Science.gov

Sample records for british population fails

  1. India: population: birth curbs fail.

    PubMed

    1981-07-05

    Government efforts at curbing population growth has been a failure, reports quoting Health Minister Baburao Shankaranand said. He blamed the government of former Prime Minister Morarji Desai (1977-79) for the inability to reduce the birth rate. The minister, a father of 8, was further reported to have pointed to the 1971 census results as reflecting the failure. The enumeration placed the total Indian population at 684 million which was 12 million more than projected. He said the government of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi has adopted measures to reduce the birth rate from the current 36/1,000 population to 21 by the end of the present century. "We will stick to persuasion, motivation and education" but will not use force, he added. full text

  2. Variations in the prevalence of spondylolysis in early British populations.

    PubMed Central

    Waldron, H A

    1991-01-01

    Crude prevalence rates of spondylolysis were estimated in skeletal populations from various periods. There was a steady increase in prevalence from 3.74% in Romano-British to 5.08% in medieval populations, but the rate fell considerably to 1.42% in a population from an 18th/19th century context. This trend was not statistically significant, however. The male/female ratio was approximately unity until the 18th/19th century when the expected male excess appeared. The lesions predominantly affected L5 and all were isthmic in type. Of the total of 52 cases, only four were unilateral. One occurred in the fourth cervical vertebra. There were few complications; spondylolisthesis was noted in four cases and in three there were osteoarthritic changes on the superior margin of the displaced lamina. PMID:1941859

  3. Perinatal lead and cadmium burden in a British urban population.

    PubMed Central

    Kovar, I Z; Strehlow, C D; Richmond, J; Thompson, M G

    1984-01-01

    Concentrations of the potential pollutants, lead and cadmium, were studied in the perinatal period in a British urban population. Blood lead and cadmium concentrations and iron status were measured in 28 mother and infant pairs at delivery and at five days postpartum in the mother; breast milk collected at five days postpartum under controlled conditions was analysed for lead and cadmium. Placental transfer of both metals was noted; concentrations of lead in breast milk (mean concentration 0.01 mmol/l (2 micrograms/l) were less than in two brands of commercial prepacked formulas, and the concentration of cadmium in breast milk and prepacked formulas (mean 3.6 nmol/l (0.4 microgram/l] were similar. The risk of excess lead or cadmium intake from breast milk is small. PMID:6696491

  4. Self-reported sleep patterns in a British population cohort.

    PubMed

    Leng, Yue; Wainwright, Nick W J; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Surtees, Paul G; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nick; Brayne, Carol; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-03-01

    Sleep patterns have been linked to various health outcomes, but sleep patterns in the British population have not been extensively reported. We aimed to describe the sleep characteristics reported by the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk participants, with a particular emphasis on the comparison of measures of sleep quantity. From 2006 to 2007, a total of 8480 participants aged 45-90 years reported sleep timing, nighttime sleep duration, and sleep difficulties. Time in bed (TIB) was calculated from the difference between rise time and bedtime, and sleep proportion was defined as the ratio of sleep duration and TIB. On average, the reported TIB was more than 1.5h longer than sleep durations. Compared to men, women spent 15 min longer in bed, but they slept for 11 min less and reported more sleep difficulties. In multivariate analysis sleep duration and TIB varied with socioeconomic factors, but sleep proportion was consistently lower among women, nonworkers, and older individuals, as well as those who were widowed, separated, or divorced; those who reported sleep difficulties and more frequently used sleep medication; and those who had lower education, poorer general health, or a major depressive disorder (MDD). Self-reported sleep duration and TIB have different meanings and implications for health. Sleep proportion may be a useful indicator of sleep patterns in the general population. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Identifying British Army infantry recruit population characteristics using biographical data.

    PubMed

    Kiernan, M D; Arthur, A; Repper, J; Mukhuty, S; Fear, N T

    2016-04-01

    The infantry accounts for more than a quarter of the British Army but there is a lack of data about the social and educational background of its recruits. To provide an insight into British Army infantry recruits' personal, social and educational background prior to enlistment. The study sample consisted of infantry recruits who enlisted into the British Army School of Infantry. Each recruit completed a 95-item biographical questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample in terms of demographic, physical, personal, social and educational attributes. The study sample consisted of 1000 male recruits. Over half of the recruits were consuming alcohol at a hazardous or harmful level prior to enlistment and 60% of recruits had used cannabis prior to joining the Army. Academic attainment was low, with the majority of recruits achieving GCSE grade C and below in most subjects, with 15% not taking any examinations. Over half the recruits had been in trouble with the police and either been suspended or expelled from school. Substance misuse and poor behaviour are highly prevalent among recruits prior to enlistment. Taken alongside existing evidence that some of these problems are commonplace among personnel in regular service, the assumption that the British Army infantry is, in itself, a cause of these behaviours should be questioned. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Why do they fail? A qualitative follow up study of 1000 recruits to the British Army Infantry to understand high levels of attrition.

    PubMed

    Kiernan, Matthew D; Repper, Julie; Arthur, Antony

    2015-01-01

    The British Army has over 100 career employment groups to which recruits may apply. The Infantry is one of these career employment groups; it accounts for 25% of the overall strength. It is of concern that Infantry recruit attrition within the first 12 weeks of training remains consistently above 30% . Poor selection methods that lead to the enlistment of unsuitable recruits have negative financial and personal consequences, but little is known about the personal experiences of those who fail. The aim of this research was to understand why infantry recruits choose to leave and explore the personal experiences of those that fail. This study draws on qualitative data from the second phase of a larger mixed method study. The foci of this paper are the findings directly related to the responses of recruits in exit interviews and their Commanding Officers' training reports. An exploratory qualitative, inductive method was used to generate insights, explanations and potential solutions to training attrition. What the data describes is a journey of extreme situational demands that the recruits experience throughout their transition from civilian life to service in the British Infantry. It is the cumulative effect of the stressors, combined with the recruit being dislocated from their established support network, which appears to be the catalyst for failure among recruits. There are clearly defined areas where either further research or changes to current practice may provide a better understanding of, and ultimately reduce, the current attrition rates experienced by the Infantry Training Centre.

  7. Is the injury gap closing between the Aboriginal and general populations of British Columbia?

    PubMed

    George, M Anne; Jin, Andrew; Brussoni, Mariana; Lalonde, Christopher E

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from various jurisdictions has shown higher rates of injury for Aboriginal compared with non-Aboriginal populations. This study provides an overview of trends in hospitalization injury rates between the Aboriginal and total populations of one Canadian province, British Columbia. Hospital discharge records from 1986 through 2010 were obtained from linked health care databases maintained by Population Data BC. Crude rates and standardized relative risks of hospitalization due to injury among Aboriginal people, relative to the total population of British Columbia, were calculated. Changes over time among males and females were compared for various types and causes of injury. Throughout more than two decades, standardized risks of hospitalization for injury decreased among the Aboriginal and total populations of British Columbia. Larger decreases among the Aboriginal population than among the total population suggest that the gaps are closing. Downward trends in rates were found for most injury categories, and for males and females. The findings indicate narrowing of the gap in injury rates between the total population of British Columbia and the province's Aboriginal population.

  8. SunSmart? Skin Cancer Knowledge and Preventive Behaviour in a British Population Representative Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, A.; Waller, J.; Hiom, S.; Swanston, D.

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of skin cancer has risen rapidly in the UK over the last 20 years, prompting public health organizations to try and raise awareness of the dangers of sun exposure and the need to practice sun-safe behaviour. This study aimed to assess baseline levels of sun-safe knowledge and behaviour in a British population-representative sample,…

  9. The fine scale genetic structure of the British population

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Dan; Boumertit, Abdelhamid; Day, Tammy; Hutnik, Katarzyna; Royrvik, Ellen C; Cunliffe, Barry; Lawson, Daniel J; Falush, Daniel; Freeman, Colin; Pirinen, Matti; Myers, Simon; Robinson, Mark; Donnelly, Peter; Bodmer, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Summary Fine-scale genetic variation between human populations is interesting as a signature of historical demographic events and because of its potential for confounding disease studies. We use haplotype-based statistical methods to analyse genome-wide SNP data from a carefully chosen geographically diverse sample of 2,039 individuals from the United Kingdom (UK). This reveals a rich and detailed pattern of genetic differentiation with remarkable concordance between genetic clusters and geography. The regional genetic differentiation and differing patterns of shared ancestry with 6,209 individuals from across Europe carry clear signals of historical demographic events. We estimate the genetic contribution to SE England from Anglo-Saxon migrations to be under half, identify the regions not carrying genetic material from these migrations, suggest significant pre-Roman but post-Mesolithic movement into SE England from the Continent, and show that in non-Saxon parts of the UK there exist genetically differentiated subgroups rather than a general “Celtic” population. PMID:25788095

  10. The Emerging British Verticillium longisporum Population Consists of Aggressive Brassica Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Depotter, Jasper R L; Rodriguez-Moreno, Luis; Thomma, Bart P H J; Wood, Thomas A

    2017-11-01

    Verticillium longisporum is an economically important fungal pathogen of brassicaceous crops that originated from at least three hybridization events between different Verticillium spp., leading to the hybrid lineages A1/D1, A1/D2, and A1/D3. Isolates of lineage A1/D1 generally cause stem striping on oilseed rape (Brassica napus), which has recently been reported for the first time to occur in the United Kingdom. Intriguingly, the emerging U.K. population is distinct from the north-central European stem striping population. Little is known about the pathogenicity of the newly emerged U.K. population; hence, pathogenicity tests were executed to compare British isolates to previously characterized reference strains. In addition to the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the pathogenicity of four British isolates was assessed on four cultivars of three Brassica crop species: oilseed rape (Quartz and Incentive), cauliflower (Clapton), and Chinese cabbage (Hilton). To this end, vascular discoloration of the roots, plant biomass accumulations, and fungal stem colonization upon isolate infection were evaluated. The British isolates appeared to be remarkably aggressive, because plant biomass was significantly affected and severe vascular discoloration was observed. The British isolates were successful stem colonizers and the extent of fungal colonization negatively correlated with plant biomass of cauliflower and Quartz oilseed rape. However, in Quartz, the fungal colonization of A1/D1 isolates was significantly lower than that of the virulent reference isolate from lineage A1/D3, PD589. Moreover, despite levels of stem colonization similar to those of A1/D1 strains, PD589 did not cause significant disease on Incentive. Thus, A1/D1 isolates, including British isolates, are aggressive oilseed rape pathogens despite limited colonization levels in comparison with a virulent A1/D3 isolate.

  11. Enantiospecific Pheromone Production and Response Profiles for Populations of Pine Engraver, Ips pini (SAY) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), in British Columbia

    Treesearch

    D.R. Miller; J.H. Borden; K.N. Slessor

    1996-01-01

    Analyses of the enantiomeric composition of ipsdienol produced by individual male pine engravers, Ips pini (Say), from six populations in British Columbia, support the hypothesis that New York and Idaho races of this species hybridize in southeastern British Columbia. Production profiles, expressed as frequency distributions of (+):(-) ipsdienol...

  12. Frequency of TSC1 and TSC2 mutations in American, British, Polish and Taiwanese populations.

    PubMed

    Jóźwiak, Jarosław; Sontowska, Iwona; Płoski, Rafał

    2013-09-01

    Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is caused by mutation of the tumor suppressor genes, tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1) or 2 (TSC2). The aim of the present study was to compare the frequency and types of TSC1 and TSC2 mutations in American, British, Polish and Taiwanese populations. A meta‑analysis of 380 TS patients was performed. Significant differences were analyzed using the Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA analysis. Results showed a difference in frequency for the four populations analyzed. The frequency of TSC1 mutations was twice as high in the American and British populations. However, there were no significant differences in the types of mutations, with insertions of >1 nucleotide being the least frequent. Additionally, in an analysis of the complexity of nucleotide sequences it was demonstrated that the level of sequence complexity in the Polish population was significant higher compared to the remaining populations. Concerning strand bias, in the case of two types of substitutions, C>G/G>C and C>T/G>A, the ratio of corresponding mutations on the two DNA strands was approximately 3:1 and 2:1. In the present study, an increased frequency of C>G/G>C and C>T/G>A mutations in the coding strand was found in the analyzed populations. However, additional studies and larger patient cohorts are required to verify these results.

  13. Emerging Infectious Disease Leads to Rapid Population Declines of Common British Birds

    PubMed Central

    Toms, Mike P.; Peck, Kirsi M.; Kirkwood, James K.; Chantrey, Julian; Clatworthy, Innes R.; Evans, Andy D.; Hughes, Laura A.; Hutchinson, Oliver C.; John, Shinto K.; Pennycott, Tom W.; Perkins, Matthew W.; Rowley, Peter S.; Simpson, Vic R.; Tyler, Kevin M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are increasingly cited as threats to wildlife, livestock and humans alike. They can threaten geographically isolated or critically endangered wildlife populations; however, relatively few studies have clearly demonstrated the extent to which emerging diseases can impact populations of common wildlife species. Here, we report the impact of an emerging protozoal disease on British populations of greenfinch Carduelis chloris and chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, two of the most common birds in Britain. Morphological and molecular analyses showed this to be due to Trichomonas gallinae. Trichomonosis emerged as a novel fatal disease of finches in Britain in 2005 and rapidly became epidemic within greenfinch, and to a lesser extent chaffinch, populations in 2006. By 2007, breeding populations of greenfinches and chaffinches in the geographic region of highest disease incidence had decreased by 35% and 21% respectively, representing mortality in excess of half a million birds. In contrast, declines were less pronounced or absent in these species in regions where the disease was found in intermediate or low incidence. Also, populations of dunnock Prunella modularis, which similarly feeds in gardens, but in which T. gallinae was rarely recorded, did not decline. This is the first trichomonosis epidemic reported in the scientific literature to negatively impact populations of free-ranging non-columbiform species, and such levels of mortality and decline due to an emerging infectious disease are unprecedented in British wild bird populations. This disease emergence event demonstrates the potential for a protozoan parasite to jump avian host taxonomic groups with dramatic effect over a short time period. PMID:20805869

  14. The prevalence of periodontal disease in a Romano-British population c. 200-400 AD

    PubMed Central

    Raitapuro-Murray, T.; Molleson, T. I.; Hughes, F. J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of moderate to severe periodontitis in an ancient British cohort c. 200-400 AD. Design Observational study to assess periodontal and other oral disease parameters. Setting Natural History Museum, London. Subjects and methods 303 skulls from a Romano-British burial site in Poundbury, Dorset were examined for evidence of dental disease. Main outcome measures The primary outcome measure was presence of moderate to severe periodontitis. Secondary outcomes included: amount of horizontal bone loss; prevalence of ante-mortem tooth loss; and presence of other dental pathologies. Results The overall prevalence of moderate to severe periodontitis was just greater than 5%. The prevalence rate remained nearly constant between ages 20 to 60, after which it rose to around 10%. The number of affected teeth increased with age. Horizontal bone loss was generally minor. Caries was seen in around 50% of the cohort, and evidence of pulpal and apical pathology was seen in around 25%. Conclusions The prevalence of moderate to severe periodontitis was markedly decreased when compared to the prevalence in modern populations, underlining the potential importance of risk factors such as smoking and diabetes in determining susceptibility to progressive periodontitis in modern populations. PMID:25342357

  15. High-Cost Users of Prescription Drugs: A Population-Based Analysis from British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Weymann, Deirdre; Smolina, Kate; Gladstone, Emilie J; Morgan, Steven G

    2017-04-01

    To examine variation in pharmaceutical spending and patient characteristics across prescription drug user groups. British Columbia's population-based linked administrative health and sociodemographic databases (N = 3,460,763). We classified individuals into empirically derived prescription drug user groups based on pharmaceutical spending patterns outside hospitals from 2007 to 2011. We examined variation in patient characteristics, mortality, and health services usage and applied hierarchical clustering to determine patterns of concurrent drug use identifying high-cost patients. Approximately 1 in 20 British Columbians had persistently high prescription costs for 5 consecutive years, accounting for 42 percent of 2011 province-wide pharmaceutical spending. Less than 1 percent of the population experienced discrete episodes of high prescription costs; an additional 2.8 percent transitioned to or from high-cost episodes of unknown duration. Persistent high-cost users were more likely to concurrently use multiple chronic medications; episodic and transitory users spent more on specialized medicines, including outpatient cancer drugs. Cluster analyses revealed heterogeneity in concurrent medicine use within high-cost groups. Whether low, moderate, or high, costs of prescription drugs for most individuals are persistent over time. Policies controlling high-cost use should focus on reducing polypharmacy and encouraging price competition in drug classes used by ordinary and high-cost users alike. © 2016 The Authors. Health Services Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Health Research and Educational Trust.

  16. Population genetic structure of Bombus terrestris in Europe: Isolation and genetic differentiation of Irish and British populations.

    PubMed

    Moreira, António S; Horgan, Finbarr G; Murray, Tomás E; Kakouli-Duarte, Thomais

    2015-07-01

    The genetic structure of the earth bumblebee (Bombus terrestris L.) was examined across 22 wild populations and two commercially reared populations using eight microsatellite loci and two mitochondrial genes. Our study included wild bumblebee samples from six populations in Ireland, one from the Isle of Man, four from Britain and 11 from mainland Europe. A further sample was acquired from New Zealand. Observed levels of genetic variability and heterozygosity were low in Ireland and the Isle of Man, but relatively high in continental Europe and among commercial populations. Estimates of Fst revealed significant genetic differentiation among populations. Bayesian cluster analysis indicated that Irish populations were highly differentiated from British and continental populations, the latter two showing higher levels of admixture. The data suggest that the Irish Sea and prevailing south westerly winds act as a considerable geographical barrier to gene flow between populations in Ireland and Britain; however, some immigration from the Isle of Man to Ireland was detected. The results are discussed in the context of the recent commercialization of bumblebees for the European horticultural industry. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Replication of british rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility Loci in two unrelated chinese population groups.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Hu, Yonghe; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yantang; Yang, Tai; Li, Minhui; Luo, Qiaoli; Cheng, Yu; Zou, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Previous genome-wide association study by WTCCC identified many susceptibility loci of common autoimmune diseases in British, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Because of the genetic heterogeneity of RA, it is necessary to replicate these susceptibility loci in other populations. Here, three SNPs with strong RA association signal in the British were analyzed in Han Chinese, and two SNPs (rs6457617 and rs11761231) were genotyped in the test cohort firstly. The rs6457617 was significantly associated with RA in the test cohort. The individuals bearing the homozygous genotype CC had 0.39-fold risk than these bearing the wild-type genotype TT (P = 0.004, OR 0.39, [95% CI 0.21-0.74]). And the protective effect of allele C was confirmed in another validation cohort with 1514 samples (P genotye CC/TT = 5.9 ×  10(-10), OR 0.34, [95% CI 0.24-0.48]). The rs6457617 can be used as a tagSNP of HLA-DQA1∗03 which encoded MHC-II α chain. Since MHC restriction is important for primary T-cells in positive selection and negative selection stages, MHC protein polymorphisms may be implicated in shaping the T-cell repertoire, including the emergence of a T-cell clone involved in the inflammatory arthritis.

  18. Subjective life expectancy predicts offspring sex in a contemporary British population.

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Sarah E

    2004-01-01

    There is evidence that women who are in poor physical condition or who reside in deprived environments are more likely to give birth to daughters than to sons. Under deprived environmental conditions, or when in poor physical health, it has been hypothesized that parents should take into account the available resources and manipulate the sex of any children born. Using subjective life expectancy (SLE) as a measure of how an individual views their future health and environment, I demonstrate that there is an association between the sex of the first child and SLE in a sample of mothers from a contemporary British population (Gloucestershire, UK). SLE was a significant predictor of offspring sex: women who believed that they had longer to live were more likely to have had a male birth than women who thought they would die earlier. Detection of such a bias among the children of British mothers may provide evidence that the sex ratio under relatively affluent Western conditions can still be influenced by adverse environmental or poor maternal condition. PMID:15801608

  19. High frequency of intermediate alleles on Huntington disease-associated haplotypes in British Columbia's general population.

    PubMed

    Semaka, Alicia; Kay, Chris; Doty, Crystal N; Collins, Jennifer A; Tam, Natalie; Hayden, Michael R

    2013-12-01

    Intermediate alleles (27-35 CAG, IAs) for Huntington disease (HD) usually do not confer the disease phenotype but are prone to CAG repeat instability. Consequently, offspring are at-risk of inheriting an expanded allele in the HD range (≥36 CAG). IAs that expand into a new mutation have been hypothesized to be more susceptible to instability compared to IAs identified on the non-HD side of a family from the general population. Frequency estimates for IAs are limited and have largely been determined using clinical samples of HD or related disorders, which may result in an ascertainment bias. This study aimed to establish the frequency of IAs in a sample of a British Columbia's (B.C.) general population with no known association to HD and examine the haplotype of new mutation and general population IAs. CAG sizing was performed on 1,600 DNA samples from B.C.'s general population. Haplotypes were determined using 22 tagging SNPs across the HTT gene. 5.8% of individuals were found to have an IA, of which 60% were on HD-associated haplotypes. There was no difference in the haplotype distribution of new mutation and general population IAs. These findings suggest that IAs are relatively frequent in the general population and are often found on haplotypes associated with expanded CAG lengths. There is likely no difference in the propensity of new mutation and general population IAs to expand into the disease range given that they are both found on disease-associated haplotypes. These findings have important implications for clinical practice. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Sex differences in humeral bilateral asymmetry in two hunter-gatherer populations: California Amerinds and British Columbian Amerinds.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Elizabeth

    2009-09-01

    This study uses two prehistoric Amerindian populations of hunter-gatherer subsistence patterns to determine whether levels of sexual dimorphism in humeral bilateral cross-sectional asymmetry are related to sex-specific differences in activities among these populations. Results confirmed that males of the California Amerind population who engaged in the more unimanual activities of spear hunting and warfare were more asymmetrical than were their female counterparts who engaged in the more bimanual activities of grinding acorns. California Amerind males were also more asymmetrical than British Columbian Amerind males who rowed (using both arms) extensively. Sex differences within British Columbian Amerinds were not statistically significant, nor were female differences between populations. In general, levels of humeral asymmetry appear to be more dependent on sex and population-specific behaviors rather than broad subsistence patterns. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Flammulated Owl (Otus flammeolus) population and habitat inventory at its northern range limit in the Southern Interior of British Columbia

    Treesearch

    Astrid M. van Woudenberg; David A. Christie

    1997-01-01

    Flammulated Owl (Otus flammeolus) ecology at the northern limit of its range (southern interior of British Columbia) necessitates that inventory data include replicated sampling throughout and between breeding seasons for accurate population and habitat assessment. Auditory census and nest surveys must be linked to assess habitat suitability; census...

  2. A Study of Linkage Disequilibrium in British Populations of DROSOPHILA SUBOBSCURA

    PubMed Central

    Charlesworth, B.; Charlesworth, D.; Loukas, M.

    1979-01-01

    Data have been obtained concerning the genetic content of samples of O chromosomes from three British populations, and J chromosomes from one population, of Drosophila subobscura. Some improvements to the genetic map of the O and J chromosomes have been made. Allele frequencies at the loci studied do not show much geographical variation, except where associations with geographically varying gene arrangements distort the picture. Striking nonrandom associations between alleles at three enzyme loci and closely linked O chromosome gene arrangements are present. Some historical explanation for these associations cannot at present be ruled out, but it is clear that a very high degree of genetic differentiation must exist between different gene arrangements in this species. There is no convincing direct evidence for linkage disequilibrium between pairs of enzyme loci, although there is a significant association between close linkage and a high value of the linkage disequilibrium measure. This suggests that there may be disequilibria between closely linked enzyme loci that are too small to be individually detectable. These results are in broad agreement with those reported by workers on other Drosophila species. At present there appears to be no evidence to support the concept that selection is sufficiently strong at individual enzyme loci to produce a high degree of nonrandom associations. (Franklin and Lewontin 1970). PMID:17248938

  3. Schmorl's nodes (intravertebral herniations of intervertebral disc tissue) in two historic British populations.

    PubMed Central

    Saluja, G; Fitzpatrick, K; Bruce, M; Cross, J

    1986-01-01

    The herniation of the nucleus pulposus into the vertebral body produces ectopic deposit of disc material which are known as Schmorl's nodes. This prolapsed disc tissue leaves characteristic deformations on the surface of the vertebral body and hence the incidence of this lesion can be studied in skeletal remains. This report describes the occurrence of Schmorl's nodes in TV8-SV1 in two historic adult British populations, one from Aberdeen and the other from London. In the Aberdeen group, both males and females showed a high incidence rate and severity of Schmorl's nodes. In the London group, the males had a similarly high affliction whereas the females were nearly free of the condition. The lesion had no significant predilection for any one particular vertebral surface. However, in males in both localities, the frequency of Schmorl's nodes was significantly higher in the thoracic region than in the lumbosacral region. In contrast, both groups of females showed similar node frequency in these two zones. The majority of Schmorl's nodes were localised in the central and central-posterior regions of the vertebral surface. When nodes occurred on successive vertebral surfaces, they often formed sequences showing similar shape and position. The aetiology of Schmorl's nodes is unclear. Various hypothetical causal factors were appraised in relation to the findings of this study. It was suggested that anomalies in vascular and/or notochordal regression may be related to the development of the lesion. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 6 PMID:3323152

  4. Population dynamics of the Cui-ui of Pyramid Lake, Nevada: a Potamodromous catostomid subject to failed reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scoppettone, Gayton G.; Rissler, Peter H.; Fabes, Mark C.; Shea, Sean P.

    2015-01-01

    Fishes of the Truckee River basin (California and Nevada) evolved in an aquatic system that has been episodically diminished by extended drought. For potamodromous species, such as the endangered Cui-ui endemic to Pyramid Lake, Nevada, prehistoric episodic severe drought presumably led to periods of failed reproduction due to restricted access to spawning habitat. The response of the Cui-ui population to more recent failed reproduction caused by anthropogenic activity was studied to learn how to manage this species through periods of spawning disruption. Adult Cui-ui survival averaged 91% and 89% for females and males, respectively, in drought years when spawning migrations were either precluded or few fish migrated because of no or low stream flow. In each of 2 years when stream access was precluded, the adult survival was nearly 100% suggesting that Cui-ui survival is extended in the absence of a spawning migration. Survival averaged 62% and 60% for females and males, respectively, in years of spawning migrations. Strong predominant year-classes developed in the year immediately following a period of failed reproduction, indicating the species’ capacity for population rebound. Year-class predominance persisted for 6–10 years and through years of low survival associated with migration years, and this predominance is probably due, in part, to a diverse age at maturity. Contemporary water diversions from the Truckee River provided the opportunity to study the response of the Cui-ui population to years of failed reproduction. A projected drier Truckee River basin associated with global climate change will test the Cui-ui’s adaptive capacity to endure periods of reproductive failure. This study is aimed at assisting Cui-ui managers in conserving the species in this highly regulated and changing system. The study also adds insight into the prehistoric population dynamics of a potamodromous species in the arid western United States subject to wide fluctuations in

  5. Validation of the self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ 20) in British Pakistani and White European population in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Husain, Nusrat; Chaudhry, Nasim; Rhouma, Abdulhakim; Sumra, Altaf; Tomenson, Barbara; Waheed, Waquas

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of depression is difficult to determine because of low clinical depression detection rates in the primary care setting. This low level of detection is a significantly greater problem in people from ethnic minority communities. The availability of culturally validated screening questionnaires might help to improve the detection and treatment of depression. The aim of the study was to assess the validity of the self-reporting questionnaire SRQ 20, (English and Urdu versions) in white Europeans and British Pakistanis and to determine the optimum cut-off scores for detecting depression. Validation of the English and Urdu versions of the SRQ was conducted with a sample of white Europeans and British Pakistani participants. The semi-structured Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) was used as the gold standard diagnostic interview, and receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to evaluate SRQ test performance. The SRQ was completed by 1856 participants out of whom 651 completed the SCAN interview. The SRQ sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values versus SCAN indicated a cut-off score of 7 as optimum for white Europeans and a cut-off score of 6 for British Pakistanis. This study focused on depression alone and did not take into consideration comorbid conditions such as anxiety which might have affected the way respondents answered the questions and contributed to comparatively lower optimum cut-off scores in British Pakistanis. The findings of this validation study provide evidence for high sensitivity and specificity of SRQ amongst both white Europeans and British Pakistanis. The SRQ can be used as a routine screening questionnaire for depression in English and Urdu speaking populations in the UK. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of the new American and British guidelines on the management and treatment of dyslipidemia in a Spanish working population.

    PubMed

    Brotons, Carlos; Calvo-Bonacho, Eva; Moral, Irene; García-Margallo, María Teresa; Cortés-Arcas, María Victoria; Puig, Mireia; Vázquez-Pirillo, Gastón; Ruilope, Luis Miguel

    2014-11-01

    The guidelines of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and the British National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence on the management and treatment of dyslipidemia recommend significant changes, such as the abolition of therapeutic targets and the use of new risk tables. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the use of these new guidelines compared with the application of European guidelines. Observational study conducted among Spanish workers. We included all workers registered with the Sociedad de Prevención de Ibermutuamur in 2011 whose cardiovascular risk could be evaluated. Cardiovascular risk was calculated for each worker using the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation cardiovascular risk tables for low-risk countries, as well as the tables recommended by the American and British guidelines. A total of 258,676 workers were included (68.2% men; mean age, 39.3 years). High risk was found in 3.74% of the population according to the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation tables and in 6.85% and 20.83% according to the British and American tables, respectively. Treatment would be needed in 20 558 workers according to the American guidelines and in 13,222 according to the British guidelines, but in only 2612 according to the European guidelines. By following the American guidelines, the cost of statins would increase by a factor of 8. The new recommendations would result in identifying more high-risk patients and in treating a larger fraction of the population with lipid-lowering drugs than with the European recommendations, which would result in increased costs. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. The chromosome 7q region association with rheumatoid arthritis in females in a British population is not replicated in a North American case-control series.

    PubMed

    Korman, Benjamin D; Seldin, Michael F; Taylor, Kimberly E; Le, Julie M; Lee, Annette T; Plenge, Robert M; Amos, Christopher I; Criswell, Lindsey A; Gregersen, Peter K; Kastner, Daniel L; Remmers, Elaine F

    2009-01-01

    The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11761231 on chromosome 7q has been reported to be sexually dimorphic marker for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) susceptibility in a British population. We sought to replicate this finding and to better characterize susceptibility alleles in the region in a North American population. DNA from 2 North American collections of RA patients and controls (1,605 cases and 2,640 controls) was genotyped for rs11761231 and 16 additional chromosome 7q tag SNPs using Sequenom iPlex assays. Association tests were performed for each collection and also separately, contrasting male cases with male controls and female cases with female controls. Principal components analysis (EigenStrat) was used to determine association with RA before and after adjusting for population stratification in the subset of the samples for which there were whole-genome SNP data (772 cases and 1,213 controls). We failed to replicate an association of the 7q region with RA. Initially, rs11761231 showed evidence for association with RA in the North American Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium (NARAC) collection (P=0.0073), and rs11765576 showed association with RA in both the NARAC (P=0.038) and RA replication (P = 0.0013) collections. These markers also exhibited sex differentiation. However, in the whole-genome subset, neither SNP showed significant association with RA after correction for population stratification. While 2 SNPs on chromosome 7q appeared to be associated with RA in a North American cohort, the significance of this finding did not withstand correction for population substructure. Our results emphasize the need to carefully account for population structure to avoid false-positive disease associations.

  8. The cascade of HIV care in British Columbia, Canada, 1996-2011: a population-based retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Nosyk, Bohdan; Montaner, Julio S G; Colley, Guillaume; Lima, Viviane D; Chan, Keith; Heath, Katherine; Yip, Benita; Samji, Hasina; Gilbert, Mark; Barrios, Rolando; Gustafson, Réka; Hogg, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    The cascade of HIV care has become a focal point for implementation efforts to maximise the individual and public health benefits of antiretroviral therapy. We aimed to characterise longitudinal changes in engagement with the cascade of HIV care in British Columbia, Canada, from 1996 to 2011. We used estimates of provincial HIV prevalence from the Public Health Agency of Canada and linked provincial population-level data to define, longitudinally, the numbers of individuals in each of the eight stages of the cascade of HIV care (HIV infected, diagnosed, linked to HIV care, retained in HIV care, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) indicated, on HAART, adherent to HAART, and virologically suppressed) in British Columbia from 1996 to 2011. We used sensitivity analyses to determine the sensitivity of cascade-stage counts to variations in their definitions. 13,140 people were classified as diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in British Columbia during the study period. We noted substantial improvements over time in the proportions of individuals at each stage of the cascade of care. Based on prevalence estimates, the proportion of unidentified HIV-positive individuals decreased from 49·0% (estimated range 36·2-57·5%) in 1996 to 29·0% (11·6-40·7%) in 2011, and the proportion of HIV-positive people with viral suppression reached 34·6% (29·0-43·1%) in 2011. Careful mapping of the cascade of care is crucial to understanding what further efforts are needed to maximise the beneficial effects of available interventions and so inform efforts to contain the spread of HIV/AIDS. British Columbia Ministry of Health, US National Institute on Drug Abuse (National Institutes of Health). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cultural differences in assessing dietary intake and providing relevant dietary information to British African-Caribbean populations.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Cruickshank, J K

    2001-12-01

    Diet can play a key role in the management of disorders such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension, conditions highly prevalent in the British African Caribbean population. In this paper, information not previously available is provided on the dietary habits and foods consumed by a British African-Caribbean population representative of the local community. Food frequency questionnaires were obtained from 255 randomly selected subjects in Manchester (78% of Jamaican origin), the nutrient intake results of which are available elsewhere. Here, suggestions are given to ensure that complete and valid dietary assessments (by diet history) are obtained, and the need for the approach to be somewhat different to that used in the White European population, highlighted with examples. Suggestions have also been listed for methods of dietary modification for obesity, diabetes and hypertension, taking into account differences in cultural understanding and food practices. People of Caribbean origin are not from just one territory: food habits and cultural context play an important role in every island, with clear differences between each which persist in first and later generations in Britain. In this paper, we attempt to integrate experience of learning from patients themselves during consultations and from participants in this study, with direct quantitative data on types of foods and their frequency in the local African-Caribbean diet.

  10. Allozyme polymorphism and variability in permethrin tolerance in British populations of the parthenogenetic stored product pest Liposcelis bostrychophila (Liposcelididae, Psocoptera).

    PubMed

    Ali; Turner

    2001-04-01

    Variability in allozyme patterns is demonstrated among 111 British populations of Liposcelis bostrychophila (Badonnel), an obligatory parthenogenetic liposcelid species that is a common domestic pest in the United Kingdom. In addition four tropical strains and a laboratory culture were included in the analysis. Permethrin toxicity was measured in a subset of the populations.Using cellulose acetate paper electrophoresis, 16 of 34 enzymes tested were found in the liposcelid material and, of these, four were polymorphic. A total of 47 distinct morphs were recognised. This enzyme variation appears to be random with respect to geography throughout the country.Permethrin tolerance was highly variable among populations. A significant relationship was demonstrated between the mean LC(50) for permethrin and latitude such that there appears to be higher levels of tolerance in southern, than in northern, Britain.No link could be established between the allozyme polymorphisms, particularly in the esterases, and permethrin tolerance.

  11. People of the British Isles: preliminary analysis of genotypes and surnames in a UK-control population

    PubMed Central

    Winney, Bruce; Boumertit, Abdelhamid; Day, Tammy; Davison, Dan; Echeta, Chikodi; Evseeva, Irina; Hutnik, Katarzyna; Leslie, Stephen; Nicodemus, Kristin; Royrvik, Ellen C; Tonks, Susan; Yang, Xiaofeng; Cheshire, James; Longley, Paul; Mateos, Pablo; Groom, Alexandra; Relton, Caroline; Bishop, D Tim; Black, Kathryn; Northwood, Emma; Parkinson, Louise; Frayling, Timothy M; Steele, Anna; Sampson, Julian R; King, Turi; Dixon, Ron; Middleton, Derek; Jennings, Barbara; Bowden, Rory; Donnelly, Peter; Bodmer, Walter

    2012-01-01

    There is a great deal of interest in a fine-scale population structure in the UK, both as a signature of historical immigration events and because of the effect population structure may have on disease association studies. Although population structure appears to have a minor impact on the current generation of genome-wide association studies, it is likely to have a significant part in the next generation of studies designed to search for rare variants. A powerful way of detecting such structure is to control and document carefully the provenance of the samples involved. In this study, we describe the collection of a cohort of rural UK samples (The People of the British Isles), aimed at providing a well-characterised UK-control population that can be used as a resource by the research community, as well as providing a fine-scale genetic information on the British population. So far, some 4000 samples have been collected, the majority of which fit the criteria of coming from a rural area and having all four grandparents from approximately the same area. Analysis of the first 3865 samples that have been geocoded indicates that 75% have a mean distance between grandparental places of birth of 37.3 km, and that about 70% of grandparental places of birth can be classed as rural. Preliminary genotyping of 1057 samples demonstrates the value of these samples for investigating a fine-scale population structure within the UK, and shows how this can be enhanced by the use of surnames. PMID:21829225

  12. Stratospheric ozone depletion and the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer in a British population.

    PubMed

    Diffey, B L

    1992-12-01

    Quantitative estimation of the increased risk of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in British people that may result from depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer is given for the present generation of British people. For adults alive today continuing ozone depletion at current rates is predicted to result in a relatively small additional lifetime risk (< 5%) of NMSC, assuming no changes in climate, time spent outdoors, behaviour or clothing habits. The lifetime risk incurred by today's children, however, is 10%-15% greater than expected in the absence of ozone depletion. However, if the production and use of substances which deplete ozone are reduced, as expected under the current provisions of the Montreal Protocol, the increased lifetime risk of skin cancer is likely to be less than this estimate. These predicted increases in risk, resulting from greater solar ultraviolet exposure, can be offset by adopting changes to behaviour during the summer months which may involve spending less time outdoors, wearing appropriate clothing including wide-brimmed hats, applying topical sunscreens, or a combination of these.

  13. Temporal trends in ankyloglossia and frenotomy in British Columbia, Canada, 2004-2013: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, K.S.; Kinniburgh, Brooke; Metcalfe, Amy; Razaz, Neda; Sabr, Yasser; Lisonkova, Sarka

    2016-01-01

    Background: Routine surveillance of congenital anomalies has shown recent increases in ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) in British Columbia, Canada. We examined the temporal trends in ankyloglossia and its surgical treatment (frenotomy). Methods: We conducted a population-based cohort study involving all live births in British Columbia from Apr. 1, 2004, to Mar. 31, 2014, with data obtained from the province's Perinatal Data Registry. Spatiotemporal trends in ankyloglossia and frenotomy, and associations with maternal and infant characteristics, were quantified using logistic regression analysis. Results: There were 459 445 live births and 3022 cases of ankyloglossia between 2004 and 2013. The population incidence of ankyloglossia increased by 70% (rate ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-2.01), from 5.0 per 1000 live births in 2004 to 8.4 per 1000 in 2013. During the same period, the population rate of frenotomy increased by 89% (95% CI 52%-134%), from 2.8 per 1000 live births in 2004 to 5.3 per 1000 in 2013. The 2 regional health authorities with the lowest population rates of frenotomy (1.5 and 1.8 per 1000 live births) had the lowest rates of ankyloglossia and the lowest rates of frenotomy among cases with ankyloglossia, whereas the 2 regional health authorities with the highest population rates of frenotomy (5.2 and 5.3 per 1000 live births) had high rates of ankyloglossia and the highest rates of frenotomy among cases of ankyloglossia. Nulliparity, multiple birth, male infant sex, birth weight and year were independently associated with ankyloglossia. Interpretation: Large temporal increases and substantial spatial variations in ankyloglossia and frenotomy rates were observed that may indicate a diagnostic suspicion bias and increasing use of a potentially unnecessary surgical procedure among infants. PMID:27280112

  14. Temporal trends in ankyloglossia and frenotomy in British Columbia, Canada, 2004-2013: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Joseph, K S; Kinniburgh, Brooke; Metcalfe, Amy; Razaz, Neda; Sabr, Yasser; Lisonkova, Sarka

    2016-01-01

    Routine surveillance of congenital anomalies has shown recent increases in ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) in British Columbia, Canada. We examined the temporal trends in ankyloglossia and its surgical treatment (frenotomy). We conducted a population-based cohort study involving all live births in British Columbia from Apr. 1, 2004, to Mar. 31, 2014, with data obtained from the province's Perinatal Data Registry. Spatiotemporal trends in ankyloglossia and frenotomy, and associations with maternal and infant characteristics, were quantified using logistic regression analysis. There were 459 445 live births and 3022 cases of ankyloglossia between 2004 and 2013. The population incidence of ankyloglossia increased by 70% (rate ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-2.01), from 5.0 per 1000 live births in 2004 to 8.4 per 1000 in 2013. During the same period, the population rate of frenotomy increased by 89% (95% CI 52%-134%), from 2.8 per 1000 live births in 2004 to 5.3 per 1000 in 2013. The 2 regional health authorities with the lowest population rates of frenotomy (1.5 and 1.8 per 1000 live births) had the lowest rates of ankyloglossia and the lowest rates of frenotomy among cases with ankyloglossia, whereas the 2 regional health authorities with the highest population rates of frenotomy (5.2 and 5.3 per 1000 live births) had high rates of ankyloglossia and the highest rates of frenotomy among cases of ankyloglossia. Nulliparity, multiple birth, male infant sex, birth weight and year were independently associated with ankyloglossia. Large temporal increases and substantial spatial variations in ankyloglossia and frenotomy rates were observed that may indicate a diagnostic suspicion bias and increasing use of a potentially unnecessary surgical procedure among infants.

  15. The Extent and Distribution of Gambling-Related Harms and the Prevention Paradox in a British Population Survey

    PubMed Central

    Canale, Natale; Vieno, Alessio; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether the “prevention paradox” applies to British individuals in relation to gambling-related harm. Methods Data were derived from 7,756 individuals participating in the British Gambling Prevalence Survey 2010, a comprehensive interview-based survey conducted in Great Britain between November 2009 and May 2010. Gambling-related harm was assessed using an adapted version of the DSM-IV Pathological Gambling criteria. The previous year’s prevalence of problem gamblers was examined using the Problem Gambling Severity Index. Gambling involvement was measured by gambling frequency and gambling participation (gambling volume as expressed by time and money spent gambling). Results The prevalence rates for past-year gambling harms were dependence harm (16.4%), social harm (2.2%), and chasing losses (7.9%). Gambling-related harms were distributed across low- to moderate-risk gamblers (and not limited to just problem gamblers) and were reported by the majority of gamblers who were non-high time and spend regular gamblers than high time and spend regular gamblers. Conclusions The prevention paradox is a promising way of examining gambling-related harm. This suggests that prevention of gambling might need to consider the population approach to minimizing gambling harm. PMID:27156382

  16. Burden of poor oral health in older age: findings from a population-based study of older British men.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, S E; Whincup, P H; Watt, R G; Tsakos, G; Papacosta, A O; Lennon, L T; Wannamethee, S G

    2015-12-29

    Evidence of the extent of poor oral health in the older UK adult population is limited. We describe the prevalence of oral health conditions, using objective clinical and subjective measures, in a population-based study of older men. Cross-sectional study. A representative sample of men aged 71-92 years in 2010-2012 from the British Regional Heart Study, initially recruited in 1978-1980 from general practices across Britain. Physical examination among 1660 men included the number of teeth, and periodontal disease in index teeth in each sextant (loss of attachment, periodontal pocket, gingival bleeding). Postal questionnaires (completed by 2147 men including all participants who were clinically examined) included self-rated oral health, oral impacts on daily life and current perception of dry mouth experience. Among 1660 men clinically examined, 338 (20%) were edentulous and a further 728 (43%) had <21 teeth. For periodontal disease, 233 (19%) had loss of attachment (>5.5 mm) affecting 1-20% of sites while 303 (24%) had >20% sites affected. The prevalence of gingival bleeding was 16%. Among 2147 men who returned postal questionnaires, 35% reported fair/poor oral health; 11% reported difficulty eating due to oral health problems. 31% reported 1-2 symptoms of dry mouth and 20% reported 3-5 symptoms of dry mouth. The prevalence of edentulism, loss of attachment, or fair/poor self-rated oral health was greater in those from manual social class. These findings highlight the high burden of poor oral health in older British men. This was reflected in both the objective clinical and subjective measures of oral health conditions. The determinants of these oral health problems in older populations merit further research to reduce the burden and consequences of poor oral health in older people. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Predicting tuberculosis risk in the foreign-born population of British Columbia, Canada: study protocol for a retrospective population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ronald, Lisa A; Campbell, Jonathon R; Balshaw, Robert F; Roth, David Z; Romanowski, Kamila; Marra, Fawziah; Cook, Victoria J; Johnston, James C

    2016-11-25

    Improved understanding of risk factors for developing active tuberculosis (TB) will better inform decisions about diagnostic testing and treatment for latent TB infection (LTBI) in migrant populations in low-incidence regions. We aim to examine TB risk factors among the foreign-born population in British Columbia (BC), Canada, and to create and validate a clinically relevant multivariate risk score to predict active TB. This retrospective population-based cohort study will include all foreign-born individuals who acquired permanent resident status in Canada between 1 January 1985 and 31 December 2013 and acquired healthcare coverage in BC at any point during this period. Multiple administrative databases and disease registries will be linked, including a National Immigration Database, BC Provincial Health Insurance Registration, physician billings, hospitalisations, drugs dispensed from community pharmacies, vital statistics, HIV testing and notifications, cancer, chronic kidney disease and dialysis treatment, and all TB and LTBI testing and treatment data in BC. Extended proportional hazards regression will be used to estimate risk factors for TB and to create a prognostic TB risk score. Ethical approval for this study has been obtained from the University of British Columbia Clinical Ethics Review Board. Once completed, study findings will be presented at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. An online TB risk score calculator will also be created. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Decreasing Hepatitis C Incidence Among a Population With Repeated Tests: British Columbia, Canada, 1993–2011

    PubMed Central

    Janjua, Naveed Z.; Burchell, Ann N.; Buxton, Jane A.; Krajden, Mel; Gilbert, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated HCV incidence among individuals who repeatedly underwent anti-HCV testing. Methods. We studied HCV-negative individuals who had at least 2 tests between April 1992 and September 2012 in British Columbia, Canada. We calculated incidence as the number of new infections per 100 person-years at risk. Results. From 1992 to 2012, 323 598 individuals who persistently tested negative and 7490 HCV seroconverters contributed 1 774 262 person-years of observation time. Incidence rates ranged from 2.66 infections per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.07, 3.35) in 1993 to 0.25 infections per 100 person-years (95% CI = 0.21, 0.29) in 2011. Rates declined sharply in the 1990s and declined more gradually in the 2000s. Incidence declined with age; highest incidence rates were among those aged 15 to 24 years. Incidence among male repeat testers exceeded that of female repeat testers across all years, although the gap narrowed over time. Conclusions. Addictions treatment, harm reduction, prevention education, and novel initiatives to remove barriers in health infrastructure need to be intensified for those who inject drugs, particularly men and younger persons. PMID:26066920

  19. Landscape-level analysis of mountain goat population connectivity in Washington and southern British Columbia

    Treesearch

    Leslie C. Parks; David O. Wallin; Samuel A. Cushman; Brad H. McRae

    2015-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation and habitat loss diminish population connectivity, reducing genetic diversity and increasing extinction risk over time. Improving connectivity is widely recommended to preserve the long-term viability of populations, but this requires accurate knowledge of how landscapes influence connectivity. Detectability of landscape effects on gene...

  20. Prescription drug use in pregnancy: a retrospective, population-based study in British Columbia, Canada (2001-2006).

    PubMed

    Daw, Jamie R; Mintzes, Barbara; Law, Michael R; Hanley, Gillian E; Morgan, Steven G

    2012-01-01

    Owing to the paucity of evidence available on the risks and benefits of drug use in pregnancy, the use of prescription medicines is a concern for both pregnant women and their health care providers. The aim of this study was to measure the frequency, timing, and type of medicines used before, during, and after pregnancy in a Canadian population. This retrospective cohort analysis used population-based health care data from all pregnancies ending in live births in hospitals in British Columbia from April 2001 to June 2006 (n = 163,082). Data from hospital records were linked to those in outpatient prescription-drug claims. Data from prescriptions filled from 6 months before pregnancy to 6 months postpartum were analyzed. Drugs were classified by therapeutic category and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) pregnancy risk categories. Prescriptions were filled in 63.5% of pregnancies. Evidence on safety is limited for many of the medicines most frequently filled in pregnancy, including codeine, salbutamol, and betamethasone. At least 1 prescription for a category D or X medicine was filled in 7.8% of pregnancies (5.5% category D; 2.5% category X). The most frequently filled prescriptions for category D drugs were benzodiazepines and antidepressants. The most frequently filled prescriptions for category X drugs were oral contraceptives and ovulation stimulants filled in the first trimester. The majority of pregnant women in British Columbia filled at least 1 prescription, and ~1 in 13 filled a prescription for a drug categorized as D or X by the FDA. The prevalence of maternal prescription drug use emphasizes the need for postmarketing evaluation of the risk-benefit profiles of pharmaceuticals in pregnancy. Future research on prenatal drug use based on administrative databases should examine maternal treatment adherence and the determinants of maternal drug use, considering maternal health status, sociodemographics, and the characteristics and providers of prenatal

  1. Genetic Characterization of Human Populations: From ABO to a Genetic Map of the British People

    PubMed Central

    Bodmer, Walter

    2015-01-01

    From 1900, when Landsteiner first described the ABO blood groups, to the present, the methods used to characterize the genetics of human populations have undergone a remarkable development. Concomitantly, our understanding of the history and spread of human populations across the earth has become much more detailed. As has often been said, a better understanding of the genetic relationships among the peoples of the world is one of the best antidotes to racial prejudices. Such an understanding provides us with a fascinating, improved insight into our origins as well as with valuable information about population differences that are of medical relevance. The study of genetic polymorphisms has been essential to the analysis of the relationships between human populations. The evolution of methods used to study human polymorphisms and the resulting contributions to our understanding of human health and history is the subject of this Perspectives. PMID:25657345

  2. Laboratory studies of insecticide efficacy and resistance in Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) populations from British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Smirle, Michael J; Zurowski, Cheryl L; Ayyanath, Murali-Mohan; Scott, Ian M; MacKenzie, Kenna E

    2017-01-01

    Spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), control can be improved with better knowledge of insecticide efficacy, timing of sprays and rotations with registered products during the crop year. An efficacy bioassay was applied to study the dose response of adult laboratory-reared SWD collected from a cherry orchard in British Columbia (BC), Canada, to 11 insecticides. Age- and sex-specific toxicities with the most effective insecticide, malathion, determined that older male SWD were significantly more susceptible than females. The selection for polygenic resistance to malathion using repeated exposure to sublethal concentrations with both the original and an additional blueberry-collected population of laboratory-reared SWD determined no significant difference in susceptibility after 30 generations. Possible reasons reported in D. melanogaster studies where resistance did not occur after insecticide selection included avoidance and associated microbial complexes. The low level of malathion resistance observed in the selected SWD populations and a field-collected population is useful information in the development of insecticide resistance management programmes. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada Pest Management Science © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada Pest Management Science © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Intentional injury among the indigenous and total populations in British Columbia, Canada: trends over time and ecological analyses of risk.

    PubMed

    George, M Anne; Jin, Andrew; Brussoni, Mariana; Lalonde, Christopher E; McCormick, Rod

    2017-08-08

    Our objective was to explore intentional injury disparity between Indigenous populations and the total population in the province of British Columbia (BC), Canada. We focus on hospitalizations, including both self-inflicted injuries and injuries inflicted by others. We used data from BC's universal health care insurance plan, 1991 to 2010, linked to Vital Statistics databases. Indigenous people were identified through the insurance premium group, and birth and death records. Place of residence was identified through postal code. We calculated crude hospitalization incidence rates and the Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of hospitalization, standardized by gender, 5-year age group, and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA). With HSDA populations as the units of observation, linear regression was used to test hypothesized associations of Indigenous ethnicity, geographic, and socio-economic characteristics with SRR of injury. During the period 1991-2010, the crude rate of hospitalization for intentional injuries was 8.4 per 10,000 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.3 to 8.5) for the total BC population, compared to 45.3 per 10,000 (95% CI: 44.5 to 46.1) for the Indigenous population. For both populations, risk declined over the period for injuries self-inflicted and inflicted by others. The linear regression model predicts that the off-reserve Indigenous population will have SRR of intentional injury 3.98 greater, and the on-reserve Indigenous population 4.17, greater than the total population. The final model was an excellent fit (R 2  = 0.912, F = 177.632, p < 0.001), and found that three variables - occupational risk, high school diploma, and university degree - each provide independent effects when interacting multiplicatively with Indigenous ethnicity. The observation of substantially declining rates of intentional injury for both the Indigenous and total BC populations is off-set by the high disparity in risk between the two populations, which

  4. The relationships between body composition characteristics and cognitive functioning in a population-based sample of older British men.

    PubMed

    Papachristou, Efstathios; Ramsay, Sheena E; Lennon, Lucy T; Papacosta, Olia; Iliffe, Steve; Whincup, Peter H; Wannamethee, S Goya

    2015-12-21

    Current research has established obesity as one of the main modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment. However, evidence on the relationships of total and regional body composition measures as well as sarcopenia with cognitive functioning in the older population remains inconsistent. Data are based on 1,570 participants from the British Regional Heart Study (BRHS), a cohort of older British men from 24 British towns initiated in 1978-80, who were re-examined in 2010-12, aged 71-92 years. Cognitive functioning was assessed with the Test-Your-Memory cognitive screening tool. Body composition characteristics assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis included total fat mass (FM), central FM, peripheral FM, and visceral fat level. Sarcopenia was defined using the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) definition of severe sarcopenia and the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) sarcopenia project criteria. Among 1,570 men, 636 (41 %) were classified in the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 133 (8 %) in the severe cognitive impairment (SCI) groups. Age-adjusted multinomial logistic regressions showed that compared with participants in the normal cognitive ageing group, those with SCI were more likely to have waist circumference >102 cm, BMI >30 kg/m(2), to be in the upper quintile of total FM, central FM, peripheral FM and visceral fat level and to be sarcopenic. The relationships remained significant for total FM (RR = 2.16, 95 % CI 1.29-3.63), central FM (RR = 1.85, 95 % CI 1.09-3.14), peripheral FM (RR = 2.67, 95 % CI 1.59-4.48), visceral fat level (RR = 2.28, 95 % CI 1.32-3.94), BMI (RR = 2.25, 95 % CI 1.36-3.72) and waist circumference (RR = 1.63, 95 % CI 1.05-2.55) after adjustments for alcohol, smoking, social class, physical activity and history of cardiovascular diseases or diabetes. After further adjustments for interleukin-6 and insulin resistance, central FM, waist

  5. A clonal outbreak of tuberculosis in a homeless population in the interior of British Columbia, Canada, 2008-2015.

    PubMed

    Cheng, J M; Hiscoe, L; Pollock, S L; Hasselback, P; Gardy, J L; Parker, R

    2015-11-01

    A tuberculosis (TB) case was reported May 2008 in Kelowna, British Columbia, leading to a multi-year outbreak in homeless persons. The epidemiological characteristics and social networks of cases are described. Outbreak-related cases were identified from epidemiological information in medical records and from genotyping of TB isolates. Social network information from case interviews were used to identify potential locations of TB transmission, where symptom screening and tuberculin skin testing was conducted. Fifty-two cases that were predominantly male (47/52), Canadian-born (44/50), and were homeless or associated with homeless individuals (42/52) were reported from May 2008 to May 2014. Many isolates (40/49) had partial resistance to isoniazid. Transmission primarily occurred at two homeless shelters, with potential further transmission at sites visited by the general population. TB outbreaks in homeless populations can occur in small, low-incidence cities. Social network information helped prioritize sites for TB screening, thereby improving detection of persons with TB disease or latent infection for treatment.

  6. A first integrative study of the identity and origins of the British Dwarf Pill Millipede populations, Trachysphaera cf. lobata (Diplopoda, Glomerida, Glomeridae).

    PubMed

    Wilbrandt, Jeanne; Lee, Paul; Read, Helen; Wesener, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Three populations of the pill millipede genus Trachysphaera Heller 1858 are present in Great Britain, one on the Isle of Wight, one in South Wales and one in mid-Wales. To identify and characterize the British Trachysphaera populations, the intraspecific and interspecific variation of the populations in South Wales and on the Isle of Wight were studied and evaluated in a first integrative study of members of Trachysphaera, utilizing barcoding and SEM. DNA was extracted from 28 British Trachysphaera and 10 French T. lobata (Ribaut 1954) specimens, one each of French T. cf. drescoi (Conde and Demange 1961) and T. pyrenaica (Ribaut 1908), and one of Spanish T. cf. rousseti (Demange 1959); the barcoding fragment of the COI gene was amplified and their genetic intra- and interpopulation distances compared with one another using two Italian T. spp. and one Croatian T. schmidti Heller 1858 specimens as near outgroups. To compare the genetic distances with the morphological characters, 15 characters of a total of 13 British Trachysphaera, together with two specimens of T.pyrenaica, two T. cf. drescoi and one of T. cf. rousseti were imaged, using the same individuals utilized for DNA extraction. Albeit both British populations are genetically distant, they are closely related (1.9-2.5% p-distance) to French T.lobata, corroborating results of earlier studies. Between different Trachysphaera species, genetic distance was high (16.7-18.8%). The morphological study showed the non-reliability of key taxonomic characters in Trachysphaera, with genetically identical individuals exhibiting morphological variation, especially on the telopods. The only observed morphological characters constant within and different between species were the number of rows of sclerotized bacilli on the tergites, as well as the shape of the male and female anal shield. Both, barcoding and the morphological study identify the British Trachysphaera populations as T. lobata.

  7. Hypothyroid Symptoms Fail to Predict Thyroid Insufficiency in Old People: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Carlé, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Knudsen, Nils; Perrild, Hans; Ovesen, Lars; Andersen, Stig; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Clinic-based studies have indicated that older hypothyroid patients may present only few symptoms. In this population-based study of hypothyroidism, we investigated how the power of symptom presence predicts overt hypothyroidism in both young and older subjects. We identified patients newly diagnosed with overt autoimmune hypothyroidism in a population (n = 140, median thyroid-stimulating hormone, 54.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 28.3-94.8; median total T4, 37; 95% CI, 18-52) and individually matched each patient with 4 controls free of thyroid disease (n = 560). Participants filled out questionnaires concerning the presence and duration of symptoms. We compared the usefulness of hypothyroidism-associated symptoms in predicting overt hypothyroidism in different age groups (young: <50 years, middle age: 50-59 years, old: ≥60 years) also taking various confounders into account. In young hypothyroid patients, all 13 hypothyroidism-associated symptoms studied were more prevalent than in their matched controls, whereas only 3 of those (tiredness, shortness of breath, and wheezing) were more prevalent in old patients. The mean numbers of symptoms presented at disease onset were 6.2, 5.0, and 3.6 at the ages of 0 to 49 years, 50 to 59 years, and 60+ years, respectively. In young versus old people with 0 to 1 symptoms, the odds ratio for being hypothyroid was 0.04 (95% CI, 0.007-0.18) versus 0.34 (95% CI, 0.15-0.78) (reference all other groups). In young versus old subjects reporting ≥4 symptoms, the odds ratio for being hypothyroid was 16.4 (95% CI, 6.96-40.0) versus 2.22 (95% CI, 1.001-4.90). Receiver operating characteristic analyses revealed that the symptom score was an excellent tool for predicting hypothyroidism in young men (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.82-0.998), whereas it was poor in evaluating older women (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.54-0.75). Hypothyroid symptom

  8. Elective single-embryo transfer: persuasive communication strategies can affect choice in a young British population.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, O B A; Purewal, S

    2011-12-01

    This study tested the effectiveness of the framing effect and fear appeals to inform young people about the risks of multiple births and the option of selecting elective single-embryo transfer (eSET). A non-patient student sample (age (mean±SD) 23±5.5 years; n=321) were randomly allocated to one of seven groups: (1) framing effect: (1a) gain and (1b) loss frame; (2) fear appeal: (2a) high, (2b) medium and (2c) low fear; or (3) a control group: (3a) education and (3b) non-education. The primary outcome measure was the Attitudes towards Single Embryo Transfer questionnaire, before exposure to the messages (time 1) and immediately afterwards (time 2). Results revealed participants in the high fear, medium fear and gain condition demonstrated the most positive and significant differences (P<0.001 to P<0.05) in their knowledge, hypothetical intentions and modest changes in attitudes towards eSET than the low fear, loss frame and education and non-education messages. The results demonstrate that the use of complex persuasive communication techniques on a student population to promote immediate and hypothetical eSET preferences is more successful at promoting eSET than merely reporting educational content. Future research should investigate its application in a clinical population. A multiple pregnancy is a health risk to both infant and mother following IVF treatment. The aims of this study were to test the effectiveness of two persuasive communication techniques (the framing effect and fear appeals) to inform young people about the risks of multiple births and the hypothetical option of selecting elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) (i.e., only one embryo is transferred to the uterus using IVF treatment). A total of 321 non-patient student sample (mean age 23) were randomly allocated to read a message from one of seven groups: (1) framing effect: (1a) gain and (1b) loss frame; (2) fear appeal: (2a) high, (2b) medium and (2c) low fear; or (3) a control group

  9. Dancing Participation and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality: A Pooled Analysis of 11 Population-Based British Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Merom, Dafna; Ding, Ding; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about whether cardiovascular benefits vary by activity type. Dance is a multidimensional physical activity of psychosocial nature. The study aimed to examine the association between dancing and cardiovascular disease mortality. A cohort study pooled 11 independent population surveys in the United Kingdom from 1995 to 2007, analyzed in 2014. Participants were 48,390 adults aged ≥40 years who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline and consented to be linked to the National Death Registry. Respondents reported participation in light- or moderate-intensity dancing and walking in the past 4 weeks. Physical activity amount was calculated based on frequency, duration, and intensity of participation in various types of exercise. The main outcome was cardiovascular disease mortality based on ICD-9 codes 390-459 or ICD-10 codes I01-I99. During 444,045 person-years, 1,714 deaths caused by cardiovascular disease were documented. Moderate-intensity, but not light-intensity, dancing and walking were both inversely associated with cardiovascular disease mortality. In Cox regression models, the hazard ratios for cardiovascular disease mortality, adjusted for age, sex, SES, smoking, alcohol, BMI, chronic illness, psychosocial distress, and total physical activity amount, were 0.54 (95% CI=0.34, 0.87) for moderate-intensity dancing and 0.67 (95% CI=0.52, 0.87) for moderate-intensity walking. Moderate-intensity dancing was associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease mortality to a greater extent than walking. The association between dance and cardiovascular disease mortality may be explained by high-intensity bouts during dancing, lifelong adherence, or psychosocial benefits. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Stimulants and Cannabis Use Among a Marginalized Population in British Columbia, Canada: Role of Trauma and Incarceration.

    PubMed

    Saddichha, Sahoo; Werker, Gregory R; Schuetz, Christian; Krausz, Michael R

    2015-12-01

    High rates of substance use, especially cannabis and stimulant use, have been associated with homelessness, exposure to trauma, and involvement with the criminal justice system. This study explored differences in substance use (cannabis vs. stimulants) and associations with trauma and incarceration among a homeless population. Data were derived from the BC Health of the Homeless Study (BCHOHS), carried out in three cities in British Columbia, Canada. Measures included sociodemographic information, the Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Plus. Stimulant users were more likely to be female (43%), using multiple substances (3.2), and engaging in survival sex (14%). Cannabis users had higher rates of lifetime psychotic disorders (32%). Among the incarcerated, cannabis users had been subjected to greater emotional neglect (p < .05) and one in two cannabis users had a history of lifetime depressive disorders (p < .05). Childhood physical abuse and Caucasian ethnicity were also associated with greater crack cocaine use. One explanation for the results is that a history of childhood abuse may lead to a developmental cascade of depressive symptoms and other psychopathology, increasing the chances of cannabis dependence and the development of psychosis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Population-Based Risks of CNS Tumors in Survivors of Childhood Cancer: The British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Aliki J.; Little, Mark P.; Winter, David L.; Sugden, Elaine; Ellison, David W.; Stiller, Charles A.; Stovall, Marilyn; Frobisher, Clare; Lancashire, Emma R.; Reulen, Raoul C.; Hawkins, Michael M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose CNS tumors are the most common second primary neoplasm (SPN) observed after childhood cancer in Britain, but the relationship of risk to doses of previous radiotherapy and chemotherapy is uncertain. Methods The British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a national, population-based, cohort study of 17,980 individuals surviving at least 5 years after diagnosis of childhood cancer. Linkage to national, population-based cancer registries identified 247 SPNs of the CNS. Cohort and nested case-control studies were undertaken. Results There were 137 meningiomas, 73 gliomas, and 37 other CNS neoplasms included in the analysis. The risk of meningioma increased strongly, linearly, and independently with each of dose of radiation to meningeal tissue and dose of intrathecal methotrexate. Those whose meningeal tissue received 0.01 to 9.99, 10.00 to 19.99, 20.00 to 29.99, 30.00 to 39.99 and ≥ 40 Gy had risks that were two-fold, eight-fold, 52-fold, 568-fold, and 479-fold, respectively, the risks experienced by those whose meningeal tissue was unexposed. The risk of meningioma among individuals receiving 1 to 39,40 to 69, and at least 70 mg/m2 of intrathecal methotrexate was 15-fold, 11-fold, and 36-fold, respectively, the risk experienced by those unexposed. The standardized incidence ratio for gliomas was 10.8 (95% CI, 8.5 to 13.6). The risk of glioma/primitive neuroectodermal tumors increased linearly with dose of radiation, and those who had CNS tissue exposed to at least 40 Gy experienced a risk four-fold that experienced by those who had CNS tissue unexposed. Conclusion The largest-ever study, to our knowledge, of CNS tumors in survivors of childhood cancer indicates that the risk of meningioma increases rapidly with increased dose of radiation to meningeal tissue and with increased dose of intrathecal methotrexate. PMID:21079138

  12. Mealtime Energy Intake and Feeding Behaviour in Children Who Fail to Thrive: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Kathryn N.; Wright, Charlotte M.; Drewett, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The essential link between energy needs and energy intake is feeding behaviour, yet few studies have directly observed feeding behaviour in children who have failed to thrive. A cohort of 961 term infants was screened to identify children with first year weight gain below the 5th centile in order to examine their feeding behaviour and…

  13. Daytime napping, sleep duration and increased 8-year risk of type 2 diabetes in a British population.

    PubMed

    Leng, Y; Cappuccio, F P; Surtees, P G; Luben, R; Brayne, C; Khaw, K-T

    2016-11-01

    Few studies have prospectively examined the relationship between daytime napping and risk of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to study the effects of daytime napping and the joint effects of napping and sleep duration in predicting type 2 diabetes risk in a middle- to older-aged British population. In 1998-2000, 13 465 individuals with no known diabetes participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk study reported daytime napping habit and 24-h sleep duration. Incident type 2 diabetes cases were identified through multiple data sources until 31 July 2006. After adjustment for age and sex, daytime napping was associated with a 58% higher diabetes risk. Further adjustment for education, marital status, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, comorbidities and hypnotic drug use had little influence on the association, but additional adjustment for BMI and Waist Circumference attenuated the Odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) to 1.30 (1.01, 1.69). The adjusted ORs (95% CI) associated with short and long sleep duration were 1.46 (1.10, 1.90) and 1.64 (1.16, 2.32), respectively. When sleep duration and daytime napping were examined together, the risk of developing diabetes more than doubled for those who took day naps and had less than 6 h of sleep, compared to those who did not nap and had 6-8 h of sleep. Daytime napping was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, particularly when combined with short sleep duration. Further physiological studies are needed to confirm the interaction between different domains of sleep in relation to diabetes risk. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ecosystem, location, and climate effects on foliar secondary metabolites of lodgepole pine populations from central British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Christopher M; Huber, Dezene P W; Lewis, Kathy J

    2011-06-01

    Lodgepole pines, Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson, are encountering increased abiotic stress and pest activity due to recent increases in temperature and changes in precipitation throughout their range. This tree species counters these threats by producing secondary metabolites, including phenolics and terpenoids. We examined foliar levels of lignin, soluble phenolics, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and diterpenoids in 12 stands in British Columbia, Canada. We used these data to assess associations among foliar secondary metabolite levels and ecosystem, geographic, and climatic variables. Regressions were also performed to observe which combinations of variables best explained secondary metabolite variance. Stands of P. c. latifolia in the Coastal Western Hemlock and Interior Cedar/Hemlock biogeoclimatic zones had consistently greater foliar levels of almost all measured secondary metabolites than did other stands. Lignin was present in greater amounts in Boreal White/Black Spruce ecosystem (i.e., northern) stands than in southern stands, suggesting a role for this metabolite in pine survival in the boreal forest. Attempts to develop regression models with geographic and climatic variables to explain foliar secondary metabolite levels resulted in multiple models with similar predictive capability. Since foliar secondary metabolite levels appeared to vary most between stand ecosystem types and not as much due to geographic and climatic variables, metabolic profiles appeared best matched to the stress levels within local environments. It is unknown if differences in secondary metabolite levels are the result of genetic adaptation or phenotypic plasticity, but results from this and other studies suggest that both are important. These results are interpreted in light of ongoing efforts to assist in the migration of certain populations of P. c. latifolia northward in an effort to counter predicted effects of climate change.

  15. Seasonal ambient particulate matter and population health outcomes among communities impacted by road dust in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hong, Kris Y; King, Gavin H; Saraswat, Arvind; Henderson, Sarah B

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, many air quality monitoring programs have favored measurement of particles less than 2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ) over particles less than 10 µm (PM 10 ) in light of evidence that health impacts are mostly from the fine fraction. However, the coarse fraction (PM 10-2.5 ) may have independent health impacts that support continued measurement of PM 10 in some areas, such as those affected by road dust. The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between different measures of daily PM exposure and two daily indicators of population health in seven communities in British Columbia, Canada, where road dust is an ongoing concern. The measures of exposure were PM 10 , PM 2.5 , PM 10-2.5 , PM 2.5 adjusted for PM 10-2.5 , and PM 10-2.5 adjusted for PM 2.5 . The indicators of population health were dispensations of the respiratory reliever medication salbutamol sulfate and nonaccidental mortality. This study followed a time-series design using Poisson regression over a 2003-2015 study period, with analyses stratified by three seasons: residential woodsmoke in winter; road dust in spring; and wildfire smoke in summer. A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted to establish a pooled estimate. Overall, an interquartile range increase in daily PM 10-2.5 was associated with a 3.6% [1.6, 5.6] increase in nonaccidental mortality during the road dust season, which was reduced to 3.1% [0.8, 5.4] after adjustment for PM 2.5 . The adjusted coarse fraction had no effect on salbutamol dispensations in any season. However, an interquartile range increase in PM 2.5 was associated with a 2.7% [2.0, 3.4] increase in dispensations during the wildfire season. These analyses suggest different impacts of different PM fractions by season, with a robust association between the coarse fraction and nonaccidental mortality in communities and periods affected by road dust. We recommend that PM 10 monitoring networks be maintained in these communities to provide feedback for

  16. Differences in heat-related mortality across four ecological regions with diverse urban, rural, and remote populations in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Sarah B; Wan, Victoria; Kosatsky, Tom

    2013-09-01

    Temperature-mortality analyses are challenging in rural and remote communities with small populations, but this information is needed for climate change and emergency planning. The geographic health areas of British Columbia, Canada were aggregated into four ecoregions delineated by microclimatic conditions. Time series models were used to estimate the effect of maximum apparent temperature on daily non-traumatic mortality. The population of the coldest ecoregion was most sensitive to hot weather, while the population of the hottest ecoregion was least sensitive. The effects were consistently strongest in decedents aged less than 75 years. A province-wide total of 815 deaths was attributed to hot weather over the 25-year study period, with 735 deaths in the most populous ecoregion. The framework described could be adapted to other climatically variable regions with urban, rural, and remote populations. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    The province of British Columbia has a dubious history where support for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) issues in education is concerned. Most notable is the Surrey School Board's decision in 1997 to ban three picture books for children that depict families with two moms or two dads. The North Vancouver School Board has also…

  18. Microevolution of a zoonotic Helicobacter population colonizing the stomach of a human host before and after failed treatment.

    PubMed

    Schott, Thomas; Kondadi, Pradeep Kumar; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Rossi, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the microevolution of Helicobacter bizzozeronii in the human stomach, comparative genomics of antrum-derived populations, obtained 3 months before (T(0)) and 6 months after (T(1)) an unsuccessful eradication treatment, was performed. For each time point, the DNA of bacterial mass, representing the population diversity in three biopsies, was mixed in equal amounts and sequenced using Illumina technology. Polymorphic sites (PSs) were detected by mapping the reads against an isogenic reference genome, derived from a corpus isolate obtained at T(0). The total numbers of PSs detected in the H. bizzozeronii population at T(0) and T(1) were 128 and 223, affecting 81 and 134 coding sequences, respectively. At T(0) in 91.4% of the PSs the mutation appeared at a frequency of 50% or less. On the contrary, in the majority of the PSs observed in T(1) (71.3%) the mutation had a frequency >75%. Although only a minority of mutations were fixed in the antrum-derived population at T(0), a certain level of allelic variability, compared with the corpus-derived reference genome, was present and most likely arose as consequence of the long-term colonization of the patient. The treatment probably induced a sudden decrease of population size, selecting a subpopulation, which acted as founder for the new population at T(1) characterized by a higher number of fixed mutations. These data demonstrate that genome plasticity is an important common prerequisite among gastric Helicobacter species for adaptation to the stomach environment allowing the bacterium to evolve rapidly once a selective pressure is applied.

  19. Ethnic differences in anthropometric and lifestyle measures related to coronary heart disease risk between South Asian, Italian and general-population British women living in the west of Scotland.

    PubMed

    Lean, M E; Han, T S; Bush, H; Anderson, A S; Bradby, H; Williams, R

    2001-12-01

    To compare anthropometric measurements and to define their behavioural associations in migrant and British-born South Asians (who have increased cardiovascular risk) or Italians (who have reduced cardiovascular risk), and in the general population of British women living in the west of Scotland. Cross-sectional survey of women aged 20-42 y, selected mainly from birth registration data, which included 63 migrant South Asians, 56 British-born South Asians, 39 migrant Italians, 51 British-born Italians, and 50 subjects representative of the general population of women, all resident in the west of Scotland. Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist and hip circumferences. With age adjustment, migrant South Asians (0.88) had greater waist-to-hip ratio than British-born South Asians (0.84; P<0.05), while there was no difference between migrant (0.81) and British-born (0.79) Italian groups. Both migrant (P<0.001) and British-born South Asian (P<0.05) groups had higher waist-to-hip ratio and were about 3 cm shorter than Italian groups and the general population. Neither weight nor BMI were different between ethnic groups. Waist and hip circumferences were not different between migrant and British-born ethnic minority groups. Migrant South Asians (86.8 cm) had significantly (P<0.05) larger waist circumference than the general population (78.6 cm). British-born Italian women (103.0 cm) had larger hip circumference than the general population of women (96.4 cm), while other groups had similar hip circumferences. Additional adjustments for physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and parity reduced the differences in anthropometric measurements: only waist-to-hip ratio of migrant South Asians remained significantly (P<0.01) higher than that of the general population women. The adverse anthropometric indicators of cardiovascular risk in migrant South Asian women are substantially explained by their lifestyle factors and parity. British-born South Asian women are

  20. Cost-effectiveness of population-level expansion of highly active antiretroviral treatment for HIV in British Columbia, Canada: a modelling study.

    PubMed

    Nosyk, Bohdan; Min, Jeong E; Lima, Viviane D; Hogg, Robert S; Montaner, Julio S G

    2015-09-01

    Widespread HIV screening and access to highly active antiretroviral treatment (ART) were cost effective in mathematical models, but population-level implementation has led to questions about cost, value, and feasibility. In 1996, British Columbia, Canada, introduced universal coverage of drug and other health-care costs for people with HIV/AIDS and and began extensive scale-up in access to ART. We aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of ART scale-up in British Columbia compared with hypothetical scenarios of constrained treatment access. Using comprehensive linked population-level data, we populated a dynamic, compartmental transmission model to simulate the HIV/AIDS epidemic in British Columbia from 1997 to 2010. We estimated HIV incidence, prevalence, mortality, costs (in 2010 CAN$), and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for the study period, which was 1997-2010. We calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios from societal and third-party-payer perspectives to compare actual practice (true numbers of individuals accessing ART) to scenarios of constrained expansion (75% and 50% probability of accessing ART). We also investigated structural and parameter uncertainty. Actual practice resulted in 263 averted incident cases compared with 75% of observed access and 676 averted cases compared with 50% of observed access to ART. From a third-party-payer perspective, actual practice resulted in incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of $23 679 per QALY versus 75% access and $24 250 per QALY versus 50% access. From a societal perspective, actual practice was cost saving within the study period. When the model was extended to 2035, current observed access resulted in cumulative savings of $25·1 million compared with the 75% access scenario and $65·5 million compared with the 50% access scenario. ART scale-up in British Columbia has decreased HIV-related morbidity, mortality, and transmission. Resulting incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for actual practice

  1. Injuries to Aboriginal populations living on- and off-reserve in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas in British Columbia, Canada: Incidence and trends, 1986-2010.

    PubMed

    Brussoni, Mariana; George, M Anne; Jin, Andrew; Lalonde, Christopher E; McCormick, Rod

    2016-05-13

    Disparities in injury rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations in British Columbia (BC) are well established. Information regarding the influence of residence on disparities is scarce. We sought to fill these gaps by examining hospitalization rates for all injuries, unintentional injuries and intentional injuries across 24 years among i) Aboriginal and total populations; ii) populations living in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas; and iii) Aboriginal populations living on- and off-reserve. We used data spanning 1986 through 2010 from BC's universal health care insurance plan, linked to vital statistics databases. Aboriginal people were identified by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations, and their residence was determined by postal code. "On-reserve" residence was established by postal code areas associated with an Indian reserve or settlement. Health Service Delivery Areas (HSDAs) were classified as "metropolitan" if they contained a population of at least 100,000 with a density of 400 or more people per square kilometre. We calculated the crude hospitalization incidence rate and the Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of hospitalization due to injury standardizing by gender, 5-year age group, and HSDA. We assessed cumulative change in SRR over time as the relative change between the first and last years of the observation period. Aboriginal metropolitan populations living off-reserve had the lowest SRR of injury (2.0), but this was 2.3 times greater than the general British Columbia metropolitan population (0.86). For intentional injuries, Aboriginal populations living on-reserve in non-metropolitan areas were at 5.9 times greater risk than the total BC population. In general, the largest injury disparities were evident for Aboriginal non-metropolitan populations living on-reserve (SRR 3.0); 2.5 times greater than the general BC non-metropolitan population (1.2). Time trends indicated decreasing disparities, with

  2. Hospitalizations due to unintentional transport injuries among Aboriginal population of British Columbia, Canada: Incidence, changes over time and ecological analysis of risk markers

    PubMed Central

    George, M. Anne; Jin, Andrew; Amram, Ofer; McCormick, Rod; Lalonde, Christopher E.

    2018-01-01

    Background Worldwide, Indigenous people have disproportionately higher rates of transport injuries. We examined disparities in injury-related hospitalizations resulting from transport incidents for three population groups in British Columbia (BC): total population, Aboriginal off-reserve, and Aboriginal on-reserve populations. We also examined sociodemographic, geographic and ethnic risk markers for disparities. Methods We identified Aboriginal people through BC’s universal health care insurance plan insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We calculated crude incidence rate and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of hospitalization for unintentional transport injury, standardized for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics of Aboriginal communities with SRR of transport injury by multivariable linear regression. Results During the period 1991–2010, the SRR for the off-reserve Aboriginal population was 1.77 (95% CI: 1.71 to 1.83); and 2.00 (95% CI: 1.93 to 2.07) among those living on-reserve. Decline in crude rate and SRRs was observed over this period among both the Aboriginal and total populations of BC, but was proportionally greater among the Aboriginal population. The best-fitting multivariable risk marker model was an excellent fit (R2 = 0.912, p<0.001), predicted SRRs very close to observed values, and retained the following terms: urban residence, population per room, proportion of the population with a high school certificate, proportion of the population employed; and multiplicative interactions of Aboriginal ethnicity with population per room and proportion of the population employed. Conclusions Disparities in risk of hospitalization due to unintentional transport injury have narrowed. Aboriginal ethnicity modifies the effects of socioeconomic risk factors. Continued

  3. Hospitalizations due to unintentional transport injuries among Aboriginal population of British Columbia, Canada: Incidence, changes over time and ecological analysis of risk markers.

    PubMed

    Brussoni, Mariana; George, M Anne; Jin, Andrew; Amram, Ofer; McCormick, Rod; Lalonde, Christopher E

    2018-01-01

    Worldwide, Indigenous people have disproportionately higher rates of transport injuries. We examined disparities in injury-related hospitalizations resulting from transport incidents for three population groups in British Columbia (BC): total population, Aboriginal off-reserve, and Aboriginal on-reserve populations. We also examined sociodemographic, geographic and ethnic risk markers for disparities. We identified Aboriginal people through BC's universal health care insurance plan insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We calculated crude incidence rate and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of hospitalization for unintentional transport injury, standardized for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics of Aboriginal communities with SRR of transport injury by multivariable linear regression. During the period 1991-2010, the SRR for the off-reserve Aboriginal population was 1.77 (95% CI: 1.71 to 1.83); and 2.00 (95% CI: 1.93 to 2.07) among those living on-reserve. Decline in crude rate and SRRs was observed over this period among both the Aboriginal and total populations of BC, but was proportionally greater among the Aboriginal population. The best-fitting multivariable risk marker model was an excellent fit (R2 = 0.912, p<0.001), predicted SRRs very close to observed values, and retained the following terms: urban residence, population per room, proportion of the population with a high school certificate, proportion of the population employed; and multiplicative interactions of Aboriginal ethnicity with population per room and proportion of the population employed. Disparities in risk of hospitalization due to unintentional transport injury have narrowed. Aboriginal ethnicity modifies the effects of socioeconomic risk factors. Continued improvement of socioeconomic conditions and

  4. Facilitators of and barriers to accessing clinical prevention services for the South Asian population in Surrey, British Columbia: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Majid, Sanaa; Douglas, Rachel; Lee, Victoria; Stacy, Elizabeth; Garg, Arun K; Ho, Kendall

    2016-01-01

    British Columbia falls short in uptake of recommended clinical prevention services, with even lower rates among immigrant populations. This study explored facilitators of and barriers to uptake of clinical prevention services among people from South Asia, who represent 31% of the population in Surrey, British Columbia. We used a qualitative descriptive approach and employed vignettes in a focus group setting to elicit perspectives of South Asian people on accessing clinical prevention services. Participants aged 40 years or more were recruited between October 2014 and February 2015 from health care and community settings such as older-adult housing, day programs and health education events. Letters of introduction to the study were provided in English or Punjabi or both to all potential participants. We conducted qualitative content analysis of the results. Sixty-two South Asian adults (36 women and 26 men) aged 40-87 years participated in 1 of 8 focus groups in health care or community settings. Facilitators of and barriers to accessing clinical prevention services were noted at the patient, primary care provider and health care system levels. Facilitators at the patient level included taking ownership over one's health, health literacy and respecting the provider's advice; barriers included fear of the diagnosis, death and/or procedures, perceived low risk of disease or utility of the intervention, and side effects of procedures. Provider factors centred on a trust-based patient-provider relationship, strong communication and adequate time during visits. Health care system factors included such facilitators as processes to routinely offer prevention services as part of other health care or social services, systems that encourage prevention-oriented family practice and services at low or no cost to the patient. Our findings validate previously identified facilitators of and barriers to accessing preventive care for immigrant populations. However, the results

  5. NT-proBNP is associated with coronary heart disease risk in healthy older women but fails to enhance prediction beyond established risk factors: results from the British Women's Heart and Health Study.

    PubMed

    Sattar, Naveed; Welsh, Paul; Sarwar, Nadeem; Danesh, John; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Davey Smith, George; Ebrahim, Shah; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2010-03-01

    Limited evidence suggests NT-proBNP improves prediction of coronary heart disease (CHD) events but further data are needed, especially in people without pre-existing CHD and in women. We measured NT-proBNP in serum from 162 women with incident CHD events and 1226 controls (60-79 years) in a case-control study nested within the prospective British Women's Heart and Health Study. All cases and controls were free from CHD at baseline. We related NT-proBNP to CHD event risk, and determined to what extent NT-proBNP enhanced CHD risk prediction beyond established risk factors. The odds ratio for CHD per 1 standard deviation increase in log(e)NT-proBNP was 1.37 (95% CI: 1.13-1.68) in analyses adjusted for established CHD risk factors, social class, CRP and insulin. However, addition of log(e)NT-proBNP did not improve the discrimination of a prediction model including age, social class, smoking, physical activity, lipids, fasting glucose, waist:hip ratio, hypertension, statin and aspirin use, nor a standard Framingham risk score model; area under the receiver operator curve for the former model increased from 0.676 to 0.687 on inclusion of NT-proBNP (p=0.3). Furthermore, adding NT-proBNP did not improve calibration of a prediction model containing established risk factors, nor did inclusion more appropriately re-classify participants in relation to their final outcome. Findings were similar (independent associations, but no prediction improvement) for fasting insulin and CRP. These results caution against use of NT-proBNP for CHD risk prediction in healthy women and suggest a need for larger studies in both genders to resolve outstanding uncertainties.

  6. Comparison of CT and fluoroscopic guidance for lumbar puncture in an obese population with prior failed unguided attempt.

    PubMed

    Brook, Andrew D; Burns, Judah; Dauer, Edward; Schoendfeld, Alan H; Miller, Todd S

    2014-05-01

    In the past 50 years, fluoroscopic guidance has been used to improve upon lumbar puncture (LP) technique that was unchanged for over a century. Recently, CT has seen increasing use as a guidance modality due to its ability to demonstrate soft tissue contrast and provide millimeter accuracy with needle targeting. This study compared procedure time and radiation dosages for fluoroscopic and CT guided LP. This institutional review board and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant study was a retrospective review of a consecutive cohort referred for image guided LP. For CT, 45 patients aged 49 years (range 20-78, SD 14) with body mass index (BMI) values of 33 kg/m(2) (range 20-50, SD 12) were included. For fluoroscopy, 100 patients aged 47 years (range 18-88, SD 17) with BMI values of 29 kg/m(2) (range 15-56, SD 9) were included. CT procedure time was determined using picture archiving and communication system (PACS) image time stamps. Radiation dose was determined using the CT dose report and effective dose conversion factors. Fluoroscopic procedure time was determined from nursing. Fluoroscopic radiation dose was calculated from dose-area product (DAP) and fluoroscopy times, with effective dosage calculated using simulation software. For CT, procedure time average was 14 min (range 5-42, SD 8.5). Average dose-length product was 120 mGy×cm (range 39-211, SD 43) and average effective dose was 1.98 mSv (range 0.2-8.18, SD 4.4). For fluoroscopy, procedure time averaged 12 min (range 12-30, SD 6). Average DAP was 10 Gy×cm(2) (range 0.1-70, SD 11) and effective dose estimate averaged 2.9 mSv (range 0.9-9.4, SD 1.9). There were no unsuccessful taps or complications. Both fluoroscopic and CT guidance may be used to perform an LP in an obese population with a short procedure time and low radiation dose.

  7. Influence of Poor Oral Health on Physical Frailty: A Population-Based Cohort Study of Older British Men.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Sheena E; Papachristou, Efstathios; Watt, Richard G; Tsakos, Georgios; Lennon, Lucy T; Papacosta, A Olia; Moynihan, Paula; Sayer, Avan A; Whincup, Peter H; Wannamethee, S Goya

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the associations between objective and subjective measures of oral health and incident physical frailty. Cross-sectional and longitudinal study with 3 years of follow-up using data from the British Regional Heart Study. General practices in 24 British towns. Community-dwelling men aged 71 to 92 (N = 1,622). Objective assessments of oral health included tooth count and periodontal disease. Self-reported oral health measures included overall self-rated oral health; dry mouth symptoms; sensitivity to hot, cold, and sweet; and perceived difficulty eating. Frailty was defined using the Fried phenotype as having 3 or more of weight loss, grip strength, exhaustion, slow walking speed, and low physical activity. Incident frailty was assessed after 3 years of follow-up in 2014. Three hundred three (19%) men were frail at baseline (aged 71-92). Having fewer than 21 teeth, complete tooth loss, fair to poor self-rated oral health, difficulty eating, dry mouth, and more oral health problems were associated with greater likelihood of being frail. Of 1,284 men followed for 3 years, 107 (10%) became frail. The risk of incident frailty was higher in participants who were edentulous (odds ratio (OR) = 1.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-3.52); had 3 or more dry mouth symptoms (OR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.18-3.48); and had 1 (OR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.18-4.64), 2 (OR = 2.30, 95% CI = 1.09-4.84), or 3 or more (OR = 2.72, 95% CI = 1.11-6.64) oral health problems after adjustment for age, smoking, social class, history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus, and medications related to dry mouth. The presence of oral health problems was associated with greater risks of being frail and developing frailty in older age. The identification and management of poor oral health in older people could be important in preventing frailty. © 2017 The Authors The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Geriatrics

  8. Injury Hospitalizations Due to Unintentional Falls among the Aboriginal Population of British Columbia, Canada: Incidence, Changes over Time, and Ecological Analysis of Risk Markers, 1991-2010

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Aboriginal people in British Columbia (BC) have higher injury incidence than the general population. Our project describes variability among injury categories, time periods, and geographic, demographic and socio-economic groups. This report focuses on unintentional falls. Methods We used BC’s universal health care insurance plan as a population registry, linked to hospital separation and vital statistics databases. We identified Aboriginal people by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We identified residents of specific Aboriginal communities by postal code. We calculated crude incidence and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury, standardized for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics with community SRR of injury by linear regression. Results During 1991 through 2010, the crude rate of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury in BC was 33.6 per 10,000 person-years. The Aboriginal rate was 49.9 per 10,000 and SRR was 1.89 (95% confidence interval 1.85-1.94). Among those living on reserves SRR was 2.00 (95% CI 1.93-2.07). Northern and non-urban HSDAs had higher SRRs, within both total and Aboriginal populations. In every age and gender category, the HSDA-standardized SRR was higher among the Aboriginal than among the total population. Between 1991 and 2010, crude rates and SRRs declined substantially, but proportionally more among the Aboriginal population, so the gap between the Aboriginal and total population is narrowing, particularly among females and older adults. These community characteristics were associated with higher risk: lower income, lower educational level, worse housing conditions, and more hazardous types of employment. Conclusions Over the years, as socio-economic conditions improve, risk of

  9. Insomnia and hallucinations in the general population: Findings from the 2000 and 2007 British Psychiatric Morbidity Surveys.

    PubMed

    Sheaves, Bryony; Bebbington, Paul E; Goodwin, Guy M; Harrison, Paul J; Espie, Colin A; Foster, Russell G; Freeman, Daniel

    2016-07-30

    Insomnia is common in people experiencing psychosis. It has been identified as a contributory cause of paranoia, but any causal relationship with hallucinations has yet to be established. We tested the hypotheses that insomnia i) has a cross-sectional association with hallucinations ii) predicts new inceptions of hallucinations and iii) that these associations remain after controlling for depression, anxiety, and paranoia. Data from the second (2000, N=8580) and third (2007, N=7403) British Psychiatric Morbidity Surveys were used to assess cross-sectional associations between insomnia and hallucinations. The 2000 dataset included an 18 month follow up of a subsample (N=2406) used to test whether insomnia predicted new inceptions of hallucinations. Insomnia was associated with hallucinations in both cross-sectional datasets. Mild sleep problems were associated with 2-3 times greater odds of reporting hallucinations, whilst chronic insomnia was associated with four times greater odds. Insomnia was also associated with increased odds of hallucinations occurring de novo over the next 18 months. These associations remained significant, although with smaller odds ratios, after controlling for depression, anxiety and paranoia. This is the first longitudinal evidence that insomnia is associated with the development of hallucinatory experiences. Effective treatment of insomnia may lessen the occurrence of hallucinations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Leisure time exercise and personal circumstances in the working age population: longitudinal analysis of the British household panel survey

    PubMed Central

    Popham, Frank; Mitchell, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Objectives Investigate the impact of social, economic, and family circumstances on participation in weekly leisure time exercise. Design Longitudinal regression analysis of the British household panel survey. Participants 9473 people (4521 men and 4952 women) giving 27 881 person years of responses across eight years and four survey waves. Main results There was considerable variation among people in regular exercise participation over time. Having children was associated with a reduced likelihood of exercise for both men and women, although there were sex differences in this association according to the age of the youngest child. For both men and women working long hours was associated with a reduced likelihood of exercise, as was having a lower grade job. Retired men and women were more likely to exercise, as were those who attended a fee paying school. There was no strong independent association between household income and exercise. Conclusions For most people, participation in leisure time exercise “comes and goes” rather than being something they always or never do. Those with time pressures from work or domestic life are less likely to participate in leisure time physical activity. There are important sex differences in the impact of having children, with women experiencing longer term detrimental effects. Working long hours reduces leisure time exercise participation. Opportunities for physical activity as part of our daily working routines should be increased. PMID:16476760

  11. Harm reduction services for British Columbia's First Nation population: a qualitative inquiry into opportunities and barriers for injection drug users

    PubMed Central

    Wardman, Dennis; Quantz, Darryl

    2006-01-01

    Background Aboriginal injection drug users are the fastest growing group of new Human Immunodeficiency Virus cases in Canada. However, there remains a lack of comprehensive harm reduction services available to First Nation persons, particularly for First Nation people dwelling in rural and reserve communities. This paper reports findings from an exploratory study of current harm reduction practices in First Nation communities. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the availability and content of current harm reduction practices, as well as to identify barriers and opportunities for implementing these services in First Nation communities. Methods Key informant interviews were conducted with 13 addictions service providers from the province of British Columbia, Canada. Results Participants identified barriers to these services such as community size and limited service infrastructure, lack of financial resources, attitudes towards harm reduction services and cultural differences. Conclusion It was recommended that community education efforts be directed broadly within the community before establishing harm reduction services and that the readiness of communities be assessed. PMID:17034636

  12. Factors Associated with Mood Disorder Diagnosis Among a Population Based Cohort of Men and Women Living With and Without HIV in British Columbia Between 1998 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Closson, Kalysha; Osborne, Chuck; Smith, Danielle M; Kesselring, Sarah; Eyawo, Oghenowede; Card, Kiffer; Sereda, Paul; Jabbari, Shahab; Franco-Villalobos, Conrado; Ahmed, Tareq; Gabler, Karyn; Patterson, Thomas; Hull, Mark; Montaner, Julio S G; Hogg, Robert S

    2018-05-01

    Using data from the Comparison of Outcomes and Service Utilization Trends (COAST) study we examined factors associated with mood disorder diagnosis (MDD) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and HIV-negative individuals in British Columbia, Canada. MDD cases were identified between 1998 and 2012 using International Classification of Disease 9 and 10 codes. A total of 491,796 individuals were included and 1552 (23.7%) and 60,097 (12.4%) cases of MDD were identified among the HIV-positive and HIV-negative populations, respectively. Results showed HIV status was associated with greater odds of MDD among men and lower odds among women. Among PLHIV, MDD was significantly associated with: identifying as gay, bisexual or other men who have sex with men compared to heterosexuals; higher viral load; history of injection drug use; and concurrent anxiety, dysthymia, and substance use disorders. Findings highlight the need for comprehensive and holistic HIV and mental health care.

  13. Biology and conservation of the common murre in California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia: Vol. 1, Natural history and population trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manuwal, David Allen; Carter, Harry R.; Zimmerman, Tara; Orthmeyer, Dennis L.

    2001-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, the common murre (Uria aalge californica) has been recognized as a prominent indicator of marine conservation issues in California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, especially regarding oil pollution, certain fisheries, and human disturbance. To assist the effective management of the common murre and the marine environments in which they live, this summary of available information on the biology and regional status of the common murre has been sponsored by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Division of Migratory Bird Management). In Volume 1 (Chapter 1), the natural history of the common murre is summarized, drawing heavily on breeding studies from the South Farallon Islands, California, plus a host of detailed breeding studies from the North Atlantic Ocean. Population trends of the common murre are summarized in Volume 1 (Chapter 2), focusing on changes in whole-colony counts determined from aerial photographs between the late 1970s and 1995 in California, Oregon and Washington. Historical data and human impacts to murre colonies since the early nineteenth century are also summarized. Volume 2 will summarize population threats, conservation, and management.Information presented in Volume 1 has been obtained and recorded by a large number of researchers and natural historians over two centuries. From the 1960s to 1995, most work in California, Oregon, and Washington was sponsored by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Minerals Management Service, and California Department of Fish and Game. Important breeding biology studies were conducted at the South Farallon Islands (Farallon National Wildlife Refuge) by the Point Reyes Bird Observatory, in coordination with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge). Colony surveys in California were conducted mainly by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge), U.S. Geological Survey (Western Ecological Research Center

  14. Daytime napping and the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a 13-year follow-up of a British population.

    PubMed

    Leng, Yue; Wainwright, Nick W J; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Surtees, Paul G; Hayat, Shabina; Luben, Robert; Brayne, Carol; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported conflicting results on the relationship between daytime napping and mortality risk, and there are few data on the potential association in the British population. We investigated the associations between daytime napping and all-cause or cause-specific mortality in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer-Norfolk study, a British population-based cohort study. Among the 16,374 men and women who answered questions on napping habits between 1998 and 2000, a total of 3,251 died during the 13-year follow-up. Daytime napping was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (for napping less than 1 hour per day on average, hazard ratio = 1.14, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.27; for napping 1 hour or longer per day on average, hazard ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.68), independent of age, sex, social class, educational level, marital status, employment status, body mass index, physical activity level, smoking status, alcohol intake, depression, self-reported general health, use of hypnotic drugs or other medications, time spent in bed at night, and presence of preexisting health conditions. This association was more pronounced for death from respiratory diseases (for napping less than 1 hour, hazard ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval: 0.95, 2.05; for napping 1 hour or more, hazard ratio = 2.56, 95% confidence interval: 1.34, 4.86) and in individuals 65 years of age or younger. Excessive daytime napping might be a useful marker of underlying health risk, particularly of respiratory problems, especially among those 65 years of age or younger. Further research is required to clarify the nature of the observed association.

  15. Daytime Napping and the Risk of All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality: A 13-Year Follow-up of a British Population

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Yue; Wainwright, Nick W. J.; Cappuccio, Francesco P.; Surtees, Paul G.; Hayat, Shabina; Luben, Robert; Brayne, Carol; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported conflicting results on the relationship between daytime napping and mortality risk, and there are few data on the potential association in the British population. We investigated the associations between daytime napping and all-cause or cause-specific mortality in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer-Norfolk study, a British population-based cohort study. Among the 16,374 men and women who answered questions on napping habits between 1998 and 2000, a total of 3,251 died during the 13-year follow-up. Daytime napping was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (for napping less than 1 hour per day on average, hazard ratio = 1.14, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.27; for napping 1 hour or longer per day on average, hazard ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.68), independent of age, sex, social class, educational level, marital status, employment status, body mass index, physical activity level, smoking status, alcohol intake, depression, self-reported general health, use of hypnotic drugs or other medications, time spent in bed at night, and presence of preexisting health conditions. This association was more pronounced for death from respiratory diseases (for napping less than 1 hour, hazard ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval: 0.95, 2.05; for napping 1 hour or more, hazard ratio = 2.56, 95% confidence interval: 1.34, 4.86) and in individuals 65 years of age or younger. Excessive daytime napping might be a useful marker of underlying health risk, particularly of respiratory problems, especially among those 65 years of age or younger. Further research is required to clarify the nature of the observed association. PMID:24685532

  16. Population-based surveillance of Hib invasive infections in children in British Columbia Alberta and Ontario - 1995 to 1997

    PubMed Central

    Scheifele, David; Bell, Alison; Jadavji, Taj; Vaudry, Wendy; Waters, John; Naus, Monika; Sciberras, Jill

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess vaccine effectiveness through enhanced disease surveillance following the change in childhood immunization programs in 1995, when all provinces and territories chose to use polyribosyl ribitol phosphate-tetanus protein (PRP-T) Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, generally in combination with diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus inactivated polio vaccine (DPT-IPV) (as PENTA vaccine) because the protective efficacy of this regimen had not been directly measured. DESIGN: Prospective, active, laboratory-based Hib case surveillance was implemented in British Columbia and Alberta, and enhanced, stimulated laboratory surveillance in Ontario during 1995 to 1997, centred on invasive infections in children. Case details and immunization histories were uniformly collected and centrally collated. MAIN RESULTS: Thirty-eight Hib cases were detected, but only 12 cases arose among PENTA-eligible children, an attack rate of 0.85 cases/100,000 child-years of observation. Annual case totals declined from 20 in 1995 to seven in 1997, when only one to three cases were encountered in each province and the incidence rate in children under age five years was 0.6/100,000. Only four cases occurred after primary immunization with PENTA, a failure rate of 0.28 cases/100,000 child-years of observation. Three cases among PENTA-eligible children reflected parental refusal of infant vaccinations, accounting for 25% of cases in eligible children. CONCLUSIONS: PRP-T conjugate vaccine was highly effective when given in combination with DPT-IPV vaccine. Provincial programs that used this regimen resulted in the near elimination of invasive Hib disease in children, but unimmunized children remain at risk. PMID:18159280

  17. Facilitators of and barriers to accessing clinical prevention services for the South Asian population in Surrey, British Columbia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Majid, Sanaa; Douglas, Rachel; Lee, Victoria; Stacy, Elizabeth; Garg, Arun K.; Ho, Kendall

    2016-01-01

    Background: British Columbia falls short in uptake of recommended clinical prevention services, with even lower rates among immigrant populations. This study explored facilitators of and barriers to uptake of clinical prevention services among people from South Asia, who represent 31% of the population in Surrey, British Columbia. Methods: We used a qualitative descriptive approach and employed vignettes in a focus group setting to elicit perspectives of South Asian people on accessing clinical prevention services. Participants aged 40 years or more were recruited between October 2014 and February 2015 from health care and community settings such as older-adult housing, day programs and health education events. Letters of introduction to the study were provided in English or Punjabi or both to all potential participants. We conducted qualitative content analysis of the results. Results: Sixty-two South Asian adults (36 women and 26 men) aged 40-87 years participated in 1 of 8 focus groups in health care or community settings. Facilitators of and barriers to accessing clinical prevention services were noted at the patient, primary care provider and health care system levels. Facilitators at the patient level included taking ownership over one's health, health literacy and respecting the provider's advice; barriers included fear of the diagnosis, death and/or procedures, perceived low risk of disease or utility of the intervention, and side effects of procedures. Provider factors centred on a trust-based patient-provider relationship, strong communication and adequate time during visits. Health care system factors included such facilitators as processes to routinely offer prevention services as part of other health care or social services, systems that encourage prevention-oriented family practice and services at low or no cost to the patient. Interpretation: Our findings validate previously identified facilitators of and barriers to accessing preventive care for

  18. The Test Your Memory cognitive screening tool: sociodemographic and cardiometabolic risk correlates in a population-based study of older British men.

    PubMed

    Papachristou, Efstathios; Ramsay, Sheena E; Papacosta, Olia; Lennon, Lucy T; Iliffe, Steve; Whincup, Peter H; Goya Wannamethee, S

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the association of Test Your Memory (TYM)-defined cognitive impairment groups with known sociodemographic and cardiometabolic correlates of cognitive impairment in a population-based study of older adults. Participants were members of the British Regional Heart Study, a cohort across 24 British towns initiated in 1978-1980. Data stemmed from 1570 British men examined in 2010-2012, aged 71-92 years. Sociodemographic and cardiometabolic factors were compared between participants defined as having TYM scores in the normal cognitive ageing, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and severe cognitive impairment (SCI) groups, defined as ≥46 (45 if ≥80 years of age), ≥33 and <33, respectively. Among 1570 men, 636 (41%) were classified in the MCI and 133 (8%) in the SCI groups. Compared with participants in the normal cognitive ageing category, individuals with SCI were characterized primarily by lower socio-economic position (odds ratio (OR) = 6.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.00-9.46), slower average walking speed (OR = 3.36, 95% CI 2.21-5.10), mobility problems (OR = 4.61, 95% CI 3.04-6.97), poorer self-reported overall health (OR = 2.63, 95% CI 1.79-3.87), obesity (OR = 2.59, 95% CI 1.72-3.91) and impaired lung function (OR = 2.25, 95% CI 1.47-3.45). A similar albeit slightly weaker pattern was observed for participants with MCI. Sociodemographic and lifestyle factors as well as adiposity measures, lung function and poor overall health are associated with cognitive impairments in late life. The correlates of cognitive abilities in the MCI and SCI groups, as defined by the TYM, resemble the risk profile for MCI and Alzheimer's disease outlined in current epidemiological models. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Distribution of Salivary Testosterone in Men and Women in a British General Population-Based Sample: The Third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3)

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Soazig; Tanton, Clare; Macdowall, Wendy; Copas, Andrew J.; Lee, David; Field, Nigel; Mitchell, Kirstin R.; Sonnenberg, Pam; Bancroft, John; Mercer, Cath H.; Johnson, Anne M.; Wellings, Kaye; Wu, Frederick C. W.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Measurement of salivary testosterone (Sal-T) to assess androgen status offers important potential advantages in epidemiological research. The utility of the method depends on the interpretation of the results against robustly determined population distributions, which are currently lacking. Aim: To determine age-specific Sal-T population distributions for men and women. Methods: Morning saliva samples were obtained from participants in the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles, a probability sample survey of the British general population. Sal-T was measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Linear and quantile regression analyses were used to determine the age-specific 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles for the general population (1675 men and 2453 women) and the population with health exclusions (1145 men and 1276 women). Results: In the general population, the mean Sal-T level in men decreased from 322.6 pmol/L at 18 years of age to 153.9 pmol/L at 69 years of age. In women, the decrease in the geometric mean Sal-T level was from 39.8 pmol/L at 18 years of age to 19.5 pmol/L at 74 years of age. The annual decrease varied with age, with an average of 1.0% to 1.4% in men and 1.3% to 1.5% in women. For women, the 2.5th percentile fell below the detection limit (<6.5 pmol/L) from age 52 years onward. The mean Sal-T level was approximately 6 times greater in men than in women, and this remained constant over the age range. The Sal-T level was lowest for men and highest for women in the summer. The results were similar for the general population with exclusions. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe the sex- and age-specific distributions for Sal-T in a large representative population using a specific and sensitive LC-MS/MS technique. The present data can inform future population research by facilitating the interpretation of Sal-T results as a marker of androgen status. PMID

  20. Worker compensation injuries among the Aboriginal population of British Columbia, Canada: incidence, annual trends, and ecological analysis of risk markers, 1987–2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aboriginal people in British Columbia (BC) have higher injury incidence than the general population, but information is scarce regarding variability among injury categories, time periods, and geographic, demographic and socio-economic groups. Our project helps fill these gaps. This report focuses on workplace injuries. Methods We used BC’s universal health care insurance plan as a population registry, linked to worker compensation and vital statistics databases. We identified Aboriginal people by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We identified residents of specific Aboriginal communities by postal code. We calculated crude incidence rate and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of worker compensation injury, adjusted for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. We assessed annual trend by regressing SRR as a linear function of year. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics of Aboriginal communities with community SRR of injury by multivariable linear regression. Results During the period 1987–2010, the crude rate of worker compensation injury in BC was 146.6 per 10,000 person-years (95% confidence interval: 146.4 to 146.9 per 10,000). The Aboriginal rate was 115.6 per 10,000 (95% CI: 114.4 to 116.8 per 10,000) and SRR was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.87 to 0.89). Among those living on reserves SRR was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.78 to 0.80). HSDA SRRs were highly variable, within both total and Aboriginal populations. Aboriginal males under 35 and females under 40 years of age had lower SRRs, but older Aboriginal females had higher SRRs. SRRs are declining, but more slowly for the Aboriginal population. The Aboriginal population was initially at lower risk than the total population, but parity was reached in 2006. These community characteristics independently predicted injury risk: crowded housing, proportion of population who

  1. 'We are faced everywhere with a growing population': demographic change and the British state, 1955-64.

    PubMed

    O' Hara, Glen

    2004-01-01

    The early 1960s was a period of relative expansion for the welfare state, and the return to the use of planning techniques in macroeconomic policy. This has hitherto been explained by reference to a number of general causes. These have included party political electoral necessity, the need to gain popular support for the cold war by spreading the benefits of liberal capitalism, the power of welfare professionals, the growing realization that the post-war welfare state was not working as well as previously thought, and generational changes in politics and the civil service. Whilst not denying the importance of all these factors, this essay seeks to make clear the importance of another vital element in this story: the implications for the welfare state and the managed economy of the rise in the birth rate, and the perceived' population explosion', of the late 1950s and early 1960s. Statistical estimates are presented here that show just how large the implied expansion of the welfare state, and just how serious the pressure of a growing dependent population, would have been had the population predictions of the early 1930s proved to be accurate.

  2. Accordance to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet pattern and cardiovascular disease in a British, population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nicholas R V; Forouhi, Nita G; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Monsivais, Pablo

    2018-02-01

    The dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet could be an important population-level strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the UK, but there is little UK-based evidence on this diet pattern in relation to CVD risk. We tested whether dietary accordance with DASH was associated with risk of CVD in a population-based sample of 23,655 UK adults. This prospective analysis of the EPIC-Norfolk cohort study analysed dietary intake (assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire) to measure accordance with DASH, based on intakes of eight food groups and nutrients, ranking the sample into quintiles. Cox proportional hazards regression models tested for association between DASH accordance and incident stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD) and total incident CVD (stroke and IHD only), as well as CVD mortality, non-CVD mortality and total mortality. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated adjusting for age, sex, behavioral and clinical risk factors and socioeconomic status. Over an average of 12.4 years follow-up, we ascertained 4129 incident CVD events, of which stroke accounted for 1011. Compared to participants with the least DASH-accordant diets, those with the most DASH-accordant diets had 20% lower risk of incident stroke (HR, 95% CI 0.80, 0.65-0.99) and 13% lower risk of total incident CVD (0.88, 0.79-0.99) but no lower risk of CHD (0.90, 0.79-1.02). CVD-related mortality also showed strong inverse associations with DASH accordance (0.72, 0.60-0.85). This study provides evidence for the cardioprotective effects of DASH diet in a UK context.

  3. Weekend warrior physical activity pattern and common mental disorder: a population wide study of 108,011 British adults.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Mark; Biddle, Stuart J H; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2017-07-14

    The dose-response association between physical activity (PA) and mental health is poorly described. We explored cross-sectional associations between physical activity and common mental disorder (psychological distress) in 'weekend warriors' who do all their exercise in one or two sessions per week. Adult participants (n = 108,011, age = 47 ± 17 yrs., 46.5% men) were recruited from general population household-based surveys (Health Survey for England and Scottish Health Survey) from 1994 to 2004. Data were pooled and analyzed using logistic regression models. Moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was self-reported and psychological distress was measured using the 12 item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Psychological distress (GHQ-12 > 3) was prevalent in 14.5% of the sample. In healthy participants an inverse association between PA and psychological distress was optimal at the PA guideline (150 mins/wk. MVPA or 75 min/wk. Vigorous PA) regardless of whether it was accumulated in one or two bouts per week "Weekend warrior" (odd ratio = 0.68, 95% CI, 0.63, 0.73) or as more frequent daily bouts (odd ratio = 0.68, 95% CI, 0.64, 0.72) in comparison to the inactive reference group. In participants with chronic health conditions an inverse association between PA and psychological distress was also evident at lower doses (one or two sessions of PA a week below PA guideline) (OR = 0.72, 95% CI, 0.68, 0.77). Undertaking vigorous intensity PA as part of the PA guideline conferred additional benefit in women (odds ratio = 0.87, 95% CI, 0.75, 1.00), but not men. Mental health benefits may be accrued through different PA patterns, thus individual approaches to prescribing exercise should be promoted.

  4. The impact of clinical, demographic and risk factors on rates of HIV transmission: a population-based phylogenetic analysis in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Poon, Art F Y; Joy, Jeffrey B; Woods, Conan K; Shurgold, Susan; Colley, Guillaume; Brumme, Chanson J; Hogg, Robert S; Montaner, Julio S G; Harrigan, P Richard

    2015-03-15

    The diversification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is shaped by its transmission history. We therefore used a population based province wide HIV drug resistance database in British Columbia (BC), Canada, to evaluate the impact of clinical, demographic, and behavioral factors on rates of HIV transmission. We reconstructed molecular phylogenies from 27,296 anonymized bulk HIV pol sequences representing 7747 individuals in BC-about half the estimated HIV prevalence in BC. Infections were grouped into clusters based on phylogenetic distances, as a proxy for variation in transmission rates. Rates of cluster expansion were reconstructed from estimated dates of HIV seroconversion. Our criteria grouped 4431 individuals into 744 clusters largely separated with respect to risk factors, including large established clusters predominated by injection drug users and more-recently emerging clusters comprising men who have sex with men. The mean log10 viral load of an individual's phylogenetic neighborhood (composed of 5 other individuals with shortest phylogenetic distances) increased their odds of appearing in a cluster by >2-fold per log10 viruses per milliliter. Hotspots of ongoing HIV transmission can be characterized in near real time by the secondary analysis of HIV resistance genotypes, providing an important potential resource for targeting public health initiatives for HIV prevention. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Engaging Future Failing States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-23

    military missions in the Middle East, the Balkans, Africa, Asia , and South America. There is an increasing proliferation of failed and failing states...disparity, overpopulation , food security, health services availability, migration pressures, environmental degradation, personal and 22 community

  6. Trends in asthma-related direct medical costs from 2002 to 2007 in British Columbia, Canada: a population based-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bedouch, Pierrick; Sadatsafavi, Mohsen; Marra, Carlo A; FitzGerald, J Mark; Lynd, Larry D

    2012-01-01

    Asthma-related health resource use and costs may be influenced by increasing asthma prevalence, changes to asthma management guidelines, and new medications over the last decade. The objective of this work was to analyze direct asthma-related medical costs, and trends in total and per-patient costs of hospitalizations, physician visits, and medications. A cohort of asthma patients from British Columbia (BC), Canada, was created. Asthma patients were identified using a validated case definition. Costs for hospitalizations, physician visits, and medications were calculated from billing records (in 2008 Canadian dollars). Trends in total and per-patient costs over the study period were analyzed using Generalized Linear Models. 398,235 patients satisfied the asthma case definition (mid-point prevalence 8.0%). Patients consumed $315.9 million (M) in direct asthma-related health resources between 2002 and 2007. Hospitalizations, physician visits, and medication costs accounted for 16.0%, 15.7% and 68.2% of total costs, respectively. Cost of asthma increased from $49.4 M in 2002 to $54.7 M in 2007. Total annual costs attributable to hospitalizations and physician visits decreased (-39.8% and -25.5%, respectively; p<0.001), while medication costs increased (+38.7%; p<0.001). This population-based analysis shows that the total direct cost of asthma in BC has increased since 2002, mainly due to a rise in asthma prevalence and cost of medication. Combination therapy with inhaled corticosteroids/long-acting beta-agonists has become a significant component of the cost of asthma. Although billing records capture only a fraction of the true burden of asthma, the simultaneous increase in medication costs and reductions in hospitalization and physician visit costs provides valuable insight for policy makers into the shifts in asthma-related resource use.

  7. Are sitting occupations associated with increased all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality risk? A pooled analysis of seven British population cohorts.

    PubMed

    Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Chau, Josephine Y; Pedisic, Zeljko; Bauman, Adrian; Macniven, Rona; Coombs, Ngaire; Hamer, Mark

    2013-01-01

    There is mounting evidence for associations between sedentary behaviours and adverse health outcomes, although the data on occupational sitting and mortality risk remain equivocal. The aim of this study was to determine the association between occupational sitting and cardiovascular, cancer and all-cause mortality in a pooled sample of seven British general population cohorts. The sample comprised 5380 women and 5788 men in employment who were drawn from five Health Survey for England and two Scottish Health Survey cohorts. Participants were classified as reporting standing, walking or sitting in their work time and followed up over 12.9 years for mortality. Data were modelled using Cox proportional hazard regression adjusted for age, waist circumference, self-reported general health, frequency of alcohol intake, cigarette smoking, non-occupational physical activity, prevalent cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline, psychological health, social class, and education. In total there were 754 all-cause deaths. In women, a standing/walking occupation was associated with lower risk of all-cause (fully adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.68, 95% CI 0.52-0.89) and cancer (HR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.43-0.85) mortality, compared to sitting occupations. There were no associations in men. In analyses with combined occupational type and leisure-time physical activity, the risk of all-cause mortality was lowest in participants with non-sitting occupations and high leisure-time activity. Sitting occupations are linked to increased risk for all-cause and cancer mortality in women only, but no such associations exist for cardiovascular mortality in men or women.

  8. Does physical activity moderate the association between alcohol drinking and all-cause, cancer and cardiovascular diseases mortality? A pooled analysis of eight British population cohorts.

    PubMed

    Perreault, K; Bauman, A; Johnson, N; Britton, A; Rangul, V; Stamatakis, E

    2017-04-01

    To examine whether physical activity (PA) moderates the association between alcohol intake and all-cause mortality, cancer mortality and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) mortality. Prospective study using 8 British population-based surveys, each linked to cause-specific mortality: Health Survey for England (1994, 1998, 1999, 2003, 2004 and 2006) and Scottish Health Survey (1998 and 2003). 36 370 men and women aged 40 years and over were included with a corresponding 5735 deaths and a mean of 353 049 person-years of follow-up. 6 sex-specific categories of alcohol intake (UK units/week) were defined: (1) never drunk; (2) ex-drinkers; (3) occasional drinkers; (4) within guidelines (<14 (women); <21 (men)); (5) hazardous (14-35 (women); 21-49 (men)) and (6) harmful (>35 (women) >49 (men)). PA was categorised as inactive (≤7 MET-hour/week), active at the lower (>7.5 MET-hour/week) and upper (>15 MET-hour/week) of recommended levels. Cox proportional-hazard models were used to examine associations between alcohol consumption and all-cause, cancer and CVD mortality risk after adjusting for several confounders. Stratified analyses were performed to evaluate mortality risks within each PA stratum. We found a direct association between alcohol consumption and cancer mortality risk starting from drinking within guidelines (HR (95% CI) hazardous drinking: 1.40 (1.11 to 1.78)). Stratified analyses showed that the association between alcohol intake and mortality risk was attenuated (all-cause) or nearly nullified (cancer) among individuals who met the PA recommendations (HR (95% CI)). Meeting the current PA public health recommendations offsets some of the cancer and all-cause mortality risk associated with alcohol drinking. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. High levels of opioid analgesic co-prescription among methadone maintenance treatment clients in British Columbia, Canada: Results from a population-level retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Nosyk, Bohdan; Fischer, Benedikt; Sun, Huiying; Marsh, David C.; Kerr, Thomas; Rehm, Juergen T.; Anis, Aslam H.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives The nonmedical use of prescription opioids (PO) has increased dramatically in North America. Special consideration for PO prescription is required for individuals in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Our objective is to describe the prevalence and correlates of PO use among British Columbia (BC) MMT clients from 1996-2007. Methods This study was based on a linked, population-level medication dispensation database. All individuals receiving 30 days of continuous MMT for opioid dependence were included in the study. Key measurements included the proportion of clients receiving >7 days of a PO other than methadone during MMT from 1996 to 2007. Factors independently associated with PO co-prescription during MMT were assessed using generalized linear mixed effects regression. Results 16,248 individuals with 27,919 MMT episodes at least 30 days in duration were identified for the study period. Among them, 5,552 individuals (34.2%) received a total of 290,543 PO co-prescriptions during MMT. The majority (74.3%) of all PO dispensations >7 days originated from non-MMT physicians. The number of PO prescriptions per person-year nearly doubled between 1996 and 2006, driven by increases in morphine, hydromorphone and oxycodone dispensations. PO co-prescription was positively associated with female gender, older age, higher levels of medical co-morbidity as well as higher MMT dosage, adherence, and retention. Conclusion and Scientific Significance A large proportion of MMT clients in BC received co-occurring PO prescriptions, often from physicians and pharmacies not delivering MMT. Experimental evidence for the treatment of pain in MMT clients is required to guide clinical practice. PMID:24724883

  10. High levels of opioid analgesic co-prescription among methadone maintenance treatment clients in British Columbia, Canada: results from a population-level retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Nosyk, Bohdan; Fischer, Benedikt; Sun, Huiying; Marsh, David C; Kerr, Thomas; Rehm, Juergen T; Anis, Aslam H

    2014-01-01

    The non-medical use of prescription opioids (PO) has increased dramatically in North America. Special consideration for PO prescription is required for individuals in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Our objective is to describe the prevalence and correlates of PO use among British Columbia (BC) MMT clients from 1996 to 2007. This study was based on a linked, population-level medication dispensation database. All individuals receiving 30 days of continuous MMT for opioid dependence were included in the study. Key measurements included the proportion of clients receiving >7 days of a PO other than methadone during MMT from 1996 to 2007. Factors independently associated with PO co-prescription during MMT were assessed using generalized linear mixed effects regression. 16,248 individuals with 27,919 MMT episodes at least 30 days in duration were identified for the study period. Among them, 5,552 individuals (34.2%) received a total of 290,543 PO co-prescriptions during MMT. The majority (74.3%) of all PO dispensations >7 days originated from non-MMT physicians. The number of PO prescriptions per person-year nearly doubled between 1996 and 2006, driven by increases in morphine, hydromorphone and oxycodone dispensations. PO co-prescription was positively associated with female gender, older age, higher levels of medical co-morbidity as well as higher MMT dosage, adherence, and retention. A large proportion of MMT clients in BC received co-occurring PO prescriptions, often from physicians and pharmacies not delivering MMT. Experimental evidence for the treatment of pain in MMT clients is required to guide clinical practice. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  11. Are Sitting Occupations Associated with Increased All-Cause, Cancer, and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Risk? A Pooled Analysis of Seven British Population Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Chau, Josephine Y.; Pedisic, Zeljko; Bauman, Adrian; Macniven, Rona; Coombs, Ngaire; Hamer, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background There is mounting evidence for associations between sedentary behaviours and adverse health outcomes, although the data on occupational sitting and mortality risk remain equivocal. The aim of this study was to determine the association between occupational sitting and cardiovascular, cancer and all-cause mortality in a pooled sample of seven British general population cohorts. Methods The sample comprised 5380 women and 5788 men in employment who were drawn from five Health Survey for England and two Scottish Health Survey cohorts. Participants were classified as reporting standing, walking or sitting in their work time and followed up over 12.9 years for mortality. Data were modelled using Cox proportional hazard regression adjusted for age, waist circumference, self-reported general health, frequency of alcohol intake, cigarette smoking, non-occupational physical activity, prevalent cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline, psychological health, social class, and education. Results In total there were 754 all-cause deaths. In women, a standing/walking occupation was associated with lower risk of all-cause (fully adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.68, 95% CI 0.52–0.89) and cancer (HR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.43–0.85) mortality, compared to sitting occupations. There were no associations in men. In analyses with combined occupational type and leisure-time physical activity, the risk of all-cause mortality was lowest in participants with non-sitting occupations and high leisure-time activity. Conclusions Sitting occupations are linked to increased risk for all-cause and cancer mortality in women only, but no such associations exist for cardiovascular mortality in men or women. PMID:24086292

  12. British Sign Name Customs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  13. Patterns of chlamydia testing in different settings and implications for wider STI diagnosis and care: a probability sample survey of the British population.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Soazig; Mercer, Catherine H; Woodhall, Sarah C; Sonnenberg, Pam; Field, Nigel; Lu, Le; Johnson, Anne M; Cassell, Jackie A

    2017-06-01

    Following widespread rollout of chlamydia testing to non-specialist and community settings in the UK, many individuals receive a chlamydia test without being offered comprehensive STI and HIV testing. We assess sexual behaviour among testers in different settings with a view to understanding their need for other STI diagnostic services. A probability sample survey of the British population undertaken 2010-2012 (the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles). We analysed weighted data on chlamydia testing (past year), including location of most recent test, and diagnoses (past 5 years) from individuals aged 16-44 years reporting at least one sexual partner in the past year (4992 women, 3406 men). Of the 26.8% (95% CI 25.4% to 28.2%) of women and 16.7% (15.5% to 18.1%) of men reporting a chlamydia test in the past year, 28.4% of women and 41.2% of men had tested in genitourinary medicine (GUM), 41.1% and 20.7% of women and men respectively tested in general practice (GP) and the remainder tested in other non-GUM settings. Women tested outside GUM were more likely to be older, in a relationship and to live in rural areas. Individuals tested outside GUM reported fewer risk behaviours; nevertheless, 11.0% (8.6% to 14.1%) of women and 6.8% (3.9% to 11.6%) of men tested in GP and 13.2% (10.2% to 16.8%) and 9.6% (6.5% to 13.8%) of women and men tested in other non-GUM settings reported 'unsafe sex', defined as two or more partners and no condom use with any partner in the past year. Individuals treated for chlamydia outside GUM in the past 5 years were less likely to report an HIV test in that time frame (women: 54.5% (42.7% to 65.7%) vs 74.1% (65.9% to 80.9%) in GUM; men: 23.9% (12.7% to 40.5%) vs 65.8% (56.2% to 74.3%)). Most chlamydia testing occurred in non-GUM settings, among populations reporting fewer risk behaviours. However, there is a need to provide pathways to comprehensive STI care to the sizeable minority at higher risk. Published by the

  14. A population-based evaluation of a publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada: parental factors associated with HPV vaccine receipt.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, Gina; Anderson, Maureen; Marra, Fawziah; McNeil, Shelly; Pielak, Karen; Dawar, Meena; McIvor, Marilyn; Ehlen, Thomas; Dobson, Simon; Money, Deborah; Patrick, David M; Naus, Monika

    2010-05-04

    Information on factors that influence parental decisions for actual human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine receipt in publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls is limited. We report on the level of uptake of the first dose of the HPV vaccine, and determine parental factors associated with receipt of the HPV vaccine, in a publicly funded school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada. All parents of girls enrolled in grade 6 during the academic year of September 2008-June 2009 in the province of British Columbia were eligible to participate. Eligible households identified through the provincial public health information system were randomly selected and those who consented completed a validated survey exploring factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to calculate adjusted odds ratios to identify the factors that were associated with parents' decision to vaccinate their daughter(s) against HPV. 2,025 parents agreed to complete the survey, and 65.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 63.1-67.1) of parents in the survey reported that their daughters received the first dose of the HPV vaccine. In the same school-based vaccine program, 88.4% (95% CI 87.1-89.7) consented to the hepatitis B vaccine, and 86.5% (95% CI 85.1-87.9) consented to the meningococcal C vaccine. The main reasons for having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were the effectiveness of the vaccine (47.9%), advice from a physician (8.7%), and concerns about daughter's health (8.4%). The main reasons for not having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were concerns about HPV vaccine safety (29.2%), preference to wait until the daughter is older (15.6%), and not enough information to make an informed decision (12.6%). In multivariate analysis, overall attitudes to vaccines, the impact of the HPV vaccine on sexual practices, and childhood vaccine history were predictive of parents having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine in a

  15. How Does a Failing School Stop Failing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren-Gross, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The author's school had just been labeled a failing school by No Child Left Behind when its new principal arrived in the fall of 2007. In this demoralizing climate, teachers can get frustrated and choose to give up, or they can rise to the challenge, create a plan for improvement, and plunge into uncharted waters. This article discusses how the…

  16. Pass-Fail Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delohery, Pat; McLaughlin, Gerald

    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University implemented a pass-fail grading system two years ago. The procedure in use appears to be working smoothly and suffers little abuse. Aside from physical education, courses taught under this system primarily are taken by seniors. The number of courses elected for pass-fail grading is small: 3.3…

  17. Targeted case finding for hepatitis B using dry blood spot testing in the British-Chinese and South Asian populations of the North-East of England.

    PubMed

    McPherson, S; Valappil, M; Moses, S E; Eltringham, G; Miller, C; Baxter, K; Chan, A; Shafiq, K; Saeed, A; Qureshi, R; Hudson, M; Bassendine, M F

    2013-09-01

    Chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a frequent cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer. Targeted HBV screening is recommended by the Centre for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention for subjects born in countries with >2% HBV prevalence. However, there are no UK guidelines. Here, we applied the (CDC) recommendations to the British-Chinese and British-South Asian community of North-East (NE) England. British-Chinese and South Asian subjects were invited to attend for HBV education and screening sessions held in community centres. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B core total antibody (HBcAb) were tested with dry blood spot tests. South Asians were also tested for hepatitis C antibody (HCVAb). A total of 1126 subjects (606 Chinese and 520 South Asian) were screened. Sixty-two (5.5%) were HBsAg positive. Ten of these reported a previous diagnosis of HBV. The prevalence of HBsAg positivity was 4.6% when previously diagnosed individuals were excluded. The HBsAg prevalence was significantly higher in the Chinese subjects compared with South Asians (8.7% VS. 1.7% P < 0.001). In Chinese subjects, HBsAg positivity was highest in subjects born in Vietnam (17.4%), followed by China (11%), Hong Kong (7.8%) and the UK (6.7%). Subjects from Pakistan had the highest HBsAg and HCV Ab prevalence in the South Asians (3.1% and 1.8%, respectively). Ten percentage of HBsAg positive patients who had follow-up assessment had active disease requiring antiviral treatment. Undiagnosed HBV infection was above the 2% threshold for screening suggested by the CDC in the British-Chinese and Pakistani community of NE England, which provides evidence for a UK HBV-targeted screening programme. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Patterns, predictors and persistence of chronic sedative use: a population-based observational study of older adults in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Steven G; Weymann, Deirdre

    2017-08-01

    Benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-like sedatives (zopiclone, zolpidem and zaleplon) are commonly prescribed to treat anxiety and insomnia but are contraindicated for chronic use. We sought to study the persistence, over multiple years, of chronic use of benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-like sedatives among community-dwelling adults in British Columbia, Canada. This is a retrospective analysis of linked health data for adults aged 50 to 69 in 2004 who resided in British Columbia, Canada, between 2004 and 2013. We assigned subjects to one of four groups according to the total number of days of benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-like sedatives that they were dispensed from retail pharmacies in each observation year. We estimated logistic regression models to measure associations between the odds of chronic sedative use and explanatory variables. We computed transition probability matrices that depict likelihood of changes in sedative utilization levels across years. Nearly one in ten (9.4%) community-dwelling older adults in British Columbia filled prescriptions with more than 90 days' worth of benzodiazepines or benzodiazepine-like sedatives in 2013. The odds of such chronic sedative use were higher for people who were older, had lower income, were sicker, or lived in rural communities; odds were lower for people with Chinese or South Asian surnames and for men who were married. Controlling for other factors, chronic users of sedatives in 2008 were 15 times more likely than non-users of sedatives in 2008 to be chronic sedative users in 2013 (OR = 14.73; 95% CI = [14.24, 15.24]). Approximately two out of every five older British Columbians who were chronic sedative users in 2013 had been chronic users of sedatives 10 years prior. Two out of every three chronic sedative users in 2004 were either chronic users (57%) or dead (16%) by 2013. Chronic use of sedatives is prevalent and persistent among older adults in British Columbia. The persistence of chronic

  19. A prospective study evaluating sleep quality in Failed Back Surgery Syndrome patients treated by multicolumn spinal cord stimulation: study design protocol and presentation of the study population.

    PubMed

    Monlezun, O; Lode-Kolz, K; Roulaud, M; Paquereau, J; Ingrand, P; Veyrieras, C; Brandet, C; Guetarni, F; Prévost, A; Bataille, B; Rigoard, P

    2015-03-01

    One of the main consequences of chronic pain syndrome is major impairment of the quality of sleep. Chronic pain and insomnia are independently linked to significant reductions in quality of life and psychiatric morbidity. Recent studies have suggested the efficacy of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for the treatment of the back pain component in failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) patients using a multicolumn lead. The main aim of this pilot study is to assess the influence and potential benefits of SCS on sleep quality in refractory FBSS patients implanted with multicolumn SCS and enrolled in the French multicentre ESTIMET study. This is a single-centre, comparative, exploratory, pilot study. Sixteen FBSS patients enrolled in the ESTIMET study and implanted with multicolumn SCS will be monitored for 6months after implantation. Sleep parameters will be recorded by polysomnography, Psychomotor Vigilance Test and Osler tests, actigraphy, sleepiness scales, and sleep quality testing. Sleep will be evaluated before (at the inclusion visit) and after SCS implantation (at the 6-month visit). Secondary objectives will also assess the impact of SCS lead programming (mono vs. multicolumn SCS) and the influence of position-adaptive stimulation at night on sleep quality. The first patient of this ancillary study was enrolled on 21 May, 2012 and recruitment has now been achieved. Primary endpoint findings are expected to be available in 2015. By providing an analysis of the quality of sleep in chronic pain patients who are candidates for implanted neurostimulation, this new approach focuses on an important aspect of quality of life often overlooked in these poly-medication patients. It could show a real clinical benefit and underestimation of these analgesic innovative expensive techniques, where medico-economic analysis, would or would not promote access. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Auditing the British Medical Journal.

    PubMed

    Channer, K S

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to audit the outcome in terms of change in practice of the published research from one volume of the British Medical Journal. All original papers and short reports from one Volume 296 of the British Medical Journal (BMJ) 1988 were read and classified into theoretical only, practical and theoretical and practical. Those papers with any practical message were reviewed by one of a panel of specialists in the subject of the paper to assess if the recommendation made by the paper had become common clinical practice. The results show that most papers originated from teaching centres and research institutes in the UK. Only 8% of main papers and 6% of short reports had a solely practical application, although a further 18% and 22% had practical elements. The majority of the recommendations aimed at changing practice were of relevance to hospital specialists rather than general practitioners (GPs). Of the papers with any practical implications 48% (12% of the total) of main papers and 41% (11% of the total) of short reports were considered to be current practice. The reasons why the papers failed to change practice are discussed. In conclusion, the majority of the original research papers published in the BMJ in 1988 were of a theoretical nature and only about 20% of papers made recommendations for a change in practice. About 50% of the recommendations are now current practice.

  1. Compensation for failed sterilization.

    PubMed

    Esen, Umo I

    2002-09-01

    Two recent Court of Appeal decisions have modified the hitherto settled rules governing the compensation payable following failed and negligently performed sterilization. Compensation is now possible other than for the pain and suffering of the pregnancy where the child or mother is disabled.

  2. Who Really Failed? Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiuri, Katherine M.; Leon, Raul A.

    2012-01-01

    Scott Jaschik's (2010) article "Who Really Failed?" details the experience of Dominique Homberger, a tenured faculty member at Louisiana State University (LSU) who was removed from teaching her introductory biology course citing student complaints in regards to "the extreme nature" of the grading policy. This removal has…

  3. FAILED FUEL DISPOSITION STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    THIELGES, J.R.

    2004-12-20

    In May 2004 alpha contamination was found on the lid of the pre-filter housing in the Sodium Removal Ion Exchange System during routine filter change. Subsequent investigation determined that the alpha contamination likely came from a fuel pin(s) contained in an Ident-69 (ID-69) type pin storage container serial number 9 (ID-69-9) that was washed in the Sodium Removal System (SRS) in January 2004. Because all evidence indicated that the wash water interacted with the fuel, this ID49 is designated as containing a failed fuel pin with gross cladding defect and was set aside in the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM)more » Cell until it could be determined how to proceed for long term dry storage of the fuel pin container. This ID49 contained fuel pins from the driver fuel assembly (DFA) 16392, which was identified as a Delayed Neutron Monitor (DNM) leaker assembly. However, this DFA was disassembled and the fuel pin that was thought to be the failed pin was encapsulated and was not located in this ID49 container. This failed fuel disposition study discusses two alternatives that could be used to address long term storage for the contents of ID-69-9. The first alternative evaluated utilizes the current method of identifying and storing DNM leaker fuel pin(s) in tubes and thus, verifying that the alpha contamination found in the SRS came from a failed pin in this pin container. This approach will require unloading selected fuel pins from the ID-69, visually examining and possibly weighing suspect fuel pins to identify the failed pin(s), inserting the failed pin(s) in storage tubes, and reloading the fuel pins into ID49 containers. Safety analysis must be performed to revise the 200 Area Interim Storage Area (ISA) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (Reference 1) for this fuel configuration. The second alternative considered is to store the failed fuel as-is in the ID-69. This was evaluated to determine if this approach would comply with storage requirements

  4. Searching for Failed Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, Jill; Kochanek, C. S.; Stanek, K. Z.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the deaths of massive stars is key to understanding both stellar evolution and the chemical enrichment of the universe. Only by monitoring all the massive stars in a large sample over years are we able to take a statistical approach to the deaths of massive stars and possibly observe the rare phenomenon of a failed supernova, a massive star that collapses to form a black hole without a SN explosion. To this end, we have been monitoring 25 galaxies within 10 Mpc with the Large Binocular Telescope for the past 4 years. Analyzing the data using image subtraction, we monitor the fate of all ~106 evolved supergiants in these galaxies to obtain limits on the rate of failed supernovae. We search for stars that have "vanished'' over the course of our survey, by examining all stars showing a decrease in luminosity of ΔνLν ≥ 104L⊙ from the first to the last observation. If we can detect the variable source in our last observation, it is not considered a vanished supergiant or failed supernova. We also identify sources that have increased in luminosity by this same amount, allowing us to estimate our false-positive rates. In addition to the search that does not require a particular signature, we also search for the low luminosity, long period transients predicted by Lovegrove & Woosley (2013) for failed explosions of red supergiants. Among many other applications, the survey also provides photometry of SN progenitors and the first light curves of these stars. Here I present the first results of the survey and provide the first direct limits on the rate of failed supernovae.

  5. Why security fails.

    PubMed

    Sem, Richard D

    2016-10-01

    When a hospital suffers a serious loss or act of violence, the blame frequently centers on the facility's Security Department, but, as the author, a longtime security consultant, points out, there's plenty of blame to go around--including Administration at all levels, and employees, both clinical and non clinical. In this article, he presents the many reasons why security can fail and what should be done to prevent such failure.

  6. Identification of Occupational Cancer Risks in British Columbia, Canada: A Population-Based Case—Control Study of 1,155 Cases of Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Raymond; Le, Nhu; Band, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Objective Cancer has been recognized to have environmental origin, but occupational cancer risk studies have not been fully documented. The objective of this paper was to identify occupations and industries with elevated colon cancer risk based on lifetime occupational histories collected from 15,463 incident cancer cases. Method A group matched case-control design was used. All cases were diagnosed with histologically proven colon cancers, with cancer controls being all other cancer sites, excluding rectum, lung and unknown primary, diagnosed at the same period of time from the British Columbia Cancer Registry. Data analyses were done on all 597 Canadian standard occupation titles and 1,104 standard industry titles using conditional logistic regression for matched data sets and the likelihood ratio test. Results Excess colon cancer risks was observed in a number of occupations and industries, particularly those with low physical activity and those involving exposure to asbestos, wood dusts, engine exhaust and diesel engine emissions, and ammonia. Discussion The results of our study are in line with those from the literature and further suggest that exposure to wood dusts and to ammonia may carry an increased occupational risk of colon cancer. PMID:22073015

  7. Long-term Hydroclimate and Pacific Salmon Population Linkages Across a Headwater-to-Coast Continuum in Northern British Columbia, Canada: A Perspective From Multiple Tree-Ring Proxy Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, C.; Smith, D. J.; Edwards, T.; Prowse, T.

    2016-12-01

    Ongoing climate change is expected to have lasting impacts on the runoff behaviour of rivers in northern British Columbia, Canada. Of particular concern is the loss of mountain snowpack and greater rainfall totals altering hydrograph characteristics. Sustained deviations in seasonal streamflow will pose significant challenges for effective watershed management. These ongoing changes highlight the importance of improving our understanding of the long-term biophysical linkages between the storage and release of water and downstream freshwater ecosystems. Such integrated research is particularly relevant to fisheries management as fluctuations in populations of Pacific salmon represent a complex and management-relevant biophysical issue in northern Canada. Unfortunately, hydroclimate and salmon productivity records in this region are sparse and of short duration, constraining our understanding of the impact of climate-induced hydrologic changes and biological responses to the last century. Proxy records derived from tree-rings provide annually or seasonally resolved data and have played a prominent role in attempts to establish how hydroclimate has varied in the past. The objective of my doctoral research is to reconstruct the prehistoric hydroclimate and salmon population trends in the Skeena, Nass and Stikine Watersheds using multiple tree-ring proxies to investigate the long-term biophysical linkages extending across a headwater-to-coast continuum in northern British Columbia, Canada. Ring-width, wood density and stable isotope chronologies using a number of mid-to high-elevation tree species will be constructed across each basin and sub-basin area for the purposes of reconstrucing the predominent temperature and precipiation signature that influence streamflow. Preliminary tree-ring δ18O and δ13C-isotope results indicate a strong negative association with mean monthly relative humidity values, suggesting a physiological control by moisture loss. The results of

  8. Infant vocabulary development assessed with a British communicative development inventory.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, A; Plunkett, K; Schafer, G

    2000-10-01

    Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs) were collected from 669 British children aged between 1;0 and 2;1. Comprehension and production scores in each age group are calculated. This provides norming data for the British infant population. The influence of socioeconomic group on vocabulary scores is considered and shown not to have a significant effect. The data from British infants is compared to data from American infants (Fenson, Dale, Reznick, Bates, Thal & Pethick, 1994). It is found that British infants have lower scores on both comprehension and production than American infants of the same age.

  9. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail.

    PubMed

    Di Nucci, E

    2009-05-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally wrong even though that human being is not being deprived of a "valuable future". So Marquis would be wrong in thinking that what is essential about the wrongness of killing an adult human being is that they are being deprived of a valuable future. This paper shows that whichever way the concept of "valuable future" is interpreted, the proposed counterexamples fail: if it is interpreted as "future like ours", the proposed counterexamples have no bearing on Marquis's argument. If the concept is interpreted as referring to the patient's preferences, it must be either conceded that the patients in Strong's scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims.

  10. Cross Sectional Associations between Socio-Demographic Factors and Cognitive Performance in an Older British Population: The European Investigation of Cancer in Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk) Study.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Shabina A; Luben, Robert; Dalzell, Nichola; Moore, Stephanie; Anuj, Serena; Matthews, Fiona E; Wareham, Nick; Brayne, Carol; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2016-01-01

    Cognition covers a range of abilities, such as memory, response time and language, with tests assessing either specific or generic aspects. However differences between measures may be observed within the same individuals. To investigate the cross-sectional association of cognitive performance and socio-demographic factors using different assessment tools across a range of abilities in a British cohort study. Participants of the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) in Norfolk Study, aged 48-92 years, underwent a cognitive assessment between 2006 and 2011 (piloted between 2004 and 2006) and were investigated over a different domains using a range of cognitive tests. Cognitive measures were available on 8584 men and women. Though age, sex, education and social class were all independently associated with cognitive performance in multivariable analysis, different associations were observed for different cognitive tests. Increasing age was associated with increased risk of a poor performance score in all of the tests, except for the National Adult Reading Test (NART), an assessment of crystallized intelligence. Compared to women, men were more likely to have had poor performance for verbal episodic memory, Odds Ratio, OR = 1.99 (95% Confidence Interval, 95% CI 1.72, 2.31), attention OR = 1.62, (95% CI 1.39, 1.88) and prospective memory OR = 1.46, (95% CI 1.29, 1.64); however, no sex difference was observed for global cognition, OR = 1.07 (95%CI 0.93, 1.24). The association with education was strongest for NART, and weakest for processing speed. Age, sex, education and social class were all independently associated with performance on cognitive tests assessing a range of different domains. However, the magnitude of associations of these factors with different cognitive tests differed. The varying relationships seen across different tests may help explain discrepancies in results reported in the current literature, and provides insights into influences on

  11. Chronocentrism and British criminology.

    PubMed

    Rock, Paul

    2005-09-01

    Criminologists display a largely unexamined propensity to ignore writings that are more than fifteen or so years old, with evident consequences for the public presentation and validation of expert knowledge. A citation study was combined with detailed observations from British criminologists to ascertain quite how that disavowal of the past was accomplished.

  12. Prevent and "British Values"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Alex; Ghale, Baljeet

    2015-01-01

    At the recent National Union of Teachers' conference the role of the Prevent strategy and the introduction of "British Values" in the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills framework emerged as key issues for delegates. Two of the speeches made at the conference are presented here.

  13. Return-to-work for multiple jobholders with a work-related musculoskeletal disorder: A population-based, matched cohort in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Maas, Esther T; Koehoorn, Mieke; McLeod, Christopher B

    2018-01-01

    Multiple jobholders (MJHs) have a higher risk of injury compared to single jobholders (SJHs), but it is unknown if return-to-work (RTW) after a work injury is affected by multiple jobholding. This study examined the association between multiple versus single jobholding and time to RTW for workers with a work-related musculoskeletal disorder (MSD). We used administrative workers' compensation data to identify injured workers with an accepted MSD lost-time claim between 2010-2014 in British Columbia, Canada (n = 125,639 SJHs and 9,029 MJHs). The outcome was days until RTW during twelve months after the first day of time-loss. The MJH and SJH cohorts were balanced using coarsened exact matching that yielded a final matched cohort of 8,389 MJHs and 8,389 SJHs. The outcome was estimated with Cox regression, using piecewise models, and the hazard ratios were stratified by type of MSD, a serious injury indicator, gender, weekly workdays preceding MSD, and wage categories. MJHs were less likely to RTW compared to SJHs within the first six months after the first time-loss day, with greater and longer lasting effects for males, workers with a serious injury, and a higher wage. No difference between MJHs and SJHs was found for workers who had a six- or seven-day work week preceding MSD, for workers with dislocations, and for workers who were still off work after six months. Overall, MJHs with a workweek of maximum five days are disadvantaged compared to SJHs in terms of RTW following a work-related MSD within the first six months after the first time-loss day. This difference might be caused by more precarious job contracts for MJHs that challenges RTW because of lack of support for modified work, higher workload, and reduced likelihood that MJHs file a workers' compensation claim. Despite adjusting for type of MSD, severity of injury and occupation, the differences persisted for the vast majority of the study sample.

  14. Return-to-work for multiple jobholders with a work-related musculoskeletal disorder: A population-based, matched cohort in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Koehoorn, Mieke; McLeod, Christopher B.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Multiple jobholders (MJHs) have a higher risk of injury compared to single jobholders (SJHs), but it is unknown if return-to-work (RTW) after a work injury is affected by multiple jobholding. This study examined the association between multiple versus single jobholding and time to RTW for workers with a work-related musculoskeletal disorder (MSD). Methods We used administrative workers’ compensation data to identify injured workers with an accepted MSD lost-time claim between 2010–2014 in British Columbia, Canada (n = 125,639 SJHs and 9,029 MJHs). The outcome was days until RTW during twelve months after the first day of time-loss. The MJH and SJH cohorts were balanced using coarsened exact matching that yielded a final matched cohort of 8,389 MJHs and 8,389 SJHs. The outcome was estimated with Cox regression, using piecewise models, and the hazard ratios were stratified by type of MSD, a serious injury indicator, gender, weekly workdays preceding MSD, and wage categories. Results MJHs were less likely to RTW compared to SJHs within the first six months after the first time-loss day, with greater and longer lasting effects for males, workers with a serious injury, and a higher wage. No difference between MJHs and SJHs was found for workers who had a six- or seven-day work week preceding MSD, for workers with dislocations, and for workers who were still off work after six months. Conclusions Overall, MJHs with a workweek of maximum five days are disadvantaged compared to SJHs in terms of RTW following a work-related MSD within the first six months after the first time-loss day. This difference might be caused by more precarious job contracts for MJHs that challenges RTW because of lack of support for modified work, higher workload, and reduced likelihood that MJHs file a workers’ compensation claim. Despite adjusting for type of MSD, severity of injury and occupation, the differences persisted for the vast majority of the study sample. PMID

  15. Using Concept Mapping to Develop a Strategy for Self-Management Support for Underserved Populations Living With Chronic Conditions, British Columbia, August 2013-June 2014.

    PubMed

    Mills, Susan L; Bergeron, Kim; Pérez, Guillermina

    2015-10-08

    Self-management support (SMS) is an essential component of public health approaches to chronic conditions. Given increasing concerns about health equity, the needs of diverse populations must be considered. This study examined potential solutions for addressing the gaps in self-management support initiatives for underserved populations. Stakeholders representing government, nongovernment organizations, Aboriginal communities, health authorities, medical practices, and research institutions generated, sorted, and rated ideas on what could be done to improve self-management support for underserved populations. Concept mapping was used to facilitate the collection and organization of the data and to generate conceptual maps. Participants generated 92 ideas that were sorted into 11 clusters (foster partnerships, promote integrated community care, enhance health care provider training, shift government policy, support community development, increase community education, enable client engagement, incorporate client support systems, recognize client capacity, tailor self-management support programs, and develop client skills, training, and tools) and grouped into system, community, and individual levels within a partnership framework. The strategy can stimulate public health dialogue and be a roadmap for developing SMS initiatives. It has the potential to address SMS and chronic condition inequities in underserved populations in several ways: 1) by targeting populations that have greater inequities, 2) by advocating for shifts in government policies that create and perpetuate inequities, 3) by promoting partnerships that may increase the number of SMS initiatives for underserved groups, and 4) by promoting training and engagement that increase the relevance, uptake, and overall effectiveness of SMS.

  16. Using Concept Mapping to Develop a Strategy for Self-Management Support for Underserved Populations Living With Chronic Conditions, British Columbia, August 2013–June 2014

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Kim; Pérez, Guillermina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Self-management support (SMS) is an essential component of public health approaches to chronic conditions. Given increasing concerns about health equity, the needs of diverse populations must be considered. This study examined potential solutions for addressing the gaps in self-management support initiatives for underserved populations. Methods Stakeholders representing government, nongovernment organizations, Aboriginal communities, health authorities, medical practices, and research institutions generated, sorted, and rated ideas on what could be done to improve self-management support for underserved populations. Concept mapping was used to facilitate the collection and organization of the data and to generate conceptual maps. Results Participants generated 92 ideas that were sorted into 11 clusters (foster partnerships, promote integrated community care, enhance health care provider training, shift government policy, support community development, increase community education, enable client engagement, incorporate client support systems, recognize client capacity, tailor self-management support programs, and develop client skills, training, and tools) and grouped into system, community, and individual levels within a partnership framework. Conclusion The strategy can stimulate public health dialogue and be a roadmap for developing SMS initiatives. It has the potential to address SMS and chronic condition inequities in underserved populations in several ways: 1) by targeting populations that have greater inequities, 2) by advocating for shifts in government policies that create and perpetuate inequities, 3) by promoting partnerships that may increase the number of SMS initiatives for underserved groups, and 4) by promoting training and engagement that increase the relevance, uptake, and overall effectiveness of SMS. PMID:26447550

  17. [Failed back surgery syndrome].

    PubMed

    Rosales-Olivares, Luis Miguel; Miramontes-Martínez, Víctor; Alpízar-Aguirre, Armando; Reyes-Sánchez, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is well known and physicians often fear this outcome. Its definition is difficult to understand because it is multifactorial. However, we analyze its etiology in order to determine if it is from iatrogenic causes. This syndrome can be categorized as follows: mistaken diagnoses, transoperative error, technique error, poor application, poor indication. We undertook a prospective, observational and lineal study in 20 patients, 313 surgeries and 4,500 consultations. Age and gender variables were analyzed, number of prior surgeries, and diagnosis prior to first surgery, as well as predominant symptoms for the last surgery, surgical time, and involved segment. Patients were evaluated with Oswestry preoperative scale and followed up for 2 years. There were 16 females and 4 males with an average age of 53.2 years. Eight patients had 1 prior surgery, 8 patients had 2 prior surgeries, 3 patients had 3 prior surgeries, and 1 patient had 4 prior surgeries. According to the Oswestry preoperative scale, 12 patients had scores higher than 60% and at 2-year follow-up, 11 patients had scores lower than 20%. Despite the persistent symptomatology and complications, in almost all patients the satisfaction index was 100%. According to the evaluation, the main cause was poor indication in three patients, poor indication + technique error in 10, and technique error in 7 patients. The most reported initial etiology was lumbar disc hernia with minimally invasive treatment with questionable surgical indication.

  18. Use of the Internet for Sexual Health Among Sexually Experienced Persons Aged 16 to 44 Years: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Survey of the British Population

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Claudia S; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam; Wellings, Kaye; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-01-01

    Background Those who go online regarding their sexual health are potential users of new Internet-based sexual health interventions. Understanding the size and characteristics of this population is important in informing intervention design and delivery. Objective We aimed to estimate the prevalence in Britain of recent use of the Internet for key sexual health reasons (for chlamydia testing, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] testing, sexually transmitted infection [STI] treatment, condoms/contraceptives, and help/advice with one’s sex life) and to identify associated sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Methods Complex survey analysis of data from 8926 sexually experienced persons aged 16-44 years in a 2010-2012 probability survey of Britain’s resident population. Prevalence of recent (past year) use of Internet sources for key sexual health reasons was estimated. Factors associated with use of information/support websites were identified using logistic regression to calculate age-adjusted odds ratios (AORs). Results Recent Internet use for chlamydia/HIV testing or STI treatment (combined) was very low (men: 0.31%; women: 0.16%), whereas 2.35% of men and 0.51% of women reported obtaining condoms/contraceptives online. Additionally, 4.49% of men and 4.57% of women reported recent use of information/support websites for advice/help with their sex lives. Prevalence declined with age (men 16-24 years: 7.7%; 35-44 years: 1.84%, P<.001; women 16-24 years: 7.8%; 35-44 years: 1.84%, P<.001). Use of information/support websites was strongly associated with men’s higher socioeconomic status (managerial/professional vs semiroutine/routine: AOR 1.93, 95% CI 1.27-2.93, P<.001). Despite no overall association with area-level deprivation, those in densely populated urban areas were more likely to report use of information/support websites than those living in rural areas (men: AOR 3.38, 95% CI 1.68-6.77, P<.001; women: AOR 2.51, 95% CI 1.34-4.70, P<.001). No

  19. Does the Intent to Irradiate the Internal Mammary Nodes Impact Survival in Women With Breast Cancer? A Population-Based Analysis in British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Robert A., E-mail: rolson2@bccancer.bc.ca; University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC; Woods, Ryan

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the value of the intent to include internal mammary nodes (IMNs) in the radiation therapy (RT) volume for patients receiving adjuvant locoregional (breast or chest wall plus axillary and supraclavicular fossa) RT for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: 2413 women with node-positive or T3/4N0 invasive breast cancer, treated with locoregional RT from 2001 to 2006, were identified in a prospectively maintained, population-based database. Intent to include IMNs in RT volume was determined through review of patient charts and RT plans. Distant relapse free survival (D-RFS), breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS), and overall survival (OS) were compared between themore » two groups. Prespecified pN1 subgroup analyses were performed. Results: The median follow-up time was 6.2 years. Forty-one percent of study participants received IMN RT. The 5-year D-RFS for IMN inclusion and exclusion groups were 82% vs. 82% (p = 0.82), BCSS was 87% vs. 87% (p = 0.81), and OS was 85% vs. 83% (p = 0.06). In the pN1 subgroup, D-RFS was 90% vs. 88% (p = 0.31), BCSS was 94% vs. 92% (p = 0.18), and OS was 91% vs. 88% (p = 0.01). After potential confounding variables were controlled for, women who received IMN RT did not have significantly different D-RFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.02 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-1.24; p = 0.85), BCSS (HR = 0.98 (95% CI, 0.79-1.22; p = 0.88), or OS (HR = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.78-1.15; p = 0.57). In the pN1 subgroup, IMN RT was associated with trends for improved survival that were not statistically significant: D-RFS (HR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.63-1.22; p = 0.42), BCSS (HR = 0.85; 95% CI, 0.57-1.25; p = 0.39), and OS (HR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.56-1.09; p = 0.14). Conclusions: After a median follow-up time of 6.2 years, although intentional IMN RT was not associated with a significant improvement in survival, this population-based study suggests that IMN RT may contribute to improved outcomes in selected patients with N1 disease.« less

  20. Twenty-year trajectories of alcohol consumption during midlife and atherosclerotic thickening in early old age: findings from two British population cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Britton, Annie; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana; Deanfield, John; Charakida, Marietta; Bell, Steven

    2016-07-29

    Epidemiological evidence indicates a protective effect of light-moderate drinking on cardiovascular disease and an increased risk for heavier drinking. Nevertheless, the effect of alcohol on atherosclerotic changes in vessel walls is disputed. Most previous studies have only looked at the cross-sectional relationship between alcohol and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) - a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. Single measurements of alcohol assume that alcohol exposure is stable and ignore the possible cumulative effects of harm, leading to possibly incorrect inferences. Data were retrieved from two UK population based cohort studies: the Whitehall II cohort of civil servants and the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (combined sample size of 5403 men and women). Twenty year-drinking trajectories during midlife were linked to measures of cIMT when participants were in early old age, and adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic position, ethnicity and smoking. Those who consistently drank heavily had an increased cIMT compared to stable moderate drinkers (pooled difference in cIMT 0.021 mm; 95 % CI 0.002 to 0.039), after adjustment for covariates. This was not detected in cross-sectional analyses. Former drinkers also had an increased cIMT compared to moderate drinkers (pooled difference in cIMT 0.021; 95 % CI 0.005 to 0.037). There were no appreciable differences in cIMT between non-drinkers and consistent moderate drinkers. The drinking habits among adults during midlife affect the atherosclerotic process and sustained heavy drinking is associated with an increased cIMT compared to stable moderate drinkers. This finding was not seen when only using cross-sectional analyses, thus highlighting the importance of taking a life course approach. There was no evidence of a favourable atherosclerotic profile from stable moderate drinking compared to stable non-drinking.

  1. Validation of the English language Forgotten Joint Score-12 as an outcome measure for total hip and knee arthroplasty in a British population.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, D F; Loth, F L; Giesinger, J M; Giesinger, K; MacDonald, D J; Patton, J T; Simpson, A H R W; Howie, C R

    2017-02-01

    To validate the English language Forgotten Joint Score-12 (FJS-12) as a tool to evaluate the outcome of hip and knee arthroplasty in a United Kingdom population. All patients undergoing surgery between January and August 2014 were eligible for inclusion. Prospective data were collected from 205 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) and 231 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Outcomes were assessed with the FJS-12 and the Oxford Hip and Knee Scores (OHS, OKS) pre-operatively, then at six and 12 months post-operatively. Internal consistency, convergent validity, effect size, relative validity and ceiling effects were determined. Data for the TKA and THA patients showed high internal consistency for the FJS-12 (Cronbach α = 0.97 in TKAs, 0.98 in THAs). Convergent validity with the Oxford Scores was high (r = 0.85 in TKAs, r = 0.79 for THAs). From six to 12 months, the change was higher for the FJS-12 than for the OHS in THA patients (effect size d = 0.21 versus -0.03). Ceiling effects at one-year follow-up were low for the FJS-12 with just 3.9% (TKA) and 8.8% (THA) of patients achieving the best possible score. The FJS-12 has strong measurement properties in terms of validity, internal consistency and sensitivity to change in TKA and THA patients. Low ceiling effects and good relative validity allow the monitoring of longer term outcomes, particularly in well-performing groups after total joint arthroplasty. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:218-24. ©2017 Hamilton et al.

  2. Pathogenic Potential, Genetic Diversity, and Population Structure of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from a Forest-Dominated Watershed (Comox Lake) in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Mazumder, Asit

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli isolates (n = 658) obtained from drinking water intakes of Comox Lake (2011 to 2013) were screened for the following virulence genes (VGs): stx1 and stx2 (Shiga toxin-producing E. coli [STEC]), eae and the adherence factor (EAF) gene (enteropathogenic E. coli [EPEC]), heat-stable (ST) enterotoxin (variants STh and STp) and heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) genes (enterotoxigenic E. coli [ETEC]), and ipaH (enteroinvasive E. coli [EIEC]). The only genes detected were eae and stx2, which were carried by 37.69% (n = 248) of the isolates. Only eae was harbored by 26.74% (n = 176) of the isolates, representing potential atypical EPEC strains, while only stx2 was detected in 10.33% (n = 68) of the isolates, indicating potential STEC strains. Moreover, four isolates were positive for both the stx2 and eae genes, representing potential EHEC strains. The prevalence of VGs (eae or stx2) was significantly (P < 0.0001) higher in the fall season, and multiple genes (eae plus stx2) were detected only in fall. Repetitive element palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprint analysis of 658 E. coli isolates identified 335 unique fingerprints, with an overall Shannon diversity (H′) index of 3.653. Diversity varied among seasons over the years, with relatively higher diversity during fall. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed that the majority of the fingerprints showed a tendency to cluster according to year, season, and month. Taken together, the results indicated that the diversity and population structure of E. coli fluctuate on a temporal scale, reflecting the presence of diverse host sources and their behavior over time in the watershed. Furthermore, the occurrence of potentially pathogenic E. coli strains in the drinking water intakes highlights the risk to human health associated with direct and indirect consumption of untreated surface water. PMID:25548059

  3. British Hydrological Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petts, G. E.

    The British Hydrological Society was formed in November 1983 in response to a growing need for a new broadly based national society. It caters to those interested in parts or all of this interdisciplinary subject and currently has more than 500 members. The organization aims to “promote interest and scholarship in both the scientific and applied aspects of hydrology and to foster the involvement of its members in international activities.”The society is an independent body formally associated with the Institution of Civil Engineers and the Institute of Hydrology in recognition of their special interests in hydrology and with a view to serving both the applied and scientific interests of its members. The affairs of the society are managed by a committee elected by its members.

  4. Indians Repulse British With Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    During the early introduction of rockets to Europe, they were used only as weapons. Enemy troops in India repulsed the British with rockets. Later, in Britain, Sir William Congreve developed a rocket that could fire to about 9,000 feet. The British fired Congreve rockets against the United States in the War of 1812.

  5. Profiles of children's social–emotional health at school entry and associated income, gender and language inequalities: a cross-sectional population-based study in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Guhn, Martin; Richardson, Chris G; Ark, Tavinder K; Shoveller, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Early identification of distinct patterns of child social–emotional strengths and vulnerabilities has the potential to improve our understanding of child mental health and well-being; however, few studies have explored natural groupings of indicators of child vulnerability and strengths at a population level. The purpose of this study was to examine heterogeneity in the patterns of young children's social and emotional health and investigate the extent to which sociodemographic characteristics were associated. Design Cross-sectional study based on a population-level cohort. Setting All kindergarten children attending public schools between 2004 and 2007 in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Participants 35 818 kindergarten children (age of 5 years) with available linked data from the Early Development Instrument (EDI), BC Ministry of Health and BC Ministry of Education. Outcome measure We used latent profile analysis (LPA) to identify distinct profiles of social–emotional health according to children's mean scores across eight social–emotional subscales on the EDI, a teacher-rated measure of children's early development. Subscales measured children's overall social competence, responsibility and respect, approaches to learning, readiness to explore, prosocial behaviour, anxiety, aggression and hyperactivity. Results Six social–emotional profiles were identified: (1) overall high social–emotional functioning, (2) inhibited-adaptive (3) uninhibited-adaptive, (4) inhibited-disengaged, (5) uninhibited-aggressive/hyperactive and (6) overall low social–emotional functioning. Boys, children with English as a second language (ESL) status and children with lower household income had higher odds of membership to the lower social–emotional functioning groups; however, this association was less negative among boys with ESL status. Conclusions Over 40% of children exhibited some vulnerability in early social–emotional health, and profiles were

  6. Profiles of children's social-emotional health at school entry and associated income, gender and language inequalities: a cross-sectional population-based study in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Kimberly C; Guhn, Martin; Richardson, Chris G; Ark, Tavinder K; Shoveller, Jean

    2017-07-26

    Early identification of distinct patterns of child social-emotional strengths and vulnerabilities has the potential to improve our understanding of child mental health and well-being; however, few studies have explored natural groupings of indicators of child vulnerability and strengths at a population level. The purpose of this study was to examine heterogeneity in the patterns of young children's social and emotional health and investigate the extent to which sociodemographic characteristics were associated. Cross-sectional study based on a population-level cohort. All kindergarten children attending public schools between 2004 and 2007 in British Columbia (BC), Canada. 35 818 kindergarten children (age of 5 years) with available linked data from the Early Development Instrument (EDI), BC Ministry of Health and BC Ministry of Education. We used latent profile analysis (LPA) to identify distinct profiles of social-emotional health according to children's mean scores across eight social-emotional subscales on the EDI, a teacher-rated measure of children's early development. Subscales measured children's overall social competence, responsibility and respect, approaches to learning, readiness to explore, prosocial behaviour, anxiety, aggression and hyperactivity. Six social-emotional profiles were identified: (1) overall high social-emotional functioning, (2) inhibited-adaptive (3) uninhibited-adaptive, (4) inhibited-disengaged, (5) uninhibited-aggressive/hyperactive and (6) overall low social-emotional functioning. Boys, children with English as a second language (ESL) status and children with lower household income had higher odds of membership to the lower social-emotional functioning groups; however, this association was less negative among boys with ESL status. Over 40% of children exhibited some vulnerability in early social-emotional health, and profiles were associated with sociodemographic factors. Approximately 9% of children exhibited multiple co

  7. Assessing the Impact of Human Activities on British Columbia’s Estuaries

    PubMed Central

    Robb, Carolyn K.

    2014-01-01

    The world’s marine and coastal ecosystems are under threat and single-sector management efforts have failed to address those threats. Scientific consensus suggests that management should evolve to focus on ecosystems and their human, ecological, and physical components. Estuaries are recognized globally as one of the world’s most productive and most threatened ecosystems and many estuarine areas in British Columbia (BC) have been lost or degraded. To help prioritize activities and areas for regional management efforts, spatial information on human activities that adversely affect BC’s estuaries was compiled. Using statistical analyses, estuaries were assigned to groups facing related threats that could benefit from similar management. The results show that estuaries in the most populated marine ecosections have the highest biological importance but also the highest impacts and the lowest levels of protection. This research is timely, as it will inform ongoing marine planning, land acquisition, and stewardship efforts in BC. PMID:24937486

  8. Are "Failing" Schools Really Failing? Using Seasonal Comparison to Evaluate School Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Douglas B.; von Hippel, Paul T.; Hughes, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    To many, it seems obvious which schools are failing--schools whose students perform poorly on achievement tests. But since evaluating schools on achievement mixes the effects of school and nonschool influences, achievement-based evaluation likely underestimates the effectiveness of schools that serve disadvantaged populations. In this article, the…

  9. TM Failed Detectors Data Replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusco, L.; Trevese, D.

    1984-01-01

    Some of the LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper detectors (band 2 detector 4 and band 5 detector 3) have inadequate performances. The operational system correction processing will disregard the data sensed by the failed detectors and replace them by data coming from the neighbor detectors of the same spectra band. The analysis performed by ESA Earthnet and attempts to suggest an operational failed detector replacement algorithm are described.

  10. British American Tobacco's failure in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, S

    2009-02-01

    Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) considered Turkey an important, potential investment market because of its high consumption rates and domestic commitment to tobacco. This paper outlines how British American Tobacco (BAT) attempted to establish a joint venture with the government monopoly TEKEL, while waiting for privatisation and a private tender. Analysis of tobacco industry documents from the Guildford Depository and online tobacco document sources. BAT failed to establish a market share in Turkey until 2000 despite repeated attempts to form a joint venture with Turkey's tobacco monopoly, TEKEL, once the market liberalised in the mid 1980s. BAT's failure in the Turkish market was due to a misguided investment strategy focused solely on acquiring TEKEL and is contrasted with Philip Morris success in Turkey despite both TTCs working within Turkey's unstable and corrupt investing climate.

  11. More and Better British Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggertsen, Claude A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses a ten year plan for growth and improvement reflecting the faith of the British people in the worth of their schools and their rejection of destructive criticism of contemporary education. (GB)

  12. Abortion: why the arguments fail.

    PubMed

    Hauerwas, S

    1980-01-01

    Christians have so far failed to show why abortion is an affront to Christian convictions. Rather than arguing when life begins, Christians must show that Christianity as a way of life which recognizes God as Lord of life makes abortion unthinkable.

  13. The construction of a "population problem" in colonial India, 1919-1947.

    PubMed

    Nair, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the construction of a "population problem" among public health officials in India during the inter-war period. British colonial officials came to focus on India's population through their concern with high Indian infant and maternal mortality rates. They raised the problem of population as one way in which to highlight the importance of dealing with public health at an all-India basis, in a context of constitutional devolution of power to Indians where they feared such matters would be relegated to relative local unimportance. While they failed to significantly shape government policy, their arguments in support of India's 'population problem' nevertheless found a receptive audience in the colonial public sphere among Indian intellectuals, economists, eugenicists, women social reformers and birth controllers. The article contributes to the history of population control by situating its pre-history in British colonial public health and development policy and outside the logic of USA's Cold War strategic planning for Asia.

  14. British women's attitudes to surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Poote, A E; van den Akker, O B A

    2009-01-01

    There has been little interest in the research literature on public opinions regarding assisted conception and surrogacy, particularly in European countries, despite the growing evidence showing that problems in adaptation and coping may be related to perceived normative values. This study investigated British women's attitudes to surrogacy using components of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Questionnaires on attitudes to surrogacy and reasons for parenthood were completed by 187 women from the general public. Significant socio-demographic differences were found between women who were possibly willing (n = 76) and those who were unwilling (n = 111) to become surrogate mothers. General attitudes to surrogacy also differed between groups (P = 0.000). This study supported the predictive utility of components of the TPB, and differentiated adequately between groups on attitudes to recruitment for surrogacy (P = 0.000), the consequences of surrogacy (P = 0.000), factors that induce people to become surrogates (P = 0.000), social support (P = 0.000), having personal control (P = 0.002) and reasons for parenthood (P = 0.000). Age (P = 0.000), attitudes to advertising (P = 0.02) and the consequences of surrogacy (P = 0.05) predicted (un)willingness to become a potential surrogate mother. Further research is needed with larger sample sizes of potential surrogates to determine whether the predictive attitudes reported here translate to actual behaviours. The larger group which was not interested in considering becoming a surrogate scored significantly more negatively on all attitudes towards surrogacy. The negative attitudes reported by the 'unwilling to consider being a surrogate' group may reflect attitudes held by the majority of the population and are likely to be influenced by reports of stigma associated with surrogacy.

  15. Is journalism failing on climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    How can we build a reliable and affordable energy supply based on renewables? How rapidly do we need to cut greenhouse gas emissions to keep climate change within manageable bounds? What does it take to maintain a stable common currency of different nations? These are just a few examples of questions that are critical for our future and that require an understanding of complex systems—the energy system, the climate system, the financial system. Finding sound answers to these questions requires sophisticated scientific analysis and expert knowledge; a lay person's intuition will clearly not suffice. Yet, decisions in a democracy are (and should be!) taken by politicians and the voting public who are not usually scientific experts. Hence the well-being of our societies—and even more so the living conditions of future generations, which are defined by the decisions we take today—depends on the wider public being well informed about the state of scientific knowledge and discourse. The media are the most important means by which lay people obtain their information about science. Good science journalism is therefore a decisive factor for the long-term success of modern society. Good science journalism clearly must be critical journalism, and it requires journalists who know what is what, who can put things into a perspective, and who are able to make well-informed judgements. After all, the role of science journalism is not simply to act as a 'translator' who conveys the findings of scientists in a language understandable to lay people. Rather, good science journalism will provide the public with a realistic impression of what is well established in science and what are current 'hot topics', uncertainties and controversies. It will also discuss the methods and social context of the scientific endeavour. There is ample evidence that in the area of climate science, journalism too often is failing to deliver this realistic picture to its audience, despite many good

  16. British Values and British Identity: Muddles, Mixtures, and Ways Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Robin

    2015-01-01

    In the final eleven months of its five-year term, the Coalition Government placed much emphasis in the education system on what it called fundamental British values (FBV). The phrase had its origins in counter-terrorism strategies that were of dubious validity both conceptually and operationally, and the trigger for its introduction into the…

  17. Sir William Howe: A Study in Failed Strategic Leadership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    points during these years. First, he served as a member of the House of Commons and secondly, he held the position of Governor of the Isle of Wight ...opportunities. First, by not attacking, Howe lost the chance to mitigate the strategic impacts of the British loss at Saratoga (discussed in detail later...important, the fervor for the struggle seemed to be declining among the American population as hardships increased and losses mounted. Grasping that

  18. Tides of the British Seas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandon, Frank

    1975-01-01

    Examines the gravitational effects and the way that local conditions interact with these effects to produce the tides characteristic of the British seas. Presents some effects of tides including the possibility of harnessing tidal energy and the effect of tidal friction on the use of the earth as a clock. (GS)

  19. Academic Advising in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardy, Linda

    2016-01-01

    The term "advising" has been used by various areas within post-secondary education institutions in British Columbia (BC) and across Canada to describe a variety of activities and tasks that result in providing information to students. The postsecondary education environment in BC has evolved over the past number of years and student…

  20. Evaluating the effectiveness of British Columbia's environmental assessment process for first nations' participation in mining development

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Douglas C.; McLelland, James N

    2003-08-01

    This paper applies effectiveness as a criterion to measure the participation of First Nations' participation in British Columbia's environmental assessment process. Effectiveness is reviewed as a means to measure policy implementation and an expanded framework is proposed to measure effectiveness. The framework is applied to three case studies in north-central British Columbia to measure the effectiveness of First Nations' participation in the EA process for mining development. All three cases failed to achieve procedural, substantive, and transactive efficacy and thereby failed to meet overall policy effectiveness. The policies used by the British Columbia government, including the relatively recent Environmental Assessmentmore » Act (1995), reflect a poor integration of First Nations people in the EA decision-making process with respect to mine development.« less

  1. Dentists' perceptions of difficulties encountered in providing dental care for British Asians.

    PubMed

    Williams, S A; Godson, J H; Ahmed, I A

    1995-03-01

    British Asians represent a substantial proportion of the population in some parts of the United Kingdom, yet many fail to use dental services regularly. This study aimed to investigate dentists' concerns about providing care for this client group. Following a pilot study, a postal questionnaire was sent to general dental practitioners and community dental officers working in seven family health services authority localities. Of 1546 questionnaires circulated, 639 (41 per cent) were returned. The language barrier was most frequently identified as a major impediment to care (78 per cent), followed by patients' understanding of treatment proposed (67 per cent), while 64 per cent found difficulty obtaining medical histories. Only 20 per cent considered that gaining consent for treatment was a problem. Other issues concerned attendance as casual patients (65 per cent) and, in terms of treatment provided, difficulties with preventive (77 per cent), periodontal (66 per cent) and orthodontic care (27 per cent). The proportion of dentists identifying barriers to care reflected the English-speaking abilities of different Asian populations. Compared with the high percentage mentioning language, understanding and medical history, the small proportion of dentists who thought that consent was of concern suggests that concepts of consent may need to be questioned. Despite the low response rate, the high proportion of respondents identifying these issues implies that the present position may put patients' health at risk, restrict treatment options and offer a potential for litigation. Future initiatives to overcome barriers to appropriate care must address the perspectives of dentists treating British Asians, as well as that of the client group.

  2. Three thousand families: English Canada's colonizing vision and British family settlement, 1919-39.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Rebecca J

    2011-01-01

    After the First World War, Canada's immigration policy became more restrictive and immigration more controlled. For English Canadians, immigration of the "right type" of people—those from the British Isles—remained vital to strengthening the nation. This article examines the 3,000 Family Scheme, a joint British-Canadian settlement project in which British families, comprised of over 18,000 individuals, were relocated to homesteads as colonizers of Canada's remote areas. There, many endured isolation and hardship, and were largely blamed for their own plight. A nation-building project that failed, the 3,000 Family Scheme reveals the connections among several enduring national myths in the interwar years: the potential for agricultural expansion, British superiority, and the capabilities of a maturing Canadian state to control the settlement process.

  3. Prepositions in American and British English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mindt, Dieter; Weber, Christel

    1989-01-01

    Compares the distribution of prepositions in American and British English. Two machine-readable one million word Corpora, the Brown Corpus of American English and the Lob Corpus of British are used as a basis of comparison. (Author/OD)

  4. Comparison of British and French expatriate doctors’ characteristics and motivations

    PubMed Central

    Quantin, Catherine; Abbas, Rachid; Hagi, Mathieu; Breton, Gwenaelle Le; Romestaing, M; Carnet, Dider

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to analyse the migration of doctors between the UK and France, in an attempt to identify the reasons for these migrations. Design This was a cross-sectional study conducted using a self-completed questionnaire. Setting The questionnaire was sent to all British doctors practising in France and to all French doctors practising in the UK. Participants The doctors were identified, thanks to official data of the National Medical Councils. There were 244 French doctors practising in the UK and 86 British doctors practising in France. Outcome measures A questionnaire was specifically developed for the study to determine the reasons why doctors moved to the other country and their level of satisfaction with regard to their expatriation. Results A total of 98 French doctors (of 244) and 40 British doctors (of 86) returned the questionnaire. The motivations of the two studied populations were different: French doctors were attracted by the conditions offered by the National Health Service, whereas British doctors were more interested in opportunities for career advancement, moved to join a husband or wife or to benefit from favourable environmental conditions. Overall, the doctors who responded considered the expatriation a satisfactory experience. After expatriation, 84% of French doctors were satisfied with their new professional situation compared with only 58% of British doctors. Conclusions This study, which is the first of its kind and based on representative samples, has led to a clearer understanding of the migration of doctors between France and the UK. PMID:23192244

  5. Why good projects fail anyway.

    PubMed

    Matta, Nadim F; Ashkenas, Ronald N

    2003-09-01

    Big projects fail at an astonishing rate--more than half the time, by some estimates. It's not hard to understand why. Complicated long-term projects are customarily developed by a series of teams working along parallel tracks. If managers fail to anticipate everything that might fall through the cracks, those tracks will not converge successfully at the end to reach the goal. Take a companywide CRM project. Traditionally, one team might analyze customers, another select the software, a third develop training programs, and so forth. When the project's finally complete, though, it may turn out that the salespeople won't enter in the requisite data because they don't understand why they need to. This very problem has, in fact, derailed many CRM programs at major organizations. There is a way to uncover unanticipated problems while the project is still in development. The key is to inject into the overall plan a series of miniprojects, or "rapid-results initiatives," which each have as their goal a miniature version of the overall goal. In the CRM project, a single team might be charged with increasing the revenues of one sales group in one region by 25% within four months. To reach that goal, team members would have to draw on the work of all the parallel teams. But in just four months, they would discover the salespeople's resistance and probably other unforeseen issues, such as, perhaps, the need to divvy up commissions for joint-selling efforts. The World Bank has used rapid-results initiatives to great effect to keep a sweeping 16-year project on track and deliver visible results years ahead of schedule. In taking an in-depth look at this project, and others, the authors show why this approach is so effective and how the initiatives are managed in conjunction with more traditional project activities.

  6. British anti-vaccination propaganda.

    PubMed

    Vandervelde, V D

    1974-10-01

    In April 1972, "Postal History International" published an article of mine concerning anti-vaccination caricature envelopes, which has led to some correspondence with readers and the discovery of several related items. It seems appropriate, therefore, to summarise the information in these pages, in the hope that this may bring forth knowledgeable comment from others. Details of any foreign propaganda of this sort would be particularly welcome. Meanwhile, this articles summarises what is known of the Society responsible for at least some of the British envelopes, and fills in a little of the historical background. The assistance of Mr. Ritchie Bodily is gratefully acknowledged, while the historical information was culled from the Newspaper Library of the British Museum at Colindale. Certain errors in the initial article can now be corrected, notably as to the name and location of the "persecuted man of Truth".

  7. British merchant seafarers 1900-2010: A history of extreme risks of mortality from infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Stephen E; Carter, Tim

    This study established trends in major infectious disease mortality in British merchant shipping from 1900 to 2010 as compared with the British male working population and the Royal Navy. A population mortality study of six infectious diseases using annual government mortality returns and death inquiry files for British merchant shipping and the Royal Navy, and official mortality data for the general male working aged population. Relative mortality risks for each disease were increased significantly in British merchant shipping when compared with the general population; malaria by 58.2 fold, yellow fever (6276), typhoid (9.5), cholera (1734), dysentery (20.6) and smallpox (142). For all six diseases combined, relative mortality risks were 21.5 compared with the general population and 3.5 compared with the Royal Navy. Mortality trend patterns varied between diseases, but reductions in mortality in British merchant shipping consistently lagged many years behind those in both the British general population and the Royal Navy. Merchant seamen were at far higher risk of death than probably any other occupational group of the population. Much of these excess risks came from exposure to infection in unhygienic and tropical ports, although some was a result of neglect of feasible preventative measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The British National Health Service

    PubMed Central

    Shortell, Stephen M.; Gibson, Geoffrey

    1971-01-01

    The British National Health Service and its development are described and data are presented on utilization, patient charges, physician remuneration, distribution of services, and other aspects of the NHS. Three government documents outlining new structures for a proposed reorganization are discussed, as well as the issues involved. Implications of the reorganization for the functioning of the system and for the evaluative research needed to maintain it are considered. PMID:5133835

  9. [DSAEK after failed penetrating keratoplasty].

    PubMed

    Zitte, K; Bonnin, N; Kémény, J-L; Bacin, F; Mulliez, A; Chiambaretta, F

    2015-01-01

    To report the anatomic and functional outcomes of Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) in 32 eyes after failed penetrating keratoplasty (PK). This retrospective, single-center observational study was performed on 32 eyes of 26 patients with failed PK grafts who underwent DSAEK between June 2009 and June 2013 at Clermont-Ferrand University Medical Center. Primary outcomes measured were: graft survival rates, functional improvement (visual acuity), and complications. Mean follow-up was 16.45 months [6-36]. Graft survival at 12 months was 76.1 % [68.1-82.3]. PK grafts cleared in 75 % of cases. Eight primary DSAEKs detached and/or decentered early (prior to day 8, average 6.22 days): 3 underwent repeat DSAEK with a new graft, and 3 underwent conversion to PK. Results were available for 26 patients at 6 months. Mean preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in logMAR increased from 1.48 (counting fingers at 2 meters) to 0.996 logMAR (1/10) at 6 months. BCVA improved in 17 patients (68 %). BCVA improved an average of 5.2 lines (P=0.0006). Eight patients had a large number of comorbid conditions that limited final visual acuity. Anatomic outcomes are similar to other studies. Final average BCVA was limited by severe comorbid conditions and performance of DSAEK solely for comfort. Many surgical strategies have been described to decrease graft dislocation and primary graft failure. Adapting graft trephine diameter to the host cornea as measured by AS-OCT, using a nomogram based on posterior corneal curvature obtained on AS-OCT, may be an interesting approach. DSAEK allows for quick visual recovery by preserving the anterior corneal curvature. It is an essential option for restoring corneal clarity in PK failure due to endothelial decompensation. A longer follow-up would allow a comparison of graft survival for the two techniques in this context. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Population

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population growth influences many stressors on Narragansett Bay and its Watershed, including all landscape and chemical stressors discussed in other chapters of this report. In numerous ways, population growth affects the condition of the Bay ecosystem, Watershed ecosystem, and h...

  11. [Population].

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    Data on the population of Venezuela between 1975 and 1977 are presented in descriptive tables and graphs. Information is included on the employed population according to category, sex, and type of economic activity, and by sex, age, and area on the employment rate and the total, the economically active, and the unemployed population.

  12. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Pat; Landahl, John

    This pamphlet has been prepared in response to a new problem, a rapidly increasing population, and a new need, population education. It is designed to help teachers provide their students with some basic population concepts with stress placed on the elements of decision making. In the first section of the pamphlet, some of the basic concepts of…

  13. Defining failed induction of labor.

    PubMed

    Grobman, William A; Bailit, Jennifer; Lai, Yinglei; Reddy, Uma M; Wapner, Ronald J; Varner, Michael W; Thorp, John M; Leveno, Kenneth J; Caritis, Steve N; Prasad, Mona; Tita, Alan T N; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram; Rouse, Dwight J; Blackwell, Sean C; Tolosa, Jorge E

    2018-01-01

    While there are well-accepted standards for the diagnosis of arrested active-phase labor, the definition of a "failed" induction of labor remains less certain. One approach to diagnosing a failed induction is based on the duration of the latent phase. However, a standard for the minimum duration that the latent phase of a labor induction should continue, absent acute maternal or fetal indications for cesarean delivery, remains lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes as a function of the duration of the latent phase among nulliparous women undergoing labor induction. This study is based on data from an obstetric cohort of women delivering at 25 US hospitals from 2008 through 2011. Nulliparous women who had a term singleton gestation in the cephalic presentation were eligible for this analysis if they underwent a labor induction. Consistent with prior studies, the latent phase was determined to begin once cervical ripening had ended, oxytocin was initiated, and rupture of membranes had occurred, and was determined to end once 5-cm dilation was achieved. The frequencies of cesarean delivery, as well as of adverse maternal (eg, postpartum hemorrhage, chorioamnionitis) and perinatal (eg, a composite frequency of seizures, sepsis, bone or nerve injury, encephalopathy, or death) outcomes, were compared as a function of the duration of the latent phase (analyzed with time both as a continuous measure and categorized in 3-hour increments). A total of 10,677 women were available for analysis. In the vast majority (96.4%) of women, the active phase had been reached by 15 hours. The longer the duration of a woman's latent phase, the greater her chance of ultimately undergoing a cesarean delivery (P < .001, for time both as a continuous and categorical independent variable), although >40% of women whose latent phase lasted ≥18 hours still had a vaginal delivery. Several maternal morbidities, such

  14. Science and the British Empire.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Mark

    2005-03-01

    The last few decades have witnessed a flowering of interest in the history of science in the British Empire. This essay aims to provide an overview of some of the most important work in this area, identifying interpretative shifts and emerging themes. In so doing, it raises some questions about the analytical framework in which colonial science has traditionally been viewed, highlighting interactions with indigenous scientific traditions and the use of network-based models to understand scientific relations within and beyond colonial contexts.

  15. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    In an effort to help meet the growing interest and concern about the problems created by the rapid growth of population, The International Planned Parenthood Federation has prepared this booklet with the aim of assisting the study of the history and future trends of population growth and its impact on individual and family welfare, national,…

  16. Population-Based Study of Cardiovascular Mortality Among Patients With Prostate Cancer Treated With Radical External Beam Radiation Therapy With and Without Adjuvant Androgen Deprivation Therapy at the British Columbia Cancer Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Julian; Vaid, Moninder; Tyldesley, Scott, E-mail: styldesl@bccancer.bc.ca

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: There are conflicting studies of the impact of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) on cardiovascular (CV) mortality among prostate cancer patients receiving curative intent external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). We assessed the impact of ADT on CV mortality in patients treated in British Columbia. Methods and Materials: Provincial pharmacy and radiotherapy databases were linked to the provincial cancer registry, and defined a cohort of patients treated with curative intent EBRT between 1998 and 2005. We determined the duration of ADT and the cumulative incidence of CV death. We compared death from CV disease with and without ADT, and by durationmore » of ADT using competing risk analysis and Fine and Gray multivariant analysis. A total of 600 randomly selected patients were reviewed to determine baseline CV disease, CV risk factors, and Charlson Index. Results: Of 5,948 prostate cancer patients treated with radical intent EBRT, of whom 1,933 were treated without ADT, 674 received ADT for {<=}6 months and 3,341 received > 6 months of ADT. The cumulative CV mortality at 7 years was 2.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-3.5%), 2.1% (95% CI = 1.2-3.5%), and 1.4 (95% CI = 1.0-2.0%) for patients with no ADT, {<=}6 months of ADT, and >6 months of ADT, respectively (Gray's p = 0.002). Baseline CV disease and risk factors were more prevalent in the no-ADT group compared with the >6-month ADT group. Conclusions: This study demonstrated a lower CV mortality rate among patients treated with longer durations of ADT than those treated without ADT. These differences likely relate to selection of patients for ADT rather than effect of ADT itself.« less

  17. Immigrant Incorporation in American Cities: Contextual Determinants of Irish, German and British Intermarriage in 1880.

    PubMed

    Logan, John R; Shin, Hyoung-Jin

    2012-01-01

    This study adds to a growing body of research on the contextual determinants of marriage choice and provides new information on ethnic intermarriage in the late 19 th Century. Census microdata for 66 major cities in 1880 are used to estimate a multilevel model of assortative mating of Irish, German, and British immigrants. Results demonstrate that marital choices made by individuals are significantly affected by the local urban context where they live. In addition the very large disparity in endogamy between the British and other groups can mainly be attributed to the smaller size of the British population in these cities.

  18. Immigrant Incorporation in American Cities: Contextual Determinants of Irish, German and British Intermarriage in 1880

    PubMed Central

    Logan, John R.; Shin, Hyoung-jin

    2013-01-01

    This study adds to a growing body of research on the contextual determinants of marriage choice and provides new information on ethnic intermarriage in the late 19th Century. Census microdata for 66 major cities in 1880 are used to estimate a multilevel model of assortative mating of Irish, German, and British immigrants. Results demonstrate that marital choices made by individuals are significantly affected by the local urban context where they live. In addition the very large disparity in endogamy between the British and other groups can mainly be attributed to the smaller size of the British population in these cities. PMID:24259757

  19. Failed Supernovae Explain the Compact Remnant Mass Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanek, C. S.

    2014-04-01

    One explanation for the absence of higher mass red supergiants (16.5 M ⊙ <~ M <~ 25 M ⊙) as the progenitors of Type IIP supernovae (SNe) is that they die in failed SNe creating black holes. Simulations show that such failed SNe still eject their hydrogen envelopes in a weak transient, leaving a black hole with the mass of the star's helium core (5-8 M ⊙). Here we show that this naturally explains the typical masses of observed black holes and the gap between neutron star and black hole masses without any fine-tuning of stellar mass loss, binary mass transfer, or the SN mechanism, beyond having it fail in a mass range where many progenitor models have density structures that make the explosions more likely to fail. There is no difficulty including this ~20% population of failed SNe in any accounting of SN types over the progenitor mass function. And, other than patience, there is no observational barrier to either detecting these black hole formation events or limiting their rates to be well below this prediction.

  20. Harnessing the Power of Difference: Colonialism and British Chronic Disease Research, 1940–1975

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies of post-war chronic disease epidemiology have generally focused on the histories of research in the USA and UK. Using the archival records of a major British funding body, the Colonial Medical Research Committee and its successor the Tropical Medical Research Board, this article demonstrates the advantages of bringing a post-colonial analytic to this historiography. It highlights how the administrative and medical interests in population difference at the centre of the new epidemiology came to map onto political apparatus initially created to know, reform and govern colonial subjects. Although detached from imperial aims, British medical scientists nonetheless attached value to colonial populations on the basis of British benefit and turned various sites into laboratories to extract it. This relationship did not die with the end of imperial rule. British scientists continued to pursue chronic disease epidemiology in former colonies well into the post-war period, informing debates about Britain's own public health concerns. PMID:28751816

  1. An exploratory study into the health beliefs and behaviours of British Indians with type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vishal; Iliffe, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Aim To explore the influence of health beliefs and behaviours on diabetes management in British Indians, as successful management of diabetes is dependent on underlying cultural beliefs and behaviours. British South Asians are six times more likely to suffer from type II diabetes than those in the general population. Yet, little research has been carried out into beliefs about diabetes among the British Indian population. The study used semi-structured interviews, a structured vignette and a pile-sorting exercise. In all, 10 British Indians were interviewed at a General Practice in North West London. Findings Those interviewed were informed about their diabetes but had difficulties in adapting their diet. Themes identified included causal beliefs of diabetes, use of alternative therapies, moderation of food, adaption of exercise regimes and sources of information. All were aware of avoiding certain foods yet some still continued to consume these items. Participants expressed the need for culturally sensitive forums to help manage their diabetes.

  2. Sex Ratios Among Births in British Columbia, 2000-2013.

    PubMed

    Joseph, K S; Lee, Lily; Williams, Kim

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have reported distorted sex ratios among live births within specific immigrant groups in Canada. We carried out an investigation into sex ratios in British Columbia. All stillbirths and live births to residents of British Columbia from April 2000 to March 2013 were included in the study, with data obtained from the British Columbia Perinatal Data Registry. We examined sex ratios among births and among pregnancy terminations that resulted in a stillbirth or live birth. Analyses were stratified by congenital anomaly status, maternal residence, and parity. The study population included 567 225 stillbirths and live births. In the Fraser Health Authority, the sex ratio among births without congenital anomalies was 51.3% males (95% CI 51.1 to 51.5); this was significantly higher than the sex ratio of 40.7% males (95% CI 33.2 to 48.6) among late pregnancy terminations without congenital anomalies (P = 0.008). However, in British Columbia, excluding the Fraser Health Authority, the same sex ratios were 51.1% (95% CI 50.9 to 51.3) and 51.1% (95% CI 45.5 to 56.7), respectively (P = 0.99). Sex ratios among births to multiparous women were also significantly different in the Fraser Health Authority. Only a negligible fraction of the shortfall in female births in the Fraser Health Authority could be explained by sex ratio distortions among late pregnancy terminations. Sex ratios among stillbirths and live births to residents of the Fraser Health Authority are distorted relative to those observed elsewhere in British Columbia. This is likely due to sex differences in early pregnancy terminations. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. All rights reserved.

  3. Coping Styles of Failing Brunei Vocational Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundia, Lawrence; Salleh, Sallimah

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the prevalence of two types of underachieving students (n = 246) (active failing (AF) and passive failing (PF)) in Brunei vocational and technical education (VTE) institutions and their patterns of coping. Design/methodology/approach: The field survey method was used to directly reach many…

  4. A fail-safe CMOS logic gate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobin, V.; Whitaker, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports a design technique to make Complex CMOS Gates fail-safe for a class of faults. Two classes of faults are defined. The fail-safe design presented has limited fault-tolerance capability. Multiple faults are also covered.

  5. The Amritsar Massacre: The Origins of the British Approach of Minimal Force on Public Order Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-04

    effect, influencing the civil population by the employment of troops, has remained a choice for the majority of national governments throughout history...Century Perception of the Crowd dies 19 (2), 1980), 74–92. (London: The Journal of British Stu 1 will continue to be required to conduct public order...Cousens, the former Director of the defence studies program for the British Army stated “The legacy of Amritsar is a powerful one and has influenced

  6. The Current Canon in British Romantics Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linkin, Harriet Kramer

    1991-01-01

    Describes and reports on a survey of 164 U.S. universities to ascertain what is taught as the current canon of British Romantic literature. Asserts that the canon may now include Mary Shelley with the former standard six major male Romantic poets, indicating a significant emergence of a feminist perspective on British Romanticism in the classroom.…

  7. Integrated Curriculum Programs in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Julie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses British Columbia's integrated curriculum programs (ICPs). In this province of sea and mountains, outdoor adventures figure prominently in its ICPs--with a healthy dose of environmental and sustainability education mixed in. The author presents five examples from British Columbia's ICPs: (1) Earthquest Outdoor…

  8. Request Strategies in British English and Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukushima, Saeko

    1996-01-01

    Tests request strategies used by speakers of Japanese and British English in two culturally neutral situations likely to trigger a request. Concludes that the degree of imposition goes on a par with the number of politeness strategies but that there are differences in the types of strategies used: the British use conventional forms and supportive…

  9. Providing a Background for British Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLuca, Diana Macintyre

    One consequence of teaching British literature far away from British shores is the loss of intimacy that comes from a shared culture. American teachers can help bring Britain into their classrooms by requesting audiovisual aids from the various museums and galleries in Britain that are willing to supply material. Among such sources are (1) Walton…

  10. The Contemporaneity of the British Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, Charles Brooks

    The seeming remoteness of material studied in a British literature survey course can be frustrating for the teacher. Students may find little relevance in the story of Beowulf or the descriptions of Gulliver's voyages. However, instructors can highlight the contemporaneity of British literary texts by drawing parallels to modern times. For…

  11. The Making of a Moral British Bangladeshi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitlyn, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    This article traces changing notions of a moral upbringing among British Bangladesh families in London. It reviews ideas of the making of a moral person ("manush corano") in Bangladesh and contrasts those with contemporary practices and ideas about the good child in London. It argues that in London, British Bangladeshis have embraced a…

  12. Identification of metapopulation dynamics among Northern Goshawks of the Alexander Archipelago, Alaska, and Coastal British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; McClaren, Erica L.; Doyle, Frank I.; Titus, K.; Sage, George K.; Wilson, Robert E.; Gust, Judy R.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Northern Goshawks occupying the Alexander Archipelago, Alaska, and coastal British Columbia nest primarily in old-growth and mature forest, which results in spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of individuals across the landscape. We used microsatellite and mitochondrial data to infer genetic structure, gene flow, and fluctuations in population demography through evolutionary time. Patterns in the genetic signatures were used to assess predictions associated with the three population models: panmixia, metapopulation, and isolated populations. Population genetic structure was observed along with asymmetry in gene flow estimates that changed directionality at different temporal scales, consistent with metapopulation model predictions. Therefore, Northern Goshawk assemblages located in the Alexander Archipelago and coastal British Columbia interact through a metapopulation framework, though they may not fit the classic model of a metapopulation. Long-term population sources (coastal mainland British Columbia) and sinks (Revillagigedo and Vancouver islands) were identified. However, there was no trend through evolutionary time in the directionality of dispersal among the remaining assemblages, suggestive of a rescue-effect dynamic. Admiralty, Douglas, and Chichagof island complex appears to be an evolutionarily recent source population in the Alexander Archipelago. In addition, Kupreanof island complex and Kispiox Forest District populations have high dispersal rates to populations in close geographic proximity and potentially serve as local source populations. Metapopulation dynamics occurring in the Alexander Archipelago and coastal British Columbia by Northern Goshawks highlight the importance of both occupied and unoccupied habitats to long-term population persistence of goshawks in this region.

  13. American, British and European recommendations for statins in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease applied to British men studied prospectively.

    PubMed

    McElduff, P; Jaefarnezhad, M; Durrington, P N

    2006-09-01

    To compare national and international recommendations for statin treatment in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in middle-aged men. Application of the current American, British and European recommendations to results of a prospective study. Men aged 49-65 years (n = 1653) who participated in the Caerphilly Prospective Study. Proportion of patients who would receive statin treatment, the number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one first CVD event (myocardial infarction or stroke) over 10 years and the potential number of events prevented over 10 years in the whole population (population impact) by the use of statins in accordance with each set of guidelines, assuming a reduction of risk in the range 10-50% from the observed events and baseline risk factors. 212 events were noted. For an anticipated reduction in first CVD events of 30% with statin treatment, the NNT was 26.0, if the whole population was treated. The lowest NNT was 12.1 for the National Service Framework, achieved when only 14% of the men received a statin. This prevented the lowest number of events (19.2/212), however, and had the smallest population impact on CVD incidence (-9.1%). The American and earlier Joint British Societies guidelines, although giving NNTs of around 21, prevented more events and had a greater population impact of -21.6% to -23.3%. They did, however, target about 60% of the male population. The British Hypertension Society guidelines and new Joint British Societies recommendations achieved the greatest population impact of -27% while maintaining the NNT at 22.2. They did, however, target three quarters of this population. Even effective preventive treatment will have little impact in preventing disease if patients at typical risk are not treated. Whether cholesterol lowering on such a scale should be attempted with drugs raises philosophical, psychological and economic considerations, particularly in view of the high likelihood of individual benefit from

  14. British Policy Towards Loyalists in the Philadelphia Campaign, 1777-1778

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-25

    Philadelphia. Rather than authorizing price controls or the printing of new currency or the disbursement of specie , he issued a proclamation...reins of power consistently short. Despite Howe’s retention of control , he failed to pay attention to the economic effects of the British occupation on...display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 14-04-2017 2

  15. British American Tobacco’s failure in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, S

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) considered Turkey an important, potential investment market because of its high consumption rates and domestic commitment to tobacco. This paper outlines how British American Tobacco (BAT) attempted to establish a joint venture with the government monopoly TEKEL, while waiting for privatisation and a private tender. Methods Analysis of tobacco industry documents from the Guildford Depository and online tobacco document sources. Results BAT failed to establish a market share in Turkey until 2000 despite repeated attempts to form a joint venture with Turkey’s tobacco monopoly, TEKEL, once the market liberalised in the mid 1980s. Conclusions BAT’s failure in the Turkish market was due to a misguided investment strategy focused solely on acquiring TEKEL and is contrasted with Philip Morris success in Turkey despite both TTCs working within Turkey’s unstable and corrupt investing climate. PMID:18845622

  16. Cancer mortality in the British rubber industry.

    PubMed Central

    Parkes, H G; Veys, C A; Waterhouse, J A; Peters, A

    1982-01-01

    Although it is over 30 years since an excess of bladder cancer was first identified in British rubber workers, the fear has persisted that this hazard could still be affecting men working in the industry today. Furthermore, suspicions have also arisen that other and hitherto unsuspected excesses of cancer might be occurring. For these reasons 33 815 men, who first started work in the industry between 1 January 1946 and 31 December 1960, have been followed up to 31 December 1975 to ascertain the number of deaths attributable to malignant disease and to compare these with the expected number calculated from the published mortality rates applicable to the male population of England and Wales and Scotland. The findings confirm the absence of any excess mortality from bladder cancer among men entering the industry after 1 January 1951 (the presumed bladder carcinogens were withdrawn from production processes in July 1949), but they confirm also a statistically significant excess of both lung and stomach cancer mortality. A small excess of oesophageal cancer was also observed in both the tyre and general rubber goods manufacturing sectors. American reports of an excess of leukaemia among rubber workers receive only limited support from the present study, where a small numerical excess of deaths from leukaemia is not statistically significant. A special feature of the study is the adoption of an analytical method that permits taking into account the long latent period of induction of occupational cancer. PMID:7093147

  17. Free-floating Failed Star Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-05

    This artist concept portrays a free-floating brown dwarf, or failed star. A new study using data from NASA Spitzer Space Telescope shows that several of these objects are warmer than previously thought.

  18. Low prevalence of DFNB1 (connexin 26) mutations in British Pakistani children with non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Yoong, Soo Y; Mavrogiannis, Lampros A; Wright, John; Fairley, Lesley; Bennett, Christopher P; Charlton, Ruth S; Spencer, Nick

    2011-09-01

    To determine the clinical sensitivity of DFNB1 genetic testing (analysis of the connexin 26 gene GJB2) for non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in British Pakistani children and extend to a comparison with British White children and literature data. Retrospective cohort study. City of Bradford, UK. Overall, 177 children (152 families) were eligible; 147 children (123 families) were British Pakistani, and 30 children (29 families) were British White. DFNB1 testing was offered. Detection rate for pathogenic bi-allelic GJB2 mutations. DFNB1 testing yielded positive results in 6.9% British Pakistani families compared with 15.4% British White families. Of 65 British Pakistani children tested (from 58 families), five children (from four families) were found to be homozygous for the common South Asian GJB2 mutation p.Trp24X. Of 14 British White children tested (from 13 families), bi-allelic pathogenic GJB2 mutations were seen in two children (from two families). The contribution of DFNB1 to non-syndromic SNHL in the Bradford British Pakistani children appears to be low when compared with a White peer group and White populations in general. The high prevalence of genetic deafness in this community, attributed to family structure and immigration history, points to a dilution effect in favour of other recessive deafness genes/loci.

  19. Hollow Threats: Why Coercive Diplomacy Fails

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    130 Healey , Jason. A Fierce Domain : Conflict in Cyberspace, 1986 to 2012. Washington, DC: Atlantic Council, 2013. Henriksen, Dag. NATO’s Gamble...equipment, including P-1 centrifuges, to the US. Those centrifuges ended up in the Oak Ridge National Labaratory in Tennessee. Jason Healey , A ... Fierce Domain : Conflict in Cyberspace, 1986 to 2012 (Washington, DC: Atlantic Council, 2013), 226. 12. Quoted in Andrew, “British Perceptions of

  20. Cancer incidence in British vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Key, T J; Appleby, P N; Spencer, E A; Travis, R C; Allen, N E; Thorogood, M; Mann, J I

    2009-07-07

    Few prospective studies have examined cancer incidence among vegetarians. We studied 61,566 British men and women, comprising 32,403 meat eaters, 8562 non-meat eaters who did eat fish ('fish eaters') and 20,601 vegetarians. After an average follow-up of 12.2 years, there were 3350 incident cancers of which 2204 were among meat eaters, 317 among fish eaters and 829 among vegetarians. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated by Cox regression, stratified by sex and recruitment protocol and adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol, body mass index, physical activity level and, for women only, parity and oral contraceptive use. There was significant heterogeneity in cancer risk between groups for the following four cancer sites: stomach cancer, RRs (compared with meat eaters) of 0.29 (95% CI: 0.07-1.20) in fish eaters and 0.36 (0.16-0.78) in vegetarians, P for heterogeneity=0.007; ovarian cancer, RRs of 0.37 (0.18-0.77) in fish eaters and 0.69 (0.45-1.07) in vegetarians, P for heterogeneity=0.007; bladder cancer, RRs of 0.81 (0.36-1.81) in fish eaters and 0.47 (0.25-0.89) in vegetarians, P for heterogeneity=0.05; and cancers of the lymphatic and haematopoietic tissues, RRs of 0.85 (0.56-1.29) in fish eaters and 0.55 (0.39-0.78) in vegetarians, P for heterogeneity=0.002. The RRs for all malignant neoplasms were 0.82 (0.73-0.93) in fish eaters and 0.88 (0.81-0.96) in vegetarians (P for heterogeneity=0.001). The incidence of some cancers may be lower in fish eaters and vegetarians than in meat eaters.

  1. The Privatization of British Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walford, Geoffrey

    1988-01-01

    An official British white paper and a law creating broad reforms in higher education reflect the government's acceptance and promotion of the ideology of privatization and are part of a policy trend affecting all levels of the educational system. (MSE)

  2. Libraries in British Columbia: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/britishcolumbia.html Libraries in British Columbia To use the sharing features ... George University Hospital of Northern BC Northern Health Library Services Learning & Development Centre 1475 Edmonton Street Prince ...

  3. British and American attitudes toward credit cards.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bijou; James, Simon; Lester, David

    2006-04-01

    American university students owned more than twice as many credit cards as British university students. However, scores on a credit card attitude scale predicted the number of cards owned by respondents in both countries.

  4. Efficiency Studies in the British Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Geoffrey

    1986-01-01

    The background, purposes, and methods of institutional efficiency studies conducted at selected British universities are discussed. The evaluations focused on financial management, purchasing, and building maintenance and space utilization. (MSE)

  5. Personality traits of British hospice volunteers.

    PubMed

    Claxton-Oldfield, Stephen; Claxton-Oldfield, Jane; Paulovic, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    In total, 120 British female hospice volunteers completed the NEO five-factor inventory (NEO-FFI) of Costa Jr and McCrae. The NEO-FFI measures the so-called big 5 personality traits of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Compared to both American NEO-FFI norms for adult females and emerging British NEO-FFI norms for adult females, the hospice volunteers scored significantly lower, on average, in neuroticism and significantly higher, on average, in agreeableness and conscientiousness. No significant differences were found on any of the 5 traits between the British female hospice volunteers' scores and the NEO-FFI scores previously collected from a sample of Canadian female hospice palliative care volunteers. Implications for the recruitment of British hospice volunteers are discussed.

  6. The British Empire and the English Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thron, E. Michael

    1987-01-01

    Examines the recent call for English departments to recognize literature that falls outside the British and American tradition. Suggests that we recognize English as a world language and choose books to teach accordingly. (JC)

  7. Patterns of outdoor recreational injury in northern British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Besserer, Floyd A; Caron, Nadine R

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the patterns of severe injury documented at a northern British Columbia regional trauma center based on age, sex, month of year, activity type, injury type, and injury severity as they relate to participation in outdoor recreational activities. A retrospective analysis of data abstracted from the British Columbia Trauma Registry for patients sustaining injuries between April 1, 2004, and March 31, 2007, while engaged in outdoor recreational activities in the Northern Health Authority. The British Columbia Trauma Registry inclusion criteria are as follows: 1) admitted for treatment of injuries sustained from the transfer of external energy or force; 2) admitted to the facility within 7 days of injury; and 3) length of stay more than 2 days or in-hospital mortality. In all, 159 patients met study criteria. August and September were peak injury months (mean 7.3 and 7.0 per month, respectively). The highest injury patterns involved cycling (n = 31), all-terrain vehicle operation (n = 30), horseback riding (n = 22), and snowmobiling (n = 22). Of the 159 patients, 76.1% were male, with a peak age distribution between 10 years and 19 years (22%). Males were more commonly injured than females among cycling (83.9%), all-terrain vehicle (86.7%), and snowmobile (100%) traumas. Females were more commonly injured from horseback riding events (42.1%). This study emphasizes the need for rapid translation of research findings into injury prevention awareness and programming in northern British Columbia, particularly relating to cycling, horseback riding, snowmobiling, and all-terrain vehicle operation. Further investigation is required to analyze long-term outcomes for this common injury population. Wilderness Medical Society.

  8. Treatment Access and Survival Amongst British Asians with Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Isherwood, J; Bilku, D; Metcalfe, M S; Dennison, A R; Garcea, G

    2017-02-01

    Despite increasingly mixed communities in large cities, there remains a paucity of absolute and comparative data concerning the treatment, access and survival of British Asians with pancreatic cancer. A prospective database of 1038 patients with a diagnosis of pancreatic cancer from 2003 to 2012 was analysed. Asian/Asian British was defined as patients identifying themselves as originating from India, Bangladesh or Pakistan. No significant difference was observed in gender split for both Asian/Asian British and White British (AAB and WB). The incidence of pancreas cancer was also equivalent between the two groups at 8.1 versus 8.8 per 100,000 of the population. Age at presentation was significantly younger in AABs when compared to WBs (67 vs. 70 years, p = 0.003). Whilst median maximal tumour diameter, node status and the incidence of metastases were not different between AABs and WBs, the AABs had a significantly greater median T-stage (3.0 versus 2.5, p = 0.0024). The percentage of patients referred for chemotherapy was significantly higher in the AAB group (70.5 vs. 47.7 %, p = 0.0015). Overall survival and survival for patients having palliative treatment were significantly greater in AABs (4.6 vs. 6.1 months and 3.7 vs. 5.1 months). This study demonstrates that AAB patients are present with pancreatic cancer at a younger age and that when receiving palliative chemotherapy their survival is significantly better. Further studies and larger data sets over a longer period are required. It is important to examine further the complexity of incidence and survival in ethnic minorities and investigate the underlying reasons when differences are demonstrated.

  9. Iron Age and Anglo-Saxon genomes from East England reveal British migration history

    PubMed Central

    Schiffels, Stephan; Haak, Wolfgang; Paajanen, Pirita; Llamas, Bastien; Popescu, Elizabeth; Loe, Louise; Clarke, Rachel; Lyons, Alice; Mortimer, Richard; Sayer, Duncan; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Cooper, Alan; Durbin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    British population history has been shaped by a series of immigrations, including the early Anglo-Saxon migrations after 400 CE. It remains an open question how these events affected the genetic composition of the current British population. Here, we present whole-genome sequences from 10 individuals excavated close to Cambridge in the East of England, ranging from the late Iron Age to the middle Anglo-Saxon period. By analysing shared rare variants with hundreds of modern samples from Britain and Europe, we estimate that on average the contemporary East English population derives 38% of its ancestry from Anglo-Saxon migrations. We gain further insight with a new method, rarecoal, which infers population history and identifies fine-scale genetic ancestry from rare variants. Using rarecoal we find that the Anglo-Saxon samples are closely related to modern Dutch and Danish populations, while the Iron Age samples share ancestors with multiple Northern European populations including Britain. PMID:26783965

  10. Iron Age and Anglo-Saxon genomes from East England reveal British migration history.

    PubMed

    Schiffels, Stephan; Haak, Wolfgang; Paajanen, Pirita; Llamas, Bastien; Popescu, Elizabeth; Loe, Louise; Clarke, Rachel; Lyons, Alice; Mortimer, Richard; Sayer, Duncan; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Cooper, Alan; Durbin, Richard

    2016-01-19

    British population history has been shaped by a series of immigrations, including the early Anglo-Saxon migrations after 400 CE. It remains an open question how these events affected the genetic composition of the current British population. Here, we present whole-genome sequences from 10 individuals excavated close to Cambridge in the East of England, ranging from the late Iron Age to the middle Anglo-Saxon period. By analysing shared rare variants with hundreds of modern samples from Britain and Europe, we estimate that on average the contemporary East English population derives 38% of its ancestry from Anglo-Saxon migrations. We gain further insight with a new method, rarecoal, which infers population history and identifies fine-scale genetic ancestry from rare variants. Using rarecoal we find that the Anglo-Saxon samples are closely related to modern Dutch and Danish populations, while the Iron Age samples share ancestors with multiple Northern European populations including Britain.

  11. British Teachers' Transnational Work within and beyond the British Empire after the Second World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Kay

    2017-01-01

    Focusing on British graduates from Gipsy Hill Training College (GHTC) in London, this article illustrates transnational history's concerns with the reciprocal flows of people and ideas within and beyond the British Empire. GHTC's progressive curriculum and culture positioned women teachers as agents of change, and the article highlights the lives…

  12. State and Church in British Honduran Education, 1931-39: A British Colonial Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Offers an analysis of church and state influences on the development of education in British Honduras (now Belize). Focuses on the British neglect of education in the colony; the emergence of tensions between the church and state, exploring issues related to Roman Catholic and Protestant rivalry; and church-state issues. (CMK)

  13. Examination of a Failed Professional Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Rachel L.; Penny, G. Richard

    2015-01-01

    Schools are using various forms of professional learning communities (PLCs) in order to increase student achievement and improve educational practices through enhanced communication and collaboration among teachers. This study examined a PLC that had too narrow a focus and failed therefore to affect student achievement. A critical shortcoming of…

  14. Log-binomial models: exploring failed convergence.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Tyler; Eliasziw, Misha; Fick, Gordon Hilton

    2013-12-13

    Relative risk is a summary metric that is commonly used in epidemiological investigations. Increasingly, epidemiologists are using log-binomial models to study the impact of a set of predictor variables on a single binary outcome, as they naturally offer relative risks. However, standard statistical software may report failed convergence when attempting to fit log-binomial models in certain settings. The methods that have been proposed in the literature for dealing with failed convergence use approximate solutions to avoid the issue. This research looks directly at the log-likelihood function for the simplest log-binomial model where failed convergence has been observed, a model with a single linear predictor with three levels. The possible causes of failed convergence are explored and potential solutions are presented for some cases. Among the principal causes is a failure of the fitting algorithm to converge despite the log-likelihood function having a single finite maximum. Despite these limitations, log-binomial models are a viable option for epidemiologists wishing to describe the relationship between a set of predictors and a binary outcome where relative risk is the desired summary measure. Epidemiologists are encouraged to continue to use log-binomial models and advocate for improvements to the fitting algorithms to promote the widespread use of log-binomial models.

  15. How to Make Innovations Succeed or Fail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrens, Maurice R.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, Maurice Ahrens, having interviewed teachers, principals, and supervisors presents a discussion of why some innovative changes in education failed and others succeeded. The purpose was to identify and discuss the reasons. [Excerpts from this article are reprinted from "Childhood Education" v49 n4 1973 in celebration of…

  16. I Failed the edTPA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuranishi, Adam; Oyler, Celia

    2017-01-01

    In this article, co-written by a teacher and a professor, the authors examine possible explanations for why Adam (first author), a New York City public school special educator, failed the edTPA, a teacher performance assessment required by all candidates for state certification. Adam completed a yearlong teaching residency where he was the special…

  17. Log-binomial models: exploring failed convergence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Relative risk is a summary metric that is commonly used in epidemiological investigations. Increasingly, epidemiologists are using log-binomial models to study the impact of a set of predictor variables on a single binary outcome, as they naturally offer relative risks. However, standard statistical software may report failed convergence when attempting to fit log-binomial models in certain settings. The methods that have been proposed in the literature for dealing with failed convergence use approximate solutions to avoid the issue. This research looks directly at the log-likelihood function for the simplest log-binomial model where failed convergence has been observed, a model with a single linear predictor with three levels. The possible causes of failed convergence are explored and potential solutions are presented for some cases. Results Among the principal causes is a failure of the fitting algorithm to converge despite the log-likelihood function having a single finite maximum. Despite these limitations, log-binomial models are a viable option for epidemiologists wishing to describe the relationship between a set of predictors and a binary outcome where relative risk is the desired summary measure. Conclusions Epidemiologists are encouraged to continue to use log-binomial models and advocate for improvements to the fitting algorithms to promote the widespread use of log-binomial models. PMID:24330636

  18. Underachievement, Failing Youth and Moral Panics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Emma

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers contemporary "moral panics" around the underachievement of boys in school examinations in the UK and America. In the UK, in particular, the underachievement of boys is central to current "crisis accounts" about falling standards and failing pupils. "Underachievement" is a familiar word to those…

  19. Contested Spaces of a "Failing" Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawai, Roi; Serriere, Stephanie; Mitra, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Amid the recent proliferation of teacher-led movements resisting high-stakes testing across the United States, the authors identify how a "failing" elementary school reclaimed local discourse by taking political action against top-down measures. Framed as competing modes of school reform, the authors offer the sociocultural framework of…

  20. Defective lipid metabolism in the failing heart

    PubMed Central

    Wittel, Benjamin; Spann, James F.

    1968-01-01

    The metabolism of long chain fatty acids was investigated in the failing heart of guinea pigs with chronic constriction of the ascending aorta. Homogenates prepared form failing hearts exhibited (a) a decreased capacity to oxidize palmitic acid (failure = 0.50 ± 0.06 μmole/g of protein per 20 min; control = 1.09 ± 0.10); (b) a reduced level of carnitine, a myocardial constituent which serves to control the oxidation rate of long chain fatty acids in the heart (failure = 0.91 ± 0.10 μmole/g wet weight; control = 1.69 ± 0.10); and (c) an increased rate of palmitate incorporation into triglycerides and lecithin. Exogenous carnitine effected a restoration of the defective palmitate metabolism of the homogenates towards normal. In contrast to long chain fatty acid oxidation, glucose oxidation by the failing heart was not impaired. As a consequence of this selective lesion in energy substrate utilization, the failing heart might be forced to rely on substrates other than long chain fatty acids for its major energy supply. PMID:4233124

  1. Management of Failed Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Elnahas, Ahmad Ibrahim; Jackson, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) has emerged as the gold standard for the management of morbid obesity. Accordingly, patients who fail to lose weight after LRYGB present a difficult problem for the bariatric surgeons. A literature review was performed to evaluate the management options for this select bariatric population. Methods: A literature search was conducted in the EMBASE and MEDLINE databases using the most comprehensive timeline. All relevant articles were identified and full texts were obtained and reviewed. Results: Thirteen articles were retrieved based on key word searches. Management for weight failure following LRYGB included revision using the following options: laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, pouch/anastomotic revision with or without endoluminal techniques, laparoscopic distal Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and laparoscopic biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy may be considered in patients who fail LRYGB with nutritional deficiencies. Conclusion: Failed LRYGB should be managed based on the patient presentation and diagnostic evaluation. Patients may present with significant nutritional deficiencies/complications, failure to lose weight, or weight recidivism. A treatment algorithm is proposed based on the literature to guide bariatric surgeons with respect to management options. However, given the paucity of research with respect to this problem, additional studies are needed to provide more insight on the optimal surgical management. PMID:24761371

  2. Management of Failed Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Elnahas, Ahmad Ibrahim; Jackson, Timothy D; Hong, Dennis

    2014-03-01

    Background: Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) has emerged as the gold standard for the management of morbid obesity. Accordingly, patients who fail to lose weight after LRYGB present a difficult problem for the bariatric surgeons. A literature review was performed to evaluate the management options for this select bariatric population. Methods: A literature search was conducted in the EMBASE and MEDLINE databases using the most comprehensive timeline. All relevant articles were identified and full texts were obtained and reviewed. Results: Thirteen articles were retrieved based on key word searches. Management for weight failure following LRYGB included revision using the following options: laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, pouch/anastomotic revision with or without endoluminal techniques, laparoscopic distal Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and laparoscopic biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy may be considered in patients who fail LRYGB with nutritional deficiencies. Conclusion: Failed LRYGB should be managed based on the patient presentation and diagnostic evaluation. Patients may present with significant nutritional deficiencies/complications, failure to lose weight, or weight recidivism. A treatment algorithm is proposed based on the literature to guide bariatric surgeons with respect to management options. However, given the paucity of research with respect to this problem, additional studies are needed to provide more insight on the optimal surgical management.

  3. Going coastal: shared evolutionary history between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Weckworth, Byron V; Dawson, Natalie G; Talbot, Sandra L; Flamme, Melanie J; Cook, Joseph A

    2011-05-04

    Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest. By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves. We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species.

  4. Going coastal: Shared evolutionary history between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves (canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weckworth, B.V.; Dawson, N.G.; Talbot, S.L.; Flamme, M.J.; Cook, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest. Methodology/Principal Findings: By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves. Conclusions/Significance: We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species. ?? 2011 This is an open-access article.

  5. Dental anxiety levels in British servicemen and women.

    PubMed

    Grimshaw, G P; Boyle, C A; Newton, T

    2012-09-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine: 1, the level of dental anxiety in British Service personnel; 2 whether there was a difference in dental anxiety levels across the three Services; and, 3, the relationship between number of operational tours and level of dental anxiety. Cross sectional questionnaire survey of individuals attending 3 Armed Services dental treatment centres in the UK. The questionnaires were completed between February 2008 and April 2009. 50 patients each from the Royal Navy, Army and Royal Air Force, selected consecutively from those attending the centres for treatment. There was a 100% response rate. Dental fear as assessed by the Dental Fear Survey (DFS) and scores on a scale of fear of dental injections. 27% of the Armed Services experienced severe dental anxiety: a level similar to that found in the general population. There was no difference in the level of dental anxiety or fear of dental injections across the three Armed Services. There was no relationship between number of operational tours undertaken and level of dental anxiety. Dental anxiety is found amongst members of the British Armed Services at levels similar to that in the general population. This represents a challenge for service provision, particularly in operational settings.

  6. Epidemiology of Cryptococcus gattii, British Columbia, Canada, 1999–2007

    PubMed Central

    MacDougall, Laura; Kidd, Sarah; Morshed, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    British Columbia, Canada, has the largest reported population of Cryptococcus gattii–infected persons worldwide. To assess the impact of illness, we retrospectively analyzed demographic and clinical features of reported cases, hospitalizations, and deaths during 1999–2007. A total of 218 cases were reported (average annual incidence 5.8 per million persons). Most persons who sought treatment had respiratory illness (76.6%) or lung cryptococcoma (75.4%). Persons without HIV/AIDS hospitalized with cryptococcosis were more likely than those with HIV/AIDS to be older and admitted for pulmonary cryptococcosis. The 19 (8.7%) persons who died were more likely to be older and to have central nervous system disease and infection from the VGIIb strain. Although incidence in British Columbia is high, the predominant strain (VGIIa) does not seem to cause greater illness or death than do other strains. Further studies are needed to explain host and strain characteristics for regional differences in populations affected and disease outcomes. PMID:20113555

  7. Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - Braconidae

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Mark R.; Godfray, H. Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of British and Irish Braconidae is revised, based in large part on the collections of the National Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh, and the Natural History Museum, London. Distribution records are provided at the country level together with extensive synonymy and bibliography. New information Of the 1,338 species regarded as valid, presumed native and certainly identified, 83 are here recorded for the first time from the British Isles. One new synonym is established (Dyscritus suffolciensis Morley, 1933 = Syntretus splendidus (Marshall, 1887) syn. nov.) PMID:27226759

  8. Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - Ichneumonidae

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of British and Irish Ichneumonidae is revised, based in large part on the collections of the Natural History Museum, London and the National Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh. Distribution records are provided at the country level. New information Of the 2,447 species regarded as valid and certainly identified, 214 are here recorded for the first time from the British Isles. Neorhacodinae is considered to be a separate subfamily rather than a synonym of Tersilochinae. Echthrini is treated as a junior synonym of the tribe Cryptini, not Hemigastrini. Echthrus Gravenhorst and Helcostizus Förster are classified in Cryptini rather than, respectively, Hemigastrini and Phygadeuontini. PMID:27733812

  9. Cultural and age differences in beliefs about depression: British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Alastair; Khanam, Shopnara; Furnham, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    This study examines beliefs about depression as a function of ethnic background (British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites) and age. A total of 364 participants completed a 65-item questionnaire, containing general questions regarding depression and anti-depressive behaviour; the causes of depression, and treatments for depression. The hypotheses were broadly supported; there were significant interactions between ethnicity and age, which generally revealed an increasingly negative attitude towards depression with increasing age amongst British Bangladeshis. Older British Bangladeshis believed depression was an illness that brought a sense of shame and loss of dignity to the individual and his or her family, and they also favoured a lay referral system for sufferers. They also had more superstitious beliefs about depression than both younger British Bangladeshis and British Whites. A pattern of increasing negativity with increasing age was not evident amongst the British Whites, but older individuals in both groups tended to believe that depression was not helped by psychological intervention. The attitudes towards depression in the young was similar (and generally positive) in both ethnic groups. These findings highlight the necessity to provide more culturally sensitive and accessible services for migrant communities - particularly amongst older individuals.

  10. Draining the Swamp: The British Strategy of Population Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    so, these tactics broke the Mau Mau. With independence, power passed peacefully to Jomo Kenyatta . While Kenyatta had been falsely impris- oned for... Kenyatta in 1954 instead of imprisoning him. 24. George C. Herring, America’s Longest War: The United States and Vietnam, 1950-1975 (3d ed.; New York

  11. Falling Stars: Why Senior Military Leaders Fail

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    AU/ACSC/2016 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY FALLING STARS : WHY SENIOR MILITARY LEADERS FAIL by Nicole M. Bridges, DAF A...Without drastic changes to policy, training, and/or culture, the stars will continue to fall. 8 Background This research paper analyzes over 100... Star Deities.” New Statesman, 5 July 2010, 20-23. Hastings, Michael. “The Runaway General.” Rolling Stone, 22 June 2010. Heuer, Richards J

  12. Stellar Death by Weak or Failed Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Scott Michael

    Core collapse supernovae (SNe) - the violent deaths of massive stars - are among the most luminous events in the Universe and play an important role in galaxy evolution and the production and distribution of the heavy elements necessary for planet formation and life. Despite decades of effort it is still unclear how these SNe explode. While SNe have been identified with close to the maximum theoretically possible energies, the lower bounds on SN energies and luminosities are less well-constrained. There is also no requirement that the core collapse always results in a successful SN explosion. In fact, there are multiple lines of evidence that suggest that 10 - 30% of core collapses might result in failed SNe, forming a black hole without a dramatic external explosion. The primary focus of this dissertation is to explore the lower bounds of the possible explosion energies and luminosities of core-collapse SNe. I discuss three observational strategies to help understand how massive stars die. Due to the development of advanced facilities for the detection of neutrinos and gravitational waves, the next Galactic SN will offer an unprecedented opportunity to study the SN explosion mechanism. To aid preparations for this event, I model the distance, extinction, and magnitude probability distributions for a Galactic SN, its shock breakout radiation, and progenitor. I also analyze the archetypes of two types of SN "impostors" and show that they may be genuine SNe, but with energies lower than previously observed. I present results from an ambitious survey that has been monitoring a million massive stars for 7 years to search for failed SNe. I follow-up the first identified failed SN candidate and find that the massive stellar progenitor appears to have vanished leaving behind a faint, fading IR source that may be due to fallback accretion onto a newly formed black hole. Finally, I set new constraints on the fraction of core collapses that result in failed SNe.

  13. Computed tomography in failed back syndrome.

    PubMed

    Neill, S

    1991-08-01

    A significant number of patients complain of recurrent symptoms following lumbar spine surgery. The main differential diagnosis is between post-operative epidural fibrosis and recurrent disc protrusion. Computed tomography is generally preferred to myelography for making this distinction, not least by the patient. Intravenous contrast medium can further improve diagnostic specificity. This article reviews the practical aspects and diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography in failed back syndrome, and draws attention to the potential pitfalls and less common abnormalities which may be encountered.

  14. Weeded Out? Gendered Responses to Failing Calculus

    PubMed Central

    Sanabria, Tanya; Penner, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Although women graduate from college at higher rates than men, they remain underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. This study examines whether women react to failing a STEM weed-out course by switching to a non-STEM major and graduating with a bachelor’s degree in a non-STEM field. While competitive courses designed to weed out potential STEM majors are often invoked in discussions around why students exit the STEM pipeline, relatively little is known about how women and men react to failing these courses. We use detailed individual-level data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) Postsecondary Transcript Study (PETS): 1988–2000 to show that women who failed an introductory calculus course are substantially less likely to earn a bachelor’s degree in STEM. In doing so, we provide evidence that weed-out course failure might help us to better understand why women are less likely to earn degrees. PMID:29616148

  15. Revision of the Failed Thumb Carpometacarpal Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Papatheodorou, Loukia K; Winston, Jonathan D; Bielicka, Deidre L; Rogozinski, Benjamin J; Lourie, Gary M; Sotereanos, Dean G

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the outcome of revision surgery for failed thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) arthroplasty. We retrospectively analyzed 32 patients with failed thumb CMC arthroplasty. The primary reason for revision was pain caused by metacarpal subsidence. Revision surgery included soft tissue interposition and distraction pinning to address the metacarpal subsidence. Additional ligament reconstruction was performed in patients with thumb instability. Eight patients required additional metacarpophalangeal joint fusion for concomitant joint hyperextension. Eleven required additional partial excision of the trapezoid for concomitant scaphotrapezoidal joint arthritis. All patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically. Mean follow-up was 57 months (range, 24-121 months). Pain levels evaluated by visual analog scale were significantly reduced in all patients after revision surgery. Mean grip strength and key pinch strength significantly increased. Twenty-seven patients achieved good functional results; those for 5 patients were fair. This study showed that revision surgery with distraction pinning and soft tissue interposition with or without ligament reconstruction was an effective treatment for failed CMC arthroplasty of the thumb. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Counterstory of One's Own: Using Counterstorytelling to Engage Students With the British Canon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissonnette, Jeanne Dyches; Glazier, Jocelyn

    2016-01-01

    Nationwide, virtually all secondary students interact with British literature, a traditionally Anglo, white, male canon. Yet, this revered curriculum provides few mirrors for students from historically marginalized populations to see their own cultures reflected. In this reflective practitioner piece, the authors first illustrate how…

  17. The Measurement and Evaluation of Social Attitudes in Two British Cohort Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Helen; Bynner, John; Wiggins, Richard; Schoon, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical evaluation of the internal consistency and validity of six attitudes scales assessing left-right beliefs, political cynicism, antiracism, libertarian-authoritarian views, and gender equality (two versions) in two large nationally representative samples of the British population born in 1958 and 1970. In the 1958…

  18. Status Review of the Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) in Alaska and British Columbia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    90-98. References Cited 1 Kessel, B., and Gibson, D.D., 1978, Status and distribution of Alaska birds: Albuquerque, New Mexico , Cooper...22 New Analyses Using Samples from Washington and Oregon and Multiple Loci ....................23 Methods...48 Table 18. Population estimates for British Columbia as reported by Burger (2002b) and updated with new information (2006

  19. Autumn monitoring of resident avifauna on Guana Island, British Virgin Islands

    Treesearch

    C.W. Boal; J.M. Wunderle Jr.; W.J. Arendt

    2013-01-01

    Although the Caribbean region is considered a biodiversity hotspot and a priority for ecological conservation efforts, little information exists on population trends of West Indian landbirds. We combined avian survey data collected from three studies spanning a 16-year period on a small island with a minimal human presence in the British Virgin Islands. Although...

  20. PRNP 1368 polymorphism is not associated with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Jeong, B-H; Lee, K-H; Lee, Y-J; Kim, Y-H; Cho, Y-S; Carp, R I; Kim, Y-S

    2008-08-01

    Human prion protein gene (PRNP) is considered a critical and fundamental gene in determining the incidence of human prion diseases. Codons 129 and 219 play an important role in the susceptibility to sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). An association between sporadic CJD and the polymorphism (PRNP 1368) in an upstream of PRNP exon 1 has been reported in the British and German populations, but study in the Dutch population has failed to confirm an association. To investigate whether the PRNP 1368 polymorphism is associated with sporadic CJD in the Korean population. We compared the genotype and allele frequencies of PRNP 1368 polymorphism in 171 sporadic CJD patients with those in 212 healthy Koreans. A significant difference of genotype and allele frequencies at PRNP 1368 was found between the normal Korean population and various European populations. In contrast to the results in the British and German populations, our study does not show a significant difference in genotype (P = 0.2763) and allele (P = 0.3750) frequencies of PRNP 1368 between sporadic CJD and normal controls.

  1. Representations of St Apollonia in British churches.

    PubMed

    Beal, J F

    1996-05-01

    St Apollonia is the patron saint of sufferers from toothache. Many medieval churches contain pictures of saints. Fifty-five representations of St Apollonia in British churches are listed. A large number of these are in the West Country and East Anglia. The majority are on rood screens or stained glass windows.

  2. Stress Variation in British and American English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive analysis of lexical-stress variation in British and American English. A comparison of the pronunciations of all 75,000 entries in a dictionary by John Wells (1990) yields 932 stress-divergent words. The list of words is appended. (Author/VWL)

  3. A History of Modern British Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fieldhouse, Roger

    The purpose of this book is: to set the historical development of British adult education in its wider policy and ideological context; to examine its various forms and formulations; and to identify what purpose or purposes it has served. The 16 chapters are as follows: "Historical and Political Context" (Roger Fieldhouse); "The…

  4. First Employment of British Pharmacology Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Michael; Markham, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    A survey was conducted in UK Universities to identify the employment of pharmacology graduates (BSc, MSc and PhD) 6 months after graduation in 2003. The aim was to provide data for the British Pharmacological Society (BPS) so they could offer advice to interested bodies and to University staff for careers information. 85% of 52 Universities…

  5. Academic Advising in British Columbia. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2016

    2016-01-01

    "Advising" consists of those activities and tasks that result in providing information to students. British Columbia's (BC) post-secondary education has evolved over the past number of years and student advising has changed along with it. Post-secondary institutions are currently challenged to increase student engagement, improve…

  6. British Writers; Modules for Teacher Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliard, Fred

    This booklet, containing eight instructional modules on works by major British writers, can be used either within a lower-level literature course for non-English majors or in a survey course for English majors. The first four modules focus on works from the early English period through the Elizabethan Age: "Beowulf,""Sir Gawain and the Green…

  7. Drivers of Cousin Marriage among British Pakistanis

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim Why has the apparently high rate of cousin marriage among Bradford Pakistanis been sustained, 50 years since Pakistani migration to Britain began? Methods A review of the anthropological literature on Pakistani migration and settlement, British Pakistani marriage patterns and the phenomenon of transnational marriage. Results British Pakistanis are diverse in regional origins and social class characteristics, with many Bradford Pakistanis originating from the Mirpur district and northern Punjab. British Pakistani marriages often involve a partner from Pakistan who joins a spouse in the UK. Transnational marriage of first cousins offers relatives in Pakistan opportunities for a ‘better’ life in the West and are important for British Pakistanis for economic, social, cultural and emotional reasons. These processes are also differentially influenced by region of origin and class characteristics in Pakistan as well as by education, employment and locality in Britain. The pattern observed in Bradford may not be applicable nationally. Conclusion Further research examining marital decisions over several generations in families differing by social class, region of origin in Pakistan and locality in Britain is necessary to contextualise the findings from Bradford. PMID:25060267

  8. British Chinese Children: Agency and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Carmen Lau

    2013-01-01

    The assumption that Chinese young people are passive beings with little or no agency is a dominant theme within the academic literature. However PhD research findings demonstrate how British Chinese adolescents (aged 11-14) do exhibit varying degrees of agency in their lives. Here, agency is understood as individuals having the capacity to act, to…

  9. The British Novel: Conrad to the Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Paul L.

    Intended for advanced undergraduate and graduate students who desire a useful research tool, this bibliography cites the works of and about British novelists, beginning with Joseph Conrad and terminating in 1950. The listings are selective with proper emphasis given to less celebrated but distinctive writers. A preface explaining the numerous…

  10. Macro and Microenvironments at the British Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenton, Helen

    This paper describes the storage of the 12 million items that have just been moved into the new British Library building. The specifications for the storage and environmental conditions for different types of library and archive material are explained. The varying environmental parameters for storage areas and public areas, including reading rooms…

  11. British Columbia. Reference Series No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of British Columbia and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. A discussion of the province's history includes the early European explorers, Indian natives, and later fur traders and settlers. The building of the transcontinental railway, entry…

  12. Drivers of cousin marriage among British Pakistanis.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Why has the apparently high rate of cousin marriage among Bradford Pakistanis been sustained, 50 years since Pakistani migration to Britain began? A review of the anthropological literature on Pakistani migration and settlement, British Pakistani marriage patterns and the phenomenon of transnational marriage. British Pakistanis are diverse in regional origins and social class characteristics, with many Bradford Pakistanis originating from the Mirpur district and northern Punjab. British Pakistani marriages often involve a partner from Pakistan who joins a spouse in the UK. Transnational marriage of first cousins offers relatives in Pakistan opportunities for a 'better' life in the West and are important for British Pakistanis for economic, social, cultural and emotional reasons. These processes are also differentially influenced by region of origin and class characteristics in Pakistan as well as by education, employment and locality in Britain. The pattern observed in Bradford may not be applicable nationally. Further research examining marital decisions over several generations in families differing by social class, region of origin in Pakistan and locality in Britain is necessary to contextualise the findings from Bradford. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Earnings Returns to the British Education Expansion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devereux, Paul J.; Fan, Wen

    2011-01-01

    We study the effects of the large expansion in British educational attainment that took place for cohorts born between 1970 and 1975. Using the Quarterly Labour Force Survey, we find that the expansion caused men to increase education by about a year on average and gain about 8% higher wages; women obtained a slightly greater increase in education…

  14. Indians of British Columbia (An Historical Review).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    An historical review is presented of the 6 major groups of Indians of the coastal region of British Columbia: the Coast Salish, Nootka, Kwakiutl, Bella Coola, Tsimshian, and Haida. Characteristics of each tribe are contrasted in the following 7 sections of the review: (1) Introduction--the life style, sociocultural factors, and unique…

  15. Considerations for Education Reform in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Countries around the world refer to twenty-first century education as essential to maintaining personal and national economic advantage and draw on this discourse to advocate for and embark on educational reform. This paper examines issues around education reform, particularly in British Columbia. It argues that reformers should give careful…

  16. Centres of Excellence in British Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Vernon A.

    Historical information concerning Centres of Excellence in British Universities and the concept of excellence in relation to the roles and functions of the universities, the elements of excellence, and equality are considered. The term "centre of excellence" may be applied to an institution or department that has successfully specialized…

  17. A Follow-Up Study of Career/Technical Students from the British Columbia Community Colleges and Institutes: Summary Report. Report No. 5-04-857.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, John D.; And Others

    In Fall 1980, a follow-up survey was conducted of students who had graduated, withdrawn from or otherwise left career/technical programs at British Columbia's 14 community colleges and institute of technology. The study sought to determine: (1) why students undertook career/technical programs; (2) if and for what reasons students failed to…

  18. The Post-War British "Re-Education" Policy for German Universities and Its Application at the Universities of Göttingen and Cologne (1945-1947)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euros, Glesni

    2016-01-01

    The crux of British aims for Germany following the Second World War focused on "re-education" and democratisation. Well aware that the victors' policies following World War One had failed to prevent Germany from pursuing an expansionist path once again, the plan was to help Germany learn from her problematic past. These aims extended to…

  19. Accounting for social impacts and costs in the forest industry, British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, Robert; Gale, Fred

    2006-03-15

    Business reviews of the forest industry in British Colombia, Canada, typically portray an unequivocally positive picture of its financial and economic health. In doing so, they fail to consider the following six categories of social impacts and costs: (1) direct and indirect subsidies; (2) government support through investment; (3) community dependence; (4) the maintenance of public order; (5) aboriginal title; and (6) the overestimation of employment. Our findings show that conventional economic and financial accounting methods inflate the industry's net contribution to the economy. We make a number of recommendations to address this shortcoming to improve future accounting and reportingmore » procedures.« less

  20. Computer Programming: Fail Fast to Learn Sooner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, Miguel A.; de Sá-Soares, Filipe

    Computer programming is not only to know about the languages or the processes, it is essentially to know how to do it. This involves a constructivist approach in learning. For a newbie in computer programming it is hard to understand the difference between know-about disciplines and the know-how-to-do-it ones. This leads to failure because when they understand they aren't able to solve a programming problem it is usually too late to catch all the time meanwhile lost. Our solution is to get them to fail soon enough. This way they still have time to recover from an eventually bad start.

  1. [Operative options for failed back surgery syndrome].

    PubMed

    Krieg, S M; Meyer, B

    2016-09-01

    Post-nucleotomy syndrome includes all existing sequelae after surgical nucleotomy for the resection of a lumbar disc herniation, such as axial lumbar back pain and persisting radiculopathy. To describe underlying pathologies and to determine operative treatment options. Extensive literature research was carried out on Medline. Various devices and approaches have been developed in the last decades. Nonetheless, surgical and non-surgical therapy of post-nucleotomy syndrome remains complex and frequently fails. Better studies providing a better level of evidence for each sub-entity of post-nucleotomy syndrome are required.

  2. Myths and Realities of Minimum Force in British Counterinsurgency Doctrine and Practice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Change” speech delivered to the South African Parliament in February 1960, many British colonialists conceded that while colonial independence was...camps and other draconian methods that targeted the civilian population to crush the Boer resistance in South Africa two decades prior to Amritsar...to hurt the population and, in the hopes of police, condition the people into a state of submission.57 Given the importance of the dairy industry in

  3. Morbidity of British coal miners in 1961-62

    PubMed Central

    Liddell, F. D. K.

    1973-01-01

    Liddell, F. D. K. (1973). Brit. J. industr. Med.,30, 1-14. Morbidity of British coal miners in 1961-62. The British coal mining population in 1961 is described, in terms of the 29 084men covered in a 5% sample census, by age, type of employment, coalfield, size of community, degree of mechanization, and other factors. Over a quarter of the men were in jobs not considered specific to coalmining, although nearly half of such men were working underground. The Ministry of Pensions and National Insurance provided records of over 34 000 spells of incapacity due to sickness for these men. Miners were found to suffer much more incapacity for work than men in other employment, even in those non-mining tasks considered to be very arduous. Among miners at the face, elsewhere underground, and on the surface, the lowest paid had the highest rate of incapacity. Incapacity from most causes was also found to vary between coalfields and with size of residential community, and to depend on the men's financial responsibilities, category of pneumoconiosis, and depth of working, but not on the degree of mechanization. A relationship was observed between seam height and the incidence of new spells of beat knee. PMID:4685296

  4. Prevalence of problematic mobile phone use in British adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Honrubia-Serrano, Luisa; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat; Gibson, Will

    2014-02-01

    The problematic use of mobile phones among adolescents has not been widely studied. There are very few instruments for assessing potential technological addiction to mobile phones, or for categorizing different types of users or uses. The most widely used scale is the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS), which is used to study adult populations, and has been applied in various forms in international contexts. The aims of this study were to adapt the Spanish version of this scale (MPPUSA) to British adolescents, and then to estimate the prevalence of possible problematic users. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1,529 secondary school pupils aged between 11 and 18 years, with 1,026 completed questionnaires being collected. The analysis showed that the factor and construct validity and reliability were comparable to those obtained in previous studies. The prevalence of problematic users among the students was 10%, and the typical problematic user tended to be an adolescent between 11 and 14 years old, studying in a public school, who considered themselves to be an expert user of this technology, who made extensive use of his/her mobile phone, and who attributed the same problem of use among their peers. These users presented notable scores in all the symptoms covered by the scale used to assess problematic use. In conclusion, the adaptation of the MPPUSA as a screening scale for British adolescents presents good sensitivity and specificity for detecting the main addictive symptoms proposed in this validated version.

  5. Constructions of Racism by British Chinese Pupils and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Louise; Francis, Becky

    2005-01-01

    British Chinese pupils stand out as a high achieving group within the British education system and yet very little theoretical or policy attention has been given to these pupils' identities and experiences of education. In this paper we consider British Chinese pupils' (and parents') reports of their experiences of racism/s and their views on the…

  6. The UGC and the Management of British Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shattock, Michael

    This book reevaluates the role of the British University Grants Committee (UGC) and its effectiveness from 1919 to 1989. The UGC was the machinery for funding British universities and played a key role in shaping the British university system. The book proceeds on a thematic rather than chronological format. Chapter 1 considers the relationships…

  7. British International Schools: The Deployment and Training of Teaching Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarry, Estelle

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on research carried out on behalf of the Council of British International Schools (COBIS) as to the role and deployment of British international school teaching assistants. Through questionnaires and a follow up open discussion with headteachers from British international schools it was found that, due to the differing…

  8. Spinal Tuberculosis Mimicking Failed Back Surgery.

    PubMed

    Özdoğan, Selçuk; Yaltırık, Cumhur Kaan; Düzkalır, Ali Haluk; Demirel, Nail; Kaya, Mustafa; Atalay, Başar

    2018-03-06

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to draw attention to rare spinal infections in recurrent failed spinal surgeries. CASE REPORT A 59-year-old female was admitted to the hospital for back pain, which was assessed as a 9 on the visual analogue scale (VAS); the patient reported tiredness and night sweats. She had an operation for L3-4 far lateral disc herniation four years ago. Then another operation for L4-5 disc herniation six months ago and immediately three months later she has an operation with L3-4-5 fixation again. She had hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Her daughter was cured of pulmonary tuberculosis 20 years ago. We performed an operation by L4-5 discectomy; all granulation formation with inflammatory processes were debrided and irrigated with antibiotics at levels of L3-5. The old fixation was controlled and replaced. Her back pain improved immediately after surgery; she had a score of 2 on the VAS. Two days after her surgery, our Infection Disease Department reported acid resistant bacillus (ARB+) in samples and began anti-tuberculosis medication. CONCLUSIONS Spinal infections should always be taken into consideration in recurrent failed back surgeries.

  9. Trends in paediatric sport- and recreation-related injuries: An injury surveillance study at the British Columbia Children's Hospital (Vancouver, British Columbia) from 1992 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Pakzad-Vaezi, Kaivon; Singhal, Ash

    2011-04-01

    Sport- and recreation-related injuries are a major source of morbidity in the paediatric population. Long-term trends for these injuries are largely unknown. A traumatic injury surveillance system (the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program) was used to examine the demographics and trends of paediatric sports injuries in children who presented to or were directly admitted to the British Columbia Children's Hospital (Vancouver, British Columbia) emergency department or intensive care unit from 1992 to 2005. Over the 14-year study period, there was a significant increase in sport- and recreation-related injuries among patients who presented to the British Columbia Children's Hospital. Of 104,414 injuries between 1992 and 2005, 27,466 were related to sports and recreational activities. The number of sport-related injuries increased by 28%, while all-cause injuries did not change significantly. Males comprised 68% of the sport-related injuries, and both sexes displayed an increasing trend over time. Cycling, basketball, soccer and ice hockey were the top four injury-causing activities. The main body parts injured were the face, head and digits. Paediatric sports injuries significantly increased at the British Columbia Children's Hospital over the 14-year study period. This is likely due to increased sport participation, increased risk associated with certain sports, or both. Trends in paediatric sports injury may be predicted by changes in popular media, possibly allowing prevention programs to help to avoid these injuries before they occur.

  10. Outside the box: Medications worth considering when traditional antiepileptic drugs have failed.

    PubMed

    Turner, Adrian L; Perry, M Scott

    2017-08-01

    Review and discuss medications efficacious for seizure control, despite primary indications for other diseases, as treatment options in patients who have failed therapy with traditional antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Literature searches were conducted utilizing PubMed and MEDLINE databases employing combinations of search terms including, but not limited to, "epilepsy", "refractory", "seizure", and the following medications: acetazolamide, amantadine, bumetanide, imipramine, lidocaine, verapamil, and various stimulants. Data from relevant case studies, retrospective reviews, and available clinical trials were gathered, analyzed, and reported. Experience with acetazolamide, amantadine, bumetanide, imipramine, lidocaine, verapamil, and various stimulants show promise for cases of refractory epilepsy in both adults and children. Many medications lack large scale, randomized clinical trials, but the available data is informative when choosing treatment for patients that have failed traditional epilepsy therapies. All neurologists have encountered a patient that failed nearly every AED, diet, and surgical option. For these patients, we often seek fortuitous discoveries within small series and case reports, hoping to find a treatment that might help the patient. In the present review, we describe medications for which antiepileptic effect has been ascribed after they were introduced for other indications. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Flood Hazard Management: British and International Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, L. Douglas

    This proceedings of an international workshop at the Flood Hazard Research Centre (Queensway, Enfield, Middlesex, U.K.) begins by noting how past British research on flood problems concentrated on refining techniques to implement established policy. In contrast, research covered in North American and Australian publications involved normative issues on policy alternatives and administrative implementation. The workshop's participants included 16 widely recognized scientists, whose origins were about equally divided between Britain and overseas; from this group the workshop's organizers expertly drew ideas for refining British urban riverine flood hazard management and for cultivating links among researchers everywhere. Such intellectual exchange should be of keen interest to flood hazard program managers around the world, to students of comparative institutional performance, to those who make policy on protecting people from hazards, and to hydrologists and other geophysicists who must communicate descriptive information for bureaucratic, political, and public decision- making.

  12. Truffle diversity (Tuber, Tuberaceae) in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Berch, Shannon M; Bonito, Gregory

    2016-08-01

    To improve baseline data for the developing truffle industry in British Columbia, we compiled existing Tuber species sequences from published and unpublished studies and generated new ITS sequences for truffles belonging to Tuber collected in the province. In doing so, we obtained evidence that 13 species of Tuber occur in the province, including six introduced and seven native species, two of which are putative undescribed species. Of the native species, the Tuber anniae species complex is widely distributed in the province while Tuber beyerlei appears to be much more restricted in distribution. Four of the introduced species have commercial value (Tuber melanosporum, Tuber aestivum, Tuber brumale, and Tuber borchii) as do two of the native species (Tuber gibbosum and Tuber oregonense). Focused sampling on likely tree hosts, both hardwood and Pinaceae species, as well as in currently unexplored parts of the province seems likely to expand our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of Tuber species in British Columbia.

  13. A Solution to ``Too Big to Fail''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-10-01

    Its a tricky business to reconcile simulations of our galaxys formation with our current observations of the Milky Way and its satellites. In a recent study, scientists have addressed one discrepancy between simulations and observations: the so-called to big to fail problem.From Missing Satellites to Too Big to FailThe favored model of the universe is the lambda-cold-dark-matter (CDM) cosmological model. This model does a great job of correctly predicting the large-scale structure of the universe, but there are still a few problems with it on smaller scales.Hubble image of UGC 5497, a dwarf galaxy associated with Messier 81. In the missing satellite problem, simulations of galaxy formation predict that there should be more such satellite galaxies than we observe. [ESA/NASA]The first is the missing satellites problem: CDM cosmology predicts that galaxies like the Milky Way should have significantly more satellite galaxies than we observe. A proposed solution to this problem is the argument that there may exist many more satellites than weve observed, but these dwarf galaxies have had their stars stripped from them during tidal interactions which prevents us from being able to see them.This solution creates a new problem, though: the too big to fail problem. This problem states that many of the satellites predicted by CDM cosmology are simply so massive that theres no way they couldnt have visible stars. Another way of looking at it: the observed satellites of the Milky Way are not massive enough to be consistent with predictions from CDM.Artists illustration of a supernova, a type of stellar feedback that can modify the dark-matter distribution of a satellite galaxy. [NASA/CXC/M. Weiss]Density Profiles and Tidal StirringLed by Mihai Tomozeiu (University of Zurich), a team of scientists has published a study in which they propose a solution to the too big to fail problem. By running detailed cosmological zoom simulations of our galaxys formation, Tomozeiu and

  14. Self-Esteem: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of British-Chinese, White British and Hong Kong Chinese Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Yiu Man

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the self-esteem scores of 1303 children, including Chinese children from Britain and Hong Kong and white British children, using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Finds that British Chinese have significantly higher self-esteem than the Hong Kong children, but there is little difference among white British children. (CMK)

  15. Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - Cynipoidea

    PubMed Central

    Forshage, Mattias; Bowdrey, Jeremy; Spooner, Brian M.; van Veen, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The British and Irish checklist of Cynipoidea is revised, considerably updating the last complete checklist published in 1978. Disregarding uncertain identifications, 220 species are now known from Britain and Ireland, comprising 91 Cynipidae (including two established non-natives), 127 Figitidae and two Ibaliidae. New information One replacement name is proposed, Kleidotoma thomsoni Forshage, for the secondary homonym Kleidotoma tetratoma Thomson, 1861 (nec K. tetratoma (Hartig, 1841)). PMID:28325971

  16. Sustainable development in British land use regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Basiago, A.D.

    1995-12-01

    Sustainable development is a new international theory of development founded on principles of futurity, environment, equity and participation. It is the legacy of twenty years of international environmental law that has established a doctrine of global trusteeship. Sustainable development has entered British land use regulation through the Maastricth Treaty; the EU`s Fifth Environmental Action Program; as well as the British government`s Planning Policy Guidance notes on land use principles, local plans, transport and historic preservation, and its white papers. The Earth Summit accord Agenda 21 is a blueprint on how to make development socially, economically and environmentally sustainable. Under itsmore » terms, Britain has prepared a national sustainable development strategy for the UN`s Commission on Sustainable Development. It features Local Agenda 21 strategies in which local authorities develop policies for sustainable development and establish partnerships with other sectors. In this paper, the Local Agenda 21 strategies of seven local authorities are evaluated according to the paradigm introduced in Agenda 21 and elaborated by Kahn that describes sustainable development as a dynamic system of integrated and interlinked economic, social and environmental sustainability. The author concludes that sustainable development in British land use regulation is guided by notions of economic development, social justice and environmental planning and not by the dynamic, integrated model of Agenda 21. 46 refs., 3 figs.« less

  17. When continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) fails

    PubMed Central

    Virk, Jagdeep S.

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is increasingly prevalent, particularly in the context of the obesity epidemic, and is associated with a significant social, health and economic impact. The gold standard of treatment for moderate to severe OSA is continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). However compliance rates can be low. Methodology to improve patient tolerance to CPAP alongside with alternative, non-surgical and surgical, management strategies are discussed. All patients that fail CPAP therapy would benefit from formal upper airway evaluation by the otolaryngologist to identify any obvious causes and consider site-specific surgical therapies. Patient selection is integral to ensuring successful outcomes. A multidisciplinary team is needed to manage these patients. PMID:27867577

  18. Abnormal mitochondrial respiration in failed human myocardium.

    PubMed

    Sharov, V G; Todor, A V; Silverman, N; Goldstein, S; Sabbah, H N

    2000-12-01

    Chronic heart failure (HF) is associated with morphologic abnormalities of cardiac mitochondria including hyperplasia, reduced organelle size and compromised structural integrity. In this study, we examined whether functional abnormalities of mitochondrial respiration are also present in myocardium of patients with advanced HF. Mitochondrial respiration was examined using a Clark electrode in an oxygraph cell containing saponin-skinned muscle bundles obtained from myocardium of failed explanted human hearts due to ischemic (ICM, n=9) or idiopathic dilated (IDC, n=9) cardiomyopathy. Myocardial specimens from five normal donor hearts served as controls (CON). Basal respiratory rate, respiratory rate after addition of the substrates glutamate and malate (V(SUB)), state 3 respiration (after addition of ADP, V(ADP)) and respiration after the addition of atractyloside (V(AT)) were measured in scar-free muscle bundles obtained from the subendocardial (ENDO) and subepicardial (EPI) thirds of the left ventricular (LV) free wall, interventricular septum and right ventricular (RV) free wall. There were no differences in basal and substrate-supported respiration between CON and HF regardless of etiology. V(ADP)was significantly depressed both in ICM and IDC compared to CON in all the regions studied. The respiratory control ratio, V(ADP)/V(AT), was also significantly decreased in HF compared to CON. In both ICM and IDC, V(ADP)was significantly lower in ENDO compared to EPI. The results indicate that mitochondrial respiration is abnormal in the failing human heart. The findings support the concept of low myocardial energy production in HF via oxidative phosphorylation, an abnormality with a potentially impact on global cardiac performance. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  19. Rural surgery in British Columbia: is there anybody out there?

    PubMed

    Humber, Nancy; Frecker, Temma

    2008-06-01

    To document surgical procedures performed in British Columbia between 1996 and 2001 at rural hospital sites with no resident specialist surgeons and to define the scope of practice of general practitioner (GP)-surgeons at these small-volume surgical sites. We obtained data from published information available in the medical directories for British Columbia and from the Population Utilization Rates and Referrals For Easy Comparative Tables database (versions 6.0 and 9.0) to conduct a retrospective study of all rural BC hospitals with surgical programs that had no resident specialist surgeon and relied on GP-surgeons for emergency surgical care between 1996 and 2001. We studied surgical programs at the 12 hospitals that met inclusion criteria and interviewed the physician or nurse responsible for the program. Outcomes were measured in terms of the types and volumes of surgical procedures (elective and emergency) from 1996 to 2001, including itinerant surgery. On average, 2690 surgical procedures were performed annually at the 12 hospitals included in the study. Endoscopy, hand surgery, cesarean section, herniorrhaphy, tonsillectomy and dilation and curettage (D&C) were among the top elective and emergency procedures. For each hospital, between 8 and 26 procedures of hand surgery, cesarean section, herniorrhaphy, D&C and appendectomy were performed each year. In the 12 communities studied, 19% of all surgery was emergency and 81% elective. There was significant overlap in the types of emergency and elective procedures. GP-surgeons carried out most of the emergency procedures, which nonetheless accounted for a small portion of their surgical work. GP-surgeons still perform a significant number of emergency and elective surgical procedures in rural BC hospitals. This study defines useful procedures for GP-surgeons in communities without the population base to sustain a resident specialist surgeon. This information can be used to structure training programs for GP

  20. Closed External Fixation for Failing or Failed Femoral Shaft Plating in a Developing Country.

    PubMed

    Aliakbar, Adil; Witwit, Ibrahim; Al-Algawy, Alaa A Hussein

    2017-08-01

    Femoral shaft fractures are one of the common injuries that is treated by open reduction, with internal fixation by plate and screws or intramedullary nailing, which can achieve a high union rate. To evaluate the outcome of using closed external fixation to augment a failing plate; with signs of screw loosening and increasing bone/plate gap; a failed plate; broken plate; screws completely out of bone with redisplacement of fracture. A retrospective study on 18 patients, aged between 17-42 years, who presented between 6-18 weeks after initial surgical fixation, with pain, difficulty in limb function, deformity and abnormal movement at fracture site, was done. X-Rays showed plating failure with acceptable amount of callus, which unfortunately had refractured. Cases associated with infection and no radiological evidence of callus formation were excluded from this study. Closed reduction was done by manipulation, then fracture fixation by AO external fixator. The patients were encouraged for full weight bearing as early as possible with dynamization later on. Of the 18 patients who underwent external fixation after close reduction, 15 cases showed bone healing in a period between 11-18 weeks (mean of 14.27 weeks) with good alignment (Radiologically). Removal of external fixator was done followed by physical therapy thereafter. Closed external fixation for treatment of failing or failed femoral plating, achieves good success rate and has less complications, is a short time procedure, especially in a hospital with limited resources.

  1. Atherosclerosis as a disease of failed endogenous repair

    PubMed Central

    Zenovich, Andrey G.; Taylor, Doris A.

    2009-01-01

    As coronary artery disease (CAD) continues to be the primary cause of mortality, a more in-depth understanding of pathophysiology and novel treatments are being sought. The past two decades have established inflammation as a driving force behind CAD – from endothelial dysfunction to heart failure. Recent advances in stem/progenitor cell biology have led to initial applications of progenitor cells in CAD continuum and have revealed that atherosclerosis is, at least in part, a disease of failed endogenous vascular repair. Several key progenitor cell populations including endothelial progenitor cells (AC133+/CD34+ population), vascular progenitors (CD31+/CD45low population), KDR+ cells and other bone marrow subtypes are mobilized for vascular repair. However, age and risk factors negatively impact these cells even prior to clinical CAD. Sex-based differences in progenitor cell capacity for repair have emerged as a new research focus that may offer mechanistic insights into clinical CAD discrepancies between men and women. Quantifying injury and cell-based repair and better defining their interactions should enable us to halt or even prevent CAD by enhancing the repair side of the repair/injury equation. PMID:18508460

  2. A migrant study of pubertal timing and tempo in British-Bangladeshi girls at varying risk for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Lauren C; Cooper, Gillian D; Bentley, Gillian R; Booth, Mark; Chowdhury, Osul A; Troisi, Rebecca; Ziegler, Regina G; Hoover, Robert N; Katki, Hormuzd A

    2014-11-15

    Earlier menarche is related to subsequent breast cancer risk, yet international differences in the age and tempo of other pubertal milestones and their relationships with body mass index (BMI) are not firmly established in populations at differing risk for breast cancer. We compared age and tempo of adrenarche, thelarche, pubarche, and menarche in a migrant study of Bangladeshi girls to the United Kingdom (UK) and assessed whether differences by migration were explained by differences in BMI. Included were groups of Bangladeshi (n =168), British-Bangladeshi (n =174) and white British (n =54) girls, aged 5 to 16 years. Interviewer-administered questionnaires obtained pubertal staging; height and weight were measured. Salivary dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate concentrations >400 pg/ml defined adrenarche. Median ages of pubertal milestones and hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from Weibull survival models. In all three groups, adrenarche occurred earliest, followed by thelarche, pubarche, and finally menarche. Neither median age at adrenarche (Bangladeshi = 7.2, British-Bangladeshi = 7.4, white British = 7.1; P-trend = 0.70) nor at menarche (Bangladeshi = 12.5, British-Bangladeshi = 12.1, white British = 12.6; P-trend = 0.70) differed across groups. In contrast, median age at thelarche (Bangladeshi = 10.7, British-Bangladeshi = 9.6, white British = 8.7; P-trend <0.01) occurred earlier among girls living in the UK. Compared with Bangladeshi girls, HRs (95% CI) for earlier thelarche were 1.6 (1.1 to 2.4) for British-Bangladeshi girls and 2.6 (1.5 to 4.4) for white British girls (P-trend <0.01), but were attenuated after adjustment for BMI (British-Bangladeshi = 1.1 (0.7 to 1.8), white British = 1.7(1.0 to 3.1); P-trend =0.20). Thelarche occurred earlier, but puberty progressed slower with increasing exposure to the UK environment; differences were partially explained by greater BMI. The growth environment might account for much of the

  3. Comparison of access to services in rural emergency departments in Quebec and British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Fleet, Richard; Audette, Louis-David; Marcoux, Jérémie; Villa, Julie; Archambault, Patrick; Poitras, Julien

    2014-11-01

    Although emergency departments (EDs) in Canada's rural areas serve approximately 20% of the population, a serious problem in access to health care services has emerged. The objective of this project was to compare access to support services in rural EDs between British Columbia and Quebec. Rural EDs were identified through the Canadian Healthcare Association's Guide to Canadian Healthcare Facilities. We selected hospitals with 24/7 ED physician coverage and hospitalization beds that were located in rural communities (using the rural and small town definition from Statistics Canada). Data were collected from ministries of health, local health authorities, and ED statistics. A telephone interview was administered to collect denominative user data statistics and determine the status of services. British Columbia has more rural EDs (n  =  34) than Quebec (n  =  26). EDs in Quebec have higher volumes (19,310 versus 7,793 annual visits). With respect to support services, 81% of Quebec rural EDs have a 24/7 on-call general surgeon compared to 12% for British Columbia. Nearly 75% of Quebec rural EDs have 24/7 access to computed tomography versus only 3% for British Columbia. Rural EDs in Quebec are also supported by a greater proportion of intensive care units (88% versus 15%); however, British Columbia appears to have more medevac aircraft/helicopters than Quebec. The results suggest that major differences exist in access to support services in rural EDs in British Columbia and Quebec. A nationwide study is justified to address this issue of variability in rural and remote health service delivery and its impact on interfacility transfers and patient outcomes.

  4. Failing to protect humanitarian workers: lessons from Britain and Voluntary Aid Detachments in the Second World War.

    PubMed

    Verma, Amol A

    2017-09-01

    This paper draws on official records of international and British organizations, newspaper reports, and volunteer memoirs to study the failure to protect humanitarian workers in the Second World War. The Second World War saw a significant expansion in the use of air warfare and flying missiles and these technological advances posed a grave threat to civilians and humanitarian workers. In this context, the International Committee of the Red Cross advocated unsuccessfully to restrict air warfare and create safe hospital zones. The British Government grappled with the tension between military and humanitarian objectives in setting its bombardment policy. Ultimately, humanitarian principles were neglected in pursuit of strategic aims, which endangered civilians and left humanitarian workers particularly vulnerable. British Voluntary Aid Detachment nurses experienced more than six-fold greater fatality rates than civil defence workers and the general population. The lessons from failures to protect humanitarian workers in the face of evolutions in warfare remain profoundly relevant.

  5. 75 FR 76321 - Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION... source of income attributable to qualified fails charges. This action is necessary to provide guidance about the treatment of fails charges for purposes of sections 871 and 881, which generally require gross...

  6. 75 FR 76262 - Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... of Income From Qualified Fails Charges AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION... income attributable to qualified fails charges. The temporary regulations provide guidance about the treatment of fails charges for purposes of sections 871 and 881, which generally require gross-basis...

  7. 7 CFR 983.52 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Each lot of substandard pistachios may be reworked to meet aflatoxin or quality requirements. The committee may establish, with the Secretary's approval, appropriate rework procedures. (b) Failed lot reporting. If a lot fails to meet the aflatoxin and/or the quality requirements of this part, a failed lot...

  8. 7 CFR 983.52 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Each lot of substandard pistachios may be reworked to meet aflatoxin or quality requirements. The committee may establish, with the Secretary's approval, appropriate rework procedures. (b) Failed lot reporting. If a lot fails to meet the aflatoxin and/or the quality requirements of this part, a failed lot...

  9. 7 CFR 983.52 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Each lot of substandard pistachios may be reworked to meet aflatoxin or quality requirements. The committee may establish, with the Secretary's approval, appropriate rework procedures. (b) Failed lot reporting. If a lot fails to meet the aflatoxin and/or the quality requirements of this part, a failed lot...

  10. 7 CFR 983.52 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Each lot of substandard pistachios may be reworked to meet aflatoxin or quality requirements. The committee may establish, with the Secretary's approval, appropriate rework procedures. (b) Failed lot reporting. If a lot fails to meet the aflatoxin and/or the quality requirements of this part, a failed lot...

  11. 7 CFR 983.52 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Each lot of substandard pistachios may be reworked to meet aflatoxin or quality requirements. The committee may establish, with the Secretary's approval, appropriate rework procedures. (b) Failed lot reporting. If a lot fails to meet the aflatoxin and/or the quality requirements of this part, a failed lot...

  12. Failed spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section.

    PubMed

    At, Adenekan; So, Olateju

    2011-10-01

    Spinal anaesthesia is the preferred regional technique for Caesarean section but failure sometimes occurs. To determine the incidence of failure of spinal anaesthesia necessitating the conversion to general anaesthesia or the use of supplemental analgesia in women presenting for Caesarean section and to identify the contributory factor(s) to the failure. It was a prospective study of 414 women who had spinal anaesthesia for Caesarean section. The study was carried out in a University Teaching Hospital in South-Western Nigeria. Women who had single-shot spinal anaesthesia for Caesarean section from April 2010 to March 2011 were prospectively studied using a standard proforma to record details of their demographic, clinical features, surgical and anaesthetic data and outcome. The failed spinal anaesthesia rate in this study was 6.0%. The experience of the anaesthetist was a significant contributing factor for partial or complete failure necessitating conversion to general anaesthesia (p = 0.02). Intra-operative supplemental analgesic was required in 6.4% of those who had their surgery completed under spinal anaesthesia. Postpartum sterilization, exteriorization of the uterus during surgery, and surgical complications were significant risk factors for partial failure necessitating supplemental intra-operative analgesic. Spinal anaesthesia conversion rate is high in this study when compared with reports from developed countries. Adequate training for residents in anaesthesia will decrease the failure rate. Parturients undergoing sterilization during Caesarean section may require supplementary analgesia.

  13. Rescuing failed oral implants via Wnt activation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xing; Li, Jingtao; Chen, Tao; Mouraret, Sylvain; Dhamdhere, Girija; Brunski, John B.; Zou, Shujuan; Helms, Jill A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim Implant osseointegration is not always guaranteed and once fibrous encapsulation occurs clinicians have few options other than implant removal. Our goal was to test whether a WNT protein therapeutic could rescue such failed implants. Material and Methods Titanium implants were placed in over-sized murine oral osteotomies. A lack of primary stability was verified by mechanical testing. Interfacial strains were estimated by finite element modelling and histology coupled with histomorphometry confirmed the lack of peri-implant bone. After fibrous encapsulation was established peri-implant injections of a liposomal formulation of WNT3A protein (L-WNT3A) or liposomal PBS (L-PBS) were then initiated. Quantitative assays were employed to analyse the effects of L-WNT3A treatment. Results Implants in gap-type interfaces exhibited high interfacial strains and no primary stability. After verification of implant failure, L-WNT3A or L-PBS injections were initiated. L-WNT3A induced a rapid, significant increase in Wnt responsiveness in the peri-implant environment, cell proliferation and osteogenic protein expression. The amount of peri-implant bone and bone in contact with the implant were significantly higher in L-WNT3A cases. Conclusions These data demonstrate L-WNT3A can induce peri-implant bone formation even in cases where fibrous encapsulation predominates. PMID:26718012

  14. Adiposity and blood pressure in 7- to 11-year-old children: comparison of British Pakistani and white British children, and of British Pakistani children of migrant and British-born mothers.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Emily J; Jones, Caroline H D; Hornby-Turner, Yvonne C; Pollard, Tessa M

    2011-01-01

    This study tested hypotheses that: (1) levels of adiposity, as assessed by triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses (SFTs), and blood pressure would be higher in British Pakistani children than in white British children; and (2) British Pakistani children of mothers born in the UK would have smaller SFTs and lower blood pressure than children of mothers born in Pakistan. Participants aged 7 to 11 years were recruited from five primary schools in a deprived urban area. BMI, waist circumference, triceps and subscapular SFT, and blood pressure were measured. Participants comprised 209 white British and 132 British Pakistani children, including 79 children born in the UK to migrant mothers and 49 children born to British-born mothers. In comparisons by ethnic group, triceps SFT was significantly higher in British Pakistani children only after controlling for BMI. Subscapular SFT was higher in British Pakistani children, a finding strengthened after controlling for BMI. Systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in British Pakistani children, but not after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES). There were no significant differences between British Pakistani children born to migrant or British-born mothers, except that systolic blood pressure was lower in children of British-born mothers after controlling for SES, a finding that was not significant after controlling for BMI. This study confirms previous findings of larger SFTs and higher blood pressure in British children of Pakistani origin than in children of white European origin. Further work with larger sample sizes is needed to investigate differences between generations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Malaria in inter-war British India.

    PubMed

    Bynum, W F

    2000-06-01

    British India was an important site of much important malaria research. Although Ronald Ross left India in 1899, a number of malariologists continued the task of evaluating the incidence and distribution of malaria in the country. Implementing practical solutions was hampered by formidable social and economic problems. This paper examines the Indian situation in the late 1920s, through a retrospective selection of writings chosen by J.A. Sinton for reproduction in an early issue of 'The records of the malaria survey of India', and the analysis of the Indian malaria situation through a visit of the League of Nations Malaria Commission in 1929.

  16. Learning Factor Models of Students at Risk of Failing in the Early Stage of Tertiary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Geraldine; McGuinness, Colm; Owende, Philip; Hofmann, Markus

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a study to predict students at risk of failing based on data available prior to commencement of first year. The study was conducted over three years, 2010 to 2012, on a student population from a range of academic disciplines, n=1,207. Data was gathered from both student enrollment data and an online, self-reporting,…

  17. Development of physical selection procedures for the British Army. Phase 2: relationship between physical performance tests and criterion tasks.

    PubMed

    Rayson, M; Holliman, D; Belyavin, A

    2000-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series of three to describe the development of physical selection standards for the British Army. The first paper defined criterion tasks (single lift, carry, repetitive lift and carry, and loaded march tasks) and set standards on the criterion tasks for all British Army trades. The principal objective was to determine which combination of physical performance tests could be best used to predict criterion task performance. Secondary objectives included developing so-called 'gender-free' and 'gender-unbiased' models. The objectives were met by analysing performance data on the criterion tasks and a large battery of physical performance tests collected from 379 trained soldiers (mean age 23.5 (SD 4.45) years, stature 1734 (SD 79.5) mm, body mass 71.4 (SD 10.58) kg). Objective 1 was met: the most predictive physical performance tests were identified for all criterion tasks. Both single lift tasks were successfully modelled using muscle strength and fat free mass scores. The carry model incorporated muscle endurance and body size data, but the errors of prediction were large. The repetitive lift models included measures of muscle strength and endurance, and body size, but errors of prediction were also large. The loaded march tasks were successfully modelled incorporating indices of aerobic fitness, supplemented by measures of strength, endurance or body size and composition. The secondary objectives were partially fulfilled, though limitations in the data hampered the process. Although only one model (a loaded march) was gender-free, three models were gender-related (i.e. contained 'gender' explicitly in the model). The remaining six were gender-specific (i.e. were appropriate for men or for women). Owing to both a lower accuracy of prediction in women's scores and a greater tendency for the women's scores to be distributed around the pass standards, a greater percentage of women than men were misclassified as passing or failing

  18. Noch Einmal:American English - British English (Once More: American English -- British English).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botts, M.

    1980-01-01

    Replies critically to the article by D. K. Stevenson and R. J. Brunt, "Living English: Seeing the Forest in Spite of the Trees -- On Differences between American English and British English," in this journal, issue 1979/2. A reply by Stevenson and Brunt continues the controversy. (IFS/WGA)

  19. Disorganized junior doctors fail the MRCP (UK).

    PubMed

    Stanley, Adrian G; Khan, Khalid M; Hussain, Walayat; Tweed, Michael

    2006-02-01

    Career progression during undergraduate and early postgraduate years is currently determined by successfully passing examinations. Both academic factors (secondary school examination results, learning style and training opportunities) and non-academic factors (maturity, ethnic origin, gender and motivation) have been identified as predicting examination outcome. Few studies have examined organization skills. Disorganized medical students are more likely to perform poorly in end-of-year examinations but this observation has not been examined in junior doctors. This study asked whether organization skills relate to examination outcome amongst junior doctors taking the clinical Part II examination for the Membership of the Royal College of Physicians (Practical Assessment of Clinical Examination Skills). The study was conducted prospectively at four consecutive clinical courses that provided clinical teaching and practice to prepare trainees for the examination. Arrival time at registration for the course was the chosen surrogate for organization skills. Trainees were advised that they should arrive promptly at 8.00 a.m. for registration and it was explained that the course would start at 8.30 a.m. Recorded arrival times were compared with the pass lists published by the Royal College of Physicians. The mean arrival time was 8.17 a.m. A total of 81 doctors (53.3%) passed the examination with a mean arrival time of 8.14 a.m. However, 71 doctors failed the exam and arrived, on average, six minutes later than doctors who passed (p?=?0.006). Better-prepared junior doctors were more likely to pass the final examination. Arriving on time represents a composite of several skills involved in the planning of appropriate travel arrangements and is therefore a valid marker of organization skills and preparation. This novel study has shown that good time-keeping skills are positively associated with examination outcome.

  20. -Graphy: The Remains of a British Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Graham P.

    2007-01-01

    Within Britain, geography as a discipline has been criticized recently for failing either to add to or teach knowledge about the world at large. Instead it has concentrated first at university and then in schools on spatial social science, with examples drawn overwhelmingly from the white Western world. The recent history of geography is reviewed…

  1. Occupational mortality in British commercial fishing, 1976–95

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, S

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To establish the causes and circumstances of all deaths occurring at work or related to work among fishermen in British commercial fishing between 1976 and 1995. Methods: A retrospective study, based on official mortality files, with a population of 440 355 fishermen-years at risk. Results: Of 616 deaths in British fishing, 454 (74%) were due to accidents at work, and 394 (87%) of these fishermen drowned. A total of 270 accidents were caused by casualties to vessels and 184 by personal accidents. There was no significant decline in the fatal accident rate, 103.1 per 100 000 fishermen-years, between 1976 and 1995. The fatal accident rate was 52.4 times higher (95% CI 42.9 to 63.8) than for all workers in Great Britain during the same period, and this relative risk increased through the 1980s up to 76.6 during 1991–95. Relative risks with the construction (12.3) and manufacturing (46.0) industries were higher than 5 and 20 respectively, during 1959–68. Trawlers foundering in adverse weather was the most frequent cause of mortality from casualties to vessels (115 deaths), and 82 of 145 personal accidents at sea arose during operations involving trawling nets. Conclusions: When compared with shore based industries, fishing remains at least as hazardous as before. Prevention should be aimed, most importantly, at the unnecessary operation of small vessels and trawling net manoeuvres in hazardous weather and sea conditions. Other measures should focus on preventing falls overboard, reducing fatigue, a more widespread use of personal flotation devices, and improvements in weather forecast evaluation. PMID:14691268

  2. Occupational mortality in British commercial fishing, 1976-95.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S E

    2004-01-01

    To establish the causes and circumstances of all deaths occurring at work or related to work among fishermen in British commercial fishing between 1976 and 1995. A retrospective study, based on official mortality files, with a population of 440 355 fishermen-years at risk. Of 616 deaths in British fishing, 454 (74%) were due to accidents at work, and 394 (87%) of these fishermen drowned. A total of 270 accidents were caused by casualties to vessels and 184 by personal accidents. There was no significant decline in the fatal accident rate, 103.1 per 100 000 fishermen-years, between 1976 and 1995. The fatal accident rate was 52.4 times higher (95% CI 42.9 to 63.8) than for all workers in Great Britain during the same period, and this relative risk increased through the 1980s up to 76.6 during 1991-95. Relative risks with the construction (12.3) and manufacturing (46.0) industries were higher than 5 and 20 respectively, during 1959-68. Trawlers foundering in adverse weather was the most frequent cause of mortality from casualties to vessels (115 deaths), and 82 of 145 personal accidents at sea arose during operations involving trawling nets. When compared with shore based industries, fishing remains at least as hazardous as before. Prevention should be aimed, most importantly, at the unnecessary operation of small vessels and trawling net manoeuvres in hazardous weather and sea conditions. Other measures should focus on preventing falls overboard, reducing fatigue, a more widespread use of personal flotation devices, and improvements in weather forecast evaluation.

  3. The British Geological Survey seismic monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottemoller, L.; Baptie, B.; Luckett, R.

    2009-04-01

    The British Geological Survey (BGS) monitors the seismicity in and around the British Isles. The seismic network was started in the seventies and built up over the years to 146 short-period stations. An upgrade of this network started a few years ago and will result in a modern network with broadband seismometers, high dynamic range digitizers and real-time communication (Internet, ADSL, satellite). In total the network will comprise about 50 stations, with only few short-period stations remaining. Equipment is used from both Guralp and Nanometrics, and their respective software for data acquisition is used to bring the data to the centre in near real-time. The automated data processing is done through Earthworm. Event data are analysed using SEISAN. Continuous data are kept for all broadband stations and checked for quality and completeness. Real-time data is also exchanged with neighbouring networks. The data is used for routine monitoring, but also research. The main research objectives are to understand distribution of seismicity and relating earthquakes to tectonics, develop velocity and attenuation models and study the seismic hazard and earthquake effects.

  4. Tropical skin diseases in British military personnel.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Mark S

    2013-09-01

    Skin complaints are common in travellers to foreign countries and are responsible for up to 25% of medical consultations by military personnel during deployments in the tropics. They also have relatively high rates of field hospital admission, medical evacuation and referral to UK Role 4 healthcare facilities. Non-infectious tropical skin diseases include sunburn, heat rash, arthropod bites, venomous bites, contact dermatitis and phytophotodermatitis. During tropical deployments skin infections that commonly occur in military personnel may become more frequent, severe and difficult to treat. Several systemic tropical infections have cutaneous features that can be useful in making early diagnoses. Tropical skin infections such as cutaneous larva migrans, cutaneous myiasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis and leprosy do occur in British troops and require specialist clinical management. This illustrated review focuses on the most significant tropical skin diseases that have occurred in British military personnel in recent years. Clinical management of these conditions on deployments would be improved and medical evacuations could be reduced if a military dermatology 'reach-back' service (including a telemedicine facility) was available.

  5. Unchained Interests: American-British-Dutch-Australian Command 1942

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    the first successes of the Allied forces in a desperate effort to stem the Japanese invasion of Southeast Asia after the Japanese attack on Pearl...before the war the Dutch government had tried to discuss British support in the event of a Japanese attack .34 During secret meetings the British...1941, just short of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. During a meeting with the British the United States President Roosevelt showed sudden

  6. National Intelligence Survey. British Borneo, Section 23, Weather and Climate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1962-03-01

    rainforest climate, the de- termination of...111 112 BRITISH INDONESIA BRITISH BORNEO STATION LOCATIONS • METEOROLOGICAL STATION Locations are shown only for stations for which data are...BRITISH INDONESIA 100 MUes 100 Kilomiters NORTH 120 BRUNEI \\M BORNEO ^ - M^ ►+ / ** 4 J 1 i^«ltE0 I f O JN E \\S I A ri 112 ~ 116 /■■::;’:;- 117 118 119 120 .’’ ’. STATION LOCATIONS FIGURE 23-39

  7. Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - Chalcidoidea and Mymarommatoidea

    PubMed Central

    Dale-Skey, Natalie; Askew, Richard R.; Noyes, John S.; Livermore, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background A revised checklist of the British and Irish Chalcidoidea and Mymarommatoidea substantially updates the previous comprehensive checklist, dating from 1978. Country level data (i.e. occurrence in England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland and the Isle of Man) is reported where known. New information A total of 1754 British and Irish Chalcidoidea species represents a 22% increase on the number of British species known in 1978. PMID:27346954

  8. Group psychological intervention for postnatal depression: a nested qualitative study with British South Asian women.

    PubMed

    Masood, Yumna; Lovell, Karina; Lunat, Farah; Atif, Najia; Waheed, Waquas; Rahman, Atif; Mossabir, Rahena; Chaudhry, Nasim; Husain, Nusrat

    2015-11-25

    Postnatal depression affects 10-15 % of all mothers in Western societies and remains a major public health concern for women from diverse cultures. British Pakistani and Indian women have a higher prevalence of depression in comparison to their white counterparts. Research has shown that culturally adapted interventions using Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) may be acceptable and may help to address the needs of this population. The aim of this study was to assess the acceptability and overall experience of the Positive Health Programme by British South Asian mothers. This was a nested qualitative study, part of an exploratory randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted to test the feasibility and acceptability of a culturally-adapted intervention (Positive Health Programme or PHP) for postnatal depression in British South Asian women. In-depth interviews (N = 17) were conducted to determine the views of the participants on the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. The participants found the intervention acceptable and experienced an overall positive change in their attitudes, behaviour, and increased self-confidence. The findings suggest that the culturally adapted Positive Health Programme is acceptable to British South Asian women. These results support that culturally sensitive interventions may lead to better health outcomes and overall satisfaction. Protocol registered on Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01838889.

  9. 4D monitoring of actively failing rockslopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, Nick; Williams, Jack; Hardy, Richard; Brain, Matthew

    2017-04-01

    Assessing the conditions which promote rockfall to collapse relies upon detailed monitoring, ideally before, during and immediately after failure. With standard repeat surveys it is common that surveys do not coincide with or capture precursors, or that surveys are widely spaced relative to the timing and duration of driving forces such as storms. As a result gaining insight into the controls on failure and the timescales over which precursors operate remains difficult to establish with certainty, and establishing direct links between environmental conditions and rock-falls, or sequences of events prior to rockfall, remain difficult to define. To address this, we present analysis of a high-frequency 3D laser scan dataset captured using a new permanently installed system developed to constantly monitor actively failing rock slopes. The system is based around a time of flight laser scanner, integrated with and remotely controlled by dedicated controls and analysis software. The system is configured to capture data at 0.1 m spacing across > 22,000 m3 at up to 30 minute intervals. Here we present results captured with this system over a period of 9 months, spanning spring to winter 2015. Our analysis is focussed upon improving the understanding of the nature of small (< 1m^3) rockfalls falling from near vertical rock cliffs. We focus here on the development of a set of algorithms for differencing that trade-off the temporal resolution of frequent surveys (hourly) against high spatial resolution point clouds (< 0.05 m) to enhance the precision of change detection, allowing both deformation and detachments to be monitored through time. From this dataset we derive rockfall volume frequency distributions based upon short-interval surveys, and identify the presence and/or absence of precursors, in what we believe to be the first constant volumetric measurement of rock face erosion. The results hold implications for understanding of rockfall mechanics, but also for how

  10. Hepatic changes in the failing Fontan circulation

    PubMed Central

    Kiesewetter, Christoph H; Sheron, Nick; Vettukattill, Joseph J; Hacking, Nigel; Stedman, Brian; Millward‐Sadler, Harry; Haw, Marcus; Cope, Richard; Salmon, Anthony P; Sivaprakasam, Muthukumaran C; Kendall, Tim; Keeton, Barry R; Iredale, John P; Veldtman, Gruschen R

    2007-01-01

    Background The failing Fontan circulation is associated with hepatic impairment. The nature of this liver injury is poorly defined. Objective To establish the gross and histological liver changes of patients with Fontan circulation relative to clinical, biochemical and haemodynamic findings. Methods Patients were retrospectively assessed for extracardiac Fontan conversion between September 2003 and June 2005, according to an established clinical protocol. Twelve patients, mean age 24.6 (range 15.8–43.4) years were identified. The mean duration since the initial Fontan procedure was 14.1 (range 6.9–26.4) years. Results Zonal enhancement of the liver (4/12) on CT was more common in patients with lower hepatic vein pressures (p = 0.007), and in those with absent cardiac cirrhosis on histological examination (p = 0.033). Gastro‐oesophageal varices (4/12) were more common in patients with higher hepatic vein pressure (21 (6.3) vs 12.2 (2.2) mm Hg, p = 0.013) and associated with more advanced cirrhosis (p = 0.037). The extent of cirrhosis (7/12) was positively correlated with the hepatic vein pressure (r = 0.83, p = 0.003). A significant positive correlation was found between the Fontan duration and the degree of hepatic fibrosis (r = 0.75, p = 0.013), as well as presence of broad scars (r = 0.71, p = 0.021). Protein‐losing enteropathy (5/12) occurred more frequently in patients with longer Fontan duration (11.7 (3.2) vs 17.9 (6.1) years, p = 0.038). Conclusions Liver injury, which can be extensive in this patient group, is related to Fontan duration and hepatic vein pressures. CT scan assists non‐invasive assessment. Cardiac cirrhosis with the risk of developing gastro‐oesophageal varices and regenerative liver nodules, a precursor to hepatocellular carcinoma, is common in this patient group. PMID:17005713

  11. The association between non-standard employment, job insecurity and health among British adults with and without intellectual impairments: Cohort study.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Eric; Hatton, Chris; Robertson, Janet; Baines, Susannah

    2018-04-01

    We sought to investigate the association between employment conditions and health among working age British adults with and without intellectual impairments. Using data from the 1970 British Cohort Study, we undertook a series of cross sectional analyses of the association between employment conditions and health (self-reported general health, mental health) among British adults with and without intellectual impairments at ages 30, 34 and 42. Our results indicated that: (1) British adults with intellectual impairments were more likely than their peers to be exposed to non-standard employment conditions and experience job insecurity; (2) in both groups exposure was typically associated with poorer health; (3) British adults with intellectual impairments in non-standard employment conditions were more likely than their peers to transition to economic inactivity; (4) among both groups, transitioning into employment was associated with positive health status and transitioning out of employment was associated with poorer health status. British adults with intellectual impairments are significantly more likely than their peers to be exposed to non-standard and more precarious working conditions. The association between employment conditions and health was similar for British adults with and without intellectual impairments. As such, the study found no evidence to suggest that research on causal pathways between employment and health derived from studies of the general population should not generalize to the population of people with intellectual impairments.

  12. Tuberculosis among health care workers in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Pleszewski, B; FitzGerald, J M

    1998-11-01

    To compare the clinical features and prevalence of active TB in British Columbia (BC) health-care workers (HCWs) with those of the general population, between 1991 and 1996. Comparison of 25 HCWs and 50 controls randomly selected from the Centres for Disease Control registry, with respect to demographics, prevention, diagnosis and management. HCWs had fewer related risk factors, but more had initiated prior chemoprophylaxis (16% vs. 0%, P < 0.01) and knew their bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) (68% vs. 24%, P < 0.001) and purified protein derivative (PPD) status (60% vs 32%, P < 0.05). There were no differences in symptom duration (3.3+/-3.6 vs. 3.0+/-3.4 months), mycobacteriology and diagnostic features, treatment duration (264.9+/-69.9 vs. 239.0+/-78.7 days) and completion rates (84% for both). All HCWs used self-administered treatment (100% vs. 70%, P < 0.01), and fewer were hospitalized (8% vs. 28%, P < 0.05). Disease rates in nurses (3.6+/-4.4 per 100 000) were lower than the general population rates (9.0+/-0.8), but did not differ among physiotherapists (8.96+/-21.95), general practitioners (7.60+/-11.78) and medical residents (30.75+/-75.32); Clinical features were similar in HCWs, but management strategies differed. BC HCWs are not at increased risk of tuberculosis, but the small sample size limited the power of our study to detect such an increase.

  13. Interior's Climate Science Centers: Focus or Fail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udall, B.

    2012-12-01

    After a whirlwind two years of impressive and critical infrastructure building, the Department of Interior's Climate Science Centers are now in a position to either succeed or fail. The CSCs have a number of difficult structural problems including too many constituencies relative to the available resources, an uneasy relationship among many of the constituencies including the DOI agencies themselves, a need to do science in a new, difficult and non-traditional way, and a short timeframe to produce useful products. The CSCs have built a broad and impressive network of scientists and stakeholders. These entities include science providers of the universities and the USGS, and decision makers from the states, tribes, DOI land managers and other federal agencies and NGOs. Rather than try to support all of these constituencies the CSCs would be better served by refocusing on a core mission of supporting DOI climate related decision making. The CSCs were designed to service the climate science needs of DOI agencies, many of which lost their scientific capabilities in the 1990s due to a well-intentioned but ultimately harmful re-organization at DOI involving the now defunct National Biological Survey. Many of these agencies would like to have their own scientists, have an uneasy relationship with the nominal DOI science provider, the USGS, and don't communicate effectively among themselves. The CSCs must not succumb to pursuing science in either the traditional mode of the USGS or in the traditional mode of the universities, or worse, both of them. These scientific partners will need to be flexible, learn how to collaborate and should expect to see fewer resources. Useful CSC processes and outputs should start with the recommendations of the 2009 NRC Report Informing Decisions in a Changing Climate: (1) begin with users' needs; (2) give priority to process over products; (3) link information producers and users; (4) build connections across disciplines and organizations

  14. Women's and men's careers in British sociology.

    PubMed

    Platt, Jennifer

    2004-06-01

    The career experience of men and women in British university sociology since 1950 is compared, using published data for the whole group and fresh data from a sample of departments. It is shown that, when like is compared with like, the outcomes for men and for women have not been as different as is often suggested; family reasons were more salient in women's careers, but in the end have not made much difference to their destinations. But the proportions of women recruited have varied over time, and the experience of both sexes has been strongly influenced by historical factors affecting different periods. Within the constraints which those have imposed, individuals have not all made the same choices, and that too has affected the outcomes.

  15. Building a National Lottery: reviewing British experience.

    PubMed

    Creigh-Tyte, S

    1997-01-01

    The launch of the United Kingdom's National Lottery at the end of 1994, was one of the most significant developments in both the funding of Britain's cultural sector and the British gambling sector since 1946. Thus in the 1995 financial year National Lottery ticket sales exceeded pound 5 billion of which 28% went to five specified "good causes." This paper presents an overview of the National Lottery's launch and growth to date using published material and data. The lottery's establishment and regulatory regime are discussed, together with its impact in terms of both economic activity and the wider betting and gaming market within the UK. The National Lottery is then considered within the broader international context, and the incoming Labour Government's restructuring plans aimed at creating a "People's Lottery" are discussed. Thus the paper provides an overview of the development of a major new national institution.

  16. Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency--first British case.

    PubMed

    Marinaki, A M; Champion, M; Kurian, M A; Simmonds, H A; Marie, S; Vincent, M F; van den Berghe, G; Duley, J A; Fairbanks, L D

    2004-10-01

    A deficiency of adenylosuccinate lyase (ASDL) is characterised by the accumulation of SAICAriboside (SAICAr) and succinyladenosine (S-Ado) in body fluids. The severity of the clinical presentation correlates with a low S-Ado/SAICAr ratio in body fluids. We report the first British case of ADSL deficiency. The patient presented at 14 days with a progressive neonatal encephalopathy and seizures. There was marked axial and peripheral hypotonia. Brain MRI showed widespread white matter changes. She died at 4 weeks of age. Concentrations of SAICAr and SAdo were markedly elevated in urine, plasma and CSF and the SAdo/SAICAr ratio was low, consistent with the severe phenotype. The patient was compound heterozygous for 2 novel ADSL mutations; c.9 G>C (A3P) and c.572 C>T (R190X).

  17. Mercury, cadmium, and lead in British otters

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, C.F.; Last, N.I.; Macdonald, S.M.

    1986-12-01

    Otters (subfamily Lutrinae), at the top of the food chain and feeding largely on fish, are likely to be especially vulnerable to the effects of bioaccumulating pollutants, while their aquatic habitat is often a sink for such chemicals derived from agricultural, industrial and domestic sources. The European otter (Lutra lutra) has shown substantial declines through much of its range over the past 30 years, which have been attributed to pollution by organochlorines. There are few published data on metals in tissues of European otters and these refer only to mercury. The present paper reports on burdens of mercury, cadmium andmore » lead in tissues of a sample of British otters collected between 1982 and 1984.« less

  18. Public perceptions about climate change mitigation in British Columbia's forest sector.

    PubMed

    Peterson St-Laurent, Guillaume; Hagerman, Shannon; Kozak, Robert; Hoberg, George

    2018-01-01

    The role of forest management in mitigating climate change is a central concern for the Canadian province of British Columbia. The successful implementation of forest management activities to achieve climate change mitigation in British Columbia will be strongly influenced by public support or opposition. While we now have increasingly clear ideas of the management opportunities associated with forest mitigation and some insight into public support for climate change mitigation in the context of sustainable forest management, very little is known with respect to the levels and basis of public support for potential forest management strategies to mitigate climate change. This paper, by describing the results of a web-based survey, documents levels of public support for the implementation of eight forest carbon mitigation strategies in British Columbia's forest sector, and examines and quantifies the influence of the factors that shape this support. Overall, respondents ascribed a high level of importance to forest carbon mitigation and supported all of the eight proposed strategies, indicating that the British Columbia public is inclined to consider alternative practices in managing forests and wood products to mitigate climate change. That said, we found differences in levels of support for the mitigation strategies. In general, we found greater levels of support for a rehabilitation strategy (e.g. reforestation of unproductive forest land), and to a lesser extent for conservation strategies (e.g. old growth conservation, reduced harvest) over enhanced forest management strategies (e.g. improved harvesting and silvicultural techniques). We also highlighted multiple variables within the British Columbia population that appear to play a role in predicting levels of support for conservation and/or enhanced forest management strategies, including environmental values, risk perception, trust in groups of actors, prioritized objectives of forest management and socio

  19. Evidence-based control of canine rabies: a critical review of population density reduction.

    PubMed

    Morters, Michelle K; Restif, Olivier; Hampson, Katie; Cleaveland, Sarah; Wood, James L N; Conlan, Andrew J K

    2013-01-01

    Control measures for canine rabies include vaccination and reducing population density through culling or sterilization. Despite the evidence that culling fails to control canine rabies, efforts to reduce canine population density continue in many parts of the world. The rationale for reducing population density is that rabies transmission is density-dependent, with disease incidence increasing directly with host density. This may be based, in part, on an incomplete interpretation of historical field data for wildlife, with important implications for disease control in dog populations. Here, we examine historical and more recent field data, in the context of host ecology and epidemic theory, to understand better the role of density in rabies transmission and the reasons why culling fails to control rabies. We conclude that the relationship between host density, disease incidence and other factors is complex and may differ between species. This highlights the difficulties of interpreting field data and the constraints of extrapolations between species, particularly in terms of control policies. We also propose that the complex interactions between dogs and people may render culling of free-roaming dogs ineffective irrespective of the relationship between host density and disease incidence. We conclude that vaccination is the most effective means to control rabies in all species. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2012 British Ecological Society.

  20. Trends in paediatric sport- and recreation-related injuries: An injury surveillance study at the British Columbia Children’s Hospital (Vancouver, British Columbia) from 1992 to 2005

    PubMed Central

    Pakzad-Vaezi, Kaivon; Singhal, Ash

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sport- and recreation-related injuries are a major source of morbidity in the paediatric population. Long-term trends for these injuries are largely unknown. METHODS: A traumatic injury surveillance system (the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program) was used to examine the demographics and trends of paediatric sports injuries in children who presented to or were directly admitted to the British Columbia Children’s Hospital (Vancouver, British Columbia) emergency department or intensive care unit from 1992 to 2005. RESULTS: Over the 14-year study period, there was a significant increase in sport- and recreation-related injuries among patients who presented to the British Columbia Children’s Hospital. Of 104,414 injuries between 1992 and 2005, 27,466 were related to sports and recreational activities. The number of sport-related injuries increased by 28%, while all-cause injuries did not change significantly. Males comprised 68% of the sport-related injuries, and both sexes displayed an increasing trend over time. Cycling, basketball, soccer and ice hockey were the top four injury-causing activities. The main body parts injured were the face, head and digits. CONCLUSIONS: Paediatric sports injuries significantly increased at the British Columbia Children’s Hospital over the 14-year study period. This is likely due to increased sport participation, increased risk associated with certain sports, or both. Trends in paediatric sports injury may be predicted by changes in popular media, possibly allowing prevention programs to help to avoid these injuries before they occur. PMID:22468125

  1. The Limits of Movement Politics: The Case of British Feminism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetson, Dorothy M.

    Analysis of the British feminist movement from 1850 to 1975 reveals a constant struggle by feminists for equality in the face of legal and social restrictions and a corresponding lack of response by the British government to movement demands. The political organization of the feminist movement is described in four phases. During the first phase,…

  2. The Misrepresentation of Religion in Modern British (Religious) Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Philip

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to articulate a new perspective on British multi-faith religious education that both complements and, in part, subsumes existing critiques. My argument, while controversial, is straightforward: it is that British religious education has misrepresented the nature of religion in efforts to commend itself as contributing…

  3. British and Finnish Baseball: International Variations on an American Pastime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Emyr W.; Romar, Jan-Erik; Hartman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Both British and Finnish baseball are easy to introduce, as the specific skills involved in both sports are identical to those used in traditional baseball. If students have the skills to play traditional baseball, they have the skills to play British and Finnish baseball as well. After a brief overview of the unique rules and strategies of these…

  4. British Columbia log export policy: historical review and analysis.

    Treesearch

    Craig W. Shinn

    1993-01-01

    Log exports have been restricted in British Columbia for over 100 years. The intent of the restriction is to use the timber in British Columbia to encourage development of forest industry, employment, and well-being in the Province. Logs have been exempted from the within-Province manufacturing rule at various times, in varying amounts, for different reasons, and by...

  5. BCASP and the Evolution of School Psychology in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agar, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1992, the British Columbia Association of School Psychologists (BCASP) has been the professional body for school psychologists in British Columbia. In the intervening 24 years, BCASP has been very successful in performing the dual roles of a certifying body and a professional development organization for school psychologists in British…

  6. Problem Gambling Treatment within the British National Health Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigbye, Jane; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    According to the latest British Gambling Prevalence Survey, there are approximately 300,000 adult problem gamblers in Great Britain. In January 2007, the "British Medical Association" published a report recommending that those experiencing gambling problems should receive treatment via the National Health Service (NHS). This study…

  7. Britishness as Racist Nativism: A Case of the Unnamed "Other"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Heather Jane

    2016-01-01

    The construct of Britishness, as with nationalism elsewhere in the world, although amorphous and permeable over time, continues to be used by politicians and the media as a powerful exclusionary force. Moreover in England, fundamental British values (FBV), its most recent and official incarnation, now hold particular currency in education policy…

  8. Knowledge, Character and Professionalisation in Nineteenth-Century British Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Historians have frequently referred to the British Association for the Advancement of Science as an institution that had the professionalisation of British science as its chief aim. This article seeks to complicate this picture by asking what, if any, concept of "professionalisation" would have been understood by nineteenth-century…

  9. Shakespearean Intertexts and European Identities in Contemporary Black British Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz-Valdivieso, Sofía

    2012-01-01

    The article analyses the presence of William Shakespeare as intertext in three recent novels by black British writers which deploy the work of the Bard as they explore British and European identities. Caryl Phillips's "The Nature of Blood" recreates an Othello-like figure who in early Modern Venice struggles to come to terms with his…

  10. The Contradiction in the "Prevent Duty": Democracy vs "British Values"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolton, Suke

    2017-01-01

    The duty to monitor "the failure to uphold British Values" in the "Prevent" strategy, introduced in the Counter-Terrorism and Security Act 2015, is itself an attack on British democracy. This article explains the contradictory nature of the "Prevent Duty." First, the current state of democracy in Britain is examined…

  11. Universities Under Financial Crisis: The Case of British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, John D.

    1987-01-01

    The consequences of the 1980-83 economic recession in Canada for the political climate in British Columbia and for the University of British Columbia are discussed. The University's response to budgetary cuts is placed in a provincial and national context, and the implications of reductions in public support for higher education are addressed.…

  12. The Genesis of Public Relations in British Colonial Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, Rosaleen

    2001-01-01

    Demonstrates how the British Colonial Office employed public relations strategies as they administered the British colony of Northern Rhodesia before, during, and after World War II. Demonstrates how civil servants in London and colonial officials implemented public relations policies, strategies, and tactics on an ad hoc basis, covering political…

  13. Hypothermia as a cause of death in British Columbia, 1998-2012: a descriptive assessment.

    PubMed

    Stares, Joanne; Kosatsky, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Hypothermia can result from exposure to cold or as a consequence of underlying physiologic vulnerabilities. Who, where, when and how British Columbians (and Canadians) die of hypothermia have received little research attention. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of mortality due to hypothermia among residents of British Columbia. We examined all records in the death registry of the British Columbia Vital Statistics Agency between 1998 and 2012 that had an underlying or contributing cause of death coded for hypothermia or exposure to excessive natural cold. Hypothermia or exposure to excessive natural cold was found to be the underlying or contributing cause in 384 deaths between 1998 and 2012. Mean age of decedents was 52 (SD 20.78) years and 73.2% were male. The annual death rate for hypothermia increased with age, ranging from 0.3 per 100 000 population among people aged 1-34 years to 1.6 per 100 000 population among those older than 75 years of age. The highest annual death rate occurred among older males (2.1 per 100 000 population) followed by older females (1.3 per 100 000 population). Although hypothermia-related deaths occurred year-round, 45.9% occurred during winter months (December, January and February) and, in particular, on days with lower temperatures (mean 0.56°C). Use of alcohol (40.1%) and other psychoactive substances (22.7%) were the most common additional causes of death identified among deaths due to hypothermia. Areas of British Columbia with the lowest population density or lowest socioeconomic status were found to have the highest crude hypothermia-related mortality rates. Our results showed that older people are at higher risk of hypothermia-related death. Among residents of British Columbia who died of hypothermia, the most frequent additional causes of death were alcohol and nonalcohol psychoactive substances. However, further assessment of both the occurrence and determinants of mortality due to

  14. Revisiting Fisher: range size drives the correlation between variability and abundance of British bird eggs.

    PubMed

    Lapiedra, O; Price, T D

    2015-06-01

    We evaluate the correlation between intraspecific variation in egg size and population size in breeding British birds. Using information on abundance, range occupancy, migration status and phylogenetic relationships among species, we show that a wider geographical distribution rather than larger population size per se best predicts egg size variability. A similar result applies to wing length variability. Results from a phylogenetic path analysis suggest that geographical variation is the most parsimonious causal explanation for high intraspecific variation in common species. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  15. The Special Relationship: The United States as the British Have Seen It. A Selective Reading List by British Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Esmond, Comp.

    The selective annotated bibliography is a reader's guide to aspects of the American past and present as seen by British writers since the 1940s. Approximately 250 entries provide a sampling of how British students of United States studies perceive the New World. Childrens books are omitted. Nine categories are organized alphabetically by author.…

  16. Reproduction and longevity among the British peerage: the effect of frailty and health selection.

    PubMed Central

    Doblhammer, Gabriele; Oeppen, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Whether a cost of reproduction exists among humans is still questionable. A major study of aristocratic British families finds a significant positive correlation between parity and late-life mortality, which indicates a trade-off between reproduction and longevity. This result is supported by four other studies, while earlier studies have not found a relationship or came to the opposite conclusion. We show that in natural fertility populations the relationship between fertility and late-life mortality cannot be studied correctly without considering the effects of differences in health and of mortality selection during childbearing ages because these two effects lead to a dampening of the true relationship. If these effects are controlled in Hollingsworth's genealogy of the British peerage a significant trade-off between reproduction and longevity exists for females but not for males. PMID:12908973

  17. The long good-bye: the great transformation of the British Columbia hospital system.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, R G; Barer, M L; Hertzman, C; Anderson, G M; Pulcins, I R; Lomas, J

    1989-01-01

    Much is made of the "threat" an aging population poses to North American health care systems. In this article, we present hospital utilization data from British Columbia over the period 1969-1985, which reinforce our earlier (Barer, Evans, Hertzman, et al. 1987) conclusion: it is not aging per se that poses the threat; rather, it is what we are choosing (through our health care system) to do to and with our elderly. In 1969, British Columbia hospital patients over 65 years of age and staying longer than 60 days accounted for 12.5 percent of all days; by 1985/86, they were accounting for 39 percent. Furthermore, in 1985/86, 1 patient in 200 was using one-quarter of all patient days and dying at the end of the process, and 2 patients in 100 (who stayed over 60 days whether discharged alive or dead) were accounting for almost one-half of all days. PMID:2807932

  18. Using Keystroke Analytics to Improve Pass-Fail Classifiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Learning analytics offers insights into student behaviour and the potential to detect poor performers before they fail exams. If the activity is primarily online (for example computer programming), a wealth of low-level data can be made available that allows unprecedented accuracy in predicting which students will pass or fail. In this paper, we…

  19. Erika's Stories: Literacy Solutions for a Failing Middle School Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma'ayan, Hadar Dubowsky

    2010-01-01

    Erika was a failing student at a large urban public middle school. She was poor, Hispanic, bilingual, and had repeated fourth grade. She scored low on her standardized tests and was failing several subject areas. In class, Erika was a student who sat silently with her head on her desk, and rarely turned in any of her assignments. She was a…

  20. Simulating fail-stop in asynchronous distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabel, Laura; Marzullo, Keith

    1994-01-01

    The fail-stop failure model appears frequently in the distributed systems literature. However, in an asynchronous distributed system, the fail-stop model cannot be implemented. In particular, it is impossible to reliably detect crash failures in an asynchronous system. In this paper, we show that it is possible to specify and implement a failure model that is indistinguishable from the fail-stop model from the point of view of any process within an asynchronous system. We give necessary conditions for a failure model to be indistinguishable from the fail-stop model, and derive lower bounds on the amount of process replication needed to implement such a failure model. We present a simple one-round protocol for implementing one such failure model, which we call simulated fail-stop.

  1. Origin of British and Irish mammals: disparate post-glacial colonisation and species introductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, W. Ian; Provan, Jim; McCabe, A. Marshal; Yalden, Derek W.

    2014-08-01

    ecological divergence in Ireland in comparison to Britain and continental Europe, were also those which arrived in Ireland very early in the Holocene either with or without the assistance of people. Cold tolerant mammal species recolonized quickly after LGM but disappeared, potentially as a result of a short period of rapid warming. Other early arrivals were less cold tolerant and succumbed to the colder conditions during the Younger Dryas or shortly after the start of the Holocene (11.5 kya), or the area of suitable habitat was insufficient to sustain a viable population especially in larger species. Late Pleistocene mammals in Ireland were restricted to those able to colonize up to ca 15 kya, probably originating from adjacent areas of unglaciated Britain and land now below sea level, to the south and west (of Ireland). These few, early colonizers retain genetic diversity which dates from before the LGM. Late Pleistocene Ireland, therefore, had a much depleted complement of mammal species in comparison to Britain. Mammal species, colonising predominantly from southeast and east Europe occupied west Europe only as far as Britain between ca 15 and 8 kya, were excluded from Ireland by the Irish and Celtic Seas. Smaller species in particular failed to colonise Ireland. Britain being isolated as an island from ca. 8 kya has similar species richness and composition to adjacent lowland areas of northwest continental Europe and its mammals almost all show strongest genetic affinity to populations in neighbouring continental Europe with a few retaining genotypes associated with earlier, western lineages. The role of people in the deliberate introduction of mammal species and distinct genotypes is much more significant with regards to Ireland than Britain reflecting the larger species richness of the latter and its more enduring land link with continental Europe. The prime motivation of early people in moving mammals was likely to be resource driven but also potentially cultural; as

  2. ‘They Shall See His Face’: Blindness in British India, 1850–1950

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Aparna

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the social, medical, institutional and enumerative histories of blindness in British India from 1850 to 1950. It begins by tracing the contours and causes of blindness using census records, and then outlines how colonial physicians and observers ascribed both infectious aetiologies and social pathologies to blindness. Blindness was often interpreted as the inevitable consequence of South Asian ignorance, superstition and backwardness. This paper also explores the social worlds of the Blind, with a particular focus on the figure of the blind beggar. This paper further interrogates missionary discourse on ‘Indian’ blindness and outlines how blindness was a metaphor for the perceived civilisational inferiority and religious failings of South Asian peoples. This paper also describes the introduction of institutions for the Blind in addition to the introduction of Braille and Moon technologies. PMID:28260563

  3. 'They Shall See His Face': Blindness in British India, 1850-1950.

    PubMed

    Nair, Aparna

    2017-04-01

    This paper explores the social, medical, institutional and enumerative histories of blindness in British India from 1850 to 1950. It begins by tracing the contours and causes of blindness using census records, and then outlines how colonial physicians and observers ascribed both infectious aetiologies and social pathologies to blindness. Blindness was often interpreted as the inevitable consequence of South Asian ignorance, superstition and backwardness. This paper also explores the social worlds of the Blind, with a particular focus on the figure of the blind beggar. This paper further interrogates missionary discourse on 'Indian' blindness and outlines how blindness was a metaphor for the perceived civilisational inferiority and religious failings of South Asian peoples. This paper also describes the introduction of institutions for the Blind in addition to the introduction of Braille and Moon technologies.

  4. The British National Health Service: lessons from the "Socialist Calculation Debate".

    PubMed

    Meadowcroft, John

    2003-06-01

    The "Socialist Calculation Debate" is little known outside the economics profession, yet this inter-war debate between liberal and socialist economists on the practical feasibility of socialism has important implications for all contemporary public sector bureaucracies. This article applies the Mises-Hayek critique of central planning that emerged from this debate to the crisis presently facing the British National Health Service. The Mises-Hayek critique suggests that the UK government's plan for a renewal of the National Health Service will fail because of the epistemological pathologies that face any centrally planned system. It is argued that the key lesson of the Socialist Calculation Debate is that market prices and private property rights are essential for the efficient allocation of resources and the attainment of the best possible health outcomes.

  5. ABO blood group and ischaemic heart disease in British men.

    PubMed

    Whincup, P H; Cook, D G; Phillips, A N; Shaper, A G

    1990-06-30

    To establish whether ABO blood group is related to ischaemic heart disease on an individual and geographic basis in Britain. Prospective study of 7662 men with known ABO blood group selected from age-sex registers in general practices in 24 British towns. ABO blood group, standard cardiovascular risk factors, social class, and presence or absence of ischaemic heart disease determined at entry to study. Eight year follow up of fatal and nonfatal ischaemic heart disease events achieved for 99% of study population. Towns with a higher prevalence of blood group O had higher incidences of ischaemic heart disease. In individual subjects, however, the incidence of ischaemic heart disease was higher in those with group A than in those with other blood groups (relative risk 1.21, 95% confidence limits 1.01 to 1.46). Total serum cholesterol concentration was slightly higher in subjects of blood group A. No other cardiovascular risk factor (including social class) was related to blood group. Blood group A is related to the incidence of ischaemic heart disease in individual subjects. Geographic differences in the distribution of ABO blood groups do not explain geographic variation in rates of ischaemic heart disease in Britain. The findings do not support the view that ABO blood group and social class are related.

  6. Status review of the Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) in Alaska and British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatt, John F.; Kuletz, K.J.; Burger, A.E.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Friesen, Vicki L.; Birt, T.P.; Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Drew, G.S.; Harding, A.M.A.; Bixler, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    The Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) is a small, diving seabird inhabiting inshore waters of the Northeastern Pacific Ocean. This species feeds on small, schooling fishes and zooplankton, and nests primarily on the moss-covered branches of large, old-growth conifers, and also, in some parts of its range, on the ground. We reviewed existing information on this species to evaluate its current status in the northern part of its range-Alaska (U.S.) and British Columbia (Canada). Within the southern part of its range (Washington, Oregon, and California, U.S.), the Marbled Murrelet was listed as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in 1993, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) needed information on the species throughout its range for ESA deliberations. We compiled published information on the conservation status, population biology, foraging ecology, population genetics, population status and trends, demography, marine and nesting habitat characteristics, threats, and ongoing conservation efforts for Marbled Murrelets in Alaska and British Columbia. We conducted a new genetic study using samples from a segment of the range that had not been included in previous studies (Washington, Oregon) and additional nuclear intron and microsatellite markers. We also analyzed available at-sea survey data from several locations for trend. To understand the reasonableness of the empirical trend data, we developed demographic models incorporating stochasticity to discern what population trends were possible by chance. The genetic studies substantially confirmed previous findings on population structure in the Marbled Murrelet. Our present work finds three populations: (1) one comprising birds in the central and western Aleutian Islands; (2) one comprising birds in central California; and (3) one comprising birds within the center of the range from the eastern Aleutians to northern California. Our knowledge of genetic structure within this

  7. GM2 gangliosidosis in British Jacob sheep.

    PubMed

    Wessels, M E; Holmes, J P; Jeffrey, M; Jackson, M; Mackintosh, A; Kolodny, E H; Zeng, B J; Wang, C B; Scholes, S F E

    2014-01-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay-Sachs disease) was diagnosed in 6- to 8-month-old pedigree Jacob lambs from two unrelated flocks presenting clinically with progressive neurological dysfunction of 10 day's to 8 week's duration. Clinical signs included hindlimb ataxia and weakness, recumbency and proprioceptive defects. Histopathological examination of the nervous system identified extensive neuronal cytoplasmic accumulation of material that stained with periodic acid--Schiff and Luxol fast blue. Electron microscopy identified membranous cytoplasmic bodies within the nervous system. Serum biochemistry detected a marked decrease in hexosaminidase A activity in the one lamb tested, when compared with the concentration in age matched controls and genetic analysis identified a mutation in the sheep hexa allele G444R consistent with Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep in North America. The identification of Tay-Sachs disease in British Jacob sheep supports previous evidence that the mutation in North American Jacob sheep originated from imported UK stock. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Planetary Consciousness of British Travel Writers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, H.

    2013-04-01

    Global travel, advanced in the early 20th century by trains, automobiles, and airplanes, transformed modernist thought and experience. Stephen Kern has commented that in the modern period “a series of sweeping changes in technology and culture created distinctive new modes of thinking about and experiencing of time and space. Technological innovations including the telephone, wireless telegraph, x-ray, cinema, bicycle, automobile, and airplane established the material foundation for this reorientation.” (1983, pp. 1-2). Emerging travel technologies not only hurled passengers through multiple time zones in a day but also brought to the fore a global awareness regarding Earth as a globe in space and one's position on it. As early as 1909, while traveling in Florence, Virginia Woolf had noted in her diary, “It is strange how one begins to hold a globe in one's head: I can travel from Florence to Fitzroy Square on solid land all the time” (1984, p. 399). This paper traces the ways modernist British travel writers challenged England's geographical and geopolitical imagination at the turn of the 20th century through their travel narratives.

  9. Airpower in Small Wars: The British Air Control Experience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    OTIC00 EECTE_ U’) C27.19891 AIRPOWER IN SMALL WARS The British Air Control Experience by Lieutenant Colonel David J. Dean Report No. kU-ARI-CP-85-1 A...Irpowei’, Research Institute kIRPOWER IN SMALL WARS The British Air Control Experience by Lieutenant Colonel Da id J. Dean Air University (AU) Air...flare up so often in the Third World and which may involve a vital US interest requiring a military response. The British experience w*.th air control

  10. Unity is strength: staff college and the British officer corps.

    PubMed

    King, Anthony

    2009-03-01

    Utilizing Bourdieu's concept of the habitus, Keith Macdonald has recently examined the elite social origins of the British officer corps. His analysis is valid as far at it goes but it ignores the professional practices of British officers. This article examines Britain's Joint Services Command and Staff College to assess the unification of the three services around common forms of military practice. It argues that while the new staff college has been effective in disseminating new forms of professional expertise among British officers, various practices have been institutionalized which actively undermine the unity of the officer corps.

  11. Earthquake recurrence models fail when earthquakes fail to reset the stress field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tormann, T.; Wiemer, S.; Hardebeck, J. L.

    2012-09-01

    Parkfield's regularly occurring M6 mainshocks, about every 25 years, have over two decades stoked seismologists' hopes to successfully predict an earthquake of significant size. However, with the longest known inter-event time of 38 years, the latest M6 in the series (28 Sep 2004) did not conform to any of the applied forecast models, questioning once more the predictability of earthquakes in general. Our study investigates the spatial pattern of b-values along the Parkfield segment through the seismic cycle and documents a stably stressed structure. The forecasted rate of M6 earthquakes based on Parkfield's microseismicity b-values corresponds well to observed rates. We interpret the observed b-value stability in terms of the evolution of the stress field in that area: the M6 Parkfield earthquakes do not fully unload the stress on the fault, explaining why time recurrent models fail. We present the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake as counter example, which did release a significant portion of the stress along its fault segment and yields a substantial change in b-values.

  12. Earthquake recurrence models fail when earthquakes fail to reset the stress field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tormann, Thessa; Wiemer, Stefan; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2012-01-01

    Parkfield's regularly occurring M6 mainshocks, about every 25 years, have over two decades stoked seismologists' hopes to successfully predict an earthquake of significant size. However, with the longest known inter-event time of 38 years, the latest M6 in the series (28 Sep 2004) did not conform to any of the applied forecast models, questioning once more the predictability of earthquakes in general. Our study investigates the spatial pattern of b-values along the Parkfield segment through the seismic cycle and documents a stably stressed structure. The forecasted rate of M6 earthquakes based on Parkfield's microseismicity b-values corresponds well to observed rates. We interpret the observed b-value stability in terms of the evolution of the stress field in that area: the M6 Parkfield earthquakes do not fully unload the stress on the fault, explaining why time recurrent models fail. We present the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake as counter example, which did release a significant portion of the stress along its fault segment and yields a substantial change in b-values.

  13. Ethnic differences in urinary calcium and phosphate excretion between Gambian and British older adults.

    PubMed

    Redmond, J; Palla, L; Yan, L; Jarjou, L M A; Prentice, A; Schoenmakers, I

    2015-03-01

    Ethnic differences in renal calcium and phosphate excretion exist, which may depend on differences in their dietary intakes and regulatory factors. We report highly significant differences in urinary calcium and phosphate excretion between white British and Gambian adults after statistical adjustment for mineral intakes, indicating an independent effect of ethnicity. Populations vary in their risk of age-related osteoporosis. There are racial or ethnic differences in the metabolism of the bone-forming minerals calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P), with a lower renal Ca and P excretion in African-Americans compared to white counterparts, even at similar intakes and rates of absorption. Also, Africans in The Gambia have a lower Ca excretion compared to white British subjects, groups known to differ in their dietary Ca intake. Here, we report on differences in urinary Ca and P excretion between Gambian and white British adults while allowing for known predictors, including dietary intakes. Participants were healthy white British (n = 60) and Gambian (n = 61) men and women aged 60-75 years. Fasting blood and 2-h urine samples were collected. Markers of Ca and P metabolism were analysed. Dietary intake was assessed with country-specific methods. White British older adults had higher creatinine-corrected urinary Ca and P excretion (uCa/uCr, uP/uCr) and lower tubular maximum of Ca and P compared to Gambian counterparts. The predictors of urinary Ca and P differed between groups. Multiple regression analysis showed that dietary Ca and Ca/P were predictors of uCa/uCr and uP/uCr, respectively. Ethnicity remained a significant predictor of uCa/uCr and uP/uCr after adjustment for diet and other factors. Gambian older adults have higher renal Ca conservation than British counterparts. Dietary mineral intakes were predictors of the differences in urinary Ca and P excretion, but ethnicity remained a highly significant predictor after statistical adjustment. This suggests that ethnicity

  14. Why military personnel fail to keep medical appointments.

    PubMed

    Thornton, R; Ballard, K

    2008-03-01

    Failure to keep medical appointments, commonly referred to as 'Did Not Attend' (DNA), is a frequent problem in both primary and secondary health care and leads to a waste of valuable resources. Although the reasons for DNA within the general population are well documented, little is known about this behaviour amongst people serving in the armed forces. In this paper we report the findings of a questionnaire-based study investigating the reasons why military personnel fail to keep hospital appointments. A postal questionnaire asking questions about the reasons for not attending the appointment and how they perceived the condition for which treatment had been sought, were sent to 167 military patients known to have missed appointments in either a hospital outpatient department or regional rehabilitation unit. 162 controls, who attended appointments, were also sent a questionnaire asking them about factors leading to their appointment and how they perceived the condition that they attended the appointment for. Illness perception was measured using a previously validated Illness perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R). The controls were matched by rank, gender and corps. The overall response rate was 51.5%, with 46% response in the DNA group and 55% in the controls. A previous history of hospital DNA (though not DNA in primary care) and attempting to change the appointment date were associated with DNA (p = 0.01). Those who received a reminder about the appointment were less likely to DNA (p < or = 0.001). Although patients who perceived their condition to be less important were more likely to fail to attend their appointment (p = 0.01), illness perception as measured on the IPQ-R, was not associated with appointment attendance. The most frequent reasons cited for missed appointments were due to administrative problems, with many (38%) respondents being simply unaware that they had an appointment at all or believing that they had cancelled it (14%). Forgetting the appointment

  15. Under the British Roof: The British Contribution to the Development of Hospice and Palliative Care in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bogusz, Halina; Pękacka-Falkowska, Katarzyna; Magowska, Anita

    2018-04-01

    The article focuses on British contribution to the development of palliative and hospice care in Poland in the 1980s and beyond. It is based on archival research in the hospices in Cracow and Poznan and broad-scoped Polish journals' review. The social background of the hospice movement in Poland is described. We explore the role of inspiration and help of Dame Cicely Saunders and other British leaders in the transfer of British hospice philosophy and practice of palliative care to the medical community in Poland. This study demonstrates the importance of institutions for the formal exchange of medical information.

  16. The emergence and spread of finch trichomonosis in the British Isles

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Becki; Robinson, Robert A.; Colvile, Katie M.; Peck, Kirsi M.; Chantrey, Julian; Pennycott, Tom W.; Simpson, Victor R.; Toms, Mike P.; Cunningham, Andrew A.

    2012-01-01

    Finch trichomonosis, caused by the protozoal parasite Trichomonas gallinae, was first recognized as an emerging infectious disease of British passerines in 2005. The first year of seasonal epidemic mortality occurred in 2006 with significant declines of greenfinch Carduelis chloris and chaffinch Fringilla coelebs populations. Here, we demonstrate that large-scale mortality, principally of greenfinch, continued in subsequent years, 2007–2009, with a shifting geographical distribution across the British Isles over time. Consequent to the emergence of finch trichomonosis, the breeding greenfinch population in Great Britain has declined from ca 4.3 million to ca 2.8 million birds and the maximum mean number of greenfinches (a proxy for flock size) visiting gardens has declined by 50 per cent. The annual rate of decline of the breeding greenfinch population within England has exceeded 7 per cent since the initial epidemic. Although initially chaffinch populations were regionally diminished by the disease, this has not continued. Retrospective analyses of disease surveillance data showed a rapid, widespread emergence of finch trichomonosis across Great Britain in 2005 and we hypothesize that the disease emerged by T. gallinae jumping from columbiforms to passeriforms. Further investigation is required to determine the continuing impact of finch trichomonosis and to develop our understanding of how protozoal diseases jump host species. PMID:22966140

  17. The emergence and spread of finch trichomonosis in the British Isles.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Becki; Robinson, Robert A; Colvile, Katie M; Peck, Kirsi M; Chantrey, Julian; Pennycott, Tom W; Simpson, Victor R; Toms, Mike P; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2012-10-19

    Finch trichomonosis, caused by the protozoal parasite Trichomonas gallinae, was first recognized as an emerging infectious disease of British passerines in 2005. The first year of seasonal epidemic mortality occurred in 2006 with significant declines of greenfinch Carduelis chloris and chaffinch Fringilla coelebs populations. Here, we demonstrate that large-scale mortality, principally of greenfinch, continued in subsequent years, 2007-2009, with a shifting geographical distribution across the British Isles over time. Consequent to the emergence of finch trichomonosis, the breeding greenfinch population in Great Britain has declined from ca 4.3 million to ca 2.8 million birds and the maximum mean number of greenfinches (a proxy for flock size) visiting gardens has declined by 50 per cent. The annual rate of decline of the breeding greenfinch population within England has exceeded 7 per cent since the initial epidemic. Although initially chaffinch populations were regionally diminished by the disease, this has not continued. Retrospective analyses of disease surveillance data showed a rapid, widespread emergence of finch trichomonosis across Great Britain in 2005 and we hypothesize that the disease emerged by T. gallinae jumping from columbiforms to passeriforms. Further investigation is required to determine the continuing impact of finch trichomonosis and to develop our understanding of how protozoal diseases jump host species.

  18. Management of Failing Prosthetic Bypass Grafts with Metallic Stent Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Siskin, Gary P.; Stainken, Brian F.; Mandell, Valerie S.

    1999-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of metallic stents in treating stenoses involving prosthetic arterial bypass grafts. Methods: Patients undergoing stent placement within a failing prosthetic bypass graft, during a 41-month period, were reviewed for treatment outcome and complications. The indications for stent placement in 15 patients included severe claudication (n= 3), rest pain (n= 9), and minor or major tissue loss (n= 3). Lesions were at the proximal anastomosis (n= 6), the distal anastomosis (n= 3), or within the graft (n= 6). Results: Treatment with metallic stents was successful in all patients. There was one acute stent thrombosis, successfully treatedmore » with thrombolytic therapy. Follow-up data are available for a mean duration of 12.3 months. The mean duration of primary patency was 9.4 months with 6- and 12-month primary patency rates of 51.9% and 37.0%, respectively. The mean duration of secondary patency was 12.1 months with 6- and 12-month secondary patency rates of 80.0% and 72.7%, respectively. Two patients with discontinuous runoff and preexisting gangrene required a below-knee amputation. Six patients were revised surgically after stent placement (at a mean of 10.8 months). Three late deaths occurred during follow-up. Conclusion: Given the mortality risks of surgical revision and the reduced life expectancy of this patient population, metallic stent placement represents a viable, short-term treatment option for stenoses within or at the anastomoses of prosthetic grafts. Further evaluation is warranted to compare intragraft stent placement with surgical graft revision.« less

  19. SPECIES RICHNESS AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION PRIORITIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Patterns in the geographic distribution of seven species groups were used to identify important areas for conservation in British Columbia, Canada. Potential priority sites for conservation were determined using an integer programming algorithm that maximized the number of speci...

  20. British and American English for Polish University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marton, Waldemar; Preston, Dennis R.

    1975-01-01

    This article attempts to assess the validity of dividing Polish students of English into British and American groups. The tests of the various hypotheses regarding linguistic and non-linguistic results of such divisions are described. (AM)

  1. BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE MAKES BOTH MOLD HALVES INDIVIDUALLY WHICH ARE LATER ROTATED, ASSEMBLED, AND LOWERED TO POURING CONVEYORS BY ASSISTING MACHINES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  2. Beliefs about Overcoming Psychological Problems among British and Japanese Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Ota, Hiromi; Tatsuro, Hosoe; Koyasu, Masuo

    2000-01-01

    Examines the cultural differences among Japanese students, British students, and Japanese students studying in Britain, concerning their beliefs on overcoming five psychological problems: depression, obesity, smoking cessation, agoraphobia, and lack of confidence. (CMK)

  3. Of mice and (Viking?) men: phylogeography of British and Irish house mice

    PubMed Central

    Searle, Jeremy B.; Jones, Catherine S.; Gündüz, İslam; Scascitelli, Moira; Jones, Eleanor P.; Herman, Jeremy S.; Rambau, R. Victor; Noble, Leslie R.; Berry, R.J.; Giménez, Mabel D.; Jóhannesdóttir, Fríða

    2008-01-01

    The west European subspecies of house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) has gained much of its current widespread distribution through commensalism with humans. This means that the phylogeography of M. m. domesticus should reflect patterns of human movements. We studied restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequence variations in mouse mitochondrial (mt) DNA throughout the British Isles (328 mice from 105 localities, including previously published data). There is a major mtDNA lineage revealed by both RFLP and sequence analyses, which is restricted to the northern and western peripheries of the British Isles, and also occurs in Norway. This distribution of the ‘Orkney’ lineage fits well with the sphere of influence of the Norwegian Vikings and was probably generated through inadvertent transport by them. To form viable populations, house mice would have required large human settlements such as the Norwegian Vikings founded. The other parts of the British Isles (essentially most of mainland Britain) are characterized by house mice with different mtDNA sequences, some of which are also found in Germany, and which probably reflect both Iron Age movements of people and mice and earlier development of large human settlements. MtDNA studies on house mice have the potential to reveal novel aspects of human history. PMID:18826939

  4. Of mice and (Viking?) men: phylogeography of British and Irish house mice.

    PubMed

    Searle, Jeremy B; Jones, Catherine S; Gündüz, Islam; Scascitelli, Moira; Jones, Eleanor P; Herman, Jeremy S; Rambau, R Victor; Noble, Leslie R; Berry, R J; Giménez, Mabel D; Jóhannesdóttir, Fríoa

    2009-01-22

    The west European subspecies of house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) has gained much of its current widespread distribution through commensalism with humans. This means that the phylogeography of M. m. domesticus should reflect patterns of human movements. We studied restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequence variations in mouse mitochondrial (mt) DNA throughout the British Isles (328 mice from 105 localities, including previously published data). There is a major mtDNA lineage revealed by both RFLP and sequence analyses, which is restricted to the northern and western peripheries of the British Isles, and also occurs in Norway. This distribution of the 'Orkney' lineage fits well with the sphere of influence of the Norwegian Vikings and was probably generated through inadvertent transport by them. To form viable populations, house mice would have required large human settlements such as the Norwegian Vikings founded. The other parts of the British Isles (essentially most of mainland Britain) are characterized by house mice with different mtDNA sequences, some of which are also found in Germany, and which probably reflect both Iron Age movements of people and mice and earlier development of large human settlements. MtDNA studies on house mice have the potential to reveal novel aspects of human history.

  5. Mortality in an extended follow-up of British coal workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacCalman; L; Miller; G, B.

    2009-02-01

    The Pneumoconiosis Field Research (PFR) programme was established in the 1950s, to evaluate effects of coal mining exposures on the health and mortality of British coal workers. Surveys of working miners were carried out at 5-yearly intervals, initially in 24 collieries but later concentrating on 10, collecting detailed work histories and health information for each recruit. Here we report on cause-specific mortality in a cohort of almost 18,000 men from 10 British collieries, followed up for periods up to 47 years, yielding over 516,000 life-years of follow-up. External analyses compared cause-specific death rates in the cohort to those of the population of the regions in which the collieries were situated, using Standardised Mortality Ratios (SMRs). The causes investigated included lung cancer, stomach cancer, non-malignant respiratory disorders and cardiovascular disorders. SMRs showed evidence of an initial healthy worker effect diminishing over time. Several causes, including non-malignant respiratory disease and lung cancer, showed a significant deficit of mortality at the start of the study period with an excess in the latter part of the follow-up period. In these results, effects of working conditions are likely to be confounded with smoking habits. Overall, we believe our results may be generalised to the British coal industry since nationalisation.

  6. Surveillance of stage I testicular seminoma: British Columbia Cancer Agency Experience 1992 to 2002.

    PubMed

    Tyldesley, Scott; Voduc, David; McKenzie, Michael; Duncan, Graeme; Liu, Mitchell; Wu, Douglas

    2006-03-01

    To review the changes in the use of surveillance in Stage I seminoma in British Columbia during the past decade and to compare the relapse rates provincially against those in published reports. Postorchiectomy surveillance of Stage I seminoma is an alternative to adjuvant radiotherapy. The relapse rate from a pooled surveillance series was 18% at 5 years. We reviewed the British Columbia Cancer Agency Tumour Registry records for all cases registered with a diagnosis of seminoma of the testes referred to the BCCA between 1992 and 2002. Patients not treated with radiotherapy within 4 months of referral were reviewed for patient and disease parameters (age, rete testes invasion, size, lymphatic invasion), relapse, salvage treatment, and survival. A total of 458 patients with Stage I seminoma were identified. Of these, 93 went onto surveillance. The annual percentage of patients going onto surveillance increased from 10% in 1992 to 33% by 2002. The median follow-up was 33 months. The 5-year actuarial relapse-free survival rate was 78%. Relapse was more common in those with known adverse prognostic factors (rete invasion or size greater than 4 cm). The actuarial 5-year relapse free rate was 86%, 71%, and 50% for patients with no risk factor, one risk factor, or both risk factors, respectively. The disease-specific survival rate at 5 years was 96%. Surveillance of patients with seminoma in British Columbia increased between 1992 and 2002. The relapse and survival rates in this population-based series were similar to those previously reported.

  7. Examination of the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire among British and Trinidadian adults.

    PubMed

    Barron, David; Swami, Viren; Towell, Tony; Hutchinson, Gerard; Morgan, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    Much debate in schizotypal research has centred on the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), with research variously showing higher-order dimensionality consisting of two to seven dimensions. In addition, cross-cultural support for the stability of those factors remains limited. Here, we examined the factor structure of the SPQ among British and Trinidadian adults. Participants from a White British subsample (n = 351) resident in the UK and from an African Caribbean subsample (n = 284) resident in Trinidad completed the SPQ. The higher-order factor structure of the SPQ was analysed through confirmatory factor analysis, followed by multiple-group analysis for the model of best fit. Between-group differences for sex and ethnicity were investigated using multivariate analysis of variance in relation to the higher-order domains. The model of best-fit was the four-factor structure, which demonstrated measurement invariance across groups. Additionally, these data had an adequate fit for two alternative models: (a) 3-factor and (b) modified 4-factor model. The British subsample had significantly higher scores across all domains than the Trinidadian group, and men scored significantly higher on the disorganised domain than women. The four-factor structure received confirmatory support and, importantly, support for use with populations varying in ethnicity and culture.

  8. The role of conflict with parents in disordered eating among British Asian females.

    PubMed

    Furnham, A; Husain, K

    1999-09-01

    Previous studies have found British Asian schoolgirls' EAT-26 (Eating Attitudes Test) scores to be higher than those of White schoolgirls and positively associated with parental overprotection as measured by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). This study aimed to determine whether conflict with parents is associated with EAT scores in young British Asian student-aged females. Participants completed three questionnaires. A Parent Conflict Questionnaire was devised, consisting of items regarding Role of Women, Marriage Choices, Going Out, and Choice of Friends. This was administered along with the PBI and EAT-26 to equivalent groups of 82 White and 55 Asian females. Contrary to hypothesis there were no significant differences between Whites and Asians on EAT scores. PBI parental overprotection scores and all conflict scores were, however, higher among the Asians. EAT scores and conflict with parents over Going Out and Choice of Friends were correlated in the Asian group. The results suggest that British Asian female conflicts with parents over socializing may be one factor that leads to the development of eating disturbances in this population. However, limitations of the study concerned with sampling, self-report and cross-sectional rather than longitudinal data gathering suggests further work needs to be done to examine socio-cultural correlates of eating disorders.

  9. Bioactive nanoparticles improve calcium handling in failing cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Joshua T; Somasuntharam, Inthirai; Gray, Warren D; Shen, Ming; Singer, Jason M; Wang, Bo; Saafir, Talib; Crawford, Brian H; Jiang, Rong; Murthy, Niren; Davis, Michael E; Wagner, Mary B

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the ability of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) decorated nanoparticles and their cargo to modulate calcium handling in failing cardiac myocytes (CMs). Primary CMs isolated from normal and failing hearts were treated with GlcNAc nanoparticles in order to assess the ability of the nanoparticles and their cargo to correct dysfunctional calcium handling in failing myocytes. GlcNAc particles reduced aberrant calcium release in failing CMs and restored sarcomere function. Additionally, encapsulation of a small calcium-modulating protein, S100A1, in GlcNAc nanoparticles also showed improved calcium regulation. Thus, the development of our bioactive nanoparticle allows for a 'two-hit' treatment, by which the cargo and also the nanoparticle itself can modulate intracellular protein activity.

  10. Long-term pavement performance indicators for failed materials.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-04-01

    State Transportation Agencies (STAs) use quality control/quality assurance (QC/QA) specifications to guide the testing and inspection of : road pavement construction. Although failed materials of pavement rarely occur in practice, it is critical to h...

  11. Availability and estimates of veterinary antimicrobial use in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The amount of antimicrobial use is a significant selection pressure that alters the frequency of antimicrobial resistance. This paper summarizes attempts to estimate the weight of antimicrobial purchases in British Columbia for use in animals. The data reported here do not capture all sources of veterinary antimicrobial use in British Columbia. This paper highlights how information deficits on veterinary drug use complicate the development of an evidence-based policy framework for combating antimicrobial resistance. PMID:15144102

  12. Foreign students, visitors and immigration to British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Kunin, R

    1993-01-01

    "This report has provided a brief outline of business immigration to Canada and to British Columbia from several source countries in the Asian Pacific Rim. The importance of business immigration to Canada in general, and British Columbia in particular, is [examined].... Even with the limited data currently available, this brief study indicates a very high statistical relationship between business immigration and other less formal and less permanent movements of people such as student flows and visitors." excerpt

  13. National intelligence estimates and the Failed State Index.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin

    2013-10-01

    Across 177 countries around the world, the Failed State Index, a measure of state vulnerability, was reliably negatively associated with the estimates of national intelligence. Psychometric analysis of the Failed State Index, compounded of 12 social, economic, and political indicators, suggested factorial unidimensionality of this index. The observed correspondence of higher national intelligence figures to lower state vulnerability might arise through these two macro-level variables possibly being proxies of even more pervasive historical and societal background variables that affect both.

  14. Risk Factors for Failed Newborn Otoacoustic Emissions Hearing Screen.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Ramzan; Vigilante, Michaela; Deyro, Heidi; Reyes, Irma; Gonzalez, Beverly; Kliethermes, Stephanie

    2016-10-01

    Objective To identify any socioeconomic, demographic, neonatal, and perinatal factors that may be associated with failing the otoacoustic emissions (OAE) newborn hearing screen. Study Design A retrospective chart review was performed looking at hearing screens performed on 1272 newborn infants by OAE testing. Socioeconomic, demographic, neonatal, and perinatal factors were reviewed to determine association with failing the OAE newborn hearing screen. Results Our results demonstrate that Hispanic race was significantly associated with failing the newborn OAE hearing screen with an odds ratio of 2.54 (CI = 1.56-4.14, P = .0002). Family history of hearing loss was also significantly associated with failing the newborn hearing screen. Newborns with a family history of hearing loss were 13 times more likely to fail the newborn screen (odds ratio = 13.63, CI = 4.09-45.43, P < .0001). Conclusions Hispanic race and family history of hearing loss are statistically significant risk factors for failing the newborn OAE hearing screen. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Breast cancer risk in a screening cohort of Asian and white British/Irish women from Manchester UK.

    PubMed

    Evans, D Gareth; Brentnall, Adam R; Harvie, Michelle; Astley, Susan; Harkness, Elaine F; Stavrinos, Paula; Donnelly, Louise S; Sampson, Sarah; Idries, Faiza; Watterson, Donna; Cuzick, Jack; Wilson, Mary; Jain, Anil; Harrison, Fiona; Maxwell, Anthony J; Howell, Anthony

    2018-01-25

    The differences between breast cancer risk factors in white British/Irish and Asian women attending screening in the UK are not well documented. Between 2009-15 ethnicity and traditional breast cancer risk factors were self-identified by a screening cohort from Greater Manchester, with follow up to 2016. Risk factors and incidence rates were compared using age-standardised statistics (European standard population). Eight hundred and seventy-nine Asian women and 51,779 unaffected white British/Irish women aged 46-73 years were recruited. Asian women were at lower predicted breast cancer risk from hormonal and reproductive risk factors than white British/Irish women (mean 10 year risk 2.6% vs 3.1%, difference 0.4%, 95%CI 0.3-0.5%). White British/Irish women were more likely to have had a younger age at menarche, be overweight or obese, taller, used hormone replacement therapy and not to have had children.. However, despite being less overweight Asian women had gained more weight from age 20 years and were less likely to undertake moderate physical activity. Asian women also had a slightly higher mammographic density. Asian age-standardised incidence was 3.2 (95%CI 1.6-5.2, 18 cancers) per thousand women/year vs 4.5 (95%CI 4.2-4.8, 1076 cancers) for white British/Irish women. Asian women attending screening in Greater Manchester are likely to have a lower risk of breast cancer than white British/Irish women, but they undertake less physical activity and have more adult weight gain.

  16. Transdimensional Love-wave tomography of the British Isles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galetti, Erica; Jenkins, David; Nicolson, Heather; Curtis, Andrew; Baptie, Brian

    2013-04-01

    In the last decade, ambient-noise interferometry has been revolutionising the way seismologists study the Earth by allowing them to record seismograms from earthquakes that did not occur in reality. This technique uses crosscorrelation of long records of seismic noise to turn seismometers into 'virtual' earthquakes, whose signals are recorded by real seismic stations. These interferometric signals can then be treated as normal seismograms and used to produce seismic velocity maps of the Earth's subsurface using a variety of tomography methods. Because seismic stations can be installed virtually anywhere on the Earth's surface at any desired time, the use of seismic interefrometry may be particularly beneficial where the area of interest is seismically quiescent and could not therefore be imaged using traditional teleseismic or local-earthquake methods. However, in many cases the distribution of seismic networks and even of stations within a network is also far from uniform, with station density being generally higher in areas of higher seismic activity or population and lower in scarcely populated or seismically quiescent regions. As a consequence, resolution may also vary across the region of interest, being better in areas that are covered by dense networks (i.e. traversed by a larger number of raypaths) and decreasing in areas that have a lower station coverage. While most tomography methods use fixed inversion grids and regularization parameters, and can be strongly influenced by the choice of the initial model and by the non-uniform distribution of information over the Earth's surface, a number of inversion techniques employ irregular parametrizations in order to adapt the model to the spatial distribution of information. Among these methods, the transdimensional reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (rj-MCMC) tomography method uses dynamic model parametrization with Voronoi cells, Markov chain Monte Carlo and the reversible-jump algorithm to invert

  17. Why Insurgents Fail: Examining Post-World War II Failed Insurgencies Utilizing the Prerequisites of Successful Insurgencies as a Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Kenya Emergency was an insurgency initiated by Jomo Kenyatta , a Kikuyu tribesman, against the British colonial power from 1952 to 1960. The core of...a legal political organization that was completely infiltrated by ex-members of the banned KCA organization.147 Jomo Kenyatta , who returned from...until 1959. Whether Jomo Kenyatta was responsible for organizing the Mau Mau is still disputed, but there is no doubt that his arrest and

  18. Toxoplasma gondii: prevalence in species and genotypes of British bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    Dodd, Nicole S; Lord, Jennifer S; Jehle, Robert; Parker, Steven; Parker, Fiona; Brooks, Darren R; Hide, Geoff

    2014-04-01

    Few studies have investigated Toxoplasma gondii infections in bat populations and none have reported its presence in protected British bat species. Using a collection of dead/euthanased bats collected from Lancashire, UK, two species of bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus and Pipistrellus pygmaeus) were tested using a highly sensitive SAG1-PCR method specific for detection of T. gondii DNA (n=77; 71 P. pipistrellus and 6 P. pygmaeus). Whilst some potential bias may exist in the sampling strategy, an overall prevalence of 10.39% (±6.06%; 95%CI) was detected. All P. pipistrellus, were also genotyped using eleven polymorphic microsatellite loci to determine their local population structure. The programme STRUCTURE revealed that the majority of individuals (83%) were derived from one interbreeding population, and the remaining individuals (17%) had mixed genetic origins. There was no significant difference in the frequency of T. gondii infection or geographical distribution between subclusters. As all British bats are insectivorous, the routes of infection with T. gondii remain elusive. However, the locally large and panmictic gene pool suggests that intraspecies transmission could be applicable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Social class and preventive health behaviour: a British example.

    PubMed

    Pill, R; Peters, T J; Robling, M R

    1995-02-01

    To test the relationship between social class and preventive health behaviour in a British national sample and identify which set of more specific socioeconomic factors best "explained" any observed relationship(s). Secondary analysis from a national cross sectional survey of the health attitudes and health behaviour of men and women aged 18 years and over living in private households in England, Scotland, and Wales. A selection of addresses was made randomly from the electoral register using a three stage design, and then one individual in each household was sampled. A total of 12,254 addresses yielded interviews with 9003 individuals, a response rate of 73.5%. Compared with the census population, the single and divorced/separated are slightly under-represented but otherwise sources of bias are small. The subset selected was 1671 women and 1026 men aged between 20-45 years with at least one child under 17 living at home. Social class was strongly associated with the health practices index (HPI, used as a measure of health behaviour) both for women and men (p < 0.001). The set of factors identified for both sexes as having an impact on this relationship were education, tenure, residential overcrowding index, and salience of lifestyle. In addition, their partner's employment status and household income were relevant for women only. These groups of factors did not totally explain the observed relationship but the proportion of variance in HPI attributable to social class was considerably reduced. Descriptions of the association between social class and health behaviour(s) are of little use to those wishing to mount more effective interventions in health promotion. Multivariable analysis can indicate which specific factors account for much of the social class effect on health behaviour and thereby assist better understanding and targeting of resources.

  20. Quantitative analysis of antimicrobial use on British dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Robert M; Remnant, John G; Bradley, Andrew J; Breen, James E; Hudson, Christopher D; Davies, Peers L; Clarke, Tom; Critchell, Yvonne; Hylands, Matthew; Linton, Emily; Wood, Erika; Green, Martin J

    2017-12-23

    Antimicrobial resistance has been reported to represent a growing threat to both human and animal health, and concerns have been raised around levels of antimicrobial usage (AMU) within the livestock industry. To provide a benchmark for dairy cattle AMU and identify factors associated with high AMU, data from a convenience sample of 358 dairy farms were analysed using both mass-based and dose-based metrics following standard methodologies proposed by the European Surveillance of Veterinary Antimicrobial Consumption project. Metrics calculated were mass (mg) of antimicrobial active ingredient per population correction unit (mg/PCU), defined daily doses (DDDvet) and defined course doses (DCDvet). AMU on dairy farms ranged from 0.36 to 97.79 mg/PCU, with a median and mean of 15.97 and 20.62 mg/PCU, respectively. Dose-based analysis ranged from 0.05 to 20.29 DDDvet, with a median and mean of 4.03 and 4.60 DDDvet, respectively. Multivariable analysis highlighted that usage of antibiotics via oral and footbath routes increased the odds of a farm being in the top quartile (>27.9 mg/PCU) of antimicrobial users. While dairy cattle farm AMU appeared to be lower than UK livestock average, there were a selection of outlying farms with extremely high AMU, with the top 25 per cent of farms contributing greater than 50 per cent of AMU by mass. Identification of these high use farms may enable targeted AMU reduction strategies and facilitate a significant reduction in overall dairy cattle AMU. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Gambian-British and Nigerian-British Children's and Families' Experiences of Migration "Back" to West Africa. Research Briefing No. 13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts-Holmes, Guy

    2013-01-01

    This research looks at the factors motivating Gambian-British and Nigerian-British parents to send their children "back" to West Africa and what this means for parents, children and families on both continents.

  2. Microflora associated with successful and failed orthodontic mini-implants.

    PubMed

    Apel, Stephanie; Apel, Christian; Morea, Camillo; Tortamano, André; Dominguez, Gladys Cristina; Conrads, Georg

    2009-11-01

    Mini-implants are used for orthodontic bone anchorage. The reasons for a potential instability or loss of the mini-implants during treatment are multiple. Among other factors, colonization of implants with pathogenic bacteria is discussed. Therefore, the microflora associated with successful and failed mini-implants has been screened. A total of 76 mini-implants collected from 25 patients were observed during regular orthodontic treatment. Bacterial samples of eight failed and - exemplarily - four successful (control) cases were subjected to a universal Bacteria-directed real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction for quantification in combination with a microarray-based identification of 20 selected species. The failure rate in the present investigation was 10.5%. The bacterial analysis did not reveal any major difference in the total amount or species composition between control and failed mini-implants. However, Actinomyces viscosus was found in four (100%) and Campylobacter gracilis in three (75%) stable controls, whereas both species were rarely found (12.5%) in failed implants. In the present study, the peri-implant sulcus surrounding failed orthodontic mini-implants did not show a specific aggressive bacterial flora.

  3. Associations between socioeconomic, parental and home environment factors and fruit and vegetable consumption of children in grades five and six in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Attorp, Adrienne; Scott, Jenny E; Yew, Ann C; Rhodes, Ryan E; Barr, Susan I; Naylor, Patti-Jean

    2014-02-11

    Regular fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption has been associated with reduced chronic disease risk. Evidence from adults shows a social gradient in FV consumption. Evidence from pre-adolescent children varies and there is little Canadian data. This study assessed the FV intake of school children in British Columbia (BC), Canada to determine whether socio-economic status (SES), parental and the home environment factors were related to FV consumption. As part of the BC School Fruit and Vegetable Nutrition Program, 773 British Columbia fifth-and sixth-grade school children (Mean age 11.3 years; range 10.3-12.5) and their parents were surveyed to determine FV consumption and overall dietary intake. Students completed a web-based 24-hour dietary food recall, and a student measure of socio-economic status (The Family Affluence Scale). Parents completed a self-administered survey about their education, income, home environment and perceptions of their neighbourhood and children's eating habits. Correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to examine the association between SES, parental and home environment factors and FV consumption. Approximately 85.8% of children in this study failed to meet minimum Canadian guidelines for FV intake (6 servings). Parent income and education were not significantly associated with child FV consumption but were associated with each other, child-reported family affluence, neighbourhood environment, access to FV, and eating at the table or in front of the television. Significant positive associations were found between FV consumption and child-reported family affluence, meal-time habits, neighbourhood environment and parent perceptions of the healthiness of their child's diet; however, these correlations were weak (ranging from .089-.115). Multiple regression analysis showed that only child-reported family affluence significantly predicted FV consumption (std-β = 0.096 95% CI = 0.01 to 0.27). The majority of children in

  4. Part II: Muslims perceptions of British cobat troops.

    PubMed

    Hankir, Ahmed; Carrick, Frederick R; Zaman, Rashid; Hughes, Jamie Hacker

    2017-09-01

    On the 22 nd May 2017, suicide bomber Salman Abedi detonated an improvised explosive device (IED) in the Manchester Arena killing 22 people and injuring 116 others. Following the 'massacre in Manchester', the leader of the Labour Party, Jeremy Corbyn, linked UK foreign policy with terrorism on British soil. Controversial and contentious though Corbyn's claims may be, the terrorists themselves have also reported that what motivates them to carry out their abominable atrocities are British military operations in Muslim majority countries. Indeed, on the 22 nd May 2013, British serviceman, Lee Rigby, was brutally attacked and killed by Michael Adebolajo and Michael Adebowale near the Royal Artillery Barracks in Woolwich, southeast London. The perpetrators of this heinous act told passers-by at the scene that they wanted to avenge the killing of Muslims by the British Armed Forces. We conducted a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study on Muslim perceptions of British combat troops and UK foreign policy. Participants were selected by purposive sampling. We crafted a survey that explored Muslim perceptions of the British military and the government's foreign policy. Response items were on a Likert-scale and there was white space for free text comments which were subjected to thematic analyses. 75/75 (100%) of the participants recruited responded. (75/75 (100%) Muslim participants, 43/75 (57.3%) female participants, 32/75 (42.7%) male participants, mean age 20.5 years, (Std. Dev. ±2.5)). 66/75 (88%) of respondents either agreed or strongly agreed that British military operations in Muslim majority countries have negatively influenced perceptions towards combat troops. 42/75 (56%) of respondents either agreed or strongly agreed that contact with a combat troops or veterans would positively influence their perceptions towards them. Themes of free text comments included the role that the media plays in demonising Muslims, the transcendental bond that Muslims around the world

  5. British sociology and public intellectuals: consumer society and imperial decline.

    PubMed

    Turner, Bryan S

    2006-06-01

    The following is the lecture given for the BJS 2005 Public Sociology Debate given at the London School of Economics and Political Science on ll October 2005. This lecture on the character of British sociology provides a pretext for a more general inquiry into public intellectual life in postwar Britain. The argument put forward falls into several distinctive sections. First, British social science has depended heavily on the migration of intellectuals, especially Jewish intellectuals who were refugees from fascism. Second, intellectual innovation requires massive, disruptive, violent change. Third, British sociology did nevertheless give rise to a distinctive tradition of social criticism in which one can argue there were (typically home-grown) public intellectuals. The main theme of their social criticism was to consider the constraining and divisive impact of social class, race and gender on the enjoyment of expanding social citizenship. Fourth, postwar British sociology came to be dominated by the analysis of an affluent consumer society. Finally, the main failure of British sociology in this postwar period was the absence of any sustained, macro-sociological analysis of the historical decline of Britain as a world power in the twentieth century.

  6. Fail-safe reactivity compensation method for a nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Nygaard, Erik T.; Angelo, Peter L.; Aase, Scott B.

    2018-01-23

    The present invention relates generally to the field of compensation methods for nuclear reactors and, in particular to a method for fail-safe reactivity compensation in solution-type nuclear reactors. In one embodiment, the fail-safe reactivity compensation method of the present invention augments other control methods for a nuclear reactor. In still another embodiment, the fail-safe reactivity compensation method of the present invention permits one to control a nuclear reaction in a nuclear reactor through a method that does not rely on moving components into or out of a reactor core, nor does the method of the present invention rely on themore » constant repositioning of control rods within a nuclear reactor in order to maintain a critical state.« less

  7. Fail-safe reactivity compensation method for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Nygaard, Erik T.; Angelo, Peter L.; Aase, Scott B.

    2018-01-23

    The present invention relates generally to the field of compensation methods for nuclear reactors and, in particular to a method for fail-safe reactivity compensation in solution-type nuclear reactors. In one embodiment, the fail-safe reactivity compensation method of the present invention augments other control methods for a nuclear reactor. In still another embodiment, the fail-safe reactivity compensation method of the present invention permits one to control a nuclear reaction in a nuclear reactor through a method that does not rely on moving components into or out of a reactor core, nor does the method of the present invention rely on the constant repositioning of control rods within a nuclear reactor in order to maintain a critical state.

  8. Teaching (about) Britishness? An Investigation into Trainee Teachers' Understanding of Britishness in Relation to Citizenship and the Discourse of Civic Nationalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerome, Lee; Clemitshaw, Gary

    2012-01-01

    This research was prompted by the developing political discourse proposing the teaching of Britishness and British values in the context of the United Kingdom. This discourse will be reviewed in the first part of the article, in the context of previous work which has sought to assess how Britishness and related concepts might be promoted through…

  9. A historical review of HIV prevention and care initiatives in British Columbia, Canada: 1996-2015

    PubMed Central

    Olding, Michelle; Enns, Ben; Panagiotoglou, Dimitra; Shoveller, Jean; Harrigan, P Richard; Barrios, Rolando; Kerr, Thomas; Montaner, Julio S. G.; Nosyk, Bohdan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: British Columbia has made significant progress in the treatment and prevention of HIV since 1996, when Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) became available. However, we currently lack a historical summary of HIV prevention and care interventions implemented in the province since the introduction of HAART and how they have shaped the HIV epidemic. Guided by a socio-ecological framework, we present a historical review of biomedical and health services, community and structural interventions implemented in British Columbia from 1996–2015 to prevent HIV transmission or otherwise enhance the cascade of HIV care. Methods: We constructed a historical timeline of HIV interventions implemented in BC between 1996 and 2015 by reviewing publicly available reports, guidelines and other documents from provincial health agencies, community organizations and AIDS service organizations, and by conducting searches of peer-reviewed literature through PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE. We collected further programmatic information by administering a data collection form to representatives from BC’s regional health authorities and an umbrella agency representing 45 AIDS Service organizations. Using linked population-level health administrative data, we identified key phases of the HIV epidemic in British Columbia, as characterized by distinct changes in HIV incidence, HAART uptake and the provincial HIV response. Results and Discussion: In total, we identified 175 HIV prevention and care interventions implemented in BC from 1996 to 2015. We identify and describe four phases in BC’s response to HIV/AIDS: the early HAART phase (1996–1999); the harm reduction and health service scale-up phase (2000–2005); the early Treatment as Prevention phase (2006–2009); and the STOP HIV/AIDS phase (2010-present). In doing so, we provide an overview of British Columbia’s universal and centralized HIV treatment system and detail the role of community-based and

  10. A historical review of HIV prevention and care initiatives in British Columbia, Canada: 1996-2015.

    PubMed

    Olding, Michelle; Enns, Ben; Panagiotoglou, Dimitra; Shoveller, Jean; Harrigan, P Richard; Barrios, Rolando; Kerr, Thomas; Montaner, Julio S G; Nosyk, Bohdan

    2017-09-19

    British Columbia has made significant progress in the treatment and prevention of HIV since 1996, when Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) became available. However, we currently lack a historical summary of HIV prevention and care interventions implemented in the province since the introduction of HAART and how they have shaped the HIV epidemic. Guided by a socio-ecological framework, we present a historical review of biomedical and health services, community and structural interventions implemented in British Columbia from 1996-2015 to prevent HIV transmission or otherwise enhance the cascade of HIV care. We constructed a historical timeline of HIV interventions implemented in BC between 1996 and 2015 by reviewing publicly available reports, guidelines and other documents from provincial health agencies, community organizations and AIDS service organizations, and by conducting searches of peer-reviewed literature through PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE. We collected further programmatic information by administering a data collection form to representatives from BC's regional health authorities and an umbrella agency representing 45 AIDS Service organizations. Using linked population-level health administrative data, we identified key phases of the HIV epidemic in British Columbia, as characterized by distinct changes in HIV incidence, HAART uptake and the provincial HIV response. In total, we identified 175 HIV prevention and care interventions implemented in BC from 1996 to 2015. We identify and describe four phases in BC's response to HIV/AIDS: the early HAART phase (1996-1999); the harm reduction and health service scale-up phase (2000-2005); the early Treatment as Prevention phase (2006-2009); and the STOP HIV/AIDS phase (2010-present). In doing so, we provide an overview of British Columbia's universal and centralized HIV treatment system and detail the role of community-based and provincial stakeholders in advancing innovative prevention and harm reduction

  11. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS IN TWO OREGON ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of Pacific estuarine tide flats, from British Columbia to Baja California. The spatial distribution of shrimp populations within estuaries has rarely been quantified because ...

  12. Long-term survival after traumatic spinal cord injury: a 70-year British study.

    PubMed

    Savic, G; DeVivo, M J; Frankel, H L; Jamous, M A; Soni, B M; Charlifue, S

    2017-07-01

    Retrospective and prospective observational. Analyse long-term survival after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) in Great Britain over the 70-year study period, identify mortality risk factors and estimate current life expectancy. Two spinal centres in Great Britain. The sample consisted of patients with traumatic SCI injured 1943-2010 who survived the first year post-injury, had residual neurological deficit on discharge and were British residents. Life expectancy and trends over time were estimated by neurological grouping, age and gender, using logistic regression of person-years of follow-up combined with standard life table calculations. For the 5483 cases of traumatic SCI the mean age at injury was 35.1 years, 79.7% were male, 31.1% had tetraplegia AIS/Frankel ABC, 41.2% paraplegia ABC,and 27.7% functionally incomplete lesion (all Ds). On 31 December 2014, 54% were still alive, 42.3% had died and 3.7% were lost to follow-up. Estimated life expectancies improved significantly between the 1950s and 1980s, plateaued during the next two decades, before slightly improving again since 2010. The estimated current life expectancy, compared with the general British population, ranged from 18.1 to 88.4% depending on the ventilator dependency, level and completeness of injury, age and gender. Life expectancy after SCI improved significantly between the 1950s and 1980s, plateaued during the 1990s and 2000s, before slightly improving again since 2010, but still remains well below that of the general British population. Buckinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust Charitable Spinal Fund and Ann Masson Legacy for Spinal Research Fund, UK.

  13. Population crises and population cycles.

    PubMed

    Russell, C; Russell, W M

    2000-01-01

    To prevent a population irretrievably depleting its resources, mammals have evolved a behavioural and physiological response to population crisis. When a mammalian population becomes dangerously dense, there is a reversal of behaviour. Co-operation and parental behaviour are replaced by competition, dominance and aggressive violence, leading to high mortality, especially of females and young, and a reduced population. The stress of overpopulation and the resulting violence impairs both the immune and the reproductive systems. Hence epidemics complete the crash of the population, and reproduction is slowed for three or four generations, giving the resources ample time to recover. In some mammal species, crisis and crisis response recur regularly, leading to cycles of population growth and relapse, oscillating about a fixed mean. Population crisis response and population cycles have been equally prominent in the history of human societies. But in man successive advances in food production have made possible growing populations, though with every such advance population soon outgrew resources again. Hence human cycles have been superimposed on a rising curve, producing a saw-tooth graph. Because advances in food production amounted to sudden disturbances in the relations between human populations and their environments, the crisis response in man has failed to avert famine and resource damage. In the large human societies evolved since the coming of settled agriculture and cities, the basic effects of violence, epidemics, famine and resource damage have been mediated by such specifically human disasters as inflation, unemployment, and political tyranny. An account of past crises, periods of relative relief from population pressure, and resulting cycles, is given for a number of regions: China, North Africa and Western Asia, the northern Mediterranean, and north-western Europe. The paper ends with an account of the present world-wide population crisis, and the solution

  14. [Tracheal intubation with Pentax AWS Airway Scope after failed fiberoptic intubation and failed insertion of the intubating laryngeal mask airway].

    PubMed

    Asai, Takashi; Ito, Isao; Kuremoto, Yoshito; Kawashima, Akira

    2010-04-01

    Fiberoptic intubation is the most reliable method in patients with difficult airways, but it may be difficult in patients with restricted neck movement. The intubating laryngeal mask airway facilitates fiberoptic intubation, but its insertion may also be difficult in some circumstances. We experienced a case of successful tracheal intubation using the Pentax-AWS (Airway Scope) after failed fiberoptic intubation and failed insertion of the intubating laryngeal mask. A 74-year-old man who had undergone fixation of the cervical spine required reoperation. The magnetic resonance imaging showed a swelling in the posterior pharyngeal wall and glottic edema. The patient's neck was fixed by a cervical collar. After induction of anesthesia and neuromuscular blockade, fiberoptic intubation was attempted but failed, because it was impossible to advance the tip of the fiberscope beyond the epiglottis which was reclining to the swelling in the pharyngeal wall. Insertion of the laryngeal mask also failed, because the pharyngeal swelling prevented its insertion. Insertion of the Pentax-AWS was unaffected by the swelling and tracheal intubation was successful within 10 sec. We believe that the Pentax-AWS can be useful in the patient with restricted neck movement in whom both fiberoptic intubation and insertion of the laryngeal mask have failed.

  15. 'If I Ever Have to Go to Prison, I Hope it's a Russian Prison': British Labour, Social Democracy and Soviet Communism, 1919-25.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Max

    2017-09-01

    Through the inter-war period, the USSR became an example of 'socialism in action' that the British labour movement could both look towards and define itself against. British visitors both criticized and acclaimed aspects of the new Soviet state between 1919 and 1925, but a consistently exceptional finding was the Soviet prison. Analysing the visits and reports of British guests to Soviet prisons, the aims of this article are threefold. Using new material from the Russian archives, it demonstrates the development of an intense admiration for, and often a desire to replicate, the Soviet penal system on the part of Labour members, future Communists, and even Liberals who visited Soviet Russia. It also critically examines why, despite such admiration, the effect of Soviet penal ideas failed to significantly influence Labour Party policy in this area. Finally, placing these views within a broader framework of the British labour movement's internal tussles over the competing notions of social democracy and communism, it is argued that a failure to affect policy should not proscribe reappraisals of these notions or the Soviet-Labour Party relationship, both of which were more complex than is currently permitted in the established historiography. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Public health in interwar England and Wales: did it fail?

    PubMed

    Gorsky, Martin

    2008-01-01

    British historians initially saw the interwar period as a "golden age" for public health in local government, with unprecedented preventive and curative powers wielded by Medical Officers of Health (MOsH). In the 1980s Lewis and Webster challenged this reading, arguing that MOsH were overstretched, neglectful of their "watchdog" role and incapable of formulating a new philosophy of preventive medicine. The article first details this critique, then reappraises it in the light of recent demographic work. It then provides a case study of public health administration in South-West England. Its conclusion is that some elements of the Lewis/Webster case now deserve to be revised.

  17. Population Perspectives of the Commonwealth Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harewood, Jack

    This paper describes and analyzes population trends in countries in the Caribbean which were British colonies before the move to independence. It begins by examining past trends in each of the major components of population change, mortality, fertility, and international migration. Following this is a summary of the assumptions that have been used…

  18. On the impartiality of early British clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Teira, David

    2013-09-01

    Did the impartiality of clinical trials play any role in their acceptance as regulatory standards for the safety and efficacy of drugs? According to the standard account of early British trials in the 1930s and 1940s, their impartiality was just rhetorical: the public demanded fair tests and statistical devices such as randomization created an appearance of neutrality. In fact, the design of the experiment was difficult to understand and the British authorities took advantage of it to promote their own particular interests. I claim that this account is based on a poorly defined concept of experimental fairness (derived from T. Porter's ideas). I present an alternative approach in which a test would be impartial if it incorporates warrants of non-manipulability. With this concept, I reconstruct the history of British trials showing that they were indeed fair and this fairness played a role in their acceptance as regulatory yardsticks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. British Columbia: improving retention and recruitment in smaller communities.

    PubMed

    Healey-Ogden, Marion; Wejr, Patricia; Farrow, Catherine

    2012-03-01

    This pilot project involved the application, in Canada, of the innovative 80/20 staffing model to a hospital in a small rural setting. The model provides the voluntary participants with 20% of their salaried time off from direct patient care in order to pursue various types of professional development activities. The project, overseen by a steering committee, lasted from June 2009 to February 2010 and involved 14 nurses on the pediatric unit of Royal Inland Hospital in Kamloops, British Columbia. It entailed a collaborative partnership of the British Columbia Nurses' Union, Interior Health Authority, Thompson Rivers University and the British Columbia Ministry of Health, and aimed to demonstrate how professional development opportunities can improve recruitment and retention of nurses, quality of work life and quality of patient care.

  20. Electricity and Empire in 1920s Palestine under British Rule.

    PubMed

    Shamir, Ronen

    2016-12-01

    This article examines some techno-political aspects of the early years of electrification in British-ruled 1920s Palestine. It emphasizes the importance of local technical, topographical and hydrological forms of knowledge for understanding the dynamics of electrification. Situating the analysis in a general colonial context of electrification, the study shows that British colonial rulers lagged behind both German firms and local entrepreneurs in understanding the specific conditions pertaining to electrification in Palestine. Subsequently, the study shows that the British had limited control of the actual electrification process and its declared/professed developmental purposes, thereby complicating assumptions about electrification as a tool of the Empire/tool of empire. Finding some similarities between the cases of electrifying Palestine and India, the article's findings may shed further light on the importance of micro-politics of knowledge for understanding the trajectory of electrification in the colonies.

  1. [Comparison of British and French expatriate doctors' characteristics and motivations].

    PubMed

    Abbas, R; Carnet, D; D'Athis, P; Fiet, C; Le Breton, G; Romestaing, M; Quantin, C

    2015-02-01

    Migration of medical practitioners is rarely studied despite its importance in medical demography: the objective of this study was to analyze the characteristics and motivations of the French doctors settled in the United Kingdom and of the British doctors settled in France. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-completed questionnaire sent to all French doctors practicing in the United Kingdom (in 2005) and all British medicine doctors practicing in France (in 2009). The doctors were identified with official data from the National Medical Councils: 244 French doctors practicing in the United Kingdom and 86 British doctors practicing in France. The questionnaire was specifically developed to determine the reasons of moving to the other country, and the level of satisfaction after expatriation. A total of 98 French doctors (out of 244) and 40 British doctors (out of 86) returned the questionnaire. Respondents were mainly general practitioners with a professional experience of 8 to 9 years. The sex ratio was near 1 for both groups with a majority of women among physicians under 50 years. The motivations were different between groups: French doctors were attracted by the conditions offered at the National Health Service, whereas British doctors were more interested in opportunities for career advancement, joining husband or wife, or favourable environmental conditions. Overall, the respondents considered expatriation as satisfactory: 84% of French doctors, compared with only 58% of British doctors, were satisfied with their new professional situation. This study, the first in its kind, leads to a clearer understanding of the migration of doctors between France and the United Kingdom. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Sequence variation at the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in the British Isles

    SciTech Connect

    Tyfield, L.A.; Stephenson, A.; Cockburn, F.

    1997-02-01

    Using mutation and haplotype analysis, we have examined the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in the phenylketonuria populations of four geographical areas of the British Isles: the west of Scotland, southern Wales, and southwestern and southeastern England. The enormous genetic diversity of this locus within the British Isles is demonstrated in the large number of different mutations characterized and in the variety of genetic backgrounds on which individual mutations are found. Allele frequencies of the more common mutations exhibited significant nonrandom distribution in a north/south differentiation. Differences between the west of Scotland and southwestern England may be related to different events inmore » the recent and past histories of their respective populations. Similarities between southern Wales and southeastern England are likely to reflect the heterogeneity that is seen in and around two large capital cities. Finally, comparison with more recently colonized areas of the world corroborates the genealogical origin by range expansion of several mutations. 38 refs., 2 tabs.« less

  3. Community dental clinics in British Columbia, Canada: examining the potential as health equity interventions.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Bruce B; MacEntee, Michael I; Pauly, Bernadette

    2015-07-01

    Community dental clinics (CDCs) have emerged to provide oral healthcare for those with low incomes. In British Columbia, the establishment of community clinics has been quite rapid in recent years. However, the expansion has occurred with very little assessment of their impact or effectiveness. While oral health inequities are well recognised, there is limited documentation on healthcare interventions to reduce oral health inequities. This study examines CDCs as health equity interventions from the perspectives of individuals establishing and operating the clinics. The study included interviews with 17 participants--4 dentists, 6 dental hygienists and 7 clinic managers--from 10 clinics operating in British Columbia, Canada in 2008-2009. A thematic analysis of the interview transcripts, explored through a health equity framework, found many ways in which the CDCs exemplify health equity interventions. Although their design and mandates are varied, they potentially enable access to dental treatment, but without necessarily ensuring sustainable outcomes. Moreover, the scalability of CDCs is questionable because frequently they are limited to emergency care and are less responsive to the gradients of needs for populations facing multiple barriers to care. Many of them operate on a charitable base with input from volunteer dentists; however, this foundation probably eases the pressure on dentists and dental hygienists rather than offering a safety net to underserved populations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The finch epidemic strain of Trichomonas gallinae is predominant in British non-passerines.

    PubMed

    Chi, Jean F; Lawson, Becki; Durrant, Chris; Beckmann, Katie; John, Shinto; Alrefaei, Abdulwahed F; Kirkbride, Kim; Bell, Diana J; Cunningham, Andrew A; Tyler, Kevin M

    2013-09-01

    Avian trichomonosis, caused by the flagellated protozoan Trichomonas gallinae, is a recently emerged infectious disease of British passerines. The aetiological agent, a clonal epidemic strain of the parasite, has caused unprecedented finch mortality and population-level declines in Britain and has since spread to continental Europe. To better understand the potential origin of this epidemic and to further investigate its host range, T. gallinae DNA extracts were collected from parasite culture and tissue samples from a range of avian species in Britain. Sequence typing at the ITS1/5.8S rRNA/ITS2 region resolved three distinct ITS region types circulating in free-ranging British birds. Subtyping by sequence analyses at the Fe-hydrogenase gene demonstrated further strain variation within these ITS region types. The UK finch epidemic strain was preponderant amongst columbids sampled, however, wide strain diversity was encountered in isolates from a relatively small number of pigeons, suggesting further strains present in columbid populations across the UK are yet to be identified. Fe-hydrogenase gene sequence data in isolates from birds of prey with disease were predominantly identical to the UK finch epidemic strain, demonstrating its presence as a virulent strain in UK birds of prey since at least 2009.

  5. Temporal genetic variation of the red fox, Vulpes vulpes, across western Europe and the British Isles

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J.; Soulsbury, Carl D.; Statham, Mark J.; Ho, Simon Y.W.; Wall, Dave; Dolf, Gaudenz; Iossa, Graziella; Baker, Phillip J.; Harris, Stephen; Sacks, Benjamin N.; Bradley, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    Quaternary climatic fluctuations have had profound effects on the phylogeographic structure of many species. Classically, species were thought to have become isolated in peninsular refugia, but there is limited evidence that large, non-polar species survived outside traditional refugial areas. We examined the phylogeographic structure of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), a species that shows high ecological adaptability in the western Palaearctic region. We compared mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome b and control region) from 399 modern and 31 ancient individuals from across Europe. Our objective was to test whether red foxes colonised the British Isles from mainland Europe in the late Pleistocene, or whether there is evidence that they persisted in the region through the Last Glacial Maximum. We found red foxes to show a high degree of phylogeographic structuring across Europe and, consistent with palaeontological and ancient DNA evidence, confirmed via phylogenetic indicators that red foxes were persistent in areas outside peninsular refugia during the last ice age. Bayesian analyses and tests of neutrality indicated population expansion. We conclude that there is evidence that red foxes from the British Isles derived from central European populations that became isolated after the closure of the landbridge with Europe. PMID:24068852

  6. Availability of limited service food outlets surrounding schools in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Black, Jennifer L; Day, Meghan

    2012-06-05

    The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive profile of the availability of limited service food outlets surrounding public schools in British Columbia, Canada. Data from the 2010 Canadian Business Data Files were used to identify limited service food outlets including fast food outlets, beverage and snack food stores, delis and convenience stores. The number of food outlets within 800 metres of 1,392 public schools and the distance from schools to the nearest food outlets were assessed. Multivariate regression models examined the associations between food outlet availability and school-level characteristics. In 2010, over half of the public schools in BC (54%) were located within a 10-12 minute walk from at least one limited service food outlet. The median closest distance to a food outlet was just over 1 km (1016 m). Schools comprised of students living in densely populated urban neighbourhoods and neighbourhoods characterized by lower socio-economic status were more likely to have access to limited service food outlets within walking distance. After adjusting for school-level median family income and population density, larger schools had higher odds of exposure to food vendors compared to schools with fewer students. The availability of and proximity to limited service food outlets vary widely across schools in British Columbia and school-level characteristics are significantly associated with food outlet availability. Additional research is needed to understand how food environment exposures inside and surrounding schools impact students' attitudes, food choices and dietary quality.

  7. An examination of social capital and social disorganisation in neighbourhoods in the British household panel study.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Andrew

    2003-04-01

    Recent developments in social science research suggest that social environmental factors may be important for explaining community variations in health. We investigate the structural sources of two mechanisms that produce community variations in health. Using survey data collected from a representative cross-section of British households we examine variations in neighbourhood social capital and neighbourhood social disorganisation across a sample of British neighbourhoods. Adjusting for respondent's attributes, we assess the effects of neighbourhood characteristics measured by the 1991 census in Britain. The results show that concentrated affluence, residential instability and ethnic heterogeneity predict social capital for women. Population density is the only neighbourhood characteristic to predict social capital for men. For both men and women concentrated disadvantage and population density are associated with social disorganisation. Residential instability is additionally associated with social disorganisation for women. For women it was found that neighbourhood characteristics interact with individual social class in accounting for variations in social capital, the effects of neighbourhood characteristics being larger for those in professional and managerial and skilled non-manual occupations. The results show that neighbourhood structural characteristics influence social organisation processes. This helps establish a link between the structural characteristics of neighbourhoods and individual health outcomes.

  8. Temporal genetic variation of the red fox, Vulpes vulpes, across western Europe and the British Isles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J.; Soulsbury, Carl D.; Statham, Mark J.; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Wall, Dave; Dolf, Gaudenz; Iossa, Graziella; Baker, Phillip J.; Harris, Stephen; Sacks, Benjamin N.; Bradley, Daniel G.

    2012-12-01

    Quaternary climatic fluctuations have had profound effects on the phylogeographic structure of many species. Classically, species were thought to have become isolated in peninsular refugia, but there is limited evidence that large, non-polar species survived outside traditional refugial areas. We examined the phylogeographic structure of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), a species that shows high ecological adaptability in the western Palaearctic region. We compared mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome b and control region) from 399 modern and 31 ancient individuals from across Europe. Our objective was to test whether red foxes colonised the British Isles from mainland Europe in the late Pleistocene, or whether there is evidence that they persisted in the region through the Last Glacial Maximum. We found red foxes to show a high degree of phylogeographic structuring across Europe and, consistent with palaeontological and ancient DNA evidence, confirmed via phylogenetic indicators that red foxes were persistent in areas outside peninsular refugia during the last ice age. Bayesian analyses and tests of neutrality indicated population expansion. We conclude that there is evidence that red foxes from the British Isles derived from central European populations that became isolated after the closure of the landbridge with Europe.

  9. Objectification processes and disordered eating in British women and men.

    PubMed

    Calogero, Rachel M

    2009-04-01

    The present study extended the applicability of Objectification Theory to predict disordered eating in British women and men. Participants completed measures of self-objectification, body surveillance, body shame and disordered eating. Path analyses indicated strong support for the theoretical model in women, with body shame fully mediating the relation between self-objectification and disordered eating. Patterns were similar for men with two exceptions; body shame increased with lower self-objectification and disordered eating was directly increased with higher self-objectification. Findings extend Objectification Theory as a useful framework for identifying sociocultural influences on disordered eating in British women and men.

  10. Is Smoking Behavior Culturally Determined? Evidence from British Immigrants*

    PubMed Central

    Lillard, Dean R.

    2015-01-01

    We exploit migration patterns from the UK to Australia and the US to investigate whether a person's decision to smoke is determined by culture. For each country, we use retrospective data to describe individual smoking trajectories over the life-course. For the UK, we use these trajectories to measure culture by cohort and cohort-age, and more accurately relative to the extant literature. Our proxy predicts smoking participation of second-generation British immigrants but not that of non-British immigrants and natives. Researchers can apply our strategy to estimate culture effects on other outcomes when retrospective or longitudinal data are available. PMID:25620826

  11. Towards Space Tourism - The Challenge for British Space Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, P.

    In recent years it has become increasingly widely accepted, including within NASA, that the largest commercial opportunity in space is the development of passenger space travel, or `space tourism'. However, to date, the British government has provided no support whatever for work in this field. In 2000 the parliamentary Trade and Industry Select Committee criticized this unsatisfactory situation, but their comments have been disregarded to date. This paper reviews the current situation and discusses measures that must be implemented in order for British taxpayers to obtain the greatest economic benefit from the government's space expenditure.

  12. 75 FR 12981 - Eligibility for Commercial Flats Failing Deflection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... from carrier route to 5-digit prices. Additional customer comments and suggestions received: Many... other private delivery methods. The 5-digit price for carrier route pieces failing deflection negates the value of the sortation. The 5-digit price also negates the DDU discount for carrier route flats...

  13. The Failing Heart Relies on Ketone Bodies as a Fuel

    PubMed Central

    Aubert, Gregory; Martin, Ola J.; Horton, Julie L.; Lai, Ling; Vega, Rick B.; Leone, Teresa C.; Koves, Timothy; Gardell, Stephen J.; Krüger, Marcus; Hoppel, Charles L.; Lewandowski, E. Douglas; Crawford, Peter A.; Muoio, Deborah M.; Kelly, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Significant evidence indicates that the failing heart is “energy-starved”. During the development of heart failure, the capacity of the heart to utilize fatty acids, the chief fuel, is diminished. Identification of alternate pathways for myocardial fuel oxidation could unveil novel strategies to treat heart failure. Methods and Results Quantitative mitochondrial proteomics was used to identify energy metabolic derangements that occur during the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in well-defined mouse models. As expected, amounts of proteins involved in fatty acid utilization were downregulated in myocardial samples from the failing heart. Conversely, expression of β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 (BDH1), a key enzyme in the ketone oxidation pathway, was increased in the heart failure samples. Studies of relative oxidation studies in an isolated heart preparation using ex vivo NMR combined with targeted quantitative myocardial metabolomic profiling using mass spectrometry revealed that the hypertrophied and failing heart shifts to oxidizing ketone bodies as a fuel source in the context of reduced capacity to oxidize fatty acids. Distinct myocardial metabolomic signatures of ketone oxidation were identified. Conclusions These results indicate that the hypertrophied and failing heart shifts to ketone bodies as a significant fuel source for oxidative ATP production. Specific metabolite biosignatures of in vivo cardiac ketone utilization were identified. Future studies aimed at determining whether this fuel shift is adaptive or maladaptive could unveil new therapeutic strategies for heart failure. PMID:26819376

  14. Counselor Liability for Failing to Report Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Samuel

    1983-01-01

    Describes the laws regarding counselor liability for failure to report child abuse and state laws designating mandated reporters of suspected child abuse. Notes how the law protects mandated reporters. Discusses criminal penalties for those who fail to report suspected abuse. (RC)

  15. Dealing with failed deregulation: what would price c. Watts do?

    SciTech Connect

    Rothkopf, Michael H.

    2007-08-15

    There has been much thought given to ways that might fix deregulated markets, and there is still no agreement on the correct fix. The once-pseudonymous Price C. Watts thinks it is time to think seriously about ways to reregulate where deregulation has failed. Here are some steps to get us there. (author)

  16. 9 CFR 442.5 - Handling of failed product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Handling of failed product. 442.5 Section 442.5 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... upon testing in accordance with the methods prescribed in § 442.2 of this subchapter shall be handled...

  17. 9 CFR 442.5 - Handling of failed product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Handling of failed product. 442.5 Section 442.5 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... upon testing in accordance with the methods prescribed in § 442.2 of this subchapter shall be handled...

  18. 9 CFR 442.5 - Handling of failed product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Handling of failed product. 442.5 Section 442.5 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... upon testing in accordance with the methods prescribed in § 442.2 of this subchapter shall be handled...

  19. 9 CFR 442.5 - Handling of failed product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Handling of failed product. 442.5 Section 442.5 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... upon testing in accordance with the methods prescribed in § 442.2 of this subchapter shall be handled...

  20. 9 CFR 442.5 - Handling of failed product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling of failed product. 442.5 Section 442.5 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... upon testing in accordance with the methods prescribed in § 442.2 of this subchapter shall be handled...

  1. Why the Merit Pay System Failed in the Federal Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Buddy Robert S.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the implementation of the merit pay system in the federal government and the ten unsurmountable problems that caused it to fail; i.e., unintended statutory provisions, open-ended regulations, novice technical assistance, drifting implementation policies, administrative errors, complicated systems, inconsistent employee treatment,…

  2. 78 FR 54373 - Records of Failed Insured Depository Institutions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... responsible for the recent financial crisis that began in 2008 and prevent appropriate civil and criminal... Federal banking agency. Once an insured institution fails, the FDIC also has authority to pursue civil... documentary material as records that should not be so classified. For example, a published set of banking...

  3. "Failing" or "Succeeding" Schools: How Can We Tell?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Paul E.

    2006-01-01

    This brief report summarizes how American education has drifted into the accountability systems now in use, either under individual state laws or as mandated by the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act. The report describes how slip-sliding into the current accountability requirements has resulted in a system so flawed that it fails in its…

  4. Civil Liability for Failing to Report Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehto, Neil J.

    1977-01-01

    The article examines the Landeros decision (which ruled that a doctor who fails to report a child abuse victim can be held liable for subsequent injuries inflicted on the child) and discusses three theories of proving civil liability for the failure to report child abuse victims. Addressed are the following topics: the problem of child abuse and…

  5. "It's All Human Error!": When a School Science Experiment Fails

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viechnicki, Gail Brendel; Kuipers, Joel

    2006-01-01

    This paper traces the sophisticated negotiations to re-inscribe the authority of Nature when a school science experiment fails during the enactment of a highly rated science curriculum unit. Drawing on transcriptions from classroom videotapes, we identify and describe four primary patterns of interaction that characterize this process, arguing…

  6. Failing hospitals: mission statements to drive service improvement?

    PubMed

    McDonald, Annabel; Sarfraz, Aamer

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to consider whether the hospital mission statement can be used as a management tool to improve service provision in failing hospitals. A literature search into the potential value and harm of hospital mission statements was done, followed by a survey of initial attitudes within a failing hospital. Do they indicate likely success of the tool? Mission statement is a potentially valuable leadership tool in the hospital environment. The success of its implementation is broadly dependent on its being developed with the support of stakeholders and its real application to all management decisions and questions of asset allocation. The potential danger lies in the fact that it can be seen as an expensive expression of politically correct platitudes which leads to cynical alienation of stakeholders. This was a small study within a single UK failing hospital, and extending its range will help to clarify whether its findings are typical of attitudes within such institutions. The likely success of the hospital mission statement as a management tool within a failing hospital is significantly limited by initial attitudes and preconceptions. Our research suggests that implementation is likely to be detrimental without preparatory involvement of the local community and hospital staff at all levels. Hospital management cannot be divorced from the local community where patient confidence must be maintained. This paper complements previous research, which has looked at mission statement acceptance among the upper echelons of hospital management.

  7. Graded versus Pass/Fail Evaluation for Clinical Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Patricia J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Presents a literature review on the effect of pass/fail grading for clinical courses on students' motivation and learning and discusses a survey of all National League for Nursing accredited graduate programs on its effect on a baccalaureate student's subsequent admission to graduate school. (JOW)

  8. Failing Boys! Beyond Crisis, Moral Panic and Limiting Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    For some time now, school boards, Ministries of Education, and the popular media have been expressing concerns about failing boys and how best to meet their needs, framing these concerns in terms of a crisis in which boys are the "new disadvantaged". This perspective does not provide an accurate representation of the problem and, in fact, detracts…

  9. Improving Charter School Accountability: The Challenge of Closing Failing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, David

    2012-01-01

    Today some 5,600 charter schools are in operation, with more than two million students. Some critics persist in a fruitless argument that these schools have failed, despite a mountain of evidence to the contrary. But regardless of your opinion about them, charter schools are here to stay. Those concerned about public education should quit debating…

  10. When Consensus Decision-Making Fails: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Grant T.

    Habermas's theory of dialogue was used to evaluate the process of decision making that occurred in a labor-management committee's meeting to discuss flextime. The study attempted to determine why, at that meeting, the committee's consensus process of decision making failed. W.R. Bion's theory of unconscious group motives was also used to…

  11. Majority-voted logic fail-sense circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    Fail-sense circuit has majority-voted logic component which receives three error voltage signals that are sensed at single point by three error amplifiers. If transistor shorts, only one signal is required to operate; if transistor opens, two signals are required.

  12. Plasma Brightenings in a Failed Solar Filament Eruption

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Ding, M. D., E-mail: yingli@nju.edu.cn

    2017-03-20

    Failed filament eruptions are solar eruptions that are not associated with coronal mass ejections. In a failed filament eruption, the filament materials usually show some ascending and falling motions as well as generating bright EUV emissions. Here we report a failed filament eruption (SOL2016-07-22) that occurred in a quiet-Sun region observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory . In this event, the filament spreads out but gets confined by the surrounding magnetic field. When interacting with the ambient magnetic field, the filament material brightens up and flows along the magnetic field lines through the coronamore » to the chromosphere. We find that some materials slide down along the lifting magnetic structure containing the filament and impact the chromosphere, and through kinetic energy dissipation, cause two ribbon-like brightenings in a wide temperature range. There is evidence suggesting that magnetic reconnection occurs between the filament magnetic structure and the surrounding magnetic fields where filament plasma is heated to coronal temperatures. In addition, thread-like brightenings show up on top of the erupting magnetic fields at low temperatures, which might be produced by an energy imbalance from a fast drop of radiative cooling due to plasma rarefaction. Thus, this single event of a failed filament eruption shows the existence of a variety of plasma brightenings that may be caused by completely different heating mechanisms.« less

  13. Remember John Holt and "How Children Fail?" A Book Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costley, Kevin C.

    2006-01-01

    In the book, "How Children Fail", John Holt simply but honestly records classroom interactions in a refreshing, realistic and humorous style of delivery. Many of Holt's real stories have to do with teachers often falling into the trap of asking students questions and looking only for "right answers." Holt's main thrust is child failure in a…

  14. Conversion of failed modern unicompartmental arthroplasty to total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Levine, W N; Ozuna, R M; Scott, R D; Thornhill, T S

    1996-10-01

    Between January 1983 and January 1991, 29 patients (31 knees) with a failed Robert Brigham metal-backed knee arthroplasty (Johnson & Johnson, Raynham, MA) underwent revision to a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Twenty-five patients had osteoarthritis, three avascular necrosis, and one rheumatoid arthritis. The average patient age was 72.3 years (range, 49-88 years), and the average weight was 179 lb. (range, 112-242 lb.). The interval between the primary and secondary index procedures averaged 62 months (range, 7-106 months), and mean postrevision follow-up period was 45 months (range, 24-104 months). The primary mechanism of failure of the UKA was tibial polyethylene wear in 21 knees and opposite compartment progression of arthritis in 10 knees. Sixteen knees had particulate synovitis with dense metallic staining of the synovium. At revision, the posterior cruciate ligament was spared in 30 knees and substituted in 1 knee. Restoration of bony deficiency at revision required cancellous bone-graft for contained defects in seven knees, tibial wedges in four knees, and femoral wedges in two knees. No defects received structural allografts. The data suggest that failed, modern unicompartmental knee arthroplasty can successfully be converted to TKA. In most cases, the posterior cruciate ligament can be spared and bone defects corrected with simple wedges or cancellous grafts. Moreover, the results of revision of failed unicompartmental knee arthroplasty are superior to those of failed TKA and failed high tibial osteotomy and comparable to the authors' results of primary TKA with similar-length follow-up periods. Although these results are encouraging, longer-term follow-up evaluation is required to determine survivorship of these revision arthroplasties.

  15. Acceptance of internet-based hearing healthcare among adults who fail a hearing screening.

    PubMed

    Rothpletz, Ann M; Moore, Ashley N; Preminger, Jill E

    2016-09-01

    This study measured help-seeking readiness and acceptance of existing internet-based hearing healthcare (IHHC) websites among a group of older adults who failed a hearing screening (Phase 1). It also explored the effects of brief training on participants' acceptance of IHHC (Phase 2). Twenty-seven adults (age 55+) who failed a hearing screening participated. During Phase 1 participants were administered the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA) and patient technology acceptance model (PTAM) Questionnaire. During Phase 2 participants were randomly assigned to a training or control group. Training group participants attended an instructional class on existing IHHC websites. The control group received no training. The PTAM questionnaire was re-administered to both groups 4-6 weeks following the initial assessment. The majority of participants were either considering or preparing to do something about their hearing loss, and were generally accepting of IHHC websites (Phase 1). The participants who underwent brief IHHC training reported increases in hearing healthcare knowledge and slight improvements in computer self-efficacy (Phase 2). Older adults who fail hearing screenings may be good candidates for IHHC. The incorporation of a simple user-interface and short-term training may optimize the usability of future IHHC programs for this population.

  16. Microdiscectomy for lumbosacral disc herniation and frequency of failed disc surgery.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad; Parekh, Maria Adnan; Bari, Muhammad Ehsan; Enam, Syed Ather; Khursheed, Faraz

    2010-12-01

    Microdiscectomy for lumbosacral disc herniations is one of the most commonly performed neurosurgical procedures. The patient demographics, symptomatology, and recovery are highly variable, and surgical outcomes depend on several factors, including patient demographics. Failed disc surgery refers to failure of improvement in patient's symptoms following microdiscectomy, and has been observed to occur in up to 12% of patients. To date, no study form Pakistan has looked into patient demographics and failed disc surgery rates within the local context. The aim of this study was to review the demographics of the patient population presenting for surgical treatment of lumbosacral disc herniations and to review our results of lumbosacral microdiscectomy at a university hospital in Pakistan. This is a retrospective analysis of all adult patients admitted from January 2003 to January 2008 for symptomatic lumbosacral disc herniation requiring microdiscectomy, at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. Data were collected through our medical records, on a standardized form. Basic information about the patient population, disease process, modes of nonsurgical treatment, and details on surgery and postoperative course were recorded and analyzed using SPSS. Five hundred one patients were studied, based on inclusion criteria. The mean age was 41.2 years; 347 (69%) patients were male and 154 (31%) female. Mean body mass index of the population was 26 and was higher in females. All patients primarily presented with radiculopathy, and the mean duration of these symptoms was 438 days. Mean duration of nonoperative management was 53 weeks. Fifty-one patients (10.2%) had previously undergone spine surgery. A total of 442 (88%) patients were operated at single disc level, and the rest at two levels. Sixty-six (13%) patients were operated for upper lumbar disc herniations. Mean operative time was 94 minutes, and the most common complication was dural tear. Mean length of hospital stay

  17. Prevalence and treatment of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG) in the British Armed Forces: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Dufty, J; Gkranias, N; Petrie, A; McCormick, R; Elmer, T; Donos, N

    2017-07-01

    Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG) has been seen in military populations throughout history. This study aims to determine the prevalence, treatment modality and risk factors associated with NUG in the British Armed Forces. A whole population dataset of the British Armed Forces was searched to determine cases of NUG during the period 1 January to 31 December 2012. Individual case records were identified, and a case-control study undertaken with data gathered and analysed against a randomised control group, matched for age, sex and service. A prevalence rate for NUG of 0.11 % was determined against the whole military population. The majority of cases received (alone or in combination) the following: oral hygiene instruction (66.5 %), antibiotics (64.4 %) and a mouthwash (58.1 %). Of the cases, 48.7 % received debridement. Analgesics were only prescribed in 8.4 % of the cases, and smoking cessation advice was only given in 10.7 % of the cases. Analysis of risk factors against the control group showed an increase in odds ratios for diagnosis of NUG of 3.4 (95 % CI 2.0-5.7) for current smokers and 7.3 (95 % CI 1.9-28.0) for individuals with an overall Basic Periodontal Examination (BPE) score of 3. Whilst NUG is a rare disease, it is evident from this study that it still occurs within the British Armed Forces. A strong association was shown between NUG and current smokers and those cases with an overall BPE score of 3. This study provides prevalence data for NUG in the British Armed Forces and description of its treatment and associated risk factors. Oral hygiene and smoking must be addressed in patients with NUG and prescribing protocols should be carefully followed.

  18. Rates of problematic gambling in a British homeless sample: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Steve; Dreyer, Jenny; Aitken, Mike; Clark, Luke; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2015-06-01

    Homelessness and problem gambling are two public health concerns in the UK that are rarely considered concurrently, and little is known about the extent of gambling involvement and problematic gambling in the homeless. We recruited 456 individuals attending homelessness services in London, U.K. All participants completed a screen for gambling involvement, and where gambling involvement was endorsed, the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) was administered. The PGSI risk categories were compared against data from the 2010 British Gambling Prevalence Survey (BGPS). PGSI problem gambling was indicated in 11.6% of the homeless population, compared to 0.7% in the BGPS. Of participants endorsing any PGSI symptoms, a higher proportion of homeless participants were problem gamblers relative to the low and moderate risk groups, compared to the BGPS data. These results confirm that the homeless constitute a vulnerable population for problem gambling, and that diagnostic tools for gambling involvement should be integrated into homelessness services in the U.K.

  19. Seniors' prescription drug cost inflation and cost containment: evidence from British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Steven G; Agnew, Jonathan D; Barer, Morris L

    2004-06-01

    We develop an analytic framework to map out the nature and relative importance of different cost-driving trends in the prescription drug market. This is used to measure prescription drug cost-drivers for the population of seniors in British Columbia during a period when they received comprehensive public drug coverage. Between 1991 and 2001, expenditures on prescription drugs for BC seniors increased from dollar 149 to 320 million. Increases in the population of seniors, and the rate at which they utilized therapies contributed under half of the total cost increase over the period. Changes in the mix of therapies and the type of product selected explained over half of the observed drug expenditure inflation. Increased generic substitution significantly reduced the price of products selected over the period.

  20. English for "Old" Canadians: The Finnish Project in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, John A.

    The Finnish-Canadian Citizenship Project was organized to teach English to older Canadians of Finnish descent in British Columbia. The 24 enrollees had between one and ten years of formal schooling. The Finnish Canadians use a dialect of English words with Finnish pronunciations that must be unlearned in order to learn English. The students…

  1. Export Market Orientation Behavior of Universities: The British Scenario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asaad, Yousra; Melewar, T. C.; Cohen, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to extend our knowledge of export market orientation (EMO) in the context of British universities with regard to recruitment of international students. Export marketing remains an area of limited focus in the marketization of higher education literature. The study predominantly follows a quantitative research design using survey…

  2. Learning to Be. A Perspective from British Columbia, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbert, Judy; Kaser, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how "learning to be", with a specific focus on social-emotional competencies, has become part of the educational mindset--and educational policy--in British Columbia, Canada. The development of a set of learning progressions for social responsibility, an emphasis on social emotional learning in the new curriculum…

  3. Body Image and Physical Activity in British Secondary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Michael J.; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Nevill, Alan; Jones, Marc V.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between children's body image and physical activity and examined any variation in these variables. Two hundred and seventy seven British secondary school children aged 11 to 14 (mean age [plus or minus] SD = 12.5 [plus or minus] 0.8 years) participated in this study. Results indicated no significant…

  4. A Pragmatic Study of Exaggeration in British and American Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbas, Qassim; Al-Tufaili, Dhayef

    2016-01-01

    The main concern of this study is to tackle exaggeration in British and American situations taken from "Mrs. Dalloway" and "The Great Gatsby" novels. From a pragmatic point of view, exaggeration in the field of literature has not been given enough attention. Accordingly, this study is an attempt to develop a model for the…

  5. Labour Trends and Training Needs in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Susan P.

    In an effort to meet the training needs of the British Columbia (BC) labor force, Open College (OC), in Burnaby, has focused future activities on market-driven, employer-centered training programs utilizing advanced technologies and traditional on-site instructional methods. Designed to ensure that these courses and programs reflect actual labor…

  6. Speech Act Variation in British and American English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creese, Angela

    Comparisons of British English and American English in the past have concentrated on similarities and differences at the phonetic, semantic, and syntactic level, while overlooking variation at the socio-cultural level. This paper examines how cultural differences are reflected in five speech acts: requesting, thanking, apologizing, complimenting,…

  7. Discipline and the Discipline: Histories of the British Public Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peatling, G. K.

    2003-01-01

    Suggests that historians of British public libraries may be restricted in their ability to pose certain questions about their subject matter because of the structure of the institutions of library history. Discusses problem patrons; critiques of public libraries; and library access and social exclusion. (Contains 95 references.) (Author/LRW)

  8. Reflections from mantle fault zones around the British Isles

    SciTech Connect

    Flack, C.A.; Klemperer, S.L.; McGeary, S.E.

    1990-06-01

    British Institutions Reflection Profiling Syndicate (BIRPS) deep seismic reflection surveys show that the upper mantle around the British Isles is reflective, exhibiting discrete, isolated reflecting zones within an otherwise seismically transparent mantle. There are 20 known occurrences of reflectors within the upper mantle across the continental shelf of the British Isles, many delimited by intersecting or closely spaced profiles. Most of the mantle reflectors have similar reflection characteristics: they dip 10{degree} to 30 {degree} and are thin ({approximately}0.5 s ({approximately} 2 km)) and discrete. The geologic history of the continental shelf around the British Isles (an area 1000 x 1000more » km) is complex, and the tectonic settings of these reflectors very. Each mantel reflector is associated with a major zone of deformation in the crust. This association, the dips of the reflectors, and their high reflectivity all indicate a structural origin. The BIRPS mantle reflectors include probable early Paleozoic thrusts and Mesozoic normal faults. In contrast to BIRPS data, deep reflection profiles in other areas of the world, in a variety of geologic settings, have only rarely imaged reflectors within the upper mantle.« less

  9. Administrative and Organizational Structures in American, British, and Continental Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron

    This paper, written in 1991, examines some of the problems related to technological and cultural change common to American, British, and continental universities citing, for example, global competition; adaptability of the national workforce; changing concepts about the role of higher education; changing relationships among business, governments,…

  10. American and British Business-Related Spelling Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, James Calvert

    2004-01-01

    English language business-related documents around the world contain purposeful spelling differences that reflect two standards, American English and British English. Given the importance of culturally acceptable spelling, the need to be aware of and sensitive to cultural differences, and strong reactions to variation in spelling, it is important…

  11. Popular Music Pedagogy: Band Rehearsals at British Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There has been little published pedagogical research on popular music group rehearsing. This study explores the perceptions of tutors and student pop/rock bands about the rehearsals in which they were involved as a part of their university music course. The participants were 10 tutors and 16 bands from eight British tertiary institutions. Analysis…

  12. Soldier Education in the British Army, 1920-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Jim

    2008-01-01

    This article surveys the history of compulsory education for soldiers' career advancement in the British army. It begins with an examination of the organizational context before analyzing the rationale, syllabus, teaching and assessment of soldier education. It concludes that for members of the army education organization their self-perception as…

  13. Large export coal mine inaugurated in British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-10-01

    The Greenhills coal mine in British Columbia, opened in 1983, is a joint venture between Westar Mining Ltd. and Pohan Iron and Steel Ltd. of South Korea. It will produce both metallurgical and steam coal for export. The coal deposit characteristics and surface mining operations are briefly described. (CKK)

  14. Aboriginal University Student Success in British Columbia: Time for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oloo, James Alan

    2007-01-01

    Educational outcomes for Aboriginal students in British Columbia, and Canada in general, are a cause for considerable concern. High dropout rates, low participation, completion and success rates at educational institutions have challenged educators for decades. Solutions have included lowering admission requirements for Aboriginal candidates and…

  15. The Influence of English on British Sign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    1999-01-01

    Details the influence of English on British Sign Language (BSL) at the syntactic, morphological, lexical, idiomatic, and phonological levels. Shows how BSL uses loan translations, fingerspellings, and the use of mouth patterns derived from English language spoken words to include elements from English. (Author/VWL)

  16. British Columbia Library Network. Final Report: Phase 1 Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, R. W.

    This report presents results from Phase 1 of the British Columbia Library Network (BCLN) Project, which included the installation and evaluation of a comprehensive library cataloging system using the University of Victoria Computing Center IBM 4341 computer. Evaluation included actual use of the system, performance and cost studies, feature and…

  17. Olive Banks and the Collective Biography of British Feminism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Gaby

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers Olive Banks' work on charting the history and development of British feminism, and particularly her use of collective biography as a research and analytic tool. It is argued that while this has been seen as the least "fashionable" aspect of her work, it took forward C. Wright Mills' contention for one definition of…

  18. Media Education Issues for Classroom Investigation in British Primary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eke, Richard

    This discussion of issues that merit investigation in British primary schools focuses on those issues that concern the links between pedagogic positions, the practices these involve, the media education issues that are thus addressed, the consequences for the activities of the learner, and the critical understandings these practices facilitate. It…

  19. Educational Developments in the British West Indies: A Historical Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Chad O.

    2012-01-01

    Formal education within the English-speaking Caribbean Community (CARICOM) may be traced back to the establishment of Codrington grammar school in Barbados in 1743. After more than two centuries of British colonial rule the educational systems within CARICOM states continue to reflect the academic traditions of their former colonizer. Prior to…

  20. The British Peace Movement in the 1980's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reader, Mark

    The groups and personalities that comprise the British peace network are discussed and their activities are examined. The nuclear disarmament campaign is led by a combination of mass-based organizations, specialized interest groups, and individuals determined to end Britain's role as a nuclear weapons state and military base. Notable groups are…

  1. British Columbia: sex workers granted standing to challenge Criminal Code.

    PubMed

    Chu, Sandra Ka Hon

    2011-04-01

    On 12 October 2010, a majority of the Court of Appeal of British Columbia allowed the appeal of Shari Kiselbach and the Downtown Eastside Sex Workers United against Violence Society (SWUAV) regarding their standing to challenge provisions of the Criminal Code concerning prostitution.

  2. How Activity Systems Evolve: Making / Saving Salmon in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yew-Jin; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the history of a state-sponsored salmon enhancement project in British Columbia and to explicate the development of the former using cultural historical activity theory. We make thematic the notion of inner contradictions, which express themselves outwardly as a function of both quantitative and…

  3. Handbook to the Study of British Commonwealth Literature in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, R. T., Ed.

    This handbook (for use with R. T. Robertson's "Terra Incognita") contains three kinds of study aids: (1) notes on over 100 British Commonwealth authors, (2) a chronological arrangement (1830-1930) of the works of the above authors, and (3) glossaries of proper names, local slang, and other unusual terms found in literary works from New…

  4. Visual impact assessment in British oil and gas developments

    Treesearch

    Dennis F. Gillespie; Brian D. Clark

    1979-01-01

    Development of oil and gas resource in the North Sea has led to the application of visual impact assessment techniques to onshore oil and gas developments in the United Kingdom. Formal visual impact assessment methods are needed to supplement landscape evaluations and site selection studies. Three major orientations of British visual impact assessments are: the...

  5. Memos with Personality: A Model from British Technical Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Carole

    1986-01-01

    Notes that while American technical writing texts stress brevity and directness as important characteristics of business correspondence, British texts stress qualities of personality and courtesy, especially in the memo. Shows how to incorporate personality into correspondence, thereby building cooperation among colleagues. (FL)

  6. Towards the Identification and Management of Stress in British Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Marie; Ralph, Sue

    In many countries today teaching has been identified as one of the most stressful occupations. The total annual cost of stress to the British Education Service has been estimated as high as 360 million U.S. dollars. The objective of this research study with teachers in the Department of Education at the University of Manchester was to identify…

  7. How Should British Universities Plan for the 1980s?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shattock, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    From a period of expansion to a period of retrenchment, British policy towards universities called for new approaches to university planning. Major internal reviews of some universities are examined, and approaches combining short term planning with longer term strategic objectives are outlined. (Author/MLW)

  8. British Literature: Discipline Analysis. Women in the Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Susan

    This essay examines the ways in which British literature, as a discipline, has been influenced by feminist scholarship and research into the areas of gender and sexuality. It reports that feminist literary criticism took definitive shape in the late 1960s as part of the women's liberation movement, and that a central concern of this first…

  9. Ethnic, Gender and Class Intersections in British Women's Leadership Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Showunmi, Victoria; Atewologun, Doyin; Bebbington, Diane

    2016-01-01

    A qualitative study was conducted to examine how gender and ethnicity influenced leadership experiences of a mixed ethnic sample of British women. An intersectional framework was used which took the viewpoint that socio-demographic identities should be considered simultaneously in order to challenge universalist, gender and ethnic neutral…

  10. John Dewey's Democracy and Education: A British Tribute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Steve, Ed.; Coffield, Frank, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    In 1916 John Dewey published "Democracy and Education: An introduction to the philosophy of education". In this book some of today's foremost historians, philosophers, psychologists, and sociologists of education mark the anniversary of Dewey's work by reviewing and reflecting, from a British perspective, on Dewey's contribution to our…

  11. Motherhood, Choice and the British Media: A Time to Reflect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadfield, L.; Rudoe, N.; Sanderson-Mann, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we ask: How is motherhood being represented in the British media, especially in relation to choice, age and fertility? Do media discourses reflect a redefinition or transformation of "motherhood" in the twenty-first century, and what implications do they have for feminist research into maternal identity and motherhood? As…

  12. Patriotism in British Schools: Teachers' and Students' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Michael; Pearce, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Because there are good arguments both for and against loving one's country, patriotism should be taught as a controversial issue in schools. But is this pedagogical approach practically viable in the British educational context? Here we report on a small-scale survey of teachers and students in secondary schools and show that their perspectives…

  13. Deaf People as British Sign Language Teachers: Experiences and Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atherton, Martin; Barnes, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    Little research has been undertaken into the profession of British Sign Language (BSL) teaching, despite a huge increase in the number of BSL classes offered over the past twenty years. Following the introduction of Qualified Teacher Learning and Skills standards in 2007, BSL teachers working in "further education" (FE) colleges were…

  14. The Discursive Framing of International Education Programs in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cover, Dwayne

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how international education programs in British Columbia have been discursively framed by government and media sources. Over the past two decades, international education programs have expanded in number and scale in the province, a phenomenon that has been interpreted by some education researchers and media sources as…

  15. Eight Teaching Modules for a Course on Major British Authors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Denzell

    Each of eight modules in this course guide focuses on a specific work of British literature from a particular historical period. Each module contains descriptions of rationale, objectives, instructional activities, postassessment, remediation procedures for that particular unit of study, and a list of titles for additional reading. Subjects of the…

  16. The British Library Initiatives for Access Seminar: Digital Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of the British Library's Initiatives for Access program which uses digital imaging. Highlights include digitization of microfilm, the electronic "Beowulf", electronic photographic viewing system, computer software that uses neural networks and fuzzy matching to provide links to search terms, and international…

  17. Muslims, Home Education and Risk in British Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Martin; Bhopal, Kalwant

    2018-01-01

    The number of families who choose to home educate has significantly increased in the last decade. This article explores the experiences of British Muslims who home educate using data from a larger study exploring the views of a diverse range of families. Drawing on the work of Beck, we discuss how 'risk' is understood in relation to Muslim home…

  18. British Columbia Library Network: A Study of Feasibility. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoffner, Ralph M.; Madden, Mary A.

    This feasibility study was conducted to collect financial, operational, and other data concerning the alternatives of continuing with the University of Toronto Library Automation System (UTLAS), the present supplier of catalog support to the British Columbia Union Catalogue (BCUC) participating libraries, or of replicating the Washington Library…

  19. A Review of Special Education in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Linda; Ladyman, Stewart

    This report presents findings of a special team to review special education policy, its implementation, accountability, and program effectiveness in British Columbia. The team identified a set of issues to address including: inclusion/integration, parental involvement, assessment, Individual Education Plans, evaluation, transitions, employees who…

  20. British Pakistani lesbians existing within the confines of the closet.

    PubMed

    Siraj, Asifa

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the complex interaction between ethnicity, gender and [homo]sexuality and how this creates a framework of stigma that compels some British Pakistani lesbians to remain within the closet. The 'closet' here is a metaphor that describes the concealment of one's homosexual identity and the outward 'performance' of heterosexuality. British Pakistani lesbians precariously inhabit a sociocultural environment that constrains the expression of female sexuality. Women who oppose and contravene heteronormative values and ideals unsettle comfortable assumptions of heterosexuality. Being in the closet keeps lesbians isolated and marginalised from their ethnic and cultural communities. Drawing on findings from online interviews with seven British Pakistani lesbians, the study explores what shapes their decision to stay within the closet and how doing so influences their self-perception. Being in the closet is a source of considerable conflict, strain and anxiety, which has an impact on the women's readiness to embrace individual choice, freedom and desire. Findings orientate the reader toward an understanding of the multiple, interlocking systems of social relations within which British Pakistani lesbians are marginalised as the result of their gender, sexuality and ethnic identity.

  1. The Meanings of the Modals in British and American English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Jennifer; Leech, Geoffrey

    1980-01-01

    Some results are reported of an investigation into the meanings of the English modal auxiliary verbs. The corpus consisted of the one million word Brown University corpus of American English and a matching Lancaster University corpus of British English. The three factors operative in the study were: (1) contextual features, that is, co-occurring…

  2. American and British English Compared. Specialised Bibliography A5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This bibliography consists of a select list of books and articles pertaining to a comparison of American and British English. Entries include studies of linguistic contrasts, sociolinguistic comparisons, differences in language usage, some diachronic topics, and reference materials such as dictionaries. Entries include both American and European…

  3. Nostalgic constructions of nurse education in British national newspapers.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Karen

    2014-11-01

    To explore nostalgic constructions of nurse education in British National newspapers. British newspaper discourse relating to the increased academic level of nurse education in the UK is negative, evoking comparisons between negative constructions of nurse education in the present and an idealized nostalgic view of the past. Discussion paper. This study used a critical discourse analysis approach to analyse 11 British Newspaper articles, which exemplify nostalgic constructions of nurse education. This was a purposive sample from a database search (LexisNexis) of British national newspaper articles relating to the increasing academic level of nurse education in the period from 1999-2012. A dominant nostalgic discourse constructs a 'golden era' of nurse education, which idealizes the past, making the present flawed in comparison. Nostalgic constructions create group identities creating contrasting 'caring' nurses educated in the idealized past with those educated now, who are perceived as too educated to care. An inherent characteristic of the nostalgic discourse is the notion that the solution to current problems with nurse education is a return to an idealized version of the past. Another less common newspaper discourse views nostalgia as a problematic construct. Nostalgic discourse with a focus on the past potentially acts as a barrier to creating an effective nurse education system for the 21(st) Century. This focus on an idealized past also has potential consequences in terms of public opinion and legitimization of government policy, which might otherwise be viewed as retrograde. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Rethinking Apprenticeship Training in the British Construction Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The British government continued intervention to support apprenticeship training across the economy has been notable in recent years. The construction industry is the only sector to retain a levy/grant scheme (that supports training including apprenticeships) since 1964, yet it still faces the problem of skills shortages. This article thus reviews…

  5. Youth, Heroin, Crack: A Review of Recent British Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddon, Toby

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the research evidence on recent British trends in the use of heroin and/or crack-cocaine by young people in order to appraise the scale and nature of the contemporary health problem they pose. Design/methodology/approach: The approach consists of a narrative review of the main current data sources on…

  6. Judging Risk: Key Determinants in British Domestic Violence Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Amanda L.; Howarth, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Data from the largest study to date of the working practices of British victim support workers (known as Independent Domestic Violence Advisors or IDVAs) are used to provide insight into how "risk judgments" are made in cases of domestic violence. Using data from more than 2,000 victims, this study found a convergence between actuarial…

  7. A British Intellectual Pioneers a New Model for College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2013-01-01

    This article profiles A.C. Grayling, a British intellectual who pioneers a new model for college. In his role as founder of the New College of the Humanities, Britain's newest and most controversial institution of higher education, A.C. Grayling could have chosen among several titles. The senior academic officer at most English higher-education…

  8. Why Study Abroad? Sorting of Chinese Students across British Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cebolla-Boado, Héctor; Hu, Yang; Soysal, Yasemin Nuhog¯lu

    2018-01-01

    This research contributes to the booming literature on the mobility of international students in higher education. We analyse university-level factors that affect the sorting of Chinese international students across British universities. We produced a unique data-set merging university-level data from the 2014 UK Higher Education Statistics Agency…

  9. The Historiography of British Imperial Education Policy, Part I: India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Clive

    2005-01-01

    Colonial education has been controversial and widely divergent interpretations have been offered from contrasting ideological perspectives. British imperial education policy was highly contended during the colonial era and remains a contentious issue amongst many contemporary historians and a critical review of the historiography of the subject is…

  10. Mission Groups and the New Politics of British Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filippakou, Ourania; Tapper, Ted

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the emergence and impact of the mission groups in British higher education. The central argument is that given the development of a mass and diversified model of higher education it was inevitable that the higher education institutions would form pressure groups, while increased marketisation and growing inter-institutional…

  11. Uncorrected refractive error in older British adults: the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Sherwin, Justin C; Khawaja, Anthony P; Broadway, David; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Dalzell, Nichola; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate the prevalence of, and demographic associations with, uncorrected refractive error (URE) in an older British population. Methods Data from 4428 participants, aged 48–89 years, who attended an eye examination in the third health check of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk study and had also undergone an ophthalmic examination were assessed. URE was defined as ≥1 line improvement of visual acuity with pinhole-correction in the better eye in participants with LogMar presenting visual acuity (PVA) <0.3 (PVA <6/12). Refractive error was measured using an autorefractor without cycloplegia. Myopia was defined as spherical equivalent ≤−0.5 dioptre, and hypermetropia ≥0.5 dioptre. Results Adjusted to the 2010 midyear British population, the prevalence of URE in this Norfolk population was 1.9% (95% CI 0.6% to 3.1%). Lower self-rated distance vision was correlated with higher prevalence of URE (ptrend<0.001). In a multivariate logistic regression model adjusting for age, gender, retirement status, educational level and social class, independent significant associations with URE were increasing age (ptrend<0.001) and having hypermetropic or myopic refractive error. Wearing distance spectacles was inversely associated with URE (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.55, p<0.001). There were 3063 people (69.2%) who wore spectacles/contact lenses for distance vision. Spectacle wear differed according to type of refractive error (p<0.001), and use rose with increasing severity of refractive error (ptrend<0.001). Conclusion Although refractive error is common, the prevalence of URE was found to be low in this population reflecting a low prevalence of PVA<0.3. PMID:22535330

  12. Uncorrected refractive error in older British adults: the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Sherwin, Justin C; Khawaja, Anthony P; Broadway, David; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Dalzell, Nichola; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the prevalence of, and demographic associations with, uncorrected refractive error (URE) in an older British population. Data from 4428 participants, aged 48-89 years, who attended an eye examination in the third health check of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk study and had also undergone an ophthalmic examination were assessed. URE was defined as ≥1 line improvement of visual acuity with pinhole-correction in the better eye in participants with LogMar presenting visual acuity (PVA) <0.3 (PVA <6/12). Refractive error was measured using an autorefractor without cycloplegia. Myopia was defined as spherical equivalent ≤-0.5 dioptre, and hypermetropia ≥0.5 dioptre. Adjusted to the 2010 midyear British population, the prevalence of URE in this Norfolk population was 1.9% (95% CI 0.6% to 3.1%). Lower self-rated distance vision was correlated with higher prevalence of URE (p(trend)<0.001). In a multivariate logistic regression model adjusting for age, gender, retirement status, educational level and social class, independent significant associations with URE were increasing age (p(trend)<0.001) and having hypermetropic or myopic refractive error. Wearing distance spectacles was inversely associated with URE (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.55, p<0.001). There were 3063 people (69.2%) who wore spectacles/contact lenses for distance vision. Spectacle wear differed according to type of refractive error (p<0.001), and use rose with increasing severity of refractive error (p(trend)<0.001). Although refractive error is common, the prevalence of URE was found to be low in this population reflecting a low prevalence of PVA<0.3.

  13. Body shape in American and British adults: between-country and inter-ethnic comparisons.

    PubMed

    Wells, J C K; Cole, T J; Bruner, D; Treleaven, P

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies indicate differences between British and American white adults, and between income and ethnic groups within the United States, in the population distribution of lifestyle diseases. Differential prevalence of obesity has been suggested as a contributing factor; however, the conventional approach to categorizing obesity, body mass index, is confounded by ethnic variability in physique. To compare indices of shape between white British and American adults, and between white, African and Hispanic American adults. Analysis of two large National Sizing Surveys, using identical study design and three-dimensional (3D) body-scanning instrumentation, on adults aged 17+ years from the UK (3907M and 4710F white), and from the USA (1744M and 3329F white, 709M and 1106F African and 639M and 839F Hispanic). Weight, height, body circumferences. In the United States, socio-economic status was associated with increasing height and decreasing waist girth in white and Hispanic, but not African Americans. Compared to white British, white Americans had larger weight and girths, especially waist girth in men. Relative to white Americans, African Americans had smaller relative waist girth, but larger thigh girth, whereas Hispanic Americans had larger relative waist girth. Body shape of white American adults differs from that of their UK counterparts. Within Americans, ethnic differences in body shape closely track reported differences in prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, implicating variability in central abdominal fat as a key contributing factor. 3D photonic scanning offers a novel approach for categorizing risk of the metabolic syndrome and monitoring treatment success.

  14. Oral and pharyngeal cancer: practices and opinions of dentists in British Columbia and Nova Scotia.

    PubMed

    Clovis, Joanne B; Horowitz, Alice M; Poel, Dale H

    2002-01-01

    Oral and pharyngeal cancers are associated with high mortality rates, a situation usually attributed to late-stage diagnosis. Dentists in British Columbia and Nova Scotia were surveyed regarding their practices and opinions related to oral and pharyngeal cancer. In February 1998 a pretested, 41-item survey was mailed to a random sample of dentists in British Columbia (n = 817) and the population of dentists in Nova Scotia (N = 423). A reminder postcard and one additional mailing were sent to nonrespondents. Of the 670 dentists supplying usable responses (response rate 55.2%), only 56.7% agreed that their knowledge of the subject was current. Of 8 health history items, dentists assessed 5 on average, with most (88.0%) asking about the patients' current use of tobacco. A total of 72.7% of the responding dentists performed an oral cancer examination for all edentulous patients at every appointment, but 10.9% never did so. Similarly, 70.7% of the dentists always provided an oral cancer examination at the initial appointment for patients 40 years of age and older, but 9.8% never did so. Undergraduate training related to oral cancer examination was reported as good by only 52.2% of the dentists. About three-quarters of all dentists (77.0%) were interested in taking continuing education courses on this subject. Differences between the 2 provinces were not statistically significant (p > 0.01). Dentists in British Columbia and Nova Scotia could benefit from undergraduate and continuing education courses to increase their knowledge of health history assessment, examination for oral and pharyngeal cancers, and risk reduction strategies, such as counselling about tobacco cessation.

  15. Oral and pharyngeal cancer: knowledge and opinions of dentists in British Columbia and Nova Scotia.

    PubMed

    Clovis, Joanne B; Horowitz, Alice M; Poel, Dale H

    2002-01-01

    Oral and pharyngeal cancers are largely preventable and can be successfully treated when diagnosed at an early stage. Dentists in British Columbia and Nova Scotia were surveyed regarding their knowledge and opinions about oral and pharyngeal cancer. In February 1998 a pretested 41-item survey was mailed to a random sample of dentists in British Columbia and the population of dentists in Nova Scotia. A reminder postcard and one additional mailing were sent to nonrespondents. Of the 670 dentists supplying usable responses (response rate 55.2%) only 56.7% agreed that their knowledge of the subject was current. Most dentists correctly identified tobacco use (99.4%) and alcohol use (90.4%) as risk factors, but fewer correctly identified factors such as the use of spicy foods (57.0%) and poor oral hygiene (46.3%) as not being risk factors. Only 42.5% identified both erythroplakia and leukoplakia, in that order, as the conditions most likely associated with oral cancer. Indices of risk and diagnostic knowledge were constructed by summing the number of correct responses to items in each domain. On 16 risk factors the mean correct score was 9.2, and on 14 diagnostic procedures the mean correct score was 10.0. Only 38.5% of dentists had consistent levels of knowledge on both indices. Differences between the provinces were statistically significant (p < 0.01) for only 2 knowledge items. About three-quarters of all dentists (77.0%) were interested in taking continuing education courses. Dentists in British Columbia and Nova Scotia could benefit from undergraduate and continuing education courses to increase their knowledge of risk and diagnostic factors for oral cancer.

  16. Predictors of violence in young tourists: a comparative study of British, German and Spanish holidaymakers.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Karen; Bellis, Mark A; Calafat, Amador; Juan, Montse; Schnitzer, Susanne; Anderson, Zara

    2008-12-01

    International youth holiday resorts feature many of the key risk factors for violence, including large numbers of bars and nightclubs and high levels of substance use. However, little information currently exists on the extent of violence amongst holidaymakers or factors that increase risks of involvement in fights on holiday. A cross-sectional comparative survey of 3003 British, German and Spanish holidaymakers aged 16-35 years, undertaken in the departure areas of Ibiza and Majorca (Spain) airports. Nightlife was the most common reason for destination choice in both locations. Overall, more than half of participants reported drinking to drunkenness at least 2 days per week during their holiday (59.3% Majorca, 58.0% Ibiza; significantly lower in Spanish participants in both locations). Levels of illicit drug use were highest in Ibiza and in British and Spanish holidaymakers. Levels of violence were highest in Majorca, where 6.4% of participants reported involvement in a fight, compared with 2.8% in Ibiza. However, after controlling for confounding factors, holiday destination was not a significant predictor of violence. Predictors of fighting were being male, young, British, frequent drunkenness and use of cannabis or cocaine during the holiday. Use of ecstasy on holiday was associated with not being involved in violence. High levels of substance use contribute to violence being a relatively common feature of young people's visits to international holiday resorts. To protect the health and well-being of holidaymakers and local populations in popular resorts, violence and substance use prevention must adapt to an increasingly globalized nightlife.

  17. Application of the British Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system in a French food composition database.

    PubMed

    Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Touvier, Mathilde; Méjean, Caroline; Fezeu, Léopold; Hercberg, Serge

    2014-11-28

    Nutrient profiling systems are powerful tools for public health initiatives, as they aim at categorising foods according to their nutritional quality. The British Food Standards Agency (FSA) nutrient profiling system (FSA score) has been validated in a British food database, but the application of the model in other contexts has not yet been evaluated. The objective of the present study was to assess the application of the British FSA score in a French food composition database. Foods from the French NutriNet-Santé study food composition table were categorised according to their FSA score using the Office of Communication (OfCom) cut-off value ('healthier' ≤ 4 for foods and ≤ 1 for beverages; 'less healthy' >4 for foods and >1 for beverages) and distribution cut-offs (quintiles for foods, quartiles for beverages). Foods were also categorised according to the food groups used for the French Programme National Nutrition Santé (PNNS) recommendations. Foods were weighted according to their relative consumption in a sample drawn from the NutriNet-Santé study (n 4225), representative of the French population. Classification of foods according to the OfCom cut-offs was consistent with food groups described in the PNNS: 97·8 % of fruit and vegetables, 90·4 % of cereals and potatoes and only 3·8 % of sugary snacks were considered as 'healthier'. Moreover, variability in the FSA score allowed for a discrimination between subcategories in the same food group, confirming the possibility of using the FSA score as a multiple category system, for example as a basis for front-of-pack nutrition labelling. Application of the FSA score in the French context would adequately complement current public health recommendations.

  18. Patient perspectives of methadone formulation change in British Columbia, Canada: outcomes of a provincial survey.

    PubMed

    Greer, Alissa M; Hu, Sherry; Amlani, Ashraf; Moreheart, Sarah; Sampson, Olivia; Buxton, Jane A

    2016-01-14

    In British Columbia, Canada, methadone maintenance treatment formulation transitioned from the oral liquid compound Tang™-flavoured methadone to the ten-times more concentrated cherry-flavoured Methadose™ in February 2014. We quantitatively describe perceptions and reported consequences among a sample of patients on methadone maintenance treatment following this transition. A province-wide survey was used. Bivariable analyses utilized independent samples t-tests, Phi associations, and Chi-square tests. Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated factors related to dependent variables - namely, increases in dose, pain, dope sickness, and the need to supplement with additional opioids. Four hundred five methadone maintenance treatment patients from fifty harm reduction sites across British Columbia reported transitioning to Methadose™ in February 2014. The majority (n = 258; 73.1 %) heard about the formulation change from their methadone provider or pharmacist. Adjusted models show worse taste was positively associated with reporting an increasing dose (OR = 2.46; CI:1.31-4.61), feeling more dope sick (OR = 3.39; CI:1.88-6.12), and worsening pain (OR = 4.65; CI:2.45-8.80). Feeling more dope sick was positively associated with dose increase (OR = 2.24; CI:1.37-3.66), and supplementing with opioids (OR = 8.81; CI:5.16-15.05). Methadone maintenance treatment policy changes in British Columbia affect a structurally vulnerable population who may be less able to cope with transitions and loss of autonomy. There may be a psychosocial component contributing to the perception of Methadose™ tasting worse, and increased dope sickness, pain, and dose. Our study shows the pronounced negative impacts medication changes can have on patients without informed, coordinated efforts. We stress the need to engage all stakeholders allowing for communication about the reasons, risks and consequences of medication policy changes and provision of

  19. Registration for public drug benefits across areas of differing ethnic composition in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Leong, Vivian W; Morgan, Steve; Wong, Sabrina T; Hanley, Gillian E; Black, Charlyn

    2010-06-17

    In 2003, the government of British Columbia, Canada introduced a universal drug benefit plan to cover drug costs that are high relative to household income. Residents were required to register in order to be eligible for the income-based benefits. Given past research suggesting that registration processes may pose an access barrier to certain subpopulations, we aimed to determine whether registration rates varied across small geographic areas that differed in ethnic composition. Using linked population-based administrative databases and census data, we conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine whether the probability of registration for the public drug plan varied across areas of differing ethnic composition, controlling for household-level predisposing, enabling and needs factors. The adjusted odds of registration did not differ across regions characterized by high concentrations (greater than 30%) of residents identifying as North American, British, French or other European. Households located in areas with concentrations of residents identifying as an Asian ethnicity had the highest odds of program registration: Chinese (OR = 1.21, CI: 1.19-1.23) and South Asian (OR = 1.19, CI: 1.16-1.22). Despite this positive finding, households residing in areas with relatively high concentrations of recent immigrants had slightly lower adjusted odds of registering for the program (OR = 0.97, CI: 0.95-0.98). This study identified ethnic variation in registration for a new public drug benefit program in British Columbia. However, unlike previous studies, the variation observed did not indicate that areas with high concentrations of certain ethnicities experienced disadvantages. Potential explanations are discussed.

  20. If all ambulances could fly: putting provincial standards of emergency care access to the test in Northern British Columbia.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Jessica; Hanlon, Neil; Emmons, Scott; Voaklander, Don; Kelly, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Geographic access to emergency treatment remains an important public policy concern as rural emergency medical systems respond to various pressures to centralize services. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are effective tools to determine what proportion of a given population is adequately served by existing or proposed service distributions. This study compares 2 GIS approaches to determining whether recent standards of emergency care access established by the British Columbia Ministry of Health Services are being met in Northern British Columbia. In particular, we compare results obtained using the more commonly used straight-line, or "as the crow flies," method with those obtained using a more sophisticated method that estimates travel time using digitally referenced road network data. Both methods reveal that provincial standards of emergency access are not being met in Northern British Columbia. In terms of comparing the 2 approaches, the network technique indicated a lower level of access and was more accurate in identifying populations residing inside and outside the "golden hour" of emergency care.

  1. A first assessment of Fraxinus excelsior (common ash) susceptibility to Hymenoscyphus fraxineus (ash dieback) throughout the British Isles.

    PubMed

    Stocks, Jonathan J; Buggs, Richard J A; Lee, Steve J

    2017-11-29

    Ash dieback (ADB), caused by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, has severely damaged a large proportion of ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior) in continental Europe. We have little damage data for the British Isles where the disease was found only five years ago in the Southeast, and is still spreading. A large-scale screening trial to evaluate ADB damage to provenances of F. excelsior sourced from throughout the British Isles was planted in 2013 in the southeast of England. In 2016, we scored trees by their level of ADB damage observed in field at the two worst affected (based on assessments in 2015) of the 14 sites. Significant differences were found in average ADB damage among planting sites and seed source provenances. Trees from certain provenances in Scotland were the least damaged by ADB, whereas trees from Wales and Southeast England were the most badly damaged in both trial sites. Thus the levels of ADB damage currently seen in ash populations in Southeast England may not be an accurate predictor of the damage expected in future throughout the British Isles. Given all provenances contained some healthy trees, a breeding programme to produce genetically variable native ash tree populations with lower ADB susceptibility may be feasible.

  2. Fail-safe systems for the wearable artificial endocrine pancreas.

    PubMed

    Goriya, Y; Ueda, N; Nao, K; Yamasaki, Y; Kawamori, R; Shichiri, M; Kamada, T

    1988-11-01

    For the long-term clinical use of the wearable artificial endocrine pancreas, a fail-safe system is an essential mechanism. Several hardware alarm systems have been incorporated for battery-down, and short-run of the pumps. Software alarm systems for overflow or underflow of the AD converter, empty bags, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, abnormal values of parameters, and excessive insulin infusion have also been built into the system. The software noise filter was effective in eliminating superimposed artificial noises and the noises induced by muscle exercise. Sudden changes in sensor output during glycemic control of diabetics due to short circuit, or disconnection of the sensor lead, were detected as overflow or underflow of the AD converter. A gradual change in the sensor output was heralded by the hyper- or hypoglycemia alarm sound. These data indicated that the fail-safe system built into the wearable artificial endocrine pancreas is useful for the long-term glycemic control of diabetics.

  3. Complementary new approaches enable repositioning of failed drug candidates.

    PubMed

    Tartaglia, Louis A

    2006-11-01

    Until recently, safe drug candidates that failed in clinical trials were shelved as drug developers channelled resources to the next candidates in the pipeline. In the past few years, new technologies, improved genomic information and high-throughput methods have made it possible to quickly and economically re-examine advanced drug candidates for therapeutic activity against other diseases. This development arrives at an opportune time, as pharmaceutical companies strive to fill sparse late-stage pipelines at the same time as keeping costs down. Specialised companies are emerging with new methods and a fresh point of view to assist pharmaceutical developers in turning failed drug candidates from one therapeutic area into successful treatments in another. This editorial introduces a series of papers to be published in Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs, discussing discontinued drugs from 2005.

  4. Monotherapy with either dolutegravir or raltegravir fails to durably suppress HIV viraemia in humanized mice.

    PubMed

    Heredia, Alonso; Hassounah, Said; Medina-Moreno, Sandra; Zapata, Juan C; Le, Nhut M; Han, Yingshan; Foulke, James S; Davis, Charles; Bryant, Joseph; Redfield, Robert R; Wainberg, Mark A

    2017-09-01

    To compare the effectiveness of HIV integrase inhibitor monotherapy between raltegravir and dolutegravir as an approach to simplify therapy. We evaluated and compared the efficacy of 20 week monotherapy with dolutegravir or raltegravir in humanized mice (HSC-NSG) infected with HIVBaL. Plasma HIV RNA was measured by quantitative RT-PCR (limit of detection of 150 copies/45 μL of plasma) and drug levels by LC-MS/MS. Escape viruses were genotyped and analysed for replication capacity and drug susceptibility in tissue culture. Drug-untreated control mice maintained constant viraemia throughout the study. Virus isolates from these mice were susceptible to both raltegravir (EC50 of <8 nM) and dolutegravir (EC50 of <1 nM). Mice treated with raltegravir or dolutegravir had plasma drug levels comparable to those in humans. Monotherapy with raltegravir initially suppressed HIV viraemia, but failed to maintain suppression in 4/4 mice. Viruses from raltegravir failing mice developed mutations G140G/S and Q148H/K, and were resistant to both raltegravir (EC50 values of >100 nM) and dolutegravir (EC50 values ranging from 8.8 to 13.3 nM). Monotherapy with dolutegravir suppressed viraemia in 5/5 of mice, but viraemia rebounded in one animal. The virus from this mouse had mutations E138K, G140S, Q148H, N155H and S230R, was highly resistant to both raltegravir (EC50 of >1000 nM) and dolutegravir (EC50 of 550 nM), and replicated to levels similar to those of control viruses in PBMCs. Monotherapy with either raltegravir or dolutegravir does not consistently maintain HIV suppression, suggesting that dual therapy may be required in simplification strategies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. CT criteria of hemisphere asymmetry fail to predict language laterality.

    PubMed

    Henderson, V W; Naeser, M A; Weiner, J M; Pieniadz, J M; Chui, H C

    1984-08-01

    We compared CT measures of the left and right cerebral hemispheres for two groups of right-handed aphasic adults: those who were left-hemisphere language dominant (n = 89) and those who were right-hemisphere language dominant (n = 15). The distribution of linear CT measures of anterior and posterior widths and lengths did not differ significantly in the two groups. These findings fail to support the hypothesis that CT criteria of hemisphere asymmetry predict language laterality.

  6. Clinical Outcomes Associated with a Failed Infant Car Seat Challenge.

    PubMed

    Shah, Malika D; Dookeran, Keith A; Khan, Janine Y

    2017-01-01

    To assess comorbid conditions and clinical outcomes among late preterm and low birth weight term infants (<2.5 kg) who failed the Infant Car Seat Challenge (ICSC) on the Mother-Baby Unit. This was a retrospective chart review of consecutive infants who failed ICSC on the Mother-Baby Unit and were subsequently admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit at Prentice Women's Hospital between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2015. Regression models were used to estimate risk differences (RDs) with 95% CIs for factors related to length of stay. A total of 148 infants were studied (43% male; 37% delivered via cesarean). ICSC failure in the Mother-Baby Unit was due to desaturation, bradycardia, and tachypnea in 59%, 37%, and 4% of infants, respectively. During monitoring on the neonatal intensive care unit, 39% of infants experienced apnea (48% in preterm vs 17% in term infants) in the supine position, 19% received phototherapy, and 2% and 6.8% received nasogastric and thermoregulatory support, respectively. Univariate predictors of increased duration of stay (days) were younger gestational age, apnea, nasogastric support, intravenous fluids, and antibiotics (all P < .05). In multivariable analysis adjusted for gestational age and discharge weight, only apnea (RD, 4.87; 95% CI, 2.99-6.74; P < .001), administration of antibiotics (RD, 3.25; 95% CI, 0.29-6.21; P < .032), and intravenous fluid support (RD, 4.87; 95% CI, 0.076-9.66; P < .047) remained independent predictors of a longer duration of stay. Infants who failed ICSC were at risk for comorbid conditions that prolonged hospital stay beyond the neonatal intensive care unit observation period. Almost one-half of late preterm infants who failed ICSC had apnea events in the supine position. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fail-safe designs for large capacity battery systems

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Smith, Kandler; Ireland, John; Pesaran, Ahmad A.; Neubauer, Jeremy

    2016-05-17

    Fail-safe systems and design methodologies for large capacity battery systems are disclosed. The disclosed systems and methodologies serve to locate a faulty cell in a large capacity battery, such as a cell having an internal short circuit, determine whether the fault is evolving, and electrically isolate the faulty cell from the rest of the battery, preventing further electrical energy from feeding into the fault.

  8. 'HAs fail to consult Irish people in UK'.

    PubMed

    1992-11-10

    Health authorities are failing to consult local people on their health needs, a conference on the mental health of Irish people living in the UK heard last week. Consulting Irish people was often only 'symbolic', despite the requirements of the NHS and Community Care Act, conference Chair Padraic Kenna, Director of Innisfree Housing Association, told delegates. 'The Irish caught the boat in the 1950s only to miss the boat ever since,' he said.

  9. Management of the failed posterior/multidirectional instability patient.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, Brian; Ghodadra, Neil; Romeo, Anthony A; Provencher, Matthew T

    2010-09-01

    Although the results of operative treatment of posterior and multidirectional instability (P-MDI) of the shoulder have improved, they are not as reliable as those treated for anterior instability of the shoulder. This may be attributed to the complexities in the classification, etiology, and physical examination of a patient with suspected posterior and multidirectional instability. Failure to address the primary and concurrent lesion adequately and the development of pain and/or stiffness are contributing factors to the failure of P-MDI procedures. Other pitfalls include errors in history and physical examination, failure to recognize concomitant pathology, and problems with the surgical technique or implant failure. Patulous capsular tissues and glenoid version also play in role management of failed P-MDI patients. With an improved understanding of pertinent clinical complaints and physical examination findings and the advent of arthroscopic techniques and improved implants, successful strategies for the nonoperative and operative management of the patient after a failed posterior or multidirectional instability surgery may be elucidated. This article highlights the common presentation, physical findings, and radiographic workup in a patient that presents after a failed P-MDI repair and offers strategies for revision surgical repair.

  10. Rescue of failed filtering blebs with ab interno trephination.

    PubMed

    Shihadeh, Wisam A; Ritch, Robert; Liebmann, Jeffrey M

    2006-06-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of ab interno automated trephination as a technique for rescuing failed mature filtering blebs. A retrospective chart review of 40 failed blebs of 38 patients who had a posttrephination follow-up period of at least 3 months was done. With success defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) <21 mm Hg and at least a 20% reduction from baseline on the same or fewer number of pretrephination medications, 30/40 eyes (75%) fit these criteria over the entire course of follow-up. Among all 40 eyes, there was a significant reduction of IOP from pretrephination to 3 months (P<.001). The percentage of patients requiring 2 or more medications declined from 90% pretrephination to 21% at 3 months (P<.0001), and was stable thereafter. Some patients were able to eliminate all medications. Patients who did not meet the criteria of success regained successful IOP control with other modalities of management. Complications were few. We believe that ab interno trephination is an excellent option for rescuing selected failed filtering blebs.

  11. Management of the difficult and failed airway in obstetric anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Vasdev, Gurinder M; Harrison, Barry A; Keegan, Mark T; Burkle, Christopher M

    2008-01-01

    Difficulty with airway management in obstetric patients occurs infrequently and failure to secure an airway is rare. A failed airway may result in severe physical and emotional morbidity and possibly death to the mother and baby. Additionally, the family, along with the medical and nursing staff, may face emotional and financial trauma. With the increase in the number of cesarean sections performed under regional anesthesia, the experience and training in performing endotracheal intubations in obstetric anesthesia has decreased. This article reviews the management of the difficult and failed airway in obstetric anesthesia. Underpinning this important topic is the difference between the nonpregnant and pregnant state. Obstetric anatomy and physiology, endotracheal intubation in the obstetric patient, and modifications to the difficult airway algorithms required for obstetric patients will be discussed. We emphasize that decisions regarding airway management must consider the urgency of delivery of the baby. Finally, the need for specific equipment in the obstetric difficult and failed airway is discussed. Worldwide maternal mortality reflects the health of a nation. However, one could also claim that, particularly in Western countries, maternal mortality may reflect the health of the specialty of anesthesia.

  12. Failed tracheal intubation using a laryngoscope and intubating laryngeal mask.

    PubMed

    Asai, T; Hirose, T; Shingu, K

    2000-04-01

    To report unexpected failed tracheal intubation using a laryngoscope and an intubating laryngeal mask, and difficult ventilation via a facemask, laryngeal mask and intubating laryngeal mask, in a patient with an unrecognized lingual tonsillar hypertrophy. A 63-yr-old woman, who had undergone clipping of an aneurysm seven weeks previously, was scheduled for ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. At the previous surgery, there had been no difficulty in ventilation or in tracheal intubation. Her trachea remained intubated nasally for 11 days after surgery. Preoperatively, her consciousness was impaired. There were no restrictions in head and neck movements or mouth opening. The thyromental distance was 7 cm. After induction of anesthesia, manual ventilation via a facemask with a Guedel airway was suboptimal and the chest expanded insufficiently. At laryngoscopy using a Macintosh or McCoy device, only the tip of the epiglottis, but not the glottis, could be seen, and tracheal intubation failed. There was a partial obstruction during manual ventilation through either the intubating laryngeal mask or conventional laryngeal mask; intubation through each device failed. Digital examination of the pharynx, after removal of the laryngeal mask, indicated a mass occupying the vallecula. Lingual tonsillar hypertrophy (1 x 1 x 2 cm) was found to be the cause of the failure. Awake fibrescope-aided tracheal intubation was accomplished. Unexpected lingual tonsillar hypertrophy can cause both ventilation and tracheal intubation difficult, and neither the laryngeal mask nor intubating laryngeal mask may be helpful in the circumstances.

  13. The British Impact on German Education: A Triumph for Commonsense or a Missed Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    Traces educational developments in Germany after World War II and assesses the influence of British educational ideals on Germany's educational system. Information is based on "The British in Germany. Educational Reconstruction after 1945," by Arthur Hearnden. (DB)

  14. Public Health Crisis: the Need for Primary Prevention in Failed and Fragile States.

    PubMed

    Quinn, John; Stoeva, Preslava; Zelený, Tomáš; Nanda, Toozy; Tomanová, Alžběta; Bencko, Vladimír

    2017-09-01

    A new 'normal' in global affairs may be erupting from large global powers to that of non-state actors and proxies committing violence through scaled conflict in a post-Westphalian world generating significant global health policy challenges. Health security of populations are multifactorial and indirectly proportional to war, conflict and disaster. Preventing conflict and avoiding the health vacuum that occurs in war and violence may be best practices for policy makers. This paper considers an approach of applying clinical primary prevention principles to global health policy. Brief policy review of current standards and practices in health security in fragile and failed states and prevention; and definitions discussion. A short case study series are presented with best practices, with risk and outcome review. The global balance of power and order may be shifting through geopolitical transference and inadequate action by major global power brokers. Health security in at risk nation-states may be decreasing as a result. Small scale conflict with large-scale violence threatens health security and may experience increased incidence and prevalence in fragile and failed states. Preventative policy to resuscitate fragile and failed states and prevent further external and internal shocks may support health and promote a positive feedback loop of further state stability and increased health security. Public health policy shift to mitigate state failure and public health crisis in war and conflict through the basis of primary prevention may provide best practices and maximize health security for at risk populations. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017

  15. Abandoned Ideology: How the Iranian Revolution Failed Islamic Economics and Embraced Populism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    government in Iran offered the potential for one of the first modern examples of Islamic economic theory instituted on a national scale. The ideology...the Islamic government in Iran offered the potential for one of the first modern examples of Islamic economic theory instituted on a national scale...family. My sons, Noah and Mitchell, who served every day as a reminder that nothing is as important as the love of one’s children. But it has been

  16. Transcatheter versus surgical valve replacement for a failed pulmonary homograft in the Ross population.

    PubMed

    Alassas, Khadija; Mohty, Dania; Clavel, Marie Annick; Husain, Aysha; Hijji, Talal; Aljoufan, Mansour; Alhalees, Zohair; Fadel, Bahaa M

    2018-04-01

    Patients who undergo the Ross procedure are at increased risk of pulmonary valve (PV) homograft dysfunction. For those who require reintervention on the homograft, transcatheter PV replacement (tPVR) provides a less invasive therapeutic option than surgical PVR (sPVR). We examined the outcomes following tPVR versus sPVR in a cohort of patients who underwent the Ross procedure. We performed a retrospective analysis of Ross patients age ≥14 years who underwent tPVR (n = 47) or sPVR (n = 41) at our institution. The patients' clinical and echocardiographic data were reviewed. Baseline parameters, including demographic data and left ventricular and right ventricular (RV) systolic function, were similar in the 2 groups. The mean follow-up was 56 ± 24 months for the tPVR group and 89 ± 46 months for the sPVR group (P < .001). No procedure-related mortality was noted in either group. At 6-year follow-up, there was no significant between-group difference in event-free survival (tPVR, 79% ± 7% vs sPVR, 91% ± 4%; P = .15) or PV reintervention (tPVR, 26% ± 9% vs sPVR, 8% ± 5%; P = .31). PV-associated infective endocarditis (IE) was significantly more common with tPVR (tPVR, 13% vs sPVR, 0%; P = .04), with an annualized rate of 2.98% per patient-year. In addition, there was a trend toward more valve dysfunction following sPVR (sPVR, 67% ± 8% vs tPVR, 35% ± 8%; P = .08). In Ross patients who require reintervention on the PV homograft, both tPVR and sPVR provide low procedural mortality and comparable midterm outcome with no significant difference in mortality or PV reintervention. However, IE is more common following tPVR. A larger randomized study is needed to determine the role of each procedure in patient management. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. "I'm Managing My Diabetes between Two Worlds": Beliefs and Experiences of Diabetes Management in British South Asians on Holiday in the East--A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neesha R; Kennedy, Anne; Blickem, Christian; Reeves, David; Chew-Graham, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is disproportionately high among British South Asians compared to the general UK population. Whilst the migrant British South Asians group has received most attention on research related to diabetes management, little consideration has been given to impact of travel back to the East. This study aimed to explore the role of social networks and beliefs about diabetes in British South Asians, to better understand their management behaviours whilst holidaying in the East. Semistructured interviews were conducted in Greater Manchester. Forty-four participants were recruited using random and purposive sampling techniques. Interviews were analysed thematically using a constant comparison approach. Migrant British South Asians expressed a strong preference to be in a hot climate; they felt they had a healthier lifestyle in the East and often altered or abandoned their diabetes medication. Information acquisition on diabetes and availability of social networks in the East was valued. Social networks in the East are a valued source of information and support for diabetes. The lack of adherence to medication whilst abroad suggests that some migrant British South Asians have a poor understanding of diabetes. Future research needs to explore whether patients are seeking professional advice on diabetes management prior to their extended holiday.

  18. Examination of failed retrieved temporomandibular joint (TMJ) implants.

    PubMed

    Kerwell, S; Alfaro, M; Pourzal, R; Lundberg, H J; Liao, Y; Sukotjo, C; Mercuri, L G; Mathew, M T

    2016-03-01

    In the management of end-stage temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD), surgeons must often resort to alloplastic temporomandibular joint (TMJ) total joint replacement (TJR) to increase mandibular function and form, as well as reduce pain. Understanding wear and failure mechanisms of TMJ TJR implants is important to their in vivo longevity. However, compared to orthopedic TJR devices, functional wear of failed TMJ TJR implants has not been examined. Not only do wear and corrosion influence TJR implant in vivo longevity, but so does reactivity of peri-implant tissue to these two events. The aim of this study was to examine and report on the wear of retrieved, failed metal-on-metal (MoM), metal-on-polymer (MoP), and titanium-nitride coated (TiN Coated) TMJ TJR implant components. A total cohort of 31 TMJ TJR devices were studied of which 28 were failed, retrieved TMJ TJRs, 3 were never implanted devices that served as controls. The mean time from implantation to removal was 7.24 years (range 3-15), SD 3.01. Optical microscopy, White Light Interferometry (WLI), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy were utilized to characterize the surfaces of the devices. Data was acquired and evaluated by analyzing alloy microstructure. Substantial surface damage was observed between the articulating areas of the condylar head and the glenoid fossa components. Damage included pitting corrosion, evidence of deposited corrosion products, specific wear patterns, hard phases, surface depressions, and bi-directional scratches. Electrochemical analysis was performed on the MoM Control, retrieved, failed MoM, and TiN Coated devices. Electrochemical tests consisted of open circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests conducted using the condylar head of the retrieved failed devices. EIS confirmed material properties as well as corrosion kinetics in vivo help to mitigate corrosion as reflected by the Raman spectroscopy results. In

  19. A comparison of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in 9–11 year old British Pakistani and White British girls: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest that British children of South Asian origin are less active and more sedentary than White British children. However, little is known about the behaviours underlying low activity levels, nor the familial contexts of active and sedentary behaviours in these groups. Our aim was to test hypotheses about differences between British Pakistani and White British girls using accelerometry and self-reports of key active and sedentary behaviours, and to obtain an understanding of factors affecting these behaviours using parental interviews. Methods Participants were 145 girls (70 White British and 75 British Pakistani) aged 9–11 years and parents of 19 of the girls. Accelerometry data were collected over 4 days and girls provided 24-hour physical activity interviews on 3 of these days. Multilevel linear regression models and generalised linear mixed models tested for ethnic differences in activity, sedentary time, and behaviours. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents. Results Compared to White British girls, British Pakistani girls accumulated 102 (95% CI 59, 145) fewer counts per minute and 14 minutes (95% CI 8, 20) less time in moderate to vigorous physical activity per day. British Pakistani girls spent more time (28 minutes per day, 95% CI 14, 42) sedentary. Fewer British Pakistani than White British girls reported participation in organised sports and exercise (OR 0.22 95% CI 0.08, 0.64) or in outdoor play (OR 0.42 95% CI 0.20, 0.91). Fewer British Pakistani girls travelled actively to school (OR 0.26 95% CI 0.10, 0.71). There was no significant difference in reported screen time (OR 0.88 95% CI 0.45, 1.73). Parental interviews suggested that structural constraints (e.g. busy family schedules) and parental concerns about safety were important influences on activity levels. Conclusions British Pakistani girls were less active than White British girls and were less likely to participate in key active behaviours

  20. A comparison of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in 9-11 year old British Pakistani and White British girls: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Hornby-Turner, Yvonne C; Hampshire, Kate R; Pollard, Tessa M

    2014-06-09

    Previous studies suggest that British children of South Asian origin are less active and more sedentary than White British children. However, little is known about the behaviours underlying low activity levels, nor the familial contexts of active and sedentary behaviours in these groups. Our aim was to test hypotheses about differences between British Pakistani and White British girls using accelerometry and self-reports of key active and sedentary behaviours, and to obtain an understanding of factors affecting these behaviours using parental interviews. Participants were 145 girls (70 White British and 75 British Pakistani) aged 9-11 years and parents of 19 of the girls. Accelerometry data were collected over 4 days and girls provided 24-hour physical activity interviews on 3 of these days. Multilevel linear regression models and generalised linear mixed models tested for ethnic differences in activity, sedentary time, and behaviours. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents. Compared to White British girls, British Pakistani girls accumulated 102 (95% CI 59, 145) fewer counts per minute and 14 minutes (95% CI 8, 20) less time in moderate to vigorous physical activity per day. British Pakistani girls spent more time (28 minutes per day, 95% CI 14, 42) sedentary. Fewer British Pakistani than White British girls reported participation in organised sports and exercise (OR 0.22 95% CI 0.08, 0.64) or in outdoor play (OR 0.42 95% CI 0.20, 0.91). Fewer British Pakistani girls travelled actively to school (OR 0.26 95% CI 0.10, 0.71). There was no significant difference in reported screen time (OR 0.88 95% CI 0.45, 1.73). Parental interviews suggested that structural constraints (e.g. busy family schedules) and parental concerns about safety were important influences on activity levels. British Pakistani girls were less active than White British girls and were less likely to participate in key active behaviours. Sedentary time was higher in British