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Sample records for british coal miners

  1. Role of dust in the working environment in development of chronic bronchitis in British coal miners

    PubMed Central

    Rogan, J. M.; Attfield, M. D.; Jacobsen, M.; Rae, S.; Walker, D. D.; Walton, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    Rogan, J. M., Attfield, M. D., Jacobsen, M., Rae, S., Walker, D. D., and Walton, W. H. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 30, 217-226. Role of dust in the working environment in development of chronic bronchitis in British coal miners. In the course of a long-term prospective study of chronic respiratory disease in British coal miners the effects on pulmonary ventilatory function of exposure to airborne dust, of simple pneumoconiosis, and of chronic bronchitis have been examined in a group of 3581 coalface workers. The men were employed in 20 collieries throughout the British coalfields. Their cumulative exposures to coal mine dust in the respirable range (1-5 μm) were calculated from detailed dust sampling results at their work places during a 10-year period and from estimates of earlier exposures based on records of their industrial histories. A progressive reduction in FEV1·0 with increasing cumulative exposure to airborne dust has been demonstrated. This effect was evident also in a subgroup of the men studied who reported no signs of mild bronchitic symptoms (cough and phlegm for at least three months in a year). Among men with pneumoconiosis there was no evidence of a reduction of FEV1·0 in excess of that attributable to their dust exposures, smoking habits, age, and physique. Increasing severity of bronchitic symptoms was associated with a loss in FEV1·0 greater than that expected from the effects of dust exposure as measured, smoking, age, and physique. Possible explanations for this phenomenon are discussed. It is suggested that the results may indicate that once early bronchitic symptoms are present the disease may progress and ventilatory capacity may deteriorate independently of factors initiating the disease process. PMID:4723786

  2. A cross sectional study of the independent effect of occupation on lung function in British coal miners.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, S; Bennett, J; Richards, K; Britton, J

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are now recognised complications of occupational exposure to coal dust, and since 1992 compensation has been available for miners with impaired lung function provided that they also have x ray film evidence of pneumoconiosis. However, many miners with heavy exposure to coal dust and impairment of lung function therefore do not qualify for compensation because they do not have simple pneumoconiosis. In the present study attempts were made to determine whether coal mining is an independent risk factor for impairment of lung function in a group of Nottinghamshire miners with no evidence of simple pneumoconiosis, by comparing these men with a group of local controls who were not occupationally exposed. METHOD: Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were obtained on 1286 miners with no evidence of pneumoconiosis on x ray film. Lung function data were also obtained from a random sample of 567 men aged between 40 and 70 living in a district of Nottingham and who had never worked in the mining industry or in any other dusty occupation. Multiple linear regression in SPSS was used to estimate the mean independent effect of mining on FEV1 and FVC after adjustment for age, height, and smoking, in all miners and controls, and in a subgroup of men of 45 and under. In men of 45 and under, the independent effects of mining and smoking on the probability of a deficit of one litre or more from modelled predicted FEV1 values were computed with logistic regression in EGRET. RESULTS: There was a significant mean effect of mining on FEV1 after adjustment for age, height, and smoking of -155 ml (95% confidence interval (95% CI) -74 to -236 ml, P < 0.001), but the size of effect was inversely related to age such that in men of 45 and under the estimated mean effect of mining was -251 ml (95% CI -140 to -361 ml, P < 0.001). In this subgroup of younger men, 4.7% of miners and 0.7% of controls had a deficit

  3. Designing Clothing for Coal Miners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Susan M.

    1977-01-01

    Describes procedures taken by apparel design students, working in an industrial setting, in designing functional clothing for coal miners as part of the Armco Steel Corporation's Student Design Program. (TA)

  4. Respiratory disability in coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, W.K.C.; Lapp, N.L.; Seaton, D.

    1980-06-20

    It has been suggested that the assessment of ventilatory capacity alone is inadequate for the determination of disabling occupational respiratory impairment in coal miners. The Department of Labor has accepted this view and now routinely requests blood gas analyses in those claimants not meeting the ventilatory criteria. We tested the validity of this contention by selecting two groups of coal miners claiming total disability. The first consisted of 150 claimants who were referred for spirometry, while the second consisted of 50 claimants who had been referred for blood gas studies. Of those in group 1, eight met the extant criteria for disability, while only two of those in group 2 satisfied the criteria, and, in both, cardiac disease was responsible. We conclude that blood gas analyses are unnecessary in the determination of pulmonary disability in coal miners.

  5. Attitudes toward Women Coal Miners in an Appalachian Coal Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trent, Roger B.; Stout-Wiegand, Nancy

    1987-01-01

    In a coal mining community, a survey revealed that the level of negative sentiment toward women coal miners was substantial and varied by gender role. Male coal miners were negative toward female co-workers, but they supported women's right to coal mine jobs, while female homemakers did not. (Author/CH)

  6. Blast furnace coal injection at Scunthorpe Works, British Steel plc

    SciTech Connect

    Matheau-Raven, D.

    1996-12-31

    Granulator coal injection has been practiced since 1982 at Scunthorpe Works, British Steel plc. The Works is world famous for its four Queens of Ironmaking, named Victoria, Anne, Bess and Mary. These four blast furnaces are capable of producing 4.1 million tonnes of hot metal per annum. The coal injection system was a joint development venture between British Steel and a local based company call Clyde Pneumatic Conveyors. After 14 years of operation and regulator use, Scunthorpe`s coal injection rates have risen to become among the highest in the world. Total coal injected stands at around 4 million tonnes and coal injection rates of greater than 200 kg/thm have been achieved. The furnace operation has remained smooth throughout and there have been no measurable detrimental effects upon the blast furnace performance. In fact quite the opposite with several benefits. This paper briefly describes the furnaces and the coal injection equipment. Operating results for a full twelve months are given and discussed as are aspects of the blast furnace operating practice enabling these injection rates to be achieved. In financial terms savings totaling around 14 million pounds sterling per annum have been realized through the use of blast furnace coal injection.

  7. Dissolved mineral species precipitation during coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaran, P.; Liu, D.

    1995-12-31

    Beneficiation by froth flotation, which exploits the difference in surface properties of minerals, has been a promising method for coal cleaning.However, dissolved mineral species present in coal flotation systems can interact with particles and other species leading to drastic effects on flotation. Particularly, precipitation or adsorption of such species on the particles can alter their surface properties and thus influence the efficiency of coal cleaning. In this work, the bulk and surface precipitation of the dissolved mineral species present in Pittsburgh No. 8 coal was investigated under controlled experimental conditions. Changes in the surface properties of coal due to the precipitation were monitored by following zeta potential. Solution potential data were used to elucidate the mechanism of the precipitation. The effect of the precipitation of the dissolved species on the floatability of coal was found to be marked.

  8. Mortality in an extended follow-up of British coal workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacCalman; L; Miller; G, B.

    2009-02-01

    The Pneumoconiosis Field Research (PFR) programme was established in the 1950s, to evaluate effects of coal mining exposures on the health and mortality of British coal workers. Surveys of working miners were carried out at 5-yearly intervals, initially in 24 collieries but later concentrating on 10, collecting detailed work histories and health information for each recruit. Here we report on cause-specific mortality in a cohort of almost 18,000 men from 10 British collieries, followed up for periods up to 47 years, yielding over 516,000 life-years of follow-up. External analyses compared cause-specific death rates in the cohort to those of the population of the regions in which the collieries were situated, using Standardised Mortality Ratios (SMRs). The causes investigated included lung cancer, stomach cancer, non-malignant respiratory disorders and cardiovascular disorders. SMRs showed evidence of an initial healthy worker effect diminishing over time. Several causes, including non-malignant respiratory disease and lung cancer, showed a significant deficit of mortality at the start of the study period with an excess in the latter part of the follow-up period. In these results, effects of working conditions are likely to be confounded with smoking habits. Overall, we believe our results may be generalised to the British coal industry since nationalisation.

  9. Pulmonary disability in former Appalachian coal miners.

    PubMed Central

    Young, R. C.; Rachal, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    A prospective case-control study was undertaken to assess respiratory disability in 133 former coal miners who were claimants for "black lung" benefits. Consecutive assignment was made to either case or control group based on their chest radiograph having shown coal workers' pneumoconiosis or no coal workers' pneumoconiosis. A respiratory occupational survey was completed with physical examination that placed special emphasis on the cardiorespiratory systems. Subjects underwent pulmonary function testing while 92 of these also received arterial blood gases to assess respiratory disability and pulmonary insufficiency. Arterial blood gases were superior to spirometry in assessment of pulmonary insufficiency/disability. Smoking interacts with coal workers' pneumoconiosis to cause pulmonary insufficiency. The most frequent spirometric pattern was obstructive. Disability was caused by occupational injuries and comorbidities, both of which occurred with greater frequency in miners with coal workers' pneumoconiosis than in controls. Pulmonary insufficiency appears to be a better discriminator than respiratory disability in coal miners, suggesting that arterial blood gases replace spirometry in their evaluation. Greater emphasis on smoking intervention among coal miners should be given. Images Figure PMID:8803434

  10. Underground coal miners' foot and boot problems.

    PubMed

    Wood, G; Marr, S; Berry, G; Nubé, V; Cole, J

    1999-11-01

    The New South Wales (NSW) Joint Coal Board Health and Safety Trust funded an investigation into foot problems reported by 400 randomly selected underground coal miners from 15 mines in NSW. Miners were interviewed and their responses were entered directly into laptop computers. Digital cameras were also used to take pictures of skin conditions and miners' posture. Observations of the skin results indicate that miners find gumboots to be hot, sweaty and uncomfortable. Skin breakdown and tinea, is frequent and disabling and responsible for absences from the workforce that are costly for both miner and employer. A more comfortable and better designed boot is needed, fabricated in waterproof leather together with socks that 'wick' the moisture away from the foot. Socks worn were of varying components and washed at irregular intervals, indicating a need for regular changes of socks and improved hygiene.

  11. Patterns of coal workers' pneumoconiosis in Appalachian former coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Young, R.C. Jr.; Rachal, R.E.; Carr, P.G.; Press, H.C. )

    1992-01-01

    To aid in diagnostic chest film interpretation of coal workers' pneumoconiosis, a composite profile of common radiologic patterns was developed in 98 Appalachian former coal miners who were diagnosed as having coal miner's pneumoconiosis and who applied for black lung benefits. The mean age was 61 years, with a lifetime coal mine dust exposure of 18.7 years. Results showed that chest radiographs of coal workers' simple pneumoconiosis contained small irregular linear opacities more frequently (47%) than small rounded opacities. Sparse profusion of all small opacities was the rule. Small opacities involved two out of six lung zones simultaneously 39% of the time while other combinations occurred less frequently. Lower zones were involved more frequently than upper ones. Thickened pleura occurred in 18% of radiographs. Other frequent radiographic abnormalities were parenchymal calcifications (19%), marked emphysema (12%), and inactive tuberculosis (12%). Calcification of the aortic knob, a degenerative process reflecting age, occurred in 9%. Only one instance of complicated coal workers' pneumoconiosis (progressive massive fibrosis) was encountered (0.7%). Many of the descriptive features of coal workers' pneumoconiosis noted in the literature were not observed in this study. Only one instance of complicated pneumoconiosis was encountered.43 references.

  12. Hand injuries in south Wales coal miners.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, W J; Harrop, S N

    1985-01-01

    Fifty eight coal miners attended the Royal Gwent Accident and Emergency Department with serious hand injuries over a three year period. The commonest cause of the injuries was falling rock or coal from the pit roof crushing the hand and the commonest type of injury was the crushed, compound fracture of the terminal phalangeal area of the digit, with or without pulp loss. Records of the time off work with the injury were obtained in 52 miners. Only seven (13%) returned to work within one month. Of 40 individual distal phalangeal injuries reviewed after one year, only four (10%) had normal sensation and full movement at the distal joint. Nevertheless, only seven miners (13%) had to alter their initial occupation at the mine and move to lighter duties. Images PMID:4074655

  13. US bituminous coal test program in the British Gas/Lurgi (BGL) gasifier. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    de Souza, M.D.; Tart, K.R.; Eales, D.F.; Turna, O.

    1991-12-01

    The BGL moving-bed, slagging-gasification process is an extension of the commercially proven Lurgi dry-ash, moving-bed gasification process. British Gas and Lurgi have demonstrated the process over an 11-year period at the 350 and 500 t/d scale at British Gas` Westfield Development Center, Scotland, with a wide variety of US and British coals. British Gas also installed a gas purification and HICOM methanation plant at Westfield to treat approximately 190,000 sft{sup 3}/h of purified syngas. Objectives are: To demonstrate the suitability of US bituminous coals as feed-stocks in the BGL gasification process; to provide performance data for use in designing commercial-scale BGL-based gasification-combined-cycle (GCC) power plants; and to evaluate the performance of the British Gas HICOM process for methanation of US coal-derived syngas.

  14. US bituminous coal test program in the British Gas/Lurgi (BGL) gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    de Souza, M.D.; Tart, K.R.; Eales, D.F. ); Turna, O. )

    1991-12-01

    The BGL moving-bed, slagging-gasification process is an extension of the commercially proven Lurgi dry-ash, moving-bed gasification process. British Gas and Lurgi have demonstrated the process over an 11-year period at the 350 and 500 t/d scale at British Gas' Westfield Development Center, Scotland, with a wide variety of US and British coals. British Gas also installed a gas purification and HICOM methanation plant at Westfield to treat approximately 190,000 sft{sup 3}/h of purified syngas. Objectives are: To demonstrate the suitability of US bituminous coals as feed-stocks in the BGL gasification process; to provide performance data for use in designing commercial-scale BGL-based gasification-combined-cycle (GCC) power plants; and to evaluate the performance of the British Gas HICOM process for methanation of US coal-derived syngas.

  15. Legionella pneumophila in coal miners.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, D H; Hill, E C; Howells, C H; Ribeiro, C D

    1985-01-01

    Legionnaires' disease was diagnosed in three mineworkers at a colliery. Investigation of water samples from various sites at the colliery did not discover a source of the infection. Results of serological surveys undertaken on the workmates of the patients and other miners showed only one additional positive Legionella indirect fluorescent antibody test. There was, therefore, no justification for any alteration in the water supply or the ventilation at the colliery. Images PMID:3890934

  16. Antinuclear antibodies in Utah coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Rom, W.N.; Turner, W.G.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Peebles, C.; Tan, E.; Olsen, D.M.

    1983-03-01

    Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were detected using a mouse kidney substrate in 69 of 238 (29 percent) underground Utah coal miners at a titer of 1:16. At titers of 1:4 and higher, 52 percent were positive. The majority had a speckled pattern and were not directed against any previously characterized antigens. Fifteen of 28 with high titer ANA had reduced complement. The ANA was more apt to be present in those with coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), and as ANA titer increased, the percentage with CWP increased. The ANA increased with both age and coal mine dust exposure. It is hypothesized that ANA and CWP both result from long-term dust exposure, but that there is insufficient evidence to implicate ANA in the pathogenesis of CWP.

  17. Reservoirs of Selenium in Coal Waste Rock: Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hendry, M Jim; Biswas, Ashis; Essilfie-Dughan, Joseph; Chen, Ning; Day, Stephen J; Barbour, S Lee

    2015-07-07

    Selenium (Se) reservoirs in coal waste rock from the Elk Valley, southeastern British Columbia, the location of Canada's major steelmaking coal mines, were characterized and quantified by analyzing samples collected from the parent rock, freshly blasted waste rock (less than 10 days old), and aged waste rock (deposited between 1982 and 2012). Se is present throughout the waste rock dumps at a mean digestible (SeD) concentration of 3.12 mg/kg. Microprobe analyses show that Se is associated with the primary minerals sphalerite, pyrite, barite, and chalcopyrite and secondary Fe oxyhydroxides. Selenium K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy analyses indicate that, on average, 21% of Se is present as selenide (Se(2-)) in pyrite and sphalerite, 19% of Se is present as selenite (Se(4+)) in barite, 21% of Se is present as exchangeable Fe oxyhydroxide and clay-adsorbed Se(4+), and 39% of Se is present as organoselenium associated with coaly matter. The dominant source minerals for aqueous-phase Se are pyrite and sphalerite. Secondary Fe oxyhydroxide sequesters, on average, 37% of Se released by pyrite oxidation. Measured long-term Se fluxes from a rock drain at the base of a waste dump suggest that at least 20% of Se(2-)-bearing sulfides were oxidized and released from that dump over the past 30 year period; however, the Se mass lost was not evident in SeD analyses.

  18. Characterization of mineral and coal surfaces by adsorption of dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Slomka, B.J.; Dawson, M.R.; Buttermore, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    A dynamic method is described for dye adsorption measurements to characterize mineral and coal surfaces for the evaluation of coal cleaning processes. Samples of increasing mineral content were prepared by density separation of a narrowly sized (300 to 425 /mu/m) wet-sieved coal. The rates and extents of the adsorption of ionic dyes on Illinois No. 6 coal were observed to be highly dependent on mineral content and particle size of ground coal samples. A linear correlation was observed between the adsorbed quantity of dye and the total mineral content of coal samples. Dry-sieved coals were found to be coated by fine material of high mineral ash content which adsorbed greater than 20 times more methylene blue per gram than wet-sieved particles. In preliminary experiments with methylene blue dye, clay was found to adsorb significantly more dye than quartz, pyrite, calcite or low-ash specific gravity fractions of coal.

  19. Variation in coal composition. A computational approach to study the mineral composition of individual coal particles

    SciTech Connect

    Charon, O.; Kang, S.G.; Graham, K.; Sarofim, A.F.; Beer, J.M. )

    1989-01-01

    Mineral matter transformations, and therefore fly ash evolution, during pulverized coal combustion depend on the amount, composition and spatial distribution of the inorganic matter within individual pulverized coal particles. Thus, it is necessary to have information on the mineral composition of individual particles, as well as that of the raw pulverized coal. A model has been developed to predict the variation of individual coal particle compositions. It uses CCSEM data for a given raw coal as input and randomly distributes the mineral inclusions in the coal volume. By random selection of monosize coal particles, it is possible to generate distributions of mineral content for any particle size distribution of coal. The model has been checked by comparing computed results with data on the composition variations of narrowly size and density classified fractions of an Upper Freeport bituminous coal. The results for individual coal particle compositions are used to generate information on the variability of the composition of the fly ash generated during combustion.

  20. Dark as a dungeon - The rise and fall of coal miners' nystagmus

    SciTech Connect

    Fishman, R.S.

    2006-11-15

    Coal miners' nystagmus was one of the first occupational illnesses ever recognized as being due to a hazardous working environment. It aroused great concern and much controversy in Great Britain in the first half of the 20th century but was not seen in the United States. Miners' nystagmus became a significant financial problem for the British workmen's compensation program, and the British medical literature became a forum for speculation as to the nature of the condition. Although new cases of miners' nystagmus were rare after World War II, the condition continued to be discussed in textbooks through the 1970s, after which it abruptly disappeared without any authoritative summing-up, and thereby hangs a tale.

  1. Causes of coal-miner absenteeism. Information Circular/1987

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, R.H.; Randolph, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines report describes several significant problems associated with absenteeism among underground coal miners. The vast empirical literature on employee absenteeism is reviewed, and a conceptual model of the factors that cause absenteeism among miners is presented. Portions of the model were empirically tested by performing correlational and multiple regression analyses on data collected from a group of 64 underground coal miners. The results of these tests are presented and discussed.

  2. Low back pain and lumbar angles in Turkish coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Sarikaya, S.; Ozdolap, S.; Gumustas, S.; Koc, U.

    2007-02-15

    This study was designed to assess the incidence of low back pain among Turkish coal miners and to investigate the relationship between angles of the lumbar spine and low back pain in coal miners. Fifty underground workers (Group I) and 38 age-matched surface workers (Group II) were included in the study. All the subjects were asked about low back pain in the past 5 years. The prevalence of low back pain was higher in Group I than in Group II (78.0%, 32.4%, respectively, P {lt} 0.001). The results of the study showed that low back pain occurred in 78.0% of Turkish coal miners. Although the nature of the occupation may have influenced coal miners' lumbar spinal curvature, lumbar angles are not a determinant for low back pain in this population. Further extensive studies involving ergonomic measurements are needed to validate our results for Turkish coal mining industry.

  3. Health disparities of coal miners and coal mining communities: the role of occupational health nurses.

    PubMed

    Apostle, Elisa P; O'Connell, Marykate E; Vezeau, Toni M

    2011-07-01

    This article investigates how the health disparities of Appalachian coal miners and coal mining communities could be decreased through a partnership with occupational health nurses. On-site health clinics managed by occupational health nurses working in the coal mining industry are proposed as a means to improve health care outcomes. Health effects, economic considerations, environmental impacts, and U.S. coal mining legislation and regulation are examined. An epidemiological approach is presented to the unique health effects experienced by Appalachian coal miners and coal mining communities within the context of existent socioeconomic disparities. The long-standing health crisis in Appalachian coal mining communities requires a multidisciplinary approach led by occupational health nurses.

  4. Mutagenicity tobacco snuff: possible health implications for coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Whong, W.Z.; Ames, R.G.; Ong, T.

    1984-01-01

    Mutagenicity of tobacco snuff extracts was studied using the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay system. No mutagenic activity was found for tobacco snuff extracts without S9 activation. However, mutagenic substances were formed from tobacco snuff extracts in an acidic environment. The mutagenic substances induced predominantly frameshift mutations and were direct-acting mutagens. Mutagenic activity of tobacco snuff extracts was enhanced in the presence of coal-dust extracts at low pH. Since tobacco snuff has been used by some coal miners to substitute for cigarettes, a possible risk for gastric cancer induction among coal miners is proposed.

  5. Cardiopulmonary adaptation to exercise in coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Scano, G.; Garcia-Herreros, P.; Stendardi, D.; Degre, S.; De Coster, A.; Sergysels, R.

    1980-11-01

    Twenty-six coal miners, without associated functional chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), assessed by normal airway resistance, were divided into three groups: (1) Group C, normal x-ray; (2) Group S1, micronodular silicosis; and (3) Group S2, complicated silicosis. All subjects were evaluated while at rest and during exercise. Significant lung volume reduction was observed in the S2 Group only. Blood gases, pulmonary pressure, and cardiac output were found to be within the normal range for all three groups when at rest. The pulmonary pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance were higher, however, for the S1 and S2 Groups when compared to the C Group. During exercise, pulmonary hypertension was observed in 50% of the patients with complicated silicosis. When all data (N = 26) were included, the high values for pulmonary pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance correlated well with the loss in vital capacity (VC) and the decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV/sub 1/ /sub 0/). From the initial 26 patients, 19 were selected on the basis of their normal airway resistance and FEV/sub 1/ /sub 0//VC ratio. This selection did not alter the differences noted for the pulmonary pressure and total pulmonary vascular resistance, which previously existed between the groups, even though the correlations were not statistically significant. We conclude that silicosis without associated COLD leads to minimal hemodynamic impairment at rest and during exercise, and that airway resistance does not detect impairment of flow as effectively as FEV/sub 1/ /sub 0/ reduction. The increased pulmonary vascular resistance observed, especially in complicated silicosis, may be best explained by the loss of lung parenchyma and possible impairment of small airways.

  6. Brecciated and mineralized coals in Union County Western Kentucky coal field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Williams, D.A.; Eble, C.F.; Sakulpitakphon, T.; Moecher, D.P.

    2001-01-01

    Coals from the D-2 and D-3 boreholes in the Grove Center 7 1/2 min quadrangle, Union County, KY, have been found to be highly brecciated and mineralized. The mineralization is dominated by a carbonate assemblage with minor sulfides and sulfates. Included among the secondary minerals is the lead selenide, clausthalite. Overall, the emplacement of secondary vein minerals was responsible for raising the rank of the coals from the 0.6-0.7% Rmax range found in the area to as high as 0.95-0.99% Rmax. A 1.3-m-thick coal found in one of the boreholes is unique among known Western Kentucky coals in having less than 50% vitrinite. Semifusinite and fusinite dominate the maceral assemblages. The coal is also low in sulfur coal, which is unusual for the Illinois Basin. It has an ash yield of less than 10%; much of it dominated by pervasive carbonate veining. The age of the thick coal in core D-2 is similar to that of the Elm Lick coal bed, found elsewhere in the Western Kentucky coalfield. The coals in D-3 are younger, having Stephanian palynomorph assemblages. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification and significance of accessory minerals from a bituminous coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.; Stanton, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) has been used to study the in situ accessory minerals in polished blocks and pellets of petrographically analysed samples of the Waynesburg coal (hvb). Individual grains from the low-temperature ash (LTA) of the same coal were also studied. The visual resolution of the SEM permitted the detection of submicron mineral grains, which could then be analysed by the attached energy-dispersive system. Emphasis was placed on the highly reflective grains in the carbominerite bands. Among the most abundant accessory minerals observed were rutile, zircon, and rare-earth-bearing minerals. Small (1-5 ??m) particles of what may be authigenic iron-rich chromite and a nickel silicate form rims on quartz grains. The SEM also permits the observation of grain morphology and mineral intergrowths. These data are useful in determining authigenicity and diagenic alteration. Substances in density splits of LTA include authigenic, detrital, extraterrestrial magnetite, tourmaline, and evaporite (?) minerals, and a fluorine-bearing amphibole. This analytical approach allows the determination of specific sites for many of the trace elements in coals. In the Waynesburg coal, most of the chromium is in the iron-chromium rims, the fluorine is in the amphibole, and the rare-earth elements are in rare-earth-bearing minerals. The ability to relate trace-element data to specific minerals will aid in predicting the behaviour of elements in coal during combustion, liquefaction, gasification, weathering, and leaching processes. This ability also permits insight into the degree of mobility of these elements in coal and provides clues to sedimentological and diagenetic conditions. ?? 1978.

  8. Corrosivities in a pilot-scale combustor of a British and two Illinois coals with varying chlorine contents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Lytle, J.M.; Kung, S.C.; Ho, K.K.

    2000-01-01

    Many US boiler manufacturers have recommended limits on the chlorine (Cl) content (< 0.25% or < 0.3%) of coals to be used in their boilers. These limits were based primarily on extrapolation of British coal data to predict the probable corrosion behavior of US coals. Even though Cl-related boiler corrosion has not been reported by US utilities burning high-Cl Illinois coals, the manufacturer's limits affect the marketability of high-Cl Illinois coals. This study measured the relative rates of corrosion caused by two high-Cl coals (British and Illinois) and one low-Cl Illinois baseline coal under identical pilot-scale combustion conditions for about 1000 h which gave reliable comparisons. Temperatures used reflected conditions in boiler superheaters. The corrosion probes were fabricated from commercial alloy 304SS frequently used at the hottest superheater section of utility boilers. The results showed no evidence of direct correlation between the coal chlorine content and rate of corrosion. A correlation between the rate of corrosion and the metal temperature was obvious. The results suggested that the different field histories of corrosivity from burning high-Cl Illinois coal and high-Cl British coal occurred because of different metal temperatures operated in US and UK utility boilers. The results of this study can be combined into a database, which could be used for lifting the limits on chlorine contents of coals burned in utility boilers in the US.

  9. Hydrodesulfurization and hydrodenitrogenation catalysts obtained from coal mineral matter

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Kindtoken H. D.; Hamrin, Jr., Charles E.

    1982-01-01

    A hydrotreating catalyst is prepared from coal mineral matter obtained by low temperature ashing coals of relatively low bassanite content by the steps of: (a) depositing on the low temperature ash 0.25-3 grams of an iron or nickel salt in water per gram of ash and drying a resulting slurry; (b) crushing and sizing a resulting solid; and (c) heating the thus-sized solid powder in hydrogen.

  10. Respiratory outcomes among South African coal miners at autopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Naidoo, R.N.; Robins, T.G.; Murray, J.

    2005-09-01

    Studies of dose-response relationships between respiratory outcomes at autopsy and coal dust exposure are limited. The Pathology Automation System (PATHAUT) database of South African miners, is one of the largest autopsy databases of occupational lung disease. This study described the prevalence of respiratory outcomes among South African coal miners at autopsy, and determined whether dose response relationships existed between emphysema and exposure. Autopsies conducted from 1975 to 1997 on coal miners with exclusive coal mining exposure and having exposure duration information (n = 3,167) were analyzed from PATHAUT Logistic regression was used to determine relationships between exposure and outcomes, controlling for race, smoking and age on a subset for whom smoking history was available (n = 725). The prevalence of silicosis, tuberculosis (TB), coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), and moderate and marked emphysema were 10.7%, 5.2%, 7.3%, and 64%, respectively. All diseases, except TB, were associated with exposure duration. Black miners had 8.3 and 1.2 fold greater risks for TB and CWP, respectively, than white miners. White miners had an increased risk of 1.4 and 5.4 for silicosis and moderate to marked emphysema, respectively. In models unadjusted for age, and including smoking, moderate to marked emphysema was strongly associated with exposure duration (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.9-5.9 for highest tercile of exposure duration). Exposure-related risk estimates were reduced when age was introduced into the model. However age and duration of exposure were highly correlated, = 0. 68) suggesting a dilution of the exposure effect by age. There were significant dose related associations of disease, including emphysema, with coal dust exposure.

  11. Rend Lake College celebrates the opening of a new coal miner training facility

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2009-09-15

    The Coal Miner Training Center at Rend Lake College recently hosted the Illinois Mining Institute's annual conference and a regional mine rescue competition. The article gives an outline of the coal miner training and refresher course offered. 3 photos.

  12. Highwall miners extract coal cost effectively

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-15

    Contour Mining Corp's Powellton site in West Virginia has produced over 60,000 tons of coal per month using the Terex Highwall Mining System (HWM). The HWM can use a lower or high-seam cutter module. MTS Systems' Sensors Division provides mobile hydraulic magnetostrictive sensors for the HWM system, to increase the accuracy and reliability of linear positioning. 1 photo.

  13. Retirement Satisfaction among Coal Miners: A Correlational Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Diane J.; And Others

    Because of increases in life expectancy and early retirement, the quality of life during retirement is of concern to many people. Previous research has found that health and adequate income have consistently been related to life satisfaction during retirement. Several satisfaction measures were administered to a group of 55 retired coal miners.…

  14. New mineral occurrences and mineralization processes: Wuda coal-fire gas vents of Inner Mongolia

    SciTech Connect

    Stracher, G.B.; Prakash, A.; Schroeder, P.; McCormack, J.; Zhang, X.M.; Van Dijk, P.; Blake, D.

    2005-12-01

    Five unique mineral assemblages that include the sulfates millosevichite, alunogen, anhydrite, tschermigite, coquimbite, voltaite, and godovikovite, as well as the halide salammoniac and an unidentified phase, according to X-ray diffraction and EDS data, were found as encrustations on quartzofeldspathic sand and sandstone adjacent to coal-fire gas vents associated with underground coal fires in the Wuda coalfield of Inner Mongolia. The mineral assemblage of alunogen, coquimbite, voltaite, and the unidentified phase collected front the same gas vent, is documented for the first time. Observations suggest that the sulfates millosevichite, alunogen, coquimbite, voltaite, godovikovite, and the unidentified phase, crystallized in response to a complex sequence of processes that include condensation, hydrothermal alteration, crystallization from solution, fluctuating vent temperatures, boiling, and dehydration reactions, whereas the halide salammoniac crystallized during the sublimation of coal-fire gas. Tschermigite and anhydrite formed by the reaction of coal-fire gas with quartzofelds pathic rock or by hydrothermal alteration of this rock and crystallization from an acid-rich aqueous solution. These minerals have potentially important environmental significance and may be vectors for the transmission of toxins. Coal fires also provide insight for the recognition in the geologic record of preserved mineral assemblages that are diagnostic of ancient fires.

  15. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  16. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  17. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  18. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of the chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  19. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  20. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  1. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  2. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  3. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  4. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  5. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  6. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  7. Coal cleaning residues and Fe-minerals implications.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luis F O; Macias, Felipe; Oliveira, Marcos L S; da Boit, M Kátia; Waanders, Frans

    2011-01-01

    In the present investigation, a study was undertaken to understand the origin of Fe-minerals presents in Brazilian coal mining and to understand the environmental implication and the chemical heterogeneity in the study area. Coal cleaning residue samples rich in clays, quartz, sulphides, carbonates, sulphates, etc. were sampled from Lauro Muller, Urussanga, Treviso, Siderópolis, and Criciúma cities in the Santa Catarina State and a total of 19 samples were collected and Mössbauer, XRD, SEM/EDX, and TEM analyses were conducted on the samples. The major Fe-minerals identified are represented by the major minerals chlorite, hematite, illite, and pyrite, while the minor minerals include, ankerite, chalcopyrite, goethite, hematite, jarosite, maghemite, magnetie, marcasite, melanterite, natrojarosite, oligonite, pyrrhotite, rozenite, schwertmannite, siderite, and sideronatrile. Pyrite is relatively abundant in some cases, making up to around 10% of the mineral matter in several samples. The sulphates minerals such as jarosite and others, probably represent oxidation products of pyrite, developed during exposure or storage.

  8. Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of sulfur and iron in coal waste rock, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Essilfie-Dughan, Joseph; Hendry, M Jim; Dynes, James J; Hu, Yongfeng; Biswas, Ashis; Lee Barbour, S; Day, S

    2017-02-12

    Exposure of coal waste rock to atmospheric oxygen can result in the oxidation of sulfide minerals and the release of sulfate (SO4(2-)) and associated trace elements (e.g., Se, As, Cd, and Zn) to groundwaters and surface waters. Similarly, reduced iron minerals such as siderite, ankerite, and the sulfide, pyrite, present in the waste rock can also undergo oxidation, resulting in the formation of iron oxyhydroxides that can adsorb trace elements released from the oxidation of the sulfide minerals. Characterization and quantification of the distribution of sulfide and iron minerals, their oxidation products, as well as leaching rates are critical to assessing present-day and future impacts of SO4(2-) and associated trace elements on receiving waters. Synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopic analysis of coal waste rock samples from the Elk Valley, British Columbia showed Fe present as pyrite (mean 6.0%), siderite (mean 44.3%), goethite (mean 35.4%), and lepidocrocite (mean 14.3%) with S present as sulfide (mean 26.9%), organic S (mean 58.7%), and SO4(2-) (mean 14.4%). Squeezed porewater samples from dump solids yielded mean concentrations of 0.28mg/L Fe and 1246mg/L SO4(2-). Geochemical modeling showed the porewaters in the dumps to be supersaturated with respect to Fe oxyhydroxides and undersaturated with respect to gypsum, consistent with solids analyses. Coupling Fe and S mineralogical data with long-term water quality and quantity measurements from the base of one dump suggest about 10% of the sulfides (which represent 2% of total S) in the dump were oxidized over the past 30years. The S from these oxidized sulfides was released to the receiving surface water as SO4(2-) and the majority of the Fe precipitated as secondary Fe oxyhydroxides (only 3.0×10(-5)% of the Fe was released to the receiving waters over the past 30years). Although the data suggest that the leaching of SO4(2-) from the waste rock dump could continue for about 300years

  9. Utilization of coal-associated minerals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Slonaker, J. F.; Akers, D. J.; Alderman, J. K.

    1980-01-01

    Under contract number DE-AS21-77ET10533 with the US-DOE several methods of utilizing coal associated by-products were examined for potential commercial use. Such use could transform a costly waste disposal situation into new materials for further use and could provide incentive for the adoption of new coal utilization processes. Several utilization processes appear to have merit and are recommended for further study. Each process is discussed separately in the text of this report. Common coal cleaning processes were also examined to determine the effect of such processes on the composition of by-products. Data obtained in this portion of the research effort are reported in the Appendix. Information of this type is required before utilization processes can be considered. A knowledge of the mineral composition of these materials is also required before even simple disposal methods can be considered.

  10. Wet jigging machine for dressing coal or other minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, W.; Heintges, S.

    1984-11-27

    A wet jigging mechanism for handling coal or other minerals including a mineral containing tank, a pulsed air chamber opening downwardly into the tank, a compressed air source with a conduit and a vent conduit with valves in the conduit, the valves including pivotal butterfly valves on a shaft with a swing flap operator operated by the compressed air to move the butterfly valve and the swing wing engaging a variable positioned rubber stop damper at the open position of the butterfly valve, and a rubber seat for the butterfly valve in closed position acting as a damper.

  11. Hydrophobic flocculation flotation for beneficiating fine coal and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Song, S.; Valdivieso, A.L.

    1998-06-01

    It is shown that hydrophobic flocculation flotation (HFF) is an effective process to treat finely ground ores and slimes so as to concentrate coal and mineral values at a fine size range. The process is based on first dispersing the fine particles suspension, followed by flocculation of fine mineral values or coal in the form of hydrophobic surfaces either induced by specifically adsorbed surfactants or from nature at the conditioning of the slurry with the shear field of sufficient magnitude. The flocculation is intensified by the addition of a small amount of nonpolar oil. finely ground coals, ilmenite slimes, and gold finely disseminated in a slag have been treated by this process. Results are presented indicating that cleaned coal with low ash and sulfur remaining and high Btu recovery can be obtained, and the refractory ores of ilmenite slimes and fine gold-bearing slag can be reasonably concentrated, leading to better beneficiation results than other separation techniques. In addition, the main operating parameters affecting the HFF process are discussed.

  12. 76 FR 2617 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ...' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors AGENCY: Mine Safety and... rule addressing Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal..., Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors....

  13. 76 FR 25277 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ...' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors AGENCY: Mine Safety and... period on the proposed rule addressing Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including... FR 64412), MSHA published a proposed rule, Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine...

  14. 75 FR 69617 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... 30 CFR Parts 70, 71, 72, 75, and 90 RIN 1219-AB64 Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine... Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors. The proposed rule was published on... rule. The proposed rule would lower miners' exposure to respirable coal mine dust by revising...

  15. DISTRIBUTION OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN COAL MINERALS OF SELECTED EASTERN UNITED STATES COALS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palmer, C.A.; Wandless, M.-V.

    1985-01-01

    The association of 34 elements with minerals found in coal was determined by a combination of analytical techniques on size and density fractions of low-temperature ash (LTA). Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine the concentrations of the elements, and X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy were used to identify the minerals present in the LTA. The distribution of elemental and mineral concentrations in different size fractions was also determined. Between 35 and 60 weight percent of the LTA was composed of particles smaller than 2 mu m.

  16. The genotoxic risk of underground coal miners from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Donbak, Lale; Rencuzogullari, Eyyup; Yavuz, Ayse; Topaktas, Mehmet

    2005-12-30

    A cytogenetic monitoring study was carried out on a group of workers from a bituminous coal mine in Zonguldak province of Turkey, to investigate the genotoxic risk of occupational exposure to coal mine dust. Cytogenetic analysis, namely sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and micronucleus (MN) tests were performed on a strictly selected group of 39 workers and compared to 34 controls matched for gender, age, and habit. Smoking and age were considered as modulating factors. Both SCE and CA frequencies in coal miners appeared significantly higher than in controls. Similarly, there was a significant increase in the frequency of total micronuclei in exposed group as compared to control group. The effect of smoking on the level of SCE and MN was significant in the control group. A positive correlation between the age and the level of SCE was also found in controls. The frequencies of both SCE and CA were significantly enhanced with the years of exposure. The results of this study demonstrated that occupational exposure to coal mine dust leads to a significant induction of cytogenetic damage in peripheral lymphocytes of workers engaged in underground coal mining.

  17. Overall requirements for an advanced underground coal extraction system. [environment effects, miner health and safety, production cost, and coal conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, M.; Lavin, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Underground mining systems suitable for coal seams expoitable in the year 2000 are examined with particular relevance to the resources of Central Appalachia. Requirements for such systems may be summarized as follows: (1) production cost; (2)miner safety; (3) miner health; (4) environmental impact; and (5) coal conservation. No significant trade offs between production cost and other performance indices were found.

  18. ELECTROSTATIC SURFACE STRUCTURES OF COAL AND MINERAL PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    It is the purpose of this research to study electrostatic charging mechanisms related to electrostatic beneficiation of coal with the goal of improving models of separation and the design of electrostatic separators. Areas addressed in this technical progress report are (a) electrostatic beneficiation of Pittsburgh #8 coal powders as a function of grind size and processing atmosphere; (b) the use of fluorescent micro-spheres to probe the charge distribution on the surfaces of coal particles; (c) the use of electrostatic beneficiation to recover unburned carbon from flyash; (d) the development of research instruments for investigation of charging properties of coal. Pittsburgh #8 powders were beneficiated as a function of grind size and under three atmosphere conditions: fresh ground in air , after 24 hours of air exposure, or under N2 atmosphere. The feed and processed powders were analyzed by a variety of methods including moisture, ash, total sulfur, and pyritic sulfur content. Mass distribution and cumulative charge of the processed powders were also measured. Fresh ground coal performed the best in electrostatic beneficiation. Results are compared with those of similar studies conducted on Pittsburgh #8 powders last year (April 1, 1997 to September 30, 1997). Polystyrene latex spheres were charged and deposited onto coal particles that had been passed through the electrostatic separator and collected onto insulating filters. The observations suggest bipolar charging of individual particles and patches of charge on the particles which may be associated with particular maceral types or with mineral inclusions. A preliminary investigation was performed on eletrostatic separation of unburned carbon particles from flyash. Approximately 25% of the flyash acquired positive charge in the copper tribocharger. This compares with 75% of fresh ground coal. The negatively charged material had a slightly reduced ash content suggesting some enrichment of carbonaceous material

  19. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  20. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  1. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  2. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  3. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  4. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  5. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  6. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  7. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  8. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  9. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  10. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  11. Development of a method for characterizing changes in coal and mineral surfaces resulting from beneficiation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Slomka, B.J.; Seward, K.J.; Dawson, M.R.; Buttermore, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    A novel method was developed for characterizing changes in coal and mineral surfaces resulting from sonication and other cleaning processes. This method employs a unique flow-cell to permit the dynamic measurement of dye adsorption on coal and mineral particle surfaces. The rates and extents of adsorption of ionic dyes on Illinois No. 6 coal were found to be dependent on mineral content and particle size of ground coal samples. A significant correlation was observed between the adsorbed quantity of dye and the total mineral content of coal. In preliminary experiments with methylene blue dye, clay was found to absorb significantly more of the dye than quartz, pyrite, calcite, or clean coal'' surfaces. By using dyes of differing adsorption selectivity, it is demonstrated that sonication reduces the apparent mineral content on the surface of coal. 9 refs., 7 fig., 3 tabs.

  12. Selected elements in major minerals from bituminous coal as determined by INAA: Implications for removing environmentally sensitive elements from coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palmer, C.A.; Lyons, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    The four most abundant minerals generally found in Euramerican bituminous coals are quartz, kaolinite, illite and pyrite. These four minerals were isolated by density separation and handpicking from bituminous coal samples collected in the Ruhr Basin, Germany and the Appalachian basin, U.S.A. Trace-element concentrations of relatively pure (??? 99+%) separates of major minerals from these coals were determined directly by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). As expected, quartz contributes little to the trace-element mass balance. Illite generally has higher trace-element concentrations than kaolinite, but, for the concentrates analyzed in this study, Hf, Ta, W, Th and U are in lower concentrations in illite than in kaolinite. Pyrite has higher concentrations of chalcophile elements (e.g., As and Se) and is considerably lower in lithophile elements as compared to kaolinite and illite. Our study provides a direct and sensitive method of determining trace-element relationships with minerals in coal. Mass-balance calculations suggest that the trace-element content of coal can be explained mainly by three major minerals: pyrite, kaolinite and illite. This conclusion indicates that the size and textural relationships of these major coal minerals may be a more important consideration as to whether coal cleaning can effectively remove the most environmentally sensitive trace elements in coal than what trace minerals are present.

  13. Coal mine dust exposure and spirometry in experienced miners.

    PubMed

    Henneberger, P K; Attfield, M D

    1996-05-01

    In a previous study of new miners from the National Study of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis (NSCWP), researchers examined changes in spirometry values associated with coal mine dust exposure (Br J Ind Med 1993; 50:929-937). An unusual pattern of dust-related effects was observed: initial sharp decrements in FVC and FEV1 were followed by partial recovery. In the current study, similar methods were used to analyze data from experienced miners. Each of 1,915 male subjects contributed data from two of the NSCWP field surveys: either Round 1 (1969-71) and Round 2 (1972-75) and Round 4 (1985-88). From the cross-sectional analysis at Round 1 or Round 2 (R1/R2), changes of +0.6 ml FVC and -0.5 ml FEV1 were associated with each mg/m3-yr of cumulative coal mine dust exposure, but were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). From the analysis of longitudinal change in spirometry from R1/R2 to Round 4 (R4), annual declines in FVC (-0.10 ml/yr per mg/m3-yr, p = 0.003) and FEV1 (-0.07 ml/yr per mg/m3-yr, p = 0.006) were associated with pre-R1/R2 exposure. Both the pattern and the magnitude of the exposure-response relationship were different for experienced versus new miners. Possible reasons for these contrasts include differences in cumulative exposure between the two groups and the healthy worker effect among experienced miners.

  14. Evaluation of coal-mineral association and coal cleanability by using SEM-based automated image analysts

    SciTech Connect

    Straszheim, W.E.; Younkin, K.A.; Markuszewski, R.; Smit, F.J. )

    1988-01-01

    A technique employing SEM-based automated image analysis (AIA) has been developed for assessing the association of mineral particles with coal, and thus the cleanability of that coal, when the characteristics of the separation process are known. Data resulting from AIA include the mineral distribution by particle size, mineral phase, and extent of association with coal. This AIA technique was applied to samples of {minus}325 mesh ({minus}44 {mu}m) coal from the Indiana No. 3, Upper Freeport, and Sunnyside (UT) seams. The coals were subjected to cleaning by float-sink separations at 1.3, 1.4, 1.6, and 1.9 specific gravity and by froth flotation. For the three coals, the float-sink procedure at a given specific gravity produced different amounts of clean coal, but with similar ash content. Froth flotation removed much less ash, yielding a product ash content of {approximately}8% for the Upper Freeport coal, regardless of recovery, while reducing the ash content to less than 5% for the other two coals. The AIA results documented significantly more association of minerals with the Upper Freeport coal, which thus led to the poor ash reduction.

  15. Evaluation of coal-mineral association and coal cleanability by using SEM-based automated image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Straszheim, W.E.; Younkin, K.A.; Markuszewski, R. ); Smith, F.J. )

    1988-06-01

    A technique employing SEM-based automated image analysis (AIA) has been developed for assessing the association of mineral particles with coal, and thus the cleanability of that coal, when the characteristics of the separation process are known. Data resulting from AIA include the mineral distribution by particle size, mineral phase, and extent of association with coal. This AIA technique was applied to samples of -325 mesh (-44 ..mu..m) coal from the Indiana No. 3, Upper Freeport, and Sunnyside (UT) seams. The coals were subjected to cleaning by float-sink separations at 1.3, 1.4, 1.6, and 1.9 specific gravity and by froth flotation. For the three coals, the float-sink procedure at a given specific gravity produced different amounts of clean coal, but with similar ash content. Froth flotation removed much less ash, yielding a product ash content of --8% for the Upper Freeport coal, regardless of recovery, while reducing the ash content to less than 5% for the other two coals. The AIA results documented significantly more association of minerals with the Upper Freeport coal, which thus led to the poor ash reduction.

  16. Impact of coal-carrying trains on particulate matter concentrations in South Delta, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Akaoka, K; McKendry, I; Saxton, J; Cottle, P W

    2017-04-01

    Transport of coal by train through residential neighborhoods in Metro Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada may increase the possibility of exposure to particulate matter at different size ranges, with concomitant potential negative health impacts. This pilot study identifies and quantifies train impacts on particulate matter (PM) concentrations at a single location. Field work was conducted during August and September 2014, with the attributes of a subset of passing trains confirmed visually, and the majority of passages identified with audio data. In addition to fixed ground based monitors at distances 15 and 50 m from the train tracks, an horizontally pointing mini-micropulse lidar system was deployed on three days to make backscatter and depolarization measurements in an attempt to identify the zone of influence, and sources, of train-generated PM. Ancillary wind and dust fall data were also utilized. Trains carrying coal are associated with a 5.3 (54%), 4.1 (33%), and 2.6 (17%) μgm(-3) average increase in concentration over a 14 min period compared to the average concentrations over the 10 min prior to and after a train passage ("control" or "background" conditions), for PM3, PM10, and PM20, respectively. In addition, for PM10 and PM20, concentrations during train passages of non-coal-carrying trains were not found to be significantly different from PM concentrations during control conditions. Presence of coal dust particles at the site was confirmed by dust fall measurements. Although enhancements of PM concentrations during 14 min train passages were generally modest, passing coal trains occasionally enhanced concentrations at 50 m from the tracks by ∼100 μgm(-3). Results showed that not every train passage increased PM concentrations, and the effect appears to be highly dependent on wind direction, local meteorology and load related factors. LiDAR imagery suggests that re-mobilization of track-side PM by train-induced turbulence may be a significant

  17. Determination of the mineral distribution in pulverized coal using densitometry and laser particle sizing

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Zhang; Yan-xue Mo; Ming Sun; Xian-yong Wei

    2005-12-01

    Coal particle size and mineral matter content have important effects on coal combustion. The mineral content of five Chinese coals was determined by a method combining densitometry and particle-size analysis. The finer particles of pulverized samples were found to contain more mineral content. Rank also had a significant influence on the particle-size ash-content distribution of pulverized coal particles. The sharpest size-ash distribution was found in pulverized anthracite samples; a broader distribution was found with bituminous coal samples, while a uniform distribution was observed in pulverized lignite samples. Ash in higher ash anthracite or lower ash bituminous coal is more evenly distributed. It is a combined effect of size distribution, yield, and proximate analysis of their density separation fractions. Mineral matter tends to distribute more evenly in finer pulverized coals. This results from a relative increase of the low-density fraction in the finer particles. 13 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Daughters of the mountain: women coal miners in central Appalachia

    SciTech Connect

    Tallichet, S.E.

    2006-10-15

    The book introduces us to a cohort of women miners at a large underground coal mine in southern West Virginia, where women entered the workforce in the late 1970s after mining jobs began opening up for women throughout the Appalachian coalfields. The work goes beyond anecdotal evidence to provide complex and penetrating analyses of qualitative data. Based on in-depth interviews with including social relations among men and women, professional advancement, and union participation. She also explores the ways in which women adapt to mining culture, developing strategies for both resistance and accommodation to an overwhelmingly male-dominated world. 1 app.

  19. Temporary spectral analysis of a laser plasma of mineral coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebolledo, P.; Pacheco, P.; Sarmiento, R.; Cabanzo, R.; Mejía-Ospino, E.

    2013-11-01

    In this work we present results of the temporal spectral study of a plasma laser of mineral coal using the Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique. The plasma was generated by focusing a laser beam of Nd:YAG laser emitting at 532 nm with energy per pulse of 35 mJ on coal target pellets. The plasma radiation was conducted by an optical fiber to the entrance slit of a spectrograph of 0.5 m, equipped with a 1200 and 2400 grooves/mm diffraction grating and an ICCD camera for registration with different delay times of the spectra in the spectral range from 250 nm to 900 nm. The temporal spectral analysis allowed the identification of the elements Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, K, and Si, and CN and C2 molecules present in natural coals. The characteristics of the spectral lines and bands were studied at different delay times obtaining the calculation of the evolution of electron temperature, electron density, and vibrational temperature of plasmas in the time. The delay times used were between 0.5 μs and 5 μs, calculating the electron temperature ranged between 5 000 K and 1 000 K.

  20. Epidemiological data on US coal miners' pneumoconiosis, 1960 to 1988.

    PubMed Central

    Attfield, M D; Castellan, R M

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Statistics on prevalence of pneumoconiosis among working underground coal miners based on epidemiologic data collected between 1960 and 1988 are presented. The main intent was to examine the time-related trend in prevalence, particularly after 1969, when substantially lower dust levels were mandated by federal act. METHODS. Data from studies undertaken between 1960 and 1968 were collected and compared. Information for the period 1969 to 1988 was extracted from a large ongoing national epidemiologic study. Tenure-specific prevalence rates and summary statistics derived from the latter data for four consecutive time intervals within the 19-year period were calculated and compared. RESULTS. The results indicate a reduction in pneumoconiosis over time. The trend is similar to that seen in a large radiologic surveillance program of underground miners operated concurrently. CONCLUSIONS. Although such factors as x-ray reader variation, changes in x-ray standards, and worker self-selection for examination may have influenced the findings to some extent, adjusted summary rates reveal a reduction in prevalence concurrent with reductions in coal mine dust levels mandated by federal act in 1969. PMID:1535182

  1. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  2. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  3. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  4. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  5. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  6. 77 FR 56717 - Specifications for Medical Examinations of Underground Coal Miners

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ...This final rule modifies the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) regulations for medical examinations of underground coal miners. Existing regulations established specifications for providing, interpreting, classifying, and submitting film-based roentgenograms (now commonly called chest radiographs or X-rays) of underground coal miners. The revised standards modify the requirements......

  7. 75 FR 64411 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ...The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) proposes to lower miners' exposure to respirable coal mine dust by revising the Agency's existing standards on miners' occupational exposure to respirable coal mine dust. The major provisions of the proposal would lower the existing exposure limit; provide for full-shift sampling; redefine the term ``normal production shift; '' and add......

  8. [Biologic markers for early diagnosis of effects caused by exposure to coal dust in miners].

    PubMed

    Pavlovskaia, N A; Rushkevich, O P

    2012-01-01

    The authors studied changes in several laboratory values of coal miners in Russian Federation, defined information value of these changes and suggested complex of methods for early preclinical diagnosis of negative effects caused by coal dust in the miners. Dust-related respiratory diseases were proved to develop by stages on molecular level.

  9. Geochemistry of arsenic in low sulfide-high carbonate coal waste rock, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Ashis; Hendry, M Jim; Essilfie-Dughan, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the geochemistry of arsenic (As) in low sulfide-high carbonate coal waste rock of the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada. Its abundance and mineralogical associations in waste rock of different placement periods were determined in addition to its mobilization into porewater and rock-drain effluent. The mean (5.34mg/kg; 95% confidence interval: 4.95-5.73mg/kg) As concentration in the waste rock was typical of sedimentary rock. Electron microprobe and As K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopic analyses showed the As is predominantly associated with primary pyrites in both source and freshly blasted waste rock. However, in aged waste rock the As is associated with both primary pyrites and secondary Fe oxyhydroxides. Oxidation of pyrite in waste rock dumps was reflected by the presence of high concentrations of SO4(2-) in porewater and oxidation rims of Fe oxyhydroxides around pyrite grains. Acid released from pyrite oxidation to Fe oxyhydroxides is neutralized by carbonate mineral dissolution that buffers the pH in the waste rock to circumneutral values. Adsorption of As onto secondary Fe oxyhydroxides provides an internal geochemical control on As release during pyrite oxidation and porewater flushing from the dump, resulting in the low As concentrations observed in porewater (median: 9.91μg/L) and rock-drain effluent (median: 0.31μg/L). Secondary Fe oxyhydroxides act as a long-term sink for As under present day hydrologic settings in waste rock dumps in the Elk Valley.

  10. Study of catalytic effects of mineral matter level on coal reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzocco, Nestor J.; Klunder, Edgar B.; Krastman, Donald

    1981-03-01

    Coal liquefaction experiments using a 400-lb/day bubble-column reactor tested the catalytic effects of added mineral matter level on coal conversion, desulfurization, and distillate yields in continuous operation under recycle conditions, with specific emphasis on the use of a disposable pyrite catalyst indigenous to the feed coal. Western Kentucky No. 11 run-of-mine (ROM) and washed coals were used as feedstocks to determine the effects of levels of mineral matter, specifically iron compounds. Liquefaction reactivity as characterized by total distillate yield was lower for washed coal, which contained less mineral matter. Liquefaction reactivity was regained when pyrite concentrate was added as a disposable catalyst to the washed coal feed in sufficient quantity to match the feed iron concentration of the run-of-mine coal liquefaction test run.

  11. Regional scale selenium loading associated with surface coal mining, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Wellen, Christopher C; Shatilla, Nadine J; Carey, Sean K

    2015-11-01

    Selenium (Se) concentrations in surface water downstream of surface mining operations have been reported at levels in excess of water quality guidelines for the protection of wildlife. Previous research in surface mining environments has focused on downstream water quality impacts, yet little is known about the fundamental controls on Se loading. This study investigated the relationship between mining practices, stream flows and Se concentrations using a SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model. This work is part of a R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada, aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that waste rock volume, a product of mining activity, accounted for roughly 80% of the Se load from the Elk Valley, while background sources accounted for roughly 13%. Wet years were characterized by more than twice the Se load of dry years. A number of variables regarding placement of waste rock within the catchments, length of buried streams, and the construction of rock drains did not significantly influence the Se load. The age of the waste rock, the proportion of waste rock surface reclaimed, and the ratio of waste rock pile side area to top area all varied inversely with the Se load from watersheds containing waste rock. These results suggest operational practices that are likely to reduce the release of Se to surface waters.

  12. Effects of minerals on coal-benefication processes. Quarterly report No. 9, October 1-December 31, 1979. [Fate of minerals; different coals

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, B. G.; Muter, R. B.; Buttermore, W. H.; Grady, W. C.; Alderman, J. K.; Durham, D.

    1980-09-15

    Unit operation pilot scale tests have been completed for froth flotation, tabling and jigging cleaning operations. An assessment and chemical/mineralogical data for these tests are reported herein. Tests for the heavy media cyclone and WEMCO HMS unit are on-going and will be reported in the next quarter. Also completed during the report period was an in-depth petrographic analysis of the Pocahontas No. 3 coal. Coal macerals by size and gravity were determined as volume percent of the whole coal and are contained in this report. This leaves only the Illinois No. 6 samples for detailed maceral analysis vs. screen/gravity fractions. Accumulation of XRPD data for coal minerals with Pocahontas No. 3 was continued based on the methodology presented in Quarterly Report No. 8. Standardization equations were developed for the Pocahontas No. 3 and Illinois No. 6 samples and mineralogical trends for these coals and the Pittsburgh seam samples were determined. Some generalizations are possible which should aid in interpreting the preparation plant and pilot plant cleaning of these coals. Illite and quartz constitute the majority of all LTA's whether of cleaned coals or refuse. Some minerals display the proprty of being highly separated into either the cleaned coal or the refuse, especially when fine coal sizes are cleaned. Calcite and kaolinite are prime examples in that kaolinite is greatest in the LTA's of the cleaned coal, and calcite is greatest in the LTA's of the refuse. Minerals such as apatite and siderite are most effectively separated into the cleaned coal and refuse only when large coal sizes are cleaned.

  13. Psychological Distress and Pain Reporting in Australian Coal Miners

    PubMed Central

    Carlisle, Kristy N.; Parker, Anthony W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Coal mining is of significant economic importance to the Australian economy. Despite this fact, the related workforce is subjected to a number of psychosocial risks and musculoskeletal injury, and various psychological disorders are common among this population group. Because only limited research has been conducted in this population group, we sought to examine the relationship between physical (pain) and psychological (distress) factors, as well as the effects of various demographic, lifestyle, and fatigue indicators on this relationship. Methods Coal miners (N = 231) participated in a survey of musculoskeletal pain and distress on-site during their work shifts. Participants also provided demographic information (job type, age, experience in the industry, and body mass index) and responded to questions about exercise and sleep quality (on- and off-shift) as well as physical and mental tiredness after work. Results A total of 177 workers (80.5%) reported experiencing pain in at least one region of their body. The majority of the sample population (61.9%) was classified as having low-level distress, 28.4% had scores indicating mild to moderate distress, and 9.6% had scores indicating high levels of distress. Both number of pain regions and job type (being an operator) significantly predicted distress. Higher distress score was also associated with greater absenteeism in workers who reported lower back pain. In addition, perceived sleep quality during work periods partially mediated the relationship between pain and distress. Conclusion The study findings support the existence of widespread musculoskeletal pain among the coal-mining workforce, and this pain is associated with increased psychological distress. Operators (truck drivers) and workers reporting poor sleep quality during work periods are most likely to report increased distress, which highlights the importance of supporting the mining workforce for sustained productivity. PMID:25516813

  14. Women and men coal miners: coping with gender integration underground

    SciTech Connect

    Yount, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    The central purpose of this research is to initiate a theoretical understanding of the integration of women into traditionally-male, physical-labor jobs. The primary sources of data consist of in depth interviews with women and men underground coal miners and company personnel, and field notes collected during participant observation work in mining communities. Part I addresses the relationship between conditions of production and modes of interaction in underground mines. Personality traits conceived as aspects of masculinity are traced to efforts to cope with the stressors of engaging in physical labor in a work setting characterized by lack of work autonomy, a high degree of threat, and a high degree of interdependence for task accomplishment. Part II focuses on situational and individual factors affecting the integration of women in the workplace. Although most women miners are satisfied with their work, a gender based division of labor has arisen in which women are concentrated in low-prestige laborer positions. The processes involved in undermining a woman's work reputation and self-concept are summarized and forms of discrimination that recreate aspects of the female sterotype and lead to the development of sex segregation in the workplace are to the development of sex segregation in the workplace are discussed.

  15. CO2 Interaction with coals of different mineral and moisture content

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, Vyacheslav; Fazio, James; Hur, Tae Bong; Howard, Bret; Soong, Yee; McIntyre, Dustin; Bromhal, Grant

    2011-05-17

    To improve our understanding of the role of moisture and mineral matter with respect to CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal semns, we investigated sorption and swelling behavior of several Eastern and Western US coal samples, pmiicularly, cuttings from San Juan Basin (Fruitland) site of the Southwest Regional Pminership and crushed-coal samples of the Central Appalachian Basin (Russell County, VA) coal seam received from the SECARB pminership. The CO2 55°C sorption isotherm measurements have been completed for moist (as received) and dried samples representing the well probes. The results are summarized versus mineral matter and moisture content.

  16. Prevalence of pneumoconiosis and its relationship to dust exposure in a cohort of U.S. bituminous coal miners and ex-miners.

    PubMed

    Attfield, M D; Seixas, N S

    1995-01-01

    Information on radiographic evidence of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) is presented for a group of 3,194 underground bituminous coal miners and ex-miners examined between 1985 and 1988. Prevalence of CWP was related to estimated cumulative dust exposure, age, and rank of coal. On the basis of these data, miners of medium to low rank coal, who work for 40 years at the current federal dust limit of 2 mg/m3, are predicted to have a 1.4% risk of having progressive massive fibrosis on retirement. Higher prevalences are predicted for less severe categories of CWP. Miners in high rank coal areas appear to be at greater risk than those mining medium and low rank coals. Ex-miners who said that they left mining for health-related reasons had higher levels of abnormality compared to current miners.

  17. A Look into Miners' Health in Prevailing Ambience of Underground Coal Mine Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, N. C.; Pal, S.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental factors such as noise, vibration, illumination, humidity, temperature and air velocity, etc. do play a major role on the health, comfort and efficient performance of underground coal miners at work. Ergonomics can help to promote health, efficiency and well being of miners and to make best use of their capabilities within the ambit of underground coal mine environment. Adequate work stretch and work-rest scheduling have to be determined for every category of miners from work physiology point of view so as to keep better health of the miners in general and to have their maximum efficiency at work in particular.

  18. Transformation of the Fe-mineral associations in coal during gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waanders, F. B.; Bunt, J. R.

    2006-07-01

    The mineral matter associated with coal undergoes various transformations during the coal gasification process. Optimisation of the gasification process is necessary in the coal to liquids technology. The principle aim of this investigation was to determine the changes that the Fe-containing minerals and mineral associations undergo during gasification of coal. Due to the complexity of the counter-current coal-gas process used, a gasifier dissection was undertaken on one of the Sasol gasifiers. Detailed characterisation profiles of various properties of the coal were undertaken after a commercial-scale gasifier was shutdown for routine maintenance of which the Mössbauer spectroscopy technique will be described here. Representative samples from the gasifier were extracted after sufficient cooling was done to allow the safe turn-out of the gasifier. In the coal samples that entered the gasifier, pyrite was the abundant Fe-containing mineral, whilst the pyrite changed gradually to form, in conjunction with the SiO2 and Al2O3 present in the coal, a Fe-containing glass and hematite at the bottom, or ash grate of the gasifier.

  19. When I was a coal miner: a pastor's memoir

    SciTech Connect

    Dan L. Martineau

    2005-07-01

    This is a true story about a young man from Michigan who became the pastor of a small church in Coalwood, West Virginia. In order to support his family, he worked underground in a deep coal mine. This book tells the story of life in a coal-mining community and presents an insider's view of a coal mine.

  20. Respirable coal dust exposure and respiratory symptoms in South-African coal miners: A comparison of current and ex-miners

    SciTech Connect

    Naidoo, R.N.; Robins, T.G.; Seixas, N.; Lalloo, U.G.; Becklake, M.

    2006-06-15

    Dose-response associations between respirable dust exposure and respiratory symptoms and between symptoms and spirometry outcomes among currently employed and formerly employed South-African coal miners were investigated. Work histories, interviews, and spirometry and cumulative exposure were assessed among 684 current and 212 ex-miners. Results: Lower prevalences of symptoms were found among employed compared with ex-miners. Associations with increasing exposure for symptoms of phlegm and past history of tuberculosis were observed, whereas other symptom prevalences were higher in the higher exposure categories. Symptomatic ex-miners exhibited lower lung-function compared to the nonsymptomatic. Compared with published data, symptoms rates were low in current miners but high in ex-miners. Although explanations could include the low prevalence of smoking and/or reporting/selection bias, a 'Survivor' and/or a 'hire' effect is more likely, resulting in an underestimation of the dust-related effect.

  1. Using the Extended Parallel Process Model to Prevent Noise-Induced Hearing Loss among Coal Miners in Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray-Johnson, Lisa; Witte, Kim; Patel, Dhaval; Orrego, Victoria; Zuckerman, Cynthia; Maxfield, Andrew M.; Thimons, Edward D.

    2004-01-01

    Occupational noise-induced hearing loss is the second most self-reported occupational illness or injury in the United States. Among coal miners, more than 90% of the population reports a hearing deficit by age 55. In this formative evaluation, focus groups were conducted with coal miners in Appalachia to ascertain whether miners perceive hearing…

  2. Respiratory disease and suicide among US coal miners: is there a relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, R.G.

    1985-11-01

    A case-control study was performed to test whether or not respiratory disease in coal miners presented a risk for suicide. While coal miners in general do not experience elevated rates of suicide, coal miners with respiratory disease have been found to have high rates of psychiatric disability, especially depressive reactions. Further, depression has been related to suicide. To test the hypothesis, 50 suicide deaths from four National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health cohorts of coal miners were matched by age at death to two series of controls, a noncancer, nonaccident control series, and a cancer control series. Using odds ratios (tested by chi-square) the risks of obstructive lung disease and coal workers pneumoconiosis were evaluated together with the risks of years of underground mining, cigarette smoking at the time of cohort creation, and ever having smoked cigarettes. Neither respiratory disease was found to pose a statistically elevated risk of suicide in this sample of U.S. white male coal miners.

  3. A New Route for Unburned Carbon Concentration Measurements Eliminating Mineral Content and Coal Rank Effects

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong; Duan, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Zhen; Yu, Hai-Tong

    2014-01-01

    500 million tons of coal fly ash are produced worldwide every year with only 16% of the total amount utilized. Therefore, potential applications using fly ash have both environmental and industrial interests. Unburned carbon concentration measurements are fundamental to effective fly ash applications. Current on-line measurement accuracies are strongly affected by the mineral content and coal rank. This paper describes a char/ash particle cluster spectral emittance method for unburned carbon concentration measurements. The char/ash particle cluster spectral emittance is predicted theoretically here for various unburned carbon concentrations to show that the measurements are sensitive to unburned carbon concentration but insensitive to the mineral content and coal rank at short wavelengths. The results show that the char/ash particle cluster spectral emittance method is a novel and promising route for unburned carbon concentration on-line measurements without being influenced by mineral content or coal rank effects. PMID:24691496

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF DEWATERING AIDS FOR MINERALS AND COAL FINES

    SciTech Connect

    Roe-Hoam Yoon; Ramazan Asmatulu; Ismail Yildirim; William Jansen; Jinmig Zhang; Brad Atkinson; Jeff Havens

    2004-07-01

    MCT has developed a suite of novel dewatering chemicals (or aids) that are designed to cause a decrease in the capillary pressures of the water trapped in a filter cake by (1) decreasing the surface tension of water, (2) increasing the contact angles of the particles to be dewatered, and (3) causing the particles to coagulate, all at the same time. The decrease in capillary pressure in turn causes an increase in the rate filtration, an increase in throughput, and a decrease in pressure drop requirement for filtration. The reagents are used frequently as blends of different chemicals in order to bring about the changes in all of the process variables noted above. The minerals and coal samples tested in the present work included copper sulfide, lead sulfide, zinc sulfide, kaolin clay, talc, and silica. The laboratory-scale test work included studies of reagent types, drying cycle times, cake thickness, slurry temperature, conditioning intensity and time, solid content, and reagent dosages. To better understand the mechanisms involved, fundamental studies were also conducted. These included the measurements of the contact angles of the particles to be dewatered (which are the measures of particle hydrophobicity) and the surface tensions of the filtrates produced from dewatering tests. The results of the laboratory-scale filtration experiments showed that the use of the novel dewatering aids can reduce the moistures of the filter cake by 30 to 50% over what can be achieved using no dewatering aids. In many cases, such high levels of moisture reductions are sufficient to obviate the needs for thermal drying, which is costly and energy intensive. Furthermore, the use of the novel dewatering aids cause a substantial increase in the kinetics of dewatering, which in turn results in increased throughput. As a result of these technological advantages, the novel dewatering aids have been licensed to Nalco, which is one of the largest mining chemicals companies of the world. At

  5. Biologically induced mineralization of dypingite by cyanobacteria from an alkaline wetland near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Power, Ian M; Wilson, Siobhan A; Thom, James M; Dipple, Gregory M; Southam, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Background This study provides experimental evidence for biologically induced precipitation of magnesium carbonates, specifically dypingite (Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·5H2O), by cyanobacteria from an alkaline wetland near Atlin, British Columbia. This wetland is part of a larger hydromagnesite (Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O) playa. Abiotic and biotic processes for magnesium carbonate precipitation in this environment are compared. Results Field observations show that evaporation of wetland water produces carbonate films of nesquehonite (MgCO3·3H2O) on the water surface and crusts on exposed surfaces. In contrast, benthic microbial mats possessing filamentous cyanobacteria (Lyngbya sp.) contain platy dypingite (Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·5H2O) and aragonite. Bulk carbonates in the benthic mats (δ13C avg. = 6.7‰, δ18O avg. = 17.2‰) were isotopically distinguishable from abiotically formed nesquehonite (δ13C avg. = 9.3‰, δ18O avg. = 24.9‰). Field and laboratory experiments, which emulated natural conditions, were conducted to provide insight into the processes for magnesium carbonate precipitation in this environment. Field microcosm experiments included an abiotic control and two microbial systems, one containing ambient wetland water and one amended with nutrients to simulate eutrophic conditions. The abiotic control developed an extensive crust of nesquehonite on its bottom surface during which [Mg2+] decreased by 16.7% relative to the starting concentration. In the microbial systems, precipitation occurred within the mats and was not simply due to the capturing of mineral grains settling out of the water column. Magnesium concentrations decreased by 22.2% and 38.7% in the microbial systems, respectively. Laboratory experiments using natural waters from the Atlin site produced rosettes and flakey globular aggregates of dypingite precipitated in association with filamentous cyanobacteria dominated biofilms cultured from the site, whereas the abiotic control again precipitated

  6. Process for removal of mineral particulates from coal-derived liquids

    DOEpatents

    McDowell, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Suspended mineral solids are separated from a coal-derived liquid containing the solids by a process comprising the steps of: (a) contacting said coal-derived liquid containing solids with a molten additive having a melting point of 100.degree.-500.degree. C. in an amount of up to 50 wt. % with respect to said coal-derived liquid containing solids, said solids present in an amount effective to increase the particle size of said mineral solids and comprising material or mixtures of material selected from the group of alkali metal hydroxides and inorganic salts having antimony, tin, lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, beryllium, aluminum, zinc, molybdenum, cobalt, nickel, ruthenium, rhodium or iron cations and chloride, iodide, bromide, sulfate, phosphate, borate, carbonate, sulfite, or silicate anions; and (b) maintaining said coal-derived liquid in contact with said molten additive for sufficient time to permit said mineral matter to agglomerate, thereby increasing the mean particle size of said mineral solids; and (c) recovering a coal-derived liquid product having reduced mineral solids content. The process can be carried out with less than 5 wt. % additive and in the absence of hydrogen pressure.

  7. The Influence of Surface Coal Mining on Runoff Processes and Stream Chemistry in the Elk Valley, British Colubmbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, S. K.; Wellen, C. C.; Shatilla, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Surface mining is a common method of accessing coal. In high-elevation environments, vegetation and soils are typically removed prior to the blasting of overburden rock, thereby allowing access to mineable ore. Following this, the removed overburden rock is deposited in adjacent valleys as waste rock spoils. Previous research has identified that areas downstream of surface coal mining have impaired water quality, yet there is limited information about the interaction of hydrology and geochemistry across a range of mining conditions, particularly at the headwater scale. Here, we provide an analysis of an extensive long-term data set of geochemistry and flows across a gradient of coal mining in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada. This work is part of a broader R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that water from waste rock piles has an ionic profile distinct from unimpacted catchments. While the concentration of geochemicals increased with the degree of mine impact, the control of hydrological transport capacity over geochemical export did not vary with degree of mine impact. Geochemical export in mine-influenced catchments was limited more strongly by transport capacity than supply, implying that more water moving through the waste rock mobilized more geochemicals. Placement of waste rock within the catchment (headwaters or outlet) did not affect chemical concentrations but did alter the timing with which chemically distinct water mixed. This work advances on results reported earlier using empirical models of selenium loading and further highlights the importance of limiting water inputs into waste rock piles.

  8. Cross flow cyclonic flotation column for coal and minerals beneficiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, R.W.; Patton, R.A.

    2000-05-02

    An apparatus and process are disclosed for the separation of coal from pyritic impurities using a modified froth flotation system. The froth flotation column incorporates a helical track about the inner wall of the column in a region intermediate between the top and base of the column. A standard impeller located about the central axis of the column is used to generate a centrifugal force thereby increasing the separation efficiency of coal from the pyritic particles and hydrophilic tailings.

  9. Cross flow flotation column for coal and minerals beneficiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Ralph W.; Patton, Robert A.

    1997-12-01

    An apparatus and process are disclosed for the separation of coal from pyritic impurities using a modified froth flotation system. The froth flotation column incorporates a helical track about the inner wall of the column in a region intermediate between the top and base of the column. A standard impeller located about the central axis of the column is used to generate a centrifugal force thereby increasing the separation efficiency of coal from the pyritic particles and hydrophilic tailings.

  10. Cross flow cyclonic flotation column for coal and minerals beneficiation

    DOEpatents

    Lai, Ralph W.; Patton, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and process for the separation of coal from pyritic impurities using a modified froth flotation system. The froth flotation column incorporates a helical track about the inner wall of the column in a region intermediate between the top and base of the column. A standard impeller located about the central axis of the column is used to generate a centrifugal force thereby increasing the separation efficiency of coal from the pyritic particles and hydrophillic tailings.

  11. Respiratory symptoms and spirometry in experienced coal miners: effects of both distant and recent coal mine dust exposures.

    PubMed

    Henneberger, P K; Attfield, M D

    1997-09-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether respiratory symptoms were associated with the lower concentrations of respirable coal mine dust that were required by the U.S. Coal Mine Health and Safety Act (CMHSA) of 1969. The subjects were 1,866 male miners who had participated in the National Study of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis (NSCWP) and been tested at least twice, initially in either Round 1 (R1) (1969-71) or Round 2 (R2) (1972-75) and then finally in Round 4 (R4) (1985-88). Self-reported information elicited with a standardized questionnaire was used to determine the presence at the final round (i.e., R4) of chronic bronchitis, shortness of breath, and wheeze. Cumulative coal mine dust exposure was characterized for both the pre- and post-CMHSA periods. Controlling for age and other potential confounders, increased risks for the symptoms were associated with higher levels of both measurements of exposure. Moreover, the adverse effects of the lower, post-CMHSA exposure were evident for shortness of breath and wheeze especially among subjects who had little pre-CMHSA coal mining experience. These findings provide additional evidence of the limitations of the current 2.0 mg/m3 coal mine dust standard to prevent respiratory disease.

  12. Respiratory predictors of disability days: a five year prospective study of U. S. coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, R.G.; Trent, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    A 5-year prospective analysis tests the hypothesis that coal miners who have impaired respiratory health also experience greater numbers of disability days due to occupational injury. Occupational and respiratory health information collected for the period 1977 through 1981 by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) on 1,118 U.S. underground coal miners was linked to coal miner injury records collected under a mandatory reporting system by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). Respiratory impairment, based on spirometric measures, and a questionnaire measure of chronic bronchitis symptoms, after adjustment for cigarette smoking and total years of underground mining, did not provide statistically significant prediction of average disability days. In addition, respiratory impairment did not predict the number of episodes of occupational injuries resulting in days lost from work.

  13. SUBMICROSCOPIC ( less than 1 mu m) MINERAL CONTENTS OF VITRINITES IN SELECTED BITUMINOUS COAL BEDS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minkin, J.A.; Chao, E.C.T.; Thompson, C.L.; Wandless, M.-V.; Dulong, F.T.; Larson, R.R.; Neuzil, S.G.; ,

    1983-01-01

    An important aspect of the petrographic description of coal is the characterization of coal quality, including chemical attributes. For geologic investigations, data on the concentrations, distribution, and modes of occurrence of minor and trace elements provide a basis for reconstructing the probable geochemical environment of the swamp material that was converted into peat, and the geochemical conditions that prevailed during and subsequent to coalification. We have been using electron (EPMA) and proton (PIXE) microprobe analytical methods to obtain data on the chemical characteristics of specific coal constituents in their original associations within coal samples. The present study is aimed at evaluation of the nature of mineral occurrences and heterogeneous elemental concentrations within vitrinites. Vitrinites are usually the most abundant, and therefore most important, maceral group in bituminous coal. 8 refs.

  14. Prevalence and associated factors of depressive symptoms among Chinese underground coal miners.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Wang, Lie; Chen, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Although underground coal miners are quite susceptible to depressive symptoms due to a highly risky and stressful working environment, few studies have focused on this issue. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and to explore its associated factors in this population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a coal-mining population in northeast China. A set of self-administered questionnaires was distributed to 2500 underground coal miners (1,936 effective respondents). Depressive symptoms, effort-reward imbalance (ERI), overcommitment (OC), perceived physical environment (PPE), work-family conflict (WFC), and some demographic and working characteristics were measured anonymously. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 62.8%, and the mean level was 20.00 (9.99). Hierarchical linear regression showed that marital status, education, monthly income, and weekly working time were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. A high level of depressive symptoms was significantly associated with high ERI, PPE, WFC, and OC. Accordingly, most Chinese underground coal miners probably have depressive symptoms that are mainly predicted by some occupational psychosocial factors. Efforts should be made to develop strategies to reduce ERI and OC, improve physical working environment, and care for workers' family well-being, thereby mitigating the risk of depression among Chinese underground coal miners.

  15. Blood antioxidant enzymes as markers of exposure or effect in coal miners.

    PubMed Central

    Perrin-Nadif, R; Auburtin, G; Dusch, M; Porcher, J M; Mur, J M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate if blood Cu++/Zn++ superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and total plasma antioxidant activities could be markers of biological activity resulting from exposure to respirable coal mine dust in active miners, and of pneumoconiosis in retired miners. METHODS--Blood samples were randomly obtained from active surface workers (n = 30) and underground miners (n = 34), and from retired miners without (n = 21), and with (n = 33) pneumoconiosis. Antioxidant enzyme activities and total plasma antioxidants were measured in erythrocytes and plasma. Non-parametric tests were completed by analyses of covariance to compare antioxidants between groups, taking into account potential confounding factors (age, smoking history (pack-years)). RESULTS--Erythrocyte Cu++/Zn++ superoxide dismutase activity was significantly higher in the group of underground miners than the group of surface workers. The differences in total plasma antioxidants and plasma glutathione peroxidase activity between both groups were related to age. Glutathione peroxidase activity increased in the plasma of retired miners with pneumoconiosis, compared with retired miners without pneumoconiosis. No differences were found either in erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities or in total plasma antioxidants between the groups of retired miners without and with pneumoconiosis. CONCLUSIONS--In this study, erythrocyte Cu++/Zn++ superoxide dismutase activity may be considered as a marker of effect of respirable coal mine dust in exposed workers. This result is in agreement with the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species are involved in cell injury induced by coal mine dust, and may be predictive of the degree of inflammation and pneumoconiosis induced by coal mine dust. The increase in glutathione peroxidase activity in the plasma of retired miners with pneumoconiosis may be the result of a response to the increasing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production due to the disease

  16. Nitrogen mineralization from sludge in an alkaline, saline coal gasification ash environment.

    PubMed

    Mbakwe, Ikenna; De Jager, Pieter C; Annandale, John G; Matema, Taurai

    2013-01-01

    Rehabilitating coal gasification ash dumps by amendment with waste-activated sludge has been shown to improve the physical and chemical properties of ash and to facilitate the establishment of vegetation. However, mineralization of organic N from sludge in such an alkaline and saline medium and the effect that ash weathering has on the process are poorly understood and need to be ascertained to make decisions regarding the suitability of this rehabilitation option. This study investigated the rate and pattern of N mineralization from sludge in a coal gasification ash medium to determine the prevalent inorganic N form in the system and assess the effect of ash weathering on N mineralization. An incubation experiment was performed in which fresh ash, weathered ash, and soil were amended with the equivalent of 90 Mg ha sludge, and N mineralization was evaluated over 63 d. More N (24%) was mineralized in fresh ash than in weathered ash and soil, both of which mineralized 15% of the initial organic N in sludge. More nitrification occurred in soil, and most of the N mineralized in ash was in the form of ammonium, indicating an inhibition of nitrifying organisms in the ash medium and suggesting that, at least initially, plants used for rehabilitation of coal gasification ash dumps will take up N mostly as ammonium.

  17. A prospective cohort study among new Chinese coal miners: the early pattern of lung function change

    PubMed Central

    Wang, M; Wu, Z; Du, Q; Petsonk, E; Peng, K; Li, Y; Li, S; Han, G; Atffield, M

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the early pattern of longitudinal change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) among new Chinese coal miners, and the relation between coal mine dust exposure and the decline of lung function. Methods: The early pattern of lung function changes in 317 newly hired Chinese underground coal miners was compared to 132 referents. This three year prospective cohort study involved a pre-employment and 15 follow up health surveys, including a questionnaire and spirometry tests. Twice a month, total and respirable dust area sampling was done. The authors used a two stage analysis and a linear mixed effects model approach to analyse the longitudinal spirometry data, and to investigate the changes in FEV1 over time, controlling for age, height, pack years of smoking, mean respirable dust concentration, the room temperature during testing, and the groupxtime interaction terms. Results: FEV1 change over time in new miners is non-linear. New miners experience initial rapid FEV1 declines, primarily during the first year of mining, little change during the second year, and partial recovery during the third year. Both linear and quadratic time trends in FEV1 change are highly significant. Smoking miners lost more FEV1 than non-smokers. Referents, all age less than 20 years, showed continued lung growth, whereas the miners who were under age 20 exhibited a decline in FEV1. Conclusion: Dust and smoking affect lung function in young, newly hired Chinese coal miners. FEV1 change over the first three years of employment is non-linear. The findings have implications for both methods and interpretation of medical screening in coal mining and other dusty work: during the first several years of employment more frequent testing may be desirable, and caution is required in interpreting early FEV1 declines. PMID:16234407

  18. Expression of Hsp27 and Hsp70 in lymphocytes and plasma in healthy workers and coal miners with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haijiao; Xing, Jingcai; Wang, Feng; Han, Wenhui; Ren, Houmao; Wu, Tangchun; Chen, Weihong

    2010-08-01

    In coal mines, main occupational hazard is coal-mine dust, which can cause health problem including coal workers' pneumoconiosis and lung cancer. Some heat shock proteins (Hsps) have been reported as an acute response to a wide variety of stressful stimuli. Whether Hsps protect against chronic environmental coal-mine dust over years is unknown. It is also interesting to know that whether the expression of Hsp27 and Hsp70 proteins as a marker for exposure is associated risk of lung cancer among coal miners. We investigated the association between levels of Hsp27 and Hsp70 expression in lymphocytes and plasma and levels of coal-mine dust exposure in workplace or risk of lung cancer in 42 cancer-free non-coal miners, 99 cancer-free coal miners and 51 coal miners with lung cancer in Taiyuan city in China. The results showed that plasma Hsp27 levels were increased in coal miners compared to non-coal miners (P<0.01). Except high cumulative coal-mine dust exposure (OR=13.62, 95%CI=6.05-30.69) and amount of smoking higher than 24 pack-year (OR=2.72, 95% CI=1.37-5.42), the elevated levels of plasma Hsp70 (OR=13.00, 95% CI=5.14-32.91) and plasma Hsp27 (OR=2.97, 95% CI=1.40-6.32) and decreased expression of Hsp70 in lymphocytes (OR=2.36, 95% CI=1.05-5.31) were associated with increased risk of lung cancer. These findings suggest that plasma Hsp27 may be a potential marker for coal-mine dust exposure. And the expression of Hsp27 and Hsp70 levels in plasma and lymphocytes may be used as biomarkers for lung cancer induced by occupational coal-mine dust exposure.

  19. Coal miner responses to the personal dust monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Vaught, C.; Peters, R.; Hall, E.; Volkwein, J.

    2008-04-15

    The personal dust monitor (PDM) and its use by miners is described. With the PDM, miners will be provided with near real time dust exposure during their work shift, enabling individuals and management to be more proactive in preventing over exposure. 2 figs.

  20. Investigation into groundwater recovery and backfill consolidation in British surface coal mines

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R.N.; Reed, S.M.; Denby, B.; Hughes, D.B.

    1985-12-09

    The paper presents the instrumentation and results from an investigation into groundwater recovery and backfill consolidation conducted in the United Kingdom. British surface mining often requires the removal of roads or other structures which must be replaced on the cessation of backfilling. It is imperative for successful reconstruction that degrees of surface settlement be evaluated and thus precautions against structural damage may taken. Methods of working and geological characteristics of the backfills investigated are also detailed. An outline of research being carried out with respect to groundwater pollution from mine backfills is presented.

  1. Trace element abundances in major minerals of Late Permian coals from southwestern Guizhou province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Jiahua; Ren, D.; Zheng, C.; Zeng, R.; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen samples of minerals were separated by handpicking from Late Permian coals in southwestern Guizhou province, China. These 14 minerals were nodular pyrite, massive recrystallized pyrite, pyrite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid and from ground water; clay minerals; and calcite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid and from ground water. The mineralogy, elemental composition, and distribution of 33 elements in these samples were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and ion-selective electrode (ISE). The results show that various minerals in coal contain variable amounts of trace elements. Clay minerals have high concentrations of Ba, Be, Cs, F, Ga, Nb, Rb, Th, U, and Zr. Quartz has little contribution to the concentration of trace elements in bulk coal. Arsenic, Mn, and Sr are in high concentrations in calcite. Pyrite has high concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Mo, Sb, Se, Tl, and Zn. Different genetic types of calcite in coal can accumulate different trace elements; for example Ba, Co, Cr, Hg, Ni, Rb, Sn, Sr, and Zn are in higher concentrations in calcite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid than in that deposited from ground water. Furthermore, the concentrations of some trace elements are quite variable in pyrite; different genetic types of pyrites (Py-A, B, C, D) have different concentrations of trace elements, and the concentrations of trace elements are also different in pyrite of low-temperature hydrothermal origin collected from different locations. The study shows that elemental concentration is rather uniform in a pyrite vein. There are many micron and submicron mosaic pyrites in a pyrite vein, which is enriched in some trace elements, such as As and Mo. The

  2. ELECTROSTATIC SURFACE STRUCTURES OF COAL AND MINERAL PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This is the third semi-annual, technical progress report for this project. The following items are covered in the report: (1) Progress on the development of an instrument to perform ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, UPS, on surfaces in air. (2) Further development plans for the video particle image analyzer. (3) Calculations on the effect of space charge on the electric field inside a separator. (4) Outreach education involving two Arkansas high school students in the project. (5) Additional data on the effects of processing atmosphere on beneficiation. Included in the last section is a description of planned experiments using charged, fluorescent, polystyrene micro-particles to map the charge distribution on the larger coal particles and on polished coal surfaces.

  3. Farewell, king coal!

    PubMed

    Seaton, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    Coal mining provided the power for the industrial development of the West, at great cost to the health of the workforce and, from industrial pollution, of the population. Medical appreciation of the diseases of miners was slow to develop and has been marked by controversy relating to the roles of coal and quartz and the causation of emphysema. Research by the MRC and the British coal industry resolved these issues as the industry itself declined. However, from the research has come an understanding of the influence of inhalation of different inhaled pollutants on human health that has been applied to predicting and preventing possible hazards of developing nanotechnologies.

  4. Effect of the bioemulsifier emulsan on naphthalene mineralization from coal tar in aqueous systems

    SciTech Connect

    Skubal, K.L.; Luthy, R.G.

    1994-09-01

    Coal tar in aerobic aqueous systems was treated with purified emulsan, the anionic heteropolysaccharide bioemulsifier produced by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1; with inocula of various concentrations of stationary phase RAG-1 cells; or with cell-free broth from stationary phase RAG-1 cultures. Naphthalene mineralization by a mixed PAH-degrading population was measured by recovering {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolved during biotransformation of the [{sup 14}C]naphthalene-labeled coal tar. There was no evidence of naphthalene mineralization by RAG- 1 cells alone. The addition of emulsan, RAG-1 inocula, or cell-free broth to systems containing the PAH-degrading population did not significantly affect naphthalene mineralization in any of the systems tested. Coal tar in these experiments was present either as a free dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), or as DNAPL imbibed into microporous silica particles. Emulsification of the tar was not observed in either case. The presence or absence of microporous silica did not affect the extent or rate of naphthalene mineralization, nor did the concentration of RAG-1 inocula or the amount of broth added. The addition of cell-free broth, emulsan, or RAG-1 cells late in the experiments did not yield significantly different results compared to initial addition of these substances. Thus, emulsan and related fractions from RAG-1 cultures were ineffective in altering naphthalene mineralization in this study.

  5. Plasma levels of soluble tumour necrosis factor receptors are increased in coal miners with pneumoconiosis.

    PubMed

    Schins, R P; Borm, P J

    1995-10-01

    Among other cytokines, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is considered to play a key role in the development of mineral dust related fibrosis. Previously, we showed that ex-vivo release of TNF by peripheral blood monocytes is a marker for progression of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). Since soluble TNF receptors (sTNF-Rs) are believed to play an important regulatory role in systemic effects of TNF, we measured plasma levels of sTNF-R55 and sTNF-R75 in coal miners with (n = 28) or without (n = 76) CWP and in nonexposed controls (n = 29). sTNF-R75 levels were significantly increased in miners with CWP (2.09 +/- 0.44 ng.mL-1) versus the nonexposed controls (1.86 +/- 0.23 ng.mL-1). Neither sTNF-R55 nor sTNF-R75 were related to exposure, stage of pneumoconiosis, smoking, or (spontaneous or ex-vivo induced) monocyte TNF-release. sTNF-R55 was increased in subjects with medication (especially those using cardiovascular drugs); upon exclusion of these subjects, sTNF-R55 was found also to be significantly increased in CWP. In conclusion, bearing in mind a confounding effect of medication, soluble TNF receptors are elevated in plasma of retired miners with coal workers' pneumoconiosis. These observations further support the important role of TNF-mediated pathways in the pathogenesis of mineral dust related fibrosis.

  6. Injury experience in nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal), 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, R.B; Hugler, E.C.

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal) in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  7. Injury experience in nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal), 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal) in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  8. Role of non-ferrous coal minerals and by-product metallic wastes in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, 1 March 1980-31 May 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, D; Schweighardt, F K; Givens, E N; Clinton, J H; Tarrer, A R; Guin, J A; Curtis, C W; Huang, S M

    1980-06-01

    This report describes work done in a study of the role of coal minerals and by-product metallic wastes in coal liquefaction. The thermal behavior of various minerals and metallic by-product wastes was evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis in the presence of hydrogen, nitrogen, and air. The CPDU was operated for 220 hours to obtain baseline data and provide information on the catalytic activity of Robena pyrite in solvent hydrogenation and coal liquefaction. A number of minerals were screened for catalytic activity toward coal liquefaction in a tubing-bomb reactor. The catalytic activity of the minerals was assessed by comparing the product distributions both in the presence of minerals and their absence. The use of a Bronson Sonifier was initiated in March to accelerate and improve the solvent separation technique. The addition of lime to the reaction mixture practically killed the liquefaction reaction. The addition of dolomite, rutile, illite, quartz, zircon, and calcite to the reaction mixture showed no significant improvement over that of a no additive run. The addition of zinc oxide and ilmenite showed slight improvement. Robena pyrite and Co-Mo-Al showed significant improvement in coal conversion and production of benzene solubles and gases. Iron oxide (Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/) gave the highest conversion of coal and production of benzene solubles among all the minerals tested so far.

  9. Development of advanced capitalism: a case study of retired coal miners in southern West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Legeay, S.P.

    1980-01-01

    This dissertation develops a critical analysis of changes in American society during the last fifty years. It is focused in particular on the southern West Virginia coal fields, and examines the changes in class structure (specifically, coal miners), the labor process, the union, class consciousness, community and leisure. The study is grounded within a theoretical perspective that is dialectical. It is concerned with the interaction between specific social categories (such as the union) and the greater whole of capitalist development. It is centrally concerned with continuing a research orientation to which the Frankfurt School gave a powerful contribution: the development of advanced capitalism in the modern epoch. The study utilizes life-history interviews with retired coal miners, almost all of whom had experience with the exploitive company towns of an earlier time. Thus, techniques for the study of oral history are instrumental in developing an analysis of social developments, inasmuch as they provide data appropriate for an analysis of the transformation from early to late capitalism. Finally, this dissertation examines a problem central to dialectical theory, that of the relation between theory and praxis, by approaching the life histories as exemplifications of collective (i.e., social) experience. It integrates the biographical experience of individual miners with the theoretical dimensions of political economy in early and late capitalism. The current crisis in the coal fields is examined, with a view to possible transformation.

  10. Understanding the chemical properties of macerals and minerals in coal and its potential application for occupational lung disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xi; Finkelman, Robert B

    2008-01-01

    Recent increases in oil price further strengthen the argument that coal and coal products will play an increasingly important role in fulfilling the energy needs of our society. Coal is an aggregate of heterogeneous substances composed of organic (macerals) and inorganic (minerals) materials. The objective of this review was to assess whether some chemical parameters in coal play a role in producing environmental health problems. Basic properties of coal--such as chemical forms of the organic materials, structure, compositions of minerals--vary from one coal mine region to another as well as from coals of different ranks. Most importantly, changes in chemical properties of coals due to exposure to air and humidity after mining--a dynamic process--significantly affect toxicity attributed to coal and environmental fate. Although coal is an extremely complex and heterogeneous material, the fundamental properties of coal responsible for environmental and adverse health problems are probably related to the same inducing components of coal. For instance, oxidation of pyrite (FeS2) in the coal forms iron sulfate and sulfuric acid, which produces occupational lung diseases (e.g., pneumoconiosis) and other environmental problems (e.g., acid mine drainage and acid rain). Calcite (CaCO3) contained in certain coals alters the end products of pyrite oxidation, which may make these coals less toxic to human inhalation and less hazardous to environmental pollution. Finally, knowledge gained on understanding of the chemical properties of coals is illustrated to apply for prediction of toxicity due to coal possibly before large-scale mining and prevention of occupational lung disease during mining.

  11. Understanding the chemical properties of macerals and minerals in coal and its potential application for occupational lung disease prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, X.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this review was to assess whether some chemical parameters in coal play a role in producing environmental health problems. Basic properties of coal - such as chemical forms of the organic materials, structure, compositions of minerals - vary from one coal mine region to another as well as from coals of different ranks. Most importantly, changes in chemical properties of coals due to exposure to air and humidity after mining - a dynamic process - significantly affect toxicity attributed to coal and environmental fate. Although coal is an extremely complex and heterogeneous material, the fundamental properties of coal responsible for environmental and adverse health problems are probably related to the same inducing components of coal. For instance, oxidation of pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) in the coal forms iron sulfate and sulfuric acid, which produces occupational lung diseases (e.g., pneumoconiosis) and other environmental problems (e.g., acid mine drainage and acid rain). Calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) contained in certain coals alters the end products of pyrite oxidation, which may make these coals less toxic to human inhalation and less hazardous to environmental pollution. Finally, knowledge gained on understanding of the chemical properties of coals is illustrated to apply for prediction of toxicity due to coal possibly before large-scale mining and prevention of occupational lung disease during mining.

  12. Ventilatory function of progressive massive fibrosis among bituminous coal miners in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shieh-Ching; Yang, Sze-Piao

    2003-05-01

    Geographic and ethnic differences exist for the effects of respirable coal-mine dust on the lung function of miners. In this study, the authors compared 177 coal workers who had radiological evidence of progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) with 87 healthy male control subjects. The authors performed maximal expiratory flow volume measurements, single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLco) measurements, and arterial blood gas analysis on each subject. The data revealed that miners with early PMF (category A) had significantly reduced, but well-preserved, vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1.0), whereas FEV1.0/VC and DLco were decreased in both nonsmokers and smokers. Abnormally low (i.e., < 80% of predicted values) VC and FEV1.0, and further decreases in DLco, were observed in miners with late PMF (categories B and C). The predominant impairment patterns for workers in categories A, B, and C were obstructive, obstructive and mixed, and mixed and restrictive, respectively. Smoking increased the magnitude of airway obstruction. The authors concluded that diversity in functional impairment was present among bituminous coal miners, even among those with PMF.

  13. Dust exposure, respiratory symptoms, and longitudinal decline of lung function in young coal miners.

    PubMed Central

    Carta, P; Aru, G; Barbieri, M T; Avataneo, G; Casula, D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the role of dust exposure on incidence of respiratory symptoms and decline of lung function in young coal miners. METHODS: The loss of lung function (forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory flow (MEF), carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO)) with time and the incidence of respiratory symptoms in 909 Sardinian coal miners (followed up between 1983 and 1993 with seven separate surveys) has been compared with the past and current individual exposures to respirable mixed coal dust. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used simultaneously controlling for age, smoking, past occupational exposures, and other relevant covariates. RESULTS: According to the relatively low dust exposures experienced during the follow up few abnormal chest x ray films were detected. In the cross sectional analysis of initial data, significant associations between individual cumulative exposure to dust, decrements in FEV1 and MEFs, and increasing prevalence of respiratory symptoms were detected after allowing for the covariates included in the model. The yearly decline of FVC, FEV1, and single breath carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO/VA) was still significantly related to the individual exposure to dust experienced during the follow up, even after allowing for age, smoking, initial cumulative exposure to dust, and initial level of each functional variable. In logistic models, dust exposure was a significant predictor of the onset of respiratory symptoms besides age and smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that even moderate exposures to mixed coal dust, as in our study, significantly affect lung function and incidence of symptoms of underground miners. Although the frequency of chest x ray examination might be fixed at every three or four years, yearly measurements of lung function (spirometry, MEFs, and TLCO) are recommended for evaluation of the respiratory risk from the coal mine environment to

  14. Solid by-products of coal combustion: Fly ash as a source of industrial minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Bhagwat, S.B.; Rapp, D.M.; Bukowski, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Fly ash is one of the most important by-products of coal combustion. It is a complex mix of cenospheres, reactive glasses, magnetite and carbon, in addition to minor quantities of other minerals. Fly ash components are determined by the type of coal, the combustion technology, material collection system and the temperature of combustion. The changing mix of coal burned in power plants is increasingly making the fly ash characteristics independent of the locally mined coal. Fly ash is thus becoming a raw material independent of the existence of a local coal mining industry. Currently, about 65 million tons of fly ash are generated annually in the United States. This is equivalent to the crushed stone production of such highly industrialized states as Illinois. Only about twenty percent of the total fly ash are currently used, mostly in low value applications such as road building materials and concrete additions. The fly ash currently represents an environmental and financial liability to electric utilities. The increasingly competitive and boundaryless electricity market in the US increases the incentive to look at fly ash in terms of its individual components and recognize their potential as industrial minerals in the production of value added materials. For example, zeolites and other adsorbents could be produced from reactive glasses, magnetite could be used in pigments and ferrite manufacture, activated carbon could serve in pollution control and cenospheres could be used to make lightweight ceramics. If one begins to look at fly ash as a source of industrial minerals and not as a waste product, this change in perspective could turn a financial and environmental liability into an economic opportunity.

  15. Mineralization Of PAHs In Coal-Tar Impacted Aquifer Sediments And Associated Microbial Community Structure Investigated With FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial community structure and mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a coal-tar contaminated aquifer were investigated spatially using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and in laboratory-scale incubations of the aquifer sediments. DAPI-detect...

  16. [Blood plasma level of endothelin in miners of a deep coal mine].

    PubMed

    Plotkin, V Ia; Rebrov, B A; Nikitina, I V

    2000-09-01

    In 60 miners working in a deep coal mine the blood plasma level of endoteline-1 (E-1) was measured by the immunoenzyme technique immediately after working shift. Those in the mining where the working conditions are especially harsh were found to have the highest level of E-1 exceeding the control values. In studying the age-related content of E-1 in blood plasma of coal miners the highest levels of E-1 were recordable in workers 20 to 30 years old, declining and differing in age groups 20-30 and 41-50 years old. The level of E-1 was at its greatest in those workers with minimum length of service in the underground conditions, declining with the service more than 10 years in duration.

  17. Physiological strain of miners at hot working places in German coal mines.

    PubMed

    Kalkowsky, Bernhard; Kampmann, Bernhard

    2006-07-01

    As the percentage of shifts in hot working conditions in German Coal mines had increased to more than 50% during the last decade, a study was carried out to record the physiological strain of miners. Thirty-eight miners participated during 125 shifts. Heart rate and rectal temperature were measured continuously. Sweat losses as well as food and fluid uptake were estimated from measurements before and after shifts. During all shifts mean heart rates resulted in 102.8 min(-1), mean rectal temperature was 37.7 degrees C. Mean sweat loss per shift was 3,436 g; mean sweat rates resulted in 494 g/h. Rehydration during the shift at high climatic stress decreased to about 60% of sweat losses. In order to state the organizational frame of work at hot working places in German coal mines, the main features of regulations of work at hot working places are presented.

  18. The iron mineral changes occurring in lignite coal during gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waanders, F. B.

    2013-04-01

    Representative lignite and gasified material samples were retrieved form a cooled down gasifier. The samples were taken at various heights in the gasifier that operated on lignite, under stable conditions. The proximate analyses, ash composition and temperature in the gasifier were determined according to standard procedures. The main minerals found in the present investigation were bassanite, illite, quartz, kaolinite, calcite and the only iron bearing mineral was found to be pyrite. The trend in the estimated particle surface temperature profile shows an increase in the drying, pyrolysis, gasification and combustion zones from about 300 °C to just over 900 °C. About 1/3 down the gasifier, an average particle temperature of about 400 °C and particle surface temperature of about 600 °C was measured where pyrite conversion started. About 2/3 down the gasifier, where an average temperature of about 700 °C and particle surface temperature of about 900 °C was measured, all the pyrite was converted and in the bottom part of the gasifier, oxidation of the iron started to play a role and hematite and an iron containing glass formed at an average temperature of > 800 °C and surface temperature of 900 °C.

  19. Mineral matter and potentially hazardous trace elements in coals from Qianxi Fault Depression Area in southwestern Guizhou, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Jiahua; Ren, D.; Zhu, Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Zeng, R.; Zheng, B.

    2004-01-01

    Mineralogy, coal chemistry and 21 potentially hazardous trace elements (PHTEs) of 44 coal samples from the Qianxi Fault Depression Area (QFDA) in southwestern Guizhou province, China have been systematically studied. The major minerals in coals studied are quartz, kaolinite, illite, pyrite, calcite, smectite, marcasite and accessory minerals, including rutile, dolomite, siderite, gypsum, chlorite, melanterite, apatite, collophane and florencite. The SiO2 content shows a broad variation (0.8-30.7%). A high SiO2 content in Late Permian coals reflects their enrichment in quartz. The Al2O3 content varies from 0.8% to 13.4%, Fe2O3 from 0.2% to 14.6%, CaO from Al>K>Ti>Na>Mg>Ca>Fe>S. A comparison with World coal averages shows that the Late Permian coals in QFDA are highly enriched in As, Hg, F and U, and are slightly enriched in Mo, Se, Th, V and Zn. The Late Triassic coals in QFDA are highly enriched in As and Hg, and are slightly enriched in Mo, Th and U. The concentrations of As, Hg, Mo, Se, Tl and Zn in the QFDA coal are higher than other Guizhou coal and Liupanshui coal nearby. The QFDA is an area strongly affected by the low-temperature hydrothermal activity during its geologic history (Yanshanian Age, about 189 Ma). The coals in QFDA are enriched in volatile PHTEs, including As, Hg, Se, Sb, Mo, among others. The regions where the coals are enriched in As, Hg and F have been mapped. The regions of coals enriched in volatile PHTEs overlap with the regions of noble metal ore deposits. These coals are located in the cores of anticline and anticlinorium, which are connected with the profound faults through the normal faults. Coals are enriched in volatile PHTEs as a result of the low-temperature hydrothermal activity associated with tectonic faulting. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Clearance of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol from coal miners' lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Susskind, H.; Brill, A.B.; Harold, W.H.

    1985-07-01

    Alterations in regional epithelial permeability were assessed in 22 retired West Virginia coal miners' lungs by measuring the clearance of inhaled 0.5-..mu..m Tc-99m DTPA aerosol. Activity was measured in both lungs and in regions of interest placed over the lung periphery in the apical, middle, and basal portions of each lung. Clearance rates (T/sub 1/2/) for 5 nonsmokers, 8 ex-smokers, and 9 smokers were significantly faster than for comparable subjects measured elsewhere, who were not coal miners. Regional apex-to-base distributions of DTPA were measured as a function of clearance time and compared with regional ventilation and perfusion. Regional, as well as overall lung clearance curves of 8 smokers and 4 ex-smokers had two components, with overall T/sub 1/2/ of <7 min for the faster one. No correlations were found between T/sub 1/2/ and DLCO or with P(A-a)O/sub 2/. The results of our study suggest that measurement of DTPA clearance is a potentially useful noninvasive technique to assess lung injury in miners exposed to coal dust. 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Contributions of dust exposure and cigarette smoking to emphysema severity in coal miners in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Kuempel, E.D.; Wheeler, M.W.; Smith, R.J.; Vallyathan, V.; Green, F.H.Y.

    2009-08-15

    Previous studies have shown associations between dust exposure or lung burden and emphysema in coal miners, although the separate contributions of various predictors have not been clearly demonstrated. The objective was to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust, cigarette smoking, and other factors on emphysema severity. The study group included 722 autopsied coal miners and nonminers in the United States. Data on work history, smoking, race, and age at death were obtained from medical records and questionnaire completed by next-of-kin. Emphysema was classified and graded using a standardized schema. Job-specific mean concentrations of respirable coal mine dust were matched with work histories to estimate cumulative exposure. Relationships between various metrics of dust exposure (including cumulative exposure and lung dust burden) and emphysema severity were investigated in weighted least squares regression models. Emphysema severity was significantly elevated in coal miners compared with nonminers among ever- and never-smokers (P < 0.0001). Cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust or coal dust retained in the lungs were significant predictors of emphysema severity (P < 0.0001) after accounting for cigarette smoking, age at death, and race. The contributions of coal mine dust exposure and cigarette smoking were similar in predicting emphysema severity averaged over this cohort. Coal dust exposure, cigarette smoking, age, and race are significant and additive predictors of emphysema severity in this study.

  2. Mortality among US underground coal miners: A 23-year follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Attfield, M.D.; Kuempel, E.D.

    2008-03-15

    The mortality experience over 22-24 years of 8,899 working coal miners initially medically examined in 1969-1971 at 31 U.S. coal mines was evaluated. A cohort life-table analysis was undertaken on underlying causes of death, and proportional hazards models were fitted to both underlying, and underlying and contributing causes of death. Elevated mortality from nonviolent causes, nonmalignant respiratory disease (NMRD), and accidents was observed, but lung cancer and stomach cancer mortality were not elevated. Smoking, pneumoconiosis, coal rank region, and cumulative coal mine dust exposure were all predictors of mortality from nonviolent causes and NMRD. Mortality from nonviolent causes and NMRD was related to dust exposure within the complete cohort and also for the never smoker subgroup. Dust exposure relative risks for mortality were similar for pneumoconiosis, NMRD, and chronic airways obstruction. The findings confirm and enlarge upon previous results showing that exposure to coal mine dust leads to increased mortality, even in the absence of smoking.

  3. Comparative study of the influence of minerals in gas sorption isotherms of three coals of similar rank

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, C.; Inheiro, H.J.; de Sousa, M.J.L.

    2008-07-15

    This investigation compares the gas adsorption behaviour and capacity of three bituminous coals from South Africa, of similar rank, by assessing the characteristics of the raw coal, as well as the resulting float and sink fractions (at 1.80 cm{sup 3}/g) obtained by density separation of crushed coal samples. Calculations were also made to obtain the raw coal gas storage capacity from the weighted contribution of both float and sink fractions results, thereby permitting comparison with the analysed results of the raw coal. The study demonstrated that the clean fraction of a coal has the highest capacity to retain gas in the sorbed state, followed by raw coal, and lastly the sink fraction, and re-confirmed previous investigations that showed minerals to be inhibitors of gas adsorption and retention.

  4. Mineral resources of the Coal Canyon, Spruce Canyon, and Flume Canyon Wilderness Study Areas, Grand county, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, R.P.; Gaccetta, J.D.; Kulik, D.M.; Kreidler, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the Coal Canyon, Spruce Canyon, and Flume Canyon Wilderness Study Areas in the Book and Roan Cliffs in Grand Country, Utah, approximately 12 miles west of the Colorado state line. The wilderness study areas consist of a series of deep, stair-step-sided canyons and high ridges eroded into the flatlying sedimentary rocks of the Book Cliffs. Demonstrated coal reserves totaling 22,060,800 short tons and demonstrated subeconomic coal resources totaling 39,180,000 short tons are in the Coal Canyon Wilderness Study Area. Also, inferred subeconomic coal resources totaling 143,954,000 short tons are within the Coal Canyon Wilderness Study Area. No known deposits of industrial minerals are in any of the study area. All three of the wilderness study areas have a high resource potential for undiscovered deposits of coal and for undiscovered oil and gas.

  5. Impact of arterial blood gas analysis in disability evaluation of the bituminous coal miner with simple pneumoconiosis

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, C.L.; Roy, T.M.; Dow, F.T.; Anderson, W.H. )

    1992-04-01

    The Department of Labor has set guidelines for the use of resting arterial blood gas analysis in determination of total and permanent disability for coal workers' pneumoconiosis. To determine the prevalence with which bituminous coal miners fall below the arterial tensions of both oxygen and carbon dioxide published in the Federal Register, we studied 1012 miners who had both reproducible spirometry and arterial blood gas analysis as part of their disability evaluation. Eighty-seven percent of impaired miners could be identified by the spirometric criteria. Thirteen percent of impaired bituminous coal miners had acceptable pulmonary function but were eligible for black lung benefits by the blood gas guidelines. This population would have been missed if blood gas analysis were excluded from the evaluation process. On the other hand, approximately 25% of the blood gas analyses that were performed could be eliminated if a policy was adopted to do this test only on miners with spirometry that exceed the federal guidelines.

  6. Meanings of sex, concepts of risk and sexual practices among migrant coal miners in Quang Ninh, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van Tuan, Ta

    2010-08-01

    The study explores the meanings of sex among migrant coal miners in Vietnam and identifies contextual factors influencing engagement in unsafe sexual practices. Findings reveal that sex carries a number of social meanings in the lives of migrant miners: sex is relaxation and reward for their risk and hard work; access to sex is an incentive for miners to continue working in the mine; sex strengthens identity and social networks; sex helps miners to affirm manhood, group membership and masculinity; and sex workers are confidants with whom they can share their problems. Facing accidents at work on a daily basis, miners are less inclined to worry about the long-term risks of HIV infection. In addition, being excluded from access to relevant information, miners feel distant from HIV infection. Findings suggest that interventions on sexual behaviour and practices should be sensitive to the concepts of risk and meanings of sex among migrant groups such as coal miners.

  7. Biopersistence of the mineral matter of coal mine dusts in silicotic human lungs: is there a preferential release of iron?

    PubMed Central

    Tourmann, J L; Kaufmann, R

    1994-01-01

    Toxic potency of quartz-containing dusts, including coal mine dusts, is usually inhibited by protective clay mineral layers on the surface of quartz particles. This investigation of 11 dusts recovered from lungs of coal miners with different silicosis grade shows that such layers persist during long-term contact with human lung tissues. On the other hand, the results suggest that an apparently preferential release of iron occurred in lungs with massive fibrosis. These preliminary results support the hypothesis of an iron-related harmfulness of coal mine dusts. PMID:7882948

  8. Mineral matter effects on char structural evolution and oxidation kinetics during coal char combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Lunden, M.; Yang, N.; Headley, T.; Shaddix, C.; Hardesty, D.

    1997-10-01

    The authors report on recent investigations of the evolution of char structure during carbon burnout and the role of mineral matter in determining this structure. Char samples collected in a carefully controlled laminar, flame-supported entrained flow reactor have been characterized using a number of microscopy tools. Observations of the inorganic structure of chars produced at a variety of combustion conditions are coupled with in-situ optical measurements of the char particle population with an eye towards identifying the mechanism of mineral interaction and its effects on carbon burnout kinetics during pulverized coal char combustion. Preliminary results show a surprising amount of inorganic mineral in solid solution with the carbonaceous matrix. This intimate mixing of organic and inorganic constituents may affect reactivity by both blocking oxygen access to active carbon sites and influencing the microscopic carbon structure that evolves during combustion.

  9. Role of non-ferrous coal minerals and by-product metallic wastes in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, December 1, 1979-February 29, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, D; Givens, E N; Clinton, J H; Tarrer, A R; Guin, J A; Curtis, C W; Huang, S M

    1980-03-01

    This report describes work done in study of the role of coal minerals and by-product metallic wastes in coal liquefaction. Samples of Elkhorn No. 3 coal (Letcher County, Kentucky), Robena pyrite and several minerals and metallic by-product waste were acquired. The thermal behavior of various minerals and metallic by-product wastes was evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) in the presence of hydrogen, nitrogen and air. The coal process development unit was operated for 220 hours to obtain baseline data and provide information on the catalytic activity of Robena pyrite in solvent hydrogenation and coal liquefaction. We established that the base line reaction conditions to evaluate the activity of the various minerals, metallic wastes and by-products will be a tubing-bomb reactor of 46.3 ml volume at a reaction temperature of 450/sup 0/C for reaction times of 60 minutes. The reduced pyrite, Robena pyrite and Siniola Mexico pyrite were found to give similar product distribution and coal conversion. The oil production in the cases of reduced pyrite and pyrite was 4 times higher than that of no-catalyst run. Iron oxide (Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/) was shown to give slightly higher coal conversion and oil production that pyrites and reduced pyrite. Presulfided Co-Mo-Al was found to give the highest coal conversion and oil production. The increase in oil production in the case of Co-Mo-Al was due to the conversion of both asphaltenes and preasphaltenes.

  10. Emphysema and pulmonary impairment in coal miners: Quantitative relationship with dust exposure and cigarette smoking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuempel, E. D.; Vallyathan, V.; Green, F. H. Y.

    2009-02-01

    Coal miners have been shown to be at increased risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases including emphysema. The objective of this study was to determine whether lifetime cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust is a significant predictor of developing emphysema at a clinically-relevant level of severity by the end of life, after controlling for cigarette smoking and other covariates. Clinically-relevant emphysema severity was determined from the association between individuals' lung function during life (forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV1, as a percentage of predicted normal values) and emphysema severity at autopsy (as the proportion of lung tissue affected). In a logistic regression model, cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust was a statistically significant predictor of developing clinically-relevant emphysema severity, among both ever-smokers and never-smokers. The odds ratio for developing emphysema associated with FEV1 <80% at the cohort mean cumulative coal dust exposure (87 mg/m3 x yr) was 2.30 (1.46-3.64, 95% confidence limits), and at the cohort mean cigarette smoking (among smokers: 42 pack-years) was 1.95 (1.39-2.79).

  11. Occupational airborne contamination in south Brazil: 1. Oxidative stress detected in the blood of coal miners.

    PubMed

    Avila Júnior, S; Possamai, F P; Budni, P; Backes, P; Parisotto, E B; Rizelio, V M; Torres, M A; Colepicolo, P; Wilhelm Filho, D

    2009-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species have been implicated in the pathogenesis of coal dust-induced toxicity. The present study investigated several oxidative stress biomarkers (Contents of lipoperoxidation = TBARS, reduced = GSH, oxidized = GSSG and total glutathione = TG, alpha-tocopherol, and the activities of glutathione S-transferase = GST, glutathione reductase = GR, glutathione peroxidase = GPx, catalase = CAT and superoxide dismutase = SOD), in the blood of three different groups (n = 20 each) exposed to airborne contamination associated with coal mining activities: underground workers directly exposed, surface workers indirectly exposed, residents indirectly exposed (subjects living near the mines), and controls (non-exposed subjects). Plasma TBARS were increased and whole blood TG and GSH levels were decreased in all groups compared to controls. Plasma alpha-tocopherol contents showed approximately half the values in underground workers compared to controls. GST activity was induced in workers and also in residents at the vicinity of the mining plant, whilst CAT activity was induced only in mine workers. SOD activity was decreased in all groups examined, while GPx activity showed decreased values only in underground miners, and GR did not show any differences among the groups. The results showed that subjects directly and indirectly exposed to coal dusts face an oxidative stress condition. They also indicate that people living in the vicinity of the mine plant are in health risk regarding coal mining-related diseases.

  12. Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of soil contaminated with mineral coal tailings on snail Helix aspersa.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Melissa Rosa; da Silva, Fernanda Rabaioli; de Souza, Claudia Telles; Niekraszewicz, Liana; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; Premoli, Suziane; Corrêa, Dione Silva; Soares, Mariana do Couto; Marroni, Norma Possa; Morgam-Martins, Maria Isabel; da Silva, Juliana

    2015-11-01

    Coal remains an important source of energy, although the fuel is a greater environmental pollutant. Coal is a mixture of several chemicals, especially inorganic elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Many of these compounds have mutagenic and carcinogenic effects on organisms exposed to this mineral. In the town of Charqueadas (Brazil), the tailings from mining were used for landfill in the lower areas of the town, and the consequence is the formation of large deposits of this material. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential of soil samples contaminated by coal waste in different sites at Charqueadas, using the land snail Helix aspersa as a biomonitor organism. Thirty terrestrial snails were exposed to different treatments: 20 were exposed to the soil from two different sites in Charqueadas (site 1 and 2; 10 in each group) and 10 non-exposed (control group). Hemolymph cells were collected after 24h, 5days and 7days of exposure and comet assay, micronucleus test, oxidative stress tests were performed. Furthermore, this study quantified the inorganic elements present in soil samples by the PIXE technique and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by HPLC. This evaluation shows that, in general, soils from sites in Charqueadas, demonstrated a genotoxic effect associated with increased oxidative stress, inorganic and PAH content. These results demonstrate that the coal pyrite tailings from Charqueadas are potentially genotoxic and that H. aspersa is confirmed to be a sensitive instrument for risk assessment of environmental pollution.

  13. [Changes in the interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 concentrations in the blood plasma of miners working in deep coal mines].

    PubMed

    Plotkin, V Ia; Rebrov, B A; Belkina, E B

    2000-03-01

    Blood plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were measured in 45 miners working in a deep coal mine immediately after work shift using an immunoenzyme technique. The highest IL-6 level was recorded in those miners engaged in hard work under most adverse conditions of underground workings--it was found to exceed the control values. The same group of workers demonstrated the lowest level of IL-10 that differed from the control value. Miners aged between 41 to 50 years working in a coal mine, their underground service duration 16 to 20 years, displayed a decline in the level of IL-6. The coal mine miners with the 11- to 15-year service duration revealed an increase in the level of IL-10.

  14. Effects of the mineral phase and valence of vanadium on vanadium extraction from stone coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yang-jia; Zhang, Yi-min; Bao, Shen-xu; Liu, Tao

    2012-10-01

    The influence of roasting on the leaching rate and valence of vanadium was evaluated during vanadium extraction from stone coal. Vanadium in stone coal is hard to be leached and the leaching rate is less than 10% when the raw ore is leached by 4 mol/L H2SO4 at 90°C for 2 h. After the sample is roasted at 900°C for 2 h, the leaching rate of vanadium reaches the maximum, and more than 70% of vanadium can be leached. The crystal of vanadium-bearing mica minerals decomposes and the content of V(V) increases with the rise of roasting temperature from 600 to 900°C, therefore the leaching rate of vanadium increases significantly with the decomposition of the mica minerals. Some new phases, anorthite for example, form when the roasting temperature reaches 1000°C. A part of vanadium may be enwrapped in the sintered materials and newly formed phases, which may impede the oxidation of low valent vanadium and make the leaching rate of vanadium drop dramatically. The leaching rate of vanadium is not only determined by the valence state of vanadium but also controlled by the decomposition of vanadium-bearing minerals and the existence state of vanadium to a large extent.

  15. Elaboration of new ceramic microfiltration membranes from mineral coal fly ash applied to waste water treatment.

    PubMed

    Jedidi, Ilyes; Saïdi, Sami; Khemakhem, Sabeur; Larbot, André; Elloumi-Ammar, Najwa; Fourati, Amine; Charfi, Aboulhassan; Salah, Abdelhamid Ben; Amar, Raja Ben

    2009-12-15

    This work aims to develop a new mineral porous tubular membrane based on mineral coal fly ash. Finely ground mineral coal powder was calcinated at 700 degrees C for about 3 h. The elaboration of the mesoporous layer was performed by the slip-casting method using a suspension made of the mixture of fly-ash powder, water and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The obtained membrane was submitted to a thermal treatment which consists in drying at room temperature for 24 h then a sintering at 800 degrees C. SEM photographs indicated that the membrane surface was homogeneous and did not present any macrodefects (cracks, etc...). The average pore diameter of the active layer was 0.25 microm and the thickness was around 20 microm. The membrane permeability was 475 l/h m(2) bar. This membrane was applied to the treatment of the dying effluents generated by the washing baths in the textile industry. The performances in term of permeate flux and efficiency were determined and compared to those obtained using a commercial alumina microfiltration membrane. Almost the same stabilised permeate flux was obtained (about 100 l h(-1)m(-2)). The quality of permeate was almost the same with the two membranes: the COD and color removal was 75% and 90% respectively.

  16. A biomathematical model of particle clearance and retention in the lungs of coal miners.

    PubMed

    Kuempel, E D; O'Flaherty, E J; Stayner, L T; Smith, R J; Green, F H; Vallyathan, V

    2001-08-01

    To understand better the factors influencing the relationships among airborne particle exposure, lung burden, and fibrotic lung disease, we developed a biologically based kinetic model to predict the long-term retention of particles in the lungs of coal miners. This model includes alveolar, interstitial, and hilar lymph node compartments. The 131 miners in this study had worked in the Beckley, West Virginia, area and died during the 1960s. The data used to develop this model include exposure to respirable coal mine dust by intensity and duration within each job, lung and lymph node dust burdens at autopsy, pathological classification of fibrotic lung disease, and smoking history. Initial parameter estimates for this model were based on both human and animal data of particle deposition and clearance and on the biological and physical factors influencing these processes. Parameter estimation and model fit to the data were determined using least squares. Results show that the end-of-life lung dust burdens in these coal miners were substantially higher than expected from first-order clearance kinetics, yet lower than expected from the overloading of alveolar clearance predicted from rodent studies. The best-fitting and most parsimonious model includes processes for first-order alveolar-macrophage-mediated clearance and transfer of particles to the lung interstitium. These results are consistent with the particle retention patterns observed previously in the lungs of primates. The findings indicate that rodent models extrapolated to humans, without adjustment for the kinetic differences in particle clearance and retention, would be inadequate for predicting lung dust burdens in humans. Also, this human lung kinetic model predicts greater retained lung dust burdens from occupational exposure than predicted from current human models based on lower exposure data. This model is useful for risk assessment of particle-induced lung diseases, by estimating equivalent internal

  17. Mortality in Miners with Coal-Workers’ Pneumoconiosis in the Czech Republic in the Period 1992–2013

    PubMed Central

    Tomášková, Hana; Šplíchalová, Anna; Šlachtová, Hana; Urban, Pavel; Hajduková, Zdeňka; Landecká, Irena; Gromnica, Rostislav; Brhel, Petr; Pelclová, Daniela; Jirák, Zdeněk

    2017-01-01

    While working underground, miners are exposed to a number of risk factors that have a negative impact on their health and may be a cause of an increased mortality in miners. The aim of the study was to compare total and specific mortality in black coal miners with acknowledged coal-workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) and without CWP, and the mortality of the general male population in the Czech Republic in the period 1992–2013. The sample consisted of 3476 coal miners with CWP and 6687 ex-coal miners without CWP, who were removed after achieving the maximum permissible exposure (MPE). The mortality risk differences were analyzed with the use of the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and 95% confidence interval. Significantly higher total mortality (SMR = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.02–1.17), and mortality from malignant neoplasm (SMR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.03–1.30), lung cancers (SMR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.41–2.04), and non-malignant respiratory diseases (SMR = 2.78; 95% CI: 2.32–3.31) were found in the sample of coal miners with CWP. In this sample, the severity of CWP was assessed, and the SMR increased with the severity of CWP. The total (SMR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.82–0.91) and specific mortality of miners without CWP were not higher compared with the general population. In the case where the miners were removed from underground work after achieving the MPE (without CWP), their mortality was not higher than that of the general population, but the mortality of miners with CWP was higher compared to the general population. This mortality was affected by malignant and non-malignant respiratory diseases. PMID:28272360

  18. Mortality in Miners with Coal-Workers' Pneumoconiosis in the Czech Republic in the Period 1992-2013.

    PubMed

    Tomášková, Hana; Šplíchalová, Anna; Šlachtová, Hana; Urban, Pavel; Hajduková, Zdeňka; Landecká, Irena; Gromnica, Rostislav; Brhel, Petr; Pelclová, Daniela; Jirák, Zdeněk

    2017-03-07

    While working underground, miners are exposed to a number of risk factors that have a negative impact on their health and may be a cause of an increased mortality in miners. The aim of the study was to compare total and specific mortality in black coal miners with acknowledged coal-workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) and without CWP, and the mortality of the general male population in the Czech Republic in the period 1992-2013. The sample consisted of 3476 coal miners with CWP and 6687 ex-coal miners without CWP, who were removed after achieving the maximum permissible exposure (MPE). The mortality risk differences were analyzed with the use of the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and 95% confidence interval. Significantly higher total mortality (SMR = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.02-1.17), and mortality from malignant neoplasm (SMR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.03-1.30), lung cancers (SMR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.41-2.04), and non-malignant respiratory diseases (SMR = 2.78; 95% CI: 2.32-3.31) were found in the sample of coal miners with CWP. In this sample, the severity of CWP was assessed, and the SMR increased with the severity of CWP. The total (SMR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.82-0.91) and specific mortality of miners without CWP were not higher compared with the general population. In the case where the miners were removed from underground work after achieving the MPE (without CWP), their mortality was not higher than that of the general population, but the mortality of miners with CWP was higher compared to the general population. This mortality was affected by malignant and non-malignant respiratory diseases.

  19. Petrochemistry and hydrothermal alteration within the Tyrone Igneous Complex, Northern Ireland: implications for VMS mineralization in the British and Irish Caledonides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollis, Steven P.; Roberts, Stephen; Earls, Garth; Herrington, Richard; Cooper, Mark R.; Piercey, Stephen J.; Archibald, Sandy M.; Moloney, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Although volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits can form within a wide variety of rift-related tectonic environments, most are preserved within suprasubduction affinity crust related to ocean closure. In stark contrast to the VMS-rich Appalachian sector of the Grampian-Taconic orogeny, VMS mineralization is rare in the peri-Laurentian British and Irish Caledonides. Economic peri-Gondwanan affinity deposits are limited to Avoca and Parys Mountain. The Tyrone Igneous Complex of Northern Ireland represents a ca. 484-464 Ma peri-Laurentian affinity arc-ophiolite complex and a possible broad correlative of the Buchans-Robert's Arm belt of Newfoundland, host to some of the most metal-rich VMS deposits globally. Stratigraphic horizons prospective for VMS mineralization in the Tyrone Igneous Complex are associated with rift-related magmatism, hydrothermal alteration, synvolcanic faults, and high-level subvolcanic intrusions (gabbro, diorite, and/or tonalite). Locally intense hydrothermal alteration is characterized by Na-depletion, elevated SiO2, MgO, Ba/Sr, Bi, Sb, chlorite-carbonate-pyrite alteration index (CCPI) and Hashimoto alteration index (AI) values. Rift-related mafic lavas typically occur in the hanging wall sequences to base and precious metal mineralization, closely associated with ironstones and/or argillaceous sedimentary rocks representing low temperature hydrothermal venting and volcanic quiescence. In the ca. 475 Ma pre-collisional, calc-alkaline lower Tyrone Volcanic Group rift-related magmatism is characterized by abundant non-arc type Fe-Ti-rich eMORB, island-arc tholeiite, and low-Zr tholeiitic rhyolite breccias. These petrochemical characteristics are typical of units associated with VMS mineralization in bimodal mafic, primitive post-Archean arc terranes. Following arc-accretion at ca. 470 Ma, late rifting in the ensialic upper Tyrone Volcanic Group is dominated by OIB-like, subalkaline to alkali basalt and A-type, high-Zr rhyolites. These units

  20. Factors that influence the formation and stability of hydrated ferrous sulfate in coal dusts. Possible relation to the emphysema of coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xi; Zalma, R.; Pezerat, H.

    1994-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that a causal relationship may exist between coal dust exposure and emphysema in coal miners. Emphysema can be considered as one of the human pathologies associated with oxidative stress, resulting from oxidant-induced {alpha}{sub 1}-antitrypsin ({alpha}{sub 1}-AT) inactivation and uncontrolled proteolysis of lung tissue. We have previously reported that certain coal dusts contained hydrated ferrous sulfate (FeSO{sub 4}) that inactivated {alpha}{sub 1}-AT. In the present study, we have shown that the FeSO{sub 4} originated from oxidation of pyrite (FeS{sub 2}), which is a typical contaminant of coal dusts. The relative humidity and microenvironmental around individual pyrite particles influence the formation of FeSO{sub 4} in the coal. However, the subsequent human exposure to coal dust containing FeSO{sub 4} depends on the stability of the formed FeSO{sub 4}. We found that pH played the most important role in stabilizing the FeSO{sub 4}, such that a final pH < 4.5 after oxidation of pyrite stabilized FeSO{sub 4}, whereas at high pH the conversion of reactive Fe{sup 2+} to Fe{sup 3+} was immediate. Sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), which is also produced by the oxidation of pyrite, can lower the pH, but it can also be neutralized by other minerals in coal dusts, such as calcite (CaCO{sub 3}). The stability of FeSO{sub 4} in coal dust can also be influenced by the length of exposure to air. Our studies demonstrated that coal samples differed in their capacity to stabilize FeSO{sub 4}. This current study strengthens our previous reported hypothesis that emphysema, which occurs irregularly in coal miners, could be directly related to exposure to coal dust containing FeSO{sub 4}. 35 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Clay minerals in Northern Plains coal overburden as measured by X-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Klages, M.G.; Hopper, R.W.

    1982-03-01

    Mathematical models were tested for changing x-ray diffraction data to percentages of clay minerals in coal overburden. Various factors for adjusting peak areas were tested on 50 eastern Montana samples that contained smectite, illite, and daloinite, with lesser amounts of other minerals. Cation exchange capacities (CEC) of the clays were estimated from the calculated mineral percentages and correlated against measured CEC. The best model gave in r/sup 2/ of 0.89. It was used for estimating clay mineralogy at six mine sites in the Northern Great Plains. Average mineral contents in the surface 8 to 38 m of five of seven drill holes in the Montana-Wyoming border area were 40% smectite, with 20% each of illite and kaolinite. Clays from greater depths in the same area had no smectite and an average of 50% each of illite and kaolinite. All samples from a mine in central North Dakota were high in swelling clay, with an average of 60% smectite and 10% vermiculite.Samples from four holes at a mine in eastern Wyoming were all high in kaolinite, having an average of 50% with 30% illite and 10% interstratified smectite-vermiculite.

  2. Occurrence and origin of minerals in a chamosite-bearing coal of Late Permian age, Zhaotong, Yunnan, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dai, S.; Chou, C.-L.

    2007-01-01

    The minerals found in the no.5 coal (Late Permian) from the Zhaotong Coalfield, Yunnan Province, southwestern China, have been examined and found to consist mainly of kaolinite, pyrite, chamosite, quartz, and calcite, with trace amounts of illite and mixed-layer illite-smectite. The proportion of chamosite in clay minerals ranges from 32 to 56 wt%, with an average of 46 wt%. Chamosite is distributed not only in collodetrinite, but also occurs as cell fillings in fusinite, semifusinite, and telinite. The high content and mode of occurrence of chamosite in this mine indicate its formation by interaction of kaolinite with Fe-Mg-rich fluids during early diagenesis. Except for a minor amount of terfigenous quartz, most quartz is of authigenic origin and formed from kaolinite desilication. The calcite content of the no. 5 coal is 1.4-6.3% (with an average of 3%) and is distributed in collodetrinite and as cell fillings of coal-forming plants. Calcite originated from seawater invasion during peat accumulation. Pyrite occurs in several ways: as massive, framboidal, isolated enhedral/ anhedral, and euhedral forms. In addition, the presence of a large amount of pyritized red algae provides strong evidence of seawater invasion during peat accumulation. The red algae may have played an important role in the enrichment of sulfur in the coal. The characteristic assemblage of minerals in this mine resulted from a unique basinal environment in which the mineral matter was derived from a basaltic source region, volcanic activity, and seawater transgression during coal formation.

  3. Effect of the mineral components of brown coals on the properties of organic matter in the interaction with solvents

    SciTech Connect

    P.N. Kuznetsov; L.I. Kuznetsova

    2008-12-15

    The cation-exchange forms of a considerable portion of metals that occur in brown coals from various deposits were identified. Based on swelling data, the interaction of the organic matter of coals with solvents was studied depending on the concentrations of mineral components. It was found that natural brown coals exhibit a densely crosslinked supramolecular structure with the predominance of molecular-size pores. In the course of decationization, the organic matter underwent partial depolymerization; the rate of diffusion and the accessibility of fragments to solvents with relatively bulky molecules dramatically increased.

  4. Stable isotope geochemistry of sphalerite and other mineral matter in coal beds of the Illinois and Forest City basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whelan, J.F.; Cobb, J.C.; Rye, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    Cleat and clastic dikes of Middle Pennsylvanian-age coal beds of the Illlinois and Forest City basins of Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, and Kansas locally contain appreciable amounts of sphalerite within a kaolinite-pyrite-sphalerite (?? pyrite)-calcite paragenetic sequence. The sphalerite and associated minerals are of interest as a partial record of the history of fluids in the sedimentary basin and as possible indicators of Mississippi Valley-type mineralization. Moreover, zinc from the sphalerite may represent an exploitable by-product of coal mining and combustion. -Authors

  5. Clinically important FEV1 declines among coal miners: an exploration of previously unrecognised determinants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, M. L.; Petsonk, E. L.; Beeckman, L. A.; Wagner, G. R.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The relation between occupational exposure to dust and loss of ventilatory lung function is now well established. However, many exposures during work and other activities might also have important roles in determining clinically important losses of lung function. In this study, we attempted to explore additional plausible determinants of exposures and other potential risk factors for clinically important decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) during work in dusty trades. METHODS: The study was performed in 264 underground coal miners whose lung function had been followed up for an average of 11 years. With an extensive follow up questionnaire, miners were asked about their occupational and non-occupational exposures, smoking, personal and family medical history, and living conditions during childhood. RESULTS: Several variables of the mine environment (as well as previously recognised effects of mining work and region) were found to be associated with excess decline in FEV1, including work in roof bolting, exposure to explosive blasting, and to control dust spraying water that had been stored in holding tanks. Use of respiratory protection seemed to reduce the risk of decline in FEV1. Other factors that were found to be associated with declines in pulmonary function included smoking, body mass, weight gain, childhood pneumonia, and childhood exposure in the home to passive tobacco smoke and possibly smoke due to wood and coal fuels. Miners with excessive decline in FEV1 were less likely to be working in mining jobs at follow up. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest the existence of additional risk factors for decline in lung function in dusty trades, and may be useful in developing additional approaches to the prevention of chronic respiratory disease.   PMID:10658541

  6. Smoking cessation among coal miners as predicted by baseline respiratory function and symptoms: a 5-year prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, R.G.; Hall, D.S.

    1985-03-01

    A prospective analysis was used to test whether respiratory impairment or the presence of respiratory symptoms predicts 5-year cigarette smoking cessation in a sample of 1,118 U.S. white, male, underground coal miners. Miners were examined in 1977 and re-examined in 1982 by NIOSH, and all miners with test abnormalities were so informed by letter. Respiratory impairment was measured by an index of airways obstruction combining the spirometric measures of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 sec (FEV1). Bronchitis symptoms were measured by an index that combined chronic cough (3+ months/year) and chronic phlegm (3 + months/year). Among these coal miners, the presence of chronic respiratory symptoms initially was inversely associated with cigarette smoking cessation. Respiratory impairment, however, was positively associated with cigarette smoking cessation but did not reach statistical significance.

  7. Using the extended parallel process model to prevent noise-induced hearing loss among coal miners in Appalachia

    SciTech Connect

    Murray-Johnson, L.; Witte, K.; Patel, D.; Orrego, V.; Zuckerman, C.; Maxfield, A.M.; Thimons, E.D.

    2004-12-15

    Occupational noise-induced hearing loss is the second most self-reported occupational illness or injury in the United States. Among coal miners, more than 90% of the population reports a hearing deficit by age 55. In this formative evaluation, focus groups were conducted with coal miners in Appalachia to ascertain whether miners perceive hearing loss as a major health risk and if so, what would motivate the consistent wearing of hearing protection devices (HPDs). The theoretical framework of the Extended Parallel Process Model was used to identify the miners' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and current behaviors regarding hearing protection. Focus group participants had strong perceived severity and varying levels of perceived susceptibility to hearing loss. Various barriers significantly reduced the self-efficacy and the response efficacy of using hearing protection.

  8. Using the extended parallel process model to prevent noise-induced hearing loss among coal miners in Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Murray-Johnson, Lisa; Witte, Kim; Patel, Dhaval; Orrego, Victoria; Zuckerman, Cynthia; Maxfield, Andrew M; Thimons, Edward D

    2004-12-01

    Occupational noise-induced hearing loss is the second most self-reported occupational illness or injury in the United States. Among coal miners, more than 90% of the population reports a hearing deficit by age 55. In this formative evaluation, focus groups were conducted with coal miners in Appalachia to ascertain whether miners perceive hearing loss as a major health risk and if so, what would motivate the consistent wearing of hearing protection devices (HPDs). The theoretical framework of the Extended Parallel Process Model was used to identify the miners' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and current behaviors regarding hearing protection. Focus group participants had strong perceived severity and varying levels of perceived susceptibility to hearing loss. Various barriers significantly reduced the self-efficacy and the response efficacy of using hearing protection.

  9. Cross-shift peak expiratory flow changes are unassociated with respirable coal dust exposure among South African coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Naidoo, R.N.; Robins, T.G.; Becklake, M.; Seixas, N.; Thompson, M.L.

    2007-12-15

    he objectives of this study were to determine whether cross-shift changes in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were related to respirable dust exposure in South African coalminers. Fifty workers were randomly selected from a cohort of 684 miners from 3 bituminous coal mines in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Peak expiratory efforts were measured prior to the commencement of the shift, and at the end of the shift on at least two occasions separated by at least 2 weeks, with full shift personal dust sampling being conducted on each occasion for each participant. Interviews were conducted, work histories were obtained and cumulative exposure estimates were constructed. Regression models examined the associations of cross-shift changes in PEFR with current and cumulative exposure, controlling for shift, smoking and past history of tuberculosis. There were marginal differences in cross-shift PEFR (ranging from 0.1 to 2 L/min). Linear regression analyses showed no association between cross-shift change in PEFR and current or cumulative exposure. The specific shift worked by participants in the study showed no effect. Our study showed no association between current respirable dust exposure and cross-shift changes in PEFR. There was a non-significant protective effect of cumulative dust exposure on the outcome, suggesting the presence of a 'healthy worker survivor effect' in this data.

  10. Relationship of serum elastin peptide level to single breath transfer factor for carbon monoxide in French coal miners

    PubMed Central

    Frette, C.; Jacob, M. P.; Wei, S. M.; Bertrand, J. P.; Laurent, P.; Kauffmann, F.; Pham, Q. T.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical and epidemiological studies have given discordant results on the usefulness of the level of circulating elastin peptide (EP), a potential marker of both elastin destruction (a key phenomenon in pulmonary emphysema) and neosynthesis, for assessing structural changes in the lung extracellular matrix. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between levels of EP and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and single breath transfer factor for carbon monoxide (TLCO and KCO) in coal miners. METHODS: The study population comprised 227 working coal miners aged 34-50 years consisting of 75 miners heavily exposed to underground coal dust with pulmonary radiographs classified as 0/1 or 1/0 by the International Labour Office classification, 75 exposed miners with radiographs classified as normal (0/0), and 77 miners slightly exposed to coal dust with normal radiographs. The subjects answered a standardised questionnaire and performed spirometric tests and a carbon monoxide (CO) transfer test. RESULTS: No association was observed between EP levels and % predicted FEV1 (or FEV1/FVC). The level of EP increased significantly with decreased % predicted TLCO (r = -0.20). Miners in the lowest % predicted KCO quintile had higher EP levels than the rest (3.28 (1.37) vs 2.47 (1.16)). A significantly lower EP level was observed in miners with radiographs classified as 1/0 or 0/1, especially in those with round opacities, compared with miners with a normal radiograph, and in current smokers compared with the rest. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that the level of EP may reflect some remodelling activity in emphysema and lung fibrosis. 


 PMID:9516897

  11. Spirometry variability criteria--association with respiratory morbidity and mortality in a cohort of coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Kellie, S.E.; Attfield, M.D.; Hankinson, J.L.; Castellan, R.M.

    1987-03-01

    To clarify the association between spirometry variability and respiratory morbidity and mortality, the authors analyzed data for miners examined in the first round of the National Coal Study, 1969-1971, and they compared groups of miners who failed with those who met each of two spirometry variability criteria: a 5% criterion recommended by the American Thoracic Society, and a 200 ml criterion used in prior research studies. Compared with miners who met the 5% criterion (the best two forced vital capacities must be within 5% or 100 ml of one another), the group that failed had a lower mean for forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and odds ratios for cough, phlegm, wheeze, shortness of breath, and death of 1.75, 1.67, 1.76, 2.71, and 1.30, respectively. The findings for the 200 ml criterion (the best two FEV1s must be within 200 ml of one another) were somewhat different. The group that failed versus the group that met this criterion had a higher mean for FEV1, and odds ratios for cough, phlegm, wheeze, shortness of breath, and death of 1.13, 1.07, 1.15, 1.43, and 0.94, respectively. Although the findings differ for the two criteria, the findings demonstrate that increased spirometry variability is associated with poorer health.

  12. [Dust exposure levels and pneumoconiosis prevalence in a lignite coal miners].

    PubMed

    Cimrin, Arif H; Demiral, Yücel; Ergör, Alp; Uz Başaran, Seminur; Kömüs, Nuray; Ozbirsel, Cemal

    2005-01-01

    The effects of working conditions on health in lignite mines in Turkey have not been studied comprehensively. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of coal miner pneumoconiosis among lignite miners and to evaluate the effects of working conditions. The study was carried out between 2001 and 2003. All workers in the lignite mine and maintenance workers were consisted in the study. A face to face questionnaire was used to obtain demographics and work life variables. Posterior-anterior chest radiograms were evaluated by an A reader chest physician, according to ILO 1980 standard guidelines. Profusion of densities related with pneumoconiosis as 1/0 and above regarded as the "suspected pneumoconiosis". Parenchyma degeneration and/or massive opacities have been accepted as complicated silicosis. Dust concentrations in the work environment obtained from the periodical examinations. Two thousand four hundred and sixty-four X-ray were evaluated and 333 (13.5%) pneumoconiosis compatible changes were found. Among the pneumoconiosis cases, 25 (7.5%) were assigned as complicated silicosis. There was significant and positive association between worked years and pneumoconiosis prevalence (p= 0.019). Our findings indicated that pneumoconiosis prevalence among lignite miners in Turkey comparable to the USA prevalence prior to implementation of effective dust control programmes. It has been suggested that dust exposure in the work environment were high enough to developed pneumoconiosis in lignite mines. Dust control systems and measures should be re-evaluated.

  13. Book review: Economic geology: Principles and practice: Metals, minerals, coal and hydrocarbons—Introduction to formation and sustainable exploitation of mineral deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This volume, available in both hardcover and paperback, is an English translation of the fifth edition of the German language text Mineralische und Energie-Rohstoffe. The book provides an extensive overview of natural resources and societal issues associated with extracting raw materials. The comprehensive list of raw materials discussed includes metals, industrial minerals, coal, and hydrocarbons. The book is divided into four parts: (1) “Metalliferous ore deposits,” (2) “Nonmetallic minerals and rocks,” (3) “Practice of economic geology,” and (4) “Fossil energy raw materials—coal, oil, and gas.” These sections are bound by a brief introduction and an extensive list of up-to-date references as well as an index. Each chapter begins with a concise synopsis and concludes with a summary that contains useful suggestions for additional reading. All figures are grayscale images and line drawings; however, several have been grouped together and reproduced as color plates. Also included is a companion website (www.wiley.com/go/pohl/geology) that contains additional resources, such as digital copies of figures, tables, and an expanded index, all available for download in easy-to-use formats.Economic Geology: Principles and Practice: Metals, Minerals, Coal and Hydrocarbons—Introduction to Formation and Sustainable Exploitation of Mineral Deposits. Walter l. Pohl. 2011. Wiley-Blackwell. Pp. 663. ISBN 978-1-4443-3663-4 (paperback).

  14. System expansion analysis: a comparison of conventional coal and British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Gasification-Combined-Cycle Power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zaininger, H.W.

    1986-07-01

    It is common practice to compare costs of electricity from alternative power plants using ''bus bar costing methodology.'' (The levelized bus bar revenue requirements of a single unit are calculated by multiplying plant investment by a levelized fixed charge rate, adding levelized fuel, operating, and maintenance costs, then dividing the total by annual production at an arbitrarily selected annual capacity factor.) This approach does not consider different plant performance characteristics, such as relative capacities, realistic relative unit capacity factors, reliability, unit capacity changes with ambient temperature, performance and characteristics of other system generation additions, or system load shape characteristics and changes. The purpose of this study was to perform thirty-year generation system assessments on the EPRI West Central Regional System from 1991 to 2020. These system assessments consisted of determining optimal generation expansion plans and associated system costs for conventional coal and for coal gasification/combined cycle (GCC) plants using the British Gas Corporation/Lurgi slagging gasifier. System production costs were calculated using economic system dispatch procedures for each of the thirty years. Annual energy production and capacity factors were calculated for the conventional coal and GCC additions, as well as the rest of the system generating units. These total system results over the thirty-year period are then used to determine system cost savings per unit of GCC electricity production which are compared with the results obtained from a conventional bus bar costing analysis. The results show a significantly better mills per kWh advantage for the GCC units compared to conventional coal units than indicated by a conventional bus bar costing assessment. Thus, it is essential to perform a system expansion analysis to properly evaluate the merits of alternative generation technologies.

  15. H. R. 514: This Act may be cited as the Coal Miners' Unemployment Assistance Act of 1991, introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Session, First Session, January 11, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This bill would establish a temporary program of supplemental unemployment benefits for unemployed coal miners who have exhausted their rights to regular unemployment benefits. The amount of weekly benefits would be equal to the amount of compensation the coal miner was receiving. Eligible coal miners are those whose unemployment began after the date of enactment of this act and before January 1, 1992.

  16. Sequestration of carbon dioxide by indirect mineralization using Victorian brown coal fly ash.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong; Parikh, Vinay; Zhang, Lian

    2012-03-30

    The use of an industry waste, brown coal fly ash collected from the Latrobe Valley, Victoria, Australia, has been tested for the post-combustion CO(2) capture through indirect minersalization in acetic acid leachate. Upon the initial leaching, the majority of calcium and magnesium in fly ash were dissolved into solution, the carbonation potential of which was investigated subsequently through the use of a continuously stirred high-pressure autoclave reactor and the characterization of carbonation precipitates by various facilities. A large CO(2) capture capacity of fly ash under mild conditions has been confirmed. The CO(2) was fixed in both carbonate precipitates and water-soluble bicarbonate, and the conversion between these two species was achievable at approximately 60°C and a CO(2) partial pressure above 3 bar. The kinetic analysis confirmed a fast reaction rate for the carbonation of the brown coal ash-derived leachate at a global activation energy of 12.7 kJ/mol. It is much lower than that for natural minerals and is also very close to the potassium carbonate/piperazine system. The CO(2) capture capacity of this system has also proven to reach maximum 264 kg CO(2)/ton fly ash which is comparable to the natural minerals tested in the literature. As the fly ash is a valueless waste and requires no comminution prior to use, the technology developed here is highly efficient and energy-saving, the resulting carbonate products of which are invaluable for the use as additive to cement and in the paper and pulp industry.

  17. Coal Combustion Science quarterly progress report, January--March 1993. Task 1, Coal char combustion: Task 2,, Fate of mineral matter

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L.

    1994-02-01

    The objective of this work is to obtain insights into the mechanisms of combustion, fragmentation, and final burnout, and to use the insights to aid in the interpretation of the quantitative data generated in Subtasks 1 and 2. The initial image sequences for Illinois No. 6 coal confirm the presence of an early near-extinction process (discussed in previous reports) and the asymptotic nature of the carbon burnout process. The technique also provided important new insights into the processes of particle fragmentation and reagglomeration at high burnout. During this quarter, chemical fractionation tests on coals pulverized to different sizes were completed. These data will help us to asses the accuracy of the fuels characterizations for the purpose of interpreting inorganic release during coal devolatilization. Chemical fractionation tests on mineral species are proceeding for the same purposes, but these are not yet completed.

  18. Application of reflectance micro-Fourier Transform infrared analysis to the study of coal macerals: An example from the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous coals of the Mist Mountain Formation, British Columbia, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastalerz, Maria; Bustin, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    The applicability of the reflectance micro-Fourier Transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) technique for analyzing the distribution of functional groups in coal macerals is discussed. High quality of spectra, comparable to those obtained using other FTIR techniques (KBr pellet and transmission micro-FTIR), indicate this technique can be applied to characterizing functional groups under most conditions. The ease of sample preparation, the potential to analyze large intact samples, and ability to characterize organic matter in areas as small as 20 ??m are the main advantages of reflectance micro-FTIR. The quantitative aspects of reflectance micro-FTIR require further study. The examples from the coal seams of the Mist Mountain Formation, British Columbia show that at high volatile bituminous rank, reflectance micro-FTIR provides valuable information on the character of aliphatic chains of vitrinite and liptinite macerals. Because the character of aliphatic chains influences bond disassociation energies, such information is useful from a hydrocarbon generation viewpoint. In medium volatile bituminous coal liptinite macerals are usually not detectable but this technique can be used to study the degree of oxidation and reactivity of vitrinite and semifusinite.

  19. The properties of the nano-minerals and hazardous elements: Potential environmental impacts of Brazilian coal waste fire.

    PubMed

    Civeira, Matheus S; Pinheiro, Rafael N; Gredilla, Ainara; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez Ortiz; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Ramos, Claudete G; Taffarel, Silvio R; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Madariaga, Juan Manuel; Silva, Luis F O

    2016-02-15

    Brazilian coal area (South Brazil) impacted the environment by means of a large number of coal waste piles emplaced over the old mine sites and the adjacent areas of the Criciúma, Urussanga, and Siderópolis cities. The area studied here was abandoned and after almost 30 years (smokeless visual) some companies use the actual minerals derived from burning coal cleaning rejects (BCCRs) complied in the mentioned area for industry tiles or refractory bricks. Mineralogical and geochemical similarities between the BCCRs and non-anthropogenic geological environments are outlined here. Although no visible flames were observed, this study revealed that auto-combustion existed in the studied area for many years. The presence of amorphous phases, mullite, hematite and other Fe-minerals formed by high temperature was found. There is also pyrite, Fe-sulphates (eg. jarosite) and unburnt coal present, which are useful for comparison purposes. Bad disposal of coal-dump wastes represents significant environmental concerns due to their potential influence on atmosphere, river sediments, soils and as well as on the surface and groundwater in the surroundings of these areas. The present study using advanced analytical techniques were performed to provide an improved understanding of the complex processes related with sulphide-rich coal waste oxidation, spontaneous combustion and mineral formation. It is reporting huge numbers of rare minerals with alunite, montmorillonite, szomolnokite, halotrichite, coquimbite and copiapite at the BCCRs. The data showed the presence of abundant amorphous Si-Al-Fe-Ti as (oxy-)hydroxides and Fe-hydro/oxides with goethite and hematite with various degrees of crystallinity, containing hazardous elements, such as Cu, Cr, Hf, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Pb, Th, U, Zr, and others. By Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the mineralogical composition was related with the range of elemental concentration of each sample. Most of the nano-minerals and ultra-fine particles

  20. Prevalence of hypertension and noise-induced hearing loss in Chinese coal miners

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Xu, Ming; Ding, Lu; Zhang, Hengdong; Pan, Liping; Liu, Qingdong; Ding, Enming; Zhao, Qiuni; Wang, Boshen; Han, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Background Owing to inconsistent epidemiologic evidence and the presence of confounding factors, the relation between occupational noise exposure and hypertension still remained unclear. We aimed to assess whether Chinese coal miners were at risk of developing hypertension and noise induced hearing loss (NIHL), and whether occupational noise exposure was a risk factor of hypertension. Methods A questionnaire was designed to collect information from 738 study participants, all of whom were employees from the Datun Xuzhou Coal Company. The participants were divided into a noise-exposed group and a control group based on the noise level to which they were exposed in the workplace. The differences in the mean of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were compared between the noise-exposed and control groups. Also the prevalence and age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] of audiometric deficit and hypertension was compared in the study. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the relation between occupational noise level and hypertension while controlling for potential confounding factors. Results Hypertension was more prevalent in noise-exposed group than the control group, 29.2% vs. 21.2% (P=0.012). The noise-exposed group faced an increased risk of hypertension (age-adjusted OR =1.52, 95% CI =1.07–2.15) when the control group was used as reference. The mean values of SBP and DBP of the noise-exposed groups were significantly higher than the control group (P=0.006 and P=0.002 respectively). Hearing loss at low frequencies was significantly more prevalent in the noise-exposed group than the control group, 12.8% vs. 7.4% (P=0.015), while the noise-exposed group faced the increased risk of hearing loss at low frequencies (age-adjusted OR =1.81, 95% CI =1.10–2.96). LEX, 8h (OR =1.036, 95% CI =1.012–1.060) was an independent risk of hypertension when controlling for potential confounding factors. Conclusions We

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ON PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINERS IN THE EASTERN PART OF INDIA.

    PubMed

    Dey, Netai Chandra; Nath, Suva; Sharma, Gourab Dhara; Mallik, Avijit

    2014-12-01

    Coal in India is extracted generally by semi-mechanized and mechanized underground mining methods. The Bord and Pillar (B & P) mining method still continues to be popular where deployment of manual miners is more than that of other mining methods. The study is conducted at haulage based mine of Eastern Coalfields of West Bengal. Underground miners confront with a lot of hazards like extreme hostile environment, awkward working posture, dust, noise as well as low luminosity. It is difficult to delay the onset of fatigue. In order to study the physiological responses of trammers, various parameters like working heart rates, net cardiac cost and relative cardiac cost including recovery heart rate patterns are recorded during their work at site. Workload classification of trammers has been done following various scales of heaviness. The effect of environment on the physiological responses has been observed and suitable recommendations are made. The work tasks are bound to induce musculoskeletal problems and those problems could be better managed through rationalizing the work-rest scheduling.

  2. Occurrence and origin of minerals in a chamosite-bearing coal of Late Permian age, Zhaotong, Yunnan, China

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, S.; Chou, C.L.

    2007-08-15

    The minerals found in the no. 5 coal (Late Permian) from the Zhaotong Coalfield, Yunnan Province, southwestern China, have been examined and found to consist mainly of kaolinite, pyrite, chamosite, quartz, and calcite, with trace amounts of illite and mixed-layer illite-smectite. The proportion of chamosite in clay minerals ranges from 32 to 56 wt%, with an average of 46 wt%. Chamosite is distributed not only in collodetrinite, but also occurs as cell fillings in fusinite, semifusinite, and telinite. The high content and mode of occurrence of chamosite in this mine indicate its formation by interaction of kaolinite with Fe-Mg-rich fluids during early diagenesis. Except for a minor amount of terrigenous quartz, most quartz is of authigenic origin and formed from kaolinite desilication. The calcite content of the no. 5 coal is 1.4-6.3% (with an average of 3%) and is distributed in collodetrinite and as cell fillings of coal-forming plants. Calcite originated from seawater invasion during peat accumulation. Pyrite occurs in several ways: as massive, framboidal, isolated enhedral/anhedral, and euhedral forms. In addition, the presence of a large amount of pyritized red algae provides strong evidence of seawater invasion during peat accumulation. The red algae may have played an important role in the enrichment of sulfur in the coal. The characteristic assemblage of minerals in this mine resulted from a unique basinal environment in which the mineral matter was derived from a basaltic source region, volcanic activity, and seawater transgression during coal formation.

  3. Does coal mine dust present a risk for lung cancer. A case-control study of U. S. coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, R.G.; Amandus, H.; Attfield, M.; Green, F.Y.; Vallyathan, V.

    1983-11-01

    The relationship between the risk of lung cancer mortality and coal mine dust exposure under control by cigarette smoking status is evaluated. Two case-control studies based on 317 white male lung cancer mortality cases are presented. A one-to-one matched-case design allows examination of the risk of coal mine dust exposure and cigarette smoking. A two-to-one matched-case design was employed to examine the lung cancer risk of coal mine dust exposure independent of cigarette smoking. Based upon these data, no evidence of a coal mine dust exposure-lung cancer risk was found, although the expected increased risk for lung cancer in cigarette smokers was observed. There was no evidence of an interactive effect between cigarette smoking and coal mine dust exposure. (13 refs.)

  4. How good strong union men line it out: explorations of the structure and dynamics of coal-miners' class consciousness

    SciTech Connect

    Yarrow, M.N.

    1982-01-01

    This study explores how working-class people apprehend and analyze the class dynamics of their social world. As an exploratory empirical study of the structure and dynamics of working-class consciousness, it seeks to develop the theory of actual class consciousness by bringing previous theories into dialogue with the articulated analyses of coal miners in central Appalachia. Although changing conditions are shown to have a powerful effect on class consciousness, the respondents were found to respond differently to the changing context and to remain loyal to important elements of their earlier perspectives. Suggestions are made for how the theory could be developed further. The data for the study are flexibly structured interviews which were conducted with active, retired, and disabled miners in southern West Virginia and western Virginia. A dozen miners were interviewed during the 1978 strike and again the following summer; during the summer of 1978, nineteen additional miners were interviewed.

  5. Relationship between spinal canal diameter and back pain in coal miners: ultrasonic measurement as a screening test

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, E.B.; Porter, R.; Hibbert, C.; Hart, J.

    1984-01-01

    Back pain is the commonest cause of absence among coal miners. However, the degree of morbidity is variable. To determine whether the susceptible individual can be identified, ultrasound was used to measure the spinal canal diameters of 204 miners. The results show that those men with the longest histories and the longest times off work and those who had to leave the coalface or who left the industry, i.e., those with the greatest morbidity, had significantly narrower canals. Ultrasonic measurement of the spinal canal diameter is safe and noninvasive. Its use should be further evaluated as part of a preemployment screening procedure for back pain. 7 references, 8 figures, 7 tables.

  6. Relationship between spinal canal diameter and back pain in coal miners. Ultrasonic measurement as a screening test

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, E.B.; Porter, R.; Hibbert, C.; Hart, J.

    1984-01-01

    Back pain is the commonest cause of absence among coal miners. However, the degree of morbidity is variable. To determine whether the susceptible individual can be identified, ultrasound was used to measure the spinal canal diameters of 204 miners. The results show that those men with the longest histories and the longest times off work and those who had to leave the coalface or who left the industry--i.e., those with the greatest morbidity--had significantly narrower canals. Ultrasonic measurement of the spinal canal diameter is safe and noninvasive. Its use should be further evaluated as part of a preemployment screening procedure for back pain.

  7. Associations of symptoms related to isocyanate, ureaformol, and formophenolic exposures with respiratory symptoms and lung function in coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Bertrand, J.P.; Simon, V.; Chau, N.

    2007-04-15

    The respiratory effects of diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI)-based resins and ureaformol- and formophenolic-based resins, used in coal mining, are unknown. This cross-sectional study of 354 miners evaluated respiratory health in miners with MDI-related symptoms (IS) and ureaformol/formophenolic-related symptoms (UFS). The protocol included clinical examination, chest radiograph, questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, smoking habit, job history, resin handling, and spirometry. Resin handling concerned 27.7% of the miners. IS affected 5.6%, and 1.4% also after work. UFS affected 22.6%, and 2.3% also after work. Wheezing affected 35.6%; chronic cough, expectoration, or bronchitis about 10%; dyspnea 5.4%; and asthma 2.8%. The miners with UFS had significantly more frequent chronic cough, expectoration, chronic bronchitis, dyspnea, and wheezing, whereas those with IS at and after work had markedly lower FVC, FEV1, MMEF, FEF50% and FEF25%. These findings raise the possibility of deleterious effects of exposures to MDI and ureaformol/ ormophenolic resins on respiratory health and lung function in coal miners during their working life.

  8. Semi-quantitative ion microprobe mass analyses of mineral-rich particles from the upper freeport coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.; Simons, D.S.; Dulong, F.T.; Steel, E.B.

    1984-01-01

    An ion microprobe mass analyzer (IMMA) has been used to analyze semi-quantitatively mineral-rich coal particles from two separate facies of the Upper Freeport coal bed. Accuracy is estimated to be ??? 20% for those elements making up more than 0.1 wt.% of the particles and ??? 50% for elements making up less than 0.1 wt.%. Using IMMA data, we found statistically significant differences between the two samples for five (Fe, Ca, Mn, Li, Ce) of the 25 elements detected. For Li and Mn the differences between the mineral-rich particles within samples were similar to differences found between samples on a whole-coal basis. For Ca and Fe, the differences are attributed to different modes of occurrence, and for Ce, the differences are probably due to an irregular distribution of an inorganic phase. We conclude that the IMMA can be used to obtain semi-quantitative data that may provide insight into the distribution and mode of occurrence of some of the elements in coal. ?? 1984.

  9. [The quality of voice in coal-miners after burn/inhalation injury due to methane explosion].

    PubMed

    Orecka, Boguslawa; Sikora, Łukasz; Misiołek, Maciej; Fira, Rafał; Miśkiewicz-Orczyk, Katarzyna; Paluch, Zbigniew; Krzywiecki, Andrzej; Grzanka, Alicja; Namysłowski, Grzegorz

    2012-01-01

    The job as a coal-miner exposes to the greatest risk. One of the most dangerous health hazard is a burn/inhalation injury during the methane explosion. The victims undergo physical trauma, effect of high temperature and inhalation of toxic gases and products of incomplete combustion, As a result of inhalation injury both, upper and lower airways are affected. The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between burn/inhalation injury and quality of voice in affected coal-miners. A group of 23 patients (men) in age from 28 to 59 (mean 38.5) 3 years after burn/inhalation injury participated in this study. The voice evaluation based on ENT examination, videlaryngostroboscopy, acoustic analysis, MPT parameter and GRBAS analysis was performed. The special control group of coal-miners served as a control. On the basis of the subjective evaluation and the objective acoustic analysis, aerodynamic parameter and videlaryngostroboscopy the worse quality of voice in the group of injured coalminers was shown in comparison to the control group. No substantial correlation between the acoustic parameters, MPT parameter and ventilating rates was found.

  10. Seasonal factors controlling mineral precipitation in the acid mine drainage at Donghae coal mine, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, J J; Kim, S J

    2004-06-05

    Monitoring over a 12 month period in the Sanae creek flow in acid mine drainage, Donghae coal mine area, demonstrates that the concentrations of dissolved metals and sulphate are highest during autumn when water flow in the creek is at its lowest. The highest pH values of the stream were measured in April and May, whereas the lowest pH was recorded in October. The Fe concentration of stream water rapidly decreased downstream due to the precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxide and/or oxyhydroxysulfate phases in the stream. Mineral precipitates in the creek in the Donghae mine area show various colours such as brownish yellow (Munsell colour 9.5 YR hues), reddish brown (Munsell colour 3.5 YR hues) and white depending on seasons and distance from the pollution source in the creek. Such phenomena are attributed to the variation in pH and chemical composition of stream water caused by seasonal factors. The measured pH ranges in stream water of the brownish yellow, white and reddish brown precipitates are pH 3.2-4.5, 4.5-6.0 and 5.3-6.9, respectively.

  11. Relationships of physical job tasks and living conditions with occupational injuries in coal miners.

    PubMed

    Bhattacherjee, Ashis; Bertrand, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Benamghar, Lahoucine; Otero Sierra, Carmen; Michaely, Jean-Pierre; Ghosh, Apurna Kumar; d'Houtaud, Alphonse; Mur, Jean-Marie; Chau, Nearkasen

    2007-04-01

    This study assessed the relationships of job tasks and living conditions with occupational injuries among coal miners. The sample included randomly selected 516 underground workers. They completed a standardized self-administred questionnaire. The data were analyzed via logistic regression method. The rate of injuries in the past two years was 29.8%. The job tasks with significant crude relative risks were: power hammer, vibrating hand tools, pneumatic tools, bent trunk, awkward work posture, heat, standing about and walking, job tasks for trunk and upper/lower limbs, pain caused by work, and muscular tiredness. Logistic model shows a strong relationship between the number of job tasks (JT) and injuries (adjusted ORs vs. JT 0-1: 2.21, 95%CI 1.27-3.86 for JT 2-6 and 3.82, 2.14-6.82 for JT>or=7), and significant ORs>or=1.71 for face work, not-good-health-status, and psychotropic drug use. Musculoskeletal disorders and certain personality traits were also significant in univariate analysis. Therefore job tasks and living conditions strongly increase the injuries, and occupational physicians could help workers to find remedial measures.

  12. Coal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brant, Russell A.; Glass, Gary B.

    1983-01-01

    Principle work of 23 state geological surveys is summarized. Work includes mapping/estimating coal resources, centralizing data in National Coal Resources Data System through cooperative programs, exploration drilling, and others. Comments on U.S. Geological Survey activities, coal-related conferences/meetings, and industry research activities are…

  13. Coal miners and the American republic: trade union ideology in the anthracite region of Pennsylvania, 1875-1902

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis examines and attempts to explain the changing ideology of coal miners' unionism in the late nineteenth century. In the 1870s and '80s, miners adhered to a republican critique of industrial society, one which questioned the legitimacy of corporate enterprise, concentrated wealth and power, and wage-labor dependency. By 1900, however, miners accepted the prevailing social order and focused their aspirations upon narrower, job-related goals. Personal papers, state and federal investigations, and newspapers are used to examine the process of change. Chapter I defines the origins of the miners' persistent quest to organize unions. Chapters II and III show how corporate behavior during strikes violated the miners' faith in the Great Republic. Chapter IV examines the ideology of the Knights of Labor. Chapter V explains why the miners' critique of industrial America decined in the 1890s, and argues that two factors, the ethnic recomposition of the labor force and the miners' heritage of defeat on the industrial battlefield, accounted for the outcome. Chapter VI focuses upon the ideology of the United Mine Workers of America and explains how the union established a permanent foothold in the industry.

  14. Coal Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Coal slurries are "clean" pulverized coal mixed with oil or water. Significant fuel savings can be realized when using coal slurries. Advanced Fuels Technology (AFT) utilized a COSMIC program, (Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions), which provides specific capabilities for determining combustion products. The company has developed a cleaning process that removes much of the mineral sulphur and ash from the coals.

  15. The pollutants removal and bacterial community dynamics relationship within a full-scale British Gas/Lurgi coal gasification wastewater treatment using a novel system.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shengyong; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Hou, Baolin

    2016-01-01

    The novel system of EBA (based on external circulation anaerobic (EC) process-biological enhanced (BE) process-anoxic/oxic (A/O) process) was applied to treat the British Gas/Lurgi coal gasification wastewater in Erdos, China. After a long time of commissioning, the EBA system represented a stable and highly efficient performance, particularly, the concentrations of COD, NH4(+)-N, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and volatile phenols in the final effluent reached 53, 0.3, 18, 106mg/L and not detected, respectively. Both the GC-MS and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix analyses revealed significant variations of organic compositions in the effluent of different process. The results of high-throughput sequencing represented the EBA system composed 34 main bacteria which were affiliated to 7 phyla. In addition, the canonical correspondence analysis indicated high coherence among community composition, wastewater characteristics and environmental variables, in which the pH, mixed liquid suspended solids and total phenols loading were the most three significant variables.

  16. Interlaboratory comparison of mineral constituents in a sample from the Herrin (No. 6) coal bed from Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, Robert B.; Fiene, F.L.; Miller, R.N.; Simon, F.O.

    1984-01-01

    Approximately 20 kg of the Herrin (No. 6) coal was collected from a strip mine in St. Clair County, Ill. A 10-kg portion was ground to -60 mesh, homogenized, and riffled into 128 splits of 70-80 g each. Homogeneity of these splits was confirmed by moisture, ash, and sulfur analyses of six randomly selected splits. Results of these analyses were within the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) guidelines for interlaboratory precision. Splits of the Herrin (No. 6) coal were then transmitted to more than 30 laboratories for analysis. Low-temperature plasma oxidation was used to isolate inorganic matter for quantitative chemical and mineralogical analysis. Despite a wide variation in ashing conditions, only minor variations in ash yields were obtained; these variations were attributed to differences in operating temperature and moisture content. Mineralogical analyses of low-temperature ash (LTA) concentrates prepared by five different laboratories indicated variations within the limits of analytical error. The mean values, in weight percent, for the major minerals are as follows: calcite, 9; quartz, 20; pyrite, 23; kaolinite, 14; and illite+mixed-layer clays, 31. Normative mineralogical calculations and Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR) yielded results similar to those obtained from X-ray diffraction (XRD). Choosing appropriate mineral standards was found to be critical for the proper use of analytical techniques such as XRD and FTIR. Good interlaboratory agreement was obtained for most major, minor, and trace elements despite differences in analytical procedures and in the type of sample analyzed (coal, high-temperature ash, or LTA). Discrepancies between analyses for zinc, strontium, manganese, and iron may be attributed to sampling inhomogeneity problems. Mossbauer spectroscopy showed that approximately 44 percent of the pyritic sulfur was lost through weathering in the first year after preparation of the interlaboratory sample. Szomolnokite

  17. Functional variables associated with the clinical grade of dyspnoea in coal miners with pneumoconiosis and mild bronchial obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, T; Schultze-Werningh..., G; Kollmeier, J; Weber, A; Eibel, R; Lemke, B; Schmidt, E

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Dyspnoea is a common symptom in coal miners with pneumoconiosis. Among others, gas exchange disturbances due to airway obstruction or mismatch between ventilation and perfusion may be underlying mechanisms. The validation of dyspnoea by the degree of airway obstruction is controversial, because the extent of airway obstruction often does not correlate with the clinical grade of breathlessness.
METHODS—The association was investigated between breathlessness (self reported, on a six point scale) and indices of submaximal spiroergometry in 66 coal workers with radiographically confirmed pneumoconiosis (International Labour Organisation (ILO) grade of profusion ⩾1/0, mean (SD) age 64 (5.5) years, mean (SD) forced expired volume in 1 second (FEV1) 77.5 (22.9) % predicted).
RESULTS—The clinical degree of breathlessness was independently associated with minute ventilation/oxygen consumption (V̇E/V̇O2) ratio (β 0.423, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.18 to 0.67, p=0.001) and smoking (β 0.318, 95% CI 0.21 to 1.79, p=0.014) in a multiple linear regression analysis. The V̇E/V̇O2 ratio (β 0.556, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.90, p=0.003) was also the best predictor of breathlessness when only coal miners with airway obstruction (FEV1 < 80% predicted) were analyzed.
CONCLUSION—The V̇E/V̇O2 ratio as a measurement of mismatch between ventilation and perfusion predicted the clinical grade of breathlessness better than measurements of bronchial obstruction at rest in coal workers with pneumoconiosis.


Keywords: coal workers' pneumoconiosis; bronchial obstruction; ventilation PMID:11706146

  18. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including keeping your bones, muscles, heart, and brain working properly. Minerals are also important for making enzymes and hormones. ...

  19. Mineral sequestration of CO(2) by aqueous carbonation of coal combustion fly-ash.

    PubMed

    Montes-Hernandez, G; Pérez-López, R; Renard, F; Nieto, J M; Charlet, L

    2009-01-30

    The increasing CO(2) concentration in the Earth's atmosphere, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has led to concerns about global warming. A technology that could possibly contribute to reducing carbon dioxide emissions is the in-situ mineral sequestration (long term geological storage) or the ex-situ mineral sequestration (controlled industrial reactors) of CO(2). In the present study, we propose to use coal combustion fly-ash, an industrial waste that contains about 4.1 wt.% of lime (CaO), to sequester carbon dioxide by aqueous carbonation. The carbonation reaction was carried out in two successive chemical reactions, first, the irreversible hydration of lime. second, the spontaneous carbonation of calcium hydroxide suspension. A significant CaO-CaCO(3) chemical transformation (approximately 82% of carbonation efficiency) was estimated by pressure-mass balance after 2h of reaction at 30 degrees C. In addition, the qualitative comparison of X-ray diffraction spectra for reactants and products revealed a complete CaO-CaCO(3) conversion. The carbonation efficiency of CaO was independent on the initial pressure of CO(2) (10, 20, 30 and 40 bar) and it was not significantly affected by reaction temperature (room temperature "20-25", 30 and 60 degrees C) and by fly-ash dose (50, 100, 150 g). The kinetic data demonstrated that the initial rate of CO(2) transfer was enhanced by carbonation process for our experiments. The precipitate calcium carbonate was characterized by isolated micrometric particles and micrometric agglomerates of calcite (SEM observations). Finally, the geochemical modelling using PHREEQC software indicated that the final solutions (i.e. after reaction) are supersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate (0.7 < or = saturation index < or = 1.1). This experimental study demonstrates that 1 ton of fly-ash could sequester up to 26 kg of CO(2), i.e. 38.18 ton of fly-ash per ton of CO(2) sequestered. This confirms the possibility to use this

  20. Variation in the chemistry of macerals in coals of the Mist Mountain Formation, Elk Valley coalfield, British Columbia, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastalerz, Maria; Bustin, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    Variations in elemental and molecular chemistry of macerals, with vitrinite, semifusinite and sporinite in particular, are discussed for the coal seams of the Mist Mountain Formation in the Elk Valley coalfield, in western Canada. In the south Elk Valley coalfield, carbon content of vitrinite oscillates around 85%, and oxygen content increases gradually up section, from seam A to C. In the north Elk Valley coalfield, carbon content in vitrinite shows marked variations (from 70% to 85%) between the samples and is lower than in the south Elk Valley coalfield, which is consistent with a higher maturation level of south Elk Valley coalfield samples. Sulphur content is below 1% in both coalfields. Semifusinite, in general, has higher carbon and lower oxygen content than vitrinite, whereas cutinite has higher carbon content than vitrinite and slightly higher or comparable to that of semifusinite. Functional group distributions show large variations between the seams and these variations are attributed mainly to differences in a primary depositional environment and only occasionally to later weathering and oxidation processes. The results presented in this paper provide also information on the length and branching of aliphatic chains, which, for liptinite macerals is valuable from the oil generation viewpoint, whereas for semifusinite, it may help to understand reactive versus non-reactive behaviour during coking.

  1. An evaluation of the origin and post-depositional modification of coal mineral matter using rare earth elements and neodymium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatzel, Steven Joseph

    2001-07-01

    This study was conducted in western Pennsylvania on the Lower Kittanning Coal bed to address the issue of coal mineral matter origin and depositional environment. Channel samples of the coal, the underlying clay (paleosol) unit, and the overlying shale were retrieved over a 170 km east-west range of sampling sites. Analytical techniques applied to the samples include the megascopic description of coal lithotypes, proximate and ultimate analysis, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), coal petrography, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Major cation concentrations in the coal are generally consistent with depositional environment interpretations made on the overlying shale (e.g., epigenetic mineralization). Titanium and shale overburden-normalized plots of the major cation data show that the coal bed is enriched in Fe and Ca compared to the overlying shale. Magnesium, sodium and potassium were depleted in the coal relative to the shale. Rare earth element (REE) concentrations and neodymium (Nd) isotopes were used to identify sources of coal mineral matter and processes of alteration. A high degree of similarity exists between chondrite normalized REE plots of the coal, the shale overburden and the North American Shale Composite. The Nd isotopic data from the Lower Kittanning Coal bed show a range of epsilonNd(t) (at time of deposition) from -8.4 to -9.9 at the study sites. The Nd isotopic data from the overlying shale and the underlying clay unit show a range from epsilonNd(t) values = -8.2 to -10.2. These data are interpreted to indicate a single mineral source throughout the deposition of all three units. That source appears to be clastic matter derived the Appalachian Mountains. An isochron-style plot of the isotopic data appears to indicate Sm-Nd fractionation occurred at the approximate age of the coal bed. This is interpreted as evidence of mobilization of the Sm and Nd

  2. An examination of antecedents to coal miners' hearing protection behaviors: A test of the theory of planned behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Quick, B.L.; Stephenson, M.T.; Witte, K.; Vaught, C.; Booth-Butterfield, S.; Patel, D.

    2008-07-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's (NIOSH) National Occupational Research Agenda (DHHS Publication No. 96-115) reports that approximately 50% of miners will experience hearing loss by age 50, compared to only 9% of the general population. The present investigation examines three antecedents believed to be associated with miner's use of hearing protection. A posttest-delayed-posttest-control group field research design was employed to assess antecedents toward wearing hearing protection. Following the initial posttest, miners' attitudes and subjective norms were antecedents to intentions to wear hearing protection devices. Also, intentions toward wearing hearing protection predicted hearing protection behaviors. Approximately six weeks later, miners' attitudes and perceived behavioral control were each significant predictors of intentions to wear hearing protection and again, intentions were positively associated with hearing protection behaviors. Our results indicate that appeals to normative influences may be the most effective antecedent to employ when persuading coal miners to wear hearing protection. However, messages designed to impact attitudes and perceived behavioral control were also effective.

  3. The miners of Windber: Class, ethnicity, and the labor movements in a Pennsylvania coal town, 1890s-1930s

    SciTech Connect

    Beik, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Immigrant miners, the subject of this community study lived, worked, and struggled in an important bituminous coal town located in central Pennsylvania. Windber, a transposition of Berwind, was founded as a company town in 1897 by the Berwind White Coal Mining Company, a leading coal corporation. Most of the labor force, 4,000 to 5,000 miners, were recent arrivals from southern and eastern Europe. At least 25 different nationalities were represented in the town's population of 10,000. The company established an autocratic type of control in the workplace and the community. It was opposed to unionization by the United Mine Workers and operated an open-shop until the New Deal. The broad struggle of the miners and their families to end this autocratic control and by that get greater control over their lives and work in the nonunion period is the raison d'etre of this study. Sources used include oral histories, census, union files, church records, Slovak fraternal society papers, borough council records, organizers' papers, company employment records, printed documents, and rare newspaper collections. Part One is devoted to a social history of work and community. Topics covered include the company's labor, ethnic, and governing policies; the nature and composition of the social structure; the organization of work; the importance of the family economy; the functioning of immigrant communities within the larger American setting; and the competition for ethnic community leadership. The most important theme concerns the relationship of ethnic city to class formation and working class struggles. Windber's historic example shows that ethnic communities were not homogeneous entities but arenas of class conflict. Part Two is narrative presentation of the major struggle in which Windber mine participated.

  4. Part of the yellow dog: US coal miners' opposition to the company doctor system, 1936-1946

    SciTech Connect

    Derickson, A. )

    1989-01-01

    By the mid-1930s, US coal miners could no longer tolerate company doctors. They objected to the misuse of preemployment and periodic medical examinations and to many other facets of employer-controlled health benefit plans. The rank-and-file movement for reform received critical assistance from the Bureau of Cooperative Medicine, which conducted an extensive investigation of health services in 157 Appalachian communities. This study not only substantiated the workers' indictment of prevailing conditions but illuminated new deficiencies in the quality and availability of hospital and medical care as well. The miners' union curtailed the undemocratic, exploitative system of company doctors and proprietary hospitals by establishing the United Mine Workers of America Welfare and Retirement Fund in 1946.

  5. A biomathematical model of particle clearance and retention in the lungs of coal miners. II. Evaluation of variability and uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Kuempel, E D; Tran, C L; Smith, R J; Bailer, A J

    2001-08-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the sources of variability and uncertainty in a previously developed human lung dosimetry model. That three-compartment model describes the retention and clearance kinetics of respirable particles in the gas-exchange region of the lungs. It was calibrated using exposure histories and lung dust burden data in U.S. coal miners. A multivariate parameter estimation and optimization method was developed for fitting the dosimetry model to these human data. Models with various assumptions about overloading of alveolar clearance and interstitialization (sequestration) of particles were evaluated. Variability in the estimated clearance rate coefficients was assessed empirically by fitting the model to groups' and to each miner's data. Distributions of lung and lymph node particle burdens were computed at working lifetime exposures, using the variability in the estimated individual clearance rate coefficients. These findings confirm those of the earlier analysis; i.e., the best-fitting exposure-dose model to these data has substantial interstitialization/sequestration of particles and no dose-dependent decline in alveolar clearance. Among miners with different characteristics for smoking, disease, and race, the group median estimated alveolar clearance rate coefficients varied by a factor of approximately 4. Adjustment for these group differences provided some improvement in the dosimetry model fit to all miners (up to 25% reduction in MSE), although unexplained interindividual differences made up the largest source of variability. The predicted mean lung and lymph node particle burdens at age 75 after exposure to respirable coal mine dust at 2 mg/m(2) for a 45-year working lifetime were 12 g (5th and 95th percentiles, 3.0-26 g) and 1.9 g (0.26-5.3), respectively. This study provides quantitative information on variability in particle retention and clearance kinetics in humans. It is useful for risk assessment by providing

  6. Daily and hourly sourcing of metallic and mineral dust in urban air contaminated by traffic and coal-burning emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, T.; Karanasiou, A.; Amato, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.; Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; Coz, E.; Artíñano, B.; Lumbreras, J.; Borge, R.; Boldo, E.; Linares, C.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Gibbons, W.

    2013-04-01

    A multi-analytical approach to chemical analysis of inhalable urban atmospheric particulate matter (PM), integrating particle induced X-ray emission, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry/atomic emission spectroscopy, chromatography and thermal-optical transmission methods, allows comparison between hourly (Streaker) and 24-h (High volume sampler) data and consequently improved PM chemical characterization and source identification. In a traffic hot spot monitoring site in Madrid (Spain) the hourly data reveal metallic emissions (Zn, Cu, Cr, Fe) and resuspended mineral dust (Ca, Al, Si) to be closely associated with traffic flow. These pollutants build up during the day, emphasizing evening rush hour peaks, but decrease (especially their coarser fraction PM2.5-10) after nocturnal road washing. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of a large Streaker database additionally reveals two other mineral dust components (siliceous and sodic), marine aerosol, and minor, transient events which we attribute to biomass burning (K-rich) and industrial (incinerator?) Zn, Pb plumes. Chemical data on 24-h filters allows the measurement of secondary inorganic compounds and carbon concentrations and offers PMF analysis based on a limited number of samples but using fuller range of trace elements which, in the case of Madrid, identifies the continuing minor presence of a coal combustion source traced by As, Se, Ge and Organic Carbon. This coal component is more evident in the city air after the change to the winter heating season in November. Trace element data also allow use of discrimination diagrams such as V/Rb vs. La/Ce and ternary plots to illustrate variations in atmospheric chemistry (such as the effect of Ce-emissions from catalytic converters), with Madrid being an example of a city with little industrial pollution, recently reduced coal emissions, but serious atmospheric contamination by traffic emissions.

  7. Mineral Chemistry of Silicate Phases From the Summit Creek Stock, Southeastern British Columbia: Evidence for Associated "Xenolith" Origin and Dyke Emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, C. A.; Owen, J. P.

    2009-05-01

    The Summit Creek stock is a Mid-Cretaceous aged granitic intrusion that is located within the Cordilleran Omineca belt in the southeastern corner of British Columbia. Included within the stock are numerous xenoliths of intermediate composition that range in size from 5cm to 2m, as well as a prominent 1m-wide mafic dyke. According to the QAP diagram, the stock is classified as a muscovite-biotite monzogranite, with a typical sample containing 35% quartz, 25% plagioclase, 30% K-feldspar, 7% biotite, 2% muscovite, and 1% accessory phases. Minor accessory phases identified in this study include pyrite, molybdenite, apatite, magnetite, ilmenite, monazite, and zircon. Samples collected from the stock proper are predominantly equigranular; however the xenoliths are porphyritic and contain phenocrysts of both quartz and plagioclase, as well as glomerophyric aggregates of biotite. New investigation into the mineral chemistry of the stock, xenoliths, and dyke indicates that the xenoliths have a strong geochemical similarity to the main body of the stock. Plagioclase feldspar compositions from the xenolith overlap with those from the stock, and REE abundances in the stock and the xenoliths are indistinguishable (LREE 100x chondrite; HREE 10x chondrite). In thin section, the boundary between the xenoliths and the stock is very irregular, and protruding grains of plagioclase and biotite can be found piercing into both the granitic host, as well as into the xenolith itself. This evidence suggests that these inclusions are better termed autoliths rather than xenoliths, as it appears that they are derivatives of the same parent magma as the main stock. The mafic dyke differs in both mineralogy and geochemistry from the stock, and is characterized by low SiO2 content (48.98 wt.%), high REE abundances (30-40x chondrite), presence of rare euhedral hornblende, and greater variation in mineral chemistry. Samples from the dyke contain plagioclase with cores ranging from bytownite to

  8. Quantitative evaluation of minerals in fly ashes of biomass, coal and biomass-coal mixture derived from circulating fluidised bed combustion technology.

    PubMed

    Koukouzas, Nikolaos; Ward, Colin R; Papanikolaou, Dimitra; Li, Zhongsheng; Ketikidis, Chrisovalantis

    2009-09-30

    The chemical and mineralogical composition of fly ash samples collected from laboratory scale circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion facility have been investigated. Three fly ashes were collected from the second cyclone in a 50 kW laboratory scale boiler, after the combustion of different solid fuels. Characterisation of the fly ash samples was conducted by means of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Quantitative analysis of the crystalline (mineral) and amorphous phases in each ash sample was carried out using the Rietveld-based Siroquant system, with an added spike of ZnO to evaluate the amorphous content. SiO(2) is the dominant oxide in the fly ashes, with CaO, Al(2)O(3) and Fe(2)O(3) also present in significant proportions. XRD results show that all three fly ashes contain quartz, anhydrite, hematite, illite and amorphous phases. The minerals calcite, feldspar, lime and periclase are present in ashes derived from Polish coal and/or woodchips. Ash from FBC combustion of a Greek lignite contains abundant illite, whereas illite is present only in minor proportions in the other ash samples.

  9. Mineral chemistry and shrimp U-Pb Geochronology of mesoproterozoic polycrase-titanite veins in the sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag Deposit, British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, J.F.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Belkin, H.E.; Fanning, C.M.; Ransom, P.W.

    2008-01-01

    Small polycrase-titanite veins 0.1-2 mm thick cut the tourmalinite feeder zone in the deep footwall of the Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, southeastern British Columbia. Unaltered, euhedral crystals of polycrase and titanite 50-100 ??m in diameter are variably replaced by a finer-grained alteration-induced assemblage composed of anhedral polycrase and titanite with local calcite, albite, epidote, allanite, and thorite or uranothorite (or both). Average compositions of the unaltered and altered polycrase, as determined by electron-microprobe analysis, are (Y0.38 REE0.49 Th0.10 Ca0.04 Pb0.03 Fe0.01U0.01) (Ti1.48 Nb0.54 W0.04 Ta0.02)O6 and (Y0.42 REE0.32 Th0.15 U0.06 Ca0.04 Pb0.01 Fe0.01) (Ti1.57 Nb0.44 W0.04 Ta0.02)O6, respectively. The unaltered titanite has, in some areas, appreciable F (to 0.15 apfu), Y (to 0.40 apfu), and Nb (to 0.13 apfu). SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology of eight grains of unaltered polycrase yields a weighted 207Pb/206Pb age of 1413 ?? 4 Ma (2??) that is interpreted to be the age of vein formation. This age is 50-60 m.y. younger than the ca. 1470 Ma age of synsedimentary Pb-Zn-Ag mineralization in the Sullivan deposit, which is based on combined geological and geochronological data. SHRIMP ages for altered polycrase and titanite suggest later growth of minerals during the ???1370-1320 Ma East Kootenay and ???1150-1050 Ma Grenvillian orogenies. The 1413 ?? 4 Ma age for the unaltered polycrase in the veins records a previously unrecognized post-ore (1370 Ma) mineralizing event in the Sullivan deposit and vicinity. The SHRIMP U-Pb age of the polycrase and high concentrations of REE, Y, Ti, Nb, and Th in the veins, together with elevated F in titanite and the absence of associated sulfides, suggest transport of these high-field-strength elements (HFSE) by F-rich and S-poor hydrothermal fluids unrelated to the fluids that formed the older Fe-Pb-Zn-Ag sulfide ores of the Sullivan deposit. Fluids containing abundant REE, HFSE, and F may have been derived from a

  10. Quantitative assessment of elemental carbon in the lungs of never smokers, cigarette smokers and coal miners

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhalation exposure to particulates such as cigarette smoke and coal dust is known to contribute to the development of chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of elemental carbon (EC) deposits from autopsied lung samples from cigarette smokers, ...

  11. Conversations among Coal Miners in a Campaign to Promote Hearing Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Michael T.; Quick, Brian L.; Witte, Kim; Vaught, Charles; Booth-Butterfield, Steve; Patel, Dhaval

    2009-01-01

    Although working in a coal mine can diminish one's hearing capabilities by 50%, not until 2000 did federal laws require companies to establish noise standards in order to help prevent hearing loss among their employees. Since then, researchers have worked with safety administrators to develop effective messages promoting hearing protection and…

  12. 78 FR 26638 - Non-Competitive One-Year Extension With Funds for Black Lung/Coal Miner Clinics Program (H37...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Non-Competitive One-Year Extension With Funds for Black Lung/Coal Miner Clinics Program (H37) Current Grantee AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration, HHS. ACTION: Correction. SUMMARY: The Health Resources and Services...

  13. H. R. 2182: Coal Miners Unemployment Assistance Act of 1989. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, First Session, May 2, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    H.R. 2182 would establish a temporary program of supplemental unemployment benefits for unemployed coal miners who have exhausted their rights to regular unemployment benefits. An eligible unemployed coal miner is defined as an individual who has exhausted his rights to regular compensation, has no rights to compensation under any other state law, and who has had at least 75 percent of his base wages for services performed directly with the mining of coal. The amount of Federal supplemental benefits will be equal to the amount of regular compensation. The maximum amount payable to any individual will be equal to the lesser of: (1) 100 percent of the total amount of regular compensation payable to him under state law or (2) 26 times the amount of regular compensation payable to him for a week of total unemployment. Funds shall be appropriated from the general fund of the Treasury for these purposes.

  14. Exhaled nitric oxide levels and lung function changes of underground coal miners in Newcastle, Australia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohui; Salter, Amy; Thomas, Paul; Leigh, James; Wang, He

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) in combination with lung function as a marker of airway inflammation produced by coal mining exposure was determined presuming that workers exposed to airborne hazards would possess different concentrations of eNO and decreased lung function indices, relative to control subjects recruited from the same area. The effect of smoking was also considered. A study (exposed) group comprising 186 male subjects (aged 19-58 yr) was recruited from Newcastle coal mining companies with 86 male subjects (aged 20-64 yr) from the same area, but working outside of the coal mining location, serving as controls. The parameters examined were eNO, lung function, and variables derived from an interview-administered questionnaire survey. After adjustment for age, body weight, and smoking status, no significant differences between exposed coal mining workers and controls were found for various lung function parameters. However, the exposed group was shown to have significantly lower concentrations of eNO. In the exposed group, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV(1) (%) predicted were found to be significantly different between nonsmokers and smokers. The concentrations of eNO were not significantly different between smoking and nonsmokers within the exposed group. The consideration of nonsmokers alone showed that eNO was significantly lower in the exposed group compared to the control group. The consideration of smokers alone found that eNO was significantly lower in exposed subjects. In the exposed group, no significant association was detected between eNO levels and underground work duration but a significant negative association was shown between eNO and age. Data suggest that exposure to airborne hazards in coal mining is not significantly associated with lung function changes but is correlated with decreased eNO concentrations in exposed workers. While underground work duration was not found to

  15. The design of a mechanical referencing system for the rear drum of the Longwall Shearer Coal Miner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, E. W.; Yang, T. C. H.

    1981-01-01

    The design of two systems which reference the position of a longwall shearer coal miner to the mine roof of the present cut and of the last cut are presented. This system is part of an automation system that will guide the rear cutting drum in such a manner that the total depth of cut remains constant even though the front drum may be following an undulating roof profile. The rear drum referencing mechanism continually monitors the distance from the mine roof to the floor for the present cut. This system provides a signal to control a constant depth of cut. The last cut follower mechanism continually monitors the distance from the mine roof of the prior cut to the cutting drum. This latter system provides a signal to minimize the step height in the roof between cuts. The dynamic response of this hydraulic-pneumatic and mechanical system is analyzed to determine accumulator size and precharge pressure.

  16. Bioelements and mineral matter in human livers from the highly industrialized region of the Upper Silesia Coal Basin (Poland).

    PubMed

    Lewińska-Preis, Lucyna; Jabłońska, Mariola; Fabiańska, Monika J; Kita, Andrzej

    2011-12-01

    Contents of mineral substance, silica, and a range of bioelements and toxic elements (Mg, Na, K, Ca, Ba, Zn, Cr, P Al, Cd, Mn Cu, Ni, Pb, Sr, Fe) in 38 livers of donors from the Upper Silesia Coal Basin (southern Poland) are presented. Elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) with the exception of silica that was estimated colorimetrically. Concentrations, concentration variability, and correlations between selected liver components determined for the total population are related to donor age, gender, and lesion occurrence. Correlations between particular elements were found using correlation coefficient values and the Fisher transformation. Mineral substance in the livers lies in the range 0.40-5.03 wt%. With increasing donor age, mineral-matter content decreases to a minimum for the 40-60 years of age range. Microbioelement contents show a similar tendency, while microbioelements and toxic elements reach maximum contents in donors aged 60-80 years. All elements show content decreases in livers from the oldest group (>80 years). Silica contents increase with age. Variability of element contents is lowest in the older subpopulations. Livers with lesions show lower element contents and variability. The results are compared to literature data for regions of Poland assumed to be of low pollution and to data from comparable regions in Japan and Hungary. Up to our knowledge, this paper is the first work describing the total contents, as distinct from contents of selected elements, of mineral substance in human livers.

  17. Advanced research and technology: Direct utilization recovery of minerals from coal fly ash. Fossil energy program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnet, G.; Murtha, M. J.; Adelman, D. J.

    1980-12-01

    Methods for utilizing coal fly ash through processes for the extraction of alumina and titania, and for the separation and use of an iron-rich fraction are described. Research of the HiChlor process for the extraction of alumina and titania by high temperature chlorination of a fly ash reductant mixture is described. An engineering cost evaluation is presented for a centralized HiChlor processing facility to process the fly ash of several large coal fueled power stations. Investigations for a high temperature lime soda process for extraction of alumina from fly ash included the use of several types of quarry limestones and waste materials to replace the limestone and/or soda ash.

  18. Desulfurization and de-ashing of a mixture of subbituminous coal and gangue minerals by selective oil agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Ayhan, F.D.

    2009-11-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate desulfurization and de-ashing of a mixture of subbituminous coal and gangue minerals by the agglomeration method. For this purpose, experimental studies were conducted on a mixture containing subbituminous coal, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The effects of some parameters that markedly influence the effectiveness of selective oil agglomeration, such as solid concentration, pH, bridging liquid type and concentration, and depressant type and amount, were investigated. Agglomeration results showed that the usage of various depressants (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}, FeCl3, corn starch, wheat starch) in the agglomeration medium has a positive effect on the reduction of ash and total sulfur content of agglomerates. It was found that an agglomerate product containing 3.03% total sulfur and 25.01% ash with a total sulfur reduction of 56.71% was obtained from a feed that contained 7% total sulfur and 43.58% ash when FeCl{sub 3} was used in the agglomeration medium.

  19. Fly ash from a Mexican mineral coal I: Mineralogical and chemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Medina, Adriana; Gamero, Prócoro; Querol, Xavier; Moreno, Natalia; De León, Beatriz; Almanza, Manuel; Vargas, Gregorio; Izquierdo, María; Font, Oriol

    2010-09-15

    The properties of coal fly ash are strongly dependent on the geological origin and the combustion process of the coal. It is important to characterize regional fly ash in detail to ascertain its potential uses as raw material in the production of high value products. The physicochemical properties of fly ash coming from the "Jose Lopez Portillo" coal-fired power plant, Coahuila, Mexico (MFA), are presented in this work. A detailed study of trace elements, the chemical composition of the amorphous phase, thermal stability and the leaching of contaminant elements under different conditions are included. MFA is composed of mullite, quartz, calcite, magnetite and an amorphous phase. This material contains mainly silica (59.6%), alumina (22.8%) and magnetite (5.6%). Its amorphous phase (78.3%) has a high silica (49.4%) and alumina (14.4%) content. According to its mineralogical and chemical composition, MFA is potentially useful as a raw material for making cement, silica, and alumina, as well as low silica/alumina ratio zeolites. Deleterious elements could be removed during the zeolitization process or with an additional acid treatment. Because of its morphological properties and structural and thermal stability, MFA can be used in thermal isolation and refractory materials and as a support for heterogeneous catalysts.

  20. Genetic damage in coal miners evaluated by buccal micronucleus cytome assay.

    PubMed

    León-Mejía, Grethel; Quintana, Milton; Debastiani, Rafaela; Dias, Johnny; Espitia-Pérez, Lyda; Hartmann, Andreas; Henriques, João Antônio Pêgas; Da Silva, Juliana

    2014-09-01

    During coal mining activities, large quantities of coal dust, ashes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are released into the environment. This complex mixture presents one of the most important occupational hazards for health of workers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the genetic damage together with the presence of inorganic elements, in an exposed workers population to coal mining residues of Guajira-Colombia. Thus, 100 exposed workers and 100 non-exposed control individuals were included in this study. To determine genetic damage we assessed the micronucleus (MN) frequencies and nuclear buds in buccal mucosa samples (BMCyt) assay, which were significantly higher in the exposed group than non-exposed control group. In addition, karyorrhectic and karyolytic cells were also significantly higher in the exposed group (cell death). No significant difference was observed between the exposed groups engaged in different mining activities. No correlation between age, alcohol consumption, time of service and MN assay data were found in this study. However, the content of inorganic elements in blood samples analyzed by a Particle-induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE) showed higher values of silicon (Si) and aluminum (Al) in the exposed group. In this study we discuss the possibility of DNA damage observed in the mine workers cells be a consequence of oxidative damage.

  1. Minerals From the Marine Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruickshank, Michael J.

    The current interest in minerals centering on, among other things, potential shortages, long-term needs, and deep seabed nodules, accentuates the usefulness and timeliness of this little book authored by a former chairman of the British National Environmental Research Council.In less than 100 pages, the author puts into perspective the potential for producing minerals from offshore areas of the world. After introducing the reader to the ocean environment and the extraordinary variety of the nature of the seabed, the author describes in some detail the variety of minerals found there. This is done in seven separate chapters entitled ‘Bulk and Non-Metallic Minerals From the Seas’ ‘Metals From the Shallow Seas’ ‘Metals From the Deep Oceans’ ‘Minerals From Solution’ ‘Oil and Gas from the Shallow Seas’ ‘Oil and Gas From Deep Waters’ and ‘Coal Beneath the Sea.’ The remaining chapters give a brief regional review of marine minerals distribution for eight areas of significant socioeconomic structure, and a short recapitulation of special problems of mineral recovery in the marine environment including such matters as the effect of water motion on mineral processing and of international law on investments. Glossaries of geological periods and technical terms, a short list of references, and an index complete the work.

  2. Binding carbon dioxide in mineral form: A critical step towards a zero-emission coal power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Wendt, C.H.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors have successfully developed the foundation for sequestration of carbon dioxide in mineral form. The purpose of this technology is to maintain the competitiveness of coal energy, even when in the future environmental and political pressures will require a drastic reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. In contrast to most other sequestration methods, this is not aiming at a partial solution of the problem, or at buying time for phasing out fossil energy. Instead, the goal is to obtain a complete and economic solution of the problem, and thus maintain access to the vast fossil energy reservoir. Such a technology will guarantee energy availability for many centuries even if world economic growth exceeds the most optimistic estimates. The approach differs from all others in that the authors are developing an industrial process that chemically binds the carbon dioxide in an exothermic reaction into a mineral carbonate that is thermodynamically stable and environmentally benign.

  3. Compensation for occupational disease with multiple causes: the case of coal miners respiratory diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, J.L.; Wagner, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    Many diseases associated with occupational exposures are clinically indistinguishable from diseases with non-occupational causes. Given this, how are fair decisions made about eligibility for compensation. This problem is discussed in relation to the federal black lung program. Conflicting definitions of terms--coal workers pneumoconiosis as defined by the medical profession, pneumoconiosis as defined by the United States Congress, and the popular term, black lung--are important considerations in this discussion. Each is embedded in different logical interpretations of the causes of occupational disease and of disability. Alternative views are presented and critically discussed.

  4. Autopsy studies of coal miners' lungs. Phase 2. Final report August 77-July 80

    SciTech Connect

    Ruckley, V.A.; Chapman, J.S.; Collings, P.L.; Douglas, A.N.; Fernie, J.M.

    1981-11-01

    This report is based on a post mortem study of the lungs and hearts of various groups of coal workers drawn from an original cohort of 500 men. The men had worked in collieries which took part in Pneumoconiosis Field Research and which covered the range of mining conditions in Britain. The aim of the study was to relate pathological evidence of pneumoconiosis, emphysema and bronchitis and the radiographic appearances of pneumoconiosis to both the dust retained in the lung and the respirable dust to which the men were exposed. Also included were studies of right-sided heart disease and respiratory function during life in relation to lung pathology.

  5. [Follow-up in coal miners suffering from lumbo-sacral radiculopathy].

    PubMed

    Yakovleva, N M; Gorblyansky, Yu Yu; Pictushanskaya, T E

    2015-01-01

    The results of a retrospective dynamic monitoring in 1976-2014 of the workers of coal mines of main (n = 1732) and auxiliary (n = 1059) occupations, with diagnosed occupational sciatica (OS) in the center of occupational medicineare viewed. It was found that the workers of the main occupationson average of 3 years earlier than initially treated at the center of occupational medicine, and occupational disease OS sets for them 1.5-2 years earlier. The analysis of the formation of risk groups depending on the diagnosis and treatment of the primary analysis of the incidence of OS.

  6. "Rule of Thumb Methods No Longer Suffice": Development of British Coal Industry Education and Training 1900-circa 1970 and Lessons for Present-Day Education Policy-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martyn A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper traces the origins and development of coal mining education and training in Britain from 1900 to the 1970s, by which time the coal industry had substantially declined. It looks at the progress from working-class self-help to national policy in support of education and training. The research makes use of college prospectuses and…

  7. Effect of work boot type on work footwear habits, lower limb pain and perceptions of work boot fit and comfort in underground coal miners.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Jessica A; Riddiford-Harland, Diane L; Bell, Alison F; Steele, Julie R

    2017-04-01

    Lower limb injuries are highly prevalent in underground coal mining. Wearing gumboots with inadequate ankle support was thought to contribute to these injuries. Despite the uptake of leather lace-up boots, which provide more ankle support, no recent research could be found investigating the effect of this alternative work boot in underground coal mining. Consequently, this study aimed to determine whether boot type (gumboot, leather lace-up boot) influenced work footwear habits, foot problems, lower limb pain, lower back pain, or perceptions of work boot fit and comfort in underground coal miners. Chi-squared tests were applied to 358 surveys completed by underground coal miners to determine whether responses differed significantly (p < 0.05) according to boot-type. There were no significant between-boot differences in regards to the presence of foot problems, lower limb pain or lower back pain. However, the types of foot problems and locations of foot pain differed according to boot type. Gumboot wearers were also more likely to state that their work boot comfort was either 'uncomfortable' or 'indifferent', their work boot fit was 'poor' and their current boot did not provide enough support. The introduction of more structured leather lace-up boots appears to have positively influenced the support and fit provided by mining work boots, although foot problems, lower limb pain and lower back pain continue to be reported. Further investigation is recommended to identify which specific boot design features caused these observed differences in work boot fit, comfort and locations of foot pain and how these design features can be manipulated to create an underground coal mining work boot that is comfortable and reduces the high incidence of foot problems and lower limb pain suffered by underground coal miners.

  8. Slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry: determination of trace metals in mineral coal.

    PubMed

    Silva, M M; Goreti, M; Vale, R; Caramão, E B

    1999-12-06

    A procedure for lead, cadmium and copper determination in coal samples based on slurry sampling using an atomic absorption spectrometer equipped with a transversely heated graphite tube atomizer is proposed. The slurries were prepared by weighing the samples directly into autosampler cups (5-30 mg) and adding a 1.5 ml aliquot of a diluent mixture of 5% v/v HNO(3), 0.05% Triton X-100 and 10% ethanol. The slurry was homogenized by manual stirring before measurement. Slurry homogenization using ultrasonic agitation was also investigated for comparison. The effect of particle size and the use of different diluent compositions on the slurry preparation were investigated. The temperature programmes were optimized on the basis of pyrolysis and atomization curves. Absorbance characteristics with and without the addition of a palladium-magnesium modifier were compared. The use of 0.05% m/v Pd and 0.03% m/v Mg was found satisfactory for stabilizing Cd and Pb. The calibration was performed with aqueous standards. In addition, a conventional acid digestion procedure was applied to verify the efficiency of the slurry sampling. Better recoveries of the analytes were obtained when the particle size was reduced to <37 mum. Several certified coal reference materials (BCR Nos. 40, 180, and 181) were analyzed, and good agreement was obtained between the results from the proposed slurry sampling method and the certificate values.

  9. Rapid decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and the development of bronchitic symptoms among new Chinese coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.L.; Wu, Z.E.; Du, Q.G.; Peng, K.L.; Ya-Dong, U.; Li, S.K.; Han, G.H.; Petsonk, E.L.

    2007-10-15

    The objective was to investigate the relationship between the development of bronchitic symptoms and the early rapid decline of forced expiratory volume in I second (FEV1). A two-stage and a mixed model approach were used to analyze data from 260 newly hired Chinese coal miners who completed approximately 5 to 16 health surveys during 3 years. The proportion of miners with onset of bronchitic symptoms was significantly elevated after 11 months of underground mining. Miners with incident symptoms had greater declines in FEV1 compared with those who did not (- 65 vs - 23 mL/yr, P < 0. 05). At 24 months follow-up, FEV1 had declined an average 235 mL among the 26 miners who developed bronchitic symptoms and smoked, compared with a decline of 96 mL among the 132 nonsmoking miners without symptoms. Conclusions: Among new coal miners, a sharp early decline in FEV1 is associated with the development of bronchitic symptoms.

  10. Emphysema and Airflow Obstruction in Non-Smoking Coal Miners with Pneumoconiosis

    PubMed Central

    Altınsoy, Bülent; Öz, İbrahim İlker; Erboy, Fatma; Tor, Meltem; Atalay, Figen

    2016-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence shows that functional impairment in subjects with coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) is principally due to emphysema and airflow obstruction, rather than underlying restrictive mechanisms. However, cigarette smoking has remained a major confounder. The aim of this study was to assess whether coal dust exposure was associated with emphysema and/or airflow obstruction in the absence of smoking history. Material/Method The subjects evaluated for possible pneumoconiosis between 2013 and 2015 were retrospectively enrolled into this study. After excluding those with history of smoking, tuberculosis, or lung cancer, the study population was a total of 57 subjects. The emphysema severity and airflow obstruction were quantified by computed tomographic densitometry analysis and spirometry, respectively. For comparability regarding emphysema, 9 age- and sex-matched nonsmoker (n=9) control subjects without known lung disease were randomly selected from a radiology database. Results Emphysema severity was significantly higher in the CWP group compared with the control group (15% vs. 4%, p<0.001). The median percent emphysema and percentage of those with FEV1/FVC <0.7 was 13% and 37% in subjects with simple CWP and 18% and 67% in subjects with complicated CWP, respectively. Percent emphysema and Perc15 (15th percentile of the attenuation curve) was correlated with FEV1/FVC (r=−0.45, r=−0.47) and FEF25–75 (r=−0.36, r=−0.56), respectively, but not with perfusion score. A linear regression analysis showed that factors associated with emphysema were FEV1/FVC (β=−0.24, p=0.009) and large opacity (β=−3.97, p=0.079), and factors associated with FEV1/FVC were percent emphysema (β=−0.51, p=0.018) and tenure (β=−0.63, p=0.044). Conclusions Our results support the observation that coal dust exposure is associated with emphysema and airflow obstruction, independent of smoking status. PMID:27956734

  11. [Characteristics of autonomic regulations in miners working in hard conditions of coal mines].

    PubMed

    Perederiĭ, H S; Ivanov, V V

    2004-01-01

    72 miners aged from 30 till 40 years have been surveyed. It was established that to achieve socially acceptable results the miners use corresponding strategy doing their job. Under the influence of the work the functional states mediated not only by conditions of working environment but also by resistivity of the organism are developed. It is shown that highly productive, reliable and effective work is possible under adequate interactions of central and autonomic mechanisms of regulation. Alteration in these interactions, particularly, non-adequate centralization of management processes decreases physical capacity for work. Enhancement of sympathetic effects on periphery that leads to development of hypertensive reactions has been observed. Such alterations are accompanied by an increase in physiological cost of work and decreased productivity of labor.

  12. Spectroscopic study of emission coal mineral plasma produced by laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, L. P.; Pérez, J. A.; Riascos, H.

    2014-05-01

    Spectroscopic analysis of plasma produced by laser ablation of coal samples using 1064 nm radiation pulses from a Q-switched Nd:YAG on different target under air ambient, was performed. The emission of molecular band systems such as C2 Swan System (d3Πg→a3Πu), the First Negative System N2 (Band head at 501,53 nm) and emission lines of the C I, C II, were investigated using the optical emission spectroscopy technique. The C2 molecular spectra (Swan band) were analyzed to determine vibrational temperature (0,62 eV); the density and electron temperature of the plasma have been evaluated using Stark broadening and the intensity of the nitrogen emission lines N II, the found values of 1,2 eV and 2,2 x1018 cm-3 respectively.

  13. British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    The province of British Columbia has a dubious history where support for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) issues in education is concerned. Most notable is the Surrey School Board's decision in 1997 to ban three picture books for children that depict families with two moms or two dads. The North Vancouver School Board has also…

  14. [FEATURES OF SURGICAL TREATMENT OF MINERS, WHO ARE VICTIMS OF METHANE-COAL MIXTURE EXPLOSION].

    PubMed

    Fistal', E Ia; Soloshenko, V V; Fistal', N N

    2015-01-01

    The article studied an influence of operative treatment on miners in the stage of burn shock, complicated by multi- and combined trauma and how these treatment options have changed the lethality and burn complications rates. All data based on an analysis of retrospective research. A primary surgical treatment of burn wounds was performed using simultaneous grafting by temporary biological cover for superficial burns during the burn shock stage in the main group of patients. For miners of comparison group this strategy hasn't been applied and they were operated after ending of burn shock. The rate of development of burn sepsis decreased in 3,2 times (p=0,0001), the frequency of pneumonia reduced in 2,91 times (p=0,0001) and toxic encephalopathy - in 1,7 times (p=0,004) in the main group in relation to the comparison group. The authors made a conclusion, that significant reduction of the rate of the most dangerous complications of burns allowed decrease of lethality in patients of main group in 2,6 times in relation to the comparison group. There wasn't carried out the primary surgical treatment of burns with covering of postoperative wound surfaces by temporary biological material during burn shock stage in comparison group.

  15. Coal combustion science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Baxter, L.L.; Fletcher, T.H.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks include: coal devolatilization, coal char combustion, and fate of mineral matter during coal combustion. 91 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Effects of minerals on coal-beneficiation processes. Quarterly report No. 10, January 1-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, B. G.; Muter, R. B.; Buttermore, W. H.; Grady, W. C.; Alderman, J. K.; Durham, D. L.

    1980-10-15

    All basic data acquisition relevant to characterization of the contract samples physically and chemically has been completed. Assessment of this data and inter-relationships with mineralogical characterization data is concurrently on-going, with final petrographic data acquisition for the contract to be affected during the next quarter. This remaining analytical work is the detailed maceral analysis of the Illinois No. 6 samples. Work during this quarter focused on coarse and fine coal heavy-media pilot-scale cleaning operations using a heavy-media drum separation and a heavy-media cyclone. Chemical and mineralogical effects produced by these tests are reported herein, completing Task 4 testing of the effects of laboratory pilot cleaning on mineral composition and distribution. Results for froth flotation, size by gravity, jigging, and tabling for this task have been previously reported. Also completed during the work period was the chemical characterization of the Illinois No. 6 slurry-fines sample. Mineralogical data for this sample were reported in Progress Report Number 9.

  17. Application of Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis to biomathematical modeling of respirable dust in US and UK coal miners.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Lisa M; Parker, Ann; Haber, Lynne T; Tran, C Lang; Kuempel, Eileen D

    2013-06-01

    A biomathematical model was previously developed to describe the long-term clearance and retention of particles in the lungs of coal miners. The model structure was evaluated and parameters were estimated in two data sets, one from the United States and one from the United Kingdom. The three-compartment model structure consists of deposition of inhaled particles in the alveolar region, competing processes of either clearance from the alveolar region or translocation to the lung interstitial region, and very slow, irreversible sequestration of interstitialized material in the lung-associated lymph nodes. Point estimates of model parameter values were estimated separately for the two data sets. In the current effort, Bayesian population analysis using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation was used to recalibrate the model while improving assessments of parameter variability and uncertainty. When model parameters were calibrated simultaneously to the two data sets, agreement between the derived parameters for the two groups was very good, and the central tendency values were similar to those derived from the deterministic approach. These findings are relevant to the proposed update of the ICRP human respiratory tract model with revisions to the alveolar-interstitial region based on this long-term particle clearance and retention model.

  18. Application of Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis to biomathematical modeling of respirable dust in US and UK coal miners

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Lisa M.; Parker, Ann; Haber, Lynne T.; Tran, C. Lang; Kuempel, Eileen D.

    2015-01-01

    A biomathematical model was previously developed to describe the long-term clearance and retention of particles in the lungs of coal miners. The model structure was evaluated and parameters were estimated in two data sets, one from the United States and one from the United Kingdom. The three-compartment model structure consists of deposition of inhaled particles in the alveolar region, competing processes of either clearance from the alveolar region or translocation to the lung interstitial region, and very slow, irreversible sequestration of interstitialized material in the lung-associated lymph nodes. Point estimates of model parameter values were estimated separately for the two data sets. In the current effort, Bayesian population analysis using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation was used to recalibrate the model while improving assessments of parameter variability and uncertainty. When model parameters were calibrated simultaneously to the two data sets, agreement between the derived parameters for the two groups was very good, and the central tendency values were similar to those derived from the deterministic approach. These findings are relevant to the proposed update of the ICRP human respiratory tract model with revisions to the alveolar-interstitial region based on this long-term particle clearance and retention model. PMID:23454101

  19. Coal combustion science quarterly progress report, October--December 1992. Task 1, Coal char combustion [and] Task 2, Fate of mineral matter

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L.

    1993-06-01

    In the Coal Combustion Laboratory (CCL) this quarter, controlled laboratory experiments were carried out to better understand the late stages of coal combustion and its relation to unburned carbon levels in fly ash. Optical in situ measurements were made during char combustion at high carbon conversions and the optical data were related to particle morphologies revealed by optical microscopy on samples extracted under the same conditions. Results of this work are reported in detail below. In the data presented below, we compare the fraction of alkali metal loss to that of the alkaline earth metals as a function of coal rank to draw conclusions about the mechanism of release for the latter. Figure 2.1 illustrates the fractional release of the major alkali and alkaline earth metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg) as a function of coal rank for a series of coals and for several coal blends. All data are derived from combustion experiments in Sandia`s Multifuel Combustor (MFC) and represent the average of three to eight experiments under conditions where the mass loss on a dry, ash-free (daf) basis exceeds 95 %. There are no missing data in the figure. The several coals with no indicated result exhibited no mass loss of the alkali or alkaline earth metals in our experiments. There is a clear rank dependence indicated by the data in Fig. 2.1, reflecting the mode of occurrence of the material in the coal.

  20. Coal combustion science: Task 1, Coal char combustion: Task 2, Fate of mineral matter. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Hurt, R.H.; Davis, K.A.; Baxter, L.L.

    1994-07-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) kinetics and mechanisms of pulverized coal char combustion and (2) fate of inorganic material during coal combustion. The objective of Task 1 is to characterize the combustion behavior of selected US coals under conditions relevant to industrial pulverized coal-fired furnaces. In Sandia`s Coal Combustion Laboratory (CCL), optical techniques are used to obtain high-resolution images of individual burning coal char particles and to measure, in situ, their temperatures, sizes, and velocities. Detailed models of combustion transport processes are then used to determine kinetic parameters describing the combustion behavior as a function of coal type and combustion environment. Partially reacted char particles are also sampled and characterized with advanced materials diagnostics to understand the critical physical and chemical transformations that influence reaction rates and burnout times. The ultimate goal of the task is the establishment of a data base of the high temperature reactivities of chars from strategic US coals, from which important trends may be identified and predictive capabilities developed. The overall objectives for task 2 are: (1) to complete experimental and theoretical investigation of ash release mechanisms; (2) to complete experimental work on char fragmentation; (3) to establish the extent of coal (as opposed to char) fragmentation as a function of coal type and particle size; (4) to develop diagnostic capabilities for in situ, real-time, qualitative indications of surface species composition during ash deposition, with work continuing into FY94; (5) to develop diagnostic capabilities for in situ, real-time qualitative detection of inorganic vapor concentrations; and (6) to conduct a literature survey on the current state of understanding of ash deposition, with work continuing into FY94.

  1. The chemical enhancement of the triboelectric separation of coal from pyrite and ash: A novel approach for electrostatic separation of mineral matter from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson, R.M.; DiMare, S.; Sabatini, J.

    1992-02-01

    Arthur D. Little, Inc., under contract to the US DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, has developed a triboelectric separation device for coal beneficiation, that employs an entrained-flow, rotating-cylinder concept. The described apparatus has been used to test the efficacy of chemical pretreatment and in-situ treatment of coal on separation efficiency. Coal particle entrainment is achieved with gaseous carbon dioxide and particle collection is accomplished by an electrostatic plate separator. The triboelectric separation device incorporates instrumentation for the direct measurement of charge in the dilute-phase particle stream. Some of the pretreatment materials investigated under this project to modify the surface charging characteristics of the coal included oleic acid, sodium oleate, quinoline and dicyclohexylamine. Ammonia and sulfur dioxide at a concentration up to 1000 ppM was used for in-situ treatment of the coal, with carbon dioxide as the carrier/inerting gas. Nitrogen was used earlier in the test program as the carrier/inerting gas for the coal, but a severe arcing problem was encountered in the electrostatic collector with nitrogen as the carrier gas. This problem did not occur when carbon dioxide was used. The report covers the chemical treatment employed, and summarizes and interprets the results achieved. In addition, an economic analysis of a full scale system based on this concept is presented.

  2. The chemical enhancement of the triboelectric separation of coal from pyrite and ash: A novel approach for electrostatic separation of mineral matter from coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson, R.M.; DiMare, S.; Sabatini, J.

    1992-02-01

    Arthur D. Little, Inc., under contract to the US DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, has developed a triboelectric separation device for coal beneficiation, that employs an entrained-flow, rotating-cylinder concept. The described apparatus has been used to test the efficacy of chemical pretreatment and in-situ treatment of coal on separation efficiency. Coal particle entrainment is achieved with gaseous carbon dioxide and particle collection is accomplished by an electrostatic plate separator. The triboelectric separation device incorporates instrumentation for the direct measurement of charge in the dilute-phase particle stream. Some of the pretreatment materials investigated under this project to modify the surface charging characteristics of the coal included oleic acid, sodium oleate, quinoline and dicyclohexylamine. Ammonia and sulfur dioxide at a concentration up to 1000 ppM was used for in-situ treatment of the coal, with carbon dioxide as the carrier/inerting gas. Nitrogen was used earlier in the test program as the carrier/inerting gas for the coal, but a severe arcing problem was encountered in the electrostatic collector with nitrogen as the carrier gas. This problem did not occur when carbon dioxide was used. The report covers the chemical treatment employed, and summarizes and interprets the results achieved. In addition, an economic analysis of a full scale system based on this concept is presented.

  3. Relationships among macerals, minerals, miospores and paleoecology in a column of Redstone coal (Upper Pennsylvanian) from north-central West Virginia (U.S.A.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grady, W.C.; Eble, C.F.

    1990-01-01

    Two distinct paleoenvironments are represented in vertical succession in a column of Redstone coal in north-central West Virginia as indicated by a study of 37 consecutive 3-cm (0.1 ft) increments analyzed for ash yield, petrographic composition, low-temperature ash mineralogy and palynomorph abundances. Abundance profiles were constructed for ash, 12 petrographic components, 3 minerals and 5 miospore assemblages. The profiles and calculated correlation coefficients show close relationships between several constituents. Components that increased in abundance upward in the coal bed were a collinite type > 50 microns in thickness, cutinite, and miospores affiliated with calamites, herbaceous lycopods, cordaites and herbaceous ferns. Components that decreased in abundance upward were a collinite type 50 ??m in thickness, cutinite, calamite and cordaite miospores and kaolinite. Significant correlations occurred between ash yield and the collinite types > 50 and < 50 ??m in thickness but no significant correlation was found between ash yield and total vitrinite-group content. This is interpreted to show that division of vitrinite macerals by size is important in petrographic paleoenvironmental studies. Paleoecologic interpretations based upon these correlations suggest that two distinct, planar, probably topogenous paleoecologic environments are represented in this column of the Redstone coal. The lower two-thirds of the coal bed was interpreted to have accumulated in a planar swamp in which significant introduction of detrital or dissolved mineral matter, and significant anaerobic and moderate oxidative degradation of the peat occurred. The flora of this paleoenvironment was dominated by tree ferns. The paleoenvironment during accumulation of the upper one-third of the coal bed was also interpreted to have been a planar swamp, but one in which moderate to low introduction of detrital or dissolved mineral matter, and minor anaerobic and oxidative degradation of the peat

  4. Direct utilization: recovery of minerals from coal fly ash. Fossil Energy program. Technical progress report, 1 January-30 March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Burnet, G.; Murtha, M.J.

    1980-05-01

    Research is focused on the development of methods for recovering minerals from power station fly ash, use of less costly reactants, improvement of energy efficiency, and development of uses for by-products. A research plan developed for collection of kinetic data for fly ash chlorination (HiChlor process) includes the use of different reactant gas mixtures contacting a small bed of fly ash in a new, vertical, down-flow reactor. In work on the lime-soda sinter process, research includes the common ion effect on the concentrations of dissolved alumina, silica, and calcium in the filtrates obtained from extraction of the sintered clinker. Experiments conducted to determine decomposition data for several samples of limestone scrubber sludge are reported. These experiments are the first step toward the possible use of the waste sludge as a replacement for limestone in the sintering process. A series of experiments conducted to evaluate the reactivity of commercial limestones showed that high grade limestone gave alumina recoveries equivalent to those obtained using reagent-grade CaCO/sub 3/ for nine sinter mixtures which were tested. Increased interest use of the iron-rich magnetic fly ash fraction as a heavy media material for coal beneficiation led to preparation of a research proposal to increase the scale of testing by use of commercial heavy media cyclones. The scope of the research is to be expanded to include a range of fly ashes and several commercial magnetite samples. Hydrochemical beneficiation tests of the iron-rich fraction to produce iron ore indicate that the limited dissolution of alumina from the ash is probably due to secondary precipitation reactions during digestion.

  5. Relationships of working conditions and individual characteristics to occupational injuries: a case-control study in coal miners.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Apurna Kumar; Bhattacherjee, Ashis; Chau, Nearkasen

    2004-11-01

    This study assessed the relationship of age, poor perception of working condition, poor safety environment, poor management and supervision, risk-taking behavior, emotional instability, negative job involvement, job dissatisfaction, job stress, and poor safety performance of workers to occupational injuries. This case-control study was conducted on 202 male coal miners with at least one occupational injury during a five-year period and 202 male controls with no occupational injury, matched on the job. A standardized questionnaire administered by individual interviewers was used. Data were analysed by the logistic regression method. For all workers combined, the factors with significant adjusted odds ratios (ORs) found were: 30-45 and >45 yr age groups (OR vs. <30 yr age group: 1.80, 95% CI 1.02-3.17 and 2.59, 1.38-4.85 respectively), poor perception of working conditions (1.61, CI 1.00-3.18), emotional instability (2.33, 1.04-5.22), job stress (1.83, 1.00-3.46) and poor safety performance of workers (3.10, 1.45-6.63). No significant interaction was found between these risk factors and the job. It was concluded that older age, poor perception of work conditions, poor work environment, and human behavioral factors played significant roles in occupational injuries. This information would help in implementing preventive programs to improve working conditions and management quality and to help the workers to develop positive psychological traits, but workers with negative traits such as emotional instability and older workers should be employed in less demanding jobs.

  6. Sir Humphry Davy and the coal miners of the world: a commentary on Davy (1816) 'An account of an invention for giving light in explosive mixtures of fire-damp in coal mines'.

    PubMed

    Thomas, John Meurig

    2015-04-13

    In the period between 1815 and 1818, Sir Humphry Davy read four papers to the Royal Society and published a monograph dealing with a safety lamp for coal miners, all of which record in detail the experimental work that he carried out, with his assistant Michael Faraday, so as to determine how to prevent catastrophic accidents in coal mines by the explosion of fire-damp (methane) in the presence of a naked flame. This article describes the key experiments that he performed at the Royal Institution and some of the subsequent trials made in the coal mines of the north of England. It begins, however, with an account of Davy's prior achievements in science before he was approached for help by the clergymen and doctors in the Gateshead and Newcastle upon Tyne areas. There is little doubt that the Davy lamp, from the 1820s onwards, transformed the coal industry worldwide. It also profoundly influenced the science of combustion, and in the words of a pioneer in that field, W. A. Bone, FRS, 'There is no better model of logical experimental procedure, accurate reasoning, philosophical outlook and fine literary expression.' It is a remarkable fact that it took Davy essentially only two weeks from the time he was given samples of fire-damp to solve the problem and to devise his renowned miner's safety lamp. A brief account is also given of the contemporaneous invention of a safety lamp by George Stephenson, and of some of Davy's subsequent accomplishments. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  7. Sir Humphry Davy and the coal miners of the world: a commentary on Davy (1816) ‘An account of an invention for giving light in explosive mixtures of fire-damp in coal mines’

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, John Meurig

    2015-01-01

    In the period between 1815 and 1818, Sir Humphry Davy read four papers to the Royal Society and published a monograph dealing with a safety lamp for coal miners, all of which record in detail the experimental work that he carried out, with his assistant Michael Faraday, so as to determine how to prevent catastrophic accidents in coal mines by the explosion of fire-damp (methane) in the presence of a naked flame. This article describes the key experiments that he performed at the Royal Institution and some of the subsequent trials made in the coal mines of the north of England. It begins, however, with an account of Davy's prior achievements in science before he was approached for help by the clergymen and doctors in the Gateshead and Newcastle upon Tyne areas. There is little doubt that the Davy lamp, from the 1820s onwards, transformed the coal industry worldwide. It also profoundly influenced the science of combustion, and in the words of a pioneer in that field, W. A. Bone, FRS, ‘There is no better model of logical experimental procedure, accurate reasoning, philosophical outlook and fine literary expression.’ It is a remarkable fact that it took Davy essentially only two weeks from the time he was given samples of fire-damp to solve the problem and to devise his renowned miner's safety lamp. A brief account is also given of the contemporaneous invention of a safety lamp by George Stephenson, and of some of Davy's subsequent accomplishments. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750144

  8. Indications of mineral zoning in a fossil hydrothermal system at the Meager Creek geothermal prospect, British Columbia, Canada from induced polarization studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, S. H.; Zhao, J. X.; Groenwald, J.; Moore, J. N.

    1985-05-01

    By measuring the induced polarization parameters m (chargeability) and tau (time constant) evidence was found that the center of a presumed fossil hydrothermal system at Meager Creek, British Columbia, lies south of the main manifestation of the present day convective hydrothermal system. What implication this finding has for development of the present day system is unknown. However, some of the fractures formed during the development of the fossil hydrothermal system may serve as conduits for fluids of the present day system. The analysis is limited by the lack of availability of a good subsurface distribution of core samples. Nevertheless, a surface induced polarization survey is expected to yield information about the geometry of the fossil system. Such knowledge would have implications not only for Meager Creek but for other hydrothermal systems of Cascades volcano type.

  9. Indications of mineral zoning in a fossil hydrothermal system at the Meager Creek geothermal prospect, British Columbia, Canada, from induced polarization studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, S.H.; Zhao, J.X.; Groenwald, J.; Moore, J.N.

    1985-05-01

    By measuring the induced-polarization parameters m (chargeability) and tau (time-constant) we have found evidence that the center of a presumed fossil hydrothermal system at Meager Creek, British Columbia, lies south of the main manifestation of the present-day convective hydrothermal system. What implication this finding has for development of the present-day system is unknown. However, some of the fractures formed during the development of the fossil hydrothermal system may serve as conduits for fluids of the present-day system. The analysis is limited by the lack of availability of a good subsurface distribution of core samples. Nevertheless, a surface induced-polarization survey is expected to yield information about the geometry of the fossil system. Such knowledge would have implications not only for Meager Creek but for other hydrothermal systems of Cascades volcano type. 16 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Direct utilization: recovery of minerals from coal fly ash. Fossil Energy program, technical progress report, July 1, 1983-September 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Burnet, G.; Murtha, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Work has focused on two methods for resource recovery from coal conversion solid wastes. The HiChlor Process recovers Al, Fe, and Ti minerals from coal fly ash by high temperature chlorination in the presence of a reductant. An understanding of the mechanisms of the gas-solid reactions involved is essential to the design and development of the reactor system. Three possible reaction mechanisms are considered, evaluated, and tested. The second method involves a lime-sinter step to produce soluble aluminates. Research on the process includes scale-up of the sinter step using a 5 in. diam electrically heated kilm. Batch samples of limestone-fly ash-soda ash mixtures are processed, at a rate of about 4 lb/hr. The resulting clinker is used to fully evaluate processing conditions for the extraction, desilication, and product recovery steps. Experiments are completed which evaluate raw material preparation requirements, for sintering and clinker crushing requirements for extraction.

  11. Hydromechanical Advanced Coal Excavator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estus, Jay M.; Summers, David

    1990-01-01

    Water-jet cutting reduces coal dust and its hazards. Advanced mining system utilizes full-face, hydromechanical, continuous miner. Coal excavator uses high-pressure water-jet lances, one in each of cutting heads and one in movable lance, to make cuts across top, bottom and middle height, respectively, of coal face. Wedge-shaped cutting heads advance into lower and upper cuts in turn, thereby breaking coal toward middle cut. Thrust cylinders and walking pads advance excavator toward coal face.

  12. Behavior of mineral matters in Chinese coal ash melting during char-CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O gasification reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaojiang Wu; Zhongxiao Zhang; Guilin Piao; Xiang He; Yushuang Chen; Nobusuke Kobayashi; Shigekatsu Mori; Yoshinori Itaya

    2009-05-15

    The typical Chinese coal ash melting behavior during char-CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O gasification reaction was studied by using TGA, XRD, and SEM-EDX analysis. It was found that ash melting behavior during char gasification reaction is quite different from that during coal combustion process. Far from the simultaneously ash melting behavior during coal combustion, the initial melting behavior of ash usually occurs at a middle or later stage of char-CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O reaction because of endothermic reaction and more reactivity of char gasification reaction as compared with that of mineral melting reactions in ash. In general, the initial melting temperature of ash is as low as 200-300 K below the deformation temperature (T{sub def}) of ash with ASTM test. The initial molten parts in ash are mainly caused by iron bearing minerals such as wustite and iron-rich ferrite phases under gasification condition. Along with the proceeding of ash melting, the melting behavior appears to be accelerated by the presence of calcium to form eutectic mixtures in the FeO-SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO-SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} system. The different states of iron are the dominant reason for different melting behaviors under gasification and combustion conditions. Even under both reducing conditions, the ash fusion temperature (AFT) of coal under char-CO{sub 2} reaction is about 50-100 K lower than that under char-H{sub 2}O reaction condition. The main reason of that is the higher content of CO under char-CO{sub 2} reaction, which can get a lower ratio of Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe in NaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-FeO melts. 38 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. A randomized controlled study on assessment of health status, depression, and anxiety in coal miners with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease following yoga training

    PubMed Central

    Ranjita, Rajashree; Badhai, Sumati; Hankey, Alex; Nagendra, Hongasandra R

    2016-01-01

    Context: Psychological comorbidities are prevalent in coal miners with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and contribute to the severity of the disease reducing their health status. Yoga has been shown to alleviate depression and anxiety associated with other chronic diseases but in COPD not been fully investigated. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the role of yoga on health status, depression, and anxiety in coal miners with COPD. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized trial with two study arms (yoga and control), which enrolled 81 coal miners, ranging from 36 to 60 years with stage II and III stable COPD. Both groups were either on conventional treatment or combination of conventional care with yoga program for 12 weeks. Results: Data were collected through standardized questionnaires; COPD Assessment Test, Beck Depression Inventory and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory at the beginning and the end of the intervention. The yoga group showed statistically significant (P < 0.001) improvements on all scales within the group, all significantly different (P < 0.001) from changes observed in the controls. No significant prepost changes were observed in the control group (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Yoga program led to greater improvement in physical and mental health status than did conventional care. Yoga seems to be a safe, feasible, and effective treatment for patients with COPD. There is a need to conduct more comprehensive, high-quality, evidence-based studies to shed light on the current understanding of the efficacy of yoga in these chronic conditions and identify unanswered questions. PMID:27512321

  14. Direct utilization - recovery of minerals from coal fly ash. Advanced research and technology. Technical progress report, 1 January 1983-31 March 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Burnet, G.; Murtha, M.J.

    1983-05-01

    The primary objective is to develop and/or improve methods for utilization of coal fly ash as a source of minerals. Processes are being studied for the recovery of aluminium, iron, and titanium from fly ash and for the utilization of residues. There are 4 tasks which include: development of the HiChlor process; improvement of the Lime-Soda Sinter Process; improvement of the Lime-Flyash Sinter Process; and the recovery and use of an iron-rich fly ash fraction. Progress accomplished during the quarter ending March 31, 1983, is reported. 6 references, 21 figures, 9 tables. (DMC)

  15. Coal Miner's Daughter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    Applied academics is the watchword in several West Virginia secondary schools. Instead of sitting in classrooms, junior high students are measuring floor tiles, estimating stadium seating capacity, or launching models to study acceleration; high school students are creating a complicated model-railroad layout and a computer-controlled system to…

  16. Gasification of residual materials from coal liquefaction. Type III extended pilot plant evaluation of a pelletized and ground Kerr McGee mineral ash residue from SRC-I coal liquefaction process

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.M.; Robin, A.M.

    1984-02-01

    A Type III extended pilot plant evaluation of pelletized and ground Kerr McGee mineral ash residue, which was obtained from the liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal at the SRC-I coal liquefaction process pilot plant at Wilsonville, Alabama, was successfully completed at Texaco's Montebello Research Laboratory (MRL). A total of 60 tons of residue was gasified during three runs which were carried out at 950 psig in the MRL High Pressure Solids Gasification Unit II gasifier. The oxygen-to-residue ratio was varied to determine optimum operating conditions. The runs lasted from 6.9 hours to 56.3 hours and a total of 72.9 hours of on-stream time was accumulated. This work was authorized by DOE Delivery Order Number 9 under DOE contract DEAC-01-76ET-10137. It is part of a continuing project to evaluate residual materials from various DOE sponsored coal liquefaction projects to determine their suitability for conversion to hydrogen using one of the Texaco gasification processes. 5 figures, 5 tables.

  17. Diagenetic mineralization in Pennsylvanian coals from Indiana, USA: 13C/12C and 18O/16O implications for cleat origin and coalbed methane generation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Solano-Acosta, W.; Schimmelmann, A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Arango, I.

    2008-01-01

    Cleats and fractures in southwestern Indiana coal seams are often filled with authigenic kaolinite and/or calcite. Carbon- and oxygen-stable isotope ratios of kaolinite, calcite, and coalbed CO2 were evaluated in combination with measured values and published estimates of ??18O of coalbed paleowaters that had been present at the time of mineralization. ??18Omineral and ??18Owater values jointly constrain the paleotemperature of mineralization. The isotopic evidence and the thermal and tectonic history of this part of the Illinois Basin led to the conclusion that maximum burial and heat-sterilization of coal seams approximately 272??Ma ago was followed by advective heat redistribution and concurrent precipitation of kaolinite in cleats at a burial depth of < 1600??m at ??? 78 ?? 5????C. Post-Paleozoic uplift, the development of a second generation of cleats, and subsequent precipitation of calcite occurred at shallower burial depth between ??? 500 to ??? 1300??m at a lower temperature of 43 ?? 6????C. The available paleowater in coalbeds was likely ocean water and/or tropical meteoric water with a ??18Owater ??? - 1.25??? versus VSMOW. Inoculation of coalbeds with methanogenic CO2-reducing microbes occurred at an even later time, because modern microbially influenced 13C-enriched coalbed CO2 (i.e., the isotopically fractionated residue of microbial CO2 reduction) is out of isotopic equilibrium with 13C-depleted calcite in cleats. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Grid-fitting: A method for improved financial and physical analysis of coal and other mineral deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.W.; Leonard, J.W.

    1984-02-01

    Much progress has been made in the application of geostatistics to hard rock ore deposits. Progress in the application of geostatistics to coal deposits has developed over a period of time out of hard rock technology. Exploratory drilling in many hard rock deposits is frequently significantly more productive than exploratory drilling in coal deposits. For example, hundreds of feet of drilling and/or many drill setups are frequently necessary to obtain a few samples from a typical 4 to 6 foot thick coal seam. With hard rock deposits, which are frequently thick or volumetric, less drilling dead work is involved in sampling the deposit. To produce a variogram, which is the basic element needed for geostatistical analysis, a few well positioned holes drilled into a hard rock deposit where the core(s) can be divided into many sections can produce a detailed variogram. To produce a similar type variogram in coal, it is necessary to drill many dozens of holes with much of the core length consisting of overburden data which is frequently of only secondary importance. To apply geostatistics to coal, not only are many separate sample sites needed, but frequently a problem exists in that the interval distance between samples cannot be controlled with the ease that hard rock drilling intervals can be controlled where it is only necessary to cut core segments according to some preassigned interval of distance. Because the uses of existing coal deposit samples are frequently handicapped by irregular sample distances and lack of sampling density along certain directions needed for the development of variograms, the application of geostatistics to coal deposits frequently does not proceed with the same efficiency and rapidity as when these techniques are applied to ore deposits.

  19. Abundances and distribution of minerals and elements in high-alumina coal fly ash from the Jungar Power Plant, Inner Mongolia, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dai, S.; Zhao, L.; Peng, S.; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Li, D.; Sun, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The fly ash from the Jungar Power Plant, Inner Mongolia, China, is unique because it is highly enriched in alumina (Al2O3>50%). The fly ash mainly consists of amorphous glass and mullite and trace amounts of corundum, quartz, char, calcite, K-feldspar, clay minerals, and Fe-bearing minerals. The mullite content in fly ash is as high as 37.4% because of high boehmite and kaolinite contents in feed coal. Corundum is a characteristic mineral formed during the combustion of boehmite-rich coal.Samples from the economizer were sieved into six size fractions (<120, 120-160, 160-300, 300-360, 360-500, and >500 mesh) and separated into magnetic, mullite+corundum+quartz (MCQ) and glass phases for mineralogical and chemical analysis. The corundum content increases but amorphous glass decreases with decreasing particle size. Fractions of small particle sizes are relatively high in mullite, probably because mullite was formed from fine clay mineral particles under high-temperature combustion condition. Similarly, fine corundum crystals formed in the boiler from boehmite in feed coal. The magnetic phase consists of hematite, magnetite, magnesioferrite, and MgFeAlO4 crystals. The MCQ phase is composed of 89% mullite, 6.1% corundum, 4.5% quartz, and 0.5% K-feldspar.Overall, the fly ash from the power plant is significantly enriched in Al2O3 with an average of 51.9%, but poor in SiO2, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, Na2O, P2O5, and As. Arsenic, TiO2, Th, Al2O3, Bi, La, Ga, Ni, and V are high in mullite, and the magnetic matter is enriched in Fe2O3, CaO, MnO, TiO2, Cs, Co, As, Cd, Ba, Ni, Sb, MgO, Zn, and V. The remaining elements are high in the glass fraction. The concentration of K2O, Na2O, P2O5, Nb, Cr, Ta, U, W, Rb, and Ni do not clearly vary with particle size, while SiO2 and Hg decrease and the remaining elements clearly increase with decreasing particle size. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

  1. Electrostatic surface structures of coal and mineral particles. Semi-annual report, September 1, 1996--March 1, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumder, M.K.; Lindquist, D.; Tennal, K.B.

    1997-12-31

    This paper contains three progress reports: Tribocharging Properties of Coal -- UV Photoelectron Spectroscopy by Adam Brown and Nick Grable; Electrostatic Separation of Coal as a Function of Particle Size Distribution by Jian Zheng; and Development of an Image Analyzer for Size and Charge Analysis of Coal Particles by Kevin Tennal and Gan Kok Hwee. The first paper discusses a literature survey and the instrumentation for photoelectron spectroscopy. The second discusses particle size classifying and electrodynamic trapping of charged particles. The third paper discusses laser and transmitting optics, collection optics, high voltage drives, electrodes, synchronization circuitry, camera, analysis of images, and additional considerations. An appendix to this paper describes the equations with the image analyzer.

  2. Coal Combustion Science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. )

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  3. Petrographic and isotope constraints on the origin of authigenic carbonate minerals and the associated fluid evolution in Late Permian coal measures, Bowen Basin (Queensland), Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uysal, I. T.; Golding, S. D.; Glikson, M.

    2000-11-01

    Authigenic carbonate minerals are ubiquitous throughout the Late Permian coal measures of the Bowen Basin, Queensland, Australia. In the northern Bowen Basin, carbonates include the following assemblages: siderite I (δ 18OSMOW=+11.4 to +17%, δ 13CPDB=-5.3 to +120), Fe-Mg calcite-ankerite-siderite II mineral association (δ 18OSMOW=+7.2 to +10.20, δ 13CPDB=10.9 to -1.80 for ankerite) and a later calcite (δ 18OSMOW=+5.9 to +14.60, δ 13CPDB=-11.4 to +4.40). In the southern Bowen Basin, the carbonate phase consists only of calcite (δ 18OSMOW=+12.5 to +14.80, δ 13CPDB=-19.4 to +0.80), where it occurs extensively throughout all stratigraphic levels. Siderite I occurs in mudrocks and sandstones and predates all other carbonate minerals. This carbonate phase is interpreted to have formed as an early diagenetic mineral from meteoric waters under cold climate and reducing conditions. Fe-Mg calcite-ankerite-siderite II occur in sandstones as replacement of volcanic rock fragments. Clay minerals (illite-smectite, chlorite and kaolinite) postdate Ca-Fe-Mg carbonates, and precipitation of the later calcite is associated with clay mineral formation. The Ca-Fe-Mg carbonates and later calcite of the northern Bowen Basin are regarded as having formed as a result of hydrothermal activity during the latest Triassic extensional tectonic event which affected this part of the basin, rather than deep burial diagenesis during the Middle to Late Triassic as previously reported. This hypothesis is based on the timing relationships of the authigenic mineral phases and the low δ18O values of ankerite and calcite, together with radiometric dating of illitic clays and recently published regional geological evidence. Following the precipitation of the Ca-Fe-Mg carbonates from strongly 18O-depleted meteoric-hydrothermal fluids, continuing fluid circulation and water-rock interaction resulted in dissolution of these carbonate phases as well as labile fragments of volcaniclastic rocks

  4. 30 CFR 750.15 - Coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal exploration. 750.15 Section 750.15 Mineral... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.15 Coal exploration. Coal exploration operations on Indian lands shall be conducted in accordance with 25 CFR part...

  5. 30 CFR 750.15 - Coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal exploration. 750.15 Section 750.15 Mineral... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.15 Coal exploration. Coal exploration operations on Indian lands shall be conducted in accordance with 25 CFR part...

  6. 30 CFR 750.15 - Coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal exploration. 750.15 Section 750.15 Mineral... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.15 Coal exploration. Coal exploration operations on Indian lands shall be conducted in accordance with 25 CFR part...

  7. 30 CFR 750.15 - Coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal exploration. 750.15 Section 750.15 Mineral... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.15 Coal exploration. Coal exploration operations on Indian lands shall be conducted in accordance with 25 CFR part...

  8. 30 CFR 750.15 - Coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal exploration. 750.15 Section 750.15 Mineral... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.15 Coal exploration. Coal exploration operations on Indian lands shall be conducted in accordance with 25 CFR part...

  9. Best of British: British Information Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojala, Marydee

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the importance of British databases and information services to U.S. business searchers and describes several British databases and services. Topics covered include database contents, available search strategies, access from the United States, language differences, and dating problems. A directory of contacts is provided. (six…

  10. Ground water-surface water relations in the Flathead River valley near the proposed Cabin Creek coal mine, British Columbia, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moreland, J.A.; Liebscher, Hugh; Van Voast, W. A.; Feltis, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The area of the proposed Cabin Creek coal mine was studied to obtain information needed to respond to questions posed by the International Joint Commission advisers concerning water resources near the international border. Specific interest focused on determining the extent and character of surficial material in the Flathead River valley, identifying gaining and losing reaches of the river and major tributaries, and documenting ambient water quality at selected sites. Thickness of the alluvial deposits depends on depth to underlaying Quaternary glacial deposits or Tertiary bedrock. The alluvial deposits in the Flathead River valley thin to a veneer of cobbles near the mouth of Couldrey Creek. Measurements of streamflow at 20 sites in the Flathead River valley indicate that water discharges from the alluvial deposits to most of the tributaries and to the river near the proposed mine. The Flathead River gains 0.87 cu m/sec (31 cu ft/sec) of flow near Howell Creek. The Flathead River and Couldrey Creek gained about 0.81 cu m/sec (28.5 cu ft/sec) of flow near the mouth of Couldrey Creek where bedrock crops out in the streambeds. Bedrock outcrops effectively interrupt the alluvial aquifer system between the proposed mine site and the international border. The Flathead River lost 0.87 cu m/sec (31 cu ft/sec) of flow between the bedrock outcrops and the international border; this streamflow loss enters alluvial deposits and flows across the international border as subsurface flow. Analysis of samples from 18 stream sites and 1 spring site indicates general trends in water quality. In Howell Creek, concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and sulfates increased slightly downstream. Conversely, samples from Sage and Couldrey Creeks indicate downstream increases in concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and alkalinity, but decreases in concentrations of sulfate. Water quality of Cabin Creek was relatively stable through the sampled reach. Decreased concentrations of calcium and

  11. British Sign Name Customs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  12. Advanced research and technology: direct utilization-recovery of minerals from coal fly ash. Technical progress report, 1 October 1978-30 September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Burnet, G.; Murtha, M.

    1980-01-01

    Research focused on technical development of promising methods for recovering minerals from power plant fly ash. Development of the high-temperature (HiChlor) gas chlorination process and refinement and definition of the recovery steps of extraction and desilication for the lime-soda sinter process were emphasized. A preliminary design and cost estimate for commercialization of the HiChlor process and a proposal for a process development unit for scale-up of the lime-soda sinter process were prepared. Both physical and chemical beneficiation techniques to upgrade the iron content of the magnetic fly ash were tested; chemical beneficiation using high-temperature NaOH leaching was found to be the most effective method. Pretreatment for each of the processes includes magnetic separation of coal fly ash. Bituminous coal fly ashes contain magnetic iron oxide particles which can be removed by magnetic separation. The magnetic material consists primarily of iron oxides, with small amounts of silica and alumina. Removal of additional silica and alumina will give a product which can be used for steel production. Physical investigations included careful study of internal structure of fly ash particles. Fly ash samples were separated for a range of electromagnetic power settings and the fractions were analyzed for size determinations, chemical compositions, and morphological contents. Chemical analyses showed that, for the nonmagnetic fly ash fractions, the silica and iron contents are independent of size, and that the alumina content is highest in the smaller particles.

  13. Effect of TNF and LTA polymorphisms on biological markers of response to oxidative stimuli in coal miners: a model of gene-environment interaction

    PubMed Central

    Nadif, R; Jedlicka, A; Mintz, M; Bertrand, J; Kleeberger, S; Kauffmann, F

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Interaction between genetic background and oxidative environmental stimuli in the pathogenesis of human lung disease has been largely unexplored. Methods: A prospective epidemiological study was undertaken in 253 coal miners. Intermediate quantitative phenotypes of response to oxidant exposure, including erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase activities, were studied. Oxidant exposures studied were smoking habits and cumulative dust exposure assessed by job history and ambient measures. Disease phenotypes included subclinical computed tomography score at the first survey and x ray profusion grades twice, five years apart, to assess established coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). Miners were genotyped for common functional polymorphisms in the gene for tumour necrosis factor α (TNF) and lymphotoxin α (LTA), two proinflammatory cytokines that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases. Results: Regarding gene-environment interaction on intermediate phenotypes, results showed interaction of a promoter polymorphism at the –308 position in TNF with occupational exposure on erythrocyte GSH-Px activity with a significant association in those with high exposure (p=0.003), whereas no association was observed among those with low exposure (interaction p=0.06). Regarding gene intermediate phenotype interaction on clinical outcome, results showed an association of CWP prevalence with an NcoI polymorphism in LTA in those with low catalase activity (p=0.05), whereas no association was observed in those with high activity (interaction p=0.03). No other significant association was observed. Conclusion: The results suggest that interactions of genetic background with environmental exposure and intermediate response phenotypes are important components in the pathogenesis of CWP. PMID:12566517

  14. Deashing of coal liquids with ceramic membrane microfiltration and diafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, B.; Goldsmith, R.

    1995-12-31

    Removal of mineral matter from liquid hydrocarbons derived from the direct liquefaction of coal is required for product acceptability. Current methods include critical solvent deashing (Rose{sup {reg_sign}} process from Kerr-McGee) and filtration (U.S. Filter leaf filter as used by British Coal). These methods produce ash reject streams containing up to 15% of the liquid hydrocarbon product. Consequently, CeraMem proposed the use of low cost, ceramic crossflow membranes for the filtration of coal liquids bottoms to remove mineral matter and subsequent diafiltration (analogous to cake washing in dead-ended filtration) for the removal of coal liquid from the solids stream. The use of these ceramic crossflow membranes overcomes the limitations of traditional polymeric crossflow membranes by having the ability to operate at elevated temperature and to withstand prolonged exposure to hydrocarbon and solvent media. In addition, CeraMem`s membrane filters are significantly less expensive than competitive ceramic membranes due to their unique construction. With these ceramic membrane filters, it may be possible to reduce the product losses associated with traditional deashing processes at an economically attractive cost. The performance of these ceramic membrane microfilters is discussed.

  15. Inventario mundial de la calidad del carbon mineral (WoCQI) [The world coal quality inventory (WoCQI)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.; Lovern, V.S.

    2001-01-01

    Los oficiales encargados de la politica comercial de cada pais requieren informacion clara y precisa sobre el recurso del carbon mineral, particularmente sobre sus propiedades y caracteristicas, para tomar decisiones bien fundamentadas con respecto al mejor uso de los recursos naturales, necesidades de importacion y oportunidades de exportacion, objetivos de politica interna y externa, oportunidades de transferencia tecnologica, posibilidades de inversion externa, estudios ambientales y de salud, y asuntos relacionados con el uso de productos secundarios y su disposicion.

  16. Direct utilization - recovery of minerals from coal fly ash. Technical progress report, October 1, 1982-December 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Burnet, G.; Murtha, M.J.; Seaverson, L.M.

    1983-02-01

    Research included an examination of the adsorbed water on coal fly ash, the utilization of phosgene as a chlorination agent, the physical adsorption and chemisorption of phosgene on fly ash particles, and the aqueous separation of chlorination products. Results of an investigation of coal fly ash powder samples using photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy showed almost complete removal of adsorbed water after drying for 30 hours at 700/sup 0/C. A thermodynamic computer simulation of the chlorination of an SiO/sub 2/ and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ mixture of 2:1 molar ratio with a stoichiometric amount of carbon present revealed that silica is the preferred reactant at lower temperature, but that alumina chlorination is preferred at 800/sup 0/C. Experiments using phosgene to chlorinate acid-leached Texas lignite fly ash gave information about the kinetic rate dependence of the reaction involved. Work to determine the amount of chemisorption and physical adsorption of phosgene on pellets of the leached Texas lignite ash was initiated to permit the calculation of surface reaction rates. Separation of FeCl/sub 3/ by solvent extraction improved as the chloride ion concentration of the aqueous phase increased, regardless of whether the associated cation was hydrogen or aluminum. A static equilibrium cell/furnace arrangement with ultraviolet spectroscopy capability has been confirmed to be suitable for measurement of the absorbance of vapor species. A Harper 6 in. dia rotary kiln was used to continuously sinter a limestone-soda ash-fly ash mixture in the form of 1/8 in. dia pellets. Extraction of sintered material with dilute aqueous soda ash solution gave aluminate recoveries comparable to those obtained when small samples were sintered in a benchscale tube furnace. Results are presented which show that x-ray diffraction data can be used to calculate the amounts of individual compounds in sintered samples.

  17. Emphysema and dust exposure in a group of coal workers

    SciTech Connect

    Ruckley, V.A.; Gauld, S.J.; Chapman, J.S.; Davis, J.M.; Douglas, A.N.; Fernie, J.M.; Jacobsen, M.; Lamb, D.

    1984-04-01

    The lungs of 450 coal miners who had been studied previously in a long-term epidemiologic project at 24 British mines have been examined post-mortem for signs of dust-related fibrosis and emphysema. Reliable estimates of cumulative (working-life) exposures to respirable mine dust were available for 342 of the men. The relative frequency of emphysema increased with age at death, and both panacinar and centriacinar emphysema occurred more frequently in smokers than in nonsmokers. The proportion of subjects with any emphysema was 47% in 92 men with no palpable dust lesions, 65% in 183 with small, simple pneumoconiotic lesions, and 83% in 175 miners with massive fibrosis (PMF). The chance of finding centriacinar emphysema in those with PMF increased significantly with increasing exposure to coal dust in life (p less than 0.025). A similar but less convincing relationship was found in those with simple pneumoconiosis (p less than 0.11), but in both groups, increasing amounts of ash with a given exposure to coal reduced the probability of finding centriacinar emphysema. The occurrence of centriacinar emphysema was associated also with increasing amounts of dust retained in the lungs. A preliminary exploration of this association did not support the hypothesis that emphysematous lungs clear dust less efficiently. We conclude that the association observed between exposure to respirable coal dust and emphysema in coal miners indicates a causal relationship. However, because it can be demonstrated only for men whose lungs show some dust-related fibrosis, it is suggested that the extent and nature of such fibrosis may be a crucial factor in determining the presence of centriacinar emphysema.

  18. Expectations training for miners using self-contained self-rescuers in escapes from underground coal mines

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski-Trakofler, K.M.; Vaught, C.; Brnich, M.J.

    2008-10-15

    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health researchers conducted a study to investigate the human response issues related to wearing a self-contained self-rescuer (SCSR). The goal was to develop training to educate miners on what they could expect from their units during an escape. Subjects included miners who had experience wearing SCSRs, manufacturers, and researchers. Results identified nine key areas of concern: (1) starting the unit, (2) unit heat, (3) induction of coughing, (4) unit taste, (5) difficulty in breathing while wearing the unit, (6) quality of the air supplied, (7) nose clips, (8) goggles (9) the behavior of the breathing bag. In addition, researchers reviewed the literature on human response under duress. This article describes the expectations training program, which comprises the findings of the SCSR study, and what is known about the normal human response in an emergency. The authors present background on SCSRs and the SCSR switchover procedure. mandated in the recent federal Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006, which provided the impetus for the expectations training.

  19. CO2 capture using fly ash from coal fired power plant and applications of CO2-captured fly ash as a mineral admixture for concrete.

    PubMed

    Siriruang, Chaichan; Toochinda, Pisanu; Julnipitawong, Parnthep; Tangtermsirikul, Somnuk

    2016-04-01

    The utilization of fly ash as a solid sorbent material for CO2 capture via surface adsorption and carbonation reaction was evaluated as an economically feasible CO2 reduction technique. The results show that fly ash from a coal fired power plant can capture CO2 up to 304.7 μmol/g fly ash, consisting of 2.9 and 301.8 μmol/g fly ash via adsorption and carbonation, respectively. The CO2 adsorption conditions (temperature, pressure, and moisture) can affect CO2 capture performance of fly ash. The carbonation of CO2 with free CaO in fly ashes was evaluated and the results indicated that the reaction consumed most of free CaO in fly ash. The fly ashes after CO2 capture were further used for application as a mineral admixture for concrete. Properties such as water requirement, compressive strength, autoclave expansion, and carbonation depth of mortar and paste specimens using fly ash before and after CO2 capture were tested and compared with material standards. The results show that the expansion of mortar specimens using fly ash after CO2 capture was greatly reduced due to the reduction of free CaO content in the fly ash compared to the expansion of specimens using fresh fly ash. There were no significant differences in the water requirement and compressive strength of specimens using fly ash, before and after CO2 capture process. The results from this study can lead to an alternative CO2 capture technique with doubtless utilization of fly ash after CO2 capture as a mineral admixture for concrete.

  20. Fly ash from a Mexican mineral coal. II. Source of W zeolite and its effectiveness in arsenic (V) adsorption.

    PubMed

    Medina, Adriana; Gamero, Prócoro; Almanza, José Manuel; Vargas, Alfredo; Montoya, Ascención; Vargas, Gregorio; Izquierdo, María

    2010-09-15

    Coal-fired plants in Coahuila (Mexico) produce highly reactive fly ash (MFA), which is used in a one-step process as a raw material in producing zeolite. We explored two routes in the synthesis of zeolite: (a) direct MFA zeolitization, which resulted in the formation of W zeolite with KOH and analcime with NaOH and (b) a MFA fusion route, which resulted in the formation of zeolite W or chabazite with KOH and zeolite X or P with NaOH. No residual crystalline phases were present. When LiOH was employed, ABW zeolite with quartz and mullite were obtained. For both zeolitization routes, the nature of the alkali (KOH, NaOH, LiOH), the alkali/MFA ratio (0.23-1.46), and the crystallization temperature and time (90-175 degrees C; 8-24 h) were evaluated. Additionally, the effect of temperature and time on MFA fusion was studied. W zeolite was obtained by both zeolitization methods. The direct route is preferred because it is a straightforward method using soft reaction conditions that results in a high yield of low cost zeolites with large crystal agglomerates. It was demonstrated that aluminum modified W zeolite has the ability to remove 99% of the arsenic (V) from an aqueous solution of Na(2)HAsO(4).7H(2)O originally containing 740 ppb.

  1. Sinterability study of ceramic bodies made from a mixture of mineral coal bottom ash and soda-lime glass cullet.

    PubMed

    Villanova, Daniela L; Bergmann, Carlos P

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the sinterability to improve the technical properties of ceramic bodies made from coal bottom ash and soda-lime glass cullet. Different mixtures of bottom ash and glass cullet were formulated. The amount of bottom ash was 100, 70, 50 and 30 wt.%. The particle size distribution was the same for all formulations. The mixture containing 50 wt.% bottom ash also had its particle size distribution changed. Samples were formed by dry pressing and then fired at 950, 1050 and 1150 degrees C. Samples were evaluated for linear shrinkage, water absorption, flexural mechanical resistance, scanning electronic microscopy, pyroplastic deformation and thermodilatometric analysis. The higher firing temperature led to a decrease in water absorption and increased linear shrinkage, mechanical resistance and pyroplastic deformation. This effect was also observed for addition of glass up to 50 wt.%. The effect of smaller particles of bottom ash was more significant for linear shrinkage and mechanical resistance of ceramic bodies fired at 1150 degrees C. The use of a finer powder contributed to increase these properties. The influence of finer particles on water absorption and mechanical resistance of ceramic bodies fired at 950 and 1050 degrees C was not significant.

  2. 30 CFR 816.59 - Coal recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal recovery. 816.59 Section 816.59 Mineral... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.59 Coal recovery... coal, while utilizing the best appropriate technology currently available to maintain...

  3. 30 CFR 817.59 - Coal recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal recovery. 817.59 Section 817.59 Mineral... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.59 Coal... conservation of the coal, while utilizing the best technology currently available to maintain...

  4. 30 CFR 817.59 - Coal recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal recovery. 817.59 Section 817.59 Mineral... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.59 Coal... conservation of the coal, while utilizing the best technology currently available to maintain...

  5. 30 CFR 817.59 - Coal recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal recovery. 817.59 Section 817.59 Mineral... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.59 Coal... conservation of the coal, while utilizing the best technology currently available to maintain...

  6. 30 CFR 816.59 - Coal recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal recovery. 816.59 Section 816.59 Mineral... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.59 Coal recovery... coal, while utilizing the best appropriate technology currently available to maintain...

  7. 30 CFR 816.59 - Coal recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal recovery. 816.59 Section 816.59 Mineral... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.59 Coal recovery... coal, while utilizing the best appropriate technology currently available to maintain...

  8. State coal profiles, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  9. Transcriptome Analysis of Invasive Plants in Response to Mineral Toxicity of Reclaimed Coal-Mine Soil in the Appalachian Region.

    PubMed

    Saminathan, Thangasamy; Malkaram, Sridhar A; Patel, Dharmesh; Taylor, Kaitlyn; Hass, Amir; Nimmakayala, Padma; Huber, David H; Reddy, Umesh K

    2015-09-01

    Efficient postmining reclamation requires successful revegetation. By using RNA sequencing, we evaluated the growth response of two invasive plants, goutweed (Aegopodium podagraria L.) and mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris), grown in two Appalachian acid-mine soils (MS-I and -II, pH ∼ 4.6). Although deficient in macronutrients, both soils contained high levels of plant-available Al, Fe and Mn. Both plant types showed toxicity tolerance, but metal accumulation differed by plant and site. With MS-I, Al accumulation was greater for mugwort than goutweed (385 ± 47 vs 2151 ± 251 μg g-1). Al concentration was similar between mine sites, but its accumulation in mugwort was greater with MS-I than MS-II, with no difference in accumulation by site for goutweed. An in situ approach revealed deregulation of multiple factors such as transporters, transcription factors, and metal chelators for metal uptake or exclusion. The two plant systems showed common gene expression patterns for different pathways. Both plant systems appeared to have few common heavy-metal pathway regulators addressing mineral toxicity/deficiency in both mine sites, which implies adaptability of invasive plants for efficient growth at mine sites with toxic waste. Functional genomics can be used to screen for plant adaptability, especially for reclamation and phytoremediation of contaminated soils and waters.

  10. 30 CFR 75.1709 - Accumulations of methane and coal dust on surface coal-handling facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accumulations of methane and coal dust on surface coal-handling facilities. 75.1709 Section 75.1709 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1709 - Accumulations of methane and coal dust on surface coal-handling facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accumulations of methane and coal dust on surface coal-handling facilities. 75.1709 Section 75.1709 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1709 - Accumulations of methane and coal dust on surface coal-handling facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accumulations of methane and coal dust on surface coal-handling facilities. 75.1709 Section 75.1709 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1709 - Accumulations of methane and coal dust on surface coal-handling facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accumulations of methane and coal dust on surface coal-handling facilities. 75.1709 Section 75.1709 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1709 - Accumulations of methane and coal dust on surface coal-handling facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accumulations of methane and coal dust on surface coal-handling facilities. 75.1709 Section 75.1709 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL...

  15. Recent developments in coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Schad, M.K.; Hafke, C.F.

    1983-05-01

    The authors trace the historical development of the Lurgi fixed-bed gasifier, showing how its application has been expanded. Improvements have been made in the type and size of coal which can be gasified and in the quality of gas produced. Particular attention is given to the Ruhr 100 pressure gasifier and to the British Gas/Lurgi slagging gasifier. Current work includes a programme on fine-coal agglomeration.

  16. 30 CFR 72.510 - Miner health training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Miner health training. 72.510 Section 72.510 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH HEALTH STANDARDS FOR COAL MINES Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Areas of Underground Coal...

  17. 30 CFR 72.510 - Miner health training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Miner health training. 72.510 Section 72.510 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH HEALTH STANDARDS FOR COAL MINES Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Areas of Underground Coal...

  18. 30 CFR 72.510 - Miner health training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Miner health training. 72.510 Section 72.510 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH HEALTH STANDARDS FOR COAL MINES Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Areas of Underground Coal...

  19. 30 CFR 72.510 - Miner health training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Miner health training. 72.510 Section 72.510 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH HEALTH STANDARDS FOR COAL MINES Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Areas of Underground Coal...

  20. 30 CFR 72.510 - Miner health training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Miner health training. 72.510 Section 72.510 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH HEALTH STANDARDS FOR COAL MINES Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Areas of Underground Coal...

  1. S. 2427: a bill to amend the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 to improve the administration of the Federal Coal Leasing Program, and for other purposes. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, May 8, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The Federal Coal Leasing and Utilization Act of 1986 amends the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 to improve the administration of the Federal Coal Leasing Program. The bill redefines leasing eligibility and procedures, and prohibits competitive bidding under specified circumstances. The purpose of the legislation is to encourage coal mining by redefining contiguous holdings and providing for the termination of leases which do not comply with diligent development. The legislation also addresses reclamation. Committee amendments include the deletion of Title II, which affects common carriers holding coal leases.

  2. Reducing float coal dust

    PubMed Central

    Patts, J.R.; Colinet, J.F.; Janisko, S.J.; Barone, T.L.; Patts, L.D.

    2016-01-01

    Controlling float coal dust in underground coal mines before dispersal into the general airstream can reduce the risk of mine explosions while potentially achieving a more effective and efficient use of rock dust. A prototype flooded-bed scrubber was evaluated for float coal dust control in the return of a continuous miner section. The scrubber was installed inline between the face ventilation tubing and an exhausting auxiliary fan. Airborne and deposited dust mass measurements were collected over three days at set distances from the fan exhaust to assess changes in float coal dust levels in the return due to operation of the scrubber. Mass-based measurements were collected on a per-cut basis and normalized on the basis of per ton mined by the continuous miner. The results show that average float coal dust levels measured under baseline conditions were reduced by more than 90 percent when operating the scrubber. PMID:28018004

  3. An investigation into the cytotoxicity of respirable dusts from British collieries.

    PubMed Central

    Gormley, I. P.; Collings, P.; Davis, J. M.; Ottery, J.

    1979-01-01

    A series of respirable dusts from British collieries was collected and analysed for mineral content and physical characteristics. Where possible 2 samples of dust were collected from the same site at 8-month intervals. All dusts were tested for their cytotoxic potential using a permanent line of macrophage-like cells (P388D1). In addition, for some dusts, a haemolytic technique was used. With both techniques a positive overall correlation was found between cytotoxicity and the total ash content of the dusts. When the results from collieries producing high- and low-rank coals were considered separately, however, it was found that the ash content of high-rank dusts (r=0.75) showed a much closer correlation with cytotoxicity than low-rank dusts (r=0.40). With the cell test system the ash components, kaolin and mica (r=0.58) and to a lesser extent quartz (r=0.48) showed significant positive correlations with cytotoxicity for high-rank coal dusts but not for low. Using the haemolytic system, however, only the quartz content of the high-rank dusts showed a significant relationship (r=0.69) to levels of haemoglobin release. Both the results of mineralogical analysis of dust samples and cytotoxicity tests showed that the mineral content and cytotoxic potential of dusts collected from the same colliery, and even from the same underground site, at different times, varied considerably. A poor correlation was found between cytotoxicity and various measurements of pneumoconiosis risk but this may well be partly due to this great variation of dust composition with time. In general, the overall results of this study were in good agreement with those of previous work on coal dust toxicity in that both the rank and composition of colliery dusts were found to be of importance, whereas the role of quartz remained enigmatic. PMID:518822

  4. Advanced research and technology direct utilization: recovery of minerals from coal fly ash. Fossil energy program technical progress report, 1 April 1981-30 June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Burnet, G.; Dunker, J.W.; Murtha, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop methods to process fly ash for (1) the separation and use of an iron-rich fraction; (2) the recovery of metals (primarily Al, Fe, and Ti); and (3) the use of the process residues. During this report period, research on the HiChlor process for the high-temperature chlorination of fly ash included investigation of prechlorinations using Cl/sub 2/-CO gas mixtures to selectively remove iron and titanium, and the physical characterization of fly ash pellets. Gas diffusion coefficients, surface areas, and pore size distributions were measured for both gamma-alumina and fly ash pellets. Experiments on the high temperature sintering of limestone-fly ash mixtures include alumina extractions from sinters prepared using waste materials. High alumina recoveries were obtained for sinters prepared using cement kiln dust as the lime source, and with small amounts of coal refuse added as a mineralizer. Sinter feed mixtures prepared from fly ash, kiln dust, and soda ash were also tested. X-ray diffraction measurements were used to identify the soluble and insoluble compounds found in the clinkers produced. Research has been initiated on methods to agglomerate fly ash mixtures for processing. Agglomerators rather than finely-divided powder mixtures will be more easily handled, transported, and processed. Feed mixtures for both the lime-sinter and HiChlor processes are being studied. A balling disc unit is being used to form agglomerate spheroids. A theoretical analysis of the magnetic separation of fly ash has been completed.

  5. Chemical comminution and deashing of low-rank coals

    DOEpatents

    Quigley, David R.

    1992-01-01

    A method of chemically comminuting a low-rank coal while at the same time increasing the heating value of the coal. A strong alkali solution is added to a low-rank coal to solubilize the carbonaceous portion of the coal, leaving behind the noncarbonaceous mineral matter portion. The solubilized coal is precipitated from solution by a multivalent cation, preferably calcium.

  6. Chemical comminution and deashing of low-rank coals

    DOEpatents

    Quigley, David R.

    1992-12-01

    A method of chemically comminuting a low-rank coal while at the same time increasing the heating value of the coal. A strong alkali solution is added to a low-rank coal to solubilize the carbonaceous portion of the coal, leaving behind the noncarbonaceous mineral matter portion. The solubilized coal is precipitated from solution by a multivalent cation, preferably calcium.

  7. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  8. 30 CFR 772.13 - Coal exploration compliance duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal exploration compliance duties. 772.13... INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL EXPLORATION § 772.13 Coal exploration compliance duties. (a)...

  9. 30 CFR 772.13 - Coal exploration compliance duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal exploration compliance duties. 772.13... INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL EXPLORATION § 772.13 Coal exploration compliance duties. (a)...

  10. 30 CFR 1206.265 - Value enhancement of marketable coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Value enhancement of marketable coal. 1206.265... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.265 Value enhancement of marketable coal. If, prior to use, sale, or other disposition, the lessee enhances the value of coal after the coal has...

  11. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it...

  12. 30 CFR 206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.459 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...

  13. 30 CFR 1206.464 - Value enhancement of marketable coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Value enhancement of marketable coal. 1206.464... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.464 Value enhancement of marketable coal. If, prior to use, sale, or other disposition, the lessee enhances the value of coal after the coal has...

  14. 30 CFR 772.13 - Coal exploration compliance duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal exploration compliance duties. 772.13... INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL EXPLORATION § 772.13 Coal exploration compliance duties. (a)...

  15. 30 CFR 1206.265 - Value enhancement of marketable coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Value enhancement of marketable coal. 1206.265... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.265 Value enhancement of marketable coal. If, prior to use, sale, or other disposition, the lessee enhances the value of coal after the coal has...

  16. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  17. 30 CFR 1206.265 - Value enhancement of marketable coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Value enhancement of marketable coal. 1206.265... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.265 Value enhancement of marketable coal. If, prior to use, sale, or other disposition, the lessee enhances the value of coal after the coal has...

  18. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  19. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  20. 30 CFR 206.265 - Value enhancement of marketable coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Value enhancement of marketable coal. 206.265... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.265 Value enhancement of marketable coal. If, prior to use, sale, or other disposition, the lessee enhances the value of coal after the coal has been placed...

  1. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  2. 30 CFR 772.13 - Coal exploration compliance duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal exploration compliance duties. 772.13... INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL EXPLORATION § 772.13 Coal exploration compliance duties. (a)...

  3. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it...

  4. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  5. 30 CFR 206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.260 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...

  6. 30 CFR 1206.464 - Value enhancement of marketable coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Value enhancement of marketable coal. 1206.464... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.464 Value enhancement of marketable coal. If, prior to use, sale, or other disposition, the lessee enhances the value of coal after the coal has...

  7. 30 CFR 206.464 - Value enhancement of marketable coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Value enhancement of marketable coal. 206.464... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.464 Value enhancement of marketable coal. If, prior to use, sale, or other disposition, the lessee enhances the value of coal after the coal has been placed...

  8. 30 CFR 1206.464 - Value enhancement of marketable coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Value enhancement of marketable coal. 1206.464... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.464 Value enhancement of marketable coal. If, prior to use, sale, or other disposition, the lessee enhances the value of coal after the coal has...

  9. 30 CFR 772.13 - Coal exploration compliance duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal exploration compliance duties. 772.13... INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL EXPLORATION § 772.13 Coal exploration compliance duties. (a)...

  10. Process for coal liquefaction employing selective coal feed

    DOEpatents

    Hoover, David S.; Givens, Edwin N.

    1983-01-01

    An improved coal liquefaction process is provided whereby coal conversion is improved and yields of pentane soluble liquefaction products are increased. In this process, selected feed coal is pulverized and slurried with a process derived solvent, passed through a preheater and one or more dissolvers in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures, following which solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. The selected feed coals comprise washed coals having a substantial amount of mineral matter, preferably from about 25-75%, by weight, based upon run-of-mine coal, removed with at least 1.0% by weight of pyritic sulfur remaining and exhibiting vitrinite reflectance of less than about 0.70%.

  11. 30 CFR 206.253 - Coal subject to royalties-general provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal subject to royalties-general provisions... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.253 Coal subject to royalties—general provisions. (a) All coal (except coal unavoidably lost as determined by BLM under 43 CFR part 3400) from...

  12. 30 CFR 206.452 - Coal subject to royalties-general provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal subject to royalties-general provisions... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.452 Coal subject to royalties—general provisions. (a) All coal (except coal unavoidably lost as determined by BLM pursuant to 43 CFR group...

  13. Microcharacterization of coal components for beneficiation

    SciTech Connect

    Straszheim, W.E.; Markuszewski, R.

    1989-02-01

    The capabilities of automated image analysis (AIA) have been improved, and the modified procedures have been applied to characterize the degree of association of mineral particles with the coal matrix for two coal samples subjected to cleaning by float-sink separation. Definitions of elemental intensity used to identify mineral particles during AIA have been expanded to include oxygen in the list of elements monitored. This new light-element analysis capability permits the identification of mineral phases such as iron oxides and iron carbonates which were previously indistinguishable. Definitions have been established for the identification of 20 phases present in coal and mineral matter based on the relative abundance of the elements present. These definitions have been tested using mineral standards and a sample of well-characterized Illinois No. 6 coal. The automated image analysis (AIA) techniques for measuring the degree of associated of mineral particles with coal have also expanded to measure the association for individual minerals with coal particles in order to predict and document selective removal in coal cleaning procedures. The AIA technique has been applied to {minus}200 mesh samples of feed, clean product, and refuse streams of two low-rank coals processed in-house by float-sink procedures at 1.6 specific gravity. Analyses of all three process streams permit a material balance in terms of coal mineral association. Results are reported for one of the coals from the Williams Fork Q bed. 3 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Identifying Minerals from Their Infra-red Spectra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, W. G.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a British secondary school's use of a spectrometer to identify minerals. Discusses the origins of mineral spectra, the preparation of the specimen, the actual spectroscopic scanning, and the interpretation of the spectra. (TW)

  15. British super-shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-10-01

    British Aerospace, the nationalized aerospace manufacturer, confirmed that a space shuttle of new design is indeed being studied, and that a model of the craft will be displayed. The British television network ITN had announced that secret plans were being prepared for the construction of a reusable horizontal takeoff super-shuttle, which could breathe atmospheric oxygen to supply its propulsion system. Retracting a first denial according to which the project existed merely as scribbles on the back of an envelope, a British Aerospace spokesperson declared that it was in fact a very serious study. The super-shuttle, called HOTOL (horizontal takeoff and landing), would be placed in orbit as a platform for satellite launching. The spokesperson further indicated that with a certain resemblance to the Concorde, it would be pilotless, remote controlled, and would allow frequent operations at short time intervals.

  16. 20 CFR 725.202 - Miner defined; condition of entitlement, miner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) A person who is or was a self-employed miner or independent contractor, and who otherwise meets the...) The individual was not regularly employed in or around a coal mine or coal preparation facility....

  17. 20 CFR 725.202 - Miner defined; condition of entitlement, miner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) A person who is or was a self-employed miner or independent contractor, and who otherwise meets the...) The individual was not regularly employed in or around a coal mine or coal preparation facility....

  18. Blast furnace injection developments in British Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Jukes, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    British Steel has four integrated steel works, i.e., Llanwern, Port Talbot, Scunthorpe, Teesside, with a total of ten blast furnaces, nine of which are currently operating. The furnaces range in size from the 14 meters (45 feet 11 inches) hearth diameter Redcar No. 1 furnace at Teesside (a single furnace works) to the 8.33 meters (27 feet 4 inches) hearth Queen Mary and Queen Bess furnaces at Schunthorpe, with a total of four furnaces at that works. All have injection systems installed, those at Scunthorpe being equipped with granular coal injection and all others currently working with oil injection. The driving force behind the development of blast furnace injection has been as a means for introducing reducing agents (British Steel now refers to coke plus hydrocarbon injectants as total reductants) into the process as a part substitute/supplement for top charged coke and the technology is still being developed and used for that purpose. By utilizing practical experience and observing the work of others, British Steel has been assessing blast furnace injection technology experimentally for purposes other than the introduction of reducing agents.

  19. The 1985 British Physics Olympiad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenberg, Cyril

    1985-01-01

    Presents questions and answers to the 1985 British Physics Olympiad (BPhO) Competition. Comments about the competition (the second year of British participation) and the winners who went to Yugoslavia (and placed second behind the USSR) are included. (JN)

  20. 43 CFR 3501.10 - What types of mineral use authorizations can I get under these rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) LEASING OF SOLID MINERALS OTHER THAN COAL AND OIL SHALE Leasing of Solid Minerals Other Than Coal and Oil Shale-General § 3501.10 What types of mineral use authorizations can I get under these rules? BLM...

  1. 43 CFR 3501.10 - What types of mineral use authorizations can I get under these rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) LEASING OF SOLID MINERALS OTHER THAN COAL AND OIL SHALE Leasing of Solid Minerals Other Than Coal and Oil Shale-General § 3501.10 What types of mineral use authorizations can I get under these rules? BLM...

  2. Quality of Selected Hungarian Coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landis, E.R.; Rohrbacher, T.J.; Gluskoter, H.J.; Fodor, B.; Gombar, G.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a program conducted jointly by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Hungarian Geological Survey under the auspices of the United States-Hungarian Science and Technology Fund, a total of 39 samples from five coal mines in Hungary were selected for analysis. The mine areas sampled represent most of the coal mined recently in Hungary. Almost all the coal is used to generate electricity. Coals from the five mines (four underground, one surface) reflect differences in age, depositional setting, organic and inorganic components of the original sediments, and deformational history. Classified according to the ranking system of the American Society for Testing and Materials, the coals range in rank from lignite B (Pliocene[?] coals) to high volatile A bituminous (Jurassic coals). With respect to grade classification, based on seam-weighted averages of moisture, ash, and sulfur contents: (1) all contain high moisture (more than 10 percent), (2) all except the Eocene coals are high (more than 15 percent) in ash yield, and (3) two (Jurassic and Eocene coals) are high in sulfur (more than 3 percent) and three (Cretaceous, Miocene, and Pliocene coals) have medium sulfur contents (1 to 3 percent). Average heat values range from 4,000 to 8,650 British thermal units per pound.

  3. Prevent and "British Values"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Alex; Ghale, Baljeet

    2015-01-01

    At the recent National Union of Teachers' conference the role of the Prevent strategy and the introduction of "British Values" in the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills framework emerged as key issues for delegates. Two of the speeches made at the conference are presented here.

  4. British nuclear policymaking

    SciTech Connect

    Bowie, C.J.; Platt, A.

    1984-01-01

    This study analyzes the domestic political, economic, and bureaucratic factors that affect the nuclear policymaking process in Great Britain. Its major conclusion is that, although there have been changes in that process in recent years (notably the current involvement of a segment of the British public in the debate about the deployment of intermediate-range nuclear forces), future British nuclear policymaking will remain much what it has been in the past. Three ideas are central to understanding British thinking on the subject: (1) Britain's long-standing resolve to have her own national nuclear force is largely traceable to her desire to maintain first-rank standing among the nations of the world in spite of loss of empire. (2) Financial considerations have always been important--so much so that they have usually dominated issues of nuclear policy. (3) The executive branch of government dominates the nuclear policymaking process but does not always present a united front. The United States heavily influences British nuclear policy through having supplied Britain since the late 1950s with nuclear data and components of nuclear weapon systems such as Polaris and Trident. The relationship works both ways since the U.S. depends on Britain as a base for deployment of both conventional and nuclear systems.

  5. Chronocentrism and British criminology.

    PubMed

    Rock, Paul

    2005-09-01

    Criminologists display a largely unexamined propensity to ignore writings that are more than fifteen or so years old, with evident consequences for the public presentation and validation of expert knowledge. A citation study was combined with detailed observations from British criminologists to ascertain quite how that disavowal of the past was accomplished.

  6. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Karr, Jr., Clarence

    1977-04-19

    An improved coal liquefaction process is provided which enables conversion of a coal-oil slurry to a synthetic crude refinable to produce larger yields of gasoline and diesel oil. The process is characterized by a two-step operation applied to the slurry prior to catalytic desulfurization and hydrogenation in which the slurry undergoes partial hydrogenation to crack and hydrogenate asphaltenes and the partially hydrogenated slurry is filtered to remove minerals prior to subsequent catalytic hydrogenation.

  7. US utilities show interest in British coalgas process

    SciTech Connect

    Smock, R.W.

    1981-04-01

    A British version of technology to produce coal gas by the slagging Lurgi process is considered the best method for commercialization in the US because of its successful operation as a demonstration sine 1974. The British Gas Corp. system guarantees gasification of up to 350 tons a day. A seven-year lead time is estimated for transferring and putting the technology on line. The Electric Power Research Institute is looking at two other processes besides the slagging Lurgi process, but the Administration's cancellation of synfuels subsidies jeopardizes some planned projects. Indications that the British process will be competitive without Federal assistance has attracted the interest of US investors. Performance data on the Lurgi process is summarized in three tables. (DCK)

  8. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Charles H.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

  9. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, C.H.

    1986-02-11

    A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

  10. 30 CFR 210.205 - What reports must I submit to claim allowances on Indian coal leases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... on Indian coal leases? 210.205 Section 210.205 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... Minerals § 210.205 What reports must I submit to claim allowances on Indian coal leases? General. You must... coal leases: (1) Form MMS-4292, Coal Washing Allowance Report, to claim an allowance for the...

  11. First: Western Canadian coal hits Boston

    SciTech Connect

    Maize, K.

    1984-11-09

    A Japanese-registered ship carrying 40,000 tons of coal mined in British Columbia slid up the docks at New England Electric Company's (NEECO) Brayton Point power station on November 8, 1984. The coal is transported 780 miles by rail to Vancouver, shipped down the Pacific Coast, through the Panama Canal and across the Caribbean to Massachusetts. According to NEECO officials, the coal comes this circuitous route at a price competitive with Appalachia coal. This move was instigated by Glenn Schleede, president of NEECO's fuel subsidiary, New England Energy, and the leading militant in the coal industry's battle with the US railroads over transportation rates. His move toward foreign coal is intended to serve notice on the rails that coal customers have some weapons to fight rail rate increases.

  12. 1996 annual report on Alaska's mineral resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Jill L.

    1997-01-01

    This is the fifteenth annual report that has been prepared in response to the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. Current Alaskan mineral projects and events that occurred during 1995 are summarized. For the purpose of this document, the term 'minerals' encompasses both energy resources (oil and gas, coal and peat, uranium, and geothermal) and nonfuel-mineral resources (metallic and industrial minerals).

  13. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

    1991-07-16

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

  14. Direct utilization - recovery of minerals from coal fly ash. Technical progress report, April 1-June 30, 1982. [HiChlor process

    SciTech Connect

    Burnet, G.; Murtha, M.J.

    1982-08-01

    Research on the chlorination of coal fly ash has included the evaluation of several reducing and chlorinating agents for use in the HiChlor process. Several additional coal fly ashes were chlorinated to demonstrate that processing is usable for a range of bituminous coal fly ash compositions. Aqueous separation research for purification of the mixed metal chloride products was initiated. Exploratory evaluation of the potential for using a fused salt media for coal fly ash chlorination coupled with a thermodynamic study of the possible reactions provided encouragement for pursuing this alternative chlorination procedure. The use of a fused salt should significantly improve the process reaction kinetics and the potential for more selective chlorination of specific oxides. Research was continued on the development of a desilication procedure to remove dissolved silica from lime-soda filtrates. Essentially all of the silica (less than 150 ppM) must be removed from solution before an alumina product suitable for aluminum metal production can be recovered. Further experiments were conducted on the magnetic separation of coal fly ash - water slurries. Counter-current air sparging was used to increase the agitation inside the magnetic grid volume but the separated products were still not of comparable quality to those obtained by dry separation using a moving-field electromagnet.

  15. British Nuclear Policymaking,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    devoted to capital spending.’ This has all Laken place although Britain’s economy has been seriously troubled by inflation, low productivity, and...American support was required to counterbalance Soviet influence in Western.Europe, Iran, Turkey, and Greece. Britain’s exhausted economy loomed as an...for a British deterrent. The simple truth is that when the Empire crumbled and the economy failed to recover, nuclear weapons became-and continue to

  16. Fluorine in coal and coal by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, J.D.; Wong, A.S.; Hower, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    Fluorine occurs in awe amounts in most coals. It is typically associated with minerals of the apatite group, principally fluorapatite and clays, and with fluorite, tourmaline, topaz, amphiboles and micas. The average fluorine content of US coal is, according to the tabulation of Swanson, 74 {mu}g/g. In the United States, the lowest average fluorine concentration of 30 {mu}g/g is found in coals from Eastern Kentucky and the highest average value of 160 {mu}g/g is found in coals from Wyoming and New Mexico. The concentration range of fluorine in European coals is similar to that found in the US while the average fluorine content of Australian coals ranges from 15 to 500 {mu}g/g. We have determined the fluorine content in coal and fly ash standards by proton-induced gamma ray emission analysis (PIGE).

  17. 30 CFR 816.59 - Coal recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal recovery. 816.59 Section 816.59 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.59 Coal...

  18. 30 CFR 816.59 - Coal recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal recovery. 816.59 Section 816.59 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.59 Coal...

  19. Chemical demineralization of different metamorphic grade coals

    SciTech Connect

    Yusupov, T.S.; Shumskaya, L.G.; Burdukov, A.P.

    2009-07-15

    The paper analyzes a process of deep mineralization of various metamorphic grade coals pre-ground in different destructive units, namely, in centrifugal-planetary mill and disintegrator. Coal dispergation in higher energy intensive mills greatly enhances inorganic component extraction to acidic solutions. This is explained by distortion of crystal structure and amorphization of minerals under various kinds and different intensity mechanical actions.

  20. Advanced research and technology: direct utilization, recovery of minerals from coal fly ash. Fossil energy program. Technical progress report, July 1-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Burnet, G.; Murtha, M.J.; Adelman, D.J.

    1980-12-01

    This investigation is to develop methods for utilizing coal fly ash through processes for the extraction of alumina and titania, and for the separation and use of an iron-rich fraction. Research of the HiChlor process for the extraction of alumina and titania by high-temperature chlorination of a fly ash-reductant mixture is described. An engineering cost evaluation is presented for a centralized HiChlor processing facility to process the fly ash of several large coal-fueled power stations. Investigations for a high-temperature lime-soda process for extraction of alumina from fly ash included the use of several types of quarry limestones and waste materials to replace the limestone and/or soda ash. A breakthrough was made on the development of a limestone-fly ash process without soda. The addition of less than 5% by weight waste coal refuse to the sinter mixtures increased alumina recoveries from a 55 to 90%, at a much lower sintering temperature of 1200/sup 0/C. For the lime-soda sinter process, an engineering cost evaluation was prepared for a facility to process the fly ash from a 1000 MWe coal-fueled power station to produce alumina and Portland cement. This facility will process and dispose of the total generated fly ash volume as products rather than as waste, and the facility investment will be less than 10% of the cost of the corresponding power station. The magnetic fly ash fraction, separated before either HiChlor or sinter processing, was shown to have a market value as a heavy medium material for coal and ore beneficiation. Research was also conducted on the upgrading of magnetic fly ash to iron ore quality. Research of coal beneficiation using magnetic fly ash media was expanded.

  1. Coal-oil slurry preparation

    DOEpatents

    Tao, John C.

    1983-01-01

    A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

  2. 30 CFR 912.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 912.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations....

  3. 30 CFR 905.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 905.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts coal exploration. For applications where § 772.12 applies,...

  4. 30 CFR 921.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 921.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  5. 30 CFR 933.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 933.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations....

  6. 30 CFR 937.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 937.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  7. 30 CFR 921.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 921.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  8. 30 CFR 49.20 - Requirements for all coal mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements for all coal mines. 49.20 Section... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.20 Requirements for all coal mines. (a) The operator of each underground coal mine shall make available two certified mine...

  9. 30 CFR 905.815 - Performance standards-Coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-Coal exploration. 905.815... Performance standards—Coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts coal exploration....

  10. 30 CFR 939.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 939.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  11. 30 CFR 942.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 942.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  12. 43 CFR 3436.1 - Coal lease exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coal lease exchanges. 3436.1 Section 3436..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) NONCOMPETITIVE LEASES Coal Lease and Coal Land Exchanges: Alluvial Valley Floors § 3436.1 Coal lease exchanges....

  13. 30 CFR 933.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 933.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations....

  14. 30 CFR 903.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 903.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, applies to any person who conducts coal exploration. For those applications where § 772.12 of this...

  15. 43 CFR 3436.1 - Coal lease exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coal lease exchanges. 3436.1 Section 3436..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) NONCOMPETITIVE LEASES Coal Lease and Coal Land Exchanges: Alluvial Valley Floors § 3436.1 Coal lease exchanges....

  16. 30 CFR 912.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 912.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  17. 30 CFR 910.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 910.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations....

  18. 30 CFR 937.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 937.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations....

  19. 30 CFR 905.815 - Performance standards-Coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-Coal exploration. 905.815... Performance standards—Coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts coal exploration....

  20. 30 CFR 903.815 - Performance standards-Coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-Coal exploration. 903.815... Performance standards—Coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, applies to any person who conducts coal exploration....

  1. 30 CFR 941.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 941.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  2. 30 CFR 872.21 - What are historic coal funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are historic coal funds? 872.21 Section... What are historic coal funds? (a) “Historic coal funds” are moneys provided under section 402(g)(5) of SMCRA based on the amount of coal produced before August 3, 1977, in your State or on Indian lands...

  3. 30 CFR 817.84 - Coal mine waste: Impounding structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Impounding structures. 817.84... ACTIVITIES § 817.84 Coal mine waste: Impounding structures. New and existing impounding structures constructed of coal mine waste or intended to impound coal mine waste shall meet the requirements of §...

  4. 30 CFR 937.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 937.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  5. 30 CFR 816.81 - Coal mine waste: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mine waste: General requirements. 816.81... ACTIVITIES § 816.81 Coal mine waste: General requirements. (a) General. All coal mine waste disposed of in an... within a permit area, which are approved by the regulatory authority for this purpose. Coal mine...

  6. 30 CFR 816.81 - Coal mine waste: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal mine waste: General requirements. 816.81... ACTIVITIES § 816.81 Coal mine waste: General requirements. (a) General. All coal mine waste disposed of in an... within a permit area, which are approved by the regulatory authority for this purpose. Coal mine...

  7. 43 CFR 3436.2 - Fee coal exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fee coal exchanges. 3436.2 Section 3436.2..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) NONCOMPETITIVE LEASES Coal Lease and Coal Land Exchanges: Alluvial Valley Floors § 3436.2 Fee coal exchanges....

  8. 30 CFR 817.81 - Coal mine waste: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal mine waste: General requirements. 817.81... ACTIVITIES § 817.81 Coal mine waste: General requirements. (a) General. All coal mine waste disposed of in an... within a permit area, which are approved by the regulatory authority for this purpose. Coal mine...

  9. 30 CFR 817.81 - Coal mine waste: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mine waste: General requirements. 817.81... ACTIVITIES § 817.81 Coal mine waste: General requirements. (a) General. All coal mine waste disposed of in an... within a permit area, which are approved by the regulatory authority for this purpose. Coal mine...

  10. 30 CFR 874.12 - Eligible coal lands and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eligible coal lands and water. 874.12 Section... INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.12 Eligible coal lands and water. Coal lands and water are eligible for reclamation activities if— (a) They were mined for coal...

  11. 43 CFR 3436.2 - Fee coal exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fee coal exchanges. 3436.2 Section 3436.2..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) NONCOMPETITIVE LEASES Coal Lease and Coal Land Exchanges: Alluvial Valley Floors § 3436.2 Fee coal exchanges....

  12. 30 CFR 910.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 910.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  13. 30 CFR 933.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 933.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations....

  14. 30 CFR 921.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 921.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations....

  15. 30 CFR 942.815 - Performance standards-Coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-Coal exploration. 942.815... Performance standards—Coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts coal exploration....

  16. 30 CFR 921.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 921.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations....

  17. 30 CFR 874.12 - Eligible coal lands and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eligible coal lands and water. 874.12 Section... INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.12 Eligible coal lands and water. Coal lands and water are eligible for reclamation activities if— (a) They were mined for coal...

  18. 30 CFR 939.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 939.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  19. 30 CFR 939.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 939.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations....

  20. 30 CFR 1206.464 - Value enhancement of marketable coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Value enhancement of marketable coal. 1206.464... INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.464 Value enhancement of marketable coal. If, prior to use, sale, or other disposition, the lessee enhances the value of coal after...

  1. 30 CFR 912.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 912.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  2. 30 CFR 872.21 - What are historic coal funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are historic coal funds? 872.21 Section... What are historic coal funds? (a) “Historic coal funds” are moneys provided under section 402(g)(5) of SMCRA based on the amount of coal produced before August 3, 1977, in your State or on Indian lands...

  3. 30 CFR 1206.265 - Value enhancement of marketable coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Value enhancement of marketable coal. 1206.265... INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.265 Value enhancement of marketable coal. If, prior to use, sale, or other disposition, the lessee enhances the value of coal...

  4. 30 CFR 903.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 903.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, applies to any person who conducts coal exploration. For those applications where § 772.12 of this...

  5. 30 CFR 910.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 910.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  6. 30 CFR 905.815 - Performance standards-Coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-Coal exploration. 905.815... Performance standards—Coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts coal exploration....

  7. 30 CFR 942.815 - Performance standards-Coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-Coal exploration. 942.815... Performance standards—Coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts coal exploration....

  8. 30 CFR 922.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 922.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations....

  9. 30 CFR 49.20 - Requirements for all coal mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requirements for all coal mines. 49.20 Section... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.20 Requirements for all coal mines. (a) The operator of each underground coal mine shall make available two certified mine...

  10. 30 CFR 912.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 912.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations....

  11. 30 CFR 922.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 922.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations....

  12. 43 CFR 3436.2 - Fee coal exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fee coal exchanges. 3436.2 Section 3436.2..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) NONCOMPETITIVE LEASES Coal Lease and Coal Land Exchanges: Alluvial Valley Floors § 3436.2 Fee coal exchanges....

  13. 30 CFR 947.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 947.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. (a) Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations. (b) Any person...

  14. 30 CFR 716.6 - Coal mines in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mines in Alaska. 716.6 Section 716.6... PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.6 Coal mines in Alaska. (a) Permittees of surface coal mining operations in Alaska from which coal has been mined on or after August 3, 1977,...

  15. 30 CFR 939.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 939.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  16. 30 CFR 716.6 - Coal mines in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal mines in Alaska. 716.6 Section 716.6... PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.6 Coal mines in Alaska. (a) Permittees of surface coal mining operations in Alaska from which coal has been mined on or after August 3, 1977,...

  17. 30 CFR 939.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 939.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations....

  18. 30 CFR 921.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 921.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  19. 30 CFR 941.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 941.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations....

  20. 30 CFR 937.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 937.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  1. 30 CFR 947.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 947.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  2. 30 CFR 872.21 - What are historic coal funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are historic coal funds? 872.21 Section... What are historic coal funds? (a) “Historic coal funds” are moneys provided under section 402(g)(5) of SMCRA based on the amount of coal produced before August 3, 1977, in your State or on Indian lands...

  3. 30 CFR 922.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 922.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  4. 30 CFR 941.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 941.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations....

  5. 30 CFR 922.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 922.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  6. 30 CFR 817.81 - Coal mine waste: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal mine waste: General requirements. 817.81... ACTIVITIES § 817.81 Coal mine waste: General requirements. (a) General. All coal mine waste disposed of in an... within a permit area, which are approved by the regulatory authority for this purpose. Coal mine...

  7. 30 CFR 905.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 905.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts coal exploration. For applications where § 772.12 applies,...

  8. 30 CFR 905.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 905.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts coal exploration. For applications where § 772.12 applies,...

  9. 30 CFR 942.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 942.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  10. 30 CFR 49.20 - Requirements for all coal mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for all coal mines. 49.20 Section... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.20 Requirements for all coal mines. (a) The operator of each underground coal mine shall make available two certified mine...

  11. 30 CFR 905.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 905.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts coal exploration. For applications where § 772.12 applies,...

  12. 30 CFR 939.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 939.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  13. 30 CFR 947.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 947.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  14. 30 CFR 933.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 933.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations....

  15. 30 CFR 941.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 941.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  16. 30 CFR 817.81 - Coal mine waste: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: General requirements. 817.81... ACTIVITIES § 817.81 Coal mine waste: General requirements. (a) General. All coal mine waste disposed of in an... within a permit area, which are approved by the regulatory authority for this purpose. Coal mine...

  17. 30 CFR 716.6 - Coal mines in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mines in Alaska. 716.6 Section 716.6... PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.6 Coal mines in Alaska. (a) Permittees of surface coal mining operations in Alaska from which coal has been mined on or after August 3, 1977,...

  18. 30 CFR 872.21 - What are historic coal funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are historic coal funds? 872.21 Section... What are historic coal funds? (a) “Historic coal funds” are moneys provided under section 402(g)(5) of SMCRA based on the amount of coal produced before August 3, 1977, in your State or on Indian lands...

  19. 30 CFR 939.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 939.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations....

  20. 30 CFR 910.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 910.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  1. 30 CFR 912.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 912.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations....

  2. 30 CFR 941.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 941.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations....

  3. 30 CFR 937.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 937.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  4. 43 CFR 3436.2 - Fee coal exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fee coal exchanges. 3436.2 Section 3436.2..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) NONCOMPETITIVE LEASES Coal Lease and Coal Land Exchanges: Alluvial Valley Floors § 3436.2 Fee coal exchanges....

  5. 30 CFR 941.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 941.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  6. 43 CFR 3436.1 - Coal lease exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coal lease exchanges. 3436.1 Section 3436..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) NONCOMPETITIVE LEASES Coal Lease and Coal Land Exchanges: Alluvial Valley Floors § 3436.1 Coal lease exchanges....

  7. 30 CFR 942.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 942.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  8. 30 CFR 910.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 910.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations....

  9. 30 CFR 937.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 937.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations....

  10. 30 CFR 933.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 933.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  11. 30 CFR 912.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 912.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  12. 30 CFR 816.84 - Coal mine waste: Impounding structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Impounding structures. 816.84... ACTIVITIES § 816.84 Coal mine waste: Impounding structures. New and existing impounding structures constructed of coal mine waste or intended to impound coal mine waste shall meet the requirements of §...

  13. 30 CFR 903.815 - Performance standards-Coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-Coal exploration. 903.815... Performance standards—Coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, applies to any person who conducts coal exploration....

  14. 30 CFR 910.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 910.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations....

  15. 30 CFR 947.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 947.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. (a) Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations. (b) Any person...

  16. 30 CFR 933.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 933.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations....

  17. 30 CFR 933.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 933.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  18. 30 CFR 874.12 - Eligible coal lands and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eligible coal lands and water. 874.12 Section... INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.12 Eligible coal lands and water. Coal lands and water are eligible for reclamation activities if— (a) They were mined for coal...

  19. 30 CFR 817.81 - Coal mine waste: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: General requirements. 817.81... ACTIVITIES § 817.81 Coal mine waste: General requirements. (a) General. All coal mine waste disposed of in an... within a permit area, which are approved by the regulatory authority for this purpose. Coal mine...

  20. 30 CFR 922.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 922.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations....

  1. 30 CFR 903.815 - Performance standards-Coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-Coal exploration. 903.815... Performance standards—Coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, applies to any person who conducts coal exploration....

  2. 30 CFR 942.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 942.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  3. 30 CFR 942.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 942.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  4. 30 CFR 49.20 - Requirements for all coal mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for all coal mines. 49.20 Section... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.20 Requirements for all coal mines. (a) The operator of each underground coal mine shall make available two certified mine...

  5. 43 CFR 3436.1 - Coal lease exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coal lease exchanges. 3436.1 Section 3436..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) NONCOMPETITIVE LEASES Coal Lease and Coal Land Exchanges: Alluvial Valley Floors § 3436.1 Coal lease exchanges....

  6. 30 CFR 912.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 912.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations....

  7. 30 CFR 910.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 910.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations....

  8. 30 CFR 921.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 921.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  9. 30 CFR 947.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 947.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. (a) Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations. (b) Any person...

  10. 30 CFR 910.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 910.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  11. 30 CFR 912.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 912.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations....

  12. 30 CFR 912.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 912.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  13. 30 CFR 49.20 - Requirements for all coal mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for all coal mines. 49.20 Section... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.20 Requirements for all coal mines. (a) The operator of each underground coal mine shall make available two certified mine...

  14. 30 CFR 903.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 903.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, applies to any person who conducts coal exploration. For those applications where § 772.12 of this...

  15. 30 CFR 922.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 922.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  16. 30 CFR 942.815 - Performance standards-Coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-Coal exploration. 942.815... Performance standards—Coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts coal exploration....

  17. 30 CFR 816.81 - Coal mine waste: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal mine waste: General requirements. 816.81... ACTIVITIES § 816.81 Coal mine waste: General requirements. (a) General. All coal mine waste disposed of in an... within a permit area, which are approved by the regulatory authority for this purpose. Coal mine...

  18. 30 CFR 947.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 947.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  19. 30 CFR 947.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 947.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. (a) Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations. (b) Any person...

  20. 30 CFR 933.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 933.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  1. 30 CFR 947.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 947.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. (a) Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations. (b) Any person...

  2. 30 CFR 941.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 941.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations....

  3. 30 CFR 922.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 922.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  4. 30 CFR 937.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 937.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  5. 30 CFR 937.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 937.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations....

  6. 30 CFR 939.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 939.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations....

  7. 30 CFR 903.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 903.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, applies to any person who conducts coal exploration. For those applications where § 772.12 of this...

  8. 30 CFR 816.81 - Coal mine waste: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: General requirements. 816.81... ACTIVITIES § 816.81 Coal mine waste: General requirements. (a) General. All coal mine waste disposed of in an... within a permit area, which are approved by the regulatory authority for this purpose. Coal mine...

  9. 30 CFR 941.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 941.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations....

  10. 30 CFR 942.815 - Performance standards-Coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-Coal exploration. 942.815... Performance standards—Coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts coal exploration....

  11. 30 CFR 816.81 - Coal mine waste: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: General requirements. 816.81... ACTIVITIES § 816.81 Coal mine waste: General requirements. (a) General. All coal mine waste disposed of in an... within a permit area, which are approved by the regulatory authority for this purpose. Coal mine...

  12. 30 CFR 903.815 - Performance standards-Coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-Coal exploration. 903.815... Performance standards—Coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, applies to any person who conducts coal exploration....

  13. 30 CFR 942.815 - Performance standards-Coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-Coal exploration. 942.815... Performance standards—Coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts coal exploration....

  14. 30 CFR 910.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 910.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations....

  15. 30 CFR 716.6 - Coal mines in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal mines in Alaska. 716.6 Section 716.6... PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.6 Coal mines in Alaska. (a) Permittees of surface coal mining operations in Alaska from which coal has been mined on or after August 3, 1977,...

  16. 30 CFR 905.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 905.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts coal exploration. For applications where § 772.12 applies,...

  17. 30 CFR 947.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 947.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  18. 30 CFR 921.772 - Requirements for coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for coal exploration. 921.772... Requirements for coal exploration. (a) Part 772 of this chapter, Requirements for Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person who conducts or seeks to conduct coal exploration operations. (b) The Office shall...

  19. 30 CFR 922.815 - Performance standards-coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-coal exploration. 922.815... Performance standards—coal exploration. Part 815 of this chapter, Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Exploration, shall apply to any person conducting coal exploration operations....

  20. 30 CFR 874.12 - Eligible coal lands and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eligible coal lands and water. 874.12 Section... INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.12 Eligible coal lands and water. Coal lands and water are eligible for reclamation activities if— (a) They were mined for coal...