Sawitz, P. H.
The paper discusses the effects of geography on service arcs and on the various techniques used to achieve frequency reuse and applies the results to the domestic fixed and broadcasting satellite systems of International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Region 2. The effects of an arc latitude, size, and shape are considered. Earth-station and satellite antenna discrimination is outlined.
Perrot, Bruno; Michel, Cyril; Villaret, Stéfanie
Since the deployment of the first Digital Broadcasting Satellite Systems, European satellite operators and service providers have been faced with the continuously increasing demand for Digital Broadcasting Services. Their success is built on the availability of the MPEG and DVB standards. Undoubtedly, conventional digital television broadcasting is today the `Killer' application. Various service providers already offer multimedia applications through DVB-S systems based upon the `Push' technology. Although these services do not currently represent the core business for broadcasting satellite operators, their percentage is increasing. `Push' technology services include Data Carousel, Webcasting, Turbo Internet, File casting and so on. Such technology can support the implementation of different emerging multimedia services scenarios from Newsgroups, Network collaborative learning, and tele-medicine, to others that may be invented in the near future. The penetration rate of multi-channel television reception is still increasing. Broadcasting satellites benefit both from the development of new, more segmented and sophisticated offers and from the development of Internet services. Satellite is likely to enter these new markets at different levels of the value chain: Even if the satellite has demonstrated its capacity to fully serve the television, combinations with other networks may be necessary to address the new markets: at the consumer premises, Internet-related services will require a return path; at the backbone level, satellite becomes a component of a full telecommunications solution. This article focuses on the European market and proposes:
Dement, D. K.
As the technology appears increasingly likely to meet the needs and as DBS regulatory activity becomes fixed, investment decisions will be made. With only modest technical risk for even the high-powered satellites, with little doubt that mass-produced earth terminals' gain-over-temperature of 10 dB or more can be attained for an acceptable price, and with the advent of acceptably priced individual descramblers for pay television, interest in DBS continues to grow. Present concerns center on market acceptance, competition, and programming availability. The variety of operational approaches revealed in FCC permit applications is seen as showing a willingness to risk, innovate, and move forward as quickly as possible.
Cuccia, C. L.
Broadcast satellite systems are described. The technologies which are unique to both high power broadcast satellites and small TV receive-only earth terminals are also described. A cost assessment of both space and earth segments is included and appendices present both a computer model for satellite cost and the pertinent reported experience with the Japanese BSE.
Space environment studies, astrophysics, Earth environment, life sciences, and material sciences are discussed. Commercial communication, materials processing, and Earth observation missions are addressed. Technology development, space operations, scenarios of operational capability, mission requirements, and benefits analysis results for space-produced gallium arsenide crystals, direct broadcasting satellite systems, and a high inclination space station are covered.
Sawitz, P. H.
Papers prepared for the use of the U.S. delegation to the 1979 World Administrative Radio Conference; papers contributed to the National CCIR study groups on broadcasting satellites and spectrum-orbit utilization; responses to specific requests for technical analyses and evaluations; and papers presented at technical conferences on related topics are presented. Nonlinear optimization methods for finding optimum positions of satellites in the fixed satellite service; the effects of geography on the use of the geostationary orbit; intercontinental orbit sharing; traffic coordination in interfering satellites operating in the fixed satellite service; and domestic fixed and broadcasting satellite systems are covered. A possible channel orbit plan for broadcasting satellite service in the U.S. and Canada; polarization for broadcasting satellite systems; and the communication capacity of the geostationary satellite orbit are also examined.
Miller, E. F.
Mathematical models used in the software package developed for use at the 1983 Regional Administrative Radio Conference on broadcasting satellites. The models described are those used in the Spectrum Orbit Utilization Program (SOUP) analysis. The geometric relationships necessary to model broadcasting satellite systems are discussed. Antenna models represent copolarized and cross polarized performance as functions of the off axis angle. The protection ratio is modelled as a co-channel value and a template representing systems with frequency offsets.
Bachtell, E. E.; Bettadapur, S. S.; Coyner, J. V.; Farrell, C. E.
The Technical Volume of the Satellite Broadcast System Study is presented. Designs are synthesized for direct sound broadcast satellite systems for HF-, VHF-, L-, and Ku-bands. Methods are developed and used to predict satellite weight, volume, and RF performance for the various concepts considered. Cost and schedule risk assessments are performed to predict time and cost required to implement selected concepts. Technology assessments and tradeoffs are made to identify critical enabling technologies that require development to bring technical risk to acceptable levels for full scale development.
It is shown that the development of such regional satellite systems as the Arab League's Arabsat, the South American Aseta, and the ASEAN nations' Palapa II, will be redundant if Intelsat moves ahead with its expanded service options with multiple frequency and beam configurations. Attention is given to direct broadcast satellite systems and the geostationary platform concept, which would incorporate C-band high-volume trunking, meteorological data relay, interplatform link, and Ku-band TV distribution and could be constructed in orbit by the Space Shuttle. The platform concept offers antenna reflectors that could be utilized by many 'feeds' or multiple-phase arrays, permitting frequency reuse many hundreds of times over.
Singh, J. P.
The factors affecting the choice of transmission frequencies are identified. These include international radio regulations, natural environment, man-made environment, hardware considerations, and interconnection and spectrum space considerations. An analysis is presented of international radio regulations with emphasis on 1963 EARC and 1971 WARC frequency allocations, powerflux density restrictions, and resolutions concerning introduction of broadcasting-satellite systems. Natural-environmental effects were divided into two categories: (1) those due to transionospheric propagation, and (2) those that can be credited to the earth's atmosphere and its constituents. The frequency dependence of the signal attenuation, signal distortion, and contributions to system noise temperature due to environmental effects are discussed, and comparisons were made for frequencies of interest. Man-made environmental effects were examined in terms of various sharing limitations as well as the indigenous noise contribution to the overall system noise.
The subjects discussed are related to LSI/VLSI based subscriber transmission and customer access for the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), special applications of fiber optics, ISDN and competitive telecommunication services, technical preparations for the Geostationary-Satellite Orbit Conference, high-capacity statistical switching fabrics, networking and distributed systems software, adaptive arrays and cancelers, synchronization and tracking, speech processing, advances in communication terminals, full-color videotex, and a performance analysis of protocols. Advances in data communications are considered along with transmission network plans and progress, direct broadcast satellite systems, packet radio system aspects, radio-new and developing technologies and applications, the management of software quality, and Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) aspects of telematic services. Attention is given to personal computers and OSI, the role of software reliability measurement in information systems, and an active array antenna for the next-generation direct broadcast satellite.
The study to develop a system model and computer program representative of broadcasting satellite systems employing community-type receiving terminals is reported. The program provides a user-oriented tool for evaluating performance/cost tradeoffs, synthesizing minimum cost systems for a given set of system requirements, and performing sensitivity analyses to identify critical parameters and technology. The performance/ costing philosophy and what is meant by a minimum cost system is shown graphically. Topics discussed include: main line control program, ground segment model, space segment model, cost models and launch vehicle selection. Several examples of minimum cost systems resulting from the computer program are presented. A listing of the computer program is also included.
Ohkubo, K.; Han, C. C.; Albernaz, J.; Janky, J. M.; Lusignan, B. B.
The antenna characteristics are analyzed of a low cost mass-producible ground station to be used in broadcast satellite systems. It is found that a prime focus antenna is sufficient for a low-cost but not a low noise system. For the antenna feed waveguide systems are the best choice for the 12 GHz band, while printed-element systems are recommended for the 2.6 GHz band. Zoned reflectors are analyzed and appear to be attractive from the standpoint of cost. However, these reflectors suffer a gain reduction of about one db and a possible increase in sidelobe levels. The off-axis gain of a non-auto-tracking station can be optimized by establishing a special illumination function at the reflector aperture. A step-feed tracking system is proposed to provide automatic procedures for searching for peak signal from a geostationary satellite. This system uses integrated circuitry and therefore results in cost saving under mass production. It is estimated that a complete step-track system would cost only $512 for a production quantity of 1000 units per year.
Bizon, Thomas P.; Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.; Marcopoli, Vincent R.
along with implementation of a buffer control algorithm to accommodate the variable data rate output of the multilevel Huffman encoder. A video CODEC of this type could be used to compress NTSC color television signals where high quality reconstruction is desirable (e.g., Space Station video transmission, transmission direct-to-the-home via direct broadcast satellite systems or cable television distribution to system headends and direct-to-the-home).