, has a longer orbital period than most UX UMa or SW Sex stars. Assuming an evolution toward shorter orbital periods, J0644+3344 is therefore likely to be a young interacting binary. The secondary star is consistent with the size and spectral type of a K8 star, but has the mass of a M0.

  9. Characterization of Rhynchosia yellow mosaic Yucatan virus, a new recombinant begomovirus associated with two fabaceous weeds in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Zepeda, C; Brown, J K; Moreno-Valenzuela, O A; Argüello-Astorga, G; Idris, A M; Carnevali, G; Rivera-Bustamante, R F

    2010-10-01

    Rhynchosia minima (L.) DC. (Fabaceae) plants exhibiting bright golden mosaic symptoms were previously associated with begomovirus infection in Yucatan, México [1]. To characterize the begomovirus infecting these plants, the complete bipartite genome was cloned and sequenced. Sequence comparisons indicated that the virus was distinct from all other begomoviruses known to date, including those previously identified from symptomatic R. minima, and the name Rhynchosia yellow mosaic Yucatan virus (RhYMYuV) is proposed. Pairwise comparisons indicated that RhYMYuV DNA-A [2,597 nt, (EU021216)] and DNA-B [2,542 nt, (FJ792608)] components shared the highest nt sequence identity with Cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV), 87% for component A and 71% for component B. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that both components of RhYMYuV are most closely related to other New World begomoviruses, having as closest relatives immediate outliers to the major Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) clade. Recombination analysis of the RhYMYuV genome indicated that the DNA-A component has arisen through intermolecular recombination. R. minima plants inoculated with the monomeric clones developed a bright yellow mosaic similar to symptoms observed in naturally infected plants, confirming that the clones were infectious. Nicotiana benthamiana plants biolistically inoculated with monomeric clones developed curling and chlorosis in the newly emerging leaves. RhYMYuV was also detected in symptomatic Desmodium sect. Scorpiurus Benth. (Fabaceae) that were collected near the RhYMYuV-infected plants.

  10. Spain 31-GHz observations of sky brightness temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B. L.

    1988-01-01

    A water vapor radiometer was deployed at DSS 63 for 3 months of sky brightness temperature measurements at 31 GHz. An exceedance plot was derived from this data showing the fraction of time that 31 GHz 30 degree elevation angle brightness temperature exceeds specified values. The 5 percent exceedance statistics occurs at 75 K, compared with 70 K in Australia.

  11. Analysis of Bright Harvest Remote Analysis for Residential Solar Installations

    SciTech Connect

    Nangle, John; Simon, Joseph

    2015-06-17

    Bright Harvest provides remote shading analysis and design products for residential PV system installers. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) through the NREL Commercialization Assistance Program, completed comparative assessments between on-site measurements and remotely calculated values to validate the accuracy of Bright Harvest’s remote shading and power generation.

  12. 7 CFR 51.2000 - Clean and bright.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean and bright. 51.2000 Section 51.2000 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2000 Clean and bright. Clean and...

  13. 7 CFR 51.2000 - Clean and bright.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean and bright. 51.2000 Section 51.2000 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2000 Clean and bright. Clean and...

  14. 7 CFR 51.2000 - Clean and bright.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean and bright. 51.2000 Section 51.2000 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2000 Clean and bright. Clean and...

  15. Challenging Exceptionally Bright Children in Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadzikowski, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Nearly every group of children includes at least one exceptionally bright child. From the especially creative child to the child who has already mastered learning outcomes to the "twice exceptional" child, exceptionally bright children have a wide range of talents and behaviors. This book will help you understand what it means to be…

  16. Global Average Brightness Temperature for April 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This image shows average temperatures in April, 2003, observed by AIRS at an infrared wavelength that senses either the Earth's surface or any intervening cloud. Similar to a photograph of the planet taken with the camera shutter held open for a month, stationary features are captured while those obscured by moving clouds are blurred. Many continental features stand out boldly, such as our planet's vast deserts, and India, now at the end of its long, clear dry season. Also obvious are the high, cold Tibetan plateau to the north of India, and the mountains of North America. The band of yellow encircling the planet's equator is the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), a region of persistent thunderstorms and associated high, cold clouds. The ITCZ merges with the monsoon systems of Africa and South America. Higher latitudes are increasingly obscured by clouds, though some features like the Great Lakes, the British Isles and Korea are apparent. The highest latitudes of Europe and Eurasia are completely obscured by clouds, while Antarctica stands out cold and clear at the bottom of the image.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Bright visible light emission from graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Duck; Kim, Hakseong; Cho, Yujin; Ryoo, Ji Hoon; Park, Cheol-Hwan; Kim, Pilkwang; Kim, Yong Seung; Lee, Sunwoo; Li, Yilei; Park, Seung-Nam; Shim Yoo, Yong; Yoon, Duhee; Dorgan, Vincent E.; Pop, Eric; Heinz, Tony F.; Hone, James; Chun, Seung-Hyun; Cheong, Hyeonsik; Lee, Sang Wook; Bae, Myung-Ho; Park, Yun Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Graphene and related two-dimensional materials are promising candidates for atomically thin, flexible and transparent optoelectronics. In particular, the strong light-matter interaction in graphene has allowed for the development of state-of-the-art photodetectors, optical modulators and plasmonic devices. In addition, electrically biased graphene on SiO2 substrates can be used as a low-efficiency emitter in the mid-infrared range. However, emission in the visible range has remained elusive. Here, we report the observation of bright visible light emission from electrically biased suspended graphene devices. In these devices, heat transport is greatly reduced. Hot electrons (˜2,800 K) therefore become spatially localized at the centre of the graphene layer, resulting in a 1,000-fold enhancement in thermal radiation efficiency. Moreover, strong optical interference between the suspended graphene and substrate can be used to tune the emission spectrum. We also demonstrate the scalability of this technique by realizing arrays of chemical-vapour-deposited graphene light emitters. These results pave the way towards the realization of commercially viable large-scale, atomically thin, flexible and transparent light emitters and displays with low operation voltage and graphene-based on-chip ultrafast optical communications.

  18. High output lamp with high brightness

    DOEpatents

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Bass, Gary K.; Copsey, Jesse F.; Garber, Jr., William E.; Kwong, Vincent H.; Levin, Izrail; MacLennan, Donald A.; Roy, Robert J.; Steiner, Paul E.; Tsai, Peter; Turner, Brian P.

    2002-01-01

    An ultra bright, low wattage inductively coupled electrodeless aperture lamp is powered by a solid state RF source in the range of several tens to several hundreds of watts at various frequencies in the range of 400 to 900 MHz. Numerous novel lamp circuits and components are disclosed including a wedding ring shaped coil having one axial and one radial lead, a high accuracy capacitor stack, a high thermal conductivity aperture cup and various other aperture bulb configurations, a coaxial capacitor arrangement, and an integrated coil and capacitor assembly. Numerous novel RF circuits are also disclosed including a high power oscillator circuit with reduced complexity resonant pole configuration, parallel RF power FET transistors with soft gate switching, a continuously variable frequency tuning circuit, a six port directional coupler, an impedance switching RF source, and an RF source with controlled frequency-load characteristics. Numerous novel RF control methods are disclosed including controlled adjustment of the operating frequency to find a resonant frequency and reduce reflected RF power, controlled switching of an impedance switched lamp system, active power control and active gate bias control.

  19. The Los Alamos high-brightness photoinjector

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shea, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    For a number of years Los Alamos National Laboratory has been developing photocathode RF guns for high-brightness electron beam applications such as free-electron lasers (FELs). Previously thermionic high-voltage guns have been the source of choice for the electron accelerators used to drive FELs. The performance of such FELs is severely limited by the emittance growth produced by the subharmonic bunching process and also by the low peak current of the source. In a photoinjector, a laser driven photocathode is placed directly in a high-gradient RF accelerating cavity. A photocathode allows unsurpassed control over the current, and the spatial and temporal profile of the beam. In addition the electrodeless emission'' avoids many of the difficulties associated with multi-electrode guns, i.e. the electrons are accelerated very rapidly to relativistic energies, and there are no electrodes to distort the accelerating fields. For the past two years we have been integrating a photocathode into our existing FEL facility by replacing our thermionic gun and subharmonic bunchers with a high-gradient 1.3 GHz photoinjector. The photoinjector, which is approximately 0.6 m in length, produces 6 MeV, 300 A, 15 ps linac, and accelerated to a final energy of 40 MeV. We have recently begun lasing at wavelengths near 3 {mu}m. 16 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) Brightness Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retherford, Kurt D.; Gladstone, G.; Stern, S.; Egan, A. F.; Miles, P. F.; Parker, J. W.; Greathouse, T. K.; Davis, M. W.; Slater, D. C.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Versteeg, M. H.; Feldman, P. D.; Hurley, D. M.; Pryor, W. R.; Hendrix, A. R.

    2010-10-01

    The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) is an ultraviolet (UV) spectrograph on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) that is designed to map the lunar albedo at far-UV wavelengths. LAMP primarily measures interplanetary Hydrogen Lyman-alpha sky-glow and far-UV starlight reflected from the night-side lunar surface, including permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) near the poles. Dayside observations are also obtained. Brightness maps sorted by wavelength (including the Lyman-alpha wavelength of 121.6 nm) are reported for the polar regions, with a few regions of interest reported in more detail. LAMP's spectral range of 58 nm to 196 nm includes a water ice spectral feature near 160 nm, which provides a diagnostic tool for detecting water on the lunar surface that is complementary to recent discoveries using infrared and radio frequency techniques. Progress towards producing far-UV albedo maps and searching for water ice signatures will be reported. We'll discuss how LAMP data may address questions regarding how water is formed on the moon, transported through the lunar atmosphere, and deposited in the PSRs.

  1. MAGNETIC BRIGHT POINTS IN THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez Almeida, J.; Bonet, J. A.; Viticchie, B.

    2010-05-20

    We present a visual determination of the number of bright points (BPs) existing in the quiet Sun, which are structures though to trace intense kG magnetic concentrations. The measurement is based on a 0.''1 angular resolution G-band movie obtained with the Swedish Solar Telescope at the solar disk center. We find 0.97 BPs Mm{sup -2}, which is a factor 3 larger than any previous estimate. It corresponds to 1.2 BPs per solar granule. Depending on the details of the segmentation, the BPs cover between 0.9% and 2.2% of the solar surface. Assuming their field strength to be 1.5 kG, the detected BPs contribute to the solar magnetic flux with an unsigned flux density between 13 G and 33 G. If network and inter-network regions are counted separately, they contain 2.2 BPs Mm{sup -2} and 0.85 BPs Mm{sup -2}, respectively.

  2. Dark Skies, Bright Kids Year 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liss, Sandra; Troup, Nicholas William; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Barcos-Munoz, Loreto D.; Beaton, Rachael; Bittle, Lauren; Borish, Henry J.; Burkhardt, Andrew; Corby, Joanna; Dean, Janice; Hancock, Danielle; King, Jennie; Prager, Brian; Romero, Charles; Sokal, Kimberly R.; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Wenger, Trey; Zucker, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Now entering our sixth year of operation, Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) is an entirely volunteer-run outreach organization based out of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Virginia. Our core mission is to enhance elementary science education and literacy in central Virginia through fun, hands-on activities that introduce basic Astronomy concepts beyond Virginia's Standards of Learning. Our primary focus is hosting an 8-10 week after-school astronomy club at underserved elementary and middle schools. Each week, DSBK volunteers take the role of coaches to introduce astronomy-related concepts ranging from the Solar System to galaxies to astrobiology, and to lead students in interactive learning activities. Another hallmark of DSBK is hosting our Annual Central Virginia Star Party, a free event open to the community featuring star-gazing and planetarium shows.DSBK has amassed over 15,000 contact hours since 2009 and we continue to broaden our impact. One important step we have taken in the past year is to establish a graduate student led assessment program to identify and implement directed learning goals for DSBK outreach. The collection of student workbooks, observations, and volunteer surveys indicates broad scale success for the program both in terms of student learning and their perception of science. The data also reveal opportunities to improve our organizational and educational practices to maximize student achievement and overall volunteer satisfaction for DSBK's future clubs and outreach endeavors.

  3. Intercomparisons of nine sky brightness detectors.

    PubMed

    den Outer, Peter; Lolkema, Dorien; Haaima, Marty; van der Hoff, Rene; Spoelstra, Henk; Schmidt, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Nine Sky Quality Meters (SQMs) have been intercompared during a night time measurement campaign held in the Netherlands in April 2011. Since then the nine SQMs have been distributed across The Netherlands and form the Dutch network for monitoring night sky brightness. The goal of the intercomparison was to infer mutual calibration factors and obtain insight into the variability of the SQMs under different meteorological situations. An ensemble average is built from the individual measurements and used as a reference to infer the mutual calibration factors. Data required additional synchronization prior to the calibration determination, because the effect of moving clouds combined with small misalignments emerges as time jitter in the measurements. Initial scatter of the individual instruments lies between ±14%. Individual night time sums range from -16% to +20%. Intercalibration reduces this to 0.5%, and -7% to +9%, respectively. During the campaign the smallest luminance measured was 0.657 ± 0.003 mcd/m(2) on 12 April, and the largest value was 5.94 ± 0.03 mcd/m(2) on 2 April. During both occurrences interfering circumstances like snow cover or moonlight were absent.

  4. Antilensing: the bright side of voids.

    PubMed

    Bolejko, Krzysztof; Clarkson, Chris; Maartens, Roy; Bacon, David; Meures, Nikolai; Beynon, Emma

    2013-01-11

    More than half of the volume of our Universe is occupied by cosmic voids. The lensing magnification effect from those underdense regions is generally thought to give a small dimming contribution: objects on the far side of a void are supposed to be observed as slightly smaller than if the void were not there, which together with conservation of surface brightness implies net reduction in photons received. This is predicted by the usual weak lensing integral of the density contrast along the line of sight. We show that this standard effect is swamped at low redshifts by a relativistic Doppler term that is typically neglected. Contrary to the usual expectation, objects on the far side of a void are brighter than they would be otherwise. Thus the local dynamics of matter in and near the void is crucial and is only captured by the full relativistic lensing convergence. There are also significant nonlinear corrections to the relativistic linear theory, which we show actually underpredicts the effect. We use exact solutions to estimate that these can be more than 20% for deep voids. This remains an important source of systematic errors for weak lensing density reconstruction in galaxy surveys and for supernovae observations, and may be the cause of the reported extra scatter of field supernovae located on the edge of voids compared to those in clusters. PMID:23383886

  5. Antilensing: The Bright Side of Voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof; Clarkson, Chris; Maartens, Roy; Bacon, David; Meures, Nikolai; Beynon, Emma

    2013-01-01

    More than half of the volume of our Universe is occupied by cosmic voids. The lensing magnification effect from those underdense regions is generally thought to give a small dimming contribution: objects on the far side of a void are supposed to be observed as slightly smaller than if the void were not there, which together with conservation of surface brightness implies net reduction in photons received. This is predicted by the usual weak lensing integral of the density contrast along the line of sight. We show that this standard effect is swamped at low redshifts by a relativistic Doppler term that is typically neglected. Contrary to the usual expectation, objects on the far side of a void are brighter than they would be otherwise. Thus the local dynamics of matter in and near the void is crucial and is only captured by the full relativistic lensing convergence. There are also significant nonlinear corrections to the relativistic linear theory, which we show actually underpredicts the effect. We use exact solutions to estimate that these can be more than 20% for deep voids. This remains an important source of systematic errors for weak lensing density reconstruction in galaxy surveys and for supernovae observations, and may be the cause of the reported extra scatter of field supernovae located on the edge of voids compared to those in clusters.

  6. Bright visible light emission from graphene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Duck; Kim, Hakseong; Cho, Yujin; Ryoo, Ji Hoon; Park, Cheol-Hwan; Kim, Pilkwang; Kim, Yong Seung; Lee, Sunwoo; Li, Yilei; Park, Seung-Nam; Yoo, Yong Shim; Yoon, Duhee; Dorgan, Vincent E; Pop, Eric; Heinz, Tony F; Hone, James; Chun, Seung-Hyun; Cheong, Hyeonsik; Lee, Sang Wook; Bae, Myung-Ho; Park, Yun Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Graphene and related two-dimensional materials are promising candidates for atomically thin, flexible and transparent optoelectronics. In particular, the strong light-matter interaction in graphene has allowed for the development of state-of-the-art photodetectors, optical modulators and plasmonic devices. In addition, electrically biased graphene on SiO2 substrates can be used as a low-efficiency emitter in the mid-infrared range. However, emission in the visible range has remained elusive. Here, we report the observation of bright visible light emission from electrically biased suspended graphene devices. In these devices, heat transport is greatly reduced. Hot electrons (∼2,800 K) therefore become spatially localized at the centre of the graphene layer, resulting in a 1,000-fold enhancement in thermal radiation efficiency. Moreover, strong optical interference between the suspended graphene and substrate can be used to tune the emission spectrum. We also demonstrate the scalability of this technique by realizing arrays of chemical-vapour-deposited graphene light emitters. These results pave the way towards the realization of commercially viable large-scale, atomically thin, flexible and transparent light emitters and displays with low operation voltage and graphene-based on-chip ultrafast optical communications.

  7. A Magnetic Bright Point Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utz, D.; Jurčák, J.; Bellot-Rubio, L.; del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Thonhofer, S.; Hanslmeier, A.; Veronig, A.; Muller, R.; Lemmerer, B.

    Due to its magnetic fields our host star - the Sun - becomes the interesting object for research as we know it. The magnetic fields themselves cover different spatial, lifetime and strength scales and reach down from enormous flux concentrations like active sunspot groups to single isolated magnetic flux tubes and even weaker, predominantly inclined intranetwork structures. Flux tubes can be seen in filtergram observations as magnetic bright points (MBPs). They are of interest for research not only due to their sheer existence but due to their important role in atmospheric heating (wave heating as well as reconnection processes), to their role in the understanding of creation and annihilation of magnetic fields as well as to their influence on the total solar irradiance variation. In this study we present a close look onto an evolutionary track of an MBP from its formation to its disintegration. Physical quantities of MBPs like their magnetic field strength and inclination, their line-of-sight velocity, and their temperature at different heights are inferred from the inversion of spectropolarimetric data. Original data are taken from the Sunrise/IMaX instrument and constitute a time series of some 60 min. The presented case resembles the convective collapse model and is in agreement with previous studies.

  8. Yellow fever in China is still an imported disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Lu, Hongzhou

    2016-05-23

    Yellow fever is a vector-borne disease endemic to tropical regions of Africa and South America. A recent outbreak in Angola caused hundreds of deaths. Six cases of yellow fever imported from Angola were reported recently in China. This raised the question of whether it will spread in China and how it can be prevented. This article discusses the possibility of yellow fever transmission in China and the strategies to counter it.

  9. 21 CFR 172.490 - Yellow prussiate of soda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yellow prussiate of soda. 172.490 Section 172.490... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.490 Yellow prussiate of soda. (a) The food additive yellow prussiate of soda (sodium ferrocyanide decahydrate; Na4Fe(CN)6·10H2O contains a minimum of 99 percent by weight...

  10. 21 CFR 172.490 - Yellow prussiate of soda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yellow prussiate of soda. 172.490 Section 172.490... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.490 Yellow prussiate of soda. (a) The food additive yellow prussiate of soda (sodium ferrocyanide decahydrate; Na4Fe(CN)6·10H2O contains a minimum of 99 percent by weight...

  11. 21 CFR 172.490 - Yellow prussiate of soda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yellow prussiate of soda. 172.490 Section 172.490... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.490 Yellow prussiate of soda. (a) The food additive yellow prussiate of soda (sodium ferrocyanide decahydrate; Na4Fe(CN)6·10H2O contains a minimum of 99 percent by weight...

  12. Interpreting Central Surface Brightness and Color Profiles in Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, David R.; Wise, Michael W.

    1996-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope imagery has revealed dust features in the central regions of many (50%--80%) nearby bright elliptical galaxies. If these features are an indication of an underlying smooth diffuse dust distribution, then the interpretation of central surface brightness and color profiles in elliptical galaxies becomes significantly more difficult. In this Letter, diagnostics for constraining the presence of such an underlying central dust distribution are presented. We show that easily detectable central color gradients and flattened central surface brightness profiles can be induced by even small amounts of smoothly distributed dust (~100 M⊙). Conversely, combinations of flat surface brightness profiles and flat color gradients or steep surface brightness profiles and steep color gradients are unlikely to be caused by dust. Taken as a whole, these results provide a simple observational tautology for constraining the existence of smooth diffuse dust distributions in the central regions of elliptical galaxies.

  13. Retinal mesopic adaptation model for brightness perception under transient glare.

    PubMed

    Barrionuevo, Pablo Alejandro; Colombo, Elisa Margarita; Issolio, Luis Alberto

    2013-06-01

    A glare source in the visual field modifies the brightness of a test patch surrounded by a mesopic background. In this study, we investigated the effect of two levels of transient glare on brightness perception for several combinations of mesopic reference test luminances (Lts) and background luminances (Lbs). While brightness perception was affected by Lb, there were no appreciable effects for changes in the Lt. The highest brightness reduction was found for Lbs in the low mesopic range. Considering the main proposal that brightness can be inferred from contrast and the Lb sets the mesopic luminance adaptation, we hypothesized that contrast gain and retinal adaptation mechanisms would act when a transient glare source was present in the visual field. A physiology-based model that adequately fitted the present and previous results was developed.

  14. Brightness perception of unrelated self-luminous colors.

    PubMed

    Withouck, Martijn; Smet, Kevin A G; Ryckaert, Wouter R; Pointer, Michael R; Deconinck, Geert; Koenderink, Jan; Hanselaer, Peter

    2013-06-01

    The perception of brightness of unrelated self-luminous colored stimuli of the same luminance has been investigated. The Helmholtz-Kohlrausch (H-K) effect, i.e., an increase in brightness perception due to an increase in saturation, is clearly observed. This brightness perception is compared with the calculated brightness according to six existing vision models, color appearance models, and models based on the concept of equivalent luminance. Although these models included the H-K effect and half of them were developed to work with unrelated colors, none of the models seemed to be able to fully predict the perceived brightness. A tentative solution to increase the prediction accuracy of the color appearance model CAM97u, developed by Hunt, is presented.

  15. Yellow nail syndrome: does protein leakage play a role?

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, A; Muzi, G; Monaco, A; Filiberto, S; Barboni, A; Abbritti, G

    2001-01-01

    Yellow nail syndrome is characterized by primary lymphoedema, recurrent pleural effusion and yellow discoloration of the nails. Although mechanical lymphatic obstruction is assumed to be the underlying pathology, it cannot explain the common finding of high albumin concentration in the pleural space. This paper describes a case of yellow nail syndrome presenting with the classical triad of lymphoedema, recurrent pleural effusion and yellow discoloration of the nails, associated with persistent hypoalbuminaemia and increased enteric loss of albumin. Based on the findings in this case and those in the literature, it is speculated that increased microvascular permeability may contribute to the pathogenesis of this syndrome.

  16. Urbanisation of yellow fever in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Van der Stuyft, P; Gianella, A; Pirard, M; Cespedes, J; Lora, J; Peredo, C; Pelegrino, J L; Vorndam, V; Boelaert, M

    1999-05-01

    Until recently, urban yellow fever had not been reported from the Americas since 1954, but jungle yellow fever increasingly affects forest dwellers in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The reinvasion by Aedes aegypti of cities in the Americas now threatens to urbanize yellow fever. After yellow fever infection was identified in a resident of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, in December 1997, all subsequent suspected cases were investigated. Active surveillance of yellow fever was introduced in the Santa Cruz area, with hospitals and selected urban and rural health centers reporting all suspected cases. Patients were serologically screened for yellow fever, dengue, hepatitis A and B, and leptospirosis; clinical and epidemiological data were collected from patients' records and through interviews; and a population-based serosurvey was conducted in the neighborhood of one case. Between December 1997 and June 1998, symptomatic yellow fever infection was confirmed in 6 residents of Santa Cruz, of whom 5 died. 5 lived in the southern sector of the city. 2 cases did not leave the city during their incubation period, and 1 had visited only an area in which sylvatic transmission was deemed impossible. Of the 281 people covered in the serosurvey, 16 (6%) were positive for IgM antibody to yellow fever. Among 5 people for whom that result could not be explained by recent vaccination, there were 2 pairs of neighbors. This instance of urban yellow fever transmission was limited in both time and space.

  17. Phenotypic, histological and proteomic analyses reveal multiple differences associated with chloroplast development in yellow and variegated variants from Camellia sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chengying; Cao, Junxi; Li, Jianke; Zhou, Bo; Tang, Jinchi; Miao, Aiqing

    2016-01-01

    Leaf colour variation is observed in several plants. We obtained two types of branches with yellow and variegated leaves from Camellia sinensis. To reveal the mechanisms that underlie the leaf colour variations, combined morphological, histological, ionomic and proteomic analyses were performed using leaves from abnormal branches (variants) and normal branches (CKs). The measurement of the CIE-Lab coordinates showed that the brightness and yellowness of the variants were more intense than the CKs. When chloroplast profiles were analysed, HY1 (branch with yellow leaves) and HY2 (branch with variegated leaves) displayed abnormal chloroplast structures and a reduced number and size compared with the CKs, indicating that the abnormal chloroplast development might be tightly linked to the leaf colour variations. Moreover, the concentration of elemental minerals was different between the variants and the CKs. Furthermore, DEPs (differentially expressed proteins) were identified in the variants and the CKs by a quantitative proteomics analysis using the label-free approach. The DEPs were significantly involved in photosynthesis and included PSI, PSII, cytochrome b6/f complex, photosynthetic electron transport, LHC and F-type ATPase. Our results suggested that a decrease in the abundance of photosynthetic proteins might be associated with the changes of leaf colours in tea plants. PMID:27633059

  18. Phenotypic, histological and proteomic analyses reveal multiple differences associated with chloroplast development in yellow and variegated variants from Camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chengying; Cao, Junxi; Li, Jianke; Zhou, Bo; Tang, Jinchi; Miao, Aiqing

    2016-01-01

    Leaf colour variation is observed in several plants. We obtained two types of branches with yellow and variegated leaves from Camellia sinensis. To reveal the mechanisms that underlie the leaf colour variations, combined morphological, histological, ionomic and proteomic analyses were performed using leaves from abnormal branches (variants) and normal branches (CKs). The measurement of the CIE-Lab coordinates showed that the brightness and yellowness of the variants were more intense than the CKs. When chloroplast profiles were analysed, HY1 (branch with yellow leaves) and HY2 (branch with variegated leaves) displayed abnormal chloroplast structures and a reduced number and size compared with the CKs, indicating that the abnormal chloroplast development might be tightly linked to the leaf colour variations. Moreover, the concentration of elemental minerals was different between the variants and the CKs. Furthermore, DEPs (differentially expressed proteins) were identified in the variants and the CKs by a quantitative proteomics analysis using the label-free approach. The DEPs were significantly involved in photosynthesis and included PSI, PSII, cytochrome b6/f complex, photosynthetic electron transport, LHC and F-type ATPase. Our results suggested that a decrease in the abundance of photosynthetic proteins might be associated with the changes of leaf colours in tea plants. PMID:27633059

  19. The GPM Common Calibrated Brightness Temperature Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, J.; Chou, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) project will provide a core satellite carrying the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and will use microwave observations from a constellation of other satellites. Each partner with a satellite in the constellation will have a calibration that meets their own requirements and will decide on the format to archive their brightness temperature (Tb) record in GPM. However, GPM multi-sensor precipitation algorithms need to input intercalibrated Tb's in order to avoid differences among sensors introducing artifacts into the longer term climate record of precipitation. The GPM Common Calibrated Brightness Temperature Product is intended to address this problem by providing intercalibrated Tb data, called "Tc" data, where the "c" stands for common. The precipitation algorithms require a Tc file format that is both generic and flexible enough to accommodate the different passive microwave instruments. The format provides detailed information on the processing history in order to allow future researchers to have a record of what was done. The format is simple, including the main items of scan time, latitude, longitude, incidence angle, sun glint angle, and Tc. It also provides a quality flag, spacecraft orientation, spacecraft location, orbit, and instrument scan type (cross-track or conical). Another simplification is to store data in real numbers, avoiding the ambiguity of scaled data. Finally, units and descriptions will be provided in the product. The format is built on the concept of a swath, which is a series of scans that have common geolocation and common scan geometry. Scan geometry includes pixels per scan, sensor orientation, scan type, and incidence angles. The format includes 3 space saving methods: first rounding variables written as floats to their needed accuracy to achieve good compression, second writing sun glint angle as a one byte variable, and third storing only unique incidence angles but allowing access via a mapping

  20. Influence of the Yellow Sea Warm Current on phytoplankton community in the central Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Chiang, Kuo-Ping; Liu, Su-Mei; Wei, Hao; Zhao, Yuan; Huang, Bang-Qin

    2015-12-01

    In early spring, a hydrological front emerges in the central Yellow Sea, resulting from the intrusion of the high temperature and salinity Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC). The present study, applying phytoplankton pigments and flow cytometry measurements in March of 2007 and 2009, focuses on the biogeochemical effects of the YSWC. The nutrients fronts were coincident with the hydrological front, and a positive linear relationship between nitrate and salinity was found in the frontal area. This contrast with the common situation of coastal waters where high salinity values usually correlate with poor nutrients. We suggested nutrient concentrations of the YSWC waters might have been enhanced by mixing with the local nutrient-rich waters when it invaded the Yellow Sea from the north of the Changjiang estuary. In addition, our results indicate that the relative abundance of diatoms ranged from 26% to 90%, showing a higher value in the YSCC than in YSWC waters. Similar distributions were found between diatoms and dinoflagellates, however the cyanobacteria and prasinophytes showed an opposite distribution pattern. Good correlations were found between the pigments and flow cytometry observations on the picophytoplankton groups. Prasinophytes might be the major contributor to pico-eukaryotes in the central Yellow Sea as similar distributional patterns and significant correlations between them. It seems that the front separates the YSWC from the coastal water, and different phytoplankton groups are transported in these water masses and follow their movement. These results imply that the YSWC plays important roles in the distribution of nutrients, phytoplankton biomass and also in the community structure of the central Yellow Sea.

  1. Dark Skies, Bright Kids: Year 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlberg, Joleen K.; Johnson, K.; Lynch, R.; Walker, L.; Beaton, R.; Corby, J.; de Messieres, G.; Drosback, M.; Gugliucci, N.; Jackson, L.; Kingery, A.; Layman, S.; Murphy, E.; Richardson, W.; Ries, P.; Romero, C.; Sivakoff, G.; Sokal, K.; Trammell, G.; Whelan, D.; Yang, A.; Zasowski, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) outreach program brings astronomy education into local elementary schools in central Virginia's Southern Albemarle County through an after-school club. Taking advantage of the unusually dark night skies in the rural countryside, DSBK targets economically disadvantaged schools that tend to be underserved due to their rural locale. The goals of DSBK are to foster children's natural curiosity, demonstrate that science is a fun and creative process, challenge students' conceptions of what a scientist is and does, and teach some basic astronomy. Furthermore, DSBK works to assimilate families into students' education by holding family observing nights at the school. Now in its third semester, DSBK has successfully run programs at two schools with very diverse student populations. Working with these students has helped us to revise our activities and to create new ones. A by-product of our work has been the development of lesson plans, complete with learning goals and detailed instructions, that we make publically available on our website. This year we are expanding our repertoire with our new planetarium, which allows us to visualize topics in novel ways and supplements family observing on cloudy nights. The DSBK volunteers have also created a bilingual astronomy artbook --- designed, written, and illustrated by UVa students --- that we will publish and distribute to elementary schools in Virginia. Our book debuted at the last AAS winter meeting, and since then it has been extensively revised and updated with input from many individuals, including parents, professional educators, and a children's book author. Because the club is currently limited to serving a few elementary schools, this book will be part of our efforts to broaden our impact by bringing astronomy to schools we cannot go to ourselves and reaching out to Spanish-speaking communities at the same time.

  2. Dark Skies, Bright Kids! Year 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokal, Kimberly R.; Johnson, K. E.; Barcos-Munoz, L. D.; Beaton, R.; Borish, J.; Crawford, S. B.; Corby, J.; Damke, G.; Dean, J.; Dorsey, G.; Jackson, L.; Liss, S.; Oza, A.; Peacock, S.; Prager, B.; Romero, C.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Walker, L.; Whelan, D. G.; Zucker, C.

    2013-01-01

    Aiming to engage young children's natural excitement and curiosity, the outreach group Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) brings a hands-on approach to astronomy to elementary schools in Virginia. We hope to enhance children's view and understanding of science while exploring the Universe using fun activities. DSBK focuses on rural and underserved schools in Albemarle County and offers a semester-long astronomy club for third through fifth grade students. We believe regular interactions foster personal relationships between students and volunteers that encourage a life-long interest in science. In our fourth year of hosting clubs, we returned to Ivy Creek Elementary School, where we saw wonderful responses from a special group of students with `low-incidence' disabilities. DSBK has grown to realize a broader reach beyond local astronomy clubs; we hope to ignite a spark of interest in astronomy and science more widely- in more children, their families, and their teachers. We also hosted the Second Annual Central Virginia Star Party with an open invitation to the community to encourage families to enjoy astronomy together. Throughout the year, DSBK now holds 'one-off' programs (akin to astronomy field days) for elementary schools and children's groups throughout Virginia. Furthermore, we are in the final stages of a project to create two bilingual astronomy books called "Snapshots of the Universe", in Spanish and French with English translations. This art book will be made available online and we are working to get a copy in every elementary school in the state. DSBK has begun to reach out to elementary school teachers in order to provide them with useful and engaging classroom material. We have adapted our volunteer-created activities into useful and ready-to-use lessons, available online. After improvements based on research through interactions and feedback from teachers, we have explicitly identified the learning goals in terms of Virginia's Standards of Learning

  3. Dark Skies, Bright Kids! Year 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prager, Brian; Johnson, K. E.; Barcos-Munoz, L. D.; Beaton, R.; Bittle, L.; Borish, H.; Burkhardt, A.; Corby, J.; Damke, G.; Dean, J.; Dorsey, G.; Graninger, D.; Lauck, T.; Liss, S.; Oza, A.; Peacock, S.; Romero, C.; Sokal, K. R.; Stierwalt, S.; Walker, L.; Wenger, T.; Zucker, C.

    2014-01-01

    Our public outreach group Dark Skies, Bright Kids! (DSBK) fosters science literacy in Virginia by bringing a hands-on approach to astronomy that engages children's natural excitement and curiosity. We are an entirely volunteer-run group based out of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Virginia and we enthusiastically utilize astronomy as a 'gateway science.' We create long-term relationships with students during an 8 to 10 week long, after-school astronomy club at under served elementary schools in neighboring counties, and we visited 3 different schools in 2013. Additionally, we organize and participate in science events throughout the community. The fifth year of DSBK was marked by surpassing 10,000 contact hours in Spring 2013 Semester and by ringing in the fall semester with our biggest, most successful star party to date. We hosted the Third Annual Central Virginia Star Party, free and open to the community to encourage families to enjoy astronomy together. Nearly four hundred people of all ages attended, double the number from previous years. Joining with local astronomical societies, we offered an enlightening and exciting night with resources rarely accessible to the public, such as an IR camera and a portable planetarium. With numerous telescopes pointed at the sky, and a beautifully clear night with views of the Milky Way, the International Space Station, and numerous meteors, the star party was a fantastic opportunity to introduce many of our guests to the natural wonders of our night sky and enjoy some of the darkest skies on the eastern seaboard.

  4. Magnetic Flux Supplement to Coronal Bright Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Chaozhou; Huang, Zhenghua; Xia, Lidong; Madjarska, Maria S.; Li, Bo; Fu, Hui; Jiao, Fangran; Hou, Zhenyong

    2016-02-01

    Coronal bright points (BPs) are associated with magnetic bipolar features (MBFs) and magnetic cancellation. Here we investigate how BP-associated MBFs form and how the consequent magnetic cancellation occurs. We analyze longitudinal magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager to investigate the photospheric magnetic flux evolution of 70 BPs. From images taken in the 193 Å passband of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) we dermine that the BPs’ lifetimes vary from 2.7 to 58.8 hr. The formation of the BP MBFs is found to involve three processes, namely, emergence, convergence, and local coalescence of the magnetic fluxes. The formation of an MBF can involve more than one of these processes. Out of the 70 cases, flux emergence is the main process of an MBF buildup of 52 BPs, mainly convergence is seen in 28, and 14 cases are associated with local coalescence. For MBFs formed by bipolar emergence, the time difference between the flux emergence and the BP appearance in the AIA 193 Å passband varies from 0.1 to 3.2 hr with an average of 1.3 hr. While magnetic cancellation is found in all 70 BPs, it can occur in three different ways: (I) between an MBF and small weak magnetic features (in 33 BPs); (II) within an MBF with the two polarities moving toward each other from a large distance (34 BPs); (III) within an MBF whose two main polarities emerge in the same place simultaneously (3 BPs). While an MBF builds up the skeleton of a BP, we find that the magnetic activities responsible for the BP heating may involve small weak fields.

  5. Dark Skies, Bright Kids! Year 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, David G.; Johnson, K. E.; Barcos-Munoz, L. D.; Beaton, R. L.; Borish, J.; Corby, J. F.; Dorsey, G.; Gugliucci, N. E.; Prager, B. J.; Ries, P. A.; Romero, C. E.; Sokal, K. R.; Tang, X.; Walker, L. M.; Yang, A. J.; Zasowski, G.

    2012-01-01

    Dark Skies, Bright Kids! (DSBK) is a program that brings astronomy education to elementary schools throughout central Virginia. In a relaxed, out-of-classroom atmosphere, we are able to foster the innate curiosity that young students have about science and the world around them. We target schools that are under-served due to their rural locale or special needs students, demonstrating that science is a fun and creative process to a segment of the population that might not otherwise be exposed to astronomy. Families are included in the learning experience during semi-annual `star parties'. Since last January, we have expanded the breadth and depth of our educational capabilities. We have developed new programs for use in our digital planetarium. We held the first Central Virginia Star Party, providing an atmosphere where local children from multiple schools were able to share their love for astronomy. Local government and University officials were also invited so that they could experience our focused science outreach. Most recently, we have become part of Ivy Creek School's Club Day activities, bringing our program to a new segment of the elementary school system in Albemarle County: those that have `low-incidence' disabilities, requiring special attention. We continue to develop a curriculum for after-school programs that functions as either a series of one-time activities or several months of focused outreach at one school. Many of these activities are provided on our website, http://www.astro.virginia.edu/dsbk/, for the wider astronomical community, including the new planetarium work. We have extended our book project to include two bilingual astronomy books called `Snapshots of the Universe,' one in Spanish and English, the other in French and English. These books introduce young people to some of the many wonders of the Universe through art and captions developed by DSBK volunteers.

  6. An early detection of blue luminescence by neutral PAHs in the direction of the yellow hypergiant HR 5171A?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Genderen, A. M.; Nieuwenhuijzen, H.; Lobel, A.

    2015-11-01

    Aims: We re-examined photometry (VBLUW, UBV, uvby) of the yellow hypergiant HR 5171A made a few decades ago. In that study no proper explanation could be given for the enigmatic brightness excesses in the L band (VBLUW system, λeff = 3838 Å). In the present paper, we suggest that this might have been caused by blue luminescence (BL), an emission feature of neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules (PAHs), discovered in 2004. It is a fact that the highest emission peaks of the BL lie in the L band. Our goals were to investigate other possible causes, and to derive the fluxes of the emission. Methods: We used two-colour diagrams based on atmosphere models, spectral energy distributions, and different extinctions and extinction laws, depending on the location of the supposed BL source: either in Gum48d on the background or in the envelope of HR 5171A. Results: False L-excess sources, such as a hot companion, a nearby star, or some instrumental effect, could be excluded. Also, emission features from a hot chromosphere are not plausible. The fluxes of the L excess, recorded in the data sets of 1971, 1973, and 1977 varied (all in units of 10-10 Wm-2μm-1) between 1.4 to 21, depending on the location of the source. A flux near the low side of this range is preferred. Small brightness excesses in uv (uvby system) were present in 1979, but its connection with BL is doubtful. For the L fluxes we consider the lowest values as more realistic. The uncertainties are 20-30 %. Similar to other yellow hypergiants, HR 5171A showed powerful brightness outbursts, particularly in the 1970s. A release of stored H-ionization energy by atmospheric instabilities could create BL emitted by neutral PAHs.

  7. Research on the high-brightness traffic variable message sign based on laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Li-li; Huang, Hai-tao; Ruan, Chi

    2015-10-01

    Researches indicate that foggy weather is one of the most critical factors that restrict human's traffic activities and cause traffic accidents. It will reduce the visibility of traffic message board, which could cause the insecurity of transportation. Commonly, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were used as light source for variable message sign, which could not be seen clearly in the foggy low visibility condition. A high-brightness light source which could be used for variable information board was firstly put forward in this paper. And a new type of variable message sign used in low visibility condition was also introduced. Besides, the attenuation characteristics of laser diode (LD) and light-emitting diode (LED) were analyzed respectively. Calculation and simulation show that the attenuation of red light source is fastest, and the yellow LED light has the better transmittance property. In the experiment, LDs were used to make variable message board for verifying image definition. A 16*16 array structure composed of LDs was designed and could display Chinese characters. By comparing the display effect of LDs and LEDs driven with same power, they were placed in fog chamber of the visibility less than 5 meters. And experiment results show that the penetrability of red LD light is better than that of red LED. So traffic variable message sign based on LDs could improve the image definition and the information could be seen more clearly in the foggy weather. In addition to the high-brightness, good coherence, good direction, experimental results show that traffic variable message board based on LD has better visual effect in low visibility condition.

  8. Easy way to estimate meteor brightness on TV frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonov, V. A.; Bagrov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional method of the meteor brightness measurements claims that the meteor brightness is equal to the stellar magnitude of a star that looks like a meteor in the brightest point of its track. This rule was convenient for the comparison of meteor observations by different observers and for the analysis of the brightness distributions of meteors from observed showers. This traditional method suffers from systematic errors, particularly those that arise from using stellar brightness measured in specific spectral wave bands different from the observer's ones, but mainly due to neglecting the influence of the meteor angular velocity on the real meteor brightness. To get a proper estimate of the meteor brightness that is a measure of the ground meteor illumination in the non-systematic units, an observer must take into account that the effective exposition of a meteor image in any resolution element of its track is a few times shorter than the corresponding exposition of a star image in the same frame. We propose a very simple method for improved estimations of meteor brightness by applying a correction to the meteor stellar magnitude obtained within the traditional framework.

  9. Bright Solitary Matter Waves: Formation, Stability and Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billam, T. P.; Marchant, A. L.; Cornish, S. L.; Gardiner, S. A.; Parker, N. G.

    In recent years, bright soliton-like structures composed of gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates have been generated at ultracold temperature. The experimental capacity to precisely engineer the nonlinearity and potential landscape experienced by these solitary waves offers an attractive platform for fundamental study of solitonic structures. The presence of three spatial dimensions and trapping implies that these are strictly distinct objects to the true soliton solutions. Working within the zero-temperature mean-field description, we explore the solutions and stability of bright solitary waves, as well as their interactions. Emphasis is placed on elucidating their similarities and differences to the true bright soliton. The rich behaviour introduced in the bright solitary waves includes the collapse instability and asymmetric collisions. We review the experimental formation and observation of bright solitary matter waves to date, and compare to theoretical predictions. Finally we discuss some topical aspects, including beyond-mean-field descriptions, symmetry breaking, exotic bright solitary waves, and proposals to exploit bright solitary waves in interferometry and as surface probes.

  10. Photometric Properties of Ceres and the Occator Bright Spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian-Yang; Le Corre, Lucille; Reddy, Vishnu; Sykes, Mark V.; Nathues, Andreas; Pieters, Carle M.; Ciarniello, Mauro; Turrini, Diego; McFadden, Lucy A.; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2015-11-01

    Dawn discovered several extremely bright spots on Ceres, the most prominent of which is located inside the Occator crater that is at least 4-5 times brighter than the average Ceres. Interestingly, these bright spots are located in relatively young craters that are at the longitudes corresponding to the maximum water vapor observed by the Herschel Space Observatory, suggesting possible correlation with water sublimation on Ceres. We used the multi-color imaging data collected by the Dawn Framing Camera to analyze the global photometric properties of Ceres and the bright spots, especially those located inside the Occator crater. Our objectives are to determine the albedo and other light scattering properties of the bright spots on Ceres in the visible wavelengths, in order to characterize their physical properties and find clues about their composition and possible formation mechanisms and the correlation with water sublimation. The overall geometric albedo of Ceres’ global surface is 0.09-0.10, consistent with previous studies. The Hapke roughness parameter is about 20°, close to many other asteroids, rather than 44° as reported earlier. Correspondingly, the phase function of Ceres is less backscattering than previously modeled. In contrast, the geometric albedo of the bright spots inside the Occator crater is 0.4-0.5, and the single scattering albedo is 0.7-0.8, brighter than Vesta’s global albedo but much darker than many icy satellites in the outer solar system. The Hapke roughness of the bright spots is much higher than Ceres average, suggesting relatively loose deposit of materials rather than more coherent or tightly packed materials. The phase function of bright spots material is relatively more forward scattering than average Ceres, possibly correlated to stronger multiple scattering due to high albedo resulting from more transparent materials. The highest resolution images as of late-August 2015 show fine structures within the Occator bright spots. We

  11. Host range and genetic diversity of croton yellow vein mosaic virus, a weed-infecting monopartite begomovirus causing leaf curl disease in tomato.

    PubMed

    Pramesh, D; Mandal, Bikash; Phaneendra, Chigurupati; Muniyappa, V

    2013-03-01

    Croton yellow vein mosaic virus (CYVMV) is a widely occurring begomovirus in Croton bonplandianum, a common weed in the Indian subcontinent. In this study, CYVMV (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) was transmitted by whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) to as many as 35 plant species belonging to 11 families, including many vegetables, tobacco varieties, ornamentals and weeds. CYVMV produced bright yellow vein symptoms in croton, whereas in all the other host species, the virus produced leaf curl symptoms. CYVMV produced leaf curl in 13 tobacco species and 22 cultivars of Nicotiana tabacum and resembled tobacco leaf curl virus (TobLCV) in host reactions. However, CYVMV was distinguished from TobLCV in four differential hosts, Ageratum conyzoides, C. bonplandianum, Euphorbia geniculata and Sonchus bracyotis. The complete genome sequences of four isolates originating from northern, eastern and southern India revealed that a single species of DNA-A and a betasatellite, croton yellow vein mosaic betasatellite (CroYVMB) were associated with the yellow vein mosaic disease of croton. The sequence identity among the isolates of CYVMV DNA-A and CroYVMB occurring in diverse plant species was 91.8-97.9 % and 83.3-100 %, respectively. The CYVMV DNA-A and CroYVMB generated through rolling-circle amplification of the cloned DNAs produced typical symptoms of yellow vein mosaic and leaf curling in croton and tomato, respectively. The progeny virus from both the croton and tomato plants was transmitted successfully by B. tabaci. The present study establishes the etiology of yellow vein mosaic disease of C. bonplandianum and provides molecular evidence that a weed-infecting monopartite begomovirus causes leaf curl in tomato.

  12. Brightness field distributions of microlens arrays using micro molding.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsin-Chung; Huang, Chiung-Fang; Lin, Yi; Shen, Yung-Kang

    2010-12-20

    This study describes the brightness field distributions of microlens arrays fabricated by micro injection molding (μIM) and micro injection-compression molding (μICM). The process for fabricating microlens arrays used room-temperature imprint lithography, photoresist reflow, electroforming, μIM, μICM, and optical properties measurement. Analytical results indicate that the brightness field distribution of the molded microlens arrays generated by μICM is better than those made using μIM. Our results further demonstrate that mold temperature is the most important processing parameter for brightness field distribution of molded microlens arrays made by μIM or μICM.

  13. 21 CFR 172.490 - Yellow prussiate of soda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yellow prussiate of soda. 172.490 Section 172.490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... prussiate of soda. (a) The food additive yellow prussiate of soda (sodium ferrocyanide decahydrate;...

  14. Yellow Nutsedge Biology and Control in Potato Rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.) is a native perennial weed common in irrigated row crop production throughout most of the U.S. Yellow nutsedge is particularly problematic in crops that do not provide adequate shading, such as onions. The weed competes strongly for water, nutrients, and light...

  15. 7 CFR 28.442 - Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.442 Section 28.442... Stained Color. Middling Yellow Stained Color is American Upland cotton which in color is deeper than Middling Tinged Color. below color grade cotton...

  16. 7 CFR 28.442 - Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.442 Section 28.442... Stained Color. Middling Yellow Stained Color is American Upland cotton which in color is deeper than Middling Tinged Color. below color grade cotton...

  17. 7 CFR 28.442 - Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.442 Section 28.442... Stained Color. Middling Yellow Stained Color is American Upland cotton which in color is deeper than Middling Tinged Color. below color grade cotton...

  18. 7 CFR 28.442 - Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.442 Section 28.442... Stained Color. Middling Yellow Stained Color is American Upland cotton which in color is deeper than Middling Tinged Color. below color grade cotton...

  19. 7 CFR 28.442 - Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.442 Section 28.442... Stained Color. Middling Yellow Stained Color is American Upland cotton which in color is deeper than Middling Tinged Color. below color grade cotton...

  20. Papaya Varietal Resistance to Internal Yellowing: Reducing Food Safety Risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal yellowing (IY) is a bacterial disease of ripening papaya fruit that is caused by the enteric bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae. The disease is characterized by yellow discoloration of flesh, tissue softening and a foul or rotten odor that reduces the quality of fresh fruit and value-added pr...

  1. Enhancement of yellow pigment production by intraspecific protoplast fusion of Monascus spp. yellow mutant (ade(-)) and white mutant (prototroph).

    PubMed

    Klinsupa, Worawan; Phansiri, Salak; Thongpradis, Panida; Yongsmith, Busaba; Pothiratana, Chetsada

    2016-01-10

    To breed industrially useful strains of a slow-growing, yellow pigment producing strain of Monascus sp., protoplasts of Monascus purpureus yellow mutant (ade(-)) and rapid-growing M. purpureus white mutant (prototroph) were fused and fusants were selected on minimal medium (MM). Preliminary conventional protoplast fusion of the two strains was performed and the result showed that only white colonies were detected on MM. It was not able to differentiate the fusants from the white parental prototroph. To solve this problem, the white parental prototroph was thus pretreated with 20mM iodoacetamide (IOA) for cytoplasm inactivation and subsequently taken into protoplast fusion with slow-growing Monascus yellow mutant. Under this development technique, only the fusants, with viable cytoplasm from Monascus yellow mutant (ade(-)), could thus grow on MM, whereas neither IOA pretreated white parental prototroph nor yellow auxotroph (ade(-)) could survive. Fifty-three fusants isolated from yellow colonies obtained through this developed technique were subsequently inoculated on complete medium (MY agar). Fifteen distinguished yellow colonies from their parental yellow mutant were then selected for biochemical, morphological and fermentative properties in cassava starch and soybean flour (SS) broth. Finally, three most stable fusants (F7, F10 and F43) were then selected and compared in rice solid culture. Enhancement of yellow pigment production over the parental yellow auxotroph was found in F7 and F10, while enhanced glucoamylase activity was found in F43. The formation of fusants was further confirmed by monacolin K content, which was intermediate between the two parents (monacolin K-producing yellow auxotroph and non-monacolin K producing white prototroph). PMID:26562446

  2. Enhancement of yellow pigment production by intraspecific protoplast fusion of Monascus spp. yellow mutant (ade(-)) and white mutant (prototroph).

    PubMed

    Klinsupa, Worawan; Phansiri, Salak; Thongpradis, Panida; Yongsmith, Busaba; Pothiratana, Chetsada

    2016-01-10

    To breed industrially useful strains of a slow-growing, yellow pigment producing strain of Monascus sp., protoplasts of Monascus purpureus yellow mutant (ade(-)) and rapid-growing M. purpureus white mutant (prototroph) were fused and fusants were selected on minimal medium (MM). Preliminary conventional protoplast fusion of the two strains was performed and the result showed that only white colonies were detected on MM. It was not able to differentiate the fusants from the white parental prototroph. To solve this problem, the white parental prototroph was thus pretreated with 20mM iodoacetamide (IOA) for cytoplasm inactivation and subsequently taken into protoplast fusion with slow-growing Monascus yellow mutant. Under this development technique, only the fusants, with viable cytoplasm from Monascus yellow mutant (ade(-)), could thus grow on MM, whereas neither IOA pretreated white parental prototroph nor yellow auxotroph (ade(-)) could survive. Fifty-three fusants isolated from yellow colonies obtained through this developed technique were subsequently inoculated on complete medium (MY agar). Fifteen distinguished yellow colonies from their parental yellow mutant were then selected for biochemical, morphological and fermentative properties in cassava starch and soybean flour (SS) broth. Finally, three most stable fusants (F7, F10 and F43) were then selected and compared in rice solid culture. Enhancement of yellow pigment production over the parental yellow auxotroph was found in F7 and F10, while enhanced glucoamylase activity was found in F43. The formation of fusants was further confirmed by monacolin K content, which was intermediate between the two parents (monacolin K-producing yellow auxotroph and non-monacolin K producing white prototroph).

  3. Yellow Fever outbreaks in unvaccinated populations, Brazil, 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Romano, Alessandro Pecego Martins; Costa, Zouraide Guerra Antunes; Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas; Andrade, Maria Auxiliadora; Jayme, Valéria de Sá; Almeida, Marco Antônio Barreto de; Vettorello, Kátia Campomar; Mascheretti, Melissa; Flannery, Brendan

    2014-03-01

    Due to the risk of severe vaccine-associated adverse events, yellow fever vaccination in Brazil is only recommended in areas considered at risk for disease. From September 2008 through June 2009, two outbreaks of yellow fever in previously unvaccinated populations resulted in 21 confirmed cases with 9 deaths (case-fatality, 43%) in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul and 28 cases with 11 deaths (39%) in Sao Paulo state. Epizootic deaths of non-human primates were reported before and during the outbreak. Over 5.5 million doses of yellow fever vaccine were administered in the two most affected states. Vaccine-associated adverse events were associated with six deaths due to acute viscerotropic disease (0.8 deaths per million doses administered) and 45 cases of acute neurotropic disease (5.6 per million doses administered). Yellow fever vaccine recommendations were revised to include areas in Brazil previously not considered at risk for yellow fever.

  4. Shocks throughout the circumstellar envelope of yellow hypergiant IRC+10420

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ka-Tat; Lim, Jeremy; Dinh-V-Trung

    2013-06-01

    IRC+10420 is a yellow hypergiant, a massive and very luminous star believed to be evolving from the red supergiant towards the luminous blue variable or Wolf-Rayet phase. Previous interferometric observations reveal a very extended expanding molecular envelope (~20000 AU) traced not only in CO but, surprisingly, also in SiO. Because SiO is expected to condense onto dust grains at radii <200 AU in the envelopes of evolved stars, and the inferred bulk density of the envelope around IRC+10420 as traced in CO drops below the critical density (~10^5 cm^-3) necessary to strongly excite SiO at radii >4000 AU, the SiO envelope is expected to be relatively compact. Shocks in the outflowing molecular gas has been proposed to evaporate SiO from dust grains and also enhance the gas density locally thus giving rise to strong SiO emission. To deduce the local gas density and relative SiO abundance necessary to produce the observed SiO emission, we have observed IRC+10420 in SiO (1-0) with the EVLA to complement previously published observations in SiO (2-1) with the IRAM PdBI. Both these observations reveal a brightened SiO shell at a radius of ~6000-10000 AU, located just beyond a CO shell at a radius of ~5000 AU. Beyond this shell, the SiO emission decreases more steeply in brightness than the CO emission, and is detectable out to a radius of ~30000 AU. Through sophisticated radiative transfer modelling to reproduce the measured brightness temperature and line ratio in SiO (2-1)/SiO (1-0), we find that the local gas density required to excite SiO is ~10^(5-6) cm^-3 for radii <15000 AU, about an order of magnitude higher than the bulk gas density traced in CO, and ~10^(4-5) cm^-3 at larger radii to the outer detectable extent of the SiO envelope, again at least an order of magnitude higher than the bulk gas density traced in CO. The relative SiO abundance peaks at ~10^-6 at the abovementioned shell, decreasing to values of ~10^-7 within and ~10^-8 to ~10^-7 beyond this shell

  5. Solution-processed yellow-white light-emitting diodes based on mixed-solvent dispersed luminescent ZnO nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huihui; Dun, Chaochao; Huang, Wenxiao; Cui, Yue; Xu, Junwei; Jiang, Qike; Xu, Changwen; Zhang, Han; Wen, Shuangchun; Carroll, David L.

    2015-06-01

    Yellow-white light emitting diodes (LEDs) using ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) as the active materials have been fabricated based on a solution-processed technology. By utilizing a polar-nonpolar mixed-solvent dispersion strategy, uniform dispersion of ZnO NCs with enhanced emission properties has been achieved. The ZnO NCs based LED devices prepared from the mixed-solvent strategy show much improved electroluminescence properties that exhibit a broad yellow-white emission peaks at ˜555 nm with a maximum brightness of 100 cd/m2 and a color rendering index of 77.25. The device mechanism of the LED device was discussed in terms of energy band diagram and current-voltage characteristics.

  6. Ipomoviruses: Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus, Cassava brown streak virus, and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ipomoviruses including Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus and Cassava brown streak virus are currently causing significant economic impact on crop production in several regions of the world. Only recently have results of detailed characterization of their whitefly transmissi...

  7. First report of the cucurbit yellow vine disease caused by Serratia marcescens in watermelon and yellow squash in Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symptoms typical of cucurbit yellow vine disease (CYVD) were first observed in a 2 ha watermelon field in Crawford, Russell County, Alabama on 8 June 2010. Watermelon plants, cv. 'Jubilee,' exhibited a yellow or chlorotic appearance and some plants were completely wilted. On 24 June plant samples ...

  8. Visible Color and Photometry of Bright Materials on Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroder, S. E.; Li, J. Y.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Hiesinger, H.; Blewett, D. T.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Keller, H. U.

    2012-01-01

    The Dawn Framing Camera (FC) collected images of the surface of Vesta at a pixel scale of 70 m in the High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) phase through its clear and seven color filters spanning from 430 nm to 980 nm. The surface of Vesta displays a large diversity in its brightness and colors, evidently related to the diverse geology [1] and mineralogy [2]. Here we report a detailed investigation of the visible colors and photometric properties of the apparently bright materials on Vesta in order to study their origin. The global distribution and the spectroscopy of bright materials are discussed in companion papers [3, 4], and the synthesis results about the origin of Vestan bright materials are reported in [5].

  9. Detail of Bright Angel stone vault, containing condenser, Hoffman condensation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of Bright Angel stone vault, containing condenser, Hoffman condensation pump, Jennings vacuum heating pump, and misc. pipes and valves. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  10. IR brightness and eclipse cooling of Saturn's rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolt, I. G.; Caldwell, J.; Radostitz, J. V.; Tokunaga, A. T.; Barrett, E. W.; Gillett, F. C.; Murphy, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Equatorial scans of Saturn at 20 microns wavelength, obtained with the Mayall 4-m telescope in 1978-79, show a continuing decrease in the specific brightness of the A and B rings as the ring plane projection approaches and edge-on apparition. The decreased brightness of the previously dominant B ring reveals more clearly a large difference in brightness between the east and west ansae portions of the C ring, in contrast to a barely discernible difference for the other ring ansae. The amount of eclipse cooling is compatible with a C ring particle size of about 1 cm. It is proposed here that the B ring brightness variation could partially result from a decrease of absorbed insolation by a modest amount of visible scattering.

  11. Direct LED backlight for large area LCD TVs: brightness analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ching-Cherng; Moreno, Ivan; Chung, Shih-Hsun; Chien, Wei-Ting; Hsieh, Chih-To; Yang, Tsung-Hsun

    2007-09-01

    A direct or bottom LED backlight is a key concept in large area LCD displays because it does not use a light guide, is flat, and is easy to assemble. In this paper, a method of luminance management for a bottom LED backlight is proposed and demonstrated. We analytically calculate both the power consumption and brightness uniformity in function of: screen brightness, screen size, backlight thickness, transmittance of the LCD panel, reflective cavity efficiency, gain and cone angle of enhancement films, LED array configuration, and the average luminous flux and radiation pattern of a single LED. Moreover, a 42-inch LCD television with this backlight design approach is made and demonstrated. The bottom backlight incorporates an array of RGGB 4-in-1 multi-chip LEDs within a highly reflective box behind a diffuser and a dual brightness enhancement film. We predict with an accuracy of 94% the brightness uniformity and with 96% the luminance level.

  12. Perspective of Bright Angel stone vault, view south, with HAER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective of Bright Angel stone vault, view south, with HAER field team measuring (Michael Lee and Dominic Duran foreground, Christopher Marston rear). - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  13. Bright Angel stone vault, with HAER field team members Dominic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bright Angel stone vault, with HAER field team members Dominic Duran, Christopher Marston, and Michael Lee (l to r). - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  14. South and west elevations of Bright Angel boiler house. Red ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South and west elevations of Bright Angel boiler house. Red Horse log cabin visible in background. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  15. A bright monomeric green fluorescent protein derived from Branchiostoma lanceolatum

    PubMed Central

    Shaner, Nathan C.; Lambert, Gerard G.; Chammas, Andrew; Ni, Yuhui; Cranfill, Paula J.; Baird, Michelle A.; Sell, Brittney R.; Allen, John R.; Day, Richard N.; Israelsson, Maria; Davidson, Michael W.; Wang, Jiwu

    2013-01-01

    Despite the existence of fluorescent proteins spanning the entire visual spectrum, the bulk of modern imaging experiments continue to rely on variants of the green fluorescent protein derived from Aequorea victoria. Meanwhile, a great deal of recent effort has been devoted to engineering and improving red fluorescent proteins, and relatively little attention has been given to green and yellow variants. Here we report a novel monomeric yellow-green fluorescent protein, mNeonGreen, which is derived from a tetrameric fluorescent protein from the cephalochordate Branchiostoma lanceolatum. This fluorescent protein is the brightest monomeric green or yellow fluorescent protein yet described, performs exceptionally well as a fusion tag for traditional imaging as well as stochastic single-molecule superresolution imaging, and is an excellent FRET acceptor for the newest generation of cyan fluorescent proteins. PMID:23524392

  16. Yellow Canary uranium deposits, Daggett County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilmarth, Verl Richard

    1953-01-01

    The Yellow Canary uranium deposit is on the west side of Red Creek Canyon in the northern part of the Uinta Mountains, Daggett County, Utah. Two claims have been developed by means of an adit, three opencuts, and several hundred feet of bulldozer trenches. No uranium ore has been produced from this deposit. The deposit is in the pre-Cambrian Red Creek quartzite. This formation is composed of intercalated beds of quartzite, hornblendite, garnet schist, staurolite schist, and quartz-mica schist and is intruded by dioritic dikes. A thick unit of highly fractured white quartzite near the top of the formation contains tyuyamunite as coatings on fracture surfaces. The tyuyamunite is associated with carnotite, volborthite, iron oxides, azurite, malachite, brochantite, and hyalite. The uranium and vanadium minerals are probably alteration products of primary minerals. The uranium content of 15 samples from this property ranged from 0.000 to 0.57 percent.

  17. Nanoluciferase signal brightness using furimazine substrates opens bioluminescence resonance energy transfer to widefield microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiho; Grailhe, Regis

    2016-08-01

    Fluorescence and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (FRET, BRET) techniques are powerful tools for studying protein-protein interactions in cellular assays. In contrast to fluorescent proteins, chemiluminescent proteins do not require excitation light, known to trigger autofluorescence, phototoxicity, and photobleaching. Regrettably, low signal intensity of luciferase systems restricts their usage as they require specialized microscopes equipped with ultra low-light imaging cameras. In this study, we report that bioluminescence quantification in living cells using a standard widefield automated microscope dedicated to screening and high content analysis is possible with the newer luciferase systems, Nanoluciferase (Nluc). With such equipment, we showed that robust intramolecular BRET can be measured using a combination of Nluc and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). Using the human Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1) dimer model, we next validated that intermolecular BRET could be quantified at a single cell level. The enhanced signal brightness of Nluc enabling BRET imaging to widefield microscopy shows strong potential to open up single cell protein-protein interactions studies to a wider audience. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  18. High-efficient and brightness white organic light-emitting diodes operated at low bias voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Yu, Junsheng; Yuan, Kai; Jian, Yadong

    2010-10-01

    White organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) used for display application and lighting need to possess high efficiency, high brightness, and low driving voltage. In this work, white OLEDs consisted of ambipolar 9,10-bis 2-naphthyl anthracene (ADN) as a host of blue light-emitting layer (EML) doped with tetrabutyleperlene (TBPe) and a thin codoped layer consisted of N, N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (NPB) as a host of yellow light-emitting layer doped with 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-tert-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidin-4-yl-vinyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) were investigated. With appropriate tuning in the film thickness, position, and dopant concentration of the co-doped layer, a white OLED with a luminance yield of 10.02 cd/A with the CIE coordinates of (0.29, 0.33) has been achieved at a bias voltage of 9 V and a luminance level of over 10,000 cd/m2. By introducing the PIN structure with both HIL and bis(10- hydroxybenzo-quinolinato)-beryllium (BeBq2) ETL, the power efficiency of white OLED was improved.

  19. Io's Sodium Cloud (Green-yellow Filter)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image of Jupiter's moon Io and its surrounding sky is shown in false color. North is at the top, and east is to the right. Most of Io's visible surface is in shadow, though one can see part of a white crescent on its western side. This crescent is being illuminated mostly by 'Jupitershine' (i.e. sunlight reflected off Jupiter).

    The striking burst of white light near Io's eastern equatorial edge is sunlight being scattered by the plume of the volcano Prometheus. Prometheus lies just beyond the visible edge of the moon on Io's far side. Its plume extends about 100 kilometers above the surface, and is being hit by sunlight just a little east of Io's eastern edge.

    Scattered light from Prometheus' plume and Io's lit crescent also contribute to the diffuse yellowish emission which appears throughout much of the sky. However, much of this emission comes from Io's Sodium Cloud: sodium atoms within Io's extensive material halo are scattering sunlight at the yellow wavelength of about 589 nanometers.

    This image was taken at 5 hours 30 minutes Universal Time on Nov. 9, 1996 through the green-yellow filter of the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft. Galileo was then in Jupiter's shadow, and located about 2.3 million kilometers (about 32 Jovian radii) from both Jupiter and Io.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington D.C. This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web Galileo mission home page at: http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  20. An observational correlation between stellar brightness variations and surface gravity.

    PubMed

    Bastien, Fabienne A; Stassun, Keivan G; Basri, Gibor; Pepper, Joshua

    2013-08-22

    Surface gravity is a basic stellar property, but it is difficult to measure accurately, with typical uncertainties of 25 to 50 per cent if measured spectroscopically and 90 to 150 per cent if measured photometrically. Asteroseismology measures gravity with an uncertainty of about 2 per cent but is restricted to relatively small samples of bright stars, most of which are giants. The availability of high-precision measurements of brightness variations for more than 150,000 stars provides an opportunity to investigate whether the variations can be used to determine surface gravities. The Fourier power of granulation on a star's surface correlates physically with surface gravity: if brightness variations on timescales of hours arise from granulation, then such variations should correlate with surface gravity. Here we report an analysis of archival data that reveals an observational correlation between surface gravity and root mean squared brightness variations on timescales of less than eight hours for stars with temperatures of 4,500 to 6,750 kelvin, log surface gravities of 2.5 to 4.5 (cgs units) and overall brightness variations of less than three parts per thousand. A straightforward observation of optical brightness variations therefore allows a determination of the surface gravity with a precision of better than 25 per cent for inactive Sun-like stars at main-sequence to giant stages of evolution. PMID:23969460

  1. The Influence of Microphysical Cloud Parameterization on Microwave Brightness Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skofronick-Jackson, Gail M.; Gasiewski, Albin J.; Wang, James R.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The microphysical parameterization of clouds and rain-cells plays a central role in atmospheric forward radiative transfer models used in calculating passive microwave brightness temperatures. The absorption and scattering properties of a hydrometeor-laden atmosphere are governed by particle phase, size distribution, aggregate density., shape, and dielectric constant. This study identifies the sensitivity of brightness temperatures with respect to the microphysical cloud parameterization. Cloud parameterizations for wideband (6-410 GHz observations of baseline brightness temperatures were studied for four evolutionary stages of an oceanic convective storm using a five-phase hydrometeor model in a planar-stratified scattering-based radiative transfer model. Five other microphysical cloud parameterizations were compared to the baseline calculations to evaluate brightness temperature sensitivity to gross changes in the hydrometeor size distributions and the ice-air-water ratios in the frozen or partly frozen phase. The comparison shows that, enlarging the rain drop size or adding water to the partly Frozen hydrometeor mix warms brightness temperatures by up to .55 K at 6 GHz. The cooling signature caused by ice scattering intensifies with increasing ice concentrations and at higher frequencies. An additional comparison to measured Convection and Moisture LA Experiment (CAMEX 3) brightness temperatures shows that in general all but, two parameterizations produce calculated T(sub B)'s that fall within the observed clear-air minima and maxima. The exceptions are for parameterizations that, enhance the scattering characteristics of frozen hydrometeors.

  2. An observational correlation between stellar brightness variations and surface gravity.

    PubMed

    Bastien, Fabienne A; Stassun, Keivan G; Basri, Gibor; Pepper, Joshua

    2013-08-22

    Surface gravity is a basic stellar property, but it is difficult to measure accurately, with typical uncertainties of 25 to 50 per cent if measured spectroscopically and 90 to 150 per cent if measured photometrically. Asteroseismology measures gravity with an uncertainty of about 2 per cent but is restricted to relatively small samples of bright stars, most of which are giants. The availability of high-precision measurements of brightness variations for more than 150,000 stars provides an opportunity to investigate whether the variations can be used to determine surface gravities. The Fourier power of granulation on a star's surface correlates physically with surface gravity: if brightness variations on timescales of hours arise from granulation, then such variations should correlate with surface gravity. Here we report an analysis of archival data that reveals an observational correlation between surface gravity and root mean squared brightness variations on timescales of less than eight hours for stars with temperatures of 4,500 to 6,750 kelvin, log surface gravities of 2.5 to 4.5 (cgs units) and overall brightness variations of less than three parts per thousand. A straightforward observation of optical brightness variations therefore allows a determination of the surface gravity with a precision of better than 25 per cent for inactive Sun-like stars at main-sequence to giant stages of evolution.

  3. Global View of the Bright Material on Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zambon, F.; DeSanctis, C.; Schroeder, S.; Tosi, F.; Li, J.-Y.; Longobardo, A.; Ammannito, E.; Blewett, D. T.; Palomba, E.; Capaccioni, F.; Frigeri, A.; Capria, M. T.; Fonte, S.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Nathues, A.; Pieters, C.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.

    2014-01-01

    At 525 km in mean diameter, Vesta is the second-most massive and one of the brightest asteroids of the main-belt. Here we give a global view of the bright material (BM) units on Vesta. We classified the BMs according to the normal visual albedo. The global albedo map of Vesta allows to be divided the surface into three principal types of terrains: bright regions, dark regions and intermediate regions. The distribution of bright regions is not uniform. The mid-southern latitudes contain the most bright areas, while the northern hemisphere is poor in bright regions. The analysis of the spectral parameters and the normal visual albedo show a dependence between albedo and the strength (depth) of ferrous iron absorption bands, strong bands correspond with high albedo units. Vesta's average albedo is 0.38, but there are bright material whose albedo can exceed 0.50. Only the E-Type asteroids have albedos comparable to those of the BMs on Vesta. The Dawn mission observed a large fraction of Vesta's surface at high spatial resolution, allowing a detailed study of the morphology and mineralogy of it. In particular, reflectance spectra provided by the Visible and InfraRed spectrometer (VIR), confirmed that Vesta's mineralogy is dominated by pyroxenes. All Vesta spectra show two strong absorption bands at approx 0.9 and 1.9 micron, typical of the pyroxenes and associated with the howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) meteorites.

  4. Synthesizing SMOS Zero-Baselines with Aquarius Brightness Temperature Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colliander, A.; Dinnat, E.; Le Vine, D.; Kainulainen, J.

    2012-01-01

    SMOS [1] and Aquarius [2] are ESA and NASA missions, respectively, to make L-band measurements from the Low Earth Orbit. SMOS makes passive measurements whereas Aquarius measures both passive and active. SMOS was launched in November 2009 and Aquarius in June 2011.The scientific objectives of the missions are overlapping: both missions aim at mapping the global Sea Surface Salinity (SSS). Additionally, SMOS mission produces soil moisture product (however, Aquarius data will eventually be used for retrieving soil moisture too). The consistency of the brightness temperature observations made by the two instruments is essential for long-term studies of SSS and soil moisture. For resolving the consistency, the calibration of the instruments is the key. The basis of the SMOS brightness temperature level is the measurements performed with the so-called zero-baselines [3]; SMOS employs an interferometric measurement technique which forms a brightness temperature image from several baselines constructed by combination of multiple receivers in an array; zero-length baseline defines the overall brightness temperature level. The basis of the Aquarius brightness temperature level is resolved from the brightness temperature simulator combined with ancillary data such as antenna patterns and environmental models [4]. Consistency between the SMOS zero-baseline measurements and the simulator output would provide a robust basis for establishing the overall comparability of the missions.

  5. A Bright and Fast Red Fluorescent Protein Voltage Indicator That Reports Neuronal Activity in Organotypic Brain Slices.

    PubMed

    Abdelfattah, Ahmed S; Farhi, Samouil L; Zhao, Yongxin; Brinks, Daan; Zou, Peng; Ruangkittisakul, Araya; Platisa, Jelena; Pieribone, Vincent A; Ballanyi, Klaus; Cohen, Adam E; Campbell, Robert E

    2016-02-24

    Optical imaging of voltage indicators based on green fluorescent proteins (FPs) or archaerhodopsin has emerged as a powerful approach for detecting the activity of many individual neurons with high spatial and temporal resolution. Relative to green FP-based voltage indicators, a bright red-shifted FP-based voltage indicator has the intrinsic advantages of lower phototoxicity, lower autofluorescent background, and compatibility with blue-light-excitable channelrhodopsins. Here, we report a bright red fluorescent voltage indicator (fluorescent indicator for voltage imaging red; FlicR1) with properties that are comparable to the best available green indicators. To develop FlicR1, we used directed protein evolution and rational engineering to screen libraries of thousands of variants. FlicR1 faithfully reports single action potentials (∼3% ΔF/F) and tracks electrically driven voltage oscillations at 100 Hz in dissociated Sprague Dawley rat hippocampal neurons in single trial recordings. Furthermore, FlicR1 can be easily imaged with wide-field fluorescence microscopy. We demonstrate that FlicR1 can be used in conjunction with a blue-shifted channelrhodopsin for all-optical electrophysiology, although blue light photoactivation of the FlicR1 chromophore presents a challenge for applications that require spatially overlapping yellow and blue excitation. PMID:26911693

  6. Yellow fever cases in Asia: primed for an epidemic.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Sean; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah; Lim, Poh Lian

    2016-07-01

    There is currently an emerging outbreak of yellow fever in Angola. Cases in infected travellers have been reported in a number of other African countries, as well as in China, representing the first ever documented cases of yellow fever in Asia. There is a large Chinese workforce in Angola, many of whom may be unvaccinated, increasing the risk of ongoing importation of yellow fever into Asia via busy commercial airline routes. Large parts of the region are hyperendemic for the related Flavivirus dengue and are widely infested by Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector of urban yellow fever transmission. The combination of sustained introduction of viraemic travellers, an ecology conducive to local transmission, and an unimmunized population raises the possibility of a yellow fever epidemic in Asia. This represents a major global health threat, particularly in the context of a depleted emergency vaccine stockpile and untested surveillance systems in the region. In this review, the potential for a yellow fever outbreak in Asia is discussed with reference to the ecological and historical forces that have shaped global yellow fever epidemiology. The limitations of surveillance and vector control in the region are highlighted, and priorities for outbreak preparedness and response are suggested.

  7. Assessing Yellow Fever Risk in the Ecuadorian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Izurieta, Ricardo O; Macaluso, Maurizio; Watts, Douglas M; Tesh, Robert B; Guerra, Bolivar; Cruz, Ligia M; Galwankar, Sagar; Vermund, Sten H

    2009-01-01

    This study reports results of a cross-sectional study based on interviews and seroepidemiological methods to identify risk factors for yellow fever infection among personnel of a military garrison in the Amazonian rainforest. Clinical symptoms and signs observed among yellow fever cases are also described. Humoral immune response to yellow fever, Mayaro, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Oropouche, and dengue 2 infection was assessed by evaluating IgM and IgG specific antibodies. A yellow fever attack rate of 13% (44/341, with 3 fatal cases) was observed among military personnel. Signs of digestive track bleeding (14.6%) and hematuria (4.9%) were observed among the yellow fever cases. In 32.2% of the cases, we measured high levels of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase with maximum levels of 6,830 and 3,500, respectively. Signs of bleeding or jaundice were observed in some cases, and high levels of transaminases were seen. The epidemiological and laboratory investigations demonstrated that the military personnel were affected by a yellow fever outbreak. The association between clearing the rainforest and also being at the detachments with yellow fever infection confirms that clearing is the main factor in the jungle model of transmission, which takes place deep in the Amazonian rainforest. PMID:20300380

  8. [Yellow nail syndrome in a patient with membranous glomerulonephritis].

    PubMed

    Modrzewska, Katarzyna; Fijołek, Justyna; Ptak, Jakub; Wiatr, Elżbieta

    2012-01-01

    Yellow nail syndrome (YNS) is a condition characterized by yellow-green coloration of nails, respiratory manifestations and lymphoedema. This article presents 52-year-old patient with membranous glomerulonephritis, hospitalized at the National Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases Research Institute in Warsaw, because of suspected allergic aspergillosis. Based on clinical and radiological evaluation the diagnosis of YNS was established. Treatment of renal disease did not affect the course of yellow nail syndrome. During the two-year follow-up, despite stable renal parameters we observed the progression of respiratory manifestations (bronchiectasis, pleural effusions). PMID:22370985

  9. [Preparation of reactive bright blue praseodymium dyestuff and its spectral properties].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Zhen; Yuan, Ya-Qin; Cai, Yu; Zhu, Xian; Wang, Yan-Hong

    2004-08-01

    Reactive bright blue praseodymium dyestuff was prepared by using reactive bright blue and praseodymium oxide. The spectra of reactive bright blue praseodymium and dyed silk cloth by reactive bright blue praseodymium dyestuff were studied by UV-Vis and IR spectra respectively. In the range of 200-800 nm, reactive bright blue has four absorption peaks, and lambda(max) is 259 nm; reactive bright blue praseodymium has three absorption peaks, while lambda(max), is 264.00 nm. In the range of 420-760 nm, reactive bright blue has two absorption peaks at 661.50 and 625.50 nm, respectively, and lambda(max) is 661.50 nm; reactive bright blue praseodymium has only one absorption peak at 618.00 nm. Coordinate bond links reactive bright blue to praseodymium ion. Reactive bright blue praseodymium increases linking radicals as compared with reactive bright blue.

  10. A Bright and Fast Red Fluorescent Protein Voltage Indicator That Reports Neuronal Activity in Organotypic Brain Slices

    PubMed Central

    Abdelfattah, Ahmed S.; Farhi, Samouil L.; Zhao, Yongxin; Brinks, Daan; Zou, Peng; Ruangkittisakul, Araya; Platisa, Jelena; Pieribone, Vincent A.; Ballanyi, Klaus; Cohen, Adam E.

    2016-01-01

    Optical imaging of voltage indicators based on green fluorescent proteins (FPs) or archaerhodopsin has emerged as a powerful approach for detecting the activity of many individual neurons with high spatial and temporal resolution. Relative to green FP-based voltage indicators, a bright red-shifted FP-based voltage indicator has the intrinsic advantages of lower phototoxicity, lower autofluorescent background, and compatibility with blue-light-excitable channelrhodopsins. Here, we report a bright red fluorescent voltage indicator (fluorescent indicator for voltage imaging red; FlicR1) with properties that are comparable to the best available green indicators. To develop FlicR1, we used directed protein evolution and rational engineering to screen libraries of thousands of variants. FlicR1 faithfully reports single action potentials (∼3% ΔF/F) and tracks electrically driven voltage oscillations at 100 Hz in dissociated Sprague Dawley rat hippocampal neurons in single trial recordings. Furthermore, FlicR1 can be easily imaged with wide-field fluorescence microscopy. We demonstrate that FlicR1 can be used in conjunction with a blue-shifted channelrhodopsin for all-optical electrophysiology, although blue light photoactivation of the FlicR1 chromophore presents a challenge for applications that require spatially overlapping yellow and blue excitation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Fluorescent-protein-based voltage indicators enable imaging of the electrical activity of many genetically targeted neurons with high spatial and temporal resolution. Here, we describe the engineering of a bright red fluorescent protein-based voltage indicator designated as FlicR1 (fluorescent indicator for voltage imaging red). FlicR1 has sufficient speed and sensitivity to report single action potentials and voltage fluctuations at frequencies up to 100 Hz in single-trial recordings with wide-field microscopy. Because it is excitable with yellow light, FlicR1 can be used in conjunction with blue

  11. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers... Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The Director is responsible for the designation of yellow fever vaccination...

  12. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers... Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The Director is responsible for the designation of yellow fever vaccination...

  13. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers... Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The Director is responsible for the designation of yellow fever vaccination...

  14. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers... Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The Director is responsible for the designation of yellow fever vaccination...

  15. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers... Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The Director is responsible for the designation of yellow fever vaccination...

  16. A Neurodynamical Model of Brightness Induction in V1

    PubMed Central

    Penacchio, Olivier; Otazu, Xavier; Dempere-Marco, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Brightness induction is the modulation of the perceived intensity of an area by the luminance of surrounding areas. Recent neurophysiological evidence suggests that brightness information might be explicitly represented in V1, in contrast to the more common assumption that the striate cortex is an area mostly responsive to sensory information. Here we investigate possible neural mechanisms that offer a plausible explanation for such phenomenon. To this end, a neurodynamical model which is based on neurophysiological evidence and focuses on the part of V1 responsible for contextual influences is presented. The proposed computational model successfully accounts for well known psychophysical effects for static contexts and also for brightness induction in dynamic contexts defined by modulating the luminance of surrounding areas. This work suggests that intra-cortical interactions in V1 could, at least partially, explain brightness induction effects and reveals how a common general architecture may account for several different fundamental processes, such as visual saliency and brightness induction, which emerge early in the visual processing pathway. PMID:23717536

  17. PROFFIT: Analysis of X-ray surface-brightness profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Dominique

    2016-08-01

    PROFFIT analyzes X-ray surface-brightness profiles for data from any X-ray instrument. It can extract surface-brightness profiles in circular or elliptical annuli, using constant or logarithmic bin size, from the image centroid, the surface-brightness peak, or any user-given center, and provides surface-brightness profiles in any circular or elliptical sectors. It offers background map support to extract background profiles, can excise areas using SAO DS9-compatible (ascl:0003.002) region files to exclude point sources, provides fitting with a number of built-in models, including the popular beta model, double beta, cusp beta, power law, and projected broken power law, uses chi-squared or C statistic, and can fit on the surface-brightness or counts data. It has a command-line interface similar to HEASOFT’s XSPEC (ascl:9910.005) package, provides interactive help with a description of all the commands, and results can be saved in FITS, ROOT or TXT format.

  18. Counting unstained, confluent cells by modified bright-field microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Drey, L. Louis; Graber, Michael C.; Bieschke, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We present a very simple procedure yielding high-contrast images of adherent, confluent cells such as human neuroblastoma (SH-EP) cells by ordinary bright-field microscopy. Cells are illuminated through a color filter and a pinhole aperture placed between the condenser and the cell culture surface. Refraction by each cell body generates a sharp, bright spot when the image is defocused. The technique allows robust, automatic cell counting from a single bright-field image in a wide range of focal positions; it does this via free, readily available image-analysis tools. Contrast may be enhanced by swelling cell bodies by brief incubation in PBS. The procedure was benchmarked against manual counting and automated counting of fluorescently labeled cell nuclei.. Counts from day-old and freshly seeded plates were compared in a range of densities, from sparse to densely overgrown. On average bright-field images produced the same counts as fluorescent images, with less than 5% error. This method will allow routine cell counting using a plain bright-field microscope, absent cell-line modification or cell staining. PMID:23834382

  19. Oxygen abundances in low surface-brightness galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roennback, Jari

    1993-01-01

    Recent theories predict that some protogalaxies, in low-density environments of the field, are contracting and interacting so slowly that global star formation can be delayed until today. These systems should be gas rich and have low surface-brightness. Blue compact galaxies (BCG's) and other compact HII region galaxies currently experiencing a burst of star formation are good candidates of truly young galaxies (in the sense that global star formation recently has been initiated). If they really are young, they ought to have a recent phase when their brightness was much lower than in the bursting phase. No claims of observations of such proto-BCG's exist. Observations of galaxies in their juvenile phases would undoubtedly be of great interest, e.g. the determination of the primordial helium abundance would improve. A proper place to search for young nearby galaxies could be among blue low surface-brightness galaxies (BLSBG's) in the local field. The study of low surface-brightness galaxies (LSBG's) as a group began relatively recently. They are galaxies with extraordinary properties both as individuals and as a group. A few years ago we started an optical study of a sample of BLSBG's selected from the ESO/Uppsala catalogue. Results of spectroscopic observations obtained on a subsample - 8 galaxies - of our selection are reported. The HII region oxygen chemical abundances and its relation to the blue absolute magnitude and surface-brightness is investigated.

  20. Squash vein yellowing virus affecting watermelon in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we report the first detection of Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV)-induced watermelon vine decline outside of the continental U.S. This has implications for management of cucurbit virus diseases throughout the Caribbean....

  1. Bright and Not-So-Bright Prospects for Women in Physics in China-Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ling-An; Yang, Zhongqin; Ma, Wanyun

    2009-04-01

    Science in China-Beijing is enjoying a healthy increase in funding year by year, so the prospects for physicists are also bright. However, employment discrimination against women, formerly unthinkable, is becoming more and more explicit as the country evolves toward a market economy. Some recruitment notices bluntly state that only men will be considered, or impose restrictions upon potential female candidates. Female associate professors in many institutions are forced to retire at age 55, compared with 60 for men. This double-pinching discrimination against both younger and older women threatens to lead to a "pincer" effect, more serious than the "scissors" effect. Indeed, the ratio of senior-level women physicists in general has dropped significantly in recent years in China. Ironically, the number of female students applying for graduate studies is on the rise, as it is becoming increasingly difficult for them to compete with men in the job market with just an undergraduate degree. The Chinese Physical Society has made certain efforts to promote the image of women physicists, but it will take time and effort to reverse the trend.

  2. Purification of tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus.

    PubMed

    Luisoni, E; Milne, R G; Vecchiati, M

    1995-07-01

    Attempts were made to find a good purification procedure for tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a dangerous and continuously spreading whitefly-transmitted germinivirus, up to now only partially purified. Electron microscopy, serology and spectrophotometry were used to evaluate different procedures. The scheme finally adopted was the following: collect leaves and stems from Nicotiana benthamiana graft-infected 45-60 days previously (5-10 g/plant); homogenize with 0.5 M phosphate buffer pH 6 containing 2.5 mM NaEDTA, 10 mM Na2SO3, 0.1% 2-mercaptoethanol, 1% Triton X-100 and 0.1% Driselase (3-4 ml of buffer for each g of material); incubate overnight on ice with gentle agitation; filter; emulsify with 15% cold chloroform; centrifuge at low speed; ultracentrifuge supernatant; resuspend pellets in 0.5 M phosphate buffer pH 7 containing 2.5 mM NaEDTA; centrifuge at low speed; repeat resuspension of the pellets and low-speed centrifugation; ultracentrifuge the pooled supernatant on a Cs2SO4 gradient (e.g. for 5 h at 41,000 rpm); collect the virus band and dialyse or ultracentrifuge the virus. The virus yield was 5-10 mg per kg of tissue. PMID:7553359

  3. Advances and controversies in yellow fever vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Emile F. F.; Visser, Leonardus G.

    2013-01-01

    Ever since its development in 1937, the live-attenuated 17D yellow fever (YF) vaccine has been one of the most effective vaccines available to man. In this review we highlight the major steps in the development of 17D YF vaccine. We discuss the use of neutralizing antibodies as a surrogate marker for protection, and explore the strengths and weaknesses of the current plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), a technique developed in the 1960s that continues to be superior to every modern test in both sensitivity and specificity. The neutralizing antibodies demonstrated by the PRNT can be detected for several decades after vaccination, possibly even for the remainder of the recipient’s natural life. We review the available evidence on the duration of protection after primary vaccination, a topic that has been the subject of controversy over the last few months. For persons who are immunocompromised due to disease, medication or advancing age, the duration of protection may be shorter: they should always have their vaccine response checked by PRNT. Due to the higher risk of severe adverse events after vaccination with 17D YF in this group, the development of a new, inactivated vaccine will have substantial benefits in this population. PMID:24757521

  4. Hazardous metals in yellow items used in RCAs

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.F.; Rankin, W.N.

    1992-04-21

    Yellow items used in Radiologically Controlled Areas (RCAs) that could contain hazardous metals were identified. X-ray fluorescence analyses indicated that thirty of the fifty-two items do contain hazardous metals. It is important to minimize the hazardous metals put into the wastes. The authors recommend that the specifications for all yellow items stocked in Stores be changed to specify that they contain no hazardous metals.

  5. YELLOW SUPERGIANTS IN THE ANDROMEDA GALAXY (M31)

    SciTech Connect

    Drout, Maria R.; Massey, Philip; Meynet, Georges; Tokarz, Susan; Caldwell, Nelson E-mail: Phil.Massey@lowell.ed E-mail: tokarz@cfa.harvard.ed

    2009-09-20

    The yellow supergiant content of nearby galaxies can provide a critical test of stellar evolution theory, bridging the gap between the hot, massive stars and the cool red supergiants. But, this region of the color-magnitude diagram is dominated by foreground contamination, requiring membership to somehow be determined. Fortunately, the large negative systemic velocity of M31, coupled to its high rotation rate, provides the means for separating the contaminating foreground dwarfs from the bona fide yellow supergiants within M31. We obtained radial velocities of {approx}2900 individual targets within the correct color-magnitude range corresponding to masses of 12 M{sub sun} and higher. A comparison of these velocities to those expected from M31's rotation curve reveals 54 rank-1 (near certain) and 66 rank-2 (probable) yellow supergiant members, indicating a foreground contamination >= 96%. We expect some modest contamination from Milky Way halo giants among the remainder, particularly for the rank-2 candidates, and indeed follow-up spectroscopy of a small sample eliminates four rank 2's while confirming five others. We find excellent agreement between the location of yellow supergiants in the H-R diagram and that predicted by the latest Geneva evolutionary tracks that include rotation. However, the relative number of yellow supergiants seen as a function of mass varies from that predicted by the models by a factor of >10, in the sense that more high-mass yellow supergiants are predicted than those are actually observed. Comparing the total number (16) of >20 M{sub sun} yellow supergiants with the estimated number (24,800) of unevolved O stars indicates that the duration of the yellow supergiant phase is {approx}3000 years. This is consistent with what the 12 M{sub sun} and 15 M{sub sun} evolutionary tracks predict, but disagrees with the 20,000-80,000 year timescales predicted by the models for higher masses.

  6. Water resources of the Yellow Medicine River Watershed, Southwestern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Novitzki, R.P.; Van Voast, Wayne A.; Jerabek, L.A.

    1969-01-01

    The Yellow Medicine and Minnesota Rivers are the major sources of surface water. For physiographic regions – Upland Plain, Slope, Lowland Plain, and Minnesota River Flood Plain – influence surface drainage, and the flow of ground water through the aquifers. The watershed comprises 1070 square miles, including the drainage basin of the Yellow Medicine River (665 square miles) and 405 square miles drained by small streams tributary to the Minnesota River.

  7. Investigation of two-photon absorption properties in new A-D-A compounds emitting blue and yellow fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Fan; Cai, Zhi-Bin; Huang, Jiu-Qiang; Li, Sheng-Li; Tian, Yu-Peng

    2015-08-01

    Three new acceptor-donor-acceptor compounds (LBQ, DBQ, BYQ) were synthesized and characterized by infrared, hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. Their photophysical properties were investigated including linear absorption, single-photon excited fluorescence, fluorescence quantum yield and two-photon absorption. These compounds in CH2Cl2 exhibit good fluorescence quantum yield which are 0.36, 0.26, and 0.25 and the largest two-photon absorption cross-section which are 48, 36, and 181 GM respectively. Under the excitation of Ti: sapphire laser with a pulse width of 140 fs, LBQ and DBQ emit blue two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF), while BYQ emits bright yellow TPEF. BYQ has a good solubility in water and the σ can be as large as 130 GM, so it shows promising applications in many pharmaceutical and biological fields.

  8. First data on the composition of atmospheric dust responsible for yellow snow in Northern European Russia in March 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, V. P.; Korobov, V. B.; Lisitzin, A. P.; Aleshinskaya, A. S.; Bogdanova, O. Yu.; Goryunova, N. V.; Grishchenko, I. V.; Dara, O. M.; Zavernina, N. N.; Kurteeva, E. I.; Novichkova, E. A.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Sapozhnikov, F. V.

    2010-04-01

    The descent of a large quantity of dust responsible for bright colors of atmospheric precipitation in the temperate, subpolar, and polar zones of the northern hemisphere is rarely observed [1-5]. In the twentieth century and in the beginning of the twenty-first century in the northern part of European Russia, such events had not been registered right up to March 25-26, 2008. At that time in some parts of the Arkhangelsk region, Komi Republic, and Nenets Autonomous Area, atmospheric precipitation as moist snow and rain responsible for sand and saffron colors of ice crust formation on the snow surface was observed. Thus, due to detailed mineralogical, geochemical, pollen, diatom, and meteorological investigations, it was established that the main source of the yellow dust is the semidesert and steppe regions of the Northwest Kazakhstan, and the Volgograd and Astrakhan regions, Kalmykia.

  9. [The current state of research in bright light therapy].

    PubMed

    Bassa, Daniela; Canazei, Markus; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2013-01-01

    The significance of light for the human organism and especially for the mental health is well-established for a long time. Therefore, the impact of light on mood and the use of bright light as a treatment-option for affective disorders have been studied extensively by scientists. Today bright light therapy is the treatment of choice for saisonal affective disorders. In the last years several clinical trials could demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy of bright light therapy for different neurological and psychiatric disorders such as sleep disorders, non-seasonal affective disorders or dementia. This article will give an overview about the neurobiological basis for light therapy and discuss different disorders responsive to light therapy. Finally a short overview about technical aspects of light therapy and new developments in light engineering will be presented.

  10. The effect of cirrus clouds on 118-GHz brightness temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinman, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    A microwave radiative transfer model that describes the effect of scattering by cirrus clouds on the brightness temperatures that may be measured by a geostationary temperature-sounding radiometer has been developed. The model assumes that cirrus clouds are situated at an altitude where the temperature is about 230 K above completely absorbing land surfaces. It is shown that the brightness temperature at 118.75 + or - 3.9 GHz is depressed by 0.3-0.4 K per g per sq m of ice. The channels that operate at frequencies closer to 118.75 GHz are less affected by cirrus clouds. The brightness temperature reduction is most pronounced in warm temperate and tropical conditions.

  11. New low surface brightness dwarf galaxies detected around nearby spirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachentsev, I. D.; Riepe, P.; Zilch, T.; Blauensteiner, M.; Elvov, M.; Hochleitner, P.; Hubl, B.; Kerschhuber, G.; Küppers, S.; Neyer, F.; Pölzl, R.; Remmel, P.; Schneider, O.; Sparenberg, R.; Trulson, U.; Willems, G.; Ziegler, H.

    2015-10-01

    We conduct a survey of low surface brightness (LSB) satellite galaxies around the Local Volume massive spirals using long exposures with small amateur telescopes. We identified 27 low and very low surface brightness objects around the galaxies NGC672, 891, 1156, 2683, 3344, 4258, 4618, 4631, and 5457 situated within 10 Mpc from us, and found nothing new around NGC2903, 3239, 4214, and 5585. Assuming that the dwarf candidates are the satellites of the neighboring luminous galaxies, their absolute magnitudes are in the range of -8.6 > M B > -13.3, their effective diameters are 0.4-4.7 kpc, and the average surface brightness is 26ṃ1/□″. The mean linear projected separation of the satellite candidates from the host galaxies is 73 kpc. Our spectroscopic observations of two LSB dwarfs with the Russian 6-meter telescope confirm their physical connection to the host galaxies NGC891 and NGC2683.

  12. A catalog of low surface brightness galaxies - List II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schombert, James M.; Bothun, Gregory D.; Schneider, Stephen E.; Mcgaugh, Stacy S.

    1992-01-01

    A list of galaxies characterized by low surface brightness (LSB) is presented which facilitates the recognition of galaxies with brightnesses close to that of the sky. A total of 198 objects and 140 objects are listed in the primary and secondary catalogs respectively, and LSB galaxies are examined by means of H I redshift distributions. LSB disk galaxies are shown to have similar sizes and masses as the high-surface-brightness counterparts, and ellipticals and SOs are rarely encountered. Many LSB spirals have stellarlike nuclei, and most of the galaxies in the present catalog are late-type galaxies in the Sc, Sm, and Im classes. The LSB region of observational parameter space is shown to encompass a spectrum of types as full as that of the Hubble sequence. It is suggested that studies of LSB galaxies can provide important data regarding the formation and star-formation history of all galaxies.

  13. Bright Stuff on Ceres = Sulfates and Carbonates on CI Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael; Chan, Queenie H. S.; Gounelle, Matthieu; Fries, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports of the DAWN spacecraft's observations of the surface of Ceres indicate that there are bright areas, which can be explained by large amounts of the Mg sulfate hexahydrate (MgSO4•6(H2O)), although the identification appears tenuous. There are preliminary indications that water is being evolved from these bright areas, and some have inferred that these might be sites of contemporary hydro-volcanism. A heat source for such modern activity is not obvious, given the small size of Ceres, lack of any tidal forces from nearby giant planets, probable age and presumed bulk composition. We contend that observations of chondritic materials in the lab shed light on the nature of the bright spots on Ceres

  14. Life-history strategies affect aphid preference for yellowing leaves.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Jarmo K; Semiz, Gürkan; Blande, James D

    2009-10-23

    According to the nutrient-translocation hypothesis, yellowing tree leaves are colonized by aphids at the end of the growing season owing to improved availability of nutrients in the phloem sap after chlorophyll degradation. We measured aphid densities on potted Betula pendula seedlings in a field site where a small proportion of foliage rapidly turned yellow before normal autumn coloration as a consequence of root anoxia. The number of adults and nymphs of the birch-feeding specialist aphids Euceraphis betulae, Betulaphis brevipilosa and Callipterinella tuberculata were counted from leaves on each of the 222 plants. Aphids were detected on 19 per cent of green leaves and on 41 per cent of yellow leaves. There was no indication of aphid avoidance of yellow leaves, and the number of winged (alate) viviparous E. betulae adults and their nymphs were significantly higher on yellow leaves than on green leaves, while the numbers of apterous B. brevipilosa and C. tuberculata did not differ between the leaf colour types. Our result suggests that only aphid species with alate generation during colour change can take advantage of yellowing leaves. This may explain the exceptional abundance of E. betulae compared with other aphid species on birches. PMID:19535364

  15. Life-history strategies affect aphid preference for yellowing leaves.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Jarmo K; Semiz, Gürkan; Blande, James D

    2009-10-23

    According to the nutrient-translocation hypothesis, yellowing tree leaves are colonized by aphids at the end of the growing season owing to improved availability of nutrients in the phloem sap after chlorophyll degradation. We measured aphid densities on potted Betula pendula seedlings in a field site where a small proportion of foliage rapidly turned yellow before normal autumn coloration as a consequence of root anoxia. The number of adults and nymphs of the birch-feeding specialist aphids Euceraphis betulae, Betulaphis brevipilosa and Callipterinella tuberculata were counted from leaves on each of the 222 plants. Aphids were detected on 19 per cent of green leaves and on 41 per cent of yellow leaves. There was no indication of aphid avoidance of yellow leaves, and the number of winged (alate) viviparous E. betulae adults and their nymphs were significantly higher on yellow leaves than on green leaves, while the numbers of apterous B. brevipilosa and C. tuberculata did not differ between the leaf colour types. Our result suggests that only aphid species with alate generation during colour change can take advantage of yellowing leaves. This may explain the exceptional abundance of E. betulae compared with other aphid species on birches.

  16. Brightness discrimination in the South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus).

    PubMed

    Scholtyssek, C; Dehnhardt, G

    2013-05-24

    Underwater, the contrast between object and background is much larger reduced with increasing distance between object and observer than in air. For marine predators, such as pinnipeds, it would therefore be advantageous to possess a high sensitivity for brightness differences, since this would increase the distance at which prey can be detected visually. Few studies have examined the brightness discrimination thresholds of pinnipeds. Two studies with phocid seals have confirmed low brightness discrimination thresholds in pinnipeds whereas the threshold obtained for the South African fur seal seems to be twice as high as that of the phocids. However, the experiments with the South African fur seal have been conducted under inadequate conditions which likely resulted in an underestimation of the brightness discrimination ability of this species. The study at hand reinvestigated the brightness discrimination threshold of the South African fur seal under well controlled conditions. In a two alternative forced choice task, one fur seal was trained to indicate the position of the brighter of two gray discs presented on a black background on a monitor. The thresholds were determined for 11 standard intensities each tested against 8 lower comparison intensities. It was found that the fur seal was able to perceive brightness differences of 8-10%, which is better than the phocid species tested so far. For low standard intensities, however, the threshold increased which could to be due to a relative slow dark adaptation rate of the fur seal. The results are discussed in terms of the relevance of visual information for pinnipeds during foraging dives and are directly compared to the results obtained for the harbor seal which has been tested under the same conditions as the fur seal in a previous study.

  17. The possible origin of facular brightness in the solar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostik, R.; Khomenko, E.

    2016-05-01

    This paper studies the dependence of the Ca ii H line core brightness on the strength and inclination of the photospheric magnetic field, and on the parameters of convective and wave motions in a facular region at the center of the solar disc. We use three simultaneous data sets that were obtained at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife): (1) spectra of Ba ii 4554 Å line, registered with the instrument TESOS to measure the variations of intensity and velocity through the photosphere up to the temperature minimum; (2) spectropolarimetric data in Fe i 1.56 μm lines (registered with the instrument TIP II) to measure photospheric magnetic fields; (3) filtergrams in Ca ii H that give information about brightness fluctuations in the chromosphere. The results show that the Ca ii H brightness in the facula strongly depends on the power of waves with periods in the 5-min range, which propagate upwards, and also on the phase shift between velocity oscillations at the bottom photosphere and around the temperature minimum height that is measured from Ba ii line. The Ca ii H brightness is maximum at locations where the phase shift between temperature and velocity oscillations lies within 0°-100°. There is an indirect influence of convective motions on the Ca ii H brightness. The higher the amplitude of convective velocities is and the greater the height is where they change their direction of motion, the brighter the facula. In summary, our results lead to conclusions that facular regions appear bright not only because of the Wilson depression in magnetic structures, but also owing to real heating.

  18. Bright and dark excitons in semiconductor carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Tretiak, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    We report electronic structure calculations of finite-length semiconducting carbon nanotubes using the time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and the time dependent Hartree Fock (TD-HF) approach coupled with semiempirical AM1 and ZINDO Hamiltonians. We specifically focus on the energy splitting, relative ordering, and localization properties of the optically active (bright) and optically forbidden (dark) states from the lowest excitonic band of the nanotubes. These excitonic states are very important in competing radiative and non-radiative processes in these systems. Our analysis of excitonic transition density matrices demonstrates that pure DFT functionals overdelocalize excitons making an electron-hole pair unbound; consequently, excitonic features are not presented in this method. In contrast, the pure HF and A111 calculations overbind excitons inaccurately predicting the lowest energy state as a bright exciton. Changing AM1 with ZINDO Hamiltonian in TD-HF calculations, predicts the bright exciton as the second state after the dark one. However, in contrast to AM1 calculations, the diameter dependence of the excitation energies obtained by ZINDO does not follow the experimental trends. Finally, the TD-DFT approach incorporating hybrid functions with a moderate portion of the long-range HF exchange, such as B3LYP, has the most generality and predictive capacity providing a sufficiently accurate description of excitonic structure in finite-size nanotubes. These methods characterize four important lower exciton bands. The lowest state is dark, the upper band is bright, and the two other dark and nearly degenerate excitons lie in-between. Although the calculated energy splittings between the lowest dark and the bright excitons are relatively large ({approx}0.1 eV), the dense excitonic manifold below the bright exciton allows for fast non-radiative relaxation leasing to the fast population of the lowest dark exciton. This rationalizes the low

  19. Effects of bright light treatment on psychomotor speed in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Tulppo, Mikko P.; Jurvelin, Heidi; Roivainen, Eka; Nissilä, Juuso; Hautala, Arto J.; Kiviniemi, Antti M.; Kiviniemi, Vesa J.; Takala, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A recent study suggests that transcranial brain targeted light treatment via ear canals may have physiological effects on brain function studied by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques in humans. We tested the hypothesis that bright light treatment could improve psychomotor speed in professional ice hockey players. Methods: Psychomotor speed tests with audio and visual warning signals were administered to a Finnish National Ice Hockey League team before and after 24 days of transcranial bright light or sham treatment. The treatments were given during seasonal darkness in the Oulu region (latitude 65 degrees north) when the strain on the players was also very high (10 matches during 24 days). A daily 12-min dose of bright light or sham (n = 11 for both) treatment was given every morning between 8 and 12 am at home with a transcranial bright light device. Mean reaction time and motor time were analyzed separately for both psychomotor tests. Analysis of variance for repeated measures adjusted for age was performed. Results: Time × group interaction for motor time with a visual warning signal was p = 0.024 after adjustment for age. In Bonferroni post-hoc analysis, motor time with a visual warning signal decreased in the bright light treatment group from 127 ± 43 to 94 ± 26 ms (p = 0.024) but did not change significantly in the sham group 121 ± 23 vs. 110 ± 32 ms (p = 0.308). Reaction time with a visual signal did not change in either group. Reaction or motor time with an audio warning signal did not change in either the treatment or sham group. Conclusion: Psychomotor speed, particularly motor time with a visual warning signal, improves after transcranial bright light treatment in professional ice-hockey players during the competition season in the dark time of the year. PMID:24860513

  20. Laser ion source for high brightness heavy ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, M.

    2016-09-01

    A laser ion source is known as a high current high charge state heavy ion source. However we place great emphasis on the capability to realize a high brightness ion source. A laser ion source has a pinpoint small volume where materials are ionized and can achieve quite uniform low temperature ion beam. Those features may enable us to realize very small emittance beams. In 2014, a low charge state high brightness laser ion source was successfully commissioned in Brookhaven National Laboratory. Now most of all the solid based heavy ions are being provided from the laser ion source for regular operation.

  1. Dark dyes-bright complexes: fluorogenic protein labeling.

    PubMed

    Bruchez, Marcel P

    2015-08-01

    Complexes formed between organic dyes and genetically encoded proteins combine the advantages of stable and tunable fluorescent molecules and targetable, biologically integrated labels. To overcome the challenges imposed by labeling with bright fluorescent dyes, a number of approaches now exploit chemical or environmental changes to control the properties of a bound dye, converting dyes from a weakly fluorescent state to a bright, easily detectable complex. Optimized, such approaches avoid the need for removal of unbound dyes, facilitate rapid and simple assays in cultured cells and enable hybrid labeling to function more robustly in living model organisms.

  2. The brightness variations of Comet Halley at large heliocentric distances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flammer, K. R.; Jackson, B.; Houpis, H. L. F.; Mendis, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    The reasons for the intrinsic brightness variations of up to 500 percent on time scales as short as a few hours detected by Sekanina (1984) in Comet Halley between October 1982 and February 1984 are discussed. It is shown that solar wind-modulated electrostatic dust blowoff from the night side of the comet is consistent with the observed brightness variations. The variations coincide with the encounter of high-speed streams with the comet. The stream's propagation time to the comet and the sun's rotation during this transit were used to locate the stream origin on the coronal surface, and the results are shown.

  3. Implications of Titan's north-south brightness asymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sromovsky, L. A.; Suomi, V. E.; Krauss, R. J.; Limaye, S. S.; Revercomb, H. E.; Pollack, J. B.; Owen, T.; Sagan, C.

    1981-01-01

    Voyager 1 images of Titan, when normalized to remove limb darkening, reveal an axially symmetric brightness pattern with significant north-south asymmetry. This interhemispheric contrast seems to be a response to seasonal solar heating variations resulting from Titan's inclined spin axis. The contrast significantly lags the solar forcing, indicating that its production involves the atmosphere well below the unit optical depth level. The contrast has a significant effect on Titan's disk-integrated brightness as seen from earth, and probably accounts for most of the observed long term variation, with solar UV variations accounting for the remainder.

  4. DUST-SCATTERED ULTRAVIOLET HALOS AROUND BRIGHT STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, Jayant; Henry, Richard Conn

    2011-06-10

    We have discovered ultraviolet (UV) halos extending as far as 5 deg. around four (of six) bright UV stars using data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer satellite. These halos are due to scattering of the starlight from nearby thin, foreground dust clouds. We have placed limits of 0.58 {+-} 0.12 and 0.72 {+-} 0.06 on the phase function asymmetry factor (g) in the FUV (1521 A) and NUV (2320 A) bands, respectively. We suggest that these halos are a common feature around bright stars and may be used to explore the scattering function of interstellar grains at small angles.

  5. High-brightness displays in integrated weapon sight systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Tim; Hogan, Tim

    2014-06-01

    In the past several years Kopin has demonstrated the ability to provide ultra-high brightness, low power display solutions in VGA, SVGA, SXGA and 2k x 2k display formats. This paper will review various approaches for integrating high brightness overlay displays with existing direct view rifle sights and augmenting their precision aiming and targeting capability. Examples of overlay display systems solutions will be presented and discussed. This paper will review significant capability enhancements that are possible when augmenting the real-world as seen through a rifle sight with other soldier system equipment including laser range finders, ballistic computers and sensor systems.

  6. A bright PPKTP waveguide source of polarization entangled photons

    SciTech Connect

    Fanto, Michael; Tison, Christoper C.; Holwand, Gregory A; Preble, Dr. Stefan F; Alsing, Paul; Smith IV, Amos M

    2015-01-01

    The need for bright efficient sources of entangled photons has been a subject of tremendous research over the last decade. Researchers have been working to increase the brightness and purity to help overcome the spontaneous nature of the sources. Periodic poling has been implemented to allow for the use of crystals that would not normally satisfy the phase matching conditions. Utilizing periodic poling and single mode waveguide confinement of the pump field has yielded extremely large effective nonlinearities in sources easily producing millions of photon pairs. Here we will demonstrate these large nonlinearity effects in a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PPKTP) waveguide as well as characterizing the source purity.

  7. Maximum voltage gradient, uniformity and brightness of dispenser cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, W.C.; Chen, Y.J.; Green, M.C.; Miram, G.V.; Nordquist, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Initial measurements of current uniformity and intrinsic cathode brightness are presented a 5.1 cm diameter osmium alloy coated dispenser cathode. The data are obtained with a planar diode driven with a 35ns Blumlein pulse line. Pepper pot images are observed with a fast phosphor and gated camera. The current density and beamlet divergence angle are uniform within +-10% and a brightness J = 1.6E10A/m/sup 2/rad/sup 2/ is observed at a current density j=44A/cm/sup 2/. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Are solar brightness variations faculae- or spot-dominated?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, A. I.; Solanki, S. K.; Krivova, N. A.; Yeo, K. L.; Schmutz, W. K.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Regular spaceborne measurements have revealed that solar brightness varies on multiple timescales, variations on timescales greater than a day being attributed to a surface magnetic field. Independently, ground-based and spaceborne measurements suggest that Sun-like stars show a similar, but significantly broader pattern of photometric variability. Aims: To understand whether the broader pattern of stellar variations is consistent with the solar paradigm, we assess relative contributions of faculae and spots to solar magnetically-driven brightness variability. We investigate how the solar brightness variability and its facular and spot contributions depend on the wavelength, timescale of variability, and position of the observer relative to the ecliptic plane. Methods: We performed calculations with the SATIRE model, which returns solar brightness with daily cadence from solar disc area coverages of various magnetic features. We took coverages as seen by an Earth-based observer from full-disc SoHO/MDI and SDO/HMI data and projected them to mimic out-of-ecliptic viewing by an appropriate transformation. Results: Moving the observer away from the ecliptic plane increases the amplitude of 11-year variability as it would be seen in Strömgren (b + y)/2 photometry, but decreases the amplitude of the rotational brightness variations as it would appear in Kepler and CoRoT passbands. The spot and facular contributions to the 11-year solar variability in the Strömgren (b + y)/2 photometry almost fully compensate each other so that the Sun appears anomalously quiet with respect to its stellar cohort. Such a compensation does not occur on the rotational timescale. Conclusions: The rotational solar brightness variability as it would appear in the Kepler and CoRoT passbands from the ecliptic plane is spot-dominated, but the relative contribution of faculae increases for out-of-ecliptic viewing so that the apparent brightness variations are faculae-dominated for

  9. Genetically-encoded yellow fluorescent cAMP indicator with an expanded dynamic range for dual-color imaging.

    PubMed

    Odaka, Haruki; Arai, Satoshi; Inoue, Takafumi; Kitaguchi, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic AMP is a ubiquitous second messenger, which mediates many cellular responses mainly initiated by activation of cell surface receptors. Various Förster resonance energy transfer-based ratiometric cAMP indicators have been created for monitoring the spatial and temporal dynamics of cAMP at the single-cell level. However, single fluorescent protein-based cAMP indicators have been poorly developed, with improvement required for dynamic range and brightness. Based on our previous yellow fluorescent protein-based cAMP indicator, Flamindo, we developed an improved yellow fluorescent cAMP indicator named Flamindo2. Flamindo2 has a 2-fold expanded dynamic range and 8-fold increased brightness compared with Flamindo by optimization of linker peptides in the vicinity of the chromophore. We found that fluorescence intensity of Flamindo2 was decreased to 25% in response to cAMP. Live-cell cAMP imaging of the cytosol and nucleus in COS7 cells using Flamindo2 and nlsFlamindo2, respectively, showed that forskolin elevated cAMP levels in each compartment with different kinetics. Furthermore, dual-color imaging of cAMP and Ca2+ with Flamindo2 and a red fluorescent Ca2+ indicator, R-GECO, showed that cAMP and Ca2+ elevation were induced by noradrenaline in single HeLa cells. Our study shows that Flamindo2, which is feasible for multi-color imaging with other intracellular signaling molecules, is useful and is an alternative tool for live-cell imaging of intracellular cAMP dynamics.

  10. Extremely Low Passive Microwave Brightness Temperatures Due to Thunderstorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Extreme events by their nature fall outside the bounds of routine experience. With imperfect or ambiguous measuring systems, it is appropriate to question whether an unusual measurement represents an extreme event or is the result of instrument errors or other sources of noise. About three weeks after the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite began collecting data in Dec 1997, a thunderstorm was observed over northern Argentina with 85 GHz brightness temperatures below 50 K and 37 GHz brightness temperatures below 70 K (Zipser et al. 2006). These values are well below what had previously been observed from satellite sensors with lower resolution. The 37 GHz brightness temperatures are also well below those measured by TRMM for any other storm in the subsequent 16 years. Without corroborating evidence, it would be natural to suspect a problem with the instrument, or perhaps an irregularity with the platform during the first weeks of the satellite mission. Automated quality control flags or other procedures in retrieval algorithms could treat these measurements as errors, because they fall outside the expected bounds. But the TRMM satellite also carries a radar and a lightning sensor, both confirming the presence of an intense thunderstorm. The radar recorded 40+ dBZ reflectivity up to about 19 km altitude. More than 200 lightning flashes per minute were recorded. That same storm's 19 GHz brightness temperatures below 150 K would normally be interpreted as the result of a low-emissivity water surface (e.g., a lake, or flood waters) if not for the simultaneous measurements of such intense convection. This paper will examine records from TRMM and related satellite sensors including SSMI, AMSR-E, and the new GMI to find the strongest signatures resulting from thunderstorms, and distinguishing those from sources of noise. The lowest brightness temperatures resulting from thunderstorms as seen by TRMM have been in Argentina in November and December. For

  11. Relocation of the Yellow River estuary in 1855 AD recorded in the sediment core from the northern Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xin; Jia, Nan; Cheng, Wenhan; Wang, Yuhong; Sun, Liguang

    2013-12-01

    Relocation of the Yellow River estuary has significant impacts on not only terrestrial environment and human activities, but also sedimentary and ecological environments in coastal seas. The responses of regional geochemical characteristics to the relocation event, however, have not been well studied. In the present study, we performed detailed geochemical elemental analyses of a sediment core from the northern Yellow Sea and studied their geochemical responses to the 1855 AD relocation of the Yellow River estuary. The results show that TOC/TN, Co/Al2O3, Cr/Al2O3, Ni/Al2O3 and Se/Al2O3 ratios all decreased abruptly after 1855 AD, and similar decreases are observed in the sediments of the mud area southwest off the Cheju Island. These abrupt changes are very likely caused by the changes in source materials due to the relocation of the Yellow River estuary from the southern Yellow Sea to the Bohai Sea, which the corresponding decreasing trends caused by the changes in main source materials from those transported by the Liaohe River, the Haihe River and the Luanhe River to those by the Yellow River. Because the events have precise ages recorded in historical archives, these obvious changes in elemental geochemistry of sediments can be used to calibrate age models of related coastal sea sediments.

  12. [Enterococci and coliforms in yellow sheep cheese].

    PubMed

    Aleksieva, V

    1983-01-01

    The developmental dynamic of enterococci and coliforms was followed up in the entire technologic process and the storage of kashkaval (yellow cheese of ewe milk) under the conditions of modern industrial production. It was found that during the whole industrial cycle up to the steam cooking of curd the amount of enterococci grew and reached its peak value in the cheddarized cheese curd (2.4--30 million per gram), increasing from 10 to 34 times as against its level in the initial milk used. The coliform bacteria also rose in number, and their amount reached maximum values of 10 to 120 mill/g in the processed and dipped curd, after which a slowly advancing reduction set in. Species of the Enterobacter (55.1%), Escherichia (14.1%), Citrobacter (19.2%), and Klebsiella (11.5%) genera were isolated. The steam cooking of cheddarized curd produced an unfavourable effect on enterococci (pasteurization effect of up to 98.3 to 99.9%) and a lethal effect on the coliforms. Enterococci that resisted steaming multiplied in kashkaval and reached their highest level--960 000 up to 39 mill/g--between the 30th and the 60th day of production after which their numbers dropped. Their amount in the ripened product varied from 95000 to 17.8 mill/g, and on the 240th following production--from below 100 to 1.6 mill/g. Coliform bacteria were not found in 0.1 g of the product mass during ripening and storage of kashkaval. Out of the 196 strains that were differentiated as enterococci 30.7 per cent of the fecalis subgroup, and 69.3 per cent--of the Sp. faecium-durans subgroup. After steaming 92.3 per cent of the strains were of the Str. faecium and Str. durans species.

  13. Folding study of Venus reveals a strong ion dependence of its yellow fluorescence under mildly acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shang-Te Danny; Blaser, Georg; Behrens, Caroline; Cabrita, Lisa D; Dobson, Christopher M; Jackson, Sophie E

    2010-02-12

    Venus is a yellow fluorescent protein that has been developed for its fast chromophore maturation rate and bright yellow fluorescence that is relatively insensitive to changes in pH and ion concentrations. Here, we present a detailed study of the stability and folding of Venus in the pH range from 6.0 to 8.0 using chemical denaturants and a variety of spectroscopic probes. By following hydrogen-deuterium exchange of (15)N-labeled Venus using NMR spectroscopy over 13 months, residue-specific free energies of unfolding of some highly protected amide groups have been determined. Exchange rates of less than one per year are observed for some amide groups. A super-stable core is identified for Venus and compared with that previously reported for green fluorescent protein. These results are discussed in terms of the stability and folding of fluorescent proteins. Under mildly acidic conditions, we show that Venus undergoes a drastic decrease in yellow fluorescence at relatively low concentrations of guanidinium chloride. A detailed study of this effect establishes that it is due to pH-dependent, nonspecific interactions of ions with the protein. In contrast to previous studies on enhanced green fluorescence protein variant S65T/T203Y, which showed a specific halide ion-binding site, NMR chemical shift mapping shows no evidence for specific ion binding. Instead, chemical shift perturbations are observed for many residues primarily located in both lids of the beta-barrel structure, which suggests that small scale structural rearrangements occur on increasing ionic strength under mildly acidic conditions and that these are propagated to the chromophore resulting in fluorescence quenching.

  14. Simultaneous brightness and apparent depth from true colors on grey: Chevreul revisited.

    PubMed

    Dresp-Langley, Birgitta; Reeves, Adam

    2012-01-01

    We show that true colors as defined by Chevreul (1839) produce unsuspected simultaneous brightness induction effects on their immediate grey backgrounds when these are placed on a darker (black) general background surrounding two spatially separated configurations. Assimilation and apparent contrast may occur in one and the same stimulus display. We examined the possible link between these effects and the perceived depth of the color patterns which induce them as a function of their luminance contrast. Patterns of square-shaped inducers of a single color (red, green, blue, yellow, or grey) were placed on background fields of a lighter and a darker grey, presented on a darker screen. Inducers were always darker on one side of the display and brighter on the other in a given trial. The intensity of the grey backgrounds varied between trials only. This permitted generating four inducer luminance contrasts, presented in random order, for each color. Background fields were either spatially separated or consisted of a single grey field on the black screen. Experiments were run under three environmental conditions: dark-adaptation, daylight, and rod-saturation after exposure to bright light. In a first task, we measured probabilities of contrast, assimilation, and no effect in a three-alternative forced-choice procedure (background appears brighter on the 'left', on the 'right' or the 'same'). Visual adaptation and inducer contrast had no significant influence on the induction effects produced by colored inducers. Achromatic inducers produced significantly stronger contrast effects after dark-adaptation, and significantly stronger assimilation in daylight conditions. Grouping two backgrounds into a single one was found to significantly decrease probabilities of apparent contrast. Under the same conditions, we measured probabilities of the inducers to be perceived as nearer to the observer (inducers appear nearer on 'left', on 'right' or the 'same'). These, as predicted by

  15. Thermal neutron image intensifier tube provides brightly visible radiographic pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, H.; Kraska, I.; Niklas, W.; Schmidt, A.

    1967-01-01

    Vacuum-type neutron image intensifier tube improves image detection in thermal neutron radiographic inspection. This system converts images to an electron image, and with electron acceleration and demagnification between the input target and output screen, produces a bright image viewed through a closed circuit television system.

  16. High-brightness high-duty cycle electron injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sannibale, Fernando

    2014-03-01

    High brightness electron sources have been one of the driving forces behind the spectacular results achieved in the last decade by accelerator-based applications. Indeed, X-Ray FELs, with their 10-fold orders of magnitude increase in peak brightness, probably represent the best example of it. New ambitious proposals for X-ray FELs and ERLs, as well as inverse Compton sources for X- or gamma-ray production, are now requiring operation at MHz-GHz repetition rates. In response to that, a number of groups around the world have been actively working in developing high-brightness high-duty cycle electron injectors capable of driving such machines. The high repetition rate requirement cannot be met by the existing low-repetition rate high-brightness injector schemes, and new technologies are under investigation. This paper includes a description of the requirements for such injectors, an overview of the pursued technologies and schemes, a description of the main beam dynamics issues associated with the different choices, and a number of examples of the results obtained so far by the groups active in the field.

  17. RESPONSES OF BRIGHT, NORMAL, AND RETARDED CHILDREN TO LEARNING TASKS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARRIER, NEIL A.; AND OTHERS

    THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE VARIABLES OF INTELLIGENCE, LEARNING TASK PERFORMANCE, EMOTIONAL TENSION, AND TASK MOTIVATION WERE STUDIED. ABOUT 120 BRIGHT, NORMAL, AND RETARDED CHILDREN PERFORMED SIX TRIALS OF NUMBER LEARNING, CONCEPT FORMATION, PROBLEM SOLVING, PERCEPTUAL-MOTOR COORDINATION, AND VERBAL LEARNING TASKS. DURING THE LEARNING SESSIONS,…

  18. Apollo experiment S-211 low brightness, astronomical photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    The low brightness image analysis for the Apollo flights is reported. The objectives of Experiment S-21 are discussed along with the photographic equipment, and the data processing and analysis flow are presented. Photographic data for Apollo 14, 15, 16, and 17 are included.

  19. Low surface brightness galaxies and tidally triggered star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Lorrimer, Stephen J.

    1993-01-01

    Counts of companions to low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies are presented and these are compared to counts of companions to normal galaxies obtained with the same techniques and criteria. Our results are consistent with LSB's having no clustered companions and support the hypothesis that LSB galaxies have low star-formation rates because they lack external tidal triggering.

  20. The "Brightness Rules" Alternative Conception for Light Bulb Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Joel A.; Stuessy, Carol

    2006-01-01

    An alternative conception for the observed differences in light bulb brightness was revealed during an unguided inquiry investigation in which prospective elementary teachers placed identical bulbs in series, parallel, and combination direct current circuits. Classroom observations, document analyses, and video and audio transcriptions led to the…

  1. HANDS-ON, Career Exploration for Bright Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stovall, Betty J.; And Others

    Produced as part of a 5 week workshop on career explorations for 51 bright, middle grade students and 20 teachers, the curriculum guide discusses career education, outlines the workshop experiences, considers the inquiry process, and outlines 60 units on non baccalaureate careers in 15 career clusters. A lack of career education programs with…

  2. Femtosecond, High-Brightness Electron Beam Generation and Advanced Diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S G; Brown, W J; Tremaine, A M; Kuba, J; Hartemann, F V; Fittinghoff, D N

    2005-02-02

    This document serves as the final report for LDRD project number 04-LW-031, in which we created subpicosecond length, kilo-amp peak current electron beams with the 100 MeV electron/positron linac, using a novel technique designed to produce ultra-short bunch lengths while maintaining the high brightness produced by the S-band photoinjector. In addition, a diagnostic to measure the temporal distribution of the beam was investigated, as conventional pulse length measurement techniques do not apply to extremely short pulses. The creation and diagnosis of beams with both femtosecond length and high transverse brightness is of major concern to next generation acceleration and radiation production experiments. This work leveraged the previous investment in the PLEIADES facility and it's ability to produce high brightness electron beams. In addition, the ultra-short electron pulses generated by this work have been used in conjunction with the PLEIADES X-ray source to produce sub-picosecond, high-brightness X-ray pulses.

  3. High Precision Photometry of Bright Transiting Exoplanet Hosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Maurice; Eastman, Jason; Johnson, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Within the past two decades, the successful search for exoplanets and the characterization of their physical properties have shown the immense progress that has been made towards finding planets with characteristics similar to Earth. For most exoplanets with a radius about the size of Earth, evaluating their physical properties, such as the mass, radius and equilibrium temperature, cannot be determined with satisfactory precision. The MINiature Exoplanet Radial Velocity Array (MINERVA) was recently built to obtain spectroscopic and photometric measurements to find, confirm, and characterize Earth-like exoplanets. MINERVA's spectroscopic survey targets the brightest, nearby stars which are well-suited to the array's capabilities, while its primary photometric goal is to search for transits around these bright targets. Typically, it is difficult to find satisfactory comparison stars within a telescope's field of view when the primary target is very bright. This issue is resolved by using one of MINERVA's telescopes to observe the primary bright star while the other telescopes observe a distinct field of view that contains satisfactory bright comparison stars. We describe the code used to identify nearby comparison stars, schedule the four telescopes, produce differential photometry from multiple telescopes, and show the first results from this effort.This work has been funded by the Ronald E. McNair Post-Baccalaureate Achievement Program, the ERAU Honors Program, the ERAU Undergraduate Research Spark Fund, and the Banneker Institute at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.

  4. Exploring the Multi-Wavelength, Low Surface Brightness Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, R. J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Gal, R. R.; Odewahn, S. C.

    1999-12-01

    Our current understanding of the low surface brightness universe is quite incomplete, not only in the optical, but also in other wavelength regimes. We have, therefore, begun an exploration of the multi-wavelength, low surface brightness universe. This project currently involves data from DPOSS (Digitized Palomar Optical Sky Survey), 2MASS (Two Micron All Sky Survey), IRAS (Infrared Astronomical Satellite), and several neutral hydrogen surveys. We present some initial results of this work as well as discuss the implications of this work on future virtual observatories. Our main scientific goals have been the search for low surface brightness galaxies, including local group dwarf spheroidals, and also optical counterparts to high velocity clouds. Our techniques are complimentary to normal data reduction pipeline techniques in that we focus on the diffuse emission that is ignored or removed by more traditional algorithms. This requires, of course, a spatial filtering which must account for objects of interest, in addition to observational artifacts (e.g.,\\ bright stellar halos). Finally, with this work, we are exploring the intersection of the catalog and image domains in order to maximize the scientific information we can extract from the federation of large survey data.

  5. Impact Evaluation of Burkina Faso's BRIGHT Program. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Dan; Sloan, Matt; Linden, Leigh; Kazianga, Harounan

    2009-01-01

    The BRIGHT program was designed to improve the educational outcomes of children in Burkina Faso. It focused on girls in particular and was implemented in 132 rural villages throughout the 10 provinces of the country in which girls' enrollment rates were lowest. It consisted of constructing primary schools with three classrooms and implementing a…

  6. Aviation -- Where Career Opportunities are Bright, Counselor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharevitz, Walter; Marshall, Jane N.

    This aviation occupations guide is designed for use as a unit as well as in conjunction with an aviation careers package of material that contains a film strip and recording. Chapter One contains the script of the film strip, Aviation--Where Career Opportunities are Bright, and includes all photographs used in the film strip plus numerous…

  7. Reducing Color/Brightness Interaction in Color Television

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchman, Robert H.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed digitally sampled scan-conversion scheme for color television reduces unwanted interactions between chrominance and luminance signals. New scheme reduces luminance and chrominance bandwidth to increase frequency separation between signals. To avoid proportionally reducing horizontal brightness resolution and horizontal color resolution, horizontal interlace of luminance signal and two color-difference signals used.

  8. Finding Bright-Spot Coordinates in Television Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, T. E.; Tietz, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Circuit provides data for computer to calculate coordinates of bright spot of light in video image. Calculation performed while image being scanned, and results available immediately at end of video frame. Video-processing circuit has variety of potential uses in commerce and industry. For example, locates tagged-parts on factory assembly line or track airplane landing lights.

  9. Apparatus Would Position Bright Spot On Projection Screen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rayman, Marc D.

    1996-01-01

    Proposed apparatus aims beam of visible light at wavelength lambda(2) to create bright spot at desired position in image on projection screen. Intended to replace handheld laser and flashlight pointers lecturers sometimes use to indicate features in projected images. Beam of light cannot be inadvertently aimed toward audience.

  10. Variations in the Fe mineralogy of bright Martian soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murchie, Scott; Mustard, John; Erard, Stephane; Geissler, Paul; Singer, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Bright regions on Mars are interpreted as 'soil' derived by chemical alteration of crustal rocks, whose main pigmentary component is ferric oxide or oxyhydroxide. The mineralogy and mineralogic variability of ferric iron are important evidence for the evolution of Martian soil: mineralogy of ferric phases is sensitive to chemical conditions in their genetic environments, and the spatial distributions of different ferric phases would record a history of both chemical environments and physical mixing. Reflectance spectroscopic studies provide several types of evidence that discriminate possible pigmentary phases, including the position of a crystal field absorption near 0.9 microns and position and strengths of absorptions in the UV-visible wavelength region. Recent telescopic spectra and laboratory measurements of Mars soil analogs suggest that spectral features of bright soil can be explained based on a single pigmentary phase, hematite (alpha-Fe2O3), occurring in both 'nanophase' and more crystalline forms. Here we report on a systematic investigation of Martian bright regions using ISM imaging spectrometer data, in which we examined spatial variations in the position and shape of the approximately 0.9 microns absorption. We found both local and regional heterogeneities that indicate differences in Fe mineralogy. These results demonstrate that bright soils do not represent a single lithology that has been homogenized by eolian mixing, and suggest that weathering of soils in different geologic settings has followed different physical and chemical pathways.

  11. Soft-X-Ray Prefilter for Hot, Bright Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. M.; Ortendahl, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Prefilters consisting of beryllium foil supported on conductive silver mesh transmit soft x-rays but are nearly opaque to visible and infrared light. New Be/AG filters protect imaging X-ray detectors from damage by visible and longer wavelength radiation when viewing such hot, bright emitters as Sun or possibly certain industrial processes.

  12. Properties of lateral interaction in color and brightness induction.

    PubMed

    Bachy, Romain; Zaidi, Qasim

    2016-03-01

    In a visual scene, when objects are surrounded by other components, neural mechanisms increase the perceived color and brightness difference between an object and its surround, potentially enhancing an observer's ability to segment objects. Despite almost two centuries of empirical investigations, the nature of induction mechanisms remains elusive. To elucidate the nature of these mechanisms, we introduce a new method for measuring color and brightness induction that allows separate manipulation of lateral interactions and adaptation, and controls for eye-movement-related effects. We use the method to examine the function relating induction magnitude to contrast change in the surround, the symmetry of induction in complementary directions for the three cardinal color axes, and the effect of blur between the test and the surround. On average, brightness induction was more linear than chromatic induction. The induction magnitude was similar for surrounds of complementary colors on average and for many conditions, and when individual observers deviated from symmetry it could be on either side. Edge blur did not change the induction magnitude. For slower presentations, light/dark induction increased to further reduce asymmetry, suggesting that previously found light/dark induction asymmetry is not due to lateral interactions or prolonged adaptation. Lateral interactions underlying induction are thus mostly symmetric for color and brightness axes and involve spatially opponent filters of modest widths, rather than edge extraction.

  13. Bright Sneezes and Dark Coughs, Loud Sunlight and Soft Moonlight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Lawrence E.

    1982-01-01

    In a series of four experiments, subjects used scales of loudness, pitch, and brightness to evaluate the meanings of a variety of synesthetic metaphors--expressions in which words or phrases describing experiences proper to one sense modality transfer their meaning to another modality. (Author/PN)

  14. The 1997 Reference of Diffuse Night Sky Brightness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leinert, C.; Bowyer, S.; Haikala, L. K.; Hanner, M. S.; Hauser, M. G.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Mann, I.; Mattila, K.; Reach, W. T.; Schlosser, W.; Staude, J. J.; Toller, G. N.; Weiland, J. L.; Weinberg, J. L.; Witt, A. N.

    1997-01-01

    In the following we present material in tabular and graphical form, with the aim to allow the non specialist to obtain a realistic estimate of the diffuse night sky brightness over a wide range of wavelengths from the far UV longward of Ly to the far-infrared.

  15. Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) Forward Brightness Temperature Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Jinzheng; Peipmeier, Jeffrey; Kim, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The SMAP is one of four first-tier missions recommended by the US National Research Council's Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space (Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, Space Studies Board, National Academies Press, 2007) [1]. It is to measure the global soil moisture and freeze/thaw from space. One of the spaceborne instruments is an L-band radiometer with a shared single feedhorn and parabolic mesh reflector. While the radiometer measures the emission over a footprint of interest, unwanted emissions are also received by the antenna through the antenna sidelobes from the cosmic background and other error sources such as the Sun, the Moon and the galaxy. Their effects need to be considered accurately, and the analysis of the overall performance of the radiometer requires end-to-end performance simulation from Earth emission to antenna brightness temperature, such as the global simulation of L-band brightness temperature simulation over land and sea [2]. To assist with the SMAP radiometer level 1B algorithm development, the SMAP forward brightness temperature simulator is developed by adapting the Aquarius simulator [2] with necessary modifications. This poster presents the current status of the SMAP forward brightness simulator s development including incorporating the land microwave emission model and its input datasets, and a simplified atmospheric radiative transfer model. The latest simulation results are also presented to demonstrate the ability of supporting the SMAP L1B algorithm development.

  16. Book Bait V: Using Books to Lure Bright Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlichter, Carol L.

    1992-01-01

    This article provides bibliographic information and annotations for 13 folk tales, fables, and spoofs of folk tales. The items are felt to appeal to the quick wit of bright young students, and the adaptations of tales to other times and places acquaint students with history and culture. (JDD)

  17. Actionable Recommendations in the Bright Futures Child Health Supervision Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, J.L.; Downs, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background With the growing use of electronic health record systems, there is a demand for an electronic version of the leading American pediatric preventive care guideline, Bright Futures. As computer implementation requires actionable recommendations, it is important to assess to what degree Bright Futures meets criteria for actionability. Objectives We aimed to 1) determine the number of actionable recommendations in the current edition of Bright Futures and 2) to recommend a specific format for representing an important class of guidelines in a way that better facilitates computer implementation. Methods We consolidated all action statements in Bright Futures into recommendations. We then used two dimensions (decidability and executability) in the Guideline Implementability Appraisal v 2.0 (GLIA) to determine the actionability of the recommendations. Decidability means the recommendation states precisely under what conditions to perform those actions. Executability means actions are stated specifically, unambiguously and in sufficient detail. The results were presented in a figure titled Service Interval Diagram (SID), describing actionable recommendations, age intervals during which they are applicable, and how frequently they should occur in that interval. Results We consolidated 2161 action items into 245 recommendations and identified 52 that were actionable (21%). Almost exclusively, these recommendations addressed screening, such as newborn metabolic screening, or child safety, such as car seat use. A limited number (n=13) of recommendations for other areas of anticipatory guidance were also actionable. No recommendations on child discipline, family function or mental health met our criteria for actionability. The SID representing these recommendations is presented in a figure. Conclusion Only a portion of the Bright Futures Guidelines meets criteria for actionability. Substantial work lies ahead to develop most recommendations for anticipatory

  18. Thiazole yellow G dyed PVA films for optoelectronics: microstructrural, thermal and photophysical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebbar, Vidyashree; Bhajantri, R. F.; Naik, Jagadish; Rathod, Sunil G.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we report the microstructural, optical and fluorescence properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/Thiazole Yellow G (TY) dye composite prepared by solvent casting. The formation of change-transfer complex as a result of the interaction between the dye molecules and polymer chain is confirmed in FTIR, FT-Raman, XRD and DSC studies. SEM studies present the morphology of the samples. The UV-visible absorption spectra possess characteristic peaks of the TY dye corresponding to n-π* transition along with a characteristic peak of PVA. The composites exhibit the decreasing energy gap and increasing refractive index with an increase in wt.% of the TY dye. The fluorescence-quenching phenomena are observed in emission wavelength range of 391–406 nm upon excitation in the vicinity of absorption maxima (335 nm) with the quantum yield of 0.72 for lowest concentration of dye. The prepared composites bear high brightness, and improved thermal stability, which make them a promising material for sensors and optoelectronic applications.

  19. Development of ultra-sensitive Ca2+ indicators, yellow cameleon-nanos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Takeharu; Horikawa, Kazuki; Matsuda, Tomoki; Kobayashi, Kentaro

    2011-03-01

    There are so many Ca2+ indicators such as Oregon green 488 BAPTA-1 and cameleon, all of which have moderate Ca2+ affinities (Kd > 150 nM). These indicators successfully report changing in Ca2+ concentration in most of cells. However, it is known that some cells are estimated to have a very low resting [Ca2+] and display very small ▵[Ca2+]s, which is below the detection limit of the indicators. To develop high-affinity indicators, we modified a FRET-based Ca2+ indicator, yellow cameleon (YC) 2.60 (Kd = 100 nM) because of the brightness and the large dynamic range. By engineering the Ca2+ sensing domain, we obtained a series of ultra-sensitive Ca2+ indicators. Their high Ca2+ affinities (Kd = 15, 30, and 50 nM) enabled detection of subtle Ca2+ transients associated with spontaneous network activity in zebrafish. Our measurements revealed that both the resting Ca2+ level and the amplitude of Ca2+ transients significantly differed by cell type and stimulation, indicating that the selection of indicators with the appropriate Kd is essential for successful in vivo Ca2+ imaging. A lineup of such indicators with finely tuned Kd values optimized to detect [Ca2+] from 10 nM to 100 nM would enable precise and reliable Ca2+ imaging.

  20. Semi-automated, Quantitative Analysis of Retinal Ganglion Cell Morphology in Mice Selectively Expressing Yellow Fluorescent Protein

    PubMed Central

    Oglesby, Ericka; Quigley, Harry A.; Zack, Donald J.; Cone, Frances E.; Steinhart, Matthew R.; Tian, Jing; Pease, Mary E.; Kalesnykas, Giedrius

    2012-01-01

    The development of transgenic mouse lines that selectively label a subset of neurons provides unique opportunities to study detailed neuronal morphology and morphological changes under experimental conditions. In the present study, a mouse line in which a small number of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) express yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) under control of the Thy-1 promoter was used (Feng et al., 2000). We characterized the number, distribution by retinal region and eccentricity of YFP-labeled RGCs using fluorescence microscopy and StereoInvestigator software (MicroBrightField, VT, USA). Then, we captured images of 4–6 YFP-expressing RGCs from each of 8 retinal regions by confocal microscopy, producing 3-dimensional and flattened data sets. A new semi-automated method to quantify the soma size, dendritic length and dendritic arbor complexity was developed using MetaMorph software (Molecular Devices, PA, USA). Our results show that YFP is expressed in 0.2% of all RGCs. Expression of YFP was not significantly different in central versus peripheral retina, but there were higher number of YFP expressing RGCs in the temporal quadrant than in the nasal. By confocal-based analysis, 58% of RGCs expressing YFP did so at a high level, with the remainder distributed in decreasing levels of brightness. Variability in detailed morphometric parameters was as great between two fellow retinas as in retinas from different mice. The analytic methods developed for this selective YFP expressing RGC model permit quantitative comparisons of parameters relevant to neuronal injury. PMID:22210127

  1. Dynamic resetting of the human circadian pacemaker by intermittent bright light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rimmer, D. W.; Boivin, D. B.; Shanahan, T. L.; Kronauer, R. E.; Duffy, J. F.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    In humans, experimental studies of circadian resetting typically have been limited to lengthy episodes of exposure to continuous bright light. To evaluate the time course of the human endogenous circadian pacemaker's resetting response to brief episodes of intermittent bright light, we studied 16 subjects assigned to one of two intermittent lighting conditions in which the subjects were presented with intermittent episodes of bright-light exposure at 25- or 90-min intervals. The effective duration of bright-light exposure was 31% or 63% compared with a continuous 5-h bright-light stimulus. Exposure to intermittent bright light elicited almost as great a resetting response compared with 5 h of continuous bright light. We conclude that exposure to intermittent bright light produces robust phase shifts of the endogenous circadian pacemaker. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that humans, like other species, exhibit an enhanced sensitivity to the initial minutes of bright-light exposure.

  2. Yellow fever, Asia and the East African slave trade.

    PubMed

    Cathey, John T; Marr, John S

    2014-05-01

    Yellow fever is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and South America, yet its principal vectors--species of mosquito of the genus Aedes--are found throughout tropical and subtropical latitudes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that yellow fever originated in Africa and that its spread to the New World coincided with the slave trade, but why yellow fever has never appeared in Asia remains a mystery. None of several previously proposed explanations for its absence there is considered satisfactory. We contrast the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and trade across the Sahara and to the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia, with that to Far East and Southeast Asian ports before abolition of the African slave trade, and before the scientific community understood the transmission vector of yellow fever and the viral life cycle, and the need for shipboard mosquito control. We propose that these differences in slave trading had a primary role in the avoidance of yellow fever transmission into Asia in the centuries before the 20(th) century. The relatively small volume of the Black African slave trade between Africa and East and Southeast Asia has heretofore been largely ignored. Although focal epidemics may have occurred, the volume was insufficient to reach the threshold for endemicity.

  3. Yellow fever, Asia and the East African slave trade.

    PubMed

    Cathey, John T; Marr, John S

    2014-05-01

    Yellow fever is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and South America, yet its principal vectors--species of mosquito of the genus Aedes--are found throughout tropical and subtropical latitudes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that yellow fever originated in Africa and that its spread to the New World coincided with the slave trade, but why yellow fever has never appeared in Asia remains a mystery. None of several previously proposed explanations for its absence there is considered satisfactory. We contrast the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and trade across the Sahara and to the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia, with that to Far East and Southeast Asian ports before abolition of the African slave trade, and before the scientific community understood the transmission vector of yellow fever and the viral life cycle, and the need for shipboard mosquito control. We propose that these differences in slave trading had a primary role in the avoidance of yellow fever transmission into Asia in the centuries before the 20(th) century. The relatively small volume of the Black African slave trade between Africa and East and Southeast Asia has heretofore been largely ignored. Although focal epidemics may have occurred, the volume was insufficient to reach the threshold for endemicity. PMID:24743951

  4. Simple luminosity normalization of greenness, yellowness and redness/greenness for comparison of leaf spectral profiles in multi-temporally acquired remote sensing images.

    PubMed

    Doi, Ryoichi

    2012-09-01

    Observation of leaf colour (spectral profiles) through remote sensing is an effective method of identifying the spatial distribution patterns of abnormalities in leaf colour, which enables appropriate plant management measures to be taken. However, because the brightness of remote sensing images varies with acquisition time, in the observation of leaf spectral profiles in multi-temporally acquired remote sensing images, changes in brightness must be taken into account. This study identified a simple luminosity normalization technique that enables leaf colours to be compared in remote sensing images over time. The intensity values of green and yellow (green+red) exhibited strong linear relationships with luminosity (R2 greater than 0.926) when various invariant rooftops in Bangkok or Tokyo were spectralprofiled using remote sensing images acquired at different time points. The values of the coefficient and constant or the coefficient of the formulae describing the intensity of green or yellow were comparable among the single Bangkok site and the two Tokyo sites, indicating the technique's general applicability. For single rooftops, the values of the coefficient of variation for green, yellow, and red/green were 16% or less (n=6-11), indicating an accuracy not less than those of well-established remote sensing measures such as the normalized difference vegetation index. After obtaining the above linear relationships, raw intensity values were normalized and a temporal comparison of the spectral profiles of the canopies of evergreen and deciduous tree species in Tokyo was made to highlight the changes in the canopies' spectral profiles. Future aspects of this technique are discussed herein.

  5. Intra-fiber mode combining schemes, demonstrating high power brightness preservation and coherent-coupling brightness enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamir, Yariv; Zuitlin, Roey; Glick, Yaakov; Aviel, Matitya; Shafir, Noam; Feldman, Revital; Dahan, Asaf; Urbach, Benayahu; Levy, Daniel; Shekel, Eyal; Sintov, Yoav

    2014-02-01

    We demonstrate intra-fiber couplers performance that is close to complete brightness preservation up to 3kW. Furthermore, when mutually coherent sources were used, the same couplers were able to achieve brightness enhancement with almost no beam quality (BQ) deterioration. The couplers are based on an adiabatic, all-fiber, mode coupling device preserving the lowest spatial mode orders. Brightness levels that approach the theoretical limits were achieved by compressing the participating modes into a tight cross section. Incoherent combination is shown for 2×1, 3×1 and 7×1 combined elements. Additionally, we present a solution for preserving the beam propagation factor of the coupler by using a specialty engineered core delivery fiber. The fabricated components are fully fiber- integrated, hence, without free-space limitations. An overall transmission of <90% was obtained, while the coupler-delivery connection is responsible for less than 0.5% loss. Consequently, relatively low temperatures were observed in the combiner package. Alternatively, utilizing two mutually coherent sources, a quadratic brightness factor improvement was demonstrated. The scheme does not require polarization preserving fibers, and achieved rugged 'in-phase' mode-locking. This allows for a significantly simplified scheme, compared to common coherent combining methods. Prospect on future trends relating to nonlinearities and thermal load management are discussed.

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of Nanjiang Yellow goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Li, Haijun; Meng, Xiangren; Zhang, Hao; Duan, Xiaoyue; Niu, Lili; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Wu, Hongda; Zhong, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Nanjiang Yellow goat (Capra hircus) is the first cultured mutton breed in China. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Nanjiang Yellow goat has been identified for the first time. The total length of the mitochondrial genome was 16,639 bp, with the base composition of 33.54% A, 26.05% C, 13.11% G and 27.30% T. It contained 37 genes (22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 13 protein-coding genes) and a major non-coding control region (D-loop). Most of the genes have ATG initiation codons, whereas ND2, ND3 and ND5 start with ATA. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Nanjiang Yellow goat provides an important data set for further estimation on the phylogeographic structure of domestic goats.

  7. Yellow fever risk assessment in the Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Ramos Junior, Alberto Novaes; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2015-04-01

    Yellow fever still causes high burden in several areas of sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. There are few well-designed epidemiological studies and limited data about yellow fever in Africa. Staples et al., in a recently published paper in Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, performed a nationwide study in the Central African Republic (CAR) assessing infection risk and the operational impact of preventive measures. The rapid assessment of human, non-human and mosquito data call attention to the potential risk of future yellow fever outbreaks in the CAR and elsewhere. The study reinforces the need for intensified applied and operational research to address problems and human capacity needs in the realm of neglected tropical diseases in the post-2015 agenda.

  8. A novel emaravirus is associated with redbud yellow ringspot disease.

    PubMed

    Di Bello, Patrick L; Laney, Alma G; Druciarek, Tobiasz; Ho, Thien; Gergerich, Rose C; Keller, Karen E; Martin, Robert R; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E

    2016-08-15

    Yellow ringspot is the only virus-like disease reported in redbud (Cercis spp.) with symptoms including vein clearing, chlorotic ringspots and oak-leaf pattern. A putative new emaravirus was present in all trees displaying typical yellow ringspot symptoms and the name redbud yellow ringspot associated virus is proposed. The virus genome is composed of at least five RNA segments. Two coding regions were studied to determine isolate diversity with results pointing to a homogeneous virus population. Host range was evaluated using graft transmission and by testing species found in close proximity to infected trees. Mite transmission with Aculops cercidis, the predominant species found in redbud trees in the epicenter of the disease, was evaluated but was not found to be a vector of the virus. Based on this study and the accumulated knowledge on emaravirus evolution we propose that speciation is allopatric, with vectors being a major component of the process.

  9. Yellow fever risk assessment in the Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Ramos Junior, Alberto Novaes; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2015-04-01

    Yellow fever still causes high burden in several areas of sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. There are few well-designed epidemiological studies and limited data about yellow fever in Africa. Staples et al., in a recently published paper in Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, performed a nationwide study in the Central African Republic (CAR) assessing infection risk and the operational impact of preventive measures. The rapid assessment of human, non-human and mosquito data call attention to the potential risk of future yellow fever outbreaks in the CAR and elsewhere. The study reinforces the need for intensified applied and operational research to address problems and human capacity needs in the realm of neglected tropical diseases in the post-2015 agenda. PMID:25732754

  10. Spectral reflectance pattern in soybean for assessing yellow mosaic disease.

    PubMed

    Gazala, I F Saad; Sahoo, R N; Pandey, Rakesh; Mandal, Bikash; Gupta, V K; Singh, Rajendra; Sinha, P

    2013-09-01

    Remote sensing technique is useful for monitoring large crop area at a single time point, which is otherwise not possible by visual observation alone. Yellow mosaic disease (YMD) is a serious constraint in soybean production in India. However, hardly any basic information is available for monitoring YMD by remote sensing. Present study examines spectral reflectance of soybean leaves due to Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) infection in order to identify YMD sensitive spectral ratio or reflectance. Spectral reflectance measurement indicated significant (p < 0.001) change in reflectance in the infected soybean canopy as compared to the healthy one. In the infected canopy, reflectance increased in visible region and decreased in near infra-red region of spectrum. Reflectance sensitivity analysis indicated wavelength ~642, ~686 and ~750 nm were sensitive to YMD infection. Whereas, in yellow leaves induced due to nitrogen deficiency, the sensitive wavelength was ~589 nm. Due to viral infection, a shift occurred in red and infra-red slope (called red edge) on the left in comparison to healthy one. Red edge shift was a good indicator to discriminate yellow mosaic as chlorophyll gets degraded due to MYMIV infection. Correlation of reflectance at 688 nm (R688) and spectral reflectance ratio at 750 and 445 nm (R750/R445) with the weighted mosaic index indicated that detection of yellow mosaic is possible based on these sensitive bands. Our study for the first time identifies the yellow mosaic sensitive band as R688 and R750/R445, which could be utilized to scan satellite data for monitoring YMD affected soybean cropping regions.

  11. Yellow-red emission from (Ga,In)N heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damilano, B.; Gil, B.

    2015-10-01

    (Ga,In)N-based light emitting devices are very efficient in producing blue light and to a lesser extent green. Extending their spectral range to longer wavelengths while maintaining high efficiency is a challenge due to material and physical issues related to high-In content (Ga,In)N alloys. We review the current status of yellow and red emitters (light emitting diodes and laser diodes) based on this material system. We also describe the state-of-the-art of devices mixing blue-yellow or red-blue-green coloured light, such as monolithic phosphor-free white light emitting diodes and full-colour micro-displays.

  12. Yellow fever vaccine: worthy friend or stealthy foe?

    PubMed

    Seligman, Stephen J; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2016-06-01

    Recognition that the live yellow fever vaccine may rarely be associated with viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) has diminished its safety status. However, the vaccine remains the principal tool for limiting the occurrence of yellow fever, making large portions of Africa and South America more habitable. The subject has previously been exhaustively reviewed. Novel concepts in the current report include the description of a systematic method for deciding whom to vaccinate, recommendations for obtaining data helpful in making that decision, and suggestions for additional study. The vaccine is indeed a worthy friend, but its adverse reactions need to be recognized.

  13. Yellow and orange in cutaneous lesions: clinical and dermoscopic data.

    PubMed

    Bañuls, J; Arribas, P; Berbegal, L; DeLeón, F J; Francés, L; Zaballos, P

    2015-12-01

    Colour of the lesions is clue for the clinical and dermoscopic diagnosis. Nevertheless, we have detected in the literature an uneven relevance of the colours as a diagnostic criterion. Thus, while red, brown and blue have taken important role in dermoscopic descriptions, other like yellow and orange have been given much less importance. This article reviews those lesions in which the yellow and orange colours have been considered constitutive or essential for diagnosis, and on the other hand it emphasizes the entities in which may appear these colours and are not well reflected in the literature. We believe that organize all this information will help us in a better understanding of these pathologies.

  14. Bright-White Beetle Scales Optimise Multiple Scattering of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burresi, Matteo; Cortese, Lorenzo; Pattelli, Lorenzo; Kolle, Mathias; Vukusic, Peter; Wiersma, Diederik S.; Steiner, Ullrich; Vignolini, Silvia

    2014-08-01

    Whiteness arises from diffuse and broadband reflection of light typically achieved through optical scattering in randomly structured media. In contrast to structural colour due to coherent scattering, white appearance generally requires a relatively thick system comprising randomly positioned high refractive-index scattering centres. Here, we show that the exceptionally bright white appearance of Cyphochilus and Lepidiota stigma beetles arises from a remarkably optimised anisotropy of intra-scale chitin networks, which act as a dense scattering media. Using time-resolved measurements, we show that light propagating in the scales of the beetles undergoes pronounced multiple scattering that is associated with the lowest transport mean free path reported to date for low-refractive-index systems. Our light transport investigation unveil high level of optimisation that achieves high-brightness white in a thin low-mass-per-unit-area anisotropic disordered nanostructure.

  15. Space station contamination study: Assessment of contaminant spectral brightness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, D. G.

    1988-01-01

    The assessment of spectral brightness resulting from the ambient-contaminant interaction requires a knowledge of the details of cross sections and excitation mechanisms. The approach adopted was to utilize the spectral brightness measurements made on Spacelab 1 and on the S3-4 spacecraft to identify source mechanisms, key cross sections and hence, the abundance of contaminant species. These inferred abundances were then used to update the composition comprising the total column concentrations predicted by the Science and Engineering Associates' configuration contamination model for the Space Station and to scale the irradiances to four altitudes: 300, 350, 400, and 463 km. The concentration irradiances are compared with zodiacal natural background levels. The results demonstrate that emissive contamination is significantly more severe than anticipated. It is shown that spectral emissions can become competitive with the zodiacal background up to altitudes as high as 400 km for the vacuum ultraviolet and visible emissions.

  16. Sunspot bright rings and the thermal diffusivity of solar convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, T., Jr.; Fowler, L. A.; Foukal, P.

    1983-01-01

    Raster-scan observations of 10 sunspots, made in 1980 and 1981 with the 512-channel diode array and vacuum telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory, are reported. Data from several 10-min scans of 0.25-A passbands of clean continuum were summed to give an rms noise level of 0.25 percent, corrected by applying a limb-darkening curve, and analyzed to determine the average intensity for each of eight segments of a series of concentric rings around each sunspot. Faculae and pores were identified and discarded in constructing radial intensity profiles. Marginally significant bright symmetric rings (peak amplitude 0.1-0.3 percent) not attributable to residual facular signal or instrumental effects were observed around 6 of 10 sunspots. No evidence of more intense bright rings was found. These findings are discussed in terms of thermal-diffusion models proposed to explain the fate of the radiative flux blocked by sunspots.

  17. Autostereoscopic display with high brightness and power efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichenlaub, Jesse B.

    1994-04-01

    Dimension Technologies Inc. has experimentally demonstrated an optical system that produces autostereoscopic images and also allows very high brightness and power efficiency to be achieved using off the shelf color LCDs. This capability is important in applications such as cockpit displays or mobile, portable, or laptop systems where brightness must be maximized but power conserved as much as possible. The effects are achieved through the creation of light line illumination, by means of which autostereoscopic images are produced, and by simultaneously concentrating the light emitted by the display toward the area the viewer's head is. By turning different illumination sources on and off, it is possible to aim both the concentration area and the 3D viewing area at the observer's head as the observer moves. A variation on the system allows two or more persons to be tracked independently. Cross talk (ghosting) can be reduced to the point that imperceptibility can be achieved.

  18. Night-sky brightness at observatories and sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garstang, R. H.

    1989-03-01

    A model previously constructed for night-sky brightness calculations has been modified to allow for the curvature of the earth. The model has been applied to calculate the brightness at the following observatories: Mount Wilson, Lick, Mount Palomar, Kitt Peak, Sacramento Peak, Mauna Kea, McDonald, San Pedro Martir, Mount Hopkins, Mount Lemmon, Lowell (Mars Hill), Lowell (Anderson Mesa), Fick, Iowa, Van Vleck, David Dunlap, Anglo-Australian, Haute Provence, and Cerro Tololo. Calculations have also been carried out for the following prospective observatory sites: Junipero Serra, Mount Graham, Charleston Peak, Wheeler Peak, Miller Peak, San Benito Mountain, Lowell (Hutch Mountain), Lowell (Saddle Mountain), and South Baldy (New Mexico). The model is extended to calculate magnitudes in the B photometric band.

  19. Bright-white beetle scales optimise multiple scattering of light.

    PubMed

    Burresi, Matteo; Cortese, Lorenzo; Pattelli, Lorenzo; Kolle, Mathias; Vukusic, Peter; Wiersma, Diederik S; Steiner, Ullrich; Vignolini, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Whiteness arises from diffuse and broadband reflection of light typically achieved through optical scattering in randomly structured media. In contrast to structural colour due to coherent scattering, white appearance generally requires a relatively thick system comprising randomly positioned high refractive-index scattering centres. Here, we show that the exceptionally bright white appearance of Cyphochilus and Lepidiota stigma beetles arises from a remarkably optimised anisotropy of intra-scale chitin networks, which act as a dense scattering media. Using time-resolved measurements, we show that light propagating in the scales of the beetles undergoes pronounced multiple scattering that is associated with the lowest transport mean free path reported to date for low-refractive-index systems. Our light transport investigation unveil high level of optimisation that achieves high-brightness white in a thin low-mass-per-unit-area anisotropic disordered nanostructure. PMID:25123449

  20. Schmidt modes in the angular spectrum of bright squeezed vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharapova, P.; Pérez, A. M.; Tikhonova, O. V.; Chekhova, M. V.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate both theoretically and experimentally strong correlations in macroscopic (bright) quantum states of light generated via unseeded parametric down-conversion and four-wave mixing. The states generated this way contain only quantum noise, without a classical component, and are referred to as bright squeezed vacuum (BSV). Their important advantage is the multimode structure, which offers a larger capacity for the encoding of quantum information. For the theoretical description of these states and their correlation features we introduce a generalized fully analytical approach, based on the concept of independent collective (Schmidt) modes and valid for the cases of both weak and strong nonlinear interaction. In experiment, we generate states of macroscopic BSV with up to 1010 photons per mode and examine large photon-number spatial correlations that are found to be very well described by our theoretical approach.

  1. Fast microtomography using bright monochromatic x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, J. W.; Lee, J. S.; Park, S. J.; Chang, S.; Pyo, J.; Kwon, N.; Kim, J.; Kohmura, Y.; Nishino, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Ishikawa, T.

    2012-09-15

    A fast microtomography system for high-resolution high-speed imaging has been developed using bright monochromatic x-rays at the BL29XU beamline of SPring-8. The shortest scan time for microtomography we attained was 0.25 s in 1.25 {mu}m effective pixel size by combining the bright monochromatic x-rays, a fast rotating sample stage, and a high performance x-ray imaging detector. The feasibility of the tomography system was successfully demonstrated by visualization of rising bubbles in a viscous liquid, an interesting issue in multiphase flow physics. This system also provides a high spatial (a measurable feature size of 300 nm) or a very high temporal (9.8 {mu}s) resolution in radiographs.

  2. Operational Performance Improvements to BRIght Target Explorer Constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung Yun

    The BRIght Target Explorer (BRITE)-Constellation is composed of six nano-satellites funded by Austria, Canada, and Poland, and each of them is equipped with an optical telescope that observes stars with visual magnitude +3.5 or brighter. BRITE-Constellation has provided numerous images of bright stars from Low Earth Orbit, which will eventually lead to investigation of origin of the Universe. This thesis presents the contribution of the author to BRITE mission, especially in BRITE Operations. The author performed antenna steering experiments on UniBRITE and BRITE-Toronto, to improve data downlink. To improve scientific data collection from BRITE satellites, the author computed available observation time for multiple targets every orbit, which resulted in collection of twice the amount of scientific data. Also, the author increased the available observation time for each target from 32 minutes to 48 minutes by improving the performance of the star tracker on-board BRITE-Toronto.

  3. Bright-White Beetle Scales Optimise Multiple Scattering of Light

    PubMed Central

    Burresi, Matteo; Cortese, Lorenzo; Pattelli, Lorenzo; Kolle, Mathias; Vukusic, Peter; Wiersma, Diederik S.; Steiner, Ullrich; Vignolini, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Whiteness arises from diffuse and broadband reflection of light typically achieved through optical scattering in randomly structured media. In contrast to structural colour due to coherent scattering, white appearance generally requires a relatively thick system comprising randomly positioned high refractive-index scattering centres. Here, we show that the exceptionally bright white appearance of Cyphochilus and Lepidiota stigma beetles arises from a remarkably optimised anisotropy of intra-scale chitin networks, which act as a dense scattering media. Using time-resolved measurements, we show that light propagating in the scales of the beetles undergoes pronounced multiple scattering that is associated with the lowest transport mean free path reported to date for low-refractive-index systems. Our light transport investigation unveil high level of optimisation that achieves high-brightness white in a thin low-mass-per-unit-area anisotropic disordered nanostructure. PMID:25123449

  4. Ultra-bright pulsed electron beam with low longitudinal emittance

    DOEpatents

    Zolotorev, Max

    2010-07-13

    A high-brightness pulsed electron source, which has the potential for many useful applications in electron microscopy, inverse photo-emission, low energy electron scattering experiments, and electron holography has been described. The source makes use of Cs atoms in an atomic beam. The source is cycled beginning with a laser pulse that excites a single Cs atom on average to a band of high-lying Rydberg nP states. The resulting valence electron Rydberg wave packet evolves in a nearly classical Kepler orbit. When the electron reaches apogee, an electric field pulse is applied that ionizes the atom and accelerates the electron away from its parent ion. The collection of electron wave packets thus generated in a series of cycles can occupy a phase volume near the quantum limit and it can possess very high brightness. Each wave packet can exhibit a considerable degree of coherence.

  5. Hybrid bright-field and hologram imaging of cell dynamics.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Hyeokjun; Lee, Jaehyun; Doh, Junsang; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-01-01

    Volumetric observation is essential for understanding the details of complex biological phenomena. In this study, a bright-field microscope, which provides information on a specific 2D plane, and a holographic microscope, which provides information spread over 3D volumes, are integrated to acquire two complementary images simultaneously. The developed system was successfully applied to capture distinct T-cell adhesion dynamics on inflamed endothelial layers, including capture, rolling, crawling, transendothelial migration, and subendothelial migration.

  6. High Brightness and high polarization electron source using transmission photocathode

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Naoto; Jin Xiuguang; Ujihara, Toru; Takeda, Yoshikazu; Mano, Atsushi; Nakagawa, Yasuhide; Nakanishi, Tsutomu; Okumi, Shoji; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Konomi, Taro; Ohshima, Takashi; Saka, Takashi; Kato, Toshihiro; Horinaka, Hiromichi; Yasue, Tsuneo; Koshikawa, Takanori

    2009-08-04

    A transmission photocathode was fabricated based on GaAs-GaAsP strained superlattice layers on a GaP substrate and a 20 kV-gun was built to generate the polarized electron beams with the diameter of a few micro-meter. As the results, the reduced brightness of 1.3x10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2}/sr and the polarization of 90% were achieved.

  7. Hybrid bright-field and hologram imaging of cell dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byeon, Hyeokjun; Lee, Jaehyun; Doh, Junsang; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-09-01

    Volumetric observation is essential for understanding the details of complex biological phenomena. In this study, a bright-field microscope, which provides information on a specific 2D plane, and a holographic microscope, which provides information spread over 3D volumes, are integrated to acquire two complementary images simultaneously. The developed system was successfully applied to capture distinct T-cell adhesion dynamics on inflamed endothelial layers, including capture, rolling, crawling, transendothelial migration, and subendothelial migration.

  8. Bright spots among the world’s coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Cinner, Joshua E; Huchery, Cindy; MacNeil, M Aaron; Graham, Nicholas A J; McClanahan, Tim R; Maina, Joseph; Maire, Eva; Kittinger, John N; Hicks, Christina C; Mora, Camilo; Allison, Edward H; D'Agata, Stephanie; Hoey, Andrew; Feary, David A; Crowder, Larry; Williams, Ivor D; Kulbicki, Michel; Vigliola, Laurent; Wantiez, Laurent; Edgar, Graham; Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Sandin, Stuart A; Green, Alison L; Hardt, Marah J; Beger, Maria; Friedlander, Alan; Campbell, Stuart J; Holmes, Katherine E; Wilson, Shaun K; Brokovich, Eran; Brooks, Andrew J; Cruz-Motta, Juan J; Booth, David J; Chabanet, Pascale; Gough, Charlie; Tupper, Mark; Ferse, Sebastian C A; Sumaila, U Rashid; Mouillot, David

    2016-07-21

    Ongoing declines in the structure and function of the world’s coral reefs require novel approaches to sustain these ecosystems and the millions of people who depend on them3. A presently unexplored approach that draws on theory and practice in human health and rural development is to systematically identify and learn from the ‘outliers’—places where ecosystems are substantially better (‘bright spots’) or worse (‘dark spots’) than expected, given the environmental conditions and socioeconomic drivers they are exposed to. Here we compile data from more than 2,500 reefs worldwide and develop a Bayesian hierarchical model to generate expectations of how standing stocks of reef fish biomass are related to 18 socioeconomic drivers and environmental conditions. We identify 15 bright spots and 35 dark spots among our global survey of coral reefs, defined as sites that have biomass levels more than two standard deviations from expectations. Importantly, bright spots are not simply comprised of remote areas with low fishing pressure; they include localities where human populations and use of ecosystem resources is high, potentially providing insights into how communities have successfully confronted strong drivers of change. Conversely, dark spots are not necessarily the sites with the lowest absolute biomass and even include some remote, uninhabited locations often considered near pristine6. We surveyed local experts about social, institutional, and environmental conditions at these sites to reveal that bright spots are characterized by strong sociocultural institutions such as customary taboos and marine tenure, high levels of local engagement in management, high dependence on marine resources, and beneficial environmental conditions such as deep-water refuges. Alternatively, dark spots are characterized by intensive capture and storage technology and a recent history of environmental shocks. Our results suggest that investments in strengthening fisheries

  9. The Morphology of Low Surface Brightness Disk Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGaugh, S.; Schombert, J.; Bothun, G.

    1994-01-01

    Images of a sample of low surface brightness (LSB) disk galaxies are presented. These galaxies are generally late types; however, they are not dwarfs, being intrinsically large and luminous. The morphology of LSB galaxies is discussed in terms of the physical interpretation of the Hubble sequence, the stages of which are found to be nonlinear in the sense that smaller physical differences separate mid to early type spirals than late types.

  10. Measuring Anthropogenic Sky Glow Using a Natural Sky Brightness Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duriscoe, Dan M.

    2013-11-01

    Anthropogenic sky glow (a result of light pollution) combines with the natural background brightness of the night sky when viewed by an observer on the earth's surface. In order to measure the anthropogenic component accurately, the natural component must be identified and subtracted. A model of the moonless natural sky brightness in the V-band was constructed from existing data on the Zodiacal Light, an airglow model based on the van Rhijn function, and a model of integrated starlight (including diffuse galactic light) constructed from images made with the same equipment used for sky brightness observations. The model also incorporates effective extinction by the atmosphere and is improved at high zenith angles (>80°) by the addition of atmospheric diffuse light. The model may be projected onto local horizon coordinates for a given observation at a resolution of 0.05° over the hemisphere of the sky, allowing it to be accurately registered with data images obtained from any site. Zodiacal Light and integrated starlight models compare favorably with observations from remote dark sky sites, matching within ± 8 nL over 95% of the sky. The natural airglow may be only approximately modeled, errors of up to ± 25 nL are seen when the airglow is rapidly changing or has considerable character (banding); ± 8 nL precision may be expected under favorable conditions. When subtracted from all-sky brightness data images, the model significantly improves estimates of sky glow from anthropogenic sources, especially at sites that experience slight to moderate light pollution.

  11. Manakins can produce iridescent and bright feather colours without melanosomes.

    PubMed

    Igic, Branislav; D'Alba, Liliana; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2016-06-15

    Males of many species often use colourful and conspicuous ornaments to attract females. Among these, male manakins (family: Pipridae) provide classic examples of sexual selection favouring the evolution of bright and colourful plumage coloration. The highly iridescent feather colours of birds are most commonly produced by the periodic arrangement of melanin-containing organelles (melanosomes) within barbules. Melanin increases the saturation of iridescent colours seen from optimal viewing angles by absorbing back-scattered light; however, this may reduce the wide-angle brightness of these signals, contributing to a dark background appearance. We examined the nanostructure of four manakin species (Lepidothrix isidorei, L. iris, L. nattereri and L. coeruleocapilla) to identify how they produce their bright plumage colours. Feather barbs of all four species were characterized by dense and fibrous internal spongy matrices that likely increase scattering of light within the barb. The iridescent, yet pale or whitish colours of L. iris and L. nattereri feathers were produced not by periodically arranged melanosomes within barbules, but by periodic matrices of air and β-keratin within barbs. Lepidothrix iris crown feathers were able to produce a dazzling display of colours with small shifts in viewing geometry, likely because of a periodic nanostructure, a flattened barb morphology and disorder at a microstructural level. We hypothesize that iridescent plumage ornaments of male L. iris and L. nattereri are under selection to increase brightness or luminance across wide viewing angles, which may potentially increase their detectability by females during dynamic and fast-paced courtship displays in dim light environments. PMID:27307543

  12. Hybrid bright-field and hologram imaging of cell dynamics.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Hyeokjun; Lee, Jaehyun; Doh, Junsang; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-01-01

    Volumetric observation is essential for understanding the details of complex biological phenomena. In this study, a bright-field microscope, which provides information on a specific 2D plane, and a holographic microscope, which provides information spread over 3D volumes, are integrated to acquire two complementary images simultaneously. The developed system was successfully applied to capture distinct T-cell adhesion dynamics on inflamed endothelial layers, including capture, rolling, crawling, transendothelial migration, and subendothelial migration. PMID:27640337

  13. Bright spots among the world’s coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinner, Joshua E.; Huchery, Cindy; MacNeil, M. Aaron; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; McClanahan, Tim R.; Maina, Joseph; Maire, Eva; Kittinger, John N.; Hicks, Christina C.; Mora, Camilo; Allison, Edward H.; D'Agata, Stephanie; Hoey, Andrew; Feary, David A.; Crowder, Larry; Williams, Ivor D.; Kulbicki, Michel; Vigliola, Laurent; Wantiez, Laurent; Edgar, Graham; Stuart-Smith, Rick D.; Sandin, Stuart A.; Green, Alison L.; Hardt, Marah J.; Beger, Maria; Friedlander, Alan; Campbell, Stuart J.; Holmes, Katherine E.; Wilson, Shaun K.; Brokovich, Eran; Brooks, Andrew J.; Cruz-Motta, Juan J.; Booth, David J.; Chabanet, Pascale; Gough, Charlie; Tupper, Mark; Ferse, Sebastian C. A.; Sumaila, U. Rashid; Mouillot, David

    2016-07-01

    Ongoing declines in the structure and function of the world’s coral reefs require novel approaches to sustain these ecosystems and the millions of people who depend on them. A presently unexplored approach that draws on theory and practice in human health and rural development is to systematically identify and learn from the ‘outliers’—places where ecosystems are substantially better (‘bright spots’) or worse (‘dark spots’) than expected, given the environmental conditions and socioeconomic drivers they are exposed to. Here we compile data from more than 2,500 reefs worldwide and develop a Bayesian hierarchical model to generate expectations of how standing stocks of reef fish biomass are related to 18 socioeconomic drivers and environmental conditions. We identify 15 bright spots and 35 dark spots among our global survey of coral reefs, defined as sites that have biomass levels more than two standard deviations from expectations. Importantly, bright spots are not simply comprised of remote areas with low fishing pressure; they include localities where human populations and use of ecosystem resources is high, potentially providing insights into how communities have successfully confronted strong drivers of change. Conversely, dark spots are not necessarily the sites with the lowest absolute biomass and even include some remote, uninhabited locations often considered near pristine. We surveyed local experts about social, institutional, and environmental conditions at these sites to reveal that bright spots are characterized by strong sociocultural institutions such as customary taboos and marine tenure, high levels of local engagement in management, high dependence on marine resources, and beneficial environmental conditions such as deep-water refuges. Alternatively, dark spots are characterized by intensive capture and storage technology and a recent history of environmental shocks. Our results suggest that investments in strengthening fisheries

  14. Brightness/darkness induction and the genesis of a contour.

    PubMed

    Roncato, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Visual contours often result from the integration or interpolation of fragmented edges. The strength of the completion increases when the edges share the same contrast polarity (CP). Here we demonstrate that the appearance in the perceptual field of this integrated unit, or contour of invariant CP, is concomitant with a vivid brightness alteration of the surfaces at its opposite sides. To observe this effect requires some stratagems because the formation in the visual field of a contour of invariant CP normally engenders the formation of a second contour and then the rise of two streams of induction signals that interfere in different ways. Particular configurations have been introduced that allow us to observe the induction effects of one contour taken in isolation. I documented these effects by phenomenological observations and psychophysical measurement of the brightness alteration in relation to luminance contrast. When the edges of the same CP complete to form a contour, the background of homogeneous luminance appears to dim at one side and to brighten at the opposite side (in accord with the CP). The strength of the phenomenon is proportional to the local luminance contrast. This effect weakens or nulls when the contour of the invariant CP separates surfaces filled with different gray shades. These conflicting results stimulate a deeper exploration of the induction phenomena and their role in the computation of brightness contrast. An alternative perspective is offered to account for some brightness illusions and their relation to the phenomenal transparency. The main assumption asserts that, when in the same region induction signals of opposite CP overlap, the filling-in is blocked unless the image is stratified into different layers, one for each signal of the same polarity. Phenomenological observations document this "solution" by the visual system.

  15. Brightness/darkness induction and the genesis of a contour

    PubMed Central

    Roncato, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Visual contours often result from the integration or interpolation of fragmented edges. The strength of the completion increases when the edges share the same contrast polarity (CP). Here we demonstrate that the appearance in the perceptual field of this integrated unit, or contour of invariant CP, is concomitant with a vivid brightness alteration of the surfaces at its opposite sides. To observe this effect requires some stratagems because the formation in the visual field of a contour of invariant CP normally engenders the formation of a second contour and then the rise of two streams of induction signals that interfere in different ways. Particular configurations have been introduced that allow us to observe the induction effects of one contour taken in isolation. I documented these effects by phenomenological observations and psychophysical measurement of the brightness alteration in relation to luminance contrast. When the edges of the same CP complete to form a contour, the background of homogeneous luminance appears to dim at one side and to brighten at the opposite side (in accord with the CP). The strength of the phenomenon is proportional to the local luminance contrast. This effect weakens or nulls when the contour of the invariant CP separates surfaces filled with different gray shades. These conflicting results stimulate a deeper exploration of the induction phenomena and their role in the computation of brightness contrast. An alternative perspective is offered to account for some brightness illusions and their relation to the phenomenal transparency. The main assumption asserts that, when in the same region induction signals of opposite CP overlap, the filling-in is blocked unless the image is stratified into different layers, one for each signal of the same polarity. Phenomenological observations document this “solution” by the visual system. PMID:25368570

  16. Hybrid bright-field and hologram imaging of cell dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Hyeokjun; Lee, Jaehyun; Doh, Junsang; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-01-01

    Volumetric observation is essential for understanding the details of complex biological phenomena. In this study, a bright-field microscope, which provides information on a specific 2D plane, and a holographic microscope, which provides information spread over 3D volumes, are integrated to acquire two complementary images simultaneously. The developed system was successfully applied to capture distinct T-cell adhesion dynamics on inflamed endothelial layers, including capture, rolling, crawling, transendothelial migration, and subendothelial migration. PMID:27640337

  17. Advanced Diagnostics for Developing High-Brightness Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Babzien, M.; Malone, R.; Wang, X.-J.; Yakimenko, V.

    1998-11-24

    The production of high-brightness particle beams calls for the development of advanced beam diagnostics. High brightness beams, meaning beams with a high density in phase space, are important for many applications, such as short-wavelength Free-Electron Lasers and advanced accelerator systems. A diagnostic that provides detailed information on the density distribution of the electron bunch in multi-dimensional phase-space is an essential tool for obtaining small emittance at a high charge. This diagnostic system has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. One component of the system is the measurement of a slice emittance which provides a measurement of transverse beam properties (such as emittance) as a function of the longitudinal position. Changing the laser pulse profile of a photocathode RF gun has been suggested as one way to achieve non-linear emittance compensation and improve the brightness and that can be diagnosed by the slice emittance system. The other element of the diagnostic is the tomographic reconstruction of the transverse phase. In our work we give special attention to the accuracy of the phase space reconstruction and present an analysis using a transport line with nine focusing magnets and techniques to control the optical functions and phases. This high precision phase space tomography together with the ability to modify the radial charge distribution of the electron beam presents an opportunity to improve the emittance and apply non-linear radial emittance corrections. Combining the slice emittance and tomography diagnostics leads to an unprecedented visualization of phase space distributions in 5 dimensional phase-space and an opportunity to perform high-order emittance corrections. This should lead to great improvements in the beam brightness.

  18. ADVANCED DIAGNOSTICS FOR DEVELOPING HIGH-BRIGHTNESS ELECTRON BEAMS.

    SciTech Connect

    BEN-ZVI,I.

    1998-11-24

    The production of high-brightness particle beams calls for the development of advanced beam diagnostics. High brightness beams, meaning beams with a high density in phase space, are important for many applications, such as short-wavelength Free-Electron Lasers and advanced accelerator systems. A diagnostic that provides detailed information on the density distribution of the electron bunch in multi-dimensional phase-space is an essential tool for obtaining small emittance at a high charge. This diagnostic system has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. One component of the system is the measurement of a slice emittance which provides a measurement of transverse beam properties (such as emittance) as a function of the longitudinal position. Changing the laser pulse profile of a photocathode RF gun has been suggested as one way to achieve non-linear emittance compensation and improve the brightness and that can be diagnosed by the slice emittance system. The other element of the diagnostic is the tomographic reconstruction of the transverse phase. In our work we give special attention to the accuracy of the phase space reconstruction and present an analysis using a transport line with nine focusing magnets and techniques to control the optical functions and phases. This high precision phase space tomography together with the ability to modify the radial charge distribution of the electron beam presents an opportunity to improve the emittance and apply non-linear radial emittance corrections. Combining the slice emittance and tomography diagnostics leads to an unprecedented visualization of phase space distributions in 5 dimensional phase-space and an opportunity to perform high-order emittance corrections. This should lead to great improvements in the beam brightness.

  19. Bright spots among the world’s coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Cinner, Joshua E; Huchery, Cindy; MacNeil, M Aaron; Graham, Nicholas A J; McClanahan, Tim R; Maina, Joseph; Maire, Eva; Kittinger, John N; Hicks, Christina C; Mora, Camilo; Allison, Edward H; D'Agata, Stephanie; Hoey, Andrew; Feary, David A; Crowder, Larry; Williams, Ivor D; Kulbicki, Michel; Vigliola, Laurent; Wantiez, Laurent; Edgar, Graham; Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Sandin, Stuart A; Green, Alison L; Hardt, Marah J; Beger, Maria; Friedlander, Alan; Campbell, Stuart J; Holmes, Katherine E; Wilson, Shaun K; Brokovich, Eran; Brooks, Andrew J; Cruz-Motta, Juan J; Booth, David J; Chabanet, Pascale; Gough, Charlie; Tupper, Mark; Ferse, Sebastian C A; Sumaila, U Rashid; Mouillot, David

    2016-07-21

    Ongoing declines in the structure and function of the world’s coral reefs require novel approaches to sustain these ecosystems and the millions of people who depend on them3. A presently unexplored approach that draws on theory and practice in human health and rural development is to systematically identify and learn from the ‘outliers’—places where ecosystems are substantially better (‘bright spots’) or worse (‘dark spots’) than expected, given the environmental conditions and socioeconomic drivers they are exposed to. Here we compile data from more than 2,500 reefs worldwide and develop a Bayesian hierarchical model to generate expectations of how standing stocks of reef fish biomass are related to 18 socioeconomic drivers and environmental conditions. We identify 15 bright spots and 35 dark spots among our global survey of coral reefs, defined as sites that have biomass levels more than two standard deviations from expectations. Importantly, bright spots are not simply comprised of remote areas with low fishing pressure; they include localities where human populations and use of ecosystem resources is high, potentially providing insights into how communities have successfully confronted strong drivers of change. Conversely, dark spots are not necessarily the sites with the lowest absolute biomass and even include some remote, uninhabited locations often considered near pristine6. We surveyed local experts about social, institutional, and environmental conditions at these sites to reveal that bright spots are characterized by strong sociocultural institutions such as customary taboos and marine tenure, high levels of local engagement in management, high dependence on marine resources, and beneficial environmental conditions such as deep-water refuges. Alternatively, dark spots are characterized by intensive capture and storage technology and a recent history of environmental shocks. Our results suggest that investments in strengthening fisheries

  20. Sagnac Interferometry Using Bright Matter-Wave Solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helm, J. L.; Cornish, S. L.; Gardiner, S. A.

    2015-04-01

    We use an effective one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation to study bright matter-wave solitons held in a tightly confining toroidal trapping potential, in a rotating frame of reference, as they are split and recombined on narrow barrier potentials. In particular, we present an analytical and numerical analysis of the phase evolution of the solitons and delimit a velocity regime in which soliton Sagnac interferometry is possible, taking account of the effect of quantum uncertainty.

  1. Pathogenicity and insect transmission of a begomovirus complex between tomato yellow leaf curl virus and Ageratum yellow vein betasatellite.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Shigenori; Onuki, Masatoshi; Yamashita, Masataka; Yamato, Yoichi

    2012-04-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Ageratum yellow vein betasatellite (AYVB) are members of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae). TYLCV and AYVB have been found in Japan over the last 15 years, and are associated with tomato leaf curl and the tomato yellow leaf curl diseases (TYLCD). AYVB is also associated with some monopartite begomoviruses. We have cloned both TYLCV and AYVB and demonstrated that TYLCV can trans-replicate with AYVB in Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato plants. A mixed infection of TYLCV and AYVB induced more severe symptoms of upward leaf curl, stunting, vein thickening, and swelling compared with TYLCV infection alone. The symptoms induced by infection of AYVB included a rise in abnormal cell proliferation, and pigmentation around leaf vein tissues. This is the first study to show that a complex of TYLCV and AYVB can be transmitted by vector insects among tomato plants. These results indicate that TYLCV possesses the potential to induce severe TYLCD by associating with AYVB.

  2. The Origin of Brightness Variations in BC Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohanizadegan, Mina; Turner, David G.; Pastukhova, Elena N.; Berdnikov, Leonid N.

    2005-08-01

    The type-C semiregular variables are M-type supergiants like Betelgeuse that undergo fairly regular periodic brightness fluctuations superposed upon seemingly irregular modulations. Most of the 55 recognized Milky Way supergiants belonging to the class are multi-periodic, with radial pulsation believed to be one source of their luminosity changes. Here we investigate the origin of the brightness variations in the SRC variable BC Cygni, which, as a member of the open cluster Berkeley 87, has a well-established reddening and distance. Simple interior models for the star are used in conjunction with adiabatic pulsation to investigate likely pulsation periods for the star, which seem to lie around 700 days. We also consider the possibility that some of the brightness modulations arise from the movement of starspots across the stellar surface through rotation or from a longer-term spot cycle. The main periodicities in BC Cyg are near 696 days (pulsation), 240- 350 days (rotation?), and ~3750 days (spot cycle?). We also present arguments for similar types of variations in other members of the SRC class.

  3. A General Purpose Stacking Technique to Analyze Low Brightness Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wavle, Daniel; Leroy, Adam K.; Donovan Meyer, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We present an implementation of a general purpose stacking technique in which the detections of bright emission lines are used as priors to analyze low-brightness signal. We demonstrate the use of the technique on ALMA observations of the nuclear region of the nearby galaxy NGC 253 but emphasize its general applicability to a wide class of problems. The conceptual basis for the technique is to use closely associated brighter lines as priors to establish the local velocity (and potentially velocity profile) of a faint line. With this prior, the faint line can be coherently averaged by assuming that it shares a mean velocity with the bright prior. The coherent spectral averaging allows one to more clearly distinguish real astronomical signals from systematic effects, unstable baselines, or imaging artifacts. In our example application, we apply the technique to measure the intensity of faint isotopologues of dense gas tracers in NGC 253, lines that are otherwise hard to distinguish from the noise. The implementation of the code is intended for release as a general purpose cube analysis tool compatible with other astronomical python packages.

  4. Brightness limitations in multi-kiloampere electron beam sources

    SciTech Connect

    Barletta, W.A.; Boyd, J.K.; Paul, A.C.; Prono, D.S.

    1984-08-24

    Heuristic relationships such as the Lawson-Penner criterion, used to scale Free Electron Laser (FEL) amplifier gain and efficiency over orders of magnitude in beam current and brightness, have no fundamental basis. The brightness of a given source is set by practical design choices such as peak voltage, cathode type, gun electrode geometry, and focusing field topology. The design of low emittance, high current electron guns has received considerable attention at Livermore over the past few years. The measured brightnesses of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) and Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) guns are less than predicted with the EBQ gun design code; this discrepancy is due to plasma effects from the present cold, plasma cathode in the code. The EBQ code is well suited to exploring the current limits of gridless relativistic Pierce columns with moderate current density (<50 A/cm/sup 2/) at the cathode. As EBQ uses a steady-state calculation it is not amenable for study of transient phenomena at the beam head. For this purpose, a Darwin approximation code, DPC, has been written. The main component in our experimental cathode development effort is a readily modified electron gun that will allow us to test many candidate cathode materials, types and electrode geometries at field stresses up to 1 MV/cm. 6 references, 6 figures.

  5. Night-sky brightness and extinction at Mt Shatdzhatmaz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilov, V.; Kornilov, M.; Voziakova, O.; Shatsky, N.; Safonov, B.; Gorbunov, I.; Potanin, S.; Cheryasov, D.; Senik, V.

    2016-11-01

    The photometric sky quality of Mt Shatdzhatmaz, the site of the Sternberg Astronomical Institute Caucasian Observatory 2.5-m telescope, is characterized here by the statistics of the night-time sky brightness and extinction. The data were obtained as a by-product of atmospheric optical turbulence measurements with the MASS (Multi-Aperture Scintillation Sensor) device conducted in 2007-2013. The factors biasing night-sky brightness measurements are considered and a technique to reduce their impact on the statistics is proposed. The single-band photometric estimations provided by MASS are easy to transform to the standard photometric bands. The median moonless night-sky brightness is 22.1, 21.1, 20.3 and 19.0 mag arcsec-2 for the B, V, R and I spectral bands, respectively. The median extinction coefficients for the same photometric bands are 0.28, 0.17, 0.13 and 0.09 mag. The best atmospheric transparency is observed in winter.

  6. Bright Soil Churned by Spirit's Sol 1861 Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit drove 22.7 meters (74 feet) toward the southwest on the 1,861st Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on Mars (March 28, 2009). After the drive, the rover took this image with its front hazard-avoidance camera, looking back at the tracks from the drive.

    As usual since losing the use of its right-front wheel in 2006, Spirit drove backwards. The immobile right-front wheel churned up a long stripe of bright soil during this drive. Where Spirit has found such bright soil in the past, subsequent analysis of the composition found concentrations of sulfur or silica that testified to past action of water at the site. When members of the rover team saw the large quantity of bright soil exposed by the Sol 1861 drive, they quickly laid plans to investigate the composition with Spirit's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    The Sol 1861 drive took the rover past the northwest corner of the low plateau called 'Home Plate,' making progress on a route around the western side of Home Plate. The edge of Home Plate forms the horizon on the right side of this image. Husband Hill is on the horizon on the left side. For scale, the parallel rover wheel tracks are about 1 meter (40 inches) apart. The rover's hazard-avoidance cameras take 'fisheye' wide-angle images.

  7. Visual estimates of brightness and analysis of observations of variable stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsesevich, V. P.

    1973-01-01

    Methods of visual estimation of the brightness of variable stars include the Argelander method, Pickering method, and Neyland-Blazhko method. Systematic errors are discussed together with methods of plotting brightness curves.

  8. Determination of periods of change in brightness for variable stars by the aid of digital computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolopov, P. N.

    1973-01-01

    Computer techniques used for determination of periods of brightness change in variable stars are discussed, with emphasis on the Lafler-Kinman method and a presentation of Kholopov's own method based on brightness extremes.

  9. 78 FR 49292 - Bristol Compressors International, Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers From Bright Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... Employment and Training Administration Bristol Compressors International, Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers From Bright Services, Atwork and Express Employment Professionals, Bristol, Virginia; Amended... from Bright Services. The Department's notice of determination was published in the Federal Register...

  10. Two-dimensional bright and dark-in-bright dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate solitons on a one-dimensional optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, S. K.

    2016-08-01

    We study the statics and dynamics of anisotropic, stable, bright and dark-in-bright dipolar quasi-two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) solitons on a one-dimensional (1D) optical-lattice (OL) potential. These solitons mobile in a plane perpendicular to a 1D OL trap can have both repulsive and attractive contact interactions. Dark-in-bright solitons are the excited states of bright solitons. The solitons, when subjected to a small perturbation, exhibit sustained breathing oscillation. Dark-in-bright solitons can be created by phase imprinting a bright soliton. At medium velocities the collision between two solitons is found to be quasi-elastic. Results are demonstrated by a numerical simulation of the three-dimensional mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii equation in three spatial dimensions employing realistic interaction parameters for a dipolar 164Dy BEC.

  11. Two-dimensional bright and dark-in-bright dipolar Bose–Einstein condensate solitons on a one-dimensional optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, S. K.

    2016-08-01

    We study the statics and dynamics of anisotropic, stable, bright and dark-in-bright dipolar quasi-two-dimensional Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) solitons on a one-dimensional (1D) optical-lattice (OL) potential. These solitons mobile in a plane perpendicular to a 1D OL trap can have both repulsive and attractive contact interactions. Dark-in-bright solitons are the excited states of bright solitons. The solitons, when subjected to a small perturbation, exhibit sustained breathing oscillation. Dark-in-bright solitons can be created by phase imprinting a bright soliton. At medium velocities the collision between two solitons is found to be quasi-elastic. Results are demonstrated by a numerical simulation of the three-dimensional mean-field Gross–Pitaevskii equation in three spatial dimensions employing realistic interaction parameters for a dipolar 164Dy BEC.

  12. Grain size analysis of the Bright Materials on 4 Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambon, F.; De Sanctis, M.; Capaccioni, F.; Ammannito, E.; Li, J.; Longobardo, A.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Palomba, E.; Pieters, C. M.; Schröder, S.; Tosi, F.; Hiesinger, H.; Blewett, D. T.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Capria, M.; Fonte, S.; Carraro, F.; Frigeri, A.; Magni, G.

    2012-12-01

    The Dawn spectrometer, VIR-MS (Visible and InfraRed Mapping Spectrometer), has provided data for almost all of Vesta's surface in the wavelength interval between 0.25 μm and 5 μm [1]. The VIR spectra are similar to the spectra of howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) meteorites and are characterized by the presence of two strong absorption bands at 0.9 μm and 1.9 μm, associated with iron-bearing pyroxenes [2]. Vesta's surface presents a large number of Bright Materials (BM) deposits distributed mostly in the equatorial region. BM have different spectral characteristics than do other regions. Band depths for the bright areas are deeper than the surroundings, while the BM visible reflectance is higher than the Vesta's average. In the infrared channel, bright areas are associated with low thermal emission regions [3]. The bright deposits are of several types and are classified according to their characteristics. On Vesta we can recognize: Crater Wall/Scarp Material, Radial Material, Slope Material, Patchy Material, Spot Material and Diffuse Plains Material [4]. These deposits differ from each other for instance for the albedo, in particular, Crater Walls have an albedo level 40% higher than the others, while Spot Materials are 20% brighter than the rest of the surface [5]. Band depth and albedo are affected by various parameters including the grain size; in particular the albedo increases with decreasing particle size [6]. Therefore, deposits with different albedo or band depth may correspond to different grain sizes. During the High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and High Altitude Mapping Orbit 2 (HAMO2) mission phases, VIR acquired data that allow us to map the BM at a spatial resolution of ~180 m/pixel. Analysis of the spectral features of HED meteorites at different grain sizes and comparison with the VIR spectra provides more information about the nature of the bright deposits and their physical properties. The authors acknowledge the support of the Dawn Science

  13. 21 CFR 82.2707a - Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. 82.2707a Section 82.2707a... Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. The color additive Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity with specifications to the requirements of § 74.1707a(a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7...

  14. The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Luigi; Rosenzweig, J.; Serafini, Luca

    2007-09-01

    Plenary sessions. RF deflector based sub-Ps beam diagnostics: application to FEL and advanced accelerators / D. Alesini. Production of fermtosecond pulses and micron beam spots for high brightness electron beam applications / S.G. Anderson ... [et al.]. Wakefields of sub-picosecond electron bunches / K.L.F. Bane. Diamond secondary emitter / I. Ben-Zvi ... [et al.]. Parametric optimization for an X-ray free electron laser with a laser wiggler / R. Bonifacio, N. Piovella and M.M. Cola. Needle cathodes for high-brightness beams / C.H. Boulware ... [et al.]. Non linear evolution of short pulses in FEL cascaded undulators and the FEL harmonic cascade / L. Giannessi and P. Musumeci. High brightness laser induced multi-meV electron/proton sources / D. Giulietti ... [et al.]. Emittance limitation of a conditioned beam in a strong focusing FEL undulator / Z. Huang, G. Stupakov and S. Reiche. Scaled models: space-charge dominated electron storage rings / R.A. Kishek ... [et al.]. High brightness beam applications: energy recovered linacs / G.A. Krafft. Maximizing brightness in photoinjectors / C. Limborg-Deprey and H. Tomizawa. Ultracold electron sources / O.J. Luiten ... [et al.]. Scaling laws of structure-based optical accelerators / A. Mizrahi, V. Karagodsky and L. Schächter. High brightness beams-applications to free-electron lasers / S. Reiche. Conception of photo-injectors for the CTF3 experiment / R. Roux. Superconducting RF photoinjectors: an overview / J. Sekutowicz. Status and perspectives of photo injector developments for high brightness beams / F. Stephan. Results from the UCLA/FNLP underdense plasma lens experiment / M.C. Thompson ... [et al.]. Medical application of multi-beam compton scattering monochromatic tunable hard X-ray source / M. Uesaka ... [et al.]. Design of a 2 kA, 30 fs RF-photoinjector for waterbag compression / S.B. Van Der Geer, O.J. Luiten and M.J. De Loos. Proposal for a high-brightness pulsed electron source / M. Zolotorev ... [et al

  15. Mesenchymal progenitor cells in red and yellow bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Gurevitch, O; Slavin, S; Resnick, I; Khitrin, S; Feldman, A

    2009-01-01

    Marrow cavities in all bones of newborn mammals contain haematopoietic tissue and stromal microenvironment that support haematopoiesis (haematopoietic microenvironment), known as red bone marrow (BM). From the early postnatal period onwards, the haematopoietic microenvironment, mainly in tubular bones of the extremities, is replaced by mesenchymal cells that accumulate lipid drops, known as yellow BM, whereas haematopoietic tissue gradually disappears. We analysed the ability of mesenchymal cell progenitors in red and yellow BM to produce bone and haematopoietic microenvironment in vivo after transplantation into normal or haematopoietically deficient (irradiated and old) recipients. We found that (1) normal substitution of red with yellow BM results from a gradual loss of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) capable of developing bone and haematopoietic microenvironment; (2) the mesenchymal cell population in tubular bones still containing active haematopoietic tissue gradually becomes depleted of MSCs, starting from a young age; (3) haematopoietic microenvironment is incapable of self-maintenance and its renewal depends on the presence of precursor cells; (4) the mesenchymal cell population remaining in areas with yellow BM contains cells able to develop functionally active haematopoietic microenvironment in conditions of haematopoietic insufficiency. Our data also indicate the possible existence of bi-potential stromal precursor cells producing either bone in normal, or bone together with active haematopoietic microenvironment in irradiated or old recipients. This study opens a spectrum of opportunities for the extension of haematopoietic territories by substituting the fat contents of BM cavities with haematopoietic tissue, thereby improving haematopoiesis compromised by cytotoxic treatments, irradiation, ageing, etc.

  16. Recessive resistance to Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in melon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) reduces melon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit quality and yield in many parts of the world. CYSDV and its vector, sweetpotato whitefly (MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci; SPWF) are a devastating combination in the Sonoran Desert areas of California and A...

  17. 38 CFR 21.9700 - Yellow Ribbon Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Yellow Ribbon Program. 21.9700 Section 21.9700 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Payments-Educational Assistance § 21.9700...

  18. 38 CFR 21.9700 - Yellow Ribbon Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Yellow Ribbon Program. 21.9700 Section 21.9700 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Payments-Educational Assistance § 21.9700...

  19. 38 CFR 21.9700 - Yellow Ribbon Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Yellow Ribbon Program. 21.9700 Section 21.9700 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Payments-Educational Assistance § 21.9700...

  20. 38 CFR 21.9700 - Yellow Ribbon Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Yellow Ribbon Program. 21.9700 Section 21.9700 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Payments-Educational Assistance § 21.9700...

  1. Yellow sticky, PHP software for an electronic brainstorming experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Dornburg, Courtney C.; Stevens, Susan Marie; Davidson, George S.; Forsythe, James Chris

    2007-09-01

    A web-based brainstorm was conducted in the summer of 2007 within the Sandia Restricted Network. This brainstorming experiment was modeled around the 'yellow sticky' brainstorms that are used in many face-to-face meetings at Sandia National Laboratories. This document discusses the implementation and makes suggestions for future implementations.

  2. Serious adverse events associated with yellow fever vaccine.

    PubMed

    de Menezes Martins, Reinaldo; Fernandes Leal, Maria da Luz; Homma, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Yellow fever vaccine was considered one of the safest vaccines, but in recent years it was found that it could rarely cause invasive and disseminated disease in some otherwise healthy individuals, with high lethality. After extensive studies, although some risk factors have been identified, the real cause of causes of this serious adverse event are largely unknown, but findings point to individual host factors. Meningoencephalitis, once considered to happen only in children less than 6 months of age, has also been identified in older children and adults, but with good prognosis. Efforts are being made to develop a safer yellow fever vaccine, and an inactivated vaccine or a vaccine prepared with the vaccine virus envelope produced in plants are being tested. Even with serious and rare adverse events, yellow fever vaccine is the best way to avoid yellow fever, a disease of high lethality and should be used routinely in endemic areas, and on people from non-endemic areas that could be exposed, according to a careful risk-benefit analysis.

  3. Timeliness of yellow fever surveillance, Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Rachas, Antoine; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Bouscaillou, Julie; Paireau, Juliette; Selekon, Benjamin; Senekian, Dominique; Fontanet, Arnaud; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2014-06-01

    During January 2007-July 2012, a total of 3,220 suspected yellow fever cases were reported in the Central African Republic; 55 were confirmed and 11 case-patients died. Mean delay between onset of jaundice and case confirmation was 16.6 days. Delay between disease onset and blood collection could be reduced by increasing awareness of the population.

  4. Suspected YF-AND after yellow fever vaccination in Finland.

    PubMed

    Jääskeläinen, Anne J; Huhtamo, Eili; Kivioja, Reetta; Domingo, Cristina; Vene, Sirkka; Kallio-Kokko, Hannimari; Niedrig, Matthias; Tienari, Pentti J; Vapalahti, Olli

    2014-11-01

    Yellow fever (YF) vaccine is considered safe but vaccine-associated complications have also been encountered. We report neurological symptoms after YF-vaccination in a previously healthy Finnish male. Other concomitant infections or causes for the symptoms could not be identified.

  5. 58. Photographic copy of historic medal, The Yellow Fever Medal, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. Photographic copy of historic medal, The Yellow Fever Medal, presented to the Portsmouth Naval Hospital by the Town Council of Portsmouth, 1856. (Portsmouth Naval Shipyard Museum, Portsmouth, VA) - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Hospital Building, Rixey Place, bounded by Williamson Drive, Holcomb Road, & The Circle, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  6. Geographic variation in the yellow-billed cuckoo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Populations of the Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Coocyzus americanus, west of the Rocky Mountains have average wing lengths slightly greater than those of eastern North America, but the difference is not sufficient for taxonomic recognition. There is no geographically oriented variation in bill size or color, and the species is best considered monotypic.

  7. Down the Yellow Chip Road: Hypertext Portfolios in Oz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Katherine M.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a creative writing class in which students used hypertext to develop their writing portfolios. Suggests that, much like "Kansas Dorothy" who ventured into Oz, a "tornado" carried these students and their teacher from the safe Paperland to the yellow chip road of electronic portfolios. Notes that students' portfolios were uniquely…

  8. Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper": Women, Society, Sanity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Merle O'Rourke

    "The Yellow Wallpaper," by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, is a remarkable piece of history and sociology, as well as a feminist story concerning the search for self. Written in 1890, the story, which closely parallels the author's own life, vividly chronicles a woman's descent into madness. Charlotte married an artist after a lengthy courtship of…

  9. Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus detected in pigweed in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Samples were collected from pigweed, a species of Amaranth, that were in proximity to virus-infected watermelons in south Florida. No symptoms of virus infection were observed on the weed samples; however, testing by two independent methods found infection by Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus...

  10. Chemical state of vanadium in tin-based yellow pigment

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiyoshi, Kaichi; Yokoyama, Hisanori ); Ren, Feng; Ishida, Shingo . Dept. of Chemistry and Materials Technology)

    1993-04-01

    Vanadium-tin composite oxides are rather widely used as, for example, yellow pigments for coloring glazes and selective oxidation catalysts for hydrocarbons. Physicochemical states of vanadium in V-doped SnO[sub 2] were studied to clarify the origin of the color of vanadium-tin yellow pigment and its color instability when fired with glaze material. Precision measurements of lattice parameters of V-doped SnO[sub 2] revealed that vanadium was dissolved as V[sup 4+] and its solubility limit was 0.9 wt% as V[sub 2]O[sub 5]. It was found that the color of vanadium-tin yellow was produced by two types of undissolved vanadium on SnO[sub 2] grains. One is poorly crystallized vanadium oxide (v), (V[sub 2]O[sub 5])[prime], having a yellow color, and the other is orange-colored crystalline V[sub 2]O[sub 5]. The structure of (V[sub 2]O[sub 5])[prime] was discussed in connection with its color.

  11. Contribution of goethite to laser-induced stone yellowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Cécile; Vergès-Belmin, Véronique; Lafait, Jacques; Swider, Miko; Andraud, Christine; Tournié, Aurélie; Galoisy, Laurence

    2016-04-01

    The development of the laser technology for stone cleaning purposes has been undermined in the recent years because the technique occasionally conveys a yellow hue to the cleaned surfaces. Several components of black gypsum crusts have been suggested to be potentially responsible for the phenomenon, more specifically some granular fractions of their components. The contribution of these particles to laser yellowing is studied here on powdery deposits collected at Saint-Denis Basilica (France). The powder is characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy before and after the laser irradiation. Irradiation of the samples results in a significant yellowing, along with particle fragmentation, while no mineralogical change is evidenced by powder diffractometry. Haematite and goethite micro-Raman signatures obtained before laser irradiation are replaced after irradiation by a strong fluorescence in addition to weak goethite signatures in Raman spectra. The powdery deposit is further analyzed by diffuse reflectance spectrometry after a specific preparation, which increases both its cohesion and its content in new phases potentially formed. The powdery material shows a phase with a spectral signature similar to goethite, which subsides after laser irradiation. The yellow appearance caused by laser irradiation seems to be due, in part, to a selective elimination of the black components (soots) from the powdery deposit. This elimination reveals a color, which could be related to a preexisting phase containing iron, possibly goethite or another phase containing iron and having the same spectral signature in the visible range.

  12. Historic perspectives. Macular yellow pigment. The first 200 years.

    PubMed

    Nussbaum, J J; Pruett, R C; Delori, F C

    1981-01-01

    Since 1782 there has been continuing controversy concerning the curious central coloration referred to as "macular yellow," but no cumulative source of information on the subject exists. This paper reviews the research efforts of two centuries to determine the existence, nature, location, and function of a specialized pigment in the foveal region. Using white-light illumination, it is difficult to see a macular yellow spot in the living eye; it is best observed and documented by red-free ophthalmoscopy and blue-light monochromatic photography. Histologic, biochemical, and spectral absorption data suggest that the yellow color is due to a xanthophyllic pigment, lutein, that is distributed in all retinal layers internal to the outer nuclear layer, with greatest concentration in the outer and inner plexiform layers. Clinically absent in newborns, the pigment gradually accumulates from dietary sources and appears to serve both as an optical filter, by absorbing blue light and reducing chromatic aberration, and in a protective capacity, preventing actinic damage. The absorption characteristics of the yellow pigment contribute to the central dark spot seen during fluorescein angiography and to the risk of photocoagulation near the fovea. Its apparent absence in albinos and the reported functional improvement in certain degenerative retinopathies following supplemental xanthophyll administration suggest a possible role in hereditary or acquired maculopathies. PMID:6758089

  13. [Should yellow fever vaccination be recommended during pregnancy or breastfeeding?].

    PubMed

    Imbert, P; Moulin, F; Mornand, P; Méchaï, F; Rapp, C

    2010-08-01

    Yellow fever vaccine is produced from a live attenuated virus that is contraindicated in case of immunodeficiency and subject to restrictions for pregnant or breastfeeding women. The purpose of this review of available information on yellow fever vaccination during pregnancy and breastfeeding is to assist physicians in making recommendations prior to departure to yellow-fever endemic zones. Regarding pregnancy, there is no evidence to support a major risk of yellow-fever-vaccine-related complications in mothers or children. Although this finding is reassuring, it should be underlined that most reported series have been small. Regarding breastfeeding, the risk was recently confirmed by a report describing vaccine-induced encephalitis occurring in an infant 8 days after primary vaccination of the mother. The final decision to vaccinate depends on whether or not the trip can be postponed. If travel is mandatory, vaccination may be recommended in pregnant women preferably during the first trimester since the immunological response appears to be better at that time. Antibody titer should be checked following delivery. During breastfeeding, vaccination may be performed but breastfeeding must be stopped during the postvaccinal viremia phase. Breastfeeding can be resumed after a 10-day period of formula feeding.

  14. Selective uptake of lucifer yellow by retinal cells.

    PubMed

    Sarthy, P V; Johnson, S M; Detwiler, P B

    1982-04-20

    When turtle retinae were incubated with the fluorescent dye, lucifer yellow, in the absence of Ca2+, the dye was selectively accumulated by cell bodies located in the inner nuclear layer (INL). The morphological features of the labeled cells suggested that they were bipolar cells. Other fluorescent dyes, Procion yellow and Primulin, were also taken up by somata in the INL, in the absence of external Ca2+, although the identity of the labeled cells was uncertain. As with turtle retina, lucifer yellow was accumulated predominantly by cell bodies in the INL of goldfish, frog, and rat retinae. Lucifer yellow uptake appeared to be independent of synaptic activity since dark-adaptation or aspartate treatment of retinae did not alter the dye uptake. Further, retinae from dystrophic (RCS) rats showed uptake similar to that seen in normal rat retinae. After uptake, most of the dye was found intracellularly as patches or vacuoles in the somata of the labeled cells. Dye uptake was not inhibited by removal of Na+ from the incubation medium. Further, prior treatment with metabolic inhibitors, cyanide and iodoacetate, or cytochalasin B, did not block the dye uptake.

  15. [A novel yellow organic light-emitting device].

    PubMed

    Ma, Chen; Wang, Hua; Hao, Yu-Ying; Gao, Zhi-Xiang; Zhou, He-Feng; Xu, Bing-She

    2008-07-01

    The fabrication of a novel organic yellow-light-emitting device using Rhodamine B as dopant with double quantum-well (DQW) structure was introduced in the present article. The structure and thickness of this device is ITO/CuPc (6 nm) /NPB (20 nm) /Alq3 (3 nm)/Alq3 : Rhodamine B (3 nm) /Alq3 (3 nm) /Al q3 : Rhodamine B(3 nm) /Alq3 (30 nm) /Liq (5 nm)/Al (30 nm). With the detailed investigation of electroluminescence of the novel organic yellow-light-emitting device, the authors found that the doping concentration of Rhodamine B (RhB) had a very big influence on luminance and efficiency of the organic yellow-light-emitting device. When doping concentration of Rhodamine B (RhB) was 1.5 wt%, the organic yellow-light-emitting device was obtained with the maximum current efficiency of 1.526 cd x A(-1) and the maximum luminance of 1 309 cd x m(-2). It can be seen from the EL spectra of the devices that there existed energy transferring from Alq3 to RhB in the organic light-emitting layers. When the doping concentration of RhB increased, lambda(max) of EL spectra redshifted obviously. The phenomenon was attributed to the Stokes effect of quantum wells and self-polarization of RhB dye molecules. PMID:18844143

  16. Response of yellow flowering magnolia varieties to powdery mildew, 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow flowering varieties of Magnolia spp. hybrids were planted in April 2008 in a field plot with Waynesboro loam soil at the Otis L. Floyd Nursery Research Center in McMinnville, TN. Severity of powdery mildew was determined on 14 Jul, 21 Aug and 15 Oct using a scale of 0-100% foliage affected. ...

  17. Historic perspectives. Macular yellow pigment. The first 200 years.

    PubMed

    Nussbaum, J J; Pruett, R C; Delori, F C

    1981-01-01

    Since 1782 there has been continuing controversy concerning the curious central coloration referred to as "macular yellow," but no cumulative source of information on the subject exists. This paper reviews the research efforts of two centuries to determine the existence, nature, location, and function of a specialized pigment in the foveal region. Using white-light illumination, it is difficult to see a macular yellow spot in the living eye; it is best observed and documented by red-free ophthalmoscopy and blue-light monochromatic photography. Histologic, biochemical, and spectral absorption data suggest that the yellow color is due to a xanthophyllic pigment, lutein, that is distributed in all retinal layers internal to the outer nuclear layer, with greatest concentration in the outer and inner plexiform layers. Clinically absent in newborns, the pigment gradually accumulates from dietary sources and appears to serve both as an optical filter, by absorbing blue light and reducing chromatic aberration, and in a protective capacity, preventing actinic damage. The absorption characteristics of the yellow pigment contribute to the central dark spot seen during fluorescein angiography and to the risk of photocoagulation near the fovea. Its apparent absence in albinos and the reported functional improvement in certain degenerative retinopathies following supplemental xanthophyll administration suggest a possible role in hereditary or acquired maculopathies.

  18. There's More to Color than Red, Yellow, and Blue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goobich, Joel

    2009-01-01

    From an early age, so much emphasis goes into teaching children the fundamentals of color theory, in particular the primary colors of red, yellow, and blue. Toys, building blocks, furniture, and so many other items used in a preschool environment are manufactured in these three colors. Yet, recent research has uncovered that babies as young as…

  19. 21 CFR 74.2710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2710 D&C Yellow No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1710(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 may...

  20. 21 CFR 74.2710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2710 D&C Yellow No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1710(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 may...

  1. 21 CFR 74.2710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2710 D&C Yellow No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1710(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 may...

  2. 21 CFR 74.2710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2710 D&C Yellow No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1710(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 may...

  3. 21 CFR 74.2710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2710 D&C Yellow No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1710(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 may...

  4. 21 CFR 74.1705 - FD&C Yellow No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... area of the eye, in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (2) FD&C Yellow No. 5 Aluminum Lake may be safely used for coloring drugs intended for use in the area of the eye, when prepared... eye, containing FD&C Yellow No. 5 shall specifically declare the presence of FD&C Yellow No. 5...

  5. 21 CFR 74.1705 - FD&C Yellow No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... area of the eye, in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (2) FD&C Yellow No. 5 Aluminum Lake may be safely used for coloring drugs intended for use in the area of the eye, when prepared... eye, containing FD&C Yellow No. 5 shall specifically declare the presence of FD&C Yellow No. 5...

  6. Registration of PR1146-138 yellow dry bean germplasm line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yellow bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important market class in Haiti. However, there have been no previous attempts to genetically improve this seed type for the Caribbean. Landrace varieties of yellow beans in Haiti are susceptible to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and bean common...

  7. Development of the yellow common bean germplasm PR1146-138

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yellow bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important market class in Haiti. There have been, however, no previous attempts to genetically improve this seed type for the Caribbean. Landrace varieties of yellow beans in Haiti are susceptible to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and bean commo...

  8. SS 383: A NEW S-TYPE YELLOW SYMBIOTIC STAR?

    SciTech Connect

    Baella, N. O.; Pereira, C. B.; Miranda, L. F.

    2013-11-01

    Symbiotic stars are key objects in understanding the formation and evolution of interacting binary systems, and are probably the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. However, the number of known symbiotic stars is much lower than predicted. We aim to search for new symbiotic stars, with particular emphasis on the S-type yellow symbiotic stars, in order to determine their total population, evolutionary timescales, and physical properties. The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) (J – H) versus (H – K {sub s}) color-color diagram has been previously used to identify new symbiotic star candidates and show that yellow symbiotics are located in a particular region of that diagram. Candidate symbiotic stars are selected on the basis of their locus in the 2MASS (J – H) versus (H – K {sub s}) diagram and the presence of Hα line emission in the Stephenson and Sanduleak Hα survey. This diagram separates S-type yellow symbiotic stars from the rest of the S-type symbiotic stars, allowing us to select candidate yellow symbiotics. To establish the true nature of the candidates, intermediate-resolution spectroscopy is obtained. We have identified the Hα emission line source SS 383 as an S-type yellow symbiotic candidate by its position in the 2MASS color-color diagram. The optical spectrum of SS 383 shows Balmer, He I, He II, and [O III] emission lines, in combination with TiO absorption bands that confirm its symbiotic nature. The derived electron density (≅10{sup 8-9} cm{sup –3}), He I emission line intensity ratios, and position in the [O III] λ5007/Hβ versus [O III] λ4363/Hγ diagram indicate that SS 383 is an S-type symbiotic star, with a probable spectral type of K7-M0 deduced for its cool component based on TiO indices. The spectral type and the position of SS 383 (corrected for reddening) in the 2MASS color-color diagram strongly suggest that SS 383 is an S-type yellow symbiotic. Our result points out that the 2MASS color-color diagram is a powerful tool in

  9. [Serological and entomological study on yellow fever in Sierra Leone].

    PubMed

    Robin, Y; Mouchet, J

    1975-01-01

    In a serological and entomological survey on yellow fever carried out in Sierra-Leone in 1972, altogether 899 sera from children 0 to 14 years were tested with 12 antigens by haemagglutination-inhibition and complement fixation tests. Mouse neutralization test with yellow fever, West-Nile and Zika viruses were also performed on selected sera. Generally speaking, the incidence of arboviruses is low but the prevalence of antibodies for some viruses was found to vary considerably between different areas. As regards yellow fever, the virus has recently been in circulation in only two areas: Bafodia and Lalehun-Labour Camp and there is no risk for a yellow fever outbreak to occur in the near future. Due to the shortness of the survey, entomological prospections were confined to a search for Ae. aegypti larvae in and around dwellings: no breeding places are found in houses and Breteau indices are usually low, especially in forest villages. On the other hand, in urban settlements in the mining areas, breeding places around houses are numerous and are bound to increase in number. All the conditions necessary for the outbreak of an epidemic would be present within few years: such a situation would appear in Labour Camp where yellow fever virus has been circulating, where most of the population has no immunity and where Breteau indice goes as high as 34.4. As regards the other arboviruses, Zika virus is active in most areas and Chikungunya virus is particularly active in the plateau and savanna zones, in the North-East.

  10. Human Circulating and Tissue-Resident CD56bright Natural Killer Cell Populations

    PubMed Central

    Melsen, Janine E.; Lugthart, Gertjan; Lankester, Arjan C.; Schilham, Marco W.

    2016-01-01

    Two human natural killer (NK) cell subsets are usually distinguished, displaying the CD56dimCD16+ and the CD56brightCD16−/+ phenotype. This distinction is based on NK cells present in blood, where the CD56dim NK cells predominate. However, CD56bright NK cells outnumber CD56dim NK cells in the human body due to the fact that they are predominant in peripheral and lymphoid tissues. Interestingly, within the total CD56bright NK cell compartment, a major phenotypical and functional diversity is observed, as demonstrated by the discovery of tissue-resident CD56bright NK cells in the uterus, liver, and lymphoid tissues. Uterus-resident CD56bright NK cells express CD49a while the liver- and lymphoid tissue-resident CD56bright NK cells are characterized by co-expression of CD69 and CXCR6. Tissue-resident CD56bright NK cells have a low natural cytotoxicity and produce little interferon-γ upon monokine stimulation. Their distribution and specific phenotype suggest that the tissue-resident CD56bright NK cells exert tissue-specific functions. In this review, we examine the CD56bright NK cell diversity by discussing the distribution, phenotype, and function of circulating and tissue-resident CD56bright NK cells. In addition, we address the ongoing debate concerning the developmental relationship between circulating CD56bright and CD56dim NK cells and speculate on the position of tissue-resident CD56bright NK cells. We conclude that distinguishing tissue-resident CD56bright NK cells from circulating CD56bright NK cells is a prerequisite for the better understanding of the specific role of CD56bright NK cells in the complex process of human immune regulation. PMID:27446091

  11. Tête à Tête of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus and Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Sardinia Virus in Single Nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Morilla, Gabriel; Krenz, Björn; Jeske, Holger; Bejarano, Eduardo R.; Wege, Christina

    2004-01-01

    Since 1997 two distinct geminivirus species, Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), have caused a similar yellow leaf curl disease in tomato, coexisted in the fields of southern Spain, and very frequently doubly infected single plants. Tomatoes as well as experimental test plants (e.g., Nicotiana benthamiana) showed enhanced symptoms upon mixed infections under greenhouse conditions. Viral DNA accumulated to a similar extent in singly and doubly infected plants. In situ tissue hybridization showed TYLCSV and TYLCV DNAs to be confined to the phloem in both hosts, irrespective of whether they were inoculated individually or in combination. The number of infected nuclei in singly or doubly infected plants was determined by in situ hybridization of purified nuclei. The percentage of nuclei containing viral DNA (i.e., 1.4% in tomato or 6% in N. benthamiana) was the same in plants infected with either TYLCSV, TYLCV, or both. In situ hybridization of doubly infected plants, with probes that discriminate between both DNAs, revealed that at least one-fifth of infected nuclei harbored DNAs from both virus species. Such a high number of coinfected nuclei may explain why recombination between different geminivirus DNAs occurs frequently. The impact of these findings for epidemiology and for resistance breeding concerning tomato yellow leaf curl diseases is discussed. PMID:15367638

  12. Current status of small yellow croaker resources in the southern Yellow Sea and the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Longshan; Liu, Zunlei; Jiang, Yazhou; Huang, Wei; Gao, Tianxiang

    2011-05-01

    We used data from bottom trawl surveys to study the factors influencing the abundance of small yellow croaker, Larimichthys polyactis, in the southern Yellow Sea (SYS) and the East China Sea (ECS). The resource density index (RDI) was generally higher in summer and autumn than in spring and winter. RDIs were also significantly greater in the SYS than in the ECS in summer and autumn. The bottom water salinity and depth of spatial distribution of small yellow croaker was similar between the two areas in summer, but different in other seasons. Regression analysis suggested that environmental factors such as bottom water temperature, salinity, and depth influenced the RDIs in summer in these areas. Growth condition factor (GCF) in the two areas varied monthly and the croaker in the SYS grew more slowly than those in the ECS. This was likely due to the low bottom temperature of the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass in summer and autumn or to higher human fishing pressure in the ECS. To ensure sustainable utilization of the croaker stocks in these regions, we recommend reducing the fishing intensity, increasing the cod-end mesh size, and improving the protection of juveniles.

  13. Limitations of the Oriented Difference of Gaussian Filter in Special Cases of Brightness Perception Illusions.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Ashish; Roy, Sourya; Mallick, Arijit; Ghosh, Kuntal

    2016-03-01

    The Oriented Difference of Gaussian (ODOG) filter of Blakeslee and McCourt has been successfully employed to explain several brightness perception illusions which include illusions of both brightness-contrast type, for example, Simultaneous Brightness Contrast and Grating Induction and the brightness-assimilation type, for example, the White effect and the shifted White effect. Here, we demonstrate some limitations of the ODOG filter in predicting perceived brightness by comparing the ODOG responses to various stimuli (generated by varying two parameters, namely, test patch length and spatial frequency) with experimental observations of the same.

  14. Human responses to bright light of different durations

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Anne-Marie; Santhi, Nayantara; St Hilaire, Melissa; Gronfier, Claude; Bradstreet, Dayna S; Duffy, Jeanne F; Lockley, Steven W; Kronauer, Richard E; Czeisler, Charles A

    2012-01-01

    Light exposure in the early night induces phase delays of the circadian rhythm in melatonin in humans. Previous studies have investigated the effect of timing, intensity, wavelength, history and pattern of light stimuli on the human circadian timing system. We present results from a study of the duration–response relationship to phase-delaying bright light. Thirty-nine young healthy participants (16 female; 22.18 ± 3.62 years) completed a 9-day inpatient study. Following three baseline days, participants underwent an initial circadian phase assessment procedure in dim light (<3 lux), and were then randomized for exposure to a bright light pulse (∼10,000 lux) of 0.2 h, 1.0 h, 2.5 h or 4.0 h duration during a 4.5 h controlled-posture episode centred in a 16 h wake episode. After another 8 h sleep episode, participants completed a second circadian phase assessment. Phase shifts were calculated from the difference in the clock time of the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) between the initial and final phase assessments. Exposure to varying durations of bright light reset the circadian pacemaker in a dose-dependent, non-linear manner. Per minute of exposure, the 0.2 h duration was over 5 times more effective at phase delaying the circadian pacemaker (1.07 ± 0.36 h) as compared with the 4.0 h duration (2.65 ± 0.24 h). Acute melatonin suppression and subjective sleepiness also had a dose-dependent response to light exposure duration. These results provide strong evidence for a non-linear resetting response of the human circadian pacemaker to light duration. PMID:22526883

  15. The new World Atlas of Artificial Sky Brightness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falchi, Fabio; Cinzano, Pierantonio; Kyba, Christopher C. M.; Portnov, Boris A.

    2015-08-01

    I present the main steps toward the completion of the new World Atlas of Artificial Sky Brightness (WA II) and some results. The computational technique has been updated, in comparison to the first World Atlas, to take into account both sources and sites elevation. The elevation data are from USGS GTOPO30 global digital elevation model, with the same pixel size as the WA II maps. The upward emission function used to compute the Atlas is a three parameters function. The parameters can be constrained to the database of Earth based night sky brightness measurements. In this way we can use the better fitting upward function for the final map’s calibration. We maintained constant atmosphere parameters over the entire Earth, identical to those used for the first Atlas (Garstang atmospheric clarity coefficient k=1, equivalent to a vertical extinction at sea level of 0.33 magnitude in the V band). This was done in order to avoid introducing a local bias due to different conditions that may confound the light pollution propagation effects. The radiance data used are those from Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day-Night Band (DNB) on board the Suomi NPP satellite. The use of this newly available radiance data allows for an increased real resolution, even while maintaining the same 30"x30" lat-lon pixel size. Anyway, a higher resolution is really appreciable only in the immediate proximity of sources of light pollution (e.g. inside a big city). The VIIRS DNB data used for the input data were chosen from the months ranging from May to September in order to avoid introducing bias from the variable snow coverage in mid to high northern latitudes. In the southern hemisphere this problem is far less pronounced. The WA II takes advantage of the now enormous database of Earth based sky brightness measurements obtained mainly with Sky Quality Meters, but also with CCD measurements.

  16. Beyond pragmatism: defending the 'bright line' of birth.

    PubMed

    Burin, Achas K

    2014-01-01

    It is usually accepted by ethicists that birth does not alter moral status. Rather, it is thought that the rule according full legal rights at birth is pragmatic. Pragmatic reasoning is vulnerable to competing practical concerns and stronger moral principles. This 'bright line' has therefore been criticised both by those who believe personhood begins before birth and those who believe it begins afterward. In particular, a recent article by Giubilini and Minerva puts forward both pragmatic and moral arguments in favour of permitting infanticide, and the New South Wales Court of Criminal Appeal has suggested there is a strong case for abandoning the bright line (R v Iby (2005) 63 NSWLR 278). If we desire to defend current legal doctrine against such criticism, a medical and philosophical basis for the law should be articulated. This article suggests such a medical and philosophical basis. It argues that both the multiplicity of biological changes occurring in the neonate at birth and the extrauterine context (the world) provide a justification for the distinction drawn at law between abortion and infanticide. With reference to Robert Nozick's 'experience machine' thought-experiment and elements of phenomenological philosophy, it advances two propositions to explain the status-changing nature of the neonate's emergence out of the womb. First, that expressing sentience in the world is essential for the attainment of personhood. Second, that having become a person, the harm in killing is disruption of this engagement with the world and the reduction from personhood to non-existence. This is the distinction between a neonate's death and the termination of a foetus, underscoring the qualitative difference between the two sides of the bright line drawn in law.

  17. Algorithm for Detecting a Bright Spot in an Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    An algorithm processes the pixel intensities of a digitized image to detect and locate a circular bright spot, the approximate size of which is known in advance. The algorithm is used to find images of the Sun in cameras aboard the Mars Exploration Rovers. (The images are used in estimating orientations of the Rovers relative to the direction to the Sun.) The algorithm can also be adapted to tracking of circular shaped bright targets in other diverse applications. The first step in the algorithm is to calculate a dark-current ramp a correction necessitated by the scheme that governs the readout of pixel charges in the charge-coupled-device camera in the original Mars Exploration Rover application. In this scheme, the fraction of each frame period during which dark current is accumulated in a given pixel (and, hence, the dark-current contribution to the pixel image-intensity reading) is proportional to the pixel row number. For the purpose of the algorithm, the dark-current contribution to the intensity reading from each pixel is assumed to equal the average of intensity readings from all pixels in the same row, and the factor of proportionality is estimated on the basis of this assumption. Then the product of the row number and the factor of proportionality is subtracted from the reading from each pixel to obtain a dark-current-corrected intensity reading. The next step in the algorithm is to determine the best location, within the overall image, for a window of N N pixels (where N is an odd number) large enough to contain the bright spot of interest plus a small margin. (In the original application, the overall image contains 1,024 by 1,024 pixels, the image of the Sun is about 22 pixels in diameter, and N is chosen to be 29.)

  18. Beyond pragmatism: defending the 'bright line' of birth.

    PubMed

    Burin, Achas K

    2014-01-01

    It is usually accepted by ethicists that birth does not alter moral status. Rather, it is thought that the rule according full legal rights at birth is pragmatic. Pragmatic reasoning is vulnerable to competing practical concerns and stronger moral principles. This 'bright line' has therefore been criticised both by those who believe personhood begins before birth and those who believe it begins afterward. In particular, a recent article by Giubilini and Minerva puts forward both pragmatic and moral arguments in favour of permitting infanticide, and the New South Wales Court of Criminal Appeal has suggested there is a strong case for abandoning the bright line (R v Iby (2005) 63 NSWLR 278). If we desire to defend current legal doctrine against such criticism, a medical and philosophical basis for the law should be articulated. This article suggests such a medical and philosophical basis. It argues that both the multiplicity of biological changes occurring in the neonate at birth and the extrauterine context (the world) provide a justification for the distinction drawn at law between abortion and infanticide. With reference to Robert Nozick's 'experience machine' thought-experiment and elements of phenomenological philosophy, it advances two propositions to explain the status-changing nature of the neonate's emergence out of the womb. First, that expressing sentience in the world is essential for the attainment of personhood. Second, that having become a person, the harm in killing is disruption of this engagement with the world and the reduction from personhood to non-existence. This is the distinction between a neonate's death and the termination of a foetus, underscoring the qualitative difference between the two sides of the bright line drawn in law. PMID:24866181

  19. Human responses to bright light of different durations.

    PubMed

    Chang, Anne-Marie; Santhi, Nayantara; St Hilaire, Melissa; Gronfier, Claude; Bradstreet, Dayna S; Duffy, Jeanne F; Lockley, Steven W; Kronauer, Richard E; Czeisler, Charles A

    2012-07-01

    Light exposure in the early night induces phase delays of the circadian rhythm in melatonin in humans. Previous studies have investigated the effect of timing, intensity, wavelength, history and pattern of light stimuli on the human circadian timing system. We present results from a study of the duration–response relationship to phase-delaying bright light. Thirty-nine young healthy participants (16 female; 22.18±3.62 years) completed a 9-day inpatient study. Following three baseline days, participants underwent an initial circadian phase assessment procedure in dim light (<3 lux), and were then randomized for exposure to a bright light pulse (∼10,000 lux) of 0.2 h, 1.0 h, 2.5 h or 4.0 h duration during a 4.5 h controlled-posture episode centred in a 16 h wake episode. After another 8 h sleep episode, participants completed a second circadian phase assessment. Phase shifts were calculated from the difference in the clock time of the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) between the initial and final phase assessments. Exposure to varying durations of bright light reset the circadian pacemaker in a dose-dependent, non-linear manner. Per minute of exposure, the 0.2 h duration was over 5 times more effective at phase delaying the circadian pacemaker (1.07±0.36 h) as compared with the 4.0 h duration (2.65±0.24 h). Acute melatonin suppression and subjective sleepiness also had a dose-dependent response to light exposure duration. These results provide strong evidence for a non-linear resetting response of the human circadian pacemaker to light duration.

  20. The local metallicity-surface brightness relationship in galactic disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Stuart D.

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of a first attempt to employ multiaperture masks to obtain spectrophotometry of H II regions in nearby galaxies. A total of 97 H II regions in six southern spiral galaxies were observed using a combination of multiaperture masks and conventional long-slit spectrophotometry. The oxygen abundances derived from the multiaperture mask observations using the empirical abundance diagnostic R(sub 23) are shown to be consistent with those from long-slit spectra and generally show better reproducibility and object definition. Although the number of objects that can be observed simultaneously with this particular system is still quite limited compared with either imaging spectrophotometry or fiber-fed spectrographs, the spectral resolution offered and high throughput in the blue help make multiaperture spectrophotometry a competitive technique for increasing the sampling of H II regions in both radial distance and luminosity. There is still no clear trend of abundance gradient with either the galaxy's luminosity or its Hubble type, although the extrapolated central abundance does appear to correlate with galaxy luminosity/mass. In order to avoid difficulty in choosing an appropriate normalizing radius, we instead plot the oxygen abundance against the underlying I-band surface brightness at the radial distance of the H II region and confirm the existence of a local metallicity-surface brightness reltaionship within the disks of spiral galaxies. Although the simple closed-boc model of galaxy evolution predicts almost the right form of this relationship, a more realistic multizone model employing expnentially decreasing gas infall provides a more satisfactory fit to the observational data, provided the expected enriched gas return from dying low-mass stars shedding their envelopes at late epochs is properly taken into account. This same model, with a star formation law based upon self-regulating star formation in a three-dimensional disk (Dopita & Ryder