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Sample records for broadcast-sown oilseed rape

  1. Bacillus megaterium A6 suppresses Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in the field and promotes oilseed rape growth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses in crops in The People’s Republic of China and other regions of the world. Two formulations of oilseed rape seed containing the plant-growth promoting bacterium Bacillus megaterium A6 were evaluated for suppression of this pathogen on oilseed rap...

  2. NMR metabolomics of ripened and developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa).

    PubMed

    Kortesniemi, Maaria; Vuorinen, Anssi L; Sinkkonen, Jari; Yang, Baoru; Rajala, Ari; Kallio, Heikki

    2015-04-01

    The oilseeds of the commercially important oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa) were investigated with (1)H NMR metabolomics. The compositions of ripened (cultivated in field trials) and developing seeds (cultivated in controlled conditions) were compared in multivariate models using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Differences in the major lipids and the minor metabolites between the two species were found. A higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sucrose were observed in turnip rape, while the overall oil content and sinapine levels were higher in oilseed rape. The genotype traits were negligible compared to the effect of the growing site and concomitant conditions on the oilseed metabolome. This study demonstrates the applicability of NMR-based analysis in determining the species, geographical origin, developmental stage, and quality of oilseed Brassicas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Gene flow and its ecological risks of transgenic oilseed rape ( Brassica napus)].

    PubMed

    Tang, Guixiang; Song, Wenjian; Zhou, Weijun

    2005-12-01

    Transgenic oilseed rape Brassica napus, one of the first genetically modified crops, has now been released to commercial use in Canada and Australia. As a cross-pollinating crop, its natural crossing rate is 30%, and it is liable to cross with other Brassica species. The ecological risk of transgenic oilseed rape has been concerned by the scientists all over the world. There are two ways for the pollens flow of transgenic oilseed rape, one takes place between transgenic oilseed rape and other related wild species, and the other occurs between transgenic and nontransgenic oilseed rape. The gene may flow to other related wild species, but it is unlikely to get hybrids in field. Because the gene can really flow to the conventional oilseed rape, it is necessary to have a sufficient isolation distance in cultivating transgenic oilseed rape.

  4. Sensitization to oilseed rape is not due to cross-reactivity with grass pollen.

    PubMed

    Welch, J; Jones, M G; Cullinan, P; Coates, O A; Newman Taylor, A J

    2000-03-01

    Oilseed rape is an important crop grown in the UK which can cause specific immunological sensitization with clinical symptoms in a relatively small number of the general population. Individuals with immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated allergy to oilseed rape have also been found to be sensitized to other pollen allergens, most frequently being grass pollen. Cross-reactivity between common grass and oilseed rape would have important implications, especially as their flowering period coincides. We have investigated whether the cosensitization found in individuals sensitized to both oilseed rape and grass pollen is due to cross-reactivity. Cross-reactivity between oilseed rape and grass pollen was determined using RAST, RAST inhibition, Western blotting and inhibition studies with Western blotting. Competitive RAST inhibition studies between pollen of oilseed rape and grass failed to show any cross-reactivity between the pollen types. Self-inhibition with oilseed rape resulted in 90% inhibition, whereas there was less than 10% inhibition with grass pollen. Western blotting revealed allergens of similar molecular weight in both oilseed rape and grass pollen. Despite allergens of similar molecular weights being present in both pollen types, inhibition immunoblot studies confirmed that the allergens in the two allergens were immunologically distinct. The allergens of oilseed rape and grass pollen, although similar in molecular weights, are immunologically distinct and there is no evidence of cross-reactivity between them. Individuals allergic to grass pollen will not necessarily develop a specific nasal or airway response to inhaled oilseed rape pollens.

  5. Remote Diagnosis of Nitrogen Status in Winter Oilseed Rape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.

    2016-12-01

    Winter oilseed rape is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world. Compared with cereal crops, it requires high amount of nitrogen (N) supplies, but it is also characterized by low N use efficiency. The N nutrition index (NNI), defined as the ratio of the actual plant N concentration (PNC) to the critical PNC at a given biomass level, has been widely used to diagnose plant N status and to aid optimizing N fertilization. But traditional techniques to determine NNI in the lab are time-consuming and expensive. Remote sensing provides a promising approach for large-scale and rapid monitoring and diagnosis of crop N status. In this study, we conducted the experiment in the winter oilseed rape field with eight fertilization treatments in the growing season of 2014 and 2015. PNC, dry mass, and canopy spectra were measured during the different growth stages of winter oilseed rape. The N dilution curve was developed with measurements, and NNI was computed and analyzed for different treatments and different growth stage. For the same treatment, NNI decreased as more leaves were developing. Two methods were applied to remotely estimating NNI for winter oilseed rape: (1) NNI was estimated directly with vegetation indices (VIs) derived from canopy spectra; (2) the actual PNC and the critical PNC at the given biomass level were estimated separately with different types of VIs, and NNI was then computed with the two parts of the estimations. We found that VIs based solely on bands in the visible region provided the most accurate estimates of PNC. Estimating NNI directly with VIs had better performance than estimating the actual PNC and the critical PNC separately.

  6. Seed dressings to control slug damage in oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Simms, Louise C; Mullins, Christopher E; Wilson, Michael J

    2002-07-01

    Slugs are major pests of oilseed rape that are poorly controlled by conventional bait pellets. A series of laboratory experiments investigated the potential of seed-dressings to control slug damage in this crop. Four compounds: metaldehyde, methiocarb, cinnamamide and 3,5-dimethoxycinnamic acid (DMCA) were tested at a range of doses for phytotoxicity and ability to reduce damage by Deroceras reticulatum (Müller). Metaldehyde and methiocarb were not phytotoxic at any doses, whereas all doses of cinnamamide and DMCA were. All compounds reduced slug damage, but metaldehyde and methiocarb consistently performed better than cinnamamide and DMCA. Metaldehyde and methiocarb seed-dressings were compared with baited pellets containing the same active ingredients at recommended field doses. The seed-dressings protected plants from damage by D reticulatum and Arion subfuscus (Draparnaud) as well as, or better than, baited pellets. We therefore recommend that metaldehyde and methiocarb should be field-tested as seed dressings to control slugs in oilseed rape.

  7. Oilseed rape allergy presented as occupational asthma in the grain industry.

    PubMed

    Suh, C H; Park, H S; Nahm, D H; Kim, H Y

    1998-09-01

    There have been several reports on respiratory allergic symptoms induced by pollen of oilseed rape. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report dealing with oilseed rape dust mainly composed of seeds, as an occupational allergen in the grain industry. In this paper, we present a case of occupational asthma caused by oilseed rape dust from the Animal Feed Industry, which proved to be induced by an IgE-mediated reaction. The patient displayed positive responses to Dermatophagoides farinae as well as oilseed rape dust extract. The bronchoprovocation test showed an early asthmatic response to oilseed rape dust extract. Serum specific IgE antibody to oilseed rape antigen was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). ELISA inhibition test showed significant inhibitions with addition of oilseed rape antigen. In order to further identify the allergenic components of extract, sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblot analysis were performed. Fourteen IgE-binding components ranging from 10 to 160kDa were detected within the oilseed rape extract. These results suggest that the inhalation of oilseed rape dust, not pollen, can cause IgE mediated bronchoconstriction in an exposed worker of the grain industry.

  8. Development of a biologically based fertilizer, incorporating Bacillus megaterium A6, for improved phosphorus nutrition of oilseed rape

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sustainable methods with diminished impact on the environment need to be developed for the production of oilseed rape in China and other regions of the world. A biological fertilizer consisting of Bacillus megaterium A6 cultured on oilseed rape meal doubled oilseed rape seed yield (P < 0.0001) rela...

  9. Formulations of Bacillus subtilis BY-2 suppress Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in the field

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We are developing a collection of Bacillus strains, isolated from different environments, for use in controlling Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in China and elsewhere. Strain BY-2, isolated from internal tissues of an oilseed rape root, was demonstrated to be Bacillus subtilis based on bi...

  10. Are pesticide residues in honey related to oilseed rape treatments?

    PubMed

    Karise, Reet; Raimets, Risto; Bartkevics, Vadims; Pugajeva, Iveta; Pihlik, Priit; Keres, Indrek; Williams, Ingrid H; Viinalass, Haldja; Mänd, Marika

    2017-12-01

    Pesticide treatments before and during the flowering of honey bee forage crops may lead to residues in honey. In northern regions oilseed rape belongs to the main forage crops that is mostly cultivated by means of intensive agriculture, including several pesticide treatments. However, in addition to the focal forage crops, pesticides from non-forage crops can spread to wild flowers around fields, and thus the residues in honey would reflect the whole range of pesticides used in the agricultural landscape. The aim of our study was to clarify which currently used pesticides are present in honey gathered from heterogeneous agricultural landscapes after the end of flowering of oilseed crops. Honey samples (N = 33) were collected from beehives of Estonia during 2013 and 2014, and analysed for residues of 47 currently used agricultural pesticides using the multiresidue method with HPLC-MS/MS and GC-MS and a single residue method for glyphosate, aminopyralid and clopyralid. Residues of eight different active ingredients with representatives from all three basic pesticide classes were determined. Although no correlation was detected between the cumulative amount of pesticide residues and percent of oilseed crops in the foraging territory, most of the residues are those allowed for oilseed rape treatments. Among all pesticides, herbicide residues prevailed in 2013 but not in 2014. Despite the relatively small agricultural impact of Estonia, the detected levels of pesticide residues sometimes exceeded maximum residue level; however, these concentrations do not pose a health risk to consumers, also acute toxicity to honey bees would be very unlikely. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Components of a Rice-Oilseed Rape Production System Augmented with Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 Control Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Oilseed Rape.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaojia; Roberts, Daniel P; Xie, Lihua; Maul, Jude E; Yu, Changbing; Li, Yinshui; Zhang, Yinbo; Qin, Lu; Liao, Xing

    2015-10-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses on many crops throughout the world. A multicomponent treatment that consisted of the residual rice straw remaining after rice harvest and Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 (Tri-1) formulated with the oilseed rape seedcake fertilizer was used in field soil infested with S. sclerotiorum. This treatment resulted in oilseed rape seed yield that was significantly greater than the nontreated control or when the fungicide carbendizem was used in the presence of this pathogen in field trials. Yield data suggested that the rice straw, oilseed rape seedcake, and Tri-1 components of this treatment all contributed incrementally. Similar treatment results were obtained regarding reduction in disease incidence. Slight improvements in yield and disease incidence were detected when this multicomponent treatment was combined with a fungicide spray. Inhibition of sclerotial germination by this multicomponent treatment trended greater than the nontreated control at 90, 120, and 150 days in field studies but was not significantly different from this control. This multicomponent treatment resulted in increased yield relative to the nontreated control in the absence of pathogen in a greenhouse pot study, while the straw alone and the straw plus oilseed rape seedcake treatments did not; suggesting that Tri-1 was capable of promoting growth. Experiments reported here indicate that a treatment containing components of a rice-oilseed rape production system augmented with Tri-1 can control S. sclerotiorum on oilseed rape, be used in integrated strategies containing fungicide sprays for control of this pathogen, and promote plant growth.

  12. Incidence of pyrethroid-resistant oilseed rape pests in Germany.

    PubMed

    Heimbach, Udo; Müller, Andreas

    2013-02-01

    Failures in pollen beetle control using pyrethroids since 2005 indicated pyrethroid resistance in Germany. Therefore, resistance monitoring using bioassays was established in Germany for oilseed rape pest insects. The spread and intensity of pyrethroid resistance of Meligethes aeneus increased from 2005 onwards, with no sensitive samples left in any region of Germany in 2011. Sensitivity also declined for the newly introduced actives bifenthrin, etofenprox (both class-I pyrethroids) and tau-fluvalinate; all three claimed to be less affected by resistance, although there was no clear cross-resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin (class-II pyrethroid). In the German region with the longest tradition and high intensity of oilseed rape production, pyrethroid resistance of Psylliodes chrysocephala and Ceutorhynchus obstrictus, with resistance factors of up to 81 and 140 respectively, was detected. The intensive use of only one mode of action for many years is risky, because even pest insects with a low intrinsic resistance risk may develop resistance. Therefore, resistance strategies need to include several control options for pest insects needing regular treatments. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Recent Genetic Gains in Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Oilseed Rape.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Andreas; Pfeifer, Mara; Frisch, Matthias; Wittkop, Benjamin; Snowdon, Rod J

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen is essential for plant growth, and N fertilization allows farmers to obtain high yields and produce sufficient agricultural commodities. On the other hand, nitrogen losses potentially cause adverse effects to ecosystems and to human health. Increasing nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is vital to solve the conflict between productivity, to secure the demand of a growing world population, and the protection of the environment. To ensure this, genetic improvement is considered to be a paramount aspect toward ecofriendly crop production. Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is the second most important oilseed crop in the world and is cultivated in many regions across the temperate zones. To our knowledge, this study reports the most comprehensive field-based data generated to date for an empirical evaluation of genetic improvement in winter oilseed rape varieties under two divergent nitrogen fertilization levels (NFLs). A collection of 30 elite varieties registered between 1989 and 2014, including hybrids and open pollinated varieties, was tested in a 2-year experiment in 10 environments across Germany for changes in seed yield and seed quality traits. Furthermore, NUE was calculated. We observed a highly significant genetics-driven increase in seed yield per-se and, thus, increased NUE at both NFLs. On average, seed yield from modern open-pollinated varieties and modern hybrids was higher than from old open-pollinated varieties and old hybrids. The annual yield progress across all tested varieties was ~35 kg ha(-1) year(-1) at low nitrogen and 45 kg ha(-1) year(-1) under high nitrogen fertilization. Furthermore, in modern varieties an increased oil concentration and decreased protein concentration was observed. Despite, the significant effects of nitrogen fertilization, a surprisingly low average seed yield gap of 180 kg N ha(-1) was noted between high and low nitrogen fertilization. Due to contrary effects of N fertilization on seed yield per-se and seed

  14. Recent Genetic Gains in Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Oilseed Rape

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Andreas; Pfeifer, Mara; Frisch, Matthias; Wittkop, Benjamin; Snowdon, Rod J.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen is essential for plant growth, and N fertilization allows farmers to obtain high yields and produce sufficient agricultural commodities. On the other hand, nitrogen losses potentially cause adverse effects to ecosystems and to human health. Increasing nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is vital to solve the conflict between productivity, to secure the demand of a growing world population, and the protection of the environment. To ensure this, genetic improvement is considered to be a paramount aspect toward ecofriendly crop production. Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is the second most important oilseed crop in the world and is cultivated in many regions across the temperate zones. To our knowledge, this study reports the most comprehensive field-based data generated to date for an empirical evaluation of genetic improvement in winter oilseed rape varieties under two divergent nitrogen fertilization levels (NFLs). A collection of 30 elite varieties registered between 1989 and 2014, including hybrids and open pollinated varieties, was tested in a 2-year experiment in 10 environments across Germany for changes in seed yield and seed quality traits. Furthermore, NUE was calculated. We observed a highly significant genetics-driven increase in seed yield per-se and, thus, increased NUE at both NFLs. On average, seed yield from modern open-pollinated varieties and modern hybrids was higher than from old open-pollinated varieties and old hybrids. The annual yield progress across all tested varieties was ~35 kg ha−1 year−1 at low nitrogen and 45 kg ha−1 year−1 under high nitrogen fertilization. Furthermore, in modern varieties an increased oil concentration and decreased protein concentration was observed. Despite, the significant effects of nitrogen fertilization, a surprisingly low average seed yield gap of 180 kg N ha−1 was noted between high and low nitrogen fertilization. Due to contrary effects of N fertilization on seed yield per-se and seed

  15. Annual dynamics of wild bee densities: attractiveness and productivity effects of oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Riedinger, Verena; Mitesser, Oliver; Hovestadt, Thomas; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Holzschuh, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Mass-flowering crops may affect long-term population dynamics, but effects on pollinators have never been studied across several years. We monitored wild bees in oilseed rape fields in 16 landscapes in Germany in two consecutive years. Effects on bee densities of landscape oilseed rape cover in the years of monitoring and in the previous years were evaluated with landscape data from three consecutive years. We fit empirical data to a mechanistic model to provide estimates for oilseed rape attractiveness and its effect on bee productivity in comparison to the rest of the landscape, and we evaluated consequences for pollinator densities in consecutive years. Our results show that high oilseed rape cover in the previous year enhances current densities of wild bees (except for bumble bees). Moreover, we show a strong attractiveness of and dilution on (i.e., decreasing bee densities with increasing landscape oilseed rape cover) oilseed rape for bees during flowering in the current year, modifying the effect of the previous year's oilseed rape cover in the case of wild bees (excluding Bombus). As long as other factors such as nesting sites or natural enemies do not limit bee reproduction, our findings suggest long-term positive effects of mass-flowering crops on bee populations, at least for non-Bombus generalists, which possibly help to maintain crop pollination services even when crop area increases. Similar effects are conceivable for other organisms providing ecosystem services in annual crops and should be considered in future studies.

  16. Transgenic oilseed rape along transportation routes and port of Vancouver in western Canada.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Beckie, Hugh J; Matsuo, Kazuhito

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of transgenic herbicide-resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in ruderal (non-crop disturbed) areas has not been investigated previously in Canada. The primary objective of this study was to document their occurrence in two main ruderal areas (along railways and roads) in the province of Saskatchewan, where half of all oilseed rape is grown, and at the port of Vancouver, British Columbia on the west coast of Canada, where most oilseed rape destined for export is transported by rail. During the 2005 growing season, leaf samples of oilseed rape plants were collected at randomly-selected sites along railways and roads across Saskatchewan ecoregions and at Vancouver; infestation area, density, and plant height of oilseed rape were measured at each site. The presence of the glyphosate and glufosinate resistance traits was determined using test strips. The infestation area of oilseed rape, averaged across 155 sampled sites in the Saskatchewan survey, was markedly smaller in populations along railways than roads; in contrast, infestation area averaged across 54 sites in the Vancouver survey was greater for populations along railways than roads. In both surveys, mean plant density was greater for populations found along railways than roads. Two-thirds of oilseed rape plants sampled across Saskatchewan ecoregions and at Vancouver were transgenic, although the relative proportion of plants with the glyphosate or glufosinate resistance trait varied between surveys. Frequency of occurrence of transgenic plants in ruderal areas was similar to the proportion of the oilseed rape area planted with transgenic cultivars in the recent preceding years. A single transgenic B. rapa x B. napus hybrid was found along a road in Vancouver, confirming the relatively high probability of hybridization between these two Brassica species. With current control measures, transgenic oilseed rape populations may persist and spread in these ruderal areas.

  17. Evidence that oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera) causes respiratory illness in rural dwellers.

    PubMed

    Parratt, D; Macfarlane Smith, W H; Thomson, G; Cameron, L A; Butcher, R D

    1995-06-01

    A study of 25 residents in a small Scottish village over a two-year period investigated respiratory symptom reporting in the presence or absence of oilseed rape. Symptom reporting in the year when oilseed rape virtually surrounded the village, varied during the growing season of the crop and was at its highest coincident with peak flowering. At the same period of the following year when the crop was absent, symptom reporting was significantly lower. The symptoms which correlated most strongly with peak oilseed rape flowering were sneezing, cough, headache, eye irritation and the total of these and other symptoms. Increased symptoms were reported by 12 of the participants though only seven of these were judged to be atopic. The symptoms did not correlate with levels of oilseed rape pollen but there is no clear evidence as to which of the other factors associated with the crop might be the cause.

  18. Hormones and Pod Development in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus) 1

    PubMed Central

    de Bouille, Pierre; Sotta, Bruno; Miginiac, Emile; Merrien, André

    1989-01-01

    The endogenous levels of several plant growth substances (indole acetic acid, IAA; abscisic acid, ABA; zeatin, Z; zeatin riboside, [9R]Z; isopentenyladenine, iP; and isopentenyladenosine, [9R]iP were measured during pod development of field grown oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L. var oleifera cv Bienvenu) with high performance liquid chromatography and immunoenzymic (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA) techniques. Results show that pod development is characterized by high levels of Z and [9R]Z in 3 day old fruits and of IAA on the fourth day. During pod maturation, initially a significant increase of IAA and cytokinins was observed, followed by a progressive rise of ABA levels and a concomitant decline of IAA and cytokinin (except iP) levels. The relationship between hormone levels and development, especially pod number, seed number per pod, and seed weight determination, will be discussed. PMID:16666891

  19. Feral genetically modified herbicide tolerant oilseed rape from seed import spills: are concerns scientifically justified?

    PubMed

    Devos, Yann; Hails, Rosemary S; Messéan, Antoine; Perry, Joe N; Squire, Geoffrey R

    2012-02-01

    One of the concerns surrounding the import (for food and feed uses or processing) of genetically modified herbicide tolerant (GMHT) oilseed rape is that, through seed spillage, the herbicide tolerance (HT) trait will escape into agricultural or semi-natural habitats, causing environmental or economic problems. Based on these concerns, three EU countries have invoked national safeguard clauses to ban the marketing of specific GMHT oilseed rape events on their territory. However, the scientific basis for the environmental and economic concerns posed by feral GMHT oilseed rape resulting from seed import spills is debatable. While oilseed rape has characteristics such as secondary dormancy and small seed size that enable it to persist and be redistributed in the landscape, the presence of ferals is not in itself an environmental or economic problem. Crucially, feral oilseed rape has not become invasive outside cultivated and ruderal habitats, and HT traits are not likely to result in increased invasiveness. Feral GMHT oilseed rape has the potential to introduce HT traits to volunteer weeds in agricultural fields, but would only be amplified if the herbicides to which HT volunteers are tolerant were used routinely in the field. However, this worst-case scenario is most unlikely, as seed import spills are mostly confined to port areas. Economic concerns revolve around the potential for feral GMHT oilseed rape to contribute to GM admixtures in non-GM crops. Since feral plants derived from cultivation (as distinct from import) occur at too low a frequency to affect the coexistence threshold of 0.9% in the EU, it can be concluded that feral GMHT plants resulting from seed import spills will have little relevance as a potential source of pollen or seed for GM admixture. This paper concludes that feral oilseed rape in Europe should not be routinely managed, and certainly not in semi-natural habitats, as the benefits of such action would not outweigh the negative effects of

  20. The prevalence of oilseed rape hypersensitivity in a mixed cereal farming population.

    PubMed

    Trinidade, Aaron; Kumar, S; Haji, M; Shakeel, M; Leong, P

    2010-02-01

    Oilseed rape production is widespread in cereal growing areas. Many patients attending our clinics for seasonal allergy claim that they are allergic to it. To determine the prevalence of oilseed rape allergy in our population. General population within a mixed cereal farming area attending a rhinology and allergy clinic in a district general hospital, UK. Retrospective chart analysis. The results of 1475 consecutive patients who underwent skin prick allergy testing over a 2-year period (January 2003-December 2005) and of 640 consecutive patients over a 1-year period (September 2008-September 2009) were analysed and compared. Allergy to house dust mite was found to be most common (n = 526, 25%) followed by grass pollen (n = 519, 24%) and cereals (n = 429, 20%). Oilseed rape hypersensitivity was relatively uncommon, comprising only 2% of the population tested (n = 28). Oilseed rape does not cause significant allergy, even in areas of high production. It is likely that those patients exhibiting oilseed rape allergy may in fact be symptomatic due to the effect of other allergens, acting either synergistically with the oilseed rape allergen, or more likely, in spite of it.

  1. Spatially structured population dynamics in feral oilseed rape.

    PubMed Central

    Crawley, Michael J.; Brown, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    We studied the population dynamics of feral oilseed rape (Brassica napus) for 10 years (1993-2002) in 3658 adjacent permanent 100 m quadrats in the verges of the M25 motorway around London, UK. The aim was to determine the relative importance of different factors affecting the observed temporal patterns of population dynamics and their spatial correlations. A wide range of population dynamics was observed (downward or upward trends, cycles, local extinctions and recolonizations), but overall the populations were not self-replacing (lambda < 1). Many quadrats remained unoccupied throughout the study period, but a few were occupied at high densities for all 10 years. Most quadrats showed transient oilseed rape populations, lasting 1-4 years. There were strong spatial patterns in mean population density, associated with soil conditions and the successional age of the plant community dominating the verge, and these large-scale spatial patterns were highly consistent from year to year. The importance of seed spilled from trucks in transit to the processing plant at Erith in Kent was confirmed: rape populations were significantly higher on the 'to Erith' verge than the 'from Erith' verge (overall mean 2.83-fold greater stem density). Quadrats in which lambda > 1 were much more frequent in the 'to Erith' verge, indicating that seed immigration can give the spurious impression of self-replacing population dynamics in time-series analysis. There was little evidence of a pervasive Moran effect, and climatic forcing did not produce widespread large-scale synchrony in population dynamics for the motorway as a whole; just 23% of quadrats had significant rank correlations with the mean time-series. There was, however, significant local spatial synchrony of population dynamics, apparently associated with soil disturbance and seed input. This study draws attention to the possibility that different processes may impose population synchrony at different scales. We hypothesize that

  2. Wild pollinators enhance oilseed rape yield in small-holder farming systems in China.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yi; Xiao, Haijun; Bianchi, Felix J J A; Jauker, Frank; Luo, Shudong; van der Werf, Wopke

    2017-02-21

    Insect pollinators play an important role in crop pollination, but the relative contribution of wild pollinators and honey bees to pollination is currently under debate. There is virtually no information available on the strength of pollination services and the identity of pollination service providers from Asian smallholder farming systems, where fields are small, and variation among fields is high. We established 18 winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) fields along a large geographical gradient in Jiangxi province in China. In each field, oilseed rape plants were grown in closed cages that excluded pollinators and open cages that allowed pollinator access. The pollinator community was sampled by pan traps for the entire oilseed rape blooming period. Oilseed rape plants from which insect pollinators were excluded had on average 38% lower seed set, 17% lower fruit set and 12% lower yield per plant, but the seeds were 17% heavier, and the caged plants had 28% more flowers and 18% higher aboveground vegetative biomass than plants with pollinator access. Oilseed rape plants thus compensate for pollination deficit by producing heavier seeds and more flowers. Regression analysis indicated that local abundance and diversity of wild pollinators were positively associated with seed set and yield/straw ratio, while honey bee abundance was not related to yield parameters. Wild pollinator abundance and diversity contribute to oilseed rape yield by enhancing plant resource allocation to seeds rather than to above-ground biomass. This study highlights the importance of the conservation of wild pollinators to support oilseed rape production in small-holder farming systems in China.

  3. Components of a rice-oilseed rape production system augmented with trichoderma sp. Tri-1 control sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses on many crops throughout the world. In two field trials conducted at the same location in consecutive years, a treatment containing formulated Trichoderma harzianum-1 (Tri-1) resulted in oilseed rape seed yield that was significantly greater than...

  4. Identification of allergens in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) pollen.

    PubMed

    Focke, M; Hemmer, W; Hayek, B; Götz, M; Jarisch, R

    1998-10-01

    Pollen from oilseed rape (OSR), Brassica napus, an increasingly cultivated oilplant from the Brassicaceae, has been recognized as a potential cause of allergic sensitization. Allergens have been hardly investigated. We characterized IgE binding proteins in OSR pollen by immunoblot, immunoblot inhibition and specific monoclonal antibodies using sera from 89 patients sensitized to OSR. Two low-molecular-weight allergens of 6/8 kD and 14 kD as well as a high molecular-weight cluster (27-69 kD) comprising six cross-reactive peptides could be identified. The three allergens were recognized by 50, 34 and 80% of patients, respectively. Immunoblot IgE binding to OSR could be totally inhibited by rye pollen and moderately by birch pollen (6/8 and 14 kD) while mugwort had little effect. An anti-profilin-specific monoclonal antibody bound specifically to a 14-kD protein in OSR. Binding to the 6/8-kD rape allergen could be effectively inhibited by rAln g 2, a calcium-binding protein from alder. Periodate treatment led to a significant reduction in IgE binding to the 27 to 69-kD OSR allergens indicating that carbohydrate determinants are involved in IgE binding. OSR proteins were capable to quench IgE binding to timothy grass pollen proteins of >/=60 kD suggesting that grass pollen group 4 allergens cross-react with the 27 to 69-kD cluster in OSR. The data demonstrate that OSR pollen is allergenic and indicate that the identified allergens represent cross-reacting homologues of well-known pollen allergens, i.e. calcium-binding proteins, profilins, and high-molecular-weight glycoproteins. Via cross-reactivity, exposure to OSR pollen may be a prolonging and aggravating factor in underlying birch and grass pollen allergy.

  5. Low level impurities in imported wheat are a likely source of feral transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Juerg; Brodmann, Peter; Oehen, Bernadette; Bagutti, Claudia

    2015-11-01

    In Switzerland, the cultivation of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and the use of its seeds for food and feed are not permitted. Nevertheless, the GM oilseed rape events GT73, MS8×RF3, MS8 and RF3 have recently been found in the Rhine port of Basel, Switzerland. The sources of GM oilseed rape seeds have been unknown. The main agricultural good being imported at the Rhine port of Basel is wheat and from 2010 to 2013, 19% of all Swiss wheat imports originated from Canada. As over 90% of all oilseed rape grown in Canada is GM, we hypothesised that imports of Canadian wheat may contain low level impurities of GM oilseed rape. Therefore, waste fraction samples gathered during the mechanical cleaning of Canadian wheat from two Swiss grain mills were analysed by separating oilseed rape seeds from waste fraction samples and testing DNA of pooled seeds for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Furthermore, oilseed rape seeds from each grain mill were sown in a germination experiment, and seedling DNA was tested for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. GT73, MS8×RF3, MS8 and RF3 oilseed rape was detected among seed samples and seedlings of both grain mills. Based on this data, we projected a mean proportion of 0.005% of oilseed rape in wheat imported from Canada. Besides Canadian wheat, the Rhine port of Basel does not import any other significant amounts of agricultural products from GM oilseed rape producing countries. We therefore conclude that Canadian wheat is the major source of unintended introduction of GM oilseed rape seeds into Switzerland.

  6. Oilseed rape flour: another allergen causing occupational asthma among farmers.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M J; Estrada, J L; Gozalo, F; Fernandez-Rojo, F; Barber, D

    2001-02-01

    Farmers are exposed to a wide variety of sensitizers. Since occupational asthma (OA) can lead to permanent disability, exposure discontinuation is the preferred treatment. When this is not possible, the identification of the causative allergen may allow an alternative therapy. We present three farmers diagnosed with OA as a consequence of handling fodder. We carried out skin tests with common and occupational allergens and with oilseed rape (OSR) extract. Total and specific serum IgE levels were measured. The patients underwent the OSR-bronchial provocation test (OSR-BPT). The day before and 24 h after the OSR-BPT, the methacholine (M)-BPT and induced sputum were performed. Eosinophil percentages and ECP levels were measured in the sputum samples. OSR sensitization (skin tests and specific serum IgE) was detected in all the patients. The OSR-BPT elicited early responses in two subjects. Methacholine sensitivity, sputum eosinophils, and sputum ECP levels increased 24 h after the OSR-BPT in all the patients. We have demonstrated that inhalation of OSR flour causes bronchoconstriction, induces an eosinophilic inflammatory bronchial response, and increases bronchial hyperresponsiveness in sensitized asthmatics. OSR flour contained in animal fodder should be considered another potential cause of OA among farmers.

  7. Critical period of weed control in oilseed rape in two Moroccan regions.

    PubMed

    Maataoui, A; Bouhache, M; Benbella, M; Talouizte, A

    2003-01-01

    The determination of critical period of weed control in oilseed rape is necessary to know the weed control period. To determine the critical period, two fields experiments were carried out during 1995-96 growth season in Loukkos and Saïs regions at two oilseed densities (D1 = 24 and D2 = 36 plants m(-2)). Ten treatments corresponding to plots left weed free or weeded plots until four leaves, flowers bud, flowering, puds formation, and maturity stages of oilseed rape were tested. Density and biomass of weeds were determined at each oilseed stages. Results showed that weed density and biomass were higher in Saïs than in Loukkos sites. For a 10% yield loss, critical period of weed control in Loukkos was from 458 to 720 degree days after emergence (D degrees AE) and from 480 to 720 D degrees AE in oilseed conducted at densities D1 and D2, respectively. In Saïs, critical period of weed control was from 474 to 738 D degrees AE and from 468 to 675 D degrees AE in oilseed conducted at D1 and D2, respectively. It was concluded that the length of the critical period of weed control in oilseed rape grain yield seems to be dependant of the level of the infestation.

  8. Cadmium uptake and speciation changes in the rhizosphere of cadmium accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties.

    PubMed

    Su, Dechun; Xing, Jianping; Jiao, Weiping; Wong, Woonchung

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of cadmium (Cd) uptake kinetics and distribution of Cd speciation in the rhizosphere for Cd accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties were investigated under nutrient solution and rhizobox soil culture conditions. The results showed that the maximal influx (V(max)) for Cd2+ and Km were significantly different for the two oilseed rape varieties. The value of V(max) for Cd accumulator oilseed rape Zhucang Huazi was two-fold greater than that for oilseed rape Chuan you II-93. The exchangeable Cd concentration in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than in non-rhizospheric soils supplemented with CdSO4 for both the varieties. Carbonate-bound Cd in the rhizosphere of Cd accumulator oilseed rape was significantly higher than that in the rhizosphere of non-accumulator oilseed rape and non-rhizospheric soil. Cd accumulator oilseed rape had a higher Cd2+ affinity and more ability to uptake insoluble Cd in the soil than the non-accumulator oilseed rape.

  9. Management of herbicide-tolerant oilseed rape in Europe: a case study on minimizing vertical gene flow.

    PubMed

    Devos, Yann; Reheul, Dirk; de Schrijver, Adinda; Cors, François; Moens, William

    2004-01-01

    The potential commercialization of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) oilseed rape in Europe raises various concerns about their potential environmental and agronomic impacts, especially those associated with the escape of transgenes. Pollen of oilseed rape can be dispersed in space, resulting in the fertilization of sympatric compatible wild relatives (e.g. Brassica rapa) and oilseed rape cultivars grown nearby (GM and/or non-GM Brassica napus). The spatial and temporal dispersal of seeds of oilseed rape may lead to feral oilseed rape populations outside the cropped areas and oilseed rape volunteers in subsequent crops in the rotation. The incorporation of a HT trait(s) may increase the fitness of the recipient plants, making them more abundant and persistent, and may result in weeds that are difficult to control by the herbicide(s) to which they are tolerant. Vertical gene flow from transgenic oilseed rape to non-GM counterparts may also have an impact on farming and supply chain management, depending on labelling thresholds for the adventitious presence of GM material in non-GM products. Given the extent of pollen and seed dispersal in oilseed rape, it is obvious that the safe and sound integration of GMHT oilseed rape in Europe may require significant on-farm and off-farm management efforts. Crucial practical measures that can reduce vertical gene flow include (1) isolating seed production of Brassica napus, (2) the use of certified seed, (3) isolating fields of GM oilseed rape, (4) harvesting at the correct crop development stage with properly adjusted combine settings, (5) ensuring maximum germination of shed seeds after harvest, (6) controlling volunteers in subsequent crops, and (7) keeping on-farm records. The implementation of the recommended practices may, however, be difficult, entailing various challenges.

  10. Biodiversity of nematofauna of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Manachini, B; Landi, S; Tomasini, V

    2005-01-01

    Few data is available on the nematodes found in Brassicaceae, except for the most important plant parasite. However, studying the structure of nematofauna could be an important database for the soil quality and in order to assess the effects of future disturbance. This is particularly important considering that the diffusion of the canola crop in the world is increasing because of its use as a bio-diesel. Very diffused is also the Bt variety of oil seed rape, and, in this case, the study of the impact on the soil health and on bio-diversity is essential. In this research we have analyzed the nematode community, used as a bio-indicator of the soil condition. The nematofauna found in canola (Brassica napus var. oleifera) fields located in Southern Italy (Metaponto - MT) was investigated. The nematode community was studied considering its abundance, genus composition and trophic structure. Maturity and biodiversity indices were also calculated. A total of 5286 nematodes were extracted. They belong to 14 families and 24 genera. Bacterial and fungal feeders, 50.18% and 42.90% of the total respectively, dominated the trophic structure. Aphelencus is the most abundant genus (23.71%) followed by Acrobeloides (20.49%) and Aphelencoides (19.18%). Among plant feeders (6.59%), Pratylenchus is the dominant genus (2.20%) and Tylenchidae the main family (3.54%). No infestation of Meloidogyne, Heterodera or Naboccus, important plant-parasitic nematodes of canola crops, was recorded. Other important phytophagous were Helycotylenchus (0.5%), Trichotylenchus (0.5%) and Filenchus (0.9%). All of them had an abundance level below injury level. The indices of biodiversity are rather low (H'=0.93, J'=0.67), as is typical for agro ecosystems. However, the nematofauna community is quite well structured (N2=6.31, D=0.16) and the maturity index rather high (EMI=1.94). These values demonstrate that oilseed rape has a lower impact on the soil compared to other crop systems and that it could be

  11. Specifics of soil temperature under winter oilseed rape canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krčmářová, Jana; Středa, Tomáš; Pokorný, Radovan

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the course of soil temperature under the winter oilseed rape canopy and to determine relationships between soil temperature, air temperature and partly soil moisture. In addition, the aim was to describe the dependence by means of regression equations usable for pests and pathogens prediction, crop development, and yields models. The measurement of soil and near the ground air temperatures was performed at the experimental field Žabiče (South Moravia, the Czech Republic). The course of temperature was determined under or in the winter oilseed rape canopy during spring growth season in the course of four years (2010 - 2012 and 2014). In all years, the standard varieties (Petrol, Sherpa) were grown, in 2014 the semi-dwarf variety PX104 was added. Automatic soil sensors were positioned at three depths (0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 m) under soil surface, air temperature sensors in 0.05 m above soil surfaces. The course of soil temperature differs significantly between standard (Sherpa and Petrol) and semi-dwarf (PX104) varieties. Results of the cross correlation analysis showed, that the best interrelationships between air and soil temperature were achieved in 2 hours delay for the soil temperature in 0.05 m, 4 hour delay for 0.10 m and 7 hour delay for 0.20 m for standard varieties. For semi-dwarf variety, this delay reached 6 hour for the soil temperature in 0.05 m, 7 hour delay for 0.10 m and 11 hour for 0.20 m. After the time correction, the determination coefficient (R2) reached values from 0.67 to 0.95 for 0.05 m, 0.50 to 0.84 for 0.10 m in variety Sherpa during all experimental years. For variety PX104 this coefficient reached values from 0.51 to 0.72 in 0.05 m depth and from 0.39 to 0.67 in 0.10 m depth in the year 2014. The determination coefficient in the 0.20 m depth was lower for both varieties; its values were from 0.15 to 0.65 in variety Sherpa. In variety PX104 the values of R2 from 0.23 to 0.57 were determined. When using

  12. Molecular differentiation of commercial varieties and feral populations of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background For assessing the risk of escape of transgenes from cultivation, the persistence of feral populations of crop plants is an important aspect. Feral populations of oilseed rape, Brassica napus, are well known, but only scarce information is available on their population dynamics, particularly in Central Europe. To investigate genetic diversity, origin and persistence of feral oilseed rape in Austria, we compared variation at nine polymorphic microsatellite loci in eight feral populations with 19 commercial varieties. Results Overall, commercial varieties and feral populations showed a similar pattern of genetic variation and a similar level of observed heterozygosity. The two groups, however, shared less than 50% of the alleles and no multilocus genotype. A significant among-group (commercial varieties versus feral populations) component of genetic variation was observed (AMOVA: FCT = 0.132). Pairwise comparisons between varieties and feral populations showed moderate to very high genetic differentiation (FST = 0.209 - 0.900). The software STRUCTURE also demonstrated a clear separation between commercial varieties and feral samples: out of 17 identified genetic clusters, only one comprised plants from both a commercial variety and feral sites. Conclusions The results suggest that feral oilseed rape is able to maintain persistent populations. The feral populations may have derived from older cultivars that were not included in our analyses or perhaps have already hybridised with related crops or wild relatives. Feral populations therefore have to be considered in ecological risk assessment and future coexistence measures as a potential hybridisation partner of transgenic oilseed rape. PMID:20193061

  13. [Fast determination of malondialdehyde in oilseed rape leaves using near infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Kong, Wen-Wen; Liu, Fei; Zou, Qiang; Fang, Hui; He, Yong

    2011-04-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was applied for the fast and nondestructive determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) content in oilseed rape leaves. A total of 90 leaf samples were collected, the calibration set was composed of 60 samples, and the prediction set was composed of 30 samples. Different preprocessing methods were used before the calibration stage, including smoothing, standard normal variate, first and second derivative, and detrending. Then partial least squares (PLS) models were developed for the prediction of MDA content in oilseed rape leaves. The latent variables selected by PLS and effective wavelengths selected by successive projections algorithm (SPA) were used as the inputs of least square-support vector machine (LS-SVM) to develop LV-LS-SVM and SPA-LS-SVM models. The correlation coefficients (r) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were used as the model evaluation indices. Excellent results were achieved by LV-LS-SVM model, and the prediction results by LS-SVM model using detrending spectra were r = 0.999 9 and RMSEP = 0.530 2, and those by LS-SVM model using 2-Der spectra were r = 0.999 9 and RMSEP = 0.395 7. The results showed that NIR spectroscopy could be used for determination of MDA content in oilseed rape leaves, and an excellent prediction precision was achieved. This study supplied a new approach to the dynamic and continuous field monitoring of growing status of oilseed rape.

  14. Quantitative Multilevel Analysis of Central Metabolism in Developing Oilseeds of Oilseed Rape During In Vitro Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Schwender, Jorg; Hebbelmann, Inga; Heinzel, Nicholas; Hildebrandt, Tatjana; Rogers, Alistair; Naik, Dhiraj; Klapperstuck, Matthias; Braun, Hans -Peter; Schreiber, Falk; Denolf, Peter; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Rolletschek, Hardy

    2015-07-01

    Seeds provide the basis for many food, feed, and fuel products. Continued increases in seed yield, composition, and quality require an improved understanding of how the developing seed converts carbon and nitrogen supplies into storage. Current knowledge of this process is often based on the premise that transcriptional regulation directly translates via enzyme concentration into flux. In an attempt to highlight metabolic control, we explore genotypic differences in carbon partitioning for in vitro cultured developing embryos of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). We determined biomass composition as well as 79 net fluxes, the levels of 77 metabolites, and 26 enzyme activities with specific focus on central metabolism in nine selected germplasm accessions. We observed a tradeoff between the biomass component fractions of lipid and starch. With increasing lipid content over the spectrum of genotypes, plastidic fatty acid synthesis and glycolytic flux increased concomitantly, while glycolytic intermediates decreased. The lipid/starch tradeoff was not reflected at the proteome level, pointing to the significance of (posttranslational) metabolic control. Enzyme activity/flux and metabolite/flux correlations suggest that plastidic pyruvate kinase exerts flux control and that the lipid/starch tradeoff is most likely mediated by allosteric feedback regulation of phosphofructokinase and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Also, quantitative data were used to calculate in vivo mass action ratios, reaction equilibria, and metabolite turnover times. Compounds like cyclic 3',5'-AMP and sucrose-6-phosphate were identified to potentially be involved in so far unknown mechanisms of metabolic control. This study provides a rich source of quantitative data for those studying central metabolism..

  15. Quantitative Multilevel Analysis of Central Metabolism in Developing Oilseeds of Oilseed Rape during in Vitro Culture.

    PubMed

    Schwender, Jörg; Hebbelmann, Inga; Heinzel, Nicolas; Hildebrandt, Tatjana; Rogers, Alistair; Naik, Dhiraj; Klapperstück, Matthias; Braun, Hans-Peter; Schreiber, Falk; Denolf, Peter; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Rolletschek, Hardy

    2015-07-01

    Seeds provide the basis for many food, feed, and fuel products. Continued increases in seed yield, composition, and quality require an improved understanding of how the developing seed converts carbon and nitrogen supplies into storage. Current knowledge of this process is often based on the premise that transcriptional regulation directly translates via enzyme concentration into flux. In an attempt to highlight metabolic control, we explore genotypic differences in carbon partitioning for in vitro cultured developing embryos of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). We determined biomass composition as well as 79 net fluxes, the levels of 77 metabolites, and 26 enzyme activities with specific focus on central metabolism in nine selected germplasm accessions. Overall, we observed a tradeoff between the biomass component fractions of lipid and starch. With increasing lipid content over the spectrum of genotypes, plastidic fatty acid synthesis and glycolytic flux increased concomitantly, while glycolytic intermediates decreased. The lipid/starch tradeoff was not reflected at the proteome level, pointing to the significance of (posttranslational) metabolic control. Enzyme activity/flux and metabolite/flux correlations suggest that plastidic pyruvate kinase exerts flux control and that the lipid/starch tradeoff is most likely mediated by allosteric feedback regulation of phosphofructokinase and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Quantitative data were also used to calculate in vivo mass action ratios, reaction equilibria, and metabolite turnover times. Compounds like cyclic 3',5'-AMP and sucrose-6-phosphate were identified to potentially be involved in so far unknown mechanisms of metabolic control. This study provides a rich source of quantitative data for those studying central metabolism.

  16. Heterogeneity in the distribution of genetically modified and conventional oilseed rape within fields and seed lots.

    PubMed

    Begg, Graham S; Elliott, Martin J; Cullen, Danny W; Iannetta, Pietro P M; Squire, Geoff R

    2008-10-01

    The implementation of co-existence in the commercialisation of GM crops requires GM and non-GM products to be segregated in production and supply. However, maintaining segregation in oilseed rape will be made difficult by the highly persistent nature of this species. An understanding of its population dynamics is needed to predict persistence and develop potential strategies for control, while to ensure segregation is being achieved, the production of GM oilseed rape must be accompanied by the monitoring of GM levels in crop or seed populations. Heterogeneity in the spatial distribution of oilseed rape has the potential to affect both control and monitoring and, although a universal phenomenon in arable weeds and harvested seed lots, spatial heterogeneity in oilseed rape populations remains to be demonstrated and quantified. Here we investigate the distribution of crop and volunteer populations in a commercial field before and during the cultivation of the first conventional oilseed rape (winter) crop since the cultivation of a GM glufosinate-tolerant oilseed rape crop (spring) three years previously. GM presence was detected by ELISA for the PAT protein in each of three morphologically distinguishable phenotypes: autumn germinating crop-type plants (3% GM), autumn-germinating 'regrowths' (72% GM) and spring germinating 'small-type' plants (17% GM). Statistical models (Poisson log-normal and binomial logit-normal) were used to describe the spatial distribution of these populations at multiple spatial scales in the field and of GM presence in the harvested seed lot. Heterogeneity was a consistent feature in the distribution of GM and conventional oilseed rape. Large trends across the field (50 x 400 m) and seed lot (4 x 1.5 x 1.5 m) were observed in addition to small-scale heterogeneity, less than 20 m in the field and 20 cm in the seed lot. The heterogeneity was greater for the 'regrowth' and 'small' phenotypes, which were likely to be volunteers and included most

  17. Characterization of the pollen beetle, Brassicogethes aeneus, dispersal from woodlands to winter oilseed rape fields

    PubMed Central

    Barbu, Corentin Mario; Franck, Pierre; Roger-Estrade, Jean; Butier, Arnaud; Bazot, Mathieu; Valantin-Morison, Muriel

    2017-01-01

    Many crop pests rely on resources out of crop fields; understanding how they colonize the fields is an important factor to develop integrated pest management. In particular, the time of crop colonization and damage severity might be determined by pest movements between fields and non-crop areas. Notably, the pollen beetle, Brassicogethes aeneus, previously named Meligethes aeneus, one of the most important pests of winter oilseed rape, overwinters in woodlands. As a result, its abundance increases in oilseed rape fields near wooded areas. Here, we assessed the spatio-temporal patterns of the dispersal from woodlands to oilseed rape fields in diversified landscapes of a same region. We observed on four dates the abundance of pollen beetles in 24 fields spread in the Eure department, France. We modeled the abundance as a result of the dispersal from the neighboring woodlands. We compared the modalities of dispersal corresponding to different hypotheses on the dispersal origin, kernel shape and sources of variability. Within oilseed rape the distance to the edges of woodlands is not the main determinant of pollen beetle abundance. On the contrary, the variability of the abundance between fields is largely explained by the dispersal from neighboring woodlands but there is considerable variability between dates, sites and, to a lesser extent, between fields. The two dispersal kernels received similar support from the data and lead to similar conclusions. The mean dispersal distance is 1.2 km but seems to increase from a few hundred meters the first week to more than two kilometers the fourth, allowing the pollen beetles to reach more distant OSR fields. These results suggest that early varieties away from woodlands and late varieties close to the woodlands may limit attacks at the time when oilseed rape is the most sensitive. PMID:28841712

  18. Verticillium longisporum, the invisible threat to oilseed rape and other brassicaceous plant hosts.

    PubMed

    Depotter, Jasper R L; Deketelaere, Silke; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Tiedemann, Andreas Von; Höfte, Monica; Subbarao, Krishna V; Wood, Thomas A; Thomma, Bart P H J

    2016-09-01

    The causal agents of Verticillium wilts are globally distributed pathogens that cause significant crop losses every year. Most Verticillium wilts are caused by V. dahliae, which is pathogenic on a broad range of plant hosts, whereas other pathogenic Verticillium species have more restricted host ranges. In contrast, V. longisporum appears to prefer brassicaceous plants and poses an increasing problem to oilseed rape production. Kingdom Fungi; Phylum Ascomycota; Class Sordariomycetes; Subclass Hypocreomycetida; Family Plectosphaerellaceae; genus Verticillium. Dark unilateral stripes appear on the stems of apparently healthy looking oilseed rape plants at the end of the growing season. Microsclerotia are subsequently formed in the stem cortex beneath the epidermis. Verticillium longisporum is the only non-haploid species in the Verticillium genus, as it is an amphidiploid hybrid that carries almost twice as much genetic material as the other Verticillium species as a result of interspecific hybridization. There is no effective fungicide treatment to control Verticillium diseases, and resistance breeding is the preferred strategy for disease management. However, only a few Verticillium wilt resistance genes have been identified, and monogenic resistance against V. longisporum has not yet been found. Quantitative resistance exists mainly in the Brassica C-genome of parental cabbage lines and may be introgressed in oilseed rape breeding lines. Oilseed rape colonized by V. longisporum does not develop wilting symptoms, and therefore the common name of Verticillium wilt is unsuitable for this crop. Therefore, we propose 'Verticillium stem striping' as the common name for Verticillium infections of oilseed rape. © 2015 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Multi range spectral feature fitting for hyperspectral imagery in extracting oilseed rape planting area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhuokun; Huang, Jingfeng; Wang, Fumin

    2013-12-01

    Spectral feature fitting (SFF) is a commonly used strategy for hyperspectral imagery analysis to discriminate ground targets. Compared to other image analysis techniques, SFF does not secure higher accuracy in extracting image information in all circumstances. Multi range spectral feature fitting (MRSFF) from ENVI software allows user to focus on those interesting spectral features to yield better performance. Thus spectral wavelength ranges and their corresponding weights must be determined. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the performance of MRSFF in oilseed rape planting area extraction. A practical method for defining the weighted values, the variance coefficient weight method, was proposed to set up criterion. Oilseed rape field canopy spectra from the whole growth stage were collected prior to investigating its phenological varieties; oilseed rape endmember spectra were extracted from the Hyperion image as identifying samples to be used in analyzing the oilseed rape field. Wavelength range divisions were determined by the difference between field-measured spectra and image spectra, and image spectral variance coefficient weights for each wavelength range were calculated corresponding to field-measured spectra from the closest date. By using MRSFF, wavelength ranges were classified to characterize the target's spectral features without compromising spectral profile's entirety. The analysis was substantially successful in extracting oilseed rape planting areas (RMSE ≤ 0.06), and the RMSE histogram indicated a superior result compared to a conventional SFF. Accuracy assessment was based on the mapping result compared with spectral angle mapping (SAM) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). The MRSFF yielded a robust, convincible result and, therefore, may further the use of hyperspectral imagery in precision agriculture.

  20. [Application of successive projections algorithm to nondestructive determination of total amino acids in oilseed rape leaves].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Zhang, Fan; Fang, Hui; Jin, Zong-Lai; Zhou, Wei-Jun; He, Yong

    2009-11-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with successive projections algorithm (SPA) was investigated for the fast and nondestructive determination of total amino acids (TAA) in oilseed rape leaves. Total amino acids are important indices of the growing status of oilseed rape. A total of 150 leave samples were scanned, the calibration set was composed of 80 samples, the validation set was composed of 40 samples and the prediction set was composed of 30 samples. The optimal partial least squares (PLS) model was developed for the prediction of total amino acids in oilseed rape leaves after the performance comparison of different pretreatments, including smoothing method, standard normal variate (SNV), the first derivative and second derivative. Simultaneously, successive projections algorithm was applied for the extraction of effective wavelengths (EWs), which were thought to have least collinearity and redundancies in the spectral data. The selected effective wavelengths were used as the inputs of multiple linear regression (MLR), partial least squares (PLS) and least square-support vector machine (LS-SVM). Then the SPA-MLR, SPA-PLS and SPA-LS-SVM models were developed for performance comparison. The determination coefficient (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used as the model evaluation indices. The results indicated that both SPA-MLR and SPA-PLS models were better than full-spectrum PLS model, and the best performance was achieved by SPA-LS-SVM model with R2 = 0.983 0 and RMSEP = 0.396 4. An excellent prediction precision was achieved. In conclusion, successive projections algorithm is a powerful way for effective wavelength selection, and it is feasible to determine the total amino acids in oil-seed rape leaves using near infrared spectroscopy and SPA-LS-SVM, and an excellent prediction precision was obtained. This study supplied a new and alternative approach to the further application of near infrared spectroscopy in the response of stress and on

  1. Assessing winter oilseed rape freeze injury based on Chinese HJ remote sensing data*

    PubMed Central

    She, Bao; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Wang, Hong-bin; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) accounts for about 90% of the total acreage of oilseed rape in China. However, it suffers the risk of freeze injury during the winter. In this study, we used Chinese HJ-1A/1B CCD sensors, which have a revisit frequency of 2 d as well as 30 m spatial resolution, to monitor the freeze injury of oilseed rape. Mahalanobis distance-derived growing regions in a normal year were taken as the benchmark, and a mask method was applied to obtain the growing regions in the 2010–2011 growing season. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was chosen as the indicator of the degree of damage. The amount of crop damage was determined from the difference in the NDVI before and after the freeze. There was spatial variability in the amount of crop damage, so we examined three factors that may affect the degree of freeze injury: terrain, soil moisture, and crop growth before the freeze. The results showed that all these factors were significantly correlated with freeze injury degree (P<0.01, two-tailed). The damage was generally more serious in low-lying and drought-prone areas; in addition, oilseed rape planted on south- and west-oriented facing slopes and those with luxuriant growth status tended to be more susceptible to freeze injury. Furthermore, land surface temperature (LST) of the coldest day, soil moisture, pre-freeze growth and altitude were in descending order of importance in determining the degree of damage. The findings proposed in this paper would be helpful in understanding the occurrence and severity distribution of oilseed rape freeze injury under certain natural or vegetation conditions, and thus help in mitigation of this kind of meteorological disaster in southern China. PMID:25644468

  2. Characterization of the pollen beetle, Brassicogethes aeneus, dispersal from woodlands to winter oilseed rape fields.

    PubMed

    Juhel, Amandine Suzanne; Barbu, Corentin Mario; Franck, Pierre; Roger-Estrade, Jean; Butier, Arnaud; Bazot, Mathieu; Valantin-Morison, Muriel

    2017-01-01

    Many crop pests rely on resources out of crop fields; understanding how they colonize the fields is an important factor to develop integrated pest management. In particular, the time of crop colonization and damage severity might be determined by pest movements between fields and non-crop areas. Notably, the pollen beetle, Brassicogethes aeneus, previously named Meligethes aeneus, one of the most important pests of winter oilseed rape, overwinters in woodlands. As a result, its abundance increases in oilseed rape fields near wooded areas. Here, we assessed the spatio-temporal patterns of the dispersal from woodlands to oilseed rape fields in diversified landscapes of a same region. We observed on four dates the abundance of pollen beetles in 24 fields spread in the Eure department, France. We modeled the abundance as a result of the dispersal from the neighboring woodlands. We compared the modalities of dispersal corresponding to different hypotheses on the dispersal origin, kernel shape and sources of variability. Within oilseed rape the distance to the edges of woodlands is not the main determinant of pollen beetle abundance. On the contrary, the variability of the abundance between fields is largely explained by the dispersal from neighboring woodlands but there is considerable variability between dates, sites and, to a lesser extent, between fields. The two dispersal kernels received similar support from the data and lead to similar conclusions. The mean dispersal distance is 1.2 km but seems to increase from a few hundred meters the first week to more than two kilometers the fourth, allowing the pollen beetles to reach more distant OSR fields. These results suggest that early varieties away from woodlands and late varieties close to the woodlands may limit attacks at the time when oilseed rape is the most sensitive.

  3. Assessing winter oilseed rape freeze injury based on Chinese HJ remote sensing data.

    PubMed

    She, Bao; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Wang, Hong-bin; Wang, Jing

    2015-02-01

    The winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) accounts for about 90% of the total acreage of oilseed rape in China. However, it suffers the risk of freeze injury during the winter. In this study, we used Chinese HJ-1A/1B CCD sensors, which have a revisit frequency of 2 d as well as 30 m spatial resolution, to monitor the freeze injury of oilseed rape. Mahalanobis distance-derived growing regions in a normal year were taken as the benchmark, and a mask method was applied to obtain the growing regions in the 2010-2011 growing season. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was chosen as the indicator of the degree of damage. The amount of crop damage was determined from the difference in the NDVI before and after the freeze. There was spatial variability in the amount of crop damage, so we examined three factors that may affect the degree of freeze injury: terrain, soil moisture, and crop growth before the freeze. The results showed that all these factors were significantly correlated with freeze injury degree (P<0.01, two-tailed). The damage was generally more serious in low-lying and drought-prone areas; in addition, oilseed rape planted on south- and west-oriented facing slopes and those with luxuriant growth status tended to be more susceptible to freeze injury. Furthermore, land surface temperature (LST) of the coldest day, soil moisture, pre-freeze growth and altitude were in descending order of importance in determining the degree of damage. The findings proposed in this paper would be helpful in understanding the occurrence and severity distribution of oilseed rape freeze injury under certain natural or vegetation conditions, and thus help in mitigation of this kind of meteorological disaster in southern China.

  4. Unexpected diversity of feral genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) despite a cultivation and import ban in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Juerg; Frauenknecht, Tina; Brodmann, Peter; Bagutti, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Despite cultivation and seed import bans of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), feral GM plants were found growing along railway lines and in port areas at four sites in Switzerland in 2011 and 2012. All GM plants were identified as glyphosate-resistant GM event GT73 (Roundup Ready, Monsanto). The most affected sites were the Rhine port of Basel and the St. Johann freight railway station in Basel. To assess the distribution and intra- and interspecific outcrossing of GM oilseed rape in more detail, we monitored these two sites in 2013. Leaves and seed pods of feral oilseed rape plants, their possible hybridization partners and putative hybrid plants were sampled in monthly intervals and analysed for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Using flow cytometry, we measured DNA contents of cell nuclei to confirm putative hybrids. In total, 2787 plants were sampled. The presence of GT73 oilseed rape could be confirmed at all previously documented sampling locations and was additionally detected at one new sampling location within the Rhine port. Furthermore, we found the glufosinate-resistant GM events MS8xRF3, MS8 and RF3 (all traded as InVigor, Bayer) at five sampling locations in the Rhine port. To our knowledge, this is the first time that feral MS8xRF3, MS8 or RF3 plants were detected in Europe. Real-time PCR analyses of seeds showed outcrossing of GT73 into two non-GM oilseed rape plants, but no outcrossing of transgenes into related wild species was observed. We found no hybrids between oilseed rape and related species. GM plants most frequently occurred at unloading sites for ships, indicating that ship cargo traffic is the main entry pathway for GM oilseed rape. In the future, it will be of major interest to determine the source of GM oilseed rape seeds.

  5. Unexpected Diversity of Feral Genetically Modified Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) Despite a Cultivation and Import Ban in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Juerg; Frauenknecht, Tina; Brodmann, Peter; Bagutti, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Despite cultivation and seed import bans of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), feral GM plants were found growing along railway lines and in port areas at four sites in Switzerland in 2011 and 2012. All GM plants were identified as glyphosate-resistant GM event GT73 (Roundup Ready, Monsanto). The most affected sites were the Rhine port of Basel and the St. Johann freight railway station in Basel. To assess the distribution and intra- and interspecific outcrossing of GM oilseed rape in more detail, we monitored these two sites in 2013. Leaves and seed pods of feral oilseed rape plants, their possible hybridization partners and putative hybrid plants were sampled in monthly intervals and analysed for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Using flow cytometry, we measured DNA contents of cell nuclei to confirm putative hybrids. In total, 2787 plants were sampled. The presence of GT73 oilseed rape could be confirmed at all previously documented sampling locations and was additionally detected at one new sampling location within the Rhine port. Furthermore, we found the glufosinate-resistant GM events MS8xRF3, MS8 and RF3 (all traded as InVigor, Bayer) at five sampling locations in the Rhine port. To our knowledge, this is the first time that feral MS8xRF3, MS8 or RF3 plants were detected in Europe. Real-time PCR analyses of seeds showed outcrossing of GT73 into two non-GM oilseed rape plants, but no outcrossing of transgenes into related wild species was observed. We found no hybrids between oilseed rape and related species. GM plants most frequently occurred at unloading sites for ships, indicating that ship cargo traffic is the main entry pathway for GM oilseed rape. In the future, it will be of major interest to determine the source of GM oilseed rape seeds. PMID:25464509

  6. Meteorological and landscape influences on pollen beetle immigration into oilseed rape crops.

    PubMed

    Skellern, Matthew P; Welham, Sue J; Watts, Nigel P; Cook, Samantha M

    2017-04-01

    Heavy reliance on pesticide inputs to maintain crop yields has been an important aspect of agricultural intensification. Insecticide use has had detrimental impacts on pollinators and natural pest control agents, contributing to a decline in associated ecosystem services, and has also led to resistance development in pest populations. Throughout Europe, in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) crops, prophylactic use of insecticides against pollen beetles (Meligethes aeneus F. also known as Brassicogethes aeneus) has led to such issues, and there is an urgent need to develop more sustainable pest management practices for the crop. Although advice is available to oilseed rape growers regarding control thresholds, it may not be adhered to due to the expense of pollen beetle monitoring relative to the inexpensive cost of pyrethroid insecticides. Thus, the key to reducing prophylactic insecticide applications may lie with improved, less labour intensive methods of pollen beetle monitoring. For these to be realized, a better understanding is needed of the effects of agri-landscape features and meteorological conditions on pollen beetle immigration into the crop. In this study, based on data from four years of pollen beetle monitoring on a total of 41 field sites, we model the effects of meteorological (wind speed and direction, rainfall and accumulated temperature) and landscape (areas of woodland, residential gardens, the current and previous seasons' oilseed rape crops, and lengths of hedgerows and treelines) variables on directional sticky trap catches, at both the single trap and field scales. Meteorological variables, particularly accumulated temperature and wind speed were more important than landscape variables in predicting the abundance of pollen beetles immigrating into OSR fields. Sticky traps that were facing downwind caught more beetles than those that were facing across-wind or upwind; this is the first study to show at a landscape-scale, direct evidence for

  7. Challenges to grow oilseed rape Brassica napus in sugar beet rotations.

    PubMed

    Stefanovska, T; Pidlisnyuk, V

    2009-01-01

    The study was carried out in 1989-1991 and repeated in 2003-2006 to compare life cycle and dynamics of Heterodera schachtii Schm. on sugar beet, oilseed rape, fodder radish and to work out recommendations on how to decrease the risk of yield reduction while it grows in sugar-beet rotations. Research was carried out in plot experiment in natural conditions. Nematode community on rape, fodder radish and sugar beet was analyzed. Data of nematode community showed that composition of nematode species was very similar. Heterodera shachtii were dominated species with rape and sugar beet. All tested Brassica crops are susceptible to H. schachtii. However there is significant difference in population dynamics. The highest total number of brown cysts, eggs and juveniles of all ages was observed in winter rape. H.schachtii developed two generations on sugar beet and one generation on mustard. The voluntary seed germination after harvest contributes to increasing H. schachtii population. Therefore it is necessary to destroy oilseed rape voluntary chemically or physically. This operation should be done in about 2-4 weeks. The exact time can be calculated using the temperature- based model. Growing regular fodder radish and mustard as the trap crops can significantly reduce population of H. schachtii. The time of sowing is not earlier than August 20th. While estimating the time of destruction of trap crops it should be taken into consideration that H. schachtii can complete life cycle without foliage.

  8. Indications of Selenium Protection against Cadmium and Lead Toxicity in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhilin; Yin, Xuebin; Bañuelos, Gary S.; Lin, Zhi-Qing; Liu, Ying; Li, Miao; Yuan, Linxi

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the beneficial role of selenium (Se) in protecting oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) plants from cadmium (Cd+2) and lead (Pb+2) toxicity. Exogenous Se markedly reduced Cd and Pb concentration in both roots and shoots. Supplementation of the medium with Se (5, 10, and 15 mg kg-1) alleviated the negative effect of Cd and Pb on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative damages caused by Cd and Pb. Furthermore, Se-enhanced superoxide free radicals (O2•¯), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and lipid peroxidation, as indicated by malondialdehyde accumulation, but decreased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Meanwhile, the presence of Cd and Pb in the medium affected Se speciation in shoots. The results suggest that Se could alleviate Cd and Pb toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in oilseed rape plant. PMID:28018407

  9. Indications of Selenium Protection against Cadmium and Lead Toxicity in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhilin; Yin, Xuebin; Bañuelos, Gary S; Lin, Zhi-Qing; Liu, Ying; Li, Miao; Yuan, Linxi

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the beneficial role of selenium (Se) in protecting oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) plants from cadmium (Cd(+2)) and lead (Pb(+2)) toxicity. Exogenous Se markedly reduced Cd and Pb concentration in both roots and shoots. Supplementation of the medium with Se (5, 10, and 15 mg kg(-1)) alleviated the negative effect of Cd and Pb on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative damages caused by Cd and Pb. Furthermore, Se-enhanced superoxide free radicals ([Formula: see text]), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and lipid peroxidation, as indicated by malondialdehyde accumulation, but decreased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Meanwhile, the presence of Cd and Pb in the medium affected Se speciation in shoots. The results suggest that Se could alleviate Cd and Pb toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in oilseed rape plant.

  10. Something in the air? The impact of volatiles on mollusc attack of oilseed rape seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Félix, Anne-Emmanuelle; Poppy, Guy M.; Newland, Philip L.; van Dam, Nicole M.; Hanley, Mick E.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Mounting concerns about balancing food security with the environmental impacts of agro-chemical use underpin the need to better understand the mechanisms by which crop plants, particularly during the vulnerable seedling stage, attract or repel herbivores. Methods The feeding preferences of the mollusc Helix aspersa were determined for several oilseed rape (Brassica napus) cultivars and a rank order of acceptability was established. This was compared with glucosinolate concentrations and volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles to determine whether seedling acceptability to molluscs was linked to either form of defence. Key Results While VOC profiles for each oilseed rape cultivar could be separated by canonical discriminant analysis and associated with mollusc feeding preferences, glucosinolate profiles were unrelated to snail feeding behaviour. A mixture of monoterpenes (α-pinene, β-myrcene and δ-3-carene) was identified as a putative attractant, while a blend of the green leaf volatiles 3-hexen-1-ol, 3-hexen-1-ol acetate and the monoterpene α-terpinene was identified as a putative repellent mix. Added to the VOC profile of oilseed rape seedlings, the ‘repellent’ mix reduced mollusc selection, while the ‘attractant’ mix had no effect. Conclusions Despite the widespread assumption that seedling selection by generalist herbivores is governed by chemical defence and taste, we show that olfactory cues may be more important. Oilseed rape may be atypical of wild plants, but our ability to identify repellent volatile organic compounds that can influence snail olfactory selection points to new methods for crop protection using modified VOC profiles during the vulnerable seedling stage. PMID:27009912

  11. Large-scale pollination experiment demonstrates the importance of insect pollination in winter oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Sandra A M; Herbertsson, Lina; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-03-01

    Insect pollination, despite its potential to contribute substantially to crop production, is not an integrated part of agronomic planning. A major reason for this are knowledge gaps in the contribution of pollinators to yield, which partly result from difficulties in determining area-based estimates of yield effects from insect pollination under field conditions. We have experimentally manipulated honey bee Apis mellifera densities at 43 oilseed rape Brassica napus fields over 2 years in Scandinavia. Honey bee hives were placed in 22 fields; an additional 21 fields without large apiaries in the surrounding landscape were selected as controls. Depending on the pollination system in the parental generation, the B. napus cultivars in the crop fields are classified as either open-pollinated or first-generation hybrids, with both types being open-pollinated in the generation of plants cultivated in the fields. Three cultivars of each type were grown. We measured the activity of flower-visiting insects during flowering and estimated yields by harvesting with small combine harvesters. The addition of honey bee hives to the fields dramatically increased abundance of flower-visiting honey bees in those fields. Honey bees affected yield, but the effect depended on cultivar type (p = 0.04). Post-hoc analysis revealed that open-pollinated cultivars, but not hybrid cultivars, had 11% higher yields in fields with added honey bees than those grown in the control fields (p = 0.07). To our knowledge, this is the first whole-field study in replicated landscapes to assess the benefit of insect pollination in oilseed rape. Our results demonstrate that honey bees have the potential to increase oilseed rape yields, thereby emphasizing the importance of pollinator management for optimal cultivation of oilseed rape.

  12. Something in the air? The impact of volatiles on mollusc attack of oilseed rape seedlings.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Roger W R; Félix, Anne-Emmanuelle; Poppy, Guy M; Newland, Philip L; van Dam, Nicole M; Hanley, Mick E

    2016-05-01

    Mounting concerns about balancing food security with the environmental impacts of agro-chemical use underpin the need to better understand the mechanisms by which crop plants, particularly during the vulnerable seedling stage, attract or repel herbivores. The feeding preferences of the mollusc Helix aspersa were determined for several oilseed rape (Brassica napus) cultivars and a rank order of acceptability was established. This was compared with glucosinolate concentrations and volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles to determine whether seedling acceptability to molluscs was linked to either form of defence. While VOC profiles for each oilseed rape cultivar could be separated by canonical discriminant analysis and associated with mollusc feeding preferences, glucosinolate profiles were unrelated to snail feeding behaviour. A mixture of monoterpenes (α-pinene, β-myrcene and δ-3-carene) was identified as a putative attractant, while a blend of the green leaf volatiles 3-hexen-1-ol, 3-hexen-1-ol acetate and the monoterpene α-terpinene was identified as a putative repellent mix. Added to the VOC profile of oilseed rape seedlings, the 'repellent' mix reduced mollusc selection, while the 'attractant' mix had no effect. Despite the widespread assumption that seedling selection by generalist herbivores is governed by chemical defence and taste, we show that olfactory cues may be more important. Oilseed rape may be atypical of wild plants, but our ability to identify repellent volatile organic compounds that can influence snail olfactory selection points to new methods for crop protection using modified VOC profiles during the vulnerable seedling stage. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Cold plasma treatment enhances oilseed rape seed germination under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Ling, Li; Jiangang, Li; Minchong, Shen; Chunlei, Zhang; Yuanhua, Dong

    2015-08-12

    Effects of cold plasma treatment on seed germination, seedling growth, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation levels and osmotic-adjustment products of oilseed rape under drought stress were investigated in a drought-sensitive (Zhongshuang 7) and drought-tolerant cultivar (Zhongshuang 11). Results showed that, under drought stress, cold plasma treatment significantly improved the germination rate by 6.25% in Zhongshuang 7, and 4.44% in Zhongshuang 11. Seedling growth characteristics, including shoot and root dry weights, shoot and root lengths, and lateral root number, significantly increased after cold plasma treatment. The apparent contact angle was reduced by 30.38% in Zhongshuang 7 and 16.91% in Zhongshuang 11. Cold plasma treatment markedly raised superoxide dismutase and catalase activities by 17.71% and 16.52% in Zhongshuang 7, and by 13.00% and 13.21% in Zhongshuang 11. Moreover, cold plasma treatment significantly increased the soluble sugar and protein contents, but reduced the malondialdehyde content in seedlings. Our results suggested that cold plasma treatment improved oilseed rape drought tolerance by improving antioxidant enzyme activities, increasing osmotic-adjustment products, and reducing lipid peroxidation, especially in the drought-sensitive cultivar (Zhongshuang 7). Thus, cold plasma treatment can be used in an ameliorative way to improve germination and protect oilseed rape seedlings against damage caused by drought stress.

  14. Response of seed tocopherols in oilseed rape to nitrogen fertilizer sources and application rates* #

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Nazim; Li, Hui; Jiang, Yu-xiao; Jabeen, Zahra; Shamsi, Imran Haider; Ali, Essa; Jiang, Li-xi

    2014-01-01

    Tocopherols (Tocs) are vital scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and important seed oil quality indicators. Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important fertilizers in promoting biomass and grain yield in crop production. However, the effect of different sources and application rates of N on seed Toc contents in oilseed rape is poorly understood. In this study, pot trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of two sources of N fertilizer (urea and ammonium nitrate). Each source was applied to five oilseed rape genotypes (Zheshuang 72, Jiu-Er-1358, Zheshuang 758, Shiralee, and Pakola) at three different application rates (0.41 g/pot (N1), 0.81 g/pot (N2), and 1.20 g/pot (N3)). Results indicated that urea increased α-, γ-, and total Toc (T-Toc) more than did ammonium nitrate. N3 was proven as the most efficient application rate, which yielded high contents of γ-Toc and T-Toc. Highly significant correlations were observed between Toc isomers, T-Toc, and α-/γ-Toc ratio. These results clearly demonstrate that N sources and application rates significantly affect seed Toc contents in oilseed rape. PMID:24510711

  15. Oilseed rape: learning about ancient and recent polyploid evolution from a recent crop species.

    PubMed

    Mason, A S; Snowdon, R J

    2016-11-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is one of our youngest crop species, arising several times under cultivation in the last few thousand years and completely unknown in the wild. Oilseed rape originated from hybridisation events between progenitor diploid species B. rapa and B. oleracea, both important vegetable species. The diploid progenitors are also ancient polyploids, with remnants of two previous polyploidisation events evident in the triplicated genome structure. This history of polyploid evolution and human agricultural selection makes B. napus an excellent model with which to investigate processes of genomic evolution and selection in polyploid crops. The ease of de novo interspecific hybridisation, responsiveness to tissue culture, and the close relationship of oilseed rape to the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, coupled with the recent availability of reference genome sequences and suites of molecular cytogenetic and high-throughput genotyping tools, allow detailed dissection of genetic, genomic and phenotypic interactions in this crop. In this review we discuss the past and present uses of B. napus as a model for polyploid speciation and evolution in crop species, along with current and developing analysis tools and resources. We further outline unanswered questions that may now be tractable to investigation. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. Ozone dose-response relationships for spring oilseed rape and broccoli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Bock, Maarten; Op de Beeck, Maarten; De Temmerman, Ludwig; Guisez, Yves; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Vandermeiren, Karine

    2011-03-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important air pollutant with known detrimental effects for several crops. Ozone effects on seed yield, oil percentage, oil yield and 1000 seed weight were examined for spring oilseed rape ( Brassica napus cv. Ability). For broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. cv. Italica cv. Monaco) the effects on fresh marketable weight and total dry weight were studied. Current ozone levels were compared with an increase of 20 and 40 ppb during 8 h per day, over the entire growing season. Oilseed rape seed yield was negatively correlated with ozone dose indices calculated from emergence until harvest. This resulted in an R2 of 0.24 and 0.26 ( p < 0.001) for the accumulated hourly O 3 exposure over a threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40) and the phytotoxic ozone dose above a threshold of 6 nmol m -2 s -1 (POD 6) respectively. Estimated critical levels, above which 5% yield reduction is expected, were 3.7 ppm h and 4.4 mmol m -2 respectively. Our results also confirm that a threshold value of 6 nmol s -1 m -2 projected leaf area, as recommended for agricultural crops (UNECE, Mills, 2004), can indeed be applied for spring oilseed rape. The reduction of oilseed rape yield showed the highest correlation with the ozone uptake during the vegetative growth stage: when only the first 47 days after emergence were used to calculate POD 6, R2 values increased up to 0.476 or even 0.545 when the first 23 days were excluded. The highest ozone treatments, corresponding to the future ambient level by 2100 (IPCC, Meehl et al., 2007), led to a reduction of approximately 30% in oilseed rape seed yield in comparison to the current ozone concentrations. Oil percentage was also significantly reduced in response to ozone ( p < 0.001). As a consequence oil yield was even more severely affected by elevated ozone exposure compared to seed yield: critical levels for oil yield dropped to 3.2 ppm h and 3.9 mmol m -2. For broccoli the applied ozone doses had no effect on yield.

  17. Development of new restorer lines for CMS ogura system with the use of resynthesized oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Szała, Laurencja; Sosnowska, Katarzyna; Popławska, Wiesława; Liersch, Alina; Olejnik, Anna; Kozłowska, Katarzyna; Bocianowski, Jan; Cegielska-Taras, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Resynthesized (RS) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is potentially of great interest for hybrid breeding. However, a major problem with the direct use of RS B. napus is the quality of seed oil (high level of erucic acid) and seed meal (high glucosinolate content), which does not comply with double-low quality oilseed rape. Thus, additional developments are needed before RS B. napus can be introduced into breeding practice. In this study, RS oilseed rape was obtained through crosses between B. rapa ssp. chinensis var. chinensis and B. oleracea ssp. acephala var. sabellica. RS plant was then crossed with double-low (00) winter oilseed rape lines containing the Rfo gene for Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS ogu) system. Populations of doubled haploids (DH) were developed from these F1 hybrids using the microspore in vitro culture method. The seeds of semi-RS DH lines were analyzed for erucic acid and glucosinolate content. Among the populations of semi-RS DHs four 00-quality lines with the Rfo gene were selected. Using 344 AFLP markers to estimate genetic relatedness, we showed that the RS lines and semi-RS lines formed clusters that were clearly distinct from 96 winter oilseed rape parental lines of F1 hybrids.

  18. Development of new restorer lines for CMS ogura system with the use of resynthesized oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Szała, Laurencja; Sosnowska, Katarzyna; Popławska, Wiesława; Liersch, Alina; Olejnik, Anna; Kozłowska, Katarzyna; Bocianowski, Jan; Cegielska-Taras, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Resynthesized (RS) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is potentially of great interest for hybrid breeding. However, a major problem with the direct use of RS B. napus is the quality of seed oil (high level of erucic acid) and seed meal (high glucosinolate content), which does not comply with double-low quality oilseed rape. Thus, additional developments are needed before RS B. napus can be introduced into breeding practice. In this study, RS oilseed rape was obtained through crosses between B. rapa ssp. chinensis var. chinensis and B. oleracea ssp. acephala var. sabellica. RS plant was then crossed with double-low (00) winter oilseed rape lines containing the Rfo gene for Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS ogu) system. Populations of doubled haploids (DH) were developed from these F1 hybrids using the microspore in vitro culture method. The seeds of semi-RS DH lines were analyzed for erucic acid and glucosinolate content. Among the populations of semi-RS DHs four 00-quality lines with the Rfo gene were selected. Using 344 AFLP markers to estimate genetic relatedness, we showed that the RS lines and semi-RS lines formed clusters that were clearly distinct from 96 winter oilseed rape parental lines of F1 hybrids. PMID:27795676

  19. Development of a biologically based fertilizer, incorporating Bacillus megaterium A6, for improved phosphorus nutrition of oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaojia; Roberts, Daniel P; Xie, Lihua; Maul, Jude E; Yu, Changbing; Li, Yinshui; Zhang, Shujie; Liao, Xing

    2013-04-01

    Sustainable methods with diminished impact on the environment need to be developed for the production of oilseed rape in China and other regions of the world. A biological fertilizer consisting of Bacillus megaterium A6 cultured on oilseed rape meal improved oilseed rape seed yield (P < 0.0001) relative to the nontreated control in 2 greenhouse pot experiments using natural soil. This treatment resulted in slightly greater yield than oilseed rape meal without strain A6 in 1 of 2 experiments, suggesting a role for strain A6 in improving yield. Strain A6 was capable of solubilizing phosphorus from rock phosphate in liquid culture and produced enzymes capable of mineralizing organic phosphorus (acid phosphatase, phytase) in liquid culture and in the biological fertilizer. The biologically based fertilizer, containing strain A6, improved plant phosphorus nutrition in greenhouse pot experiments resulting in significantly greater available phosphorus in natural soil and in significantly greater plant phosphorus content relative to the nontreated control. Seed yield and available phosphorus in natural soil were significantly greater with a synthetic chemical fertilizer treatment, reduced in phosphorus content, than the biological fertilizer treatment, but a treatment containing the biological fertilizer combined with the synthetic fertilizer provided the significantly greatest seed yield, available phosphorus in natural soil, and plant phosphorus content. These results suggest that the biological fertilizer was capable of improving oilseed rape seed yield, at least in part, through the phosphorus-solubilizing activity of B. megaterium A6.

  20. Use of formulated Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 in combination with reduced rates of chemical pesticide for control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorium on oilseed rape

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sustainable strategies for control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape are needed. Here we tested combinations of Trichoderma sp. Tri-1, formulated with oilseed rape seedcake and straw, with reduced application rates of the chemical pesticide Carbendazim for control of this pathogen on oils...

  1. Large-scale monitoring of effects of clothianidin-dressed oilseed rape seeds on pollinating insects in Northern Germany: effects on honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Rolke, Daniel; Fuchs, Stefan; Grünewald, Bernd; Gao, Zhenglei; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2016-11-01

    Possible effects of clothianidin seed-treated oilseed rape on honey bee colonies were investigated in a large-scale monitoring project in Northern Germany, where oilseed rape usually comprises 25-33 % of the arable land. For both reference and test sites, six study locations were selected and eight honey bee hives were placed at each location. At each site, three locations were directly adjacent to oilseed rape fields and three locations were situated 400 m away from the nearest oilseed rape field. Thus, 96 hives were exposed to fully flowering oilseed rape crops. Colony sizes and weights, the amount of honey harvested, and infection with parasites and diseases were monitored between April and September 2014. The percentage of oilseed rape pollen was determined in pollen and honey samples. After oilseed rape flowering, the hives were transferred to an extensive isolated area for post-exposure monitoring. Total numbers of adult bees and brood cells showed seasonal fluctuations, and there were no significant differences between the sites. The honey, which was extracted at the end of the exposure phase, contained 62.0-83.5 % oilseed rape pollen. Varroa destructor infestation was low during most of the course of the study but increased at the end of the study due to flumethrin resistance in the mite populations. In summary, honey bee colonies foraging in clothianidin seed-treated oilseed rape did not show any detrimental symptoms as compared to colonies foraging in clothianidin-free oilseed rape. Development of colony strength, brood success as well as honey yield and pathogen infection were not significantly affected by clothianidin seed-treatment during this study.

  2. Arthropod Pest Control for UK Oilseed Rape - Comparing Insecticide Efficacies, Side Effects and Alternatives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Han; Breeze, Tom; Bailey, Alison; Garthwaite, David; Harrington, Richard; Potts, Simon G

    2017-01-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is an important combinable break crop in the UK, which is largely protected from arthropod pests by insecticidal chemicals. Despite ongoing debate regarding the use of neonicotinoids, the dominant seed treatment ingredients used for this crop, there is little publicly available data comparing the efficacy of insecticides in controlling key arthropod pests or comparing the impacts on non-target species and the wider environment. To provide an insight into these matters, a UK-wide expert survey targeting agronomists and entomologists was conducted from March to June 2015. Based on the opinions of 90 respondents, an average of 20% yield loss caused by the key arthropod pests was expected to have occurred in the absence of insecticide treatments. Relatively older chemical groups were perceived to have lower efficacy for target pests than newer ones, partly due to the development of insecticide resistance. Without neonicotinoid seed treatments, a lack of good control for cabbage stem flea beetle was perceived. Wide spectrum foliar insecticide sprays were perceived to have significantly greater negative impacts than seed treatments on users' health, natural enemies, pollinators, soil and water, and many foliar active ingredients have had potential risks for non-target arthropod species in UK oilseed rape fields for the past 25 years. Overall, 72% of respondents opposed the neonicotinoid restriction, while 10% supported it. Opposition and support of the restriction were largely based on concerns for pollinators and the wider environment, highlighting the uncertainty over the side effects of neonicotinoid use. More people from the government and research institutes leaned towards neutrality over the issue, compared to those directly involved in growing the crop. Neonicotinoid restriction was expected to result in greater effort and expenditure on pest control and lower production (0-1 t/ha less). Alternatives for future oilseed rape protection

  3. Arthropod Pest Control for UK Oilseed Rape – Comparing Insecticide Efficacies, Side Effects and Alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Breeze, Tom; Bailey, Alison; Garthwaite, David; Harrington, Richard; Potts, Simon G.

    2017-01-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is an important combinable break crop in the UK, which is largely protected from arthropod pests by insecticidal chemicals. Despite ongoing debate regarding the use of neonicotinoids, the dominant seed treatment ingredients used for this crop, there is little publicly available data comparing the efficacy of insecticides in controlling key arthropod pests or comparing the impacts on non-target species and the wider environment. To provide an insight into these matters, a UK-wide expert survey targeting agronomists and entomologists was conducted from March to June 2015. Based on the opinions of 90 respondents, an average of 20% yield loss caused by the key arthropod pests was expected to have occurred in the absence of insecticide treatments. Relatively older chemical groups were perceived to have lower efficacy for target pests than newer ones, partly due to the development of insecticide resistance. Without neonicotinoid seed treatments, a lack of good control for cabbage stem flea beetle was perceived. Wide spectrum foliar insecticide sprays were perceived to have significantly greater negative impacts than seed treatments on users’ health, natural enemies, pollinators, soil and water, and many foliar active ingredients have had potential risks for non-target arthropod species in UK oilseed rape fields for the past 25 years. Overall, 72% of respondents opposed the neonicotinoid restriction, while 10% supported it. Opposition and support of the restriction were largely based on concerns for pollinators and the wider environment, highlighting the uncertainty over the side effects of neonicotinoid use. More people from the government and research institutes leaned towards neutrality over the issue, compared to those directly involved in growing the crop. Neonicotinoid restriction was expected to result in greater effort and expenditure on pest control and lower production (0–1 t/ha less). Alternatives for future oilseed rape

  4. Insect pollination enhances seed yield, quality, and market value in oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Bommarco, Riccardo; Marini, Lorenzo; Vaissière, Bernard E

    2012-08-01

    The relationships between landscape intensification, the abundance and diversity of pollinating insects, and their contributions to crop yield, quality, and market value are poorly studied, despite observed declines in wild and domesticated pollinators. Abundance and species richness of pollinating insects were estimated in ten fields of spring oilseed rape, Brassica napus var. SW Stratos™, located along a gradient of landscape compositions ranging from simple landscapes dominated by arable land to heterogeneous landscapes with extensive cover of semi-natural habitats. In each field, we assessed the contribution of wind and insect pollination to seed yield, seed quality (individual seed weight and oil and chlorophyll contents), and market value in a block experiment with four replicates and two treatments: (1) all flowers were accessible to insects, self and wind pollination, and (2) flowers enclosed in tulle net bags (mesh: 1 × 1 mm) were accessible only to wind and self pollination. Complex landscapes enhanced the overall abundance of wild insects as well as the abundance and species richness of hoverflies. This did not translate to a higher yield, probably due to consistent pollination by honey bees across all fields. However, the pollination experiment showed that insects increased seed weight per plant by 18% and market value by 20%. Seed quality was enhanced by insect pollination, rendering heavier seeds as well as higher oil and lower chlorophyll contents, clearly showing that insect pollination is required to reach high seed yield and quality in oilseed rape. Our study demonstrates considerable and previously underestimated contributions from pollinating insects to both the yield and the market value of oilseed rape.

  5. Nitrous oxide emissions from crop rotations including wheat, oilseed rape and dry peas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeuffroy, M. H.; Baranger, E.; Carrouée, B.; de Chezelles, E.; Gosme, M.; Hénault, C.; Schneider, A.; Cellier, P.

    2013-03-01

    Approximately 65% of anthropogenic emissions of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG), originate from soils at a global scale, and particularly after N fertilisation of the main crops in Europe. Thanks to their capacity to fix atmospheric N2 through biological fixation, legumes can reduce N fertilizer use, and possibly N2O emissions. Nevertheless, the decomposition of crop organic matter during the crop cycle and residue decomposition, and possibly the N fixation process itself, could lead to N2O emissions. The objective of this study was to quantify N2O emissions from a dry pea crop (Pisum sativum, harvested at maturity) and from the subsequent crops in comparison with N2O emissions from wheat and oilseed rape crops, fertilized or not, in various rotations. A field experiment was conducted over 4 consecutive years to compare the emissions during the pea crop, in comparison with those during the wheat (fertilized or not) or oilseed rape crops, and after the pea crop, in comparison with other preceding crops. N2O fluxes were measured using static chambers. In spite of low N2O fluxes, mainly due to the site's soil characteristics, fluxes during the crop were significantly lower for pea and unfertilized wheat than for fertilized wheat and oilseed rape. The effect of the preceding crop was not significant, while soil mineral N at harvest was higher after the pea crop. These results should be confirmed over a wider range of soil types. Nevertheless, they demonstrate the absence of N2O emissions linked to the symbiotic N fixation process, and allow us to estimate the decrease in N2O emissions by 20-25% through including one pea crop in a three-year rotation. On a larger scale, this reduction of GHG emissions at field level has to be added to the decrease due to the reduced production and transport of the N fertilizer not applied to the pea crop.

  6. Genetic control of oil content in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Delourme, R; Falentin, C; Huteau, V; Clouet, V; Horvais, R; Gandon, B; Specel, S; Hanneton, L; Dheu, J E; Deschamps, M; Margale, E; Vincourt, P; Renard, M

    2006-11-01

    In oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) like in most oleaginous crops, seed oil content is the main qualitative determinant that confers its economic value to the harvest. Increasing seed oil content is then still an important objective in oilseed rape breeding. In the objective to get better knowledge on the genetic determinism of seed oil content, a genetic study was undertaken in two genetic backgrounds. Two populations of 445 and a 242 doubled haploids (DH) derived from the crosses "Darmor-bzh" x "Yudal" (DY) and "Rapid" x "NSL96/25" (RNSL), respectively, were genotyped and evaluated for oil content in different trials. QTL mapping in the two populations indicate that additive effects are the main factors contributing to variation in oil content. A total of 14 and 10 genomic regions were involved in seed oil content in DY and RNSL populations, respectively, of which five and two were consistently revealed across the three trials performed for each population. Most of the QTL detected were not colocalised to QTL involved in flowering time. Few epistatic QTL involved regions that carry additive QTL in one or the other population. Only one QTL located on linkage group N3 was potentially common to the two populations. The comparisons of the QTL location in this study and in the literature showed that: (i) some of the QTL were more consistently revealed across different genetic backgrounds. The QTL on N3 was revealed in all the studies and the QTL on N1, N8 and N13 were revealed in three studies out of five, (ii) some of the QTL were specific to one genetic background with potentially some original alleles, (iii) some QTL were located in homeologous regions, and (iv) some of the regions carrying QTL for oil content in oilseed rape and in Arabidopsis could be collinear. These results show the possibility to combine favourable alleles at different QTL to increase seed oil content and to use Arabidopsis genomic data to derive markers for oilseed rape QTL and identify

  7. Ozone effects on yield quality of spring oilseed rape and broccoli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandermeiren, Karine; De Bock, Maarten; Horemans, Nele; Guisez, Yves; Ceulemans, Reinhart; De Temmerman, Ludwig

    2012-02-01

    The impact of elevated tropospheric ozone (O 3) on the quality of spring oilseed rape ( Brassica napus cv Ability) and broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. cv Italic cv Monaco) was assessed during a three year Open - Top Chamber (OTC) experiment. Current ambient O 3 levels were compared to an increase of 20 and 40 ppb during 8 h per day over the entire growing season. The qualitative responses were expressed as a function of the accumulated hourly O 3 concentrations over a threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40) and the phytotoxic O 3 dose above a threshold of 6 nmol s -1 m -2 projected leaf area (POD 6). Our results provide clear evidence that O 3 has an influence on the qualitative attributes of the harvested products of these Brassica species. The responses were comparable whether they were expressed as a function of the accumulated O 3 concentrations or of the modelled O 3 uptake. The protein concentration of oilseed rape seeds and broccoli heads was significantly increased in response to O 3. There was also a shift in the fatty acid composition of the vegetable oil derived from seeds of oilseed rape. Oleic acid (18:1) declined significantly ( p < 0.05) in favour of linoleic acid (18:2) ( p < 0.01). There was no change in the relative proportion of linolenic acid (18:3). The suppression of monounsaturated fatty acids ( p < 0.05) coincided with a positive response of the % saturated fatty acids ( p < 0.05). In rapeseed oil the observed decrease in vitamin E content was due to a reduction of γ-tocopherol (TOC, p < 0.001). α-TOC, the most active form of vitamin E in humans, was not influenced by O 3. There was no change in the glucosinolate (GSL) content of oilseed rape seeds. In broccoli an important shift occurred from indolic to aliphatic GSLs although the total GSL concentration was not changed. The increase in the aliphatic/indolic GSL ratio ( p < 0.001) may be important in relation to the anticarcinogenic properties of these vegetables. The vitamin C (ascorbate - ASC) and

  8. EFFICACY DATA OF CYANTRANILIPROLE CONTAINING INSECTICIDE PREPARATION ON CABBAGE ROOT FLY (DELIA RADICUM LINNAEUS) IN WINTER OILSEED RAPE.

    PubMed

    Farkas, I; Molnár, I; Somlyay, I; Tóth, E

    2015-01-01

    The increasing pressure of oilseed rape pests emphasized the need to improve the insecticide portfolio, i.e. register new active ingredients with new insecticide mode of action. The tested seed treatment formulation applied at 32; 40 and 50 UAT rate of containing cyantraniliprole as active substance. 40 UAT rate gives acceptable control of the Cabbage root fly in each trial. Despite the long lasting flight and egg laying period of cabbage root fly, the standard control products and also this product give 50-65% efficacy. It is enough to reduce damage of the Cabbage root fly and prevent economical damage in oilseed rape.

  9. Assessing plant nitrogen concentration in winter oilseed rape using hyperspectral measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lu; Liu, Shishi; Wang, Shanqing; Lu, Jianwei; Li, Lantao; Ma, Yi; Ming, Jin

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to find the optimal vegetation indices (VIs) to remotely estimate plant nitrogen concentration (PNC) in winter oilseed rape across different growth stages. Since remote sensing cannot "sense" N in live leaves, remote estimation of PNC should be based on understanding the relationships between PNC and chlorophyll (Chl), carotenoid concentration (Car), Car/Chl, dry mass (DM), and leaf area index (LAI). The experiments with eight nitrogen fertilization treatments were conducted in 2014 to 2015 and 2015 to 2016, and measurements were acquired at six-leaf, eight-leaf, and ten-leaf stages. We found that at each stage, Chl, Car, DM, and LAI were all strongly related to PNC. However, across different growth stages, semipartial correlation and linear regression analysis showed that Chl and Car had consistently significant relationships with PNC, whereas LAI and DM were either weakly or barely correlated with PNC. Therefore, the most suitable VIs should be sensitive to the change in Chl and Car while insensitive to the change in DM. We found that anthocyanin reflectance index and the simple ratio of the red band to blue band fit the requirements. The validation with the 2015 to 2016 dataset showed that the selected VIs could provide accurate estimates of PNC in winter oilseed rape.

  10. Cadmium stress alters the redox reaction and hormone balance in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui; Filardo, Fiona; Hu, Xiaotao; Zhao, Xiaomin; Fu, DongHui

    2016-02-01

    In order to understand the physiological response of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) leaves to cadmium (Cd) stress and exploit the physiological mechanisms involved in Cd tolerance, macro-mineral and chlorophyll concentrations, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, activities of enzymatic antioxidants, nonenzymatic compounds metabolism, endogenous hormonal changes, and balance in leaves of oilseed rape exposed to 0, 100, or 200 μM CdSO4 were investigated. The results showed that under Cd exposure, Cd concentrations in the leaves continually increased while macro-minerals and chlorophyll concentrations decreased significantly. Meanwhile, with increased Cd stress, superoxide anion (O2(• -)) production rate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations in the leaves increased significantly, which caused malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and oxidative stress. For scavenging excess accumulated ROS and alleviating oxidative injury in the leaves, the activity of enzymatic antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), was increased significantly at certain stress levels. However, with increased Cd stress, the antioxidant enzyme activities all showed a trend towards reduction. The nonenzymatic antioxidative compounds, such as proline and total soluble sugars, accumulated continuously with increased Cd stress to play a long-term role in scavenging ROS. In addition, ABA levels also increased continuously with Cd stress while ZR decreased and the ABA/ZR ratio increased, which might also be providing a protective role against Cd toxicity.

  11. Biological and molecular characterization of a crucifer Tobamovirus infecting oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Cai, Li; Chen, Kunrong; Zhang, Xuejiang; Yan, Liying; Hou, Mingsheng; Xu, Zeyong

    2009-08-01

    In China, the tobamovirus that infects oilseed rape has been misdiagnosed as Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) based on its morphological similarity and serological relatedness. Recently, a tobamovirus has been isolated from oilseed rape in China, which we named Youcai mosaic virus Br (YoMV-Br), according to its biological and molecular characteristics. It had strong infectivity to Cruciferae but less to Solanaceae, Leguminosae, and Cucurbitaceae, and its virion morphology was consistent with that of the tobamoviruses. At high concentrations, it serologically cross reacted with TMV antiserum. The 3' terminal sequence (2,283 nucleotides) of YoMV-Br was determined, including the 3' noncoding region, the CP and MP genes, and the C-terminal part of the replicase gene. Between the MP and CP genes, 77 nucleotides overlapped. Compared with homologous regions of 21 recognized species of Tobamovirus, YoMV-Br had a much higher identity to crucifer species than to other tobamoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that YoMV-Br was closely related to the YoMV cluster of tobamoviruses and distantly to TMV, so that they likely belong to different strains of the same species.

  12. Regional association analysis delineates a sequenced chromosome region influencing antinutritive seed meal compounds in oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Snowdon, R J; Wittkop, B; Rezaidad, A; Hasan, M; Lipsa, F; Stein, A; Friedt, W

    2010-11-01

    This study describes the use of regional association analyses to delineate a sequenced region of a Brassica napus chromosome with a significant effect on antinutritive seed meal compounds in oilseed rape. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) influencing seed colour, fibre content, and phenolic compounds was mapped to the same position on B. napus chromosome A9 in biparental mapping populations from two different yellow-seeded × black-seeded B. napus crosses. Sequences of markers spanning the QTL region identified synteny to a sequence contig from the corresponding chromosome A9 in Brassica rapa. Remapping of sequence-derived markers originating from the B. rapa sequence contig confirmed their position within the QTL. One of these markers also mapped to a seed colour and fibre QTL on the same chromosome in a black-seeded × black-seeded B. napus cross. Consequently, regional association analysis was performed in a genetically diverse panel of dark-seeded, winter-type oilseed rape accessions. For this we used closely spaced simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers spanning the sequence contig covering the QTL region. Correction for population structure was performed using a set of genome-wide SSR markers. The identification of QTL-derived markers with significant associations to seed colour, fibre content, and phenolic compounds in the association panel enabled the identification of positional and functional candidate genes for B. napus seed meal quality within a small segment of the B. rapa genome sequence.

  13. Coordinate changes in gene expression and triacylglycerol composition in the developing seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa).

    PubMed

    Vuorinen, Anssi L; Kalpio, Marika; Linderborg, Kaisa M; Kortesniemi, Maaria; Lehto, Kirsi; Niemi, Jarmo; Yang, Baoru; Kallio, Heikki P

    2014-02-15

    Crop production for vegetable oil in the northern latitudes utilises oilseed rape (Brassica napus subsp. oleifera) and turnip rape (B. rapa subsp. oleifera), having similar oil compositions. The oil consists mostly of triacylglycerols, which are synthesised during seed development. In this study, we characterised the oil composition and the expression levels of genes involved in triacylglycerol biosynthesis in the developing seeds in optimal, low temperature (15 °C) and short day (12-h day length) conditions. Gene expression levels of several genes were altered during seed development. Low temperature and short day treatments increased the level of 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (18:3n-3) in turnip rape and short day treatment decreased the total oil content in both species. This study gives a novel view on seed oil biosynthesis under different growth conditions, bringing together gene expression levels of the triacylglycerol biosynthesis pathway and oil composition over a time series in two related oilseed species.

  14. Fixed-route monitoring and a comparative study of the occurrence of herbicide-resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) along a Japanese roadside

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, Toru; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tamaoki, Masanori; Aono, Mitsuko; Kubo, Akihiro; Saji, Hikaru

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previously, we conducted a roadside survey to reveal the occurrence of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape along a Japanese roadside (Route 51). In this study, we performed successive and thorough fixed-route monitoring in 5 sections along another road (Route 23). Oilseed rape plants were detected on both sides of the road in each section between autumn 2009 and winter 2013, which included 3 flowering seasons. In four sections, more plants were found on the side of the road leading from the Yokkaichi port than on the opposite side. In the fifth section, the presence of clogged drains on the roadside, where juvenile plants concentrated, caused the opposite distribution: oilseed rape predominantly occurred along the inbound lanes (leading to the Yokkaichi port) in 2010 and 2012. Unlike in our previous survey, glyphosate- or glufosinate-resistant oilseed rape plants were abundant (>75% of analyzed plants over 3 years). Moreover, a few individuals bearing both herbicide resistance traits were also detected in some sections. The spillage of imported seeds may explain the occurrence of oilseed rape on the roadside. The abundance of herbicide-resistant oilseed rape plants may reflect the extent of contamination with GM oilseed rape seed within imports. PMID:26838503

  15. Fixed-route monitoring and a comparative study of the occurrence of herbicide-resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) along a Japanese roadside.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Toru; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tamaoki, Masanori; Aono, Mitsuko; Kubo, Akihiro; Saji, Hikaru

    2016-01-02

    Previously, we conducted a roadside survey to reveal the occurrence of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape along a Japanese roadside (Route 51). In this study, we performed successive and thorough fixed-route monitoring in 5 sections along another road (Route 23). Oilseed rape plants were detected on both sides of the road in each section between autumn 2009 and winter 2013, which included 3 flowering seasons. In four sections, more plants were found on the side of the road leading from the Yokkaichi port than on the opposite side. In the fifth section, the presence of clogged drains on the roadside, where juvenile plants concentrated, caused the opposite distribution: oilseed rape predominantly occurred along the inbound lanes (leading to the Yokkaichi port) in 2010 and 2012. Unlike in our previous survey, glyphosate- or glufosinate-resistant oilseed rape plants were abundant (>75% of analyzed plants over 3 years). Moreover, a few individuals bearing both herbicide resistance traits were also detected in some sections. The spillage of imported seeds may explain the occurrence of oilseed rape on the roadside. The abundance of herbicide-resistant oilseed rape plants may reflect the extent of contamination with GM oilseed rape seed within imports.

  16. Transgenic glyphosate-resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus) as an invasive weed in Argentina: detection, characterization, and control alternatives.

    PubMed

    Pandolfo, Claudio E; Presotto, Alejandro; Carbonell, Francisco Torres; Ureta, Soledad; Poverene, Mónica; Cantamutto, Miguel

    2016-12-01

    The presence of glyphosate-resistant oilseed rape populations in Argentina was detected and characterized. The resistant plants were found as weeds in RR soybeans and other fields. The immunological and molecular analysis showed that the accessions presented the GT73 transgenic event. The origin of this event was uncertain, as the cultivation of transgenic oilseed rape cultivars is prohibited in Argentina. This finding might suggest that glyphosate resistance could come from unauthorized transgenic oilseed rape crops cultivated in the country or as seed contaminants in imported oilseed rape cultivars or other seed imports. Experimentation showed that there are alternative herbicides for controlling resistant Brassica napus populations in various situations and crops. AHAS-inhibiting herbicides (imazethapyr, chlorimuron and diclosulam), glufosinate, 2,4-D, fluroxypyr and saflufenacil proved to be very effective in controlling these plants. Herbicides evaluated in this research were employed by farmers in one of the fields invaded with this biotype and monitoring of this field showed no evidence of its presence in the following years.

  17. Measurement of aspartic acid in oilseed rape leaves under herbicide stress using near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chu; Kong, Wenwen; Liu, Fei; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Oilseed rape is used as both food and a renewable energy resource. Physiological parameters, such as the amino acid aspartic acid, can indicate the growth status of oilseed rape. Traditional detection methods are laborious, time consuming, costly, and not usable in the field. Here, we investigate near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a fast and non-destructive detection method of aspartic acid in oilseed rape leaves under herbicide stress. Different spectral pre-processing methods were compared for optimal prediction performance. The variable selection methods were applied for relevant variable selection, including successive projections algorithm (SPA), Monte Carlo-uninformative variable elimination (MC-UVE) and random frog (RF). The selected effective wavelengths (EWs) were used as input by multiple linear regression (MLR), partial least squares (PLS) and least-square support vector machine (LS-SVM). The best predictive performance was achieved by SPA-LS-SVM (Raw) model using 22 EWs, and the prediction results were Rp = 0.9962 and RMSEP = 0.0339 for the prediction set. The result indicated that NIR combined with LS-SVM is a powerful new method to detect aspartic acid in oilseed rape leaves under herbicide stress.

  18. Development of crop-specific transposable element (SINE) markers for studying gene flow from oilseed rape to wild radish.

    PubMed

    Prieto, J L; Pouilly, N; Jenczewski, E; Deragon, J M; Chèvre, A M

    2005-08-01

    The screening of wild populations for evidence of gene flow from a crop to a wild related species requires the unambiguous detection of crop genes within the genome of the wild species, taking into account the intraspecific variability of each species. If the crop and wild relatives share a common ancestor, as is the case for the Brassica crops and their wild relatives (subtribe Brassiceae), the species-specific markers needed to make this unambiguous detection are difficult to identify. In the model oilseed rape (Brassica napus, AACC, 2n = 38)-wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum, RrRr, 2n = 18) system, we utilized the presence or absence of a short-interspersed element (SINE) at a given locus to develop oilseed rape-specific markers, as SINE insertions are irreversible. By means of sequence-specific amplified polymorphism (SINE-SSAP) reactions, we identified and cloned 67 bands specific to the oilseed rape genome and absent from that of wild radish. Forty-seven PCR-specific markers were developed from three combinations of primers anchored either in (1) the 5'- and 3'-genomic sequences flanking the SINE, (2) the 5'-flanking and SINE internal sequences or (3) the SINE internal and flanking 3'-sequences. Seventeen markers were monomorphic whatever the oilseed rape varieties tested, whereas 30 revealed polymorphism and behaved either as dominant (17) or co-dominant (13) markers. Polymorphic markers were mapped on 19 genomic regions assigned to ten linkage groups. The markers developed will be efficient tools to trace the occurrence and frequency of introgressions of oilseed rape genomic region within wild radish populations.

  19. BnSGS3 Has Differential Effects on the Accumulation of CMV, ORMV and TuMV in Oilseed Rape

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Quan; Wang, Jie; Hou, Mingsheng; Liu, Shengyi; Huang, Junyan; Cai, Li

    2015-01-01

    Virus diseases greatly affect oilseed rape (Brassica napus) production. Investigating antiviral genes may lead to the development of disease-resistant varieties of oilseed rape. In this study, we examined the effects of the suppressor of gene silencing 3 in Brassica napus (BnSGS3, a putative antiviral gene) with different genus viruses by constructing BnSGS3-overexpressing (BnSGS3-Ov) and BnSGS3-silenced (BnSGS3-Si) oilseed rape (cv. Zhongshuang No. 6) plants. These three viruses are Oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV), Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). The native BnSGS3 expressed in all examined tissues with the highest expression in siliques. All three viruses induced BnSGS3 expression, but ORMV induced a dramatic increase in the BnSGS3-Ov plants, followed by TuMV and CMV. Upon inoculation with three different viruses, transcript abundance of BnSGS3 gene follows: BnSGS3-Ov > non-transgenic plants > BnSGS3-Si. The accumulation quantities of ORMV and TuMV exhibited a similar trend. However, CMV accumulation showed an opposite trend where virus accumulations were negatively correlated with BnSGS3 expression. The results suggest that BnSGS3 selectively inhibits CMV accumulation but promotes ORMV and TuMV accumulation. BnSGS3 should be used in different ways (up- and down-regulation) for breeding virus-resistant oilseed rape varieties. PMID:26225990

  20. Steam explosion of oilseed rape straw: establishing key determinants of saccharification efficiency.

    PubMed

    Wood, Ian P; Elliston, Adam; Collins, Sam R A; Wilson, David; Bancroft, Ian; Waldron, Keith W

    2014-06-01

    Oilseed rape straw was steam exploded into hot water at a range of severities. The residues were fractionated into solid and liquid phases and chemically characterised. The effect of steam explosion on enzymatic hydrolysis of the water-insoluble fractions was investigated by studying initial cellulase binding and hydrolysis yields for different cellulase doses. Time-course data was modelled to establish rate-dependent differences in saccharification as a function of pretreatment severity and associated chemical composition. The study concluded: (1) the initial hydrolysis rate was limited by the amount of (pectic) uronic acid remaining in the substrate; (2) the proportion of rapidly hydrolysable carbohydrate was most closely and positively related to lignin abundance and (3) the final sugar yield most closely related to xylan removal from the substrate. Comparisons between milled and un-milled steam exploded straw highlighted the influence that physical structure has on hydrolysis rates and yields, particularly at low severities. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. The presence of Bt-transgenic oilseed rape in wild mustard populations affects plant growth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongbo; Stewart, C Neal; Li, Junsheng; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Xitao

    2015-12-01

    The adventitious presence of transgenic plants in wild plant populations is of ecological and regulatory concern, but the consequences of adventitious presence are not well understood. Here, we introduced Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac (Bt)-transgenic oilseed rape (Bt OSR, Brassica napus) with various frequencies into wild mustard (Brassica juncea) populations. We sought to better understand the adventitious presence of this transgenic insecticidal crop in a wild-relative plant population. We assessed the factors of competition, resource availability and diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) infestation on plant population dynamics. As expected, Bt OSR performed better than wild mustard in mixed populations under herbivore attack in habitats with enough resources, whereas wild mustard had higher fitness when Bt OSR was rarer in habitats with limited resources. Results suggest that the presence of insect-resistant transgenic plants could decrease the growth of wild mustard and Bt OSR plants and their populations, especially under high herbivore pressure.

  2. Strains of the genus Serratia as beneficial rhizobacteria of oilseed rape with antifungal properties.

    PubMed

    Kalbe, C; Marten, P; Berg, G

    1996-12-01

    Isolates of Serratia have been isolated from the rhizosphere of oilseed rape. The percentage of Serratia in this microenvironment was determined as 12.4% of the total antifungal bacteria. Serratia liquefaciens, S. plymuthica and S. rubidaea were found. All of the isolates showed an antifungal activity against different phytopathogenic fungi in vitro but the efficiency of strains was different. The antifungal mechanisms of 18 selected strains were investigated. Direct antifungal effect may be based on antibiosis (production of prodigiosin and pyrrolnitrin) and production of lytic enzymes (chitinases and beta-1,3-glucanases). Potent siderophores were secreted by the strains to improve the availability of iron. No strain was able to produce cyanide. Most of the strains secrete the plant growth hormone indole-acetic-acid which can directly promote the growth of roots. The mechanisms were specific for each isolate.

  3. Thiamethoxam: Assessing flight activity of honeybees foraging on treated oilseed rape using radio frequency identification technology.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Helen; Coulson, Mike; Ruddle, Natalie; Wilkins, Selwyn; Harkin, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    The present study was designed to assess homing behavior of bees foraging on winter oilseed rape grown from seed treated with thiamethoxam (as Cruiser OSR), with 1 field drilled with thiamethoxam-treated seed and 2 control fields drilled with fungicide-only-treated seed. Twelve honeybee colonies were used per treatment group, 4 each located at the field edge (on-field site), at approximately 500 m and 1000 m from the field. A total of nearly 300 newly emerged bees per colony were fitted (tagged) with Mic3 radio frequency identification (RFID) transponders and introduced into each of the 36 study hives. The RFID readers fitted to the entrances of the test colonies were used to monitor the activity of the tagged bees for the duration of the 5-wk flowering period of the crop. These activity data were analyzed to assess any impact on flight activity of bees foraging on the treated compared with untreated crops. Honeybees were seen to be actively foraging within all 3 treatment groups during the exposure period. The data for the more than 3000 RFID-tagged bees and more than 90 000 foraging flights monitored throughout the exposure phase for the study follow the same trends across the treatment and controls and at each of the 3 apiary distances, indicating that there were no effects from foraging on the treated crop. Under the experimental conditions, there was no effect of foraging on thiamethoxam-treated oilseed rape on honeybee flight activity or on their ability to return to the hive.

  4. Quantitative Multilevel Analysis of Central Metabolism in Developing Oilseeds of Oilseed Rape during in Vitro Culture1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Schwender, Jörg; Hebbelmann, Inga; Heinzel, Nicolas; Hildebrandt, Tatjana; Rogers, Alistair; Klapperstück, Matthias; Schreiber, Falk; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Rolletschek, Hardy

    2015-01-01

    Seeds provide the basis for many food, feed, and fuel products. Continued increases in seed yield, composition, and quality require an improved understanding of how the developing seed converts carbon and nitrogen supplies into storage. Current knowledge of this process is often based on the premise that transcriptional regulation directly translates via enzyme concentration into flux. In an attempt to highlight metabolic control, we explore genotypic differences in carbon partitioning for in vitro cultured developing embryos of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). We determined biomass composition as well as 79 net fluxes, the levels of 77 metabolites, and 26 enzyme activities with specific focus on central metabolism in nine selected germplasm accessions. Overall, we observed a tradeoff between the biomass component fractions of lipid and starch. With increasing lipid content over the spectrum of genotypes, plastidic fatty acid synthesis and glycolytic flux increased concomitantly, while glycolytic intermediates decreased. The lipid/starch tradeoff was not reflected at the proteome level, pointing to the significance of (posttranslational) metabolic control. Enzyme activity/flux and metabolite/flux correlations suggest that plastidic pyruvate kinase exerts flux control and that the lipid/starch tradeoff is most likely mediated by allosteric feedback regulation of phosphofructokinase and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Quantitative data were also used to calculate in vivo mass action ratios, reaction equilibria, and metabolite turnover times. Compounds like cyclic 3′,5′-AMP and sucrose-6-phosphate were identified to potentially be involved in so far unknown mechanisms of metabolic control. This study provides a rich source of quantitative data for those studying central metabolism. PMID:25944824

  5. Analysis of oilseed rape stem weevil chemical control using a damage rating scale.

    PubMed

    Milovac, Željko; Zorić, Miroslav; Franeta, Filip; Terzić, Sreten; Petrović Obradović, Olivera; Marjanović Jeromela, Ana

    2017-09-01

    Rape stem weevil (Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll.) and cabbage stem weevil (C. pallidactylus Marsh.) can cause significant yield losses to oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), and chemical control is often needed to protect crops from these pests. The efficacy of six insecticides, chlorpyriphos + cypermethrin, bifenthrin, alpha-cypermethrin, pirimiphos-methyl, thiacloprid and tau-fluvalinate, was tested in a 4 year field trial. Besides the standard efficacy analysis expressed through the number of larvae per stem, a damage rating scale was introduced and modelled using a regression model for ordinal categorical data. Compared with the control, expressed through damage rating and larval number, treatments with chlorpyriphos + cypermethrin and bifenthrin, showed higher efficacy in the control of stem weevils compared with alpha-cypermethrin and pirimiphos-methyl. The lowest efficacy was observed in treatments with tau-fluvalinate and thiacloprid. This study showed that a combined efficacy evaluation expressed through both damage rating scale and the count of larvae, supported by an ordinal regression model for data analysis, is indispensable for obtaining accurate results. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Mid-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics to detect Sclerotinia stem rot on oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chu; Feng, Xuping; Wang, Jian; Liu, Fei; He, Yong; Zhou, Weijun

    2017-01-01

    Detection of plant diseases in a fast and simple way is crucial for timely disease control. Conventionally, plant diseases are accurately identified by DNA, RNA or serology based methods which are time consuming, complex and expensive. Mid-infrared spectroscopy is a promising technique that simplifies the detection procedure for the disease. Mid-infrared spectroscopy was used to identify the spectral differences between healthy and infected oilseed rape leaves. Two different sample sets from two experiments were used to explore and validate the feasibility of using mid-infrared spectroscopy in detecting Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) on oilseed rape leaves. The average mid-infrared spectra showed differences between healthy and infected leaves, and the differences varied among different sample sets. Optimal wavenumbers for the 2 sample sets selected by the second derivative spectra were similar, indicating the efficacy of selecting optimal wavenumbers. Chemometric methods were further used to quantitatively detect the oilseed rape leaves infected by SSR, including the partial least squares-discriminant analysis, support vector machine and extreme learning machine. The discriminant models using the full spectra and the optimal wavenumbers of the 2 sample sets were effective for classification accuracies over 80%. The discriminant results for the 2 sample sets varied due to variations in the samples. The use of two sample sets proved and validated the feasibility of using mid-infrared spectroscopy and chemometric methods for detecting SSR on oilseed rape leaves. The similarities among the selected optimal wavenumbers in different sample sets made it feasible to simplify the models and build practical models. Mid-infrared spectroscopy is a reliable and promising technique for SSR control. This study helps in developing practical application of using mid-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics to detect plant disease.

  7. Nitrogen availability impacts oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) plant water status and proline production efficiency under water-limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Albert, Benjamin; Le Cahérec, Françoise; Niogret, Marie-Françoise; Faes, Pascal; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Leport, Laurent; Bouchereau, Alain

    2012-08-01

    Large amounts of nitrogen (N) fertilizers are used in the production of oilseed rape. However, as low-input methods of crop management are introduced crops will need to withstand temporary N deficiency. In temperate areas, oilseed rape will also be affected by frequent drought periods. Here we evaluated the physiological and metabolic impact of nitrate limitation on the oilseed rape response to water deprivation. Different amounts of N fertilizer were applied to plants at the vegetative stage, which were then deprived of water and rehydrated. Both water and N depletion accelerated leaf senescence and reduced leaf development. N-deprived plants exhibited less pronounced symptoms of wilting during drought, probably because leaves were smaller and stomata were partially closed. Efficiency of proline production, a major stress-induced diversion of nitrogen metabolism, was assessed at different positions along the whole plant axis and related to leaf developmental stage and water status indices. Proline accumulation, preferentially in younger leaves, accounted for 25-85% of the free amino acid pool. This was mainly due to a better capacity for proline synthesis in fully N-supplied plants whether they were subjected to drought or not, as deduced from the expression patterns of the proline metabolism BnP5CS and BnPDH genes. Although less proline accumulated in the oldest leaves, a significant amount was transported from senescing to emerging leaves. Moreover, during rehydration proline was readily recycled. Our results therefore suggest that proline plays a significant role in leaf N remobilization and in N use efficiency in oilseed rape.

  8. Detection of glutamic acid in oilseed rape leaves using near infrared spectroscopy and the least squares-support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yidan; Kong, Wenwen; Liu, Fei; Qiu, Zhengjun; He, Yong

    2012-10-31

    Amino acids are quite important indices to indicate the growth status of oilseed rape under herbicide stress. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics was applied for fast determination of glutamic acid in oilseed rape leaves. The optimal spectral preprocessing method was obtained after comparing Savitzky-Golay smoothing, standard normal variate, multiplicative scatter correction, first and second derivatives, detrending and direct orthogonal signal correction. Linear and nonlinear calibration methods were developed, including partial least squares (PLS) and least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM). The most effective wavelengths (EWs) were determined by the successive projections algorithm (SPA), and these wavelengths were used as the inputs of PLS and LS-SVM model. The best prediction results were achieved by SPA-LS-SVM (Raw) model with correlation coefficient r = 0.9943 and root mean squares error of prediction (RMSEP) = 0.0569 for prediction set. These results indicated that NIR spectroscopy combined with SPA-LS-SVM was feasible for the fast and effective detection of glutamic acid in oilseed rape leaves. The selected EWs could be used to develop spectral sensors, and the important and basic amino acid data were helpful to study the function mechanism of herbicide.

  9. Evaluation of nine genotypes of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) for larval infestation and performance of rape stem weevil (Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll.).

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Heike L; Brandes, Haiko; Ulber, Bernd; Becker, Heiko C; Vidal, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The rape stem weevil, Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll., is a serious pest of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) crops in Europe causing severe yield loss. In currently used oilseed rape cultivars no resistance to C. napi has been identified. Resynthesized lines of B. napus have potential to broaden the genetic variability and may improve resistance to insect pests. In this study, the susceptibility to C. napi of three cultivars, one breeding line and five resynthesized lines of oilseed rape was compared in a semi-field plot experiment under multi-choice conditions. Plant acceptance for oviposition was estimated by counting the number of C. napi larvae in stems. The larval instar index and the dry body mass were assessed as indicators of larval performance. The extent of larval feeding within stems was determined by the stem injury coefficient. Morphological stem traits and stem contents of glucosinolates were assessed as potential mediators of resistance. The resynthesized line S30 had significantly fewer larvae than the cultivars Express617 and Visby and the resynthesized lines L122 and L16. The low level of larval infestation in S30 was associated with a low larval instar and stem injury index. Low numbers of larvae were not correlated with the length or diameter of stems, and the level of stem glucosinolates. As indicated by the low larval infestation and slow larval development the resistance of S30 to C. napi is based on both antixenotic and antibiotic properties of the genotypes. The resynthesized line S30 should therefore be introduced into B. napus breeding programs to enhance resistance against C. napi.

  10. Identification of quantitative trait loci for resistance against Verticillium longisporum in oilseed rape (Brassica napus).

    PubMed

    Rygulla, W; Snowdon, R J; Friedt, W; Happstadius, I; Cheung, W Y; Chen, D

    2008-02-01

    Verticillium longisporum is one of the major pathogens of oilseed rape (Brassica napus; genome AACC, 2n = 38) in Europe. Current European cultivars possess only a low level of resistance against V. longisporum, meaning that heavy infection can cause major yield losses. The aim of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance against V. longisporum as a starting point for marker-assisted breeding of resistant cultivars. Resistance QTL were localized in a segregating oilseed rape population of 163 doubled haploid (DH) lines derived by microspore culture from the F1 of a cross between two B. napus breeding lines, one of which exhibited V. longisporum resistance derived by pedigree selection from a resynthesized B. napus genotype. A genetic map was constructed comprising 165 restriction fragment length polymorphism, 94 amplified fragment length polymorphism and 45 simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers covering a total of 1,739 cM on 19 linkage groups. Seedlings of the DH lines and parents were inoculated with V. longisporum isolates in four greenhouse experiments performed in Sweden during autumn 1999. In three of the experiments the DH lines were inoculated with a mixture of five isolates, while in the fourth experiment only one of the isolates was used. The intention was to simulate four different environments with variable disease pressure, while still maintaining uniform conditions in each environment to enable reliable disease scoring. The disease index (DI) was calculated by scoring symptoms on a total of 21 inoculated plants per line in comparison to 21 noninoculated plants per line. Using the composite interval mapping procedure a total of four different chromosome regions could be identified that showed significant QTL for resistance in more than one environment. Two major QTL regions were identified on the C-genome linkage groups N14 and N15, respectively; each of these QTL consistently exhibited significant effects on resistance in

  11. Solubilization and characterization of diacylglycerol acyltransferase from microspore-derived cultures of oilseed rape.

    PubMed Central

    Little, D; Weselake, R; Pomeroy, K; Furukawa-Stoffer, T; Bagu, J

    1994-01-01

    Particulate fractions prepared from microspore-derived (MD) embryos of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cv. Reston) and an embryogenic MD cell suspension culture of oilseed rape (B. napus L. cv. Jet Neuf) were used as a source of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT, EC 2.3.1.20) for enzyme characterization and development of a solubilization procedure. DGAT activity in the 1500-100,000 g fraction from MD embryos was stimulated 4-5-fold by 3 to 4 mg of BSA/ml of reaction mixture. DGAT activity from MD embryos was stimulated 2-3-fold by fluoride salts and 1.4-fold by NaCl, whereas iodide salts caused substantial inhibition of enzyme activity. The effect of the various 1:1 electrolytes on enzyme activity appeared to be related more to their differential effects on solution structure rather than ionic strength. DGAT was solubilized from membranes of MD embryos and the cell suspension culture by about 80 and 50% respectively, using 2 M NaCl in 1% (w/v) octanoyl-N-methyl-glucamide (MEGA-8) (pH 8.0 buffer) at a detergent to protein ratio of 2:1. The specific activity of solubilized DGAT was about 2-fold greater than that of the particulate enzyme. The mechanism of solubilization appeared to be related to the lowering of the critical micellar concentration of MEGA-8 in the presence of NaCl. DGAT, solubilized from MD embryos, eluted with an M(r) of about 2 x 10(6) during gel-filtration chromatography on a Superose 6 column equilibrated in buffer containing 0.1% (w/v) MEGA-8. The solubilized enzyme exhibited optimal activity at pH 7. At concentrations above 2 microM acyl-CoA, the specificity of solubilized DGAT for oleoyl-CoA and palmitoyl-CoA was considerably greater than for stearoyl-CoA. Images Figure 5 PMID:7818502

  12. [Prediction of SPAD value in oilseed rape leaves using hyperspectral imaging technique].

    PubMed

    Ding, Xi-bin; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Chu; He, Yong

    2015-02-01

    In the present work, prediction models of SPAD value (Soil and Plant Analyzer Development, often used as a parameter to indicate chlorophyll content) in oilseed rape leaves were successfully built using hyperspectral imaging technique. The hy perspectral images of 160 oilseed rape leaf samples in the spectral range of 380-1030 nm were acquired. Average spectrum was extracted from the region of interest (ROI) of each sample. We chose spectral data in the spectral range of 500-900 nm for analysis. Using Monte Carlo partial least squares(MC-PLS) algorithm, 13 samples were identified as outliers and eliminated. Based on the spectral information and measured SPAD values of the rest 147 samples, several estimation models have been built based on different parameters using different algorithms for comparison, including: (1) a SPAD value estimation model based on partial least squares(PLS) in the whole wavelength region of 500-900 nm; (2) a SPAD value estimation model based on successive projections algorithmcombined with PLS(SPA-PLS); (3) 4 kind of simple experience SPAD value estimation models in which red edge position was used as an argument; (4) 4 kind of simple experience SPAD value estimation models in which three vegetation indexes R710/R760, (R750-R705)/(R750-R705) and R860/(R550 x R708), which all have been proved to have a good relevance with chlorophyll content, were used as an argument respectively; (5) a SPAD value estimation model based on PLS using the 3 vegetation indexes mentioned above. The results indicate that the optimal prediction performance is achieved by PLS model in the whole wavelength region of 500-900 nm, which has a correlation coefficient(r(p)) of 0.8339 and a root mean squares error of predicted (RMSEP) of 1.52. The SPA-PLS model can provide avery close prediction result while the calibration computation has been significantly reduced and the calibration speed has been accelerated sharply. For simple experience models based on red edge

  13. Influence of development stage of spring oilseed rape and spring wheat on interception of wet-deposited radiocaesium and radiostrontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengtsson, S. B.; Eriksson, J.; Gärdenäs, A. I.; Rosén, K.

    2012-12-01

    The dry and wet deposition of radionuclides released into the atmosphere can be intercepted by vegetation in terrestrial ecosystems. The aim of this study was to quantify the interception of wet deposited 134Cs and 85Sr by spring oilseed rape (Brassíca napus L.) and spring wheat (Tríticum aestívum L.). The dependency of the intercepted fraction (f) on total above ground plant biomass, growing stage and the Leaf Area Index (LAI) was quantified. A trial was established in Uppsala (east central Sweden), with land management in accordance to common agricultural practices. The field trial was a randomised block design of 1 × 1 m2 parcels with three replicates. During the growing season of 2010, a rainfall simulator deposited 134Cs and 85Sr during six different growth stages. Two to 3 h after deposition, the biomass of the centre 25 × 25 cm2 area of each parcel was sampled and above ground biomass and LAI were measured. The radioactivity concentration and radioactivity of samples were measured by High Purity Germanium (HPGe)-detectors. For 134Cs, there was a correlation between f and LAI (r2 = 0.55, p < 0.05) for spring wheat, but not for spring oilseed rape (r2 = 0.28, p > 0.05). For 85Sr, there was a correlation between f and LAI for both crops (r2 = 0.41, p < 0.05 for spring oilseed rape and r2 = 0.48 p, <0.05 for spring wheat). There was no correlation between f and above ground plant biomass in spring oilseed rape for either 134Cs (r2 = 0.01, p > 0.05) or for 85Sr (r2 = 0.11, p > 0.05). For spring wheat, there was a correlation for both 134Cs (r2 = 0.36, p < 0.05) and 85Sr (r2 = 0.32, p < 0.05). For spring oilseed rape, f was highest at growth stage 'stem elongation' for 134Cs (0.32 ± 0.22) and 85Sr (0.41 ± 0.29). For spring wheat, f was highest at growth stage 'ripening' for both radionuclides (134Cs was 0.36 ± 0.14 and 85Sr was 0.48 ± 0.18). Thus, LAI can be used to quantify interception of both radionuclides for both crops, whereas, above ground plant

  14. Carbon supply for storage-product synthesis in developing seeds of oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Hill, L M; Rawsthorne, S

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this work was to find out how the sugars in the endosperm of oilseed rape contribute to the flux of oil synthesis. While the hexose content of the liquid endosperm decreased during development the sucrose content increased. It is important to understand the relative rates of use of the endosperm sugars for two reasons. Firstly we need to know which sugars are used, and at what stages in development, in order to understand the roles of enzymes involved in their metabolism. Secondly, changes in sugar concentration have been implicated in the regulation of expression of genes determining storage-product synthesis [see Weber, Borisjuk and Wobus (1997) Trends Plant Sci. 2, 169-174, for review]. The rate of consumption of sugar is one factor governing its concentration. We present data showing both the concentration-dependence of conversion of sugar to oil, and the in vivo concentrations of sugars; we relate these data sets to each other and discuss the effects of the intracellular pool of sucrose. Glucose, fructose and sucrose are all substrates for oil synthesis, but the rates of their use (particularly sucrose) are underestimated because of dilution by sucrose from the intracellular pool.

  15. Frequency-dependent fitness of hybrids between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and weedy B. rapa (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Hauser, Thure P; Damgaard, Christian; Jørgensen, Rikke B

    2003-04-01

    Fitness of interspecific hybrids is sometimes high relative to their parents, despite the conventional belief that they are mostly unfit. F(1) hybrids between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and weedy B. rapa can be significantly more fit than their weedy parents under some conditions; however, under other conditions they are less fit. To understand the reasons, we measured the seed production of B. napus, B. rapa, and different generations of hybrid plants at three different densities and in mixtures of different frequencies (including pure stands). Brassica napus, B. rapa, and backcross plants (F(1) ♀ × B. rapa) produced many more seeds per plant in pure plots than in mixtures and more seeds in plots when each was present at high frequency. The opposite was true for F(1) plants that produced many more seeds than B. rapa in mixtures, but fewer in pure stands. Both vegetative and reproductive interactions may be responsible for these effects. Our results show that the fitness of both parents and hybrids is strongly frequency-dependent and that the likelihood of introgression of genes between the species thus may depend on the numbers and densities of parents and their various hybrid offspring in the population.

  16. Barriers to gene flow from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) into populations of Sinapis arvensis.

    PubMed

    Moyes, C L; Lilley, J M; Casais, C A; Cole, S G; Haeger, P D; Dale, P J

    2002-01-01

    One concern over growing herbicide-tolerant crops is that herbicide-tolerance genes may be transferred into the weeds they are designed to control. Brassica napus (oilseed rape) has a number of wild relatives that cause weed problems and the most widespread of these is Sinapis arvensis (charlock). Sinapis arvensis seed was collected from 102 populations across the UK, within and outside B. napus-growing areas. These populations were tested for sexual compatibility with B. napus and it was found that none of them hybridized readily in the glasshouse. In contrast to previous studies, we have found that hybrids can be formed naturally with S. arvensis as the maternal parent. Six diverse B. napus cultivars (Capricorn, Drakkar, Falcon, Galaxy, Hobson and Regent) were tested for their compatibility with S. arvensis but no cultivar hybridized readily in the glasshouse. We were unable to detect gene transfer from B. napus to S. arvensis in the field, confirming the extremely low probability of hybridization predicted from the glasshouse work.

  17. Expellor extracted rape and safflower oilseed meals for poultry and sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.M.; Katz, R.J.; Auld, D.A.; Petersen, C.F.; Sauter, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of these studies was to evaluate the feeding value of on-the-farm expellor extracted rape (RSM) and safflower (SM) oilseed meals for poultry and sheep. Rapeseed meal and SM contained 30.7 and 25.8% crude protein (CP) and 21.7 and 8.7% fat, respectively. Rapeseed meal contained a total glucosinolate concentration of 78.3 ..mu..moles/g. A 22-day feeding trial was conducted with 6-day-old chicks. Rapeseed meal and SM replaced 25 or 50% of the soybean meal (SBM) protein in isonitrogenous (23% CP), isocaloric (3250 kcal ME/kg) diets. Birds fed SBM and 25 or 50% SM consumed more (P < .01) daily feed and gained more (P < .01) per day than those fed 25 or 50% RSM. Birds fed RSM had enlarged thyroid glands in comparison to those fed SMB. Two lamb digestion trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing cottonseed meal (CSM) protein with either RSM or SM on nitrogen utilization and DM digestibility. Replacing 100% of the CSM protein with RSM had no effect (P > .05) on dry matter digestibility and N utilization. Nitrogen balance studies indicate that expellor extracted SM may replace up to 75% of the CSM protein in diets for wethers. 8 tables.

  18. Evidence for pollinator cost and farming benefits of neonicotinoid seed coatings on oilseed rape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budge, G. E.; Garthwaite, D.; Crowe, A.; Boatman, N. D.; Delaplane, K. S.; Brown, M. A.; Thygesen, H. H.; Pietravalle, S.

    2015-08-01

    Chronic exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides has been linked to reduced survival of pollinating insects at both the individual and colony level, but so far only experimentally. Analyses of large-scale datasets to investigate the real-world links between the use of neonicotinoids and pollinator mortality are lacking. Moreover, the impacts of neonicotinoid seed coatings in reducing subsequent applications of foliar insecticide sprays and increasing crop yield are not known, despite the supposed benefits of this practice driving widespread use. Here, we combine large-scale pesticide usage and yield observations from oilseed rape with those detailing honey bee colony losses over an 11 year period, and reveal a correlation between honey bee colony losses and national-scale imidacloprid (a neonicotinoid) usage patterns across England and Wales. We also provide the first evidence that farmers who use neonicotinoid seed coatings reduce the number of subsequent applications of foliar insecticide sprays and may derive an economic return. Our results inform the societal discussion on the pollinator costs and farming benefits of prophylactic neonicotinoid usage on a mass flowering crop.

  19. Effect of Gibberellin on the biosynthesis of tocopherols in Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Du, Xue; Hussain, Nazim; Li, Zhilan; Chen, Xiaoyang; Hua, Shuijin; Zhang, Dongqing; Jiang, Lixi

    2015-01-14

    Elevating the yield and altering the composition of seed tocopherols (Toc’s) are important to rapeseed breeding and production. However, little is known about the biosynthesis of Toc’s in response to environmental signals. In this study, we investigated the effects of exogenous gibberellin (GA3) and paclobutrazol (PAC) on Toc biosynthesis. We also explored the interactive effects between the two plant growth regulators (PGRs) and other factors, such as PGR treatment duration, genotype, and growing location on the total Toc yield and composition in oilseed rape seed. GA3 significantly enhanced the production of Toc’s and elevated the α-/γ-Toc ratio in a time- and genotype-dependent manner. By contrast, PAC significantly reduced Toc yield. Genotypic differences were observed in the effects of GA3 on Toc yield and composition in the seeds. GA3 significantly increased the Toc yield and α-/γ-Toc ratio in Zheyou-50, a genotype with a low proportion of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). However, GA3 did not significantly influence these parameters in Jiu-Er-13Xi, a genotype with a high VLCFA proportion. The increased Toc yield induced by GA3 was mediated by the upregulation of genes (BnPDS1 and BnVTE1) that catalyze the production of Toc precursors. Therefore, applying GA3 can improve rapeseed quality by increasing Toc yield and improving Toc composition.

  20. Evidence for pollinator cost and farming benefits of neonicotinoid seed coatings on oilseed rape

    PubMed Central

    Budge, G. E.; Garthwaite, D.; Crowe, A.; Boatman, N. D.; Delaplane, K. S.; Brown, M. A.; Thygesen, H. H.; Pietravalle, S.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides has been linked to reduced survival of pollinating insects at both the individual and colony level, but so far only experimentally. Analyses of large-scale datasets to investigate the real-world links between the use of neonicotinoids and pollinator mortality are lacking. Moreover, the impacts of neonicotinoid seed coatings in reducing subsequent applications of foliar insecticide sprays and increasing crop yield are not known, despite the supposed benefits of this practice driving widespread use. Here, we combine large-scale pesticide usage and yield observations from oilseed rape with those detailing honey bee colony losses over an 11 year period, and reveal a correlation between honey bee colony losses and national-scale imidacloprid (a neonicotinoid) usage patterns across England and Wales. We also provide the first evidence that farmers who use neonicotinoid seed coatings reduce the number of subsequent applications of foliar insecticide sprays and may derive an economic return. Our results inform the societal discussion on the pollinator costs and farming benefits of prophylactic neonicotinoid usage on a mass flowering crop. PMID:26270806

  1. Local infection with oilseed rape mosaic virus promotes genetic rearrangements in systemic Arabidopsis tissue.

    PubMed

    Yao, Youli; Bilichak, Andriy; Golubov, Andrey; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2011-05-10

    We have previously shown that local infection of tobacco plants with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) or oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV) results in a systemic increase in the homologous recombination frequency (HRF). Here, we analyzed what other changes in the genome are triggered by pathogen infection. For the analysis of HRF, mutation frequency (MF) and microsatellite instability (MI), we used three different transgenic Arabidopsis lines carrying β-glucuronidase (GUS)-based substrates in their genome. We found that local infection of Arabidopsis with ORMV resulted in an increase of all three frequencies, albeit to differing degrees. The most prominent increase was observed in microsatellite instability. The increase in HRF was the lowest, although still statistically significant. The analysis of methylation of the 35S promoter and transgene expression showed that the greater instability of the transgene was not attributed to these changes. Strand breaks brought about a significant increase in non-treated tissues of infected plants. The expression of genes associated with various repair processes, such as KU70, RAD51, MSH2, DNA POL α and DNA POL δ, was also increased. To summarize, our data demonstrate that local ORMV infection destabilizes the genome in systemic tissues of Arabidopsis plants in various ways resulting in large rearrangements, point mutations and microsatellite instability.

  2. Seed Architecture Shapes Embryo Metabolism in Oilseed Rape[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Neuberger, Thomas; Schwender, Jörg; Heinzel, Nicolas; Sunderhaus, Stephanie; Fuchs, Johannes; Hay, Jordan O.; Tschiersch, Henning; Braun, Hans-Peter; Denolf, Peter; Lambert, Bart; Jakob, Peter M.; Rolletschek, Hardy

    2013-01-01

    Constrained to develop within the seed, the plant embryo must adapt its shape and size to fit the space available. Here, we demonstrate how this adjustment shapes metabolism of photosynthetic embryo. Noninvasive NMR-based imaging of the developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) seed illustrates that, following embryo bending, gradients in lipid concentration became established. These were correlated with the local photosynthetic electron transport rate and the accumulation of storage products. Experimentally induced changes in embryo morphology and/or light supply altered these gradients and were accompanied by alterations in both proteome and metabolome. Tissue-specific metabolic models predicted that the outer cotyledon and hypocotyl/radicle generate the bulk of plastidic reductant/ATP via photosynthesis, while the inner cotyledon, being enclosed by the outer cotyledon, is forced to grow essentially heterotrophically. Under field-relevant high-light conditions, major contribution of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase–bypass to seed storage metabolism is predicted for the outer cotyledon and the hypocotyl/radicle only. Differences between in vitro– versus in planta–grown embryos suggest that metabolic heterogeneity of embryo is not observable by in vitro approaches. We conclude that in vivo metabolic fluxes are locally regulated and connected to seed architecture, driving the embryo toward an efficient use of available light and space. PMID:23709628

  3. Dynamics and partitioning of the ionome in seeds and germinating seedlings of winter oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Eggert, Kai; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2013-09-01

    Germination and seedling establishment are among the most critical phases in the development of plants, and seed vigour has become an important trait for the selection of robust crop cultivars. Little is known about the potentially limiting role of mineral nutrients in early metabolic and developmental processes during germination. Therefore, we assessed the ionome and relative distribution of mineral elements in different seed and seedling tissues of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and monitored the internal allocation of nutrients during germination. In seeds, cotyledons harboured the main pool of K, P, S, Mg, Fe, Mn and Zn, whereas the seed coat contained most of the Ca, Na, B, Cu and Mo. Although the early root and hypocotyl tissue expanded first, concentrations of most elements were initially low. Re-allocation of elements to the root/hypocotyl tissue from other pools set in two days after seed imbibition and was most rapid for K. Relative to the critical deficiency levels of vegetative tissues, seed tissues were particularly low in B, K and Fe. Further analyses of the ionome of seeds and seedlings, grouped according to their germination efficiency, indicated that in particular low S, Mg and Ca coincided with germination failure. This study documents highly dynamic changes in the ionome of seed and seedling tissues and provides evidence for potentially limiting elements during early germination and seedling establishment in rapeseed.

  4. Physiological effects of constitutive expression of Oilseed Rape Mosaic Tobamovirus (ORMV) movement protein in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Mansilla, Carmen; Aguilar, Isabel; Martínez-Herrera, David; Sánchez, Flora; Ponz, Fernando

    2006-12-01

    Movement proteins (MPs) are non-cell autonomous viral-encoded proteins that assist viruses in their cell-to-cell movement. The MP encoded by Tobamoviruses is the best characterized example among MPs of non-tubule-inducing plant RNA viruses. The MP of Oilseed Rape Mosaic Tobamovirus (ORMV) was transgenically expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana, ecotype RLD, under the expression of the 35S promoter from Cauliflower Mosaic Virus. Transgenic lines were obtained in sense and antisense orientations. One of the sense transgenic lines was further characterized turning out to carry one copy of the transgene inserted in the terminal region of the right arm of chromosome 1. The constitutive expression of ORMV-MP induced mild physiological effects in Arabidopsis. Plants of the transgenic line allowed a faster systemic movement of the phloem tracer carboxyfluorescein. The tracer was unloaded differentially in different flower parts, revealing differential effects of ORMV-MP on phloem unloading in sink organs. On the other hand, transgenic Arabidopsis did not show any effect on biomass partitioning or sugar availability, effects reported for equivalent transgenic solanaceous plants expressing the MP of Tobacco Mosaic Virus, another Tobamovirus. Finally, the transgenic Arabidopsis plants were susceptible to ORMV infection, although showing milder overall symptoms than non-transgenic controls. The results highlight the relevance of the specific host-virus system, in the physiological outcome of the molecular interactions established by MPs.

  5. Does pea lectin expressed transgenically in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) influence honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae?

    PubMed

    Lehrman, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is important both for pollination and for honey production. Pollen is the major protein source for bees, which exposes them directly to changes in pollen quality e.g. through genetic engineering. In order to create a worst case scenario regarding pea lectin (PSL) expressed transgenically in oilseed rape anthers and pollen, the maximum amount of dried pollen that could be mixed in an artificial diet without negatively affecting larval performance (1.5% w/w) was fed to bee larvae. Pollen from two transgenic plant lines expressing PSL up to 1.2% of total soluble protein and pollen from one non-transgenic line was added to the same diet and used as a pollen control. When these three pollen diets and the control diet (without added pollen) were compared, no negative effect from the pollen of the transgenic plants could be detected on larval mortality, weight, or development time. An increased weight and a reduced developmental time were recorded for larvae on all diets containing pollen when compared to the diet without pollen.

  6. Developmental Regulation of a Plasma Membrane Arabinogalactan Protein Epitope in Oilseed Rape Flowers.

    PubMed Central

    Pennell, RI; Janniche, L; Kjellbom, P; Scofield, GN; Peart, JM; Roberts, K

    1991-01-01

    We have identified and characterized the temporal and spatial regulation of a plasma membrane arabinogalactan protein epitope during development of the aerial parts of oilseed rape using the monoclonal antibody JIM8. The JIM8 epitope is expressed by the first cells of the embryo and by certain cells in the sexual organs of flowers. During embryogenesis, the JIM8 epitope ceases to be expressed by the embryo proper but is still found in the suspensor. During differentiation of the stamens and carpels, expression of the JIM8 epitope progresses from one cell type to another, ultimately specifying the endothecium and sperm cells, the nucellar epidermis, synergid cells, and the egg cell. This complex temporal sequence demonstrates rapid turnover of the JIM8 epitope. There is no direct evidence for any cell-inductive process in plant development. However, if cell-cell interactions exist in plants and participate in flower development, the JIM8 epitope may be a marker for one set of them. PMID:12324592

  7. [Study on the relationship between spectral properties of oilseed rape leaves and their chlorophyll content].

    PubMed

    Fang, Hui; Song, Hai-Yan; Cao, Fang; He, Yong; Qiu, Zheng-Jun

    2007-09-01

    Chlorophyll is the important factors of the crop in its growth stage, and it is the favorable indicator of nutrition stress and photosynthesis. Site-specific crop nutrition diagnosis is the basics of the scientific fertilizer management, and it is essential for the practice of precision agriculture. Spectral properties of the oilseed rape leaves in different nitrogenous fertilizer levels were measured using visible-near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (Vis-NIRS) with natural illumination in the present study. According to the unique spectral properties of the crop, multiple stepwise regression technique was used to find the relationships between chlorophyll content and red edge, green edge. The result shows that the model with two independent variables (red edge, green edge) was better than with the one independeot variable (red edge). The correlation coefficient was 0.863, 0.848, and SEC was 5.273, 5.459, respectively. It can be seen the combination of the red edge and green edge can accurately predict chlorophyll content.

  8. Evidence for pollinator cost and farming benefits of neonicotinoid seed coatings on oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Budge, G E; Garthwaite, D; Crowe, A; Boatman, N D; Delaplane, K S; Brown, M A; Thygesen, H H; Pietravalle, S

    2015-08-13

    Chronic exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides has been linked to reduced survival of pollinating insects at both the individual and colony level, but so far only experimentally. Analyses of large-scale datasets to investigate the real-world links between the use of neonicotinoids and pollinator mortality are lacking. Moreover, the impacts of neonicotinoid seed coatings in reducing subsequent applications of foliar insecticide sprays and increasing crop yield are not known, despite the supposed benefits of this practice driving widespread use. Here, we combine large-scale pesticide usage and yield observations from oilseed rape with those detailing honey bee colony losses over an 11 year period, and reveal a correlation between honey bee colony losses and national-scale imidacloprid (a neonicotinoid) usage patterns across England and Wales. We also provide the first evidence that farmers who use neonicotinoid seed coatings reduce the number of subsequent applications of foliar insecticide sprays and may derive an economic return. Our results inform the societal discussion on the pollinator costs and farming benefits of prophylactic neonicotinoid usage on a mass flowering crop.

  9. Continuous bioethanol production from oilseed rape straw hydrosylate using immobilised Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Anil Kuruvilla; Crook, Mitch; Chaney, Keith; Humphries, Andrea Clare

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate continuous bioethanol production from oilseed rape (OSR) straw hydrolysate using Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilised in Lentikat® discs. The study evaluated the effect of dilution rate (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 h(-1)), substrate concentration (15, 22, 40 and 60 g L(-1)) and cell loading (0.03, 0.16 and 0.24 g d.c.w.mL(-1) Lentikat®) on bioethanol production. Volumetric productivity was found to increase with increasing substrate concentration from 15 g L(-1) to 60 g L(-1). A maximum volumetric productivity of 12.88 g L(-1)h(-1) was achieved at a substrate concentration of 60 g L(-1) and at a dilution rate of 0.5h(-1). An overall mass balance for bioethanol production was created to determine the energy recovery from bioethanol and concluded that a biorefinery approach might be the most appropriate option for maximising the energy recovery from OSR straw. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of feral GT73 transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) along railway lines on entry routes to oilseed factories in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Mirco; Oehen, Bernadette; Schulze, Jürg; Brodmann, Peter; Bagutti, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    To obtain a reference status prior to cultivation of genetically modified oilseed rape (OSR, Brassica napus L.) in Switzerland, the occurrence of feral OSR was monitored along transportation routes and at processing sites. The focus was set on the detection of (transgenic) OSR along railway lines from the Swiss borders with Italy and France to the respective oilseed processing factories in Southern and Northern Switzerland (Ticino and region of Basel). A monitoring concept was developed to identify sites of largest risk of escape of genetically modified plants into the environment in Switzerland. Transport spillage of OSR seeds from railway goods cars particularly at risk hot spots such as switch yards and (un)loading points but also incidental and continuous spillage were considered. All OSR plants, including their hybridization partners which were collected at the respective monitoring sites were analyzed for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. On sampling lengths each of 4.2 and 5.7 km, respectively, 461 and 1,574 plants were sampled in Ticino and the region of Basel. OSR plants were found most frequently along the routes to the oilseed facilities, and in larger amounts on risk hot spots compared to sites of random sampling. At three locations in both monitored regions, transgenic B. napus line GT73 carrying the glyphosate resistance transgenes gox and CP4 epsps were detected (Ticino, 22 plants; in the region of Basel, 159).

  11. Large-scale monitoring of effects of clothianidin-dressed oilseed rape seeds on pollinating insects in Northern Germany: effects on red mason bees (Osmia bicornis).

    PubMed

    Peters, Britta; Gao, Zhenglei; Zumkier, Ulrich

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Elado® (10 g clothianidin & 2 g beta-cyfluthrin/kg seed)-dressed oilseed rape on the development and reproduction of mason bees (Osmia bicornis) as part of a large-scale monitoring field study in Northern Germany, where oilseed rape is usually cultivated at 25-33 % of the arable land. Both reference and test sites comprised 65 km(2) in which no other crops attractive to pollinating insects were present. Six study locations were selected per site and three nesting shelters were placed at each location. Of these locations, three locations were directly adjacent to oilseed rape fields, while the other three locations were situated 100 m distant from the nearest oilseed rape field. At each location, 1500 cocoons of O. bicornis were placed into the central nesting shelter. During the exposure phase, nest building activities and foraging behaviour were assessed repeatedly. Cocoons were harvested in autumn to assess parasitization and reproduction including larval development. The following spring, the emergence of the next generation of adults from cocoons was monitored. High reproductive output and low parasitization rates indicated that Elado(®)-dressed oilseed rape did not cause any detrimental effects on the development or reproduction of mason bees.

  12. Monitoring the effects of thiamethoxam applied as a seed treatment to winter oilseed rape on the development of bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) colonies.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Helen; Coulson, Mike; Ruddle, Natalie; Wilkins, Selwyn; Harrington, Paul; Harkin, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    The development of bumblebee (Bombus terrestris audax) colonies that had foraged for 5 weeks on flowering winter oilseed rape grown from seed treated with thiamethoxam (as Cruiser OSR) was assessed (two control, one treated field). Colony development was evaluated by monitoring the colony mass, forager activity was assessed, both at the hive and within the crop, and the contribution of oilseed rape to the pollen stored within the colony was analysed. Pollen collected from the treated crop contained residues of 1.0 µg thiamethoxam kg(-1) and 3.0 µg CGA322704 (metabolite likely equivalent to clothiandin) kg(-1) , and nectar contained residues of 1.8 µg thiamethoxam kg(-1) and no metabolite. No residues of thiamethoxam or CGA322704 were detected in samples from the control fields. Up to 93% of bumblebee collected pollen sampled from within the colonies originated from oilseed rape, and B. terrestris were observed actively foraging on all the fields. Colonies on all three fields showed similar rates of mass gain during the exposure phase and comparable production of gynes and drones. B. terrestris colonies placed adjacent to a field of flowering oilseed rape grown from thiamethoxam-treated seed developed at a comparable rate with colonies placed adjacent to oilseed rape grown from untreated seed. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Evaluating the Role of Seed Treatments in Canola/Oilseed Rape Production: Integrated Pest Management, Pollinator Health, and Biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Sekulic, Gregory; Rempel, Curtis B

    2016-08-03

    The use patterns and role of insecticide seed treatments, with focus on neonicotinoid insecticides, were examined for canola/oilseed rape production in Canada and the EU. Since nearly all planted canola acres in Western Canada and, historically, a majority of planted oilseed acres in the EU, use seed treatments, it is worth examining whether broad use of insecticidal seed treatments (IST) is compatible with principles of integrated pest management (IPM). The neonicotinoid insecticide (NNI) seed treatment (NNI ST) use pattern has risen due to effective control of several early season insect pests, the most destructive being flea beetles (Phyllotreta sp.). Negative environmental impact and poor efficacy of foliar applied insecticides on flea beetles led growers to look for better alternatives. Due to their biology, predictive models have been difficult to develop for flea beetles, and, therefore, targeted application of seed treatments, as part of an IPM program, has contributed to grower profitability and overall pollinator success for canola production in Western Canada. Early evidence suggests that the recent restriction on NNI may negatively impact grower profitability and does not appear to be having positive impact on pollinator health. Further investigation on impact of NNI on individual bee vs. hive health need to be conducted. Predictive models for flea beetle emergence/feeding activity in canola/oilseed rape need to be developed, as broad acre deployment of NNI seed treatments may not be sustainable due to concerns about resistance/tolerance in flea beetles and other pest species.

  14. Evaluating the Role of Seed Treatments in Canola/Oilseed Rape Production: Integrated Pest Management, Pollinator Health, and Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Sekulic, Gregory; Rempel, Curtis B.

    2016-01-01

    The use patterns and role of insecticide seed treatments, with focus on neonicotinoid insecticides, were examined for canola/oilseed rape production in Canada and the EU. Since nearly all planted canola acres in Western Canada and, historically, a majority of planted oilseed acres in the EU, use seed treatments, it is worth examining whether broad use of insecticidal seed treatments (IST) is compatible with principles of integrated pest management (IPM). The neonicotinoid insecticide (NNI) seed treatment (NNI ST) use pattern has risen due to effective control of several early season insect pests, the most destructive being flea beetles (Phyllotreta sp.). Negative environmental impact and poor efficacy of foliar applied insecticides on flea beetles led growers to look for better alternatives. Due to their biology, predictive models have been difficult to develop for flea beetles, and, therefore, targeted application of seed treatments, as part of an IPM program, has contributed to grower profitability and overall pollinator success for canola production in Western Canada. Early evidence suggests that the recent restriction on NNI may negatively impact grower profitability and does not appear to be having positive impact on pollinator health. Further investigation on impact of NNI on individual bee vs. hive health need to be conducted. Predictive models for flea beetle emergence/feeding activity in canola/oilseed rape need to be developed, as broad acre deployment of NNI seed treatments may not be sustainable due to concerns about resistance/tolerance in flea beetles and other pest species. PMID:27527233

  15. DNA profiling and plant variety registration: 1. The use of random amplified DNA polymorphisms to discriminate between varieties of oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Lee, D; Reeves, J C; Cooke, R J

    1996-01-01

    Before they can be marketed in the UK, newly bred varieties of crop species have to undergo a process of statutory testing, part of which involves the examination of the distinctness, uniformity and stability (DUS) of the variety. DUS testing is also used as the basis for the award of Plant Breeders' Rights. This paper examines the potential of DNA polymorphisms, amplified using arbitrary primers (RAPDs) for use in DUS testing of varieties of oilseed rape. RAPDs using suitable primers can produce high levels of discrimination (> 95%) between varieties, although there are certain problems in gel 'scoring' that are only partially resolved by computerised gel scanning/evaluation techniques. Varieties of oilseed rape are also heterogeneous in their RAPD profiles using certain primers, which could cause problems in the DUS testing context. DNA profiling with RAPDs could be used for discrimination between and identification of oilseed rape varieties, but its use for DUS testing needs to be considered carefully.

  16. Quantification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Using a DNA-Based Soil Test Facilitates Sustainable Oilseed Rape Production

    PubMed Central

    Wallenhammar, Ann-Charlotte; Gunnarson, Albin; Hansson, Fredrik; Jonsson, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae are common in oilseed rape (OSR) in Sweden. A DNA-based soil testing service that identifies fields where P. brassicae poses a significant risk of clubroot infection is now commercially available. It was applied here in field surveys to monitor the prevalence of P. brassicae DNA in field soils intended for winter OSR production and winter OSR field experiments. In 2013 in Scania, prior to planting, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 60% of 45 fields on 10 of 18 farms. In 2014, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 44% of 59 fields in 14 of 36 farms, in the main winter OSR producing region in southern Sweden. P. brassicae was present indicative of a risk for >10% yield loss with susceptible cultivars (>1300 DNA copies g soil−1) in 47% and 44% of fields in 2013 and 2014 respectively. Furthermore, P. brassicae DNA was indicative of sites at risk of complete crop failure if susceptible cultivars were grown (>50 000 copies g−1 soil) in 14% and 8% of fields in 2013 and 2014, respectively. A survey of all fields at Lanna research station in western Sweden showed that P. brassicae was spread throughout the farm, as only three of the fields (20%) showed infection levels below the detection limit for P.brassicae DNA, while the level was >50,000 DNA copies g−1 soil in 20% of the fields. Soil-borne spread is of critical importance and soil scraped off footwear showed levels of up to 682 million spores g−1 soil. Soil testing is an important tool for determining the presence of P. brassicae and providing an indication of potential yield loss, e.g., in advisory work on planning for a sustainable OSR crop rotation. This soil test is gaining acceptance as a tool that increases the likelihood of success in precision agriculture and in applied research conducted in commercial oilseed fields and at research stations. The present application highlights the importance of prevention of

  17. Quantification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Using a DNA-Based Soil Test Facilitates Sustainable Oilseed Rape Production.

    PubMed

    Wallenhammar, Ann-Charlotte; Gunnarson, Albin; Hansson, Fredrik; Jonsson, Anders

    2016-04-22

    Outbreaks of clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae are common in oilseed rape (OSR) in Sweden. A DNA-based soil testing service that identifies fields where P. brassicae poses a significant risk of clubroot infection is now commercially available. It was applied here in field surveys to monitor the prevalence of P. brassicae DNA in field soils intended for winter OSR production and winter OSR field experiments. In 2013 in Scania, prior to planting, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 60% of 45 fields on 10 of 18 farms. In 2014, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 44% of 59 fields in 14 of 36 farms, in the main winter OSR producing region in southern Sweden. P. brassicae was present indicative of a risk for >10% yield loss with susceptible cultivars (>1300 DNA copies g soil(-1)) in 47% and 44% of fields in 2013 and 2014 respectively. Furthermore, P. brassicae DNA was indicative of sites at risk of complete crop failure if susceptible cultivars were grown (>50 000 copies g(-1) soil) in 14% and 8% of fields in 2013 and 2014, respectively. A survey of all fields at Lanna research station in western Sweden showed that P. brassicae was spread throughout the farm, as only three of the fields (20%) showed infection levels below the detection limit for P.brassicae DNA, while the level was >50,000 DNA copies g(-1) soil in 20% of the fields. Soil-borne spread is of critical importance and soil scraped off footwear showed levels of up to 682 million spores g(-1) soil. Soil testing is an important tool for determining the presence of P. brassicae and providing an indication of potential yield loss, e.g., in advisory work on planning for a sustainable OSR crop rotation. This soil test is gaining acceptance as a tool that increases the likelihood of success in precision agriculture and in applied research conducted in commercial oilseed fields and at research stations. The present application highlights the importance of prevention of

  18. Metabolic control analysis is helpful for informed genetic manipulation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to increase seed oil content.

    PubMed

    Weselake, Randall J; Shah, Saleh; Tang, Mingguo; Quant, Patti A; Snyder, Crystal L; Furukawa-Stoffer, Tara L; Zhu, Weiming; Taylor, David C; Zou, Jitao; Kumar, Arvind; Hall, Linda; Laroche, Andre; Rakow, Gerhard; Raney, Phillip; Moloney, Maurice M; Harwood, John L

    2008-01-01

    Top-down control analysis (TDCA) is a useful tool for quantifying constraints on metabolic pathways that might be overcome by biotechnological approaches. Previous studies on lipid accumulation in oilseed rape have suggested that diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), which catalyses the final step in seed oil biosynthesis, might be an effective target for enhancing seed oil content. Here, increased seed oil content, increased DGAT activity, and reduced substrate:product ratio are demonstrated, as well as reduced flux control by complex lipid assembly, as determined by TDCA in Brassica napus (canola) lines which overexpress the gene encoding type-1 DGAT. Lines overexpressing DGAT1 also exhibited considerably enhanced seed oil content under drought conditions. These results support the use of TDCA in guiding the rational selection of molecular targets for oilseed modification. The most effective lines had a seed oil increase of 14%. Moreover, overexpression of DGAT1 under drought conditions reduced this environmental penalty on seed oil content.

  19. Rapeseed species and environmental concerns related to loss of seeds of genetically modified oilseed rape in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Toru; Tamaoki, Masanori; Aono, Mitsuko; Kubo, Akihiro; Saji, Hikaru; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Feral rapeseed in Japan consists of Brassica rapa, B. juncea and B. napus, mostly produced by escape from crops. Brassica rapa and B. juncea were introduced from abroad long ago as leaf and root vegetables and as an oil crop and breeders have developed various cultivars. Brassica napus was introduced in the late 1800s, mainly as an oil crop. Rapeseed production in Japan is low, and most demand is met by imports from Canada (94.4% of the 2009 trade volume). Recently, spontaneous B. napus, including genetically modified (GM) herbicide-resistant individuals, has been detected along Japanese roads, probably originating from seeds lost during transportation of imports. As GM oilseed production increases abroad, the probability of escape of GM oilseed rape in Japan will increase, raising environmental biosafety concerns related to the impact of feral rapeseed on heirloom brassicaceous crops. In this paper, we review the history of rapeseed introduction in Japan and future concerns.

  20. Resistance to fungal pathogens triggered by the Cf9-Avr9 response in tomato and oilseed rape in the absence of hypersensitive cell death.

    PubMed

    Hennin, Caroline; Diederichsen, Elke; Höfte, Monica

    2002-01-01

    summary In tomato and related species, the Cf9 resistance gene induces hypersensitive cell death and activates downstream defence pathways upon recognition of the Avr9 elicitor. We investigated whether the Cf9-Avr9 response without hypersensitive cell death symptoms increases resistance to several fungi. A low Avr9 dose that does not cause hypersensitive cell death was injected in Cf9 tomato and transgenic Cf9 oilseed rape plants. Subsequently, the injected leaves were infected with different fungal pathogens. The disease development of Botrytis cinerea was delayed in Cf9 tomato when the pathogen was inoculated on, or around, the Avr9 injection site. Disease development of Leptosphaeria maculans and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was delayed on Cf9 oilseed rape plant parts located around the Avr9 injection site. Disease development of Oidium lycopersicum in Cf9 tomato or Erysiphe polygoni in Cf9 oilseed rape was not restricted on leaves injected with Avr9. The Avr9 injection induced systemic resistance to L. maculans and E. polygoni in Cf9 oilseed rape. F(1)(Cf9xAvr9) oilseed rape plants, obtained from crosses of transgenic Cf9x transgenic Avr9 oilseed rape, exhibited higher levels of resistance to L. maculans and E. polygoni but not to S. sclerotiorum, than wild-type plants. F(1)(Cf9xAvr9) plants treated with benzothiadiazole (BTH) did not show elevated levels of expression of some pathogenesis-related genes but developed higher levels of resistance to L. maculans than BTH-treated wild-type plants. This report demonstrates that the hypersensitive cell death which is associated with the Cf9-Avr9 response is not required for quantitative disease resistance.

  1. Nitrogen Fertilizer Management for Enhancing Crop Productivity and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in a Rice-Oilseed Rape Rotation System in China

    PubMed Central

    Yousaf, Muhammad; Li, Xiaokun; Zhang, Zhi; Ren, Tao; Cong, Rihuan; Ata-Ul-Karim, Syed Tahir; Fahad, Shah; Shah, Adnan N.; Lu, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    The use of efficient rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizer application is important with regard to increasing crop productivity and maintaining environmental sustainability. Rice-oilseed rape rotations are a mainstay of the economy and food security of China. Therefore, a field experiment was carried out during 2011–2013 in Honghu to identify the most appropriate N application rates for enhancing crop productivity and N use efficiency for rice (Oryza sativa L.)-oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) rotations. Six N fertilizer treatments (RO1, RO2, RO3, RO4, RO5, and RO6) were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. ROx represented the N fertilizer application rates (kg ha−1) for rice and oilseed rape, respectively. Grain yields from plots receiving N fertilizer were significantly increased by 59–71% (rice) and 109–160% (oilseed rape) during the total rotation (2011–2013), as compared to RO1 (control; no application). Furthermore, a similar trend was observed for N accumulation, ranging from 88 to 125% and 134 to 200% in aerial parts of rice and oilseed rape, respectively. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) was significantly higher (38.5%) under RO2 and lower (34.2%) under RO6 while apparent N balance (ANB) was positively lowest under R05 (183.4 kg ha−1) followed by R02 (234.2 kg ha−1) and highest under R06 (344.5 kg ha−1) during the total rotation. The results of grain yield, NUE, and ANB indicated that the R02 rate of N application was superior. This information should help to develop a cost-effective and environment-friendly N management strategy for rice-oilseed rape rotation systems of central China. PMID:27746809

  2. Nitrogen Fertilizer Management for Enhancing Crop Productivity and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in a Rice-Oilseed Rape Rotation System in China.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Muhammad; Li, Xiaokun; Zhang, Zhi; Ren, Tao; Cong, Rihuan; Ata-Ul-Karim, Syed Tahir; Fahad, Shah; Shah, Adnan N; Lu, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    The use of efficient rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizer application is important with regard to increasing crop productivity and maintaining environmental sustainability. Rice-oilseed rape rotations are a mainstay of the economy and food security of China. Therefore, a field experiment was carried out during 2011-2013 in Honghu to identify the most appropriate N application rates for enhancing crop productivity and N use efficiency for rice (Oryza sativa L.)-oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) rotations. Six N fertilizer treatments (RO1, RO2, RO3, RO4, RO5, and RO6) were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. ROx represented the N fertilizer application rates (kg ha(-1)) for rice and oilseed rape, respectively. Grain yields from plots receiving N fertilizer were significantly increased by 59-71% (rice) and 109-160% (oilseed rape) during the total rotation (2011-2013), as compared to RO1 (control; no application). Furthermore, a similar trend was observed for N accumulation, ranging from 88 to 125% and 134 to 200% in aerial parts of rice and oilseed rape, respectively. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) was significantly higher (38.5%) under RO2 and lower (34.2%) under RO6 while apparent N balance (ANB) was positively lowest under R05 (183.4 kg ha(-1)) followed by R02 (234.2 kg ha(-1)) and highest under R06 (344.5 kg ha(-1)) during the total rotation. The results of grain yield, NUE, and ANB indicated that the R02 rate of N application was superior. This information should help to develop a cost-effective and environment-friendly N management strategy for rice-oilseed rape rotation systems of central China.

  3. Effects of experimental warming on fungal disease progress in oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Siebold, Magdalena; von Tiedemann, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    Global warming will influence the growth and development of both crops and pathogens. The aims of this study were to investigate potential effects of future warming on oilseed rape growth and the epidemiology of the three economically important pathogens Verticillium longisporum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Leptosphaeria maculans (anamorph: Phoma lingam). We utilized climate chambers and a soil warming facility, where treatments represented regional warming scenarios for Lower Saxony, Germany, by 2050 and 2100, and compared results of both approaches on a thermal time scale by calculating degree-days (dd) from day of sowing, December 1st and March 1st until sampling, the latter correlating best with disease progress. Regression analysis showed that plant growth and growth stages in spring responded almost linearly to increasing thermal time until 1000-1500 dd. Colonization of plant tissue by V. longisporum showed an exponential increase when exceeding 1300-1500 dd and reaching plant growth stage BBCH 74/75 (pod development). V. longisporum colonization of plants may be advanced, potentially leading to higher inoculum densities after harvest and increased economic importance of this pathogen under future warming. Sclerotia germination of S. sclerotiorum reached its maximum at 600-900 dd. Advance of these critical degree-days may lead to earlier apothecia production, potentially advancing the infection window, whereas the future importance of S. sclerotiorum may remain constant. Severity of phoma crown canker increased linearly with increasing thermal time, but showed also large variation in response to the warming scenarios, suggesting that factors such as canopy microclimate in fall or leaf shedding over winter may play a bigger role for L. maculans infection and disease severity than higher soil temperatures. Thermal time was a suitable tool to combine and integrate data on biological responses to soil and air temperature increases from climate chamber and field

  4. Large scale identification and quantitative profiling of phosphoproteins expressed during seed filling in oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Thelen, Jay J

    2006-11-01

    Seed filling is a dynamic, temporally regulated phase of seed development that determines the composition of storage reserves in mature seeds. Although the metabolic pathways responsible for storage reserve synthesis such as carbohydrates, oils, and proteins are known, little is known about their regulation. Protein phosphorylation is a ubiquitous form of regulation that influences many aspects of dynamic cellular behavior in plant biology. Here a systematic study has been conducted on five sequential stages (2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks after flowering) of seed development in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. Reston) to survey the presence and dynamics of phosphoproteins. High resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in combination with a phosphoprotein-specific Pro-Q Diamond phosphoprotein fluorescence stain revealed approximately 300 phosphoprotein spots. Of these, quantitative expression profiles for 234 high quality spots were established, and hierarchical cluster analyses revealed the occurrence of six principal expression trends during seed filling. The identity of 103 spots was determined using LC-MS/MS. The identified spots represented 70 non-redundant phosphoproteins belonging to 10 major functional categories including energy, metabolism, protein destination, and signal transduction. Furthermore phosphorylation within 16 non-redundant phosphoproteins was verified by mapping the phosphorylation sites by LC-MS/MS. Although one of these sites was postulated previously, the remaining sites have not yet been reported in plants. Phosphoprotein data were assembled into a web database. Together this study provides evidence for the presence of a large number of functionally diverse phosphoproteins, including global regulatory factors like 14-3-3 proteins, within developing B. napus seed.

  5. Consequences of gene flow between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and its relatives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongbo; Wei, Wei; Ma, Keping; Li, Junsheng; Liang, Yuyong; Darmency, Henri

    2013-10-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the probability of occurrence of gene flow between transgenic crops and their wild relatives and the likelihood of transgene escape, which should be assessed before the commercial release of transgenic crops. This review paper focuses on this issue for oilseed rape, Brassica napus L., a species that produces huge numbers of pollen grains and seeds. We analyze separately the distinct steps of gene flow: (1) pollen and seeds as vectors of gene flow; (2) spontaneous hybridization; (3) hybrid behavior, fitness cost due to hybridization and mechanisms of introgression; (4) and fitness benefit due to transgenes (e.g. herbicide resistance and Bt toxin). Some physical, biological and molecular means of transgene containment are also described. Although hybrids and first generation progeny are difficult to identify in fields and non-crop habitats, the literature shows that transgenes could readily introgress into Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica oleracea, while introgression is expected to be rare with Brassica nigra, Hirschfeldia incana and Raphanus raphanistrum. The hybrids grow well but produce less seed than their wild parent. The difference declines with increasing generations. However, there is large uncertainty about the evolution of chromosome numbers and recombination, and many parameters of life history traits of hybrids and progeny are not determined with satisfactory confidence to build generic models capable to really cover the wide diversity of situations. We show that more studies are needed to strengthen and organize biological knowledge, which is a necessary prerequisite for model simulations to assess the practical and evolutionary outputs of introgression, and to provide guidelines for gene flow management.

  6. Internal resistance in winter oilseed rape inhibits systemic spread of the vascular pathogen Verticillium longisporum.

    PubMed

    Eynck, C; Koopmann, B; Karlovsky, P; von Tiedemann, A

    2009-07-01

    Verticillium longisporum is a vascular fungal pathogen presently threatening oilseed rape production in Europe. Systemic spread and vascular responses were studied in a susceptible ('Falcon') and a resistant genotype (SEM 05-500256) of Brassica napus. Colonization of both genotypes after dip-inoculation of the roots followed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed similarities only in the initial stages of root penetration and colonization of the hypocotyl, while a substantial invasion of the shoot was only recorded in 'Falcon'. It is concluded that the type of resistance represented in SEM 05-500256 does not prevent the plant base from being invaded as it is internally expressed well after root penetration and colonization of the plant base. The morphological and biochemical nature of barriers induced in the hypocotyl tissue upon infection was studied with histochemical methods accompanied by biochemical analyses. Histochemical studies revealed the build-up of vascular occlusions and the reinforcement of tracheary elements through the deposition of cell wall-bound phenolics and lignin. Furthermore, the accumulation of soluble phenolics was observed. Although these responses were found in vascular tissues of both genotypes, they occurred with a significantly higher intensity in the resistant genotype and corresponded with the disease phenotype. In the resistant genotype phenols were differentially expressed in a time-dependent manner with preformed soluble and cell wall-bound phenolics at earlier time points and de novo formation of lignin and lignin-like polymers at later stages of infection. This is the first study identifying a crucial role of phenol metabolism in internal defense of B. napus against V. longisporum and locating the crucial defense responses in the plant hypocotyl.

  7. Leaf senescence and nitrogen remobilization efficiency in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Avice, Jean-Christophe; Etienne, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Despite its worldwide economic importance for food (oil, meal) and non-food (green energy and chemistry) uses, oilseed rape has a low nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE), mainly due to the low N remobilization efficiency (NRE) observed during the vegetative phase when sequential leaf senescence occurs. Assuming that improvement of NRE is the main lever for NUE optimization, unravelling the cellular mechanisms responsible for the recycling of proteins (the main N source in leaf) during sequential senescence is a prerequisite for identifying the physiological and molecular determinants that are associated with high NRE. The development of a relevant molecular indicator (SAG12/Cab) of leaf senescence progression in combination with a (15)N-labelling method were used to decipher the N remobilization associated with sequential senescence and to determine modulation of this process by abiotic factors especially N deficiency. Interestingly, in young leaves, N starvation delayed senescence and induced BnD22, a water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein that acts against oxidative alterations of chlorophylls and exhibits a protease inhibitor activity. Through its dual function, BnD22 may help to sustain sink growth of stressed plants and contribute to a better utilization of N recycled from senescent leaves, a physiological trait that could improve NUE. Proteomics approaches have revealed that proteolysis involves chloroplastic FtsH protease in the early stages of senescence, aspartic protease during the course of leaf senescence, and the proteasome β1 subunit, mitochondria processing protease and SAG12 (cysteine protease) during the later senescence phases. Overall, the results constitute interesting pathways for screening genotypes with high NRE and NUE.

  8. Distance from forest edge affects bee pollinators in oilseed rape fields.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Samantha; Requier, Fabrice; Nusillard, Benoît; Roberts, Stuart P M; Potts, Simon G; Bouget, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    Wild pollinators have been shown to enhance the pollination of Brassica napus (oilseed rape) and thus increase its market value. Several studies have previously shown that pollination services are greater in crops adjoining forest patches or other seminatural habitats than in crops completely surrounded by other crops. In this study, we investigated the specific importance of forest edges in providing potential pollinators in B. napus fields in two areas in France. Bees were caught with yellow pan traps at increasing distances from both warm and cold forest edges into B. napus fields during the blooming period. A total of 4594 individual bees, representing six families and 83 taxa, were collected. We found that both bee abundance and taxa richness were negatively affected by the distance from forest edge. However, responses varied between bee groups and edge orientations. The ITD (Inter-Tegular distance) of the species, a good proxy for bee foraging range, seems to limit how far the bees can travel from the forest edge. We found a greater abundance of cuckoo bees (Nomada spp.) of Andrena spp. and Andrena spp. males at forest edges, which we assume indicate suitable nesting sites, or at least mating sites, for some abundant Andrena species and their parasites (Fig. 1). Synthesis and Applications. This study provides one of the first examples in temperate ecosystems of how forest edges may actually act as a reservoir of potential pollinators and directly benefit agricultural crops by providing nesting or mating sites for important early spring pollinators. Policy-makers and land managers should take forest edges into account and encourage their protection in the agricultural matrix to promote wild bees and their pollination services.

  9. Distance from forest edge affects bee pollinators in oilseed rape fields

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Samantha; Requier, Fabrice; Nusillard, Benoît; Roberts, Stuart P M; Potts, Simon G; Bouget, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Wild pollinators have been shown to enhance the pollination of Brassica napus (oilseed rape) and thus increase its market value. Several studies have previously shown that pollination services are greater in crops adjoining forest patches or other seminatural habitats than in crops completely surrounded by other crops. In this study, we investigated the specific importance of forest edges in providing potential pollinators in B. napus fields in two areas in France. Bees were caught with yellow pan traps at increasing distances from both warm and cold forest edges into B. napus fields during the blooming period. A total of 4594 individual bees, representing six families and 83 taxa, were collected. We found that both bee abundance and taxa richness were negatively affected by the distance from forest edge. However, responses varied between bee groups and edge orientations. The ITD (Inter-Tegular distance) of the species, a good proxy for bee foraging range, seems to limit how far the bees can travel from the forest edge. We found a greater abundance of cuckoo bees (Nomada spp.) of Andrena spp. and Andrena spp. males at forest edges, which we assume indicate suitable nesting sites, or at least mating sites, for some abundant Andrena species and their parasites (Fig. 1). Synthesis and Applications. This study provides one of the first examples in temperate ecosystems of how forest edges may actually act as a reservoir of potential pollinators and directly benefit agricultural crops by providing nesting or mating sites for important early spring pollinators. Policy-makers and land managers should take forest edges into account and encourage their protection in the agricultural matrix to promote wild bees and their pollination services. PMID:24634722

  10. Reprogramming the Phenylpropanoid Metabolism in Seeds of Oilseed Rape by Suppressing the Orthologs of REDUCED EPIDERMAL FLUORESCENCE11[W

    PubMed Central

    Mittasch, Juliane; Böttcher, Christoph; Frolov, Andrej; Strack, Dieter; Milkowski, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    As a result of the phenylpropanoid pathway, many Brassicaceae produce considerable amounts of soluble hydroxycinnamate conjugates, mainly sinapate esters. From oilseed rape (Brassica napus), we cloned two orthologs of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) gene REDUCED EPIDERMAL FLUORESCENCE1 (REF1) encoding a coniferaldehyde/sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase. The enzyme is involved in the formation of ferulate and sinapate from the corresponding aldehydes, thereby linking lignin and hydroxycinnamate biosynthesis as a potential branch-point enzyme. We used RNA interference to silence REF1 genes in seeds of oilseed rape. Nontargeted metabolite profiling showed that BnREF1-suppressing seeds produced a novel chemotype characterized by reduced levels of sinapate esters, the appearance of conjugated monolignols, dilignols, and trilignols, altered accumulation patterns of kaempferol glycosides, and changes in minor conjugates of caffeate, ferulate, and 5-hydroxyferulate. BnREF1 suppression affected the level of minor sinapate conjugates more severely than that of the major component sinapine. Mapping of the changed metabolites onto the phenylpropanoid metabolic network revealed partial redirection of metabolic sequences as a major impact of BnREF1 suppression. PMID:23424250

  11. Mapping the mosaic of ancestral genotypes in a cultivar of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) selected via pedigree breeding.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, A G; Lydiate, D J

    2003-06-01

    Recent oilseed rape breeding has produced low glucosinolate cultivars that yield proteinaceous meal suitable for animal feed. The low glucosinolate character was introduced into modern cultivars from Brassica napus 'Bronowski', a cultivar that is agronomically inferior in most other respects. Residual segments of 'Bronowski' genotype in modern cultivars probably cause reduced yield, poorer winter hardiness, and lower oil content. The quantity and distribution of the 'Bronowski' genotype in the modern oilseed rape cultivar Brassica napus 'Tapidor' was investigated using a segregating population derived from a cross between 'Tapidor' and its high glucosinolate progenitor. This population was analyzed with 65 informative Brassica RFLP probes and a genetic linkage map, based on the segregation at 77 polymorphic loci, was constructed. The mapping identified 15 residual segments of donor genotype in 'Tapidor', which together occupy approximately 29% of the B. napus genome. Mapping the loci that control variation for the accumulation of total seed glucosinolates in the segregating population has identified three loci that together explain >90% of the variation for this character. All of these loci are in donor segments of the 'Tapidor' genome. This result shows the extent to which conventional breeding programmes have difficulty in eliminating residual segments of donor genotype from elite material.

  12. Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling of the GRF gene family in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Ma, Jin-Qi; Jian, Hong-Ju; Yang, Bo; Lu, Kun; Zhang, Ao-Xiang; Liu, Pu; Li, Jia-Na

    2017-07-15

    Growth regulating-factors (GRFs) are plant-specific transcription factors that help regulate plant growth and development. Genome-wide identification and evolutionary analyses of GRF gene families have been performed in Arabidopsis thaliana, Zea mays, Oryza sativa, and Brassica rapa, but a comprehensive analysis of the GRF gene family in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) has not yet been reported. In the current study, we identified 35 members of the BnGRF family in B. napus. We analyzed the chromosomal distribution, phylogenetic relationships (Bayesian Inference and Neighbor Joining method), gene structures, and motifs of the BnGRF family members, as well as the cis-acting regulatory elements in their promoters. We also analyzed the expression patterns of 15 randomly selected BnGRF genes in various tissues and in plant varieties with different harvest indices and gibberellic acid (GA) responses. The expression levels of BnGRFs under GA treatment suggested the presence of possible negative feedback regulation. The evolutionary patterns and expression profiles of BnGRFs uncovered in this study increase our understanding of the important roles played by these genes in oilseed rape. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Root length densities of UK wheat and oilseed rape crops with implications for water capture and yield

    PubMed Central

    White, Charlotte A.; Sylvester-Bradley, Roger; Berry, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Root length density (RLD) was measured to 1 m depth for 17 commercial crops of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and 40 crops of winter oilseed rape [Brassica napus; oilseed rape (OSR)] grown in the UK between 2004 and 2013. Taking the critical RLD (cRLD) for water capture as 1cm cm–3, RLDs appeared inadequate for full water capture on average below a depth of 0.32 m for winter wheat and below 0.45 m for OSR. These depths compare unfavourably (for wheat) with average depths of ‘full capture’ of 0.86 m and 0.48 m, respectively, determined for three wheat crops and one OSR crop studied in the 1970s and 1980s, and treated as references here. A simple model of water uptake and yield indicated that these shortfalls in wheat and OSR rooting compared with the reference data might be associated with shortfalls of up to 3.5 t ha–1 and 1.2 t ha–1, respectively, in grain yields under water-limited conditions, as increasingly occur through climate change. Coupled with decreased summer rainfall, poor rooting of modern arable crops could explain much of the yield stagnation that has been observed on UK farms since the 1990s. Methods of monitoring and improving rooting under commercial conditions are reviewed and discussed. PMID:25750427

  14. Root length densities of UK wheat and oilseed rape crops with implications for water capture and yield.

    PubMed

    White, Charlotte A; Sylvester-Bradley, Roger; Berry, Peter M

    2015-04-01

    Root length density (RLD) was measured to 1 m depth for 17 commercial crops of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and 40 crops of winter oilseed rape [Brassica napus; oilseed rape (OSR)] grown in the UK between 2004 and 2013. Taking the critical RLD (cRLD) for water capture as 1cm cm(-3), RLDs appeared inadequate for full water capture on average below a depth of 0.32 m for winter wheat and below 0.45 m for OSR. These depths compare unfavourably (for wheat) with average depths of 'full capture' of 0.86 m and 0.48 m, respectively, determined for three wheat crops and one OSR crop studied in the 1970s and 1980s, and treated as references here. A simple model of water uptake and yield indicated that these shortfalls in wheat and OSR rooting compared with the reference data might be associated with shortfalls of up to 3.5 t ha(-1) and 1.2 t ha(-1), respectively, in grain yields under water-limited conditions, as increasingly occur through climate change. Coupled with decreased summer rainfall, poor rooting of modern arable crops could explain much of the yield stagnation that has been observed on UK farms since the 1990s. Methods of monitoring and improving rooting under commercial conditions are reviewed and discussed.

  15. Development and application of SINE multilocus and quantitative genetic markers to study oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) crops.

    PubMed

    Allnutt, T R; Roper, K; Henry, C

    2008-01-23

    A genetic marker system based on the S1 Short Interspersed Elements (SINEs) in the important commercial crop, oilseed rape ( Brassica napus L.) has been developed. SINEs provided a successful multilocus, dominant marker system that was capable of clearly delineating winter- and spring-type crop varieties. Sixteen of 20 varieties tested showed unique profiles from the 17 polymorphic SINE markers generated. The 3' or 5' flank region of nine SINE markers were cloned, and DNA was sequenced. In addition, one putative pre-transposition SINE allele was cloned and sequenced. Two SINE flanking sequences were used to design real-time PCR assays. These quantitative SINE assays were applied to study the genetic structure of eight fields of oilseed rape crops. Studied fields were more genetically diverse than expected for the chosen loci (mean H T = 0.23). The spatial distribution of SINE marker frequencies was highly structured in some fields, suggesting locations of volunteer impurities within the crop. In one case, the assay identified a mislabeling of the crop variety. SINE markers were a useful tool for crop genetics, phylogenetics, variety identification, and purity analysis. The use and further application of quantitative, real-time PCR markers are discussed.

  16. Characterization of senescence-associated protease activities involved in the efficient protein remobilization during leaf senescence of winter oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Poret, Marine; Chandrasekar, Balakumaran; van der Hoorn, Renier A L; Avice, Jean-Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is a crop plant characterized by a poor nitrogen (N) use efficiency that is mainly due to low N remobilization efficiency during the sequential leaf senescence of the vegetative stage. As a high leaf N remobilization efficiency was strongly linked to a high remobilization of proteins during leaf senescence of rapeseed, our objective was to identify senescence-associated protease activities implicated in the protein degradation. To reach this goal, leaf senescence processes and protease activities were investigated in a mature leaf becoming senescent in plants subjected to ample or low nitrate supply. The characterization of protease activities was performed by using in vitro analysis of RuBisCO degradation with or without inhibitors of specific protease classes followed by a protease activity profiling using activity-dependent probes. As expected, the mature leaf became senescent regardless of the nitrate treatment, and nitrate limitation enhanced the senescence processes associated with an enhanced degradation of soluble proteins. The characterization of protease activities revealed that: (i) aspartic proteases and the proteasome were active during senescence regardless of nitrate supply, and (ii) the activities of serine proteases and particularly cysteine proteases (Papain-like Cys proteases and vacuolar processing enzymes) increased when protein remobilization associated with senescence was accelerated by nitrate limitation. Short statement: Serine and particularly cysteine proteases (both PLCPs and VPEs) seem to play a crucial role in the efficient protein remobilization when leaf senescence of oilseed rape was accelerated by nitrate limitation.

  17. Xylem transport and gene expression play decisive roles in cadmium accumulation in shoots of two oilseed rape cultivars (Brassica napus).

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhichao; Zhao, Xiaohu; Sun, Xuecheng; Tan, Qiling; Tang, Yafang; Nie, Zhaojun; Hu, Chengxiao

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal which harms human health through food chains. The mechanisms underlying Cd accumulation in oilseed rape are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the physiological and genetic processes involved in Cd uptake and transport of two oilseed rape cultivars (Brassica napus). L351 accumulates more Cd in shoots but less in roots than L338. A scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET) and uptake kinetics of Cd showed that roots were not responsible for the different Cd accumulation in shoots since L351 showed a lower Cd uptake ability. However, concentration-dependent and time-dependent dynamics of Cd transport by xylem showed L351 exhibited a superordinate capacity of Cd translocation to shoots. Additionally, the Cd concentrations of shoots and xylem sap showed a great correlation in both cultivars. Furthermore, gene expression levels related to Cd uptake by roots (IRT1) and Cd transport by xylem (HMA2 and HMA4) were consistent with the tendencies of Cd absorption and transport at the physiological level respectively. In other words, L351 had stronger gene expression for Cd transport but lower for Cd uptake. Overall, results revealed that the process of Cd translocation to shoots is a determinative factor for Cd accumulation in shoots, both at physiological and genetic levels.

  18. Formulations of the endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis Tu-100 suppress Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape and improve plant vigor in field trials conducted at separate locations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses in crops in The People’s Republic of China. Two formulations of oilseed rape seed containing the endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis Tu-100 were evaluated for suppression of this pathogen in field trials conducted at two independent locations....

  19. Assays of the production of harmful substances by genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) plants in accordance with regulations for evaluating the impact on biodiversity in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asanuma, Yoko; Jinkawa, Tomoe; Tanaka, Hidenori; Gondo, Takahiro; Zaita, Norihiro; Akashi, Ryo

    2011-02-01

    Environmental risk assessment of transgenic crops is implemented under the Cartagena Protocol domestic law in accordance with guidelines for implementing the assessment established by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) and the Ministry of Environment (MOE) in Japan. Environmental risk assessments of transgenic crops are implemented based on the concept of 'substantial equivalence' to conventional crops. A unique requirement in Japan to monitor the production of harmful substances, or allelochemicals, is unparalleled in other countries. The potential for allelochemicals to be secreted from the roots of transgenic crops to affect other plants or soil microflora or for substances in the plant body to affect other plants after dying out must be evaluated. We evaluated the allelopathic potential of seven transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) lines that express glufosinate tolerance in terms of substantial equivalence to conventional oilseed rape lines, and established evaluation methods. Our results indicate no potential production of allelochemicals for any of the seven transgenic oilseed rape lines compared with conventional oilseed rape lines.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of the Beneficial Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 8569, a Natural Isolate of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus)

    PubMed Central

    Nesemann, Kai; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Thuermer, Andrea; Daniel, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 8569 represents a natural isolate of the rhizosphere of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in Germany and possesses antagonistic potential toward the fungal pathogen Verticillium. We report here the draft genome sequence of strain DSM 8569, which comprises 5,914 protein-coding sequences. PMID:25814596

  1. Overexpression of sinapine esterase BnSCE3 in oilseed rape seeds triggers global changes in seed metabolism.

    PubMed

    Clauss, Kathleen; von Roepenack-Lahaye, Edda; Böttcher, Christoph; Roth, Mary R; Welti, Ruth; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Scheel, Dierk; Milkowski, Carsten; Strack, Dieter

    2011-03-01

    Sinapine (O-sinapoylcholine) is the predominant phenolic compound in a complex group of sinapate esters in seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Sinapine has antinutritive activity and prevents the use of seed protein for food and feed. A strategy was developed to lower its content in seeds by expressing an enzyme that hydrolyzes sinapine in developing rape seeds. During early stages of seedling development, a sinapine esterase (BnSCE3) hydrolyzes sinapine, releasing choline and sinapate. A portion of choline enters the phospholipid metabolism, and sinapate is routed via 1-O-sinapoyl-β-glucose into sinapoylmalate. Transgenic oilseed rape lines were generated expressing BnSCE3 under the control of a seed-specific promoter. Two distinct single-copy transgene insertion lines were isolated and propagated to generate homozygous lines, which were subjected to comprehensive phenotyping. Sinapine levels of transgenic seeds were less than 5% of wild-type levels, whereas choline levels were increased. Weight, size, and water content of transgenic seeds were significantly higher than those of wild-type seeds. Seed quality parameters, such as fiber and glucosinolate levels, and agronomically important traits, such as oil and protein contents, differed only slightly, except that amounts of hemicellulose and cellulose were about 30% higher in transgenic compared with wild-type seeds. Electron microscopic examination revealed that a fraction of the transgenic seeds had morphological alterations, characterized by large cavities near the embryonic tissue. Transgenic seedlings were larger than wild-type seedlings, and young seedlings exhibited longer hypocotyls. Examination of metabolic profiles of transgenic seeds indicated that besides suppression of sinapine accumulation, there were other dramatic differences in primary and secondary metabolism. Mapping of these changes onto metabolic pathways revealed global effects of the transgenic BnSCE3 expression on seed metabolism.

  2. Rice Yield and the Fate of Fertilizer Nitrogen as Affected by Addition of Earthworm Casts Collected from Oilseed Rape Fields: A Pot Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Min; Zhou, Xuefeng; Xie, Xiaobing; Zhao, Chunrong; Chen, Jiana; Cao, Fangbo; Zou, Yingbin

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism associated with improvement of soil nutritional status by oilseed rape crop, leading to better performance of rice crop, in rice-oilseed rape cropping systems is little known. The present study was aimed to test the hypothesis that earthworm casts produced during oilseed rape-growing season have positive effects on grain yield and fertilizer nitrogen (N) utilization in the subsequent flooded rice crop. A 15N-tracing pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of earthworm casts collected from oilseed rape fields on yield attributes in rice and the fate of fertilizer N. Soil treated with earthworm casts (soil: earthworm casts = 4: 1, w/w) (EC1) produced 39% higher grain yield than soil only (EC0). EC1 had 18% more panicle number and 10% higher spikelet filling percentage than EC0. Aboveground biomass and harvest index were higher in EC1 than in EC0 by 20% and 15%, respectively. SPAD values in flag leaves were 10% and 22% higher under EC1 than EC0 at 15 and 20 days after heading, respectively. EC1 had 19% higher total N uptake and 18% higher physiological N-use efficiency than EC0. These positive effects of earthworm casts on yield attributes offset negative effects of decreasing N rate from 0.74 g pot–1 (equivalent to the recommended field rate of 150 kg ha–1) to 0.44 g pot–1 (equivalent to 60% of the recommended rate). Fertilizer N retention rate was 7% higher while fertilizer N loss rate was 6% lower in EC1 than in EC0. Our study suggests that earthworm casts produced during oilseed rape-growing season are expected to have the following benefits on the subsequent flooded rice system: (1) improving growth and physiological processes in rice plants and consequently increasing rice grain yield, and (2) increasing fertilizer N retention rate and hence decreasing fertilizer N loss rate and reducing environmental risk. PMID:27880837

  3. Large-scale monitoring of effects of clothianidin-dressed oilseed rape seeds on pollinating insects in northern Germany: residues of clothianidin in pollen, nectar and honey.

    PubMed

    Rolke, Daniel; Persigehl, Markus; Peters, Britta; Sterk, Guido; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2016-11-01

    This study was part of a large-scale monitoring project to assess the possible effects of Elado(®) (10 g clothianidin & 2 g β-cyfluthrin/kg seed)-dressed oilseed rape seeds on different pollinators in Northern Germany. Firstly, residues of clothianidin and its active metabolites thiazolylnitroguanidine and thiazolylmethylurea were measured in nectar and pollen from Elado(®)-dressed (test site, T) and undressed (reference site, R) oilseed rape collected by honey bees confined within tunnel tents. Clothianidin and its metabolites could not be detected or quantified in samples from R fields. Clothianidin concentrations in samples from T fields were 1.3 ± 0.9 μg/kg and 1.7 ± 0.9 μg/kg in nectar and pollen, respectively. Secondly, pollen and nectar for residue analyses were sampled from free flying honey bees, bumble bees and mason bees, placed at six study locations each in the R and T sites at the start of oilseed rape flowering. Honey samples were analysed from all honey bee colonies at the end of oilseed rape flowering. Neither clothianidin nor its metabolites were detectable or quantifiable in R site samples. Clothianidin concentrations in samples from the T site were below the limit of quantification (LOQ, 1.0 µg/kg) in most pollen and nectar samples collected by bees and 1.4 ± 0.5 µg/kg in honey taken from honey bee colonies. In summary, the study provides reliable semi-field and field data of clothianidin residues in nectar and pollen collected by different bee species in oilseed rape fields under common agricultural conditions.

  4. Genome-Wide Analysis and Expression Profiling of the SUC and SWEET Gene Families of Sucrose Transporters in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Jian, Hongju; Lu, Kun; Yang, Bo; Wang, Tengyue; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Aoxiang; Wang, Jia; Liu, Liezhao; Qu, Cunmin; Li, Jiana

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose is the principal transported product of photosynthesis from source leaves to sink organs. SUTs/SUCs (sucrose transporters or sucrose carriers) and SWEETs (Sugars Will Eventually be Exported Transporters) play significant central roles in phloem loading and unloading. SUTs/SUCs and SWEETs are key players in sucrose translocation and are associated with crop yields. The SUT/SUC and SWEET genes have been characterized in several plant species, but a comprehensive analysis of these two gene families in oilseed rape has not yet been reported. In our study, 22 and 68 members of the SUT/SUCs and SWEET gene families, respectively, were identified in the oilseed rape (Brassica napus) genome through homology searches. An analysis of the chromosomal distribution, phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, motifs and the cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoters of BnSUC and BnSWEET genes were analyzed. Furthermore, we examined the expression of the 18 BnSUC and 16 BnSWEET genes in different tissues of "ZS11" and the expression of 9 BnSUC and 7 BnSWEET genes in "ZS11" under various conditions, including biotic stress (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum), abiotic stresses (drought, salt and heat), and hormone treatments (abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinin, brassinolide, gibberellin, and salicylic acid). In conclusion, our study provides the first comprehensive analysis of the oilseed rape SUC and SWEET gene families. Information regarding the phylogenetic relationships, gene structure and expression profiles of the SUC and SWEET genes in the different tissues of oilseed rape helps to identify candidates with potential roles in specific developmental processes. Our study advances our understanding of the important roles of sucrose transport in oilseed rape.

  5. Rice Yield and the Fate of Fertilizer Nitrogen as Affected by Addition of Earthworm Casts Collected from Oilseed Rape Fields: A Pot Experiment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Min; Zhou, Xuefeng; Xie, Xiaobing; Zhao, Chunrong; Chen, Jiana; Cao, Fangbo; Zou, Yingbin

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism associated with improvement of soil nutritional status by oilseed rape crop, leading to better performance of rice crop, in rice-oilseed rape cropping systems is little known. The present study was aimed to test the hypothesis that earthworm casts produced during oilseed rape-growing season have positive effects on grain yield and fertilizer nitrogen (N) utilization in the subsequent flooded rice crop. A 15N-tracing pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of earthworm casts collected from oilseed rape fields on yield attributes in rice and the fate of fertilizer N. Soil treated with earthworm casts (soil: earthworm casts = 4: 1, w/w) (EC1) produced 39% higher grain yield than soil only (EC0). EC1 had 18% more panicle number and 10% higher spikelet filling percentage than EC0. Aboveground biomass and harvest index were higher in EC1 than in EC0 by 20% and 15%, respectively. SPAD values in flag leaves were 10% and 22% higher under EC1 than EC0 at 15 and 20 days after heading, respectively. EC1 had 19% higher total N uptake and 18% higher physiological N-use efficiency than EC0. These positive effects of earthworm casts on yield attributes offset negative effects of decreasing N rate from 0.74 g pot-1 (equivalent to the recommended field rate of 150 kg ha-1) to 0.44 g pot-1 (equivalent to 60% of the recommended rate). Fertilizer N retention rate was 7% higher while fertilizer N loss rate was 6% lower in EC1 than in EC0. Our study suggests that earthworm casts produced during oilseed rape-growing season are expected to have the following benefits on the subsequent flooded rice system: (1) improving growth and physiological processes in rice plants and consequently increasing rice grain yield, and (2) increasing fertilizer N retention rate and hence decreasing fertilizer N loss rate and reducing environmental risk.

  6. Genome-Wide Analysis and Expression Profiling of the SUC and SWEET Gene Families of Sucrose Transporters in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Hongju; Lu, Kun; Yang, Bo; Wang, Tengyue; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Aoxiang; Wang, Jia; Liu, Liezhao; Qu, Cunmin; Li, Jiana

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose is the principal transported product of photosynthesis from source leaves to sink organs. SUTs/SUCs (sucrose transporters or sucrose carriers) and SWEETs (Sugars Will Eventually be Exported Transporters) play significant central roles in phloem loading and unloading. SUTs/SUCs and SWEETs are key players in sucrose translocation and are associated with crop yields. The SUT/SUC and SWEET genes have been characterized in several plant species, but a comprehensive analysis of these two gene families in oilseed rape has not yet been reported. In our study, 22 and 68 members of the SUT/SUCs and SWEET gene families, respectively, were identified in the oilseed rape (Brassica napus) genome through homology searches. An analysis of the chromosomal distribution, phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, motifs and the cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoters of BnSUC and BnSWEET genes were analyzed. Furthermore, we examined the expression of the 18 BnSUC and 16 BnSWEET genes in different tissues of “ZS11” and the expression of 9 BnSUC and 7 BnSWEET genes in “ZS11” under various conditions, including biotic stress (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum), abiotic stresses (drought, salt and heat), and hormone treatments (abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinin, brassinolide, gibberellin, and salicylic acid). In conclusion, our study provides the first comprehensive analysis of the oilseed rape SUC and SWEET gene families. Information regarding the phylogenetic relationships, gene structure and expression profiles of the SUC and SWEET genes in the different tissues of oilseed rape helps to identify candidates with potential roles in specific developmental processes. Our study advances our understanding of the important roles of sucrose transport in oilseed rape. PMID:27733861

  7. Application of Visible and Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging to Determine Soluble Protein Content in Oilseed Rape Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chu; Liu, Fei; Kong, Wenwen; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Visible and near-infrared hyperspectral imaging covering spectral range of 380–1030 nm as a rapid and non-destructive method was applied to estimate the soluble protein content of oilseed rape leaves. Average spectrum (500–900 nm) of the region of interest (ROI) of each sample was extracted, and four samples out of 128 samples were defined as outliers by Monte Carlo-partial least squares (MCPLS). Partial least squares (PLS) model using full spectra obtained dependable performance with the correlation coefficient (rp) of 0.9441, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.1658 mg/g and residual prediction deviation (RPD) of 2.98. The weighted regression coefficient (Bw), successive projections algorithm (SPA) and genetic algorithm-partial least squares (GAPLS) selected 18, 15, and 16 sensitive wavelengths, respectively. SPA-PLS model obtained the best performance with rp of 0.9554, RMSEP of 0.1538 mg/g and RPD of 3.25. Distribution of protein content within the rape leaves were visualized and mapped on the basis of the SPA-PLS model. The overall results indicated that hyperspectral imaging could be used to determine and visualize the soluble protein content of rape leaves. PMID:26184198

  8. Non-destructive determination of Malondialdehyde (MDA) distribution in oilseed rape leaves by laboratory scale NIR hyperspectral imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Wenwen; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Chu; Zhang, Jianfeng; Feng, Hailin

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of hyperspectral imaging with 400–1000 nm was investigated to detect malondialdehyde (MDA) content in oilseed rape leaves under herbicide stress. After comparing the performance of different preprocessing methods, linear and nonlinear calibration models, the optimal prediction performance was achieved by extreme learning machine (ELM) model with only 23 wavelengths selected by competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), and the result was RP = 0.929 and RMSEP = 2.951. Furthermore, MDA distribution map was successfully achieved by partial least squares (PLS) model with CARS. This study indicated that hyperspectral imaging technology provided a fast and nondestructive solution for MDA content detection in plant leaves. PMID:27739491

  9. Non-destructive determination of Malondialdehyde (MDA) distribution in oilseed rape leaves by laboratory scale NIR hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Wenwen; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Chu; Zhang, Jianfeng; Feng, Hailin

    2016-10-01

    The feasibility of hyperspectral imaging with 400–1000 nm was investigated to detect malondialdehyde (MDA) content in oilseed rape leaves under herbicide stress. After comparing the performance of different preprocessing methods, linear and nonlinear calibration models, the optimal prediction performance was achieved by extreme learning machine (ELM) model with only 23 wavelengths selected by competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), and the result was RP = 0.929 and RMSEP = 2.951. Furthermore, MDA distribution map was successfully achieved by partial least squares (PLS) model with CARS. This study indicated that hyperspectral imaging technology provided a fast and nondestructive solution for MDA content detection in plant leaves.

  10. Dispersal and persistence of genetically modified oilseed rape around Japanese harbors.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Masaharu; Murakami, Kikuko; Ishikawa, Toyohisa

    2009-03-01

    The possibility of gene transfer from genetically modified oilseed rape (OSR) to its cultivated or wild relatives is of concern since its commercial cultivation, because of its potential weediness and impact on the environment. Introgression of modified genes can affect conservation of agricultural crops, because there are many cultivars and wild Brassicaceae that may cross with genetically modified OSR (Brassica napus) in Japan. Japan imports more than 2 million tons of OSR a year from Canada and other countries. Since volunteers of GM OSR were found around harbors in 2004, a lot of feral GM OSR was discovered in Japan. To consider the way how to keep domestic Brassicaceae from GM contamination, we surveyed and analyzed the dispersal and persistence of GM OSR around Japanese harbors. We present the cause and abundance of GM OSR in Japan by this paper. Survey of the feral OSR was performed several times a year at different seasons when domestic OSR either grows or does not around port areas. Detection of herbicide tolerance in feral B. napus was done by test papers that cross react with the modified gene product. Two kinds of herbicide tolerance (glyphosate and glufosinate) were tested. The feral B. napus were discovered around all 13 harbors that import rapeseeds from foreign countries. Genetically modified, herbicide-tolerant OSR were frequently found in the surveyed populations. Two kinds of herbicide-tolerant OSR (glyphosate- and glufosinate-tolerant) were discovered in a natural condition 40 km from port to an oil factory where 60,000 tons of OSR seed are processed a year. The cause of voluntary growth of OSR is seed spillage during transportation by trucks from harbors to oil factories and other processing facilities. Some of the feral OSR growing along the roadsides of transport paths exhibited perennial growth spilling their seeds around the places. Alteration of the generation of feral GM OSR was discovered for the first time in Japan as a result of this

  11. A crop loss-related forecasting model for sclerotinia stem rot in winter oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Koch, S; Dunker, S; Kleinhenz, B; Röhrig, M; Tiedemann, A von

    2007-09-01

    Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) is an increasing threat to winter oilseed rape (OSR) in Germany and other European countries due to the growing area of OSR cultivation. A forecasting model was developed to provide decision support for the fungicide spray against SSR at flowering. Four weather variables-air temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and sunshine duration-were used to calculate the microclimate in the plant canopy. From data reinvestigated in a climate chamber study, 7 to 11 degrees C and 80 to 86% relative humidity (RH) were established as minimum conditions for stem infection with ascospores and expressed as an index to discriminate infection hours (Inh). Disease incidence (DI) significantly correlated with Inh occurring post-growth stage (GS) 58 (late bud stage) (r(2) = 0.42, P /= Inh(i). Historical field data (1994 to 2004) were used to assess the impact of agronomic factors on SSR incidence. A 2-year crop rotation enhanced disease risk and, therefore, lowered the infection threshold in the model by a factor of 0.8, whereas in 4-year rotations, the threshold was elevated by a factor 1.3. Number of plants per square meter, nitrogen fertilization, and soil management did not

  12. Hydroponics versus field lysimeter studies of urea, ammonium and nitrate uptake by oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Arkoun, Mustapha; Sarda, Xavier; Jannin, Laëtitia; Laîné, Philippe; Etienne, Philippe; Garcia-Mina, José-Maria; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Ourry, Alain

    2012-09-01

    N-fertilizer use efficiencies are affected by their chemical composition and suffer from potential N-losses by volatilization. In a field lysimeter experiment, (15)N-labelled fertilizers were used to follow N uptake by Brassica napus L. and assess N-losses by volatilization. Use of urea with NBPT (urease inhibitor) showed the best efficiency with the lowest N losses (8% of N applied compared with 25% with urea alone). Plants receiving ammonium sulphate, had similar yield achieved through a better N mobilization from vegetative tissues to the seeds, despite a lower N uptake resulting from a higher volatilization (43% of applied N). Amounts of (15)N in the plant were also higher when plants were fertilized with ammonium nitrate but N-losses reached 23% of applied N. In parallel, hydroponic experiments showed a deleterious effect of ammonium and urea on the growth of oilseed rape. This was alleviated by the nitrate supply, which was preferentially taken up. B. napus was also characterized by a very low potential for urea uptake. BnDUR3 and BnAMT1, encoding urea and ammonium transporters, were up-regulated by urea, suggesting that urea-grown plants suffered from nitrogen deficiency. The results also suggested a role for nitrate as a signal for the expression of BnDUR3, in addition to its role as a major nutrient. Overall, the results of the hydroponic study showed that urea itself does not contribute significantly to the N nutrition of oilseed rape. Moreover, it may contribute indirectly since a better use efficiency for urea fertilizer, which was further increased by the application of a urease inhibitor, was observed in the lysimeter study.

  13. Detecting the Hormonal Pathways in Oilseed Rape behind Induced Systemic Resistance by Trichoderma harzianum TH12 to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Alkooranee, Jawadayn Talib; Aledan, Tamarah Raad; Ali, Ali Kadhim; Lu, Guangyuan; Zhang, Xuekun; Wu, Jiangsheng; Fu, Chunhua; Li, Maoteng

    2017-01-01

    Plants have the ability to resist pathogen attack after infection or treatment with biotic and abiotic elicitors. In oilseed rape plant Brassica napus AACC and in the artificially synthesized Raphanus alboglabra RRCC, the root-colonizing Trichoderma harzianum TH12 fungus triggers induced systemic resistance (ISR), and its culture filtrate (CF) triggers a systemic acquired resistance (SAR) response against infection by the Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET) are plant hormone signals that play important roles in the regulation of ISR and SAR. In this study, at six different time points (1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days post-infection [dpi]), six resistance genes were used as markers of signaling pathways: JA/ET signaling used AOC3, PDF1.2 and ERF2 genes, while PR-1, TGA5 and TGA6 genes were used as markers of SA signaling. The results of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) showed that AOC3, PDF1.2 and ERF2 expression levels in infected leaves of AACC and RRCC increase at 1 and 2 dpi with S. sclerotiorum or inoculation with TH12. PR-1, TGA5 and TGA6 expression levels increased at 8 and 10 dpi in infected leaves. PR-1, TGA5 and TGA6 expression levels increased early in plants treated with CF in both of the healthy genotypes. Furthermore, induction of SA- and JA/ET-dependent defense decreased disease symptoms in infected leaves at different times. The results suggest that the RRCC genotype exhibits resistance to disease and that the ability of TH12 and its CF to induce systemic resistance in susceptible and resistant oilseed rape genotypes exists. In addition, the results indicate for the first time that in RRCC the SA signaling pathway is involved in resistance to necrotrophic pathogens.

  14. Do initial S reserves and mineral S availability alter leaf S-N mobilization and leaf senescence in oilseed rape?

    PubMed

    Abdallah, M; Etienne, P; Ourry, A; Meuriot, F

    2011-03-01

    Winter oilseed rape is sensitive to S limitation, however few studies have clearly assessed the impact of initial S reserves on the remobilization of leaf N-S compounds and senescence dynamics within the leaves in S limited plants. As a consequence, the impacts of high or low initial S reserves on these parameters, further cross-combined with either high or low S availabilities, were examined using a ¹⁵N and ³⁴S double-labelling method associated with a study of gene expression of relevant tonoplastic sulphate transporters (BnSultr4;1 and BnSultr4;2) and a molecular indicator of leaf senescence (BnSAG12/BnCab). Plants with high initial S status and S limitation showed an optimal growth comparable to control plants. Moreover, in response to S limitation, leaf soluble protein content, total S, recently assimilated S (i.e., ³⁴S) and the sulphate content in the oldest leaves declined, and the expression of genes encoding tonoplastic sulphate transporters were up-regulated. However, compared to control plants, S limitation delayed leaf senescence. These data suggested that in response to S limitation, plants with high initial S were able to sustain optimized leaf growth by increasing endogenous N and S remobilization independently of the leaf senescence process. In contrast, if these low S plants had no initial S reserves, leaf N-S remobilization was not sufficient to allow optimal growth. As a conclusion, our study supports a model where oilseed rape is able to compensate transiently for S limitation through a fine management of leaf N-S remobilization and a delayed leaf senescence dynamics.

  15. Effects of tungsten on uptake, transport and subcellular distribution of molybdenum in oilseed rape at two different molybdenum levels.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shiyu; Sun, Xuecheng; Hu, Chengxiao; Tan, Qiling; Zhao, Xiaohu; Xu, Shoujun

    2017-03-01

    Due to the similarities of molybdenum (Mo) with tungsten (W) in the physical structure and chemical properties, studies involving the two elements have mainly examined their competitive relationships. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of equimolar W on Mo accumulation, transport and subcellular distribution in oilseed rape at two Mo levels with four treatments: Mo1 (1μmol/L Mo, Low Mo), Mo1+W1 (1μmol/L Mo+1μmol/LW, Low Mo with Low W), Mo200 (200μmol/L Mo, High Mo) and Mo200+W200 (200μmol/L Mo+200μmol/L Mo, High Mo with high W). The fresh weight and root growth were inhibited by equimolar W at both low and high Mo levels. The Mo concentration and accumulation in root was increased by equimolar W at the low Mo level, but that in the root and shoot was decreased at the high Mo level. Additionally, equimolar W increased the Mo concentrations of xylem and phloem sap at low Mo level, but decreased that of xylem and increased that of phloem sap at the high Mo level. Furthermore, equimolar W decreased the expression of BnMOT1 in roots and leaves at the low Mo level, and only decreased its expression in leaves at the high Mo level. The expression of BnMOT2 was also decreased in root for equimolar W compared with the low Mo level, but increased compared with high Mo level. Moreover, equimolar W increased the proportion of Mo in cell wall fraction in root and that of soluble fraction in leaves when compared with the low Mo level. The results suggest that cell wall and soluble fractions might be responsible for the adaptation of oilseed rape to W stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of oilseed rape expressing the insecticidal cysteine protease inhibitor oryzacystatin on the beneficial predator Harmonia axyridis (multicoloured Asian ladybeetle).

    PubMed

    Ferry, N; Raemaekers, R J M; Majerus, M E N; Jouanin, L; Port, G; Gatehouse, J A; Gatehouse, A M R

    2003-02-01

    Insect-resistant transgenic plants have been suggested to have deleterious effects on beneficial predators through transmission of the transgene product by the pest to the predator. To test this hypothesis, effects of oilseed rape expressing the cysteine protease inhibitor oryzacystatin-1 (OC-1) on the predatory ladybird Harmonia axyridis were investigated using diamondback moth Plutella xylostella as the pest species. As expected, oilseed rape expressing OC-1 had no effects on either development or survival of the pest, which utilizes serine digestive proteases. Immunoassays confirmed accumulation of the transgene product in pest larval tissues at levels of up to 3 ng per gut. Characterization of proteolytic digestive enzymes of H. axyridis demonstrated that larvae and adults utilize cysteine and aspartic proteases; the former activity was completely inhibited by oryzacystatin in vitro. However, when H. axyridis larvae consumed prey reared on OC-1 expressing plants over their entire life cycle, no significant effects upon survival or overall development were observed. The inhibitor initially stimulated development, with a shortening of the developmental period of the second instar by 27% (P < 0.0001) accompanied by a 36% increase in weight of second instar larvae (P = 0.007). OC-1 had no detrimental effects on reproductive fitness of adult H. axyridis. Interestingly there was a significant increase in consumption of OC-1 dosed prey. The results show that prey reared on transgenic plants expressing a protein which inhibited ladybird digestive enzymes in vitro had no effects in vivo; the ladybird was able to up-regulate digestive proteases in response to the inhibitor.

  17. Detecting the Hormonal Pathways in Oilseed Rape behind Induced Systemic Resistance by Trichoderma harzianum TH12 to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    PubMed Central

    Alkooranee, Jawadayn Talib; Aledan, Tamarah Raad; Ali, Ali Kadhim; Lu, Guangyuan; Zhang, Xuekun; Wu, Jiangsheng; Fu, Chunhua

    2017-01-01

    Plants have the ability to resist pathogen attack after infection or treatment with biotic and abiotic elicitors. In oilseed rape plant Brassica napus AACC and in the artificially synthesized Raphanus alboglabra RRCC, the root-colonizing Trichoderma harzianum TH12 fungus triggers induced systemic resistance (ISR), and its culture filtrate (CF) triggers a systemic acquired resistance (SAR) response against infection by the Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET) are plant hormone signals that play important roles in the regulation of ISR and SAR. In this study, at six different time points (1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days post-infection [dpi]), six resistance genes were used as markers of signaling pathways: JA/ET signaling used AOC3, PDF1.2 and ERF2 genes, while PR-1, TGA5 and TGA6 genes were used as markers of SA signaling. The results of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) showed that AOC3, PDF1.2 and ERF2 expression levels in infected leaves of AACC and RRCC increase at 1 and 2 dpi with S. sclerotiorum or inoculation with TH12. PR-1, TGA5 and TGA6 expression levels increased at 8 and 10 dpi in infected leaves. PR-1, TGA5 and TGA6 expression levels increased early in plants treated with CF in both of the healthy genotypes. Furthermore, induction of SA- and JA/ET-dependent defense decreased disease symptoms in infected leaves at different times. The results suggest that the RRCC genotype exhibits resistance to disease and that the ability of TH12 and its CF to induce systemic resistance in susceptible and resistant oilseed rape genotypes exists. In addition, the results indicate for the first time that in RRCC the SA signaling pathway is involved in resistance to necrotrophic pathogens. PMID:28045929

  18. [Effects of simulated acid rain on oilseed rape (Brassica napus) physiological characteristics at flowering stage and yield].

    PubMed

    Cao, Chun-Xin; Zhou, Qin; Han, Liang-Liang; Zhang, Pei; Jiang, Hai-Dong

    2010-08-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of different acidity simulated acid rain on the physiological characteristics at flowering stage and yield of oilseed rape (B. napus cv. Qinyou 9). Comparing with the control (pH 6.0), weak acidity (pH = 4.0-5.0) simulated acid rain stimulated the rape growth to some extent, but had less effects on the plant biomass, leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic characteristics, and yield. With the further increase of acid rain acidity, the plant biomass, leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, antioxidative enzyme activities, and non-enzyme antioxidant contents all decreased gradually, while the leaf malonyldialdehyde (MDA) content and relative conductivity increased significantly. As the results, the pod number per plant, seed number per pod, seed weight, and actual yield decreased. However, different yield components showed different sensitivity to simulated acid rain. With the increasing acidity of simulated acid rain, the pod number per plant and the seed number per pod decreased significantly, while the seed weight was less affected.

  19. Large-scale monitoring of effects of clothianidin dressed oilseed rape seeds on pollinating insects in Northern Germany: implementation of the monitoring project and its representativeness.

    PubMed

    Heimbach, Fred; Russ, Anja; Schimmer, Maren; Born, Katrin

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring studies at the landscape level are complex, expensive and difficult to conduct. Many aspects have to be considered to avoid confounding effects which is probably the reason why they are not regularly performed in the context of risk assessments of plant protection products to pollinating insects. However, if conducted appropriately their contribution is most valuable. In this paper we identify the requirements of a large-scale monitoring study for the assessment of side-effects of clothianidin seed-treated winter oilseed rape on three species of pollinating insects (Apis mellifera, Bombus terrestris and Osmia bicornis) and present how these requirements were implemented. Two circular study sites were delineated next to each other in northeast Germany and comprised almost 65 km(2) each. At the reference site, study fields were drilled with clothianidin-free OSR seeds while at the test site the oilseed rape seeds contained a coating with 10 g clothianidin and 2 g beta-cyfluthrin per kg seeds (Elado®). The comparison of environmental conditions at the study sites indicated that they are as similar as possible in terms of climate, soil, land use, history and current practice of agriculture as well as in availability of oilseed rape and non-crop bee forage. Accordingly, local environmental conditions were considered not to have had any confounding effect on the results of the monitoring of the bee species. Furthermore, the study area was found to be representative for other oilseed rape cultivation regions in Europe.

  20. Functional characterization of NAC55 transcription factor from oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) as a novel transcriptional activator modulating reactive oxygen species accumulation and cell death.

    PubMed

    Niu, Fangfang; Wang, Chen; Yan, Jingli; Guo, Xiaohua; Wu, Feifei; Yang, Bo; Deyholos, Michael K; Jiang, Yuan-Qing

    2016-09-01

    NAC transcription factors (TFs) are plant-specific and play important roles in development, responses to biotic and abiotic cues and hormone signaling. So far, only a few NAC genes have been reported to regulate cell death. In this study, we identified and characterized a NAC55 gene isolated from oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). BnaNAC55 responds to multiple stresses, including cold, heat, abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA) and a necrotrophic fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. BnaNAC55 has transactivation activity and is located in the nucleus. BnaNAC55 is able to form homodimers in planta. Unlike ANAC055, full-length BnaNAC55, but not either the N-terminal NAC domain or C-terminal regulatory domain, induces ROS accumulation and hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death when expressed both in oilseed rape protoplasts and Nicotiana benthamiana. Furthermore, BnaNAC55 expression causes obvious nuclear DNA fragmentation. Moreover, quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis identified that the expression levels of multiple genes regulating ROS production and scavenging, defense response as well as senescence are significantly induced. Using a dual luciferase reporter assay, we further confirm that BnaNAC55 could activate the expression of a few ROS and defense-related gene expression. Taken together, our work has identified a novel NAC TF from oilseed rape that modulates ROS accumulation and cell death.

  1. Does insecticide application in a winter oilseed rape field influence the abundance of pollen beetle Meligethes aeneus in nearby ornamental flowers and vegetables?

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nur; Englund, Jan-Eric; Johansson, Eva; Åhman, Inger

    2013-11-01

    Pollen beetle is a pest that attacks oilseed rape as well as many other brassicaceous crops, garden vegetables and ornamental flowers. The present study was primarily carried out to investigate whether insecticide application in brassicaceous field crops might influence the abundance of pollen beetles in nearby private garden flowers and vegetables. At peak emergence of the new generation of pollen beetles, a significantly higher number of beetles were found in flowers, and in window traps, alongside untreated as opposed to alongside treated sections of the winter oilseed rape (WOSR) field. However, the type of flower played a role in the number of pollen beetles found in the flowers. The presence of pollen beetles in both ornamental and wild flowers was also significantly influenced by the direction of placement of the flowers. No pollen beetle, neither overwintering nor newly emerged, was observed in any of the brassicaceous vegetables placed along the field. The number of pollen beetles in the WOSR field strongly influenced the number of pollen beetles in nearby flowers of preference to the beetles, and insecticide treatment with Biscaya (thiacloprid) against pollen beetle in oilseed rape may thus help, indirectly, to protect nearby garden flowers from damage. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Senescence-specific alteration of hydrogen peroxide levels in Arabidopsis thaliana and oilseed rape spring variety Brassica napus L. cv. Mozart.

    PubMed

    Bieker, Stefan; Riester, Lena; Stahl, Mark; Franzaring, Jürgen; Zentgraf, Ulrike

    2012-08-01

    In order to analyze the signaling function of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production in senescence in more detail, we manipulated intracellular H(2)O(2) levels in Arabidopsis thaliala (L.) Heynh by using the hydrogen-peroxide-sensitive part of the Escherichia coli transcription regulator OxyR, which was directed to the cytoplasm as well as into the peroxisomes. H(2)O(2) levels were lowered and senescence was delayed in both transgenic lines, but OxyR was found to be more effective in the cytoplasm. To transfer this knowledge to crop plants, we analyzed oilseed rape plants Brassica napus L. cv. Mozart for H(2)O(2) and its scavenging enzymes catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) during leaf and plant development. H(2)O(2) levels were found to increase during bolting and flowering time, but no increase could be observed in the very late stages of senescence. With increasing H(2)O(2) levels, CAT and APX activities declined, so it is likely that similar mechanisms are used in oilseed rape and Arabidopsis to control H(2)O(2) levels. Under elevated CO(2) conditions, oilseed rape senescence was accelerated and coincided with an earlier increase in H(2)O(2) levels, indicating that H(2)O(2) may be one of the signals to inducing senescence in a broader range of Brassicaceae. © 2012 Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  3. Prevalence of sensitisation to oilseed rape and maize pollens in France: a multi-center study carried out by the Allergo-Vigilance Network.

    PubMed

    Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Peltre, G; Gayraud, J; Morisset, M; Renaudin, J M; Martin, A

    2012-12-01

    Oilseed rape and maize crops represent a large part of agriculture fields in European countries. To establish the actual prevalence of sensitization to oilseed rape and maize pollen, and to determine if this is correlated to the amount of exposure as well as to the patient's history of atopy or asymptomatic atopy. The study was conducted by 69 allergists belonging to the Allergo-Vigilance Network, in collaboration with the French Agency for Safety of food, and compiles the results of skin prick-tests using oilseed rape and maize pollens and seeds, as well as common aeroallergens. The patients were classified into 3 groups: nonatopic, asymptomatic atopy, and actual atopic diseases. Among the 5372 subjects studied (2515 children, 2857 adults), 62.3% had an atopic disease, 10.2% had an asymptomatic atopy, and 27.5% were non-atopic. The level of sensitization was higher in the subjects with atopic disease, as compared to those with asymptomatic atopy: oilseed rape pollen: 11.8% vs 8%, maize pollen, 26% vs 19%, oilseed rape seeds, 7.7% vs 6.9%, corn seeds: 8.3% vs 4.8% (p < 0.001). The rate of sensitization was significantly increased in those living in high crop density regions. The association of an atopic disease with a high rate of exposure yielded a higher rate of sensitization of 13.8% and 21.3% for rapeseed pollen, and 22.9% and 30.7% for maize pollen in both children and adults, respectively. The incidence of sensitisation to rapeseed and maize pollen is positively correlated to the level of exposure. This prevalence is higher in patients with actual atopic disease as compared to those with asymptomatic atopy. The frequency of sensitization confirms the allergenicity of these plants destined for food supply and demonstrates the importance of monitoring for respiratory allergies to these pollens, not only in workers exposed to these types of crops, but also in atopic patients living in regions that contain a high density of rapeseed and maize fields. Cross

  4. Mapping of QTL for the seed storage proteins cruciferin and napin in a winter oilseed rape doubled haploid population and their inheritance in relation to other seed traits.

    PubMed

    Schatzki, Jörg; Ecke, Wolfgang; Becker, Heiko C; Möllers, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Cruciferin (cru) and napin (nap) were negatively correlated and the cru/nap ratio was closely negative correlated with glucosinolate content indicating a link between the two biosynthetic pathways. Canola-type oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is an economically important oilseed crop in temperate zones. Apart from the oil, the canola protein shows potential as a value-added food and nutraceutical ingredient. The two major storage protein groups occurring in oilseed rape are the 2 S napins and 12 S cruciferins. The aim of the present study was to analyse the genetic variation and the inheritance of napin and cruciferin content of the seed protein in the winter oilseed rape doubled haploid population Express 617 × R53 and to determine correlations to other seed traits. Seed samples were obtained from field experiments performed in 2 years at two locations with two replicates in Germany. A previously developed molecular marker map of the DH population was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) of the relevant traits. The results indicated highly significant effects of the year and the genotype on napin and cruciferin content as well as on the ratio of cruciferin to napin. Heritabilities were comparatively high with 0.79 for napin and 0.77 for cruciferin. Napin and cruciferin showed a significant negative correlation (-0.36**) and a close negative correlation of the cru/nap ratio to glucosinolate content was observed (-0.81**). Three QTL for napin and two QTL for cruciferin were detected, together explaining 47 and 35 % of the phenotypic variance. A major QTL for glucosinolate content was detected on linkage group N19 whose confidence interval overlapped with QTL for napin and cruciferin content. Results indicate a relationship between seed protein composition and glucosinolate content.

  5. Nitrogen oxides and ozone fluxes from an oilseed-rape management cycle: the influence of cattle slurry application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuolo, Raffaella M.; Loubet, Benjamin; Mascher, Nicolas; Gueudet, Jean-Christophe; Durand, Brigitte; Laville, Patricia; Zurfluh, Olivier; Ciuraru, Raluca; Stella, Patrick; Trebs, Ivonne

    2017-05-01

    This study reports NO, NO2 and O3 mixing ratios and flux measurements using the eddy covariance method during a 7-month period over an oilseed-rape field, spanning an organic and a mineral fertilisation event. Cumulated NO emissions during the whole period were in agreement with previous studies and showed quite low emissions of 0.26 kg N ha-1 with an emission factor of 0.27 %, estimated as the ratio between total N emitted in the form of NO and total N input. The NO emissions were higher following organic fertilisation in August due to conditions favouring nitrification (soil water content around 20 % and high temperatures), while mineral fertilisation in February did not result in high emissions. The ozone deposition velocity increased significantly after organic fertilisation. The analysis of the chemical and turbulent transport times showed that reactions between NO, NO2 and O3 below the measurement height occurred constantly throughout the 7-month period. Following organic fertilisation, the NO ground fluxes were 30 % larger than the NO fluxes at the measurement height (3.2 m), while the NO2 fluxes switched from deposition to emission during certain periods, being negative at the surface and positive at the measurement height. This phenomenon of apparent NO2 emissions appears to be significant during strong NO emissions and high O3 ambient mixing ratios, even on a bare soil during August.

  6. Modelling and estimating pollen movement in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) at the landscape scale using genetic markers.

    PubMed

    Devaux, C; Lavigne, C; Austerlitz, F; Klein, E K

    2007-02-01

    Understanding patterns of pollen movement at the landscape scale is important for establishing management rules following the release of genetically modified (GM) crops. We use here a mating model adapted to cultivated species to estimate dispersal kernels from the genotypes of the progenies of male-sterile plants positioned at different sampling sites within a 10 x 10-km oilseed rape production area. Half of the pollen clouds sampled by the male-sterile plants originated from uncharacterized pollen sources that could consist of both large volunteer and feral populations, and fields within and outside the study area. The geometric dispersal kernel was the most appropriate to predict pollen movement in the study area. It predicted a much larger proportion of long-distance pollination than previously fitted dispersal kernels. This best-fitting mating model underestimated the level of differentiation among pollen clouds but could predict its spatial structure. The estimation method was validated on simulated genotypic data, and proved to provide good estimates of both the shape of the dispersal kernel and the rate and composition of pollen issued from uncharacterized pollen sources. The best dispersal kernel fitted here, the geometric kernel, should now be integrated into models that aim at predicting gene flow at the landscape level, in particular between GM and non-GM crops.

  7. Intergeneric hybrids between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceus containing traits of agronomic importance for oilseed rape breeding.

    PubMed

    Hu, Q.; Hansen, N.; Laursen, J.; Dixelius, C.; Andersen, B.

    2002-11-01

    Protoplast fusions between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceus for transfer of valuable traits to oilseed rape resulted in 257 somatic hybrid plants. Hybridity was confirmed by morphological, cytological and molecular means. Symmetric fusions gave rise to 131 plants. Fifty eight of these plants had an intermediate morphology and contained nuclear DNA corresponding to the sum of the parental species. All 131 plants were sterile with no pollen grains observed upon flowering. Another 126 plants were derived from asymmetric fusions in which protoplasts of the donor parent O. violaceus were irradiated by 100 or 200-Gy X-rays prior to fusion. Morphologically these plants showed a larger variation compared to the plants regenerated from symmetric fusion experiments. In contrast to plants obtained from symmetric fusions, fertile hybrids were recovered among regenerants from the asymmetric fusions. Twenty four of these plants released viable pollen grains and 14 of the determined 17 plants set seeds after either selfing or backcrossing to B. napus. Fourteen male-sterile plants were identified with female fertility. This observed male sterility most-likely originated from alloplasmic recombination and would be of great potential for the development of a new cytoplasmic male sterility system. The fatty acid composition of the fertile hybrids and their progenies showed a biased distribution towards the B. napus parent, which has a high erucic acid-content type. However, increased levels of palmitic and linoleic acids compared to B. napus were found in subsequent generations, as well as a reduced level of erucic acid.

  8. Hyperspectral and Thermal Imaging of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus) Response to Fungal Species of the Genus Alternaria

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Piotr; Jedryczka, Malgorzata; Mazurek, Wojciech; Babula-Skowronska, Danuta; Siedliska, Anna; Kaczmarek, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, thermal (8-13 µm) and hyperspectral imaging in visible and near infrared (VNIR) and short wavelength infrared (SWIR) ranges were used to elaborate a method of early detection of biotic stresses caused by fungal species belonging to the genus Alternaria that were host (Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicae, and Alternaria brassicicola) and non-host (Alternaria dauci) pathogens to oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). The measurements of disease severity for chosen dates after inoculation were compared to temperature distributions on infected leaves and to averaged reflectance characteristics. Statistical analysis revealed that leaf temperature distributions on particular days after inoculation and respective spectral characteristics, especially in the SWIR range (1000-2500 nm), significantly differed for the leaves inoculated with A. dauci from the other species of Alternaria as well as from leaves of non-treated plants. The significant differences in leaf temperature of the studied Alternaria species were observed in various stages of infection development. The classification experiments were performed on the hyperspectral data of the leaf surfaces to distinguish days after inoculation and Alternaria species. The second-derivative transformation of the spectral data together with back-propagation neural networks (BNNs) appeared to be the best combination for classification of days after inoculation (prediction accuracy 90.5%) and Alternaria species (prediction accuracy 80.5%). PMID:25826369

  9. Divergent patterns of allelic diversity from similar origins: the case of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in China and Australia.

    PubMed

    Chen, S; Nelson, M N; Ghamkhar, K; Fu, T; Cowling, W A

    2008-01-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in Australia and China have similar origins, with introductions from Europe, Canada, and Japan in the mid 20th century, and there has been some interchange of germplasm between China and Australia since that time. Allelic diversity of 72 B. napus genotypes representing contemporary germplasm in Australia and China, including samples from India, Europe, and Canada, was characterized by 55 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers spanning the entire B. napus genome. Hierarchical clustering and two-dimensional multidimensional scaling identified a Chinese group (China-1) that was separated from "mixed group" of Australian, Chinese (China-2), European, and Canadian lines. A small group from India was distinctly separated from all other B. napus genotypes. Chinese genotypes, especially in the China-1 group, have inherited unique alleles from interspecific crossing, primarily with B. rapa, and the China-2 group has many alleles in common with Australian genotypes. The concept of "private alleles" is introduced to describe both the greater genetic diversity and the genetic distinctiveness of Chinese germplasm, compared with Australian germplasm, after 50 years of breeding from similar origins.

  10. The potential of decision support systems to improve risk assessment for pollen beetle management in winter oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Andrew W; Skellern, Matthew P; Johnen, Andreas; von Richthofen, Julia-Sophie; Watts, Nigel P; Bardsley, Eileen; Murray, Darren A; Cook, Samantha M

    2016-03-01

    The reliance on and extensive use of pyrethroid insecticides have led to pyrethroid resistance in pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus). Widespread adoption of best practice in pollen beetle management is therefore needed. Decision support systems (DSSs) that identify the risk period(s) for pest migration can help to target monitoring and control efforts, but they must be accurate and labour efficient to gain the support of growers. Weather data and the phenology of pollen beetles in 44 winter oilseed rape crops across England over 4 years were used to compare the performance of two risk management tools: the DSS proPlant expert, which predicts migration risk according to a phenological model and local weather data, and 'rule-based advice', which depends on crop growth stage and a temperature threshold. Both risk management tools were effective in prompting monitoring that would detect breaches of various control thresholds. However, the DSS more accurately predicted migration start and advised significantly fewer days of migration risk, consultation days and monitoring than did rule-based advice. The proPlant expert DSS reliably models pollen beetle phenology. Use of such a DSS can focus monitoring effort to when it is most needed, facilitate the practical use of thresholds and help to prevent unnecessary insecticide applications and the development of insecticide resistance. © 2015 Rothamsted Research Ltd. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. The Effects of Seed Size on Hybrids Formed between Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus) and Wild Brown Mustard (B. juncea)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-bo; Tang, Zhi-xi; Darmency, Henri; Stewart, C. Neal; Di, Kun; Wei, Wei; Ma, Ke-ping

    2012-01-01

    Background Seed size has significant implications in ecology, because of its effects on plant fitness. The hybrid seeds that result from crosses between crops and their wild relatives are often small, and the consequences of this have been poorly investigated. Here we report on plant performance of hybrid and its parental transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and wild B. juncea, all grown from seeds sorted into three seed-size categories. Methodology/Principal Findings Three seed-size categories were sorted by seed diameter for transgenic B. napus, wild B. juncea and their transgenic and non-transgenic hybrids. The seeds were sown in a field at various plant densities. Globally, small-seeded plants had delayed flowering, lower biomass, fewer flowers and seeds, and a lower thousand-seed weight. The seed-size effect varied among plant types but was not affected by plant density. There was no negative effect of seed size in hybrids, but it was correlated with reduced growth for both parents. Conclusions Our results imply that the risk of further gene flow would probably not be mitigated by the small size of transgenic hybrid seeds. No fitness cost was detected to be associated with the Bt-transgene in this study. PMID:22745814

  12. Involvement of sulphur nutrition in modulating iron deficiency responses in photosynthetic organelles of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Muneer, Sowbiya; Lee, Bok-Rye; Kim, Kil-Yong; Park, Sang-Hyun; Zhang, Qian; Kim, Tae-Hwan

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the roles of sulphur (S) nutrition in modulating the responses to iron (Fe) deficiency in the photosynthetic organelles of oilseed rape. Eight-week-old plants grown hydroponically were fed with S-sufficient or S-deprived solution with or without Fe(III)-EDTA. Responses to four S and Fe combined treatments were analysed after 5 and 10 days. Leaf chlorosis was generated by either S- or Fe-deprivation, with a decrease in chlorophyll and carotenoid content. These negative effects were more severe in the absence of S. The expression of Fe²⁺ transporter (IRT1) and Fe(III) chelate reductase (FRO1) gene was induced for the first 5 days and decreased after 10 days in the S-deprived roots, but largely improved by S supply even in the absence of Fe. Lack of ferric chelate reducing activity in the Fe-deprived roots in the absence of S was largely improved by S supply. The activity of photosynthesis, RuBisCO and sucrose synthase was closely related to S status in leaves. Electron microscopic observation showed that the Fe-deficiency in the absence of S greatly resulted in a severe disorganisation of thylakoid lamellae with loss of grana. However, these impacts of Fe-deficiency were largely restored in the presence of S. The present results indicate that S nutrition has significant role in ameliorating the damages in photosynthetic apparatus caused by Fe-deficiency.

  13. Effect of nitrification inhibitor DMPP on nitrogen leaching, nitrifying organisms, and enzyme activities in a rice-oilseed rape cropping system.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Liang, Xinqiang; Chen, Yingxu; Lian, Yanfeng; Tian, Guangming; Ni, Wuzhong

    2008-01-01

    DMPP (3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate) has been used to reduce nitrogen (N) loss from leaching or denitrification and to improve N supply in agricultural land. However, its impact on soil nitrifying organisms and enzyme activities involved in N cycling is largely unknown. Therefore, an on-farm experiment, for two years, has been conducted, to elucidate the effects of DMPP on mineral N (NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N) leaching, nitrifying organisms, and denitrifying enzymes in a rice-oilseed rape cropping system. Three treatments including urea alone (UA), urea + 1% DMPP (DP), and no fertilizer (CK), have been carried out. The results showed that DP enhanced the mean NH4(+)-N concentrations by 19.1%--24.3%, but reduced the mean NO3(-)-N concentrations by 44.9%--56.6% in the leachate, under a two-year rice-rape rotation, compared to the UA treatment. The population of ammonia oxidizing bacteria, the activity of nitrate reductase, and nitrite reductase in the DP treatment decreased about 24.5%--30.9%, 14.9%--43.5%, and 14.7%--31.6%, respectively, as compared to the UA treatment. However, nitrite oxidizing bacteria and hydroxylamine reductase remained almost unaffected by DMPP. It is proposed that DMPP has the potential to either reduce NO3(-)-N leaching by inhibiting ammonia oxidization or N losses from denitrification, which is in favor of the N conversations in the rice-oilseed rape cropping system.

  14. Long-Term Monitoring of Field Trial Sites with Genetically Modified Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Fifteen Years Persistence to Date but No Spatial Dispersion.

    PubMed

    Belter, Anke

    2016-01-16

    Oilseed rape is known to persist in arable fields because of its ability to develop secondary seed dormancy in certain agronomic and environmental conditions. If conditions change, rapeseeds are able to germinate up to 10 years later to build volunteers in ensuing crops. Extrapolations of experimental data acted on the assumption of persistence periods for more than 20 years after last harvest of rapeseed. Genetically-modified oilseed rape-cultivated widely in Northern America since 1996-is assumed not to differ from its conventional form in this property. Here, experimental data are reported from official monitoring activities that verify these assumptions. At two former field trial sites in Saxony-Anhalt genetically-modified herbicide-resistant oilseed rape volunteers are found up to fifteen years after harvest. Nevertheless, spatial dispersion or establishment of GM plants outside of the field sites was not observed within this period.

  15. Evaluation of the allergic/irritant potential of air pollutants: detection of proteins modified by volatile organic compounds from oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera) using electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Butcher, R D; Goodman, B A; Deighton, N; Smith, W H

    1995-10-01

    Upward trends in allergy and asthma rates have been reported in most western societies, including the UK, where around 15-20% of the population now suffer from allergy or asthma. Scientific proof of the causes of these increases relies on accurate assessment of exposure and standardized diagnostic tests, such as for specific IgE in blood serum and skin testing. For many air pollutants it has proven difficult to assess an individual's exposure outside an occupational environment and reliable test development is hampered by not knowing whether an allergic or irritant mechanism is involved. These problems are particularly evident in the controversial issue of whether airborne releases from oilseed rape can cause health effects. To develop a method for evaluating the allergic/irritant potential of air pollutants and to assess whether the volatile organic compounds emitted by oilseed rape have this potential. Proteins were exposed in vitro to volatile organic compounds emitted by oilseed rape. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry was used to detect any resultant protein modifications. Dimethyl disulphide, thiocyanic acid methyl ester and 2-methyl-propanenitrile were able to modify human proteins. In addition, two isothiocyanates which can be emitted by damaged oilseed rape also have this ability. The major products emitted by undamaged oilseed rape, terpenes, a sesquiterpene and a terpene alcohol did not have this property, but the possible role of their oxidized products is discussed. Some of the volatile organic compounds emitted by oilseed rape have the potential to be allergens/irritants. Standardized modified proteins produced by this method should prove useful for biomonitoring human exposure in molecular epidemiological studies as well as in diagnostic tests. This method should find further application in investigations into the possible health effects of other environmental pollutants.

  16. Genetic variation and inheritance of phytosterol and oil content in a doubled haploid population derived from the winter oilseed rape Sansibar × Oase cross.

    PubMed

    Teh, Lishia; Möllers, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Identification of QTL for phytosterol content, oil content, fatty acids content, protein content of defatted meal, and seed weight by multiple interval mapping in a Brassica napus DH population. Phytosterols are minor seed constituents in oilseed rape which have recently drawn wide-interest from the food and nutrition industry due to their health benefit in lowering LDL cholesterol in humans. To understand the genetic basis of phytosterol content and its relationship with other seed quality traits in oilseed rape, QTL mapping was performed in a segregating DH population derived from the cross of two winter oilseed rape varieties, Sansibar and Oase, termed SODH population. Both parental lines are of canola quality which differ in phytosterol and oil content in seed. A genetic map was constructed for SODH population based on a total of 1638 markers organized in 23 linkage groups and covering a map length of 2350 cM with a mean marker interval of 2.0 cM. The SODH population and the parental lines were cultivated at six environments in Europe and were phenotyped for phytosterol content, oil content, fatty acids content, protein content of the defatted meal, and seed weight. Multiple interval mapping identified between one and six QTL for nine phytosterol traits, between two and six QTL for four fatty acids, five QTL for oil content, four QTL for protein content of defatted meal, and three QTL for seed weight. Colocalizations of QTL for different traits were more frequently observed than individual isolated QTL. Major QTL (R (2) ≥ 25%) were all located in the A genome, and the possible candidate genes were investigated by physical localization of the QTL to the reference genome sequence of Brassica rapa.

  17. The impact of sulfate restriction on seed yield and quality of winter oilseed rape depends on the ability to remobilize sulfate from vegetative tissues to reproductive organs

    PubMed Central

    Girondé, Alexandra; Dubousset, Lucie; Trouverie, Jacques; Etienne, Philippe; Avice, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Our current knowledge about sulfur (S) management by winter oilseed rape to satisfy the S demand of developing seeds is still scarce, particularly in relation to S restriction. Our goals were to determine the physiological processes related to S use efficiency that led to maintain the seed yield and quality when S limitation occurred at the bolting or early flowering stages. To address these questions, a pulse-chase 34SO2−4 labeling method was carried out in order to study the S fluxes from uptake and remobilization at the whole plant level. In response of S limitation at the bolting or early flowering stages, the leaves are the most important source organ for S remobilization during reproductive stages. By combining 34S-tracer with biochemical fractionation in order to separate sulfate from other S-compounds, it appeared that sulfate was the main form of S remobilized in leaves at reproductive stages and that tonoplastic SULTR4-type transporters were specifically involved in the sulfate remobilisation in case of low S availability. In response to S limitation at the bolting stage, the seed yield and quality were dramatically reduced compared to control plants. These data suggest that the increase of both S remobilization from source leaves and the root proliferation in order to maximize sulfate uptake capacities, were not sufficient to maintain the seed yield and quality. When S limitation occurred at the early flowering stage, oilseed rape can optimize the mobilization of sulfate reserves from vegetative organs (leaves and stem) to satisfy the demand of seeds and maintain the seed yield and quality. Our study also revealed that the stem may act as a transient storage organ for remobilized S coming from source leaves before its utilization by seeds. The physiological traits (S remobilization, root proliferation, transient S storage in stem) observed under S limitation could be used in breeding programs to select oilseed rape genotypes with high S use efficiency

  18. The impact of sulfate restriction on seed yield and quality of winter oilseed rape depends on the ability to remobilize sulfate from vegetative tissues to reproductive organs.

    PubMed

    Girondé, Alexandra; Dubousset, Lucie; Trouverie, Jacques; Etienne, Philippe; Avice, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Our current knowledge about sulfur (S) management by winter oilseed rape to satisfy the S demand of developing seeds is still scarce, particularly in relation to S restriction. Our goals were to determine the physiological processes related to S use efficiency that led to maintain the seed yield and quality when S limitation occurred at the bolting or early flowering stages. To address these questions, a pulse-chase (34)SO(2-) 4 labeling method was carried out in order to study the S fluxes from uptake and remobilization at the whole plant level. In response of S limitation at the bolting or early flowering stages, the leaves are the most important source organ for S remobilization during reproductive stages. By combining (34)S-tracer with biochemical fractionation in order to separate sulfate from other S-compounds, it appeared that sulfate was the main form of S remobilized in leaves at reproductive stages and that tonoplastic SULTR4-type transporters were specifically involved in the sulfate remobilisation in case of low S availability. In response to S limitation at the bolting stage, the seed yield and quality were dramatically reduced compared to control plants. These data suggest that the increase of both S remobilization from source leaves and the root proliferation in order to maximize sulfate uptake capacities, were not sufficient to maintain the seed yield and quality. When S limitation occurred at the early flowering stage, oilseed rape can optimize the mobilization of sulfate reserves from vegetative organs (leaves and stem) to satisfy the demand of seeds and maintain the seed yield and quality. Our study also revealed that the stem may act as a transient storage organ for remobilized S coming from source leaves before its utilization by seeds. The physiological traits (S remobilization, root proliferation, transient S storage in stem) observed under S limitation could be used in breeding programs to select oilseed rape genotypes with high S use

  19. Sulphur limitation provokes physiological and leaf proteome changes in oilseed rape that lead to perturbation of sulphur, carbon and oxidative metabolisms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The decline in industrial emissions of sulphur (S) has led to a sulphate depletion in soil resulting in an alteration of crop performance. In oilseed rape, an S deficiency dramatically reduced the seed yield and/or quality. Paradoxically, little is known about the impact of sulphate limitation on oilseed rape leaf metabolism, despite it being a key determinant of growth. In order to identify the metabolic processes involved in the oilseed rape response to S restriction, an analysis of the young leaf proteome combined with a physiological study was carried out at the vegetative stage. Results S limitation does not significantly reduce the total shoot biomass but inhibits growth and photosynthesis of young leaves. This photosynthesis decline is not due to a decrease in chlorophyll content, which remains similar to Control. The increase in anthocyanins and H2O2 content in young leaves of S-limited plants suggests that S restriction leads to an oxidative stress. Proteomic analysis at 35 d of S limitation also revealed the induction of 12-oxophitodienoate reductase and ACC synthase, respectively involved in jasmonate and ethylene biosynthesis, two phytohormones that could be implicated in oxidative stress. Proteins involved in photosynthesis and carbon metabolism were also modulated by S restriction. In particular, the decrease in plastocyanin and ferredoxin–NADP reductase suggests that H2O2 accumulation is associated with perturbation of the photosynthetic electron transport chain. The accumulation of chloroplastic Cu-Zn SOD reinforces the idea that an oxidative stress probably occurs in the chloroplast. Proteomic results suggest that the maintenance of chlorophyll in S-limited conditions is related to an accumulation of Water Soluble Chlorophyll binding Proteins, involved in the protection of chlorophyll against ROS. The accumulation of the catalytic α–subunit of chloroplastic ATP synthase suggests that energy production is maintained. Conclusion S

  20. A high-density genetic map identifies a novel major QTL for boron efficiency in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Didi; Hua, Yingpeng; Wang, Xiaohua; Zhao, Hua; Shi, Lei; Xu, Fangsen

    2014-01-01

    Low boron (B) seriously limits the growth of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), a high B demand species that is sensitive to low B conditions. Significant genotypic variations in response to B deficiency have been observed among B. napus cultivars. To reveal the genetic basis for B efficiency in B. napus, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for the plant growth traits, B uptake traits and the B efficiency coefficient (BEC) were analyzed using a doubled haploid (DH) population derived from a cross between a B-efficient parent, Qingyou 10, and a B-inefficient parent, Westar 10. A high-density genetic map was constructed based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assayed using Brassica 60 K Infinium BeadChip Array, simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). The linkage map covered a total length of 2139.5 cM, with 19 linkage groups (LGs) and an average distance of 1.6 cM between adjacent markers. Based on hydroponic evaluation of six B efficiency traits measured in three separate repeated trials, a total of 52 QTLs were identified, accounting for 6.14-46.27% of the phenotypic variation. A major QTL for BEC, qBEC-A3a, was co-located on A3 with other QTLs for plant growth and B uptake traits under low B stress. Using a subset of substitution lines, qBEC-A3a was validated and narrowed down to the interval between CNU384 and BnGMS436. The results of this study provide a novel major locus located on A3 for B efficiency in B. napus that will be suitable for fine mapping and marker-assisted selection breeding for B efficiency in B. napus.

  1. A High-Density Genetic Map Identifies a Novel Major QTL for Boron Efficiency in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohua; Zhao, Hua; Shi, Lei; Xu, Fangsen

    2014-01-01

    Low boron (B) seriously limits the growth of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), a high B demand species that is sensitive to low B conditions. Significant genotypic variations in response to B deficiency have been observed among B. napus cultivars. To reveal the genetic basis for B efficiency in B. napus, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for the plant growth traits, B uptake traits and the B efficiency coefficient (BEC) were analyzed using a doubled haploid (DH) population derived from a cross between a B-efficient parent, Qingyou 10, and a B-inefficient parent, Westar 10. A high-density genetic map was constructed based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assayed using Brassica 60 K Infinium BeadChip Array, simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). The linkage map covered a total length of 2139.5 cM, with 19 linkage groups (LGs) and an average distance of 1.6 cM between adjacent markers. Based on hydroponic evaluation of six B efficiency traits measured in three separate repeated trials, a total of 52 QTLs were identified, accounting for 6.14–46.27% of the phenotypic variation. A major QTL for BEC, qBEC-A3a, was co-located on A3 with other QTLs for plant growth and B uptake traits under low B stress. Using a subset of substitution lines, qBEC-A3a was validated and narrowed down to the interval between CNU384 and BnGMS436. The results of this study provide a novel major locus located on A3 for B efficiency in B. napus that will be suitable for fine mapping and marker-assisted selection breeding for B efficiency in B. napus. PMID:25375356

  2. Development of high-throughput methods to screen disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-1 in oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Drizou, Fryni; Graham, Neil S; Bruce, Toby J A; Ray, Rumiana V

    2017-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani (Kühn) is a soil-borne, necrotrophic fungus causing damping off, root rot and stem canker in many cultivated plants worldwide. Oilseed rape (OSR, Brassica napus) is the primary host for anastomosis group (AG) 2-1 of R. solani causing pre- and post-emergence damping-off resulting in death of seedlings and impaired crop establishment. Presently, there are no known resistant OSR genotypes and the main methods for disease control are fungicide seed treatments and cultural practices. The identification of sources of resistance for crop breeding is essential for sustainable management of the disease. However, a high-throughput, reliable screening method for resistance traits is required. The aim of this work was to develop a low cost, rapid screening method for disease phenotyping and identification of resistance traits. Four growth systems were developed and tested: (1) nutrient media plates, (2) compost trays, (3) light expanded clay aggregate (LECA) trays, and (4) a hydroponic pouch and wick system. Seedlings were inoculated with virulent AG 2-1 to cause damping-off disease and grown for a period of 4-10 days. Visual disease assessments were carried out or disease was estimated through image analysis using ImageJ. Inoculation of LECA was the most suitable method for phenotyping disease caused by R. solani AG 2-1 as it enabled the detection of differences in disease severity among OSR genotypes within a short time period whilst allowing measurements to be conducted on whole plants. This system is expected to facilitate identification of resistant germplasm.

  3. Uptake of Neonicotinoid Insecticides by Water-Foraging Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Through Guttation Fluid of Winter Oilseed Rape.

    PubMed

    Reetz, J E; Schulz, W; Seitz, W; Spiteller, M; Zühlke, S; Armbruster, W; Wallner, K

    2016-02-01

    The water-foraging activity of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) on guttation fluid of seed-coated crops, such as winter oilseed rape (WOR; Brassica napus L.), has not yet been evaluated. We analyzed the uptake of active substances (a.s.) in guttation fluid by evaluating residues of honey-sac contents. In autumn, insecticide residues of up to 130 µg a.s. per liter were released in WOR guttation fluid; this concentration is noticeably lower than levels reported in guttation fluid of seed-coated maize. Until winter dormancy, the concentrations declined to <30 µg a.s. per liter. In spring, residues were linked to prewintered plants and declined steadily until flowering. The maximum release of residues in guttation fluid of seed-coated WOR occurs on the first leaves in autumn when the colonies' water demand decreases. For the first time, proof for the uptake of guttation fluid from seed-coated WOR by honey bees was provided by measuring residues in individual honey-sac contents. In total, 38 out of 204 samples (19%) showed residues of thiamethoxam at concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 0.95 µg per liter while the corresponding concentrations in guttation fluid of WOR varied between 3.6 to 12.9 µg thiamethoxam per liter. The amounts of thiamethoxam we found in the honey sacs of water-foraging honey bees were therefore below the thresholds in nectar and pollen that are considered to have negative effects on honey bees after chronic exposure. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Genetic Diversity of Oilseed Rape Fields and Feral Populations in the Context of Coexistence with GM Crops.

    PubMed

    Bailleul, Diane; Ollier, Sébastien; Lecomte, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing concern about transgenes escaping from fields, few studies have analysed the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem over several years. Accurate information about the dynamics and relationship of the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem is essential for risk assessment and policies concerning the containment of genetically modified crops and their coexistence with crops grown by conventional practices. Here, we analysed the genetic diversity of oilseed rape plants from fields and feral populations over 4 years in an agricultural landscape of 41 km2. We used exact compatibility and maximum likelihood assignment methods to assign these plants to cultivars. Even pure lines and hybrid cultivar seed lots contained several genotypes. The cultivar diversity in fields reflected the conventional view of agroecosystems quite well: that is, there was a succession of cultivars, some grown for longer than others because of their good performance, some used for one year and then abandoned, and others gradually adopted. Three types of field emerged: fields sown with a single cultivar, fields sown with two cultivars, and unassigned fields (too many cultivars or unassigned plants to reliably assign the field). Field plant diversity was higher than expected, indicating the persistence of cultivars that were grown for only one year. The cultivar composition of feral populations was similar to that of field plants, with an increasing number of cultivars each year. By using genetic tools, we found a link between the cultivars of field plants in a particular year and the cultivars of feral population plants in the following year. Feral populations on road verges were more diverse than those on path verges. All of these findings are discussed in terms of their consequences in the context of coexistence with genetically modified crops.

  5. Dynamics of Nitrogen Uptake and Mobilization in Field-grown Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus) from Stem Extension to Harvest

    PubMed Central

    MALAGOLI, P.; LAINE, P.; ROSSATO, L.; OURRY, A.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Despite its high capacity to take up nitrate from the soil, winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is characterized by a very low N recovery in the reproductive tissues under field conditions. A significant part of the N taken up is lost to the soil in dead leaves during the growth cycle. An accurate description of N dynamics at the whole plant level in each compartment under field conditions should lead to a better understanding of N allocation in B. napus and improvements in the nitrogen harvest index. • Methods An experiment was conducted in field conditions using sequential weekly 15N labelling to follow N uptake, partitioning and mobilization. Nitrogen labelling (2·5 kg N ha−1; 10 % excess) was analysed weekly (from stem extension to harvest) to distinguish between uptake of new N (labelled) and mobilized N (unlabelled) in the different plant components. • Key Results and Conclusions N requirements for seed filling were satisfied mainly by N mobilized from vegetative parts (about 73 % of the total N in pods). Determination of the endogenous N flow showed that there was net transfer of N to the pods by leaves (36 %), stem (34 %), inflorescences (22 %) and taproot (8 %). Precise study of N flow from leaves at different nodes revealed the existence of two main groups of leaves in terms of their apparent capacity to mobilize N; 30–60 % and 70–80 % of peak N content occurring during flowering and pod filling, respectively. Moreover, the latter group was found to be the main source of endogenous N from leaves. The mobilization of endogenous N from these leaves was prolonged and concomitant with N accumulation in the pods. A complex pattern of N mobilization from the leaves, to vegetative or reproductive tissues, was revealed. These results will be used to model N partitioning during the growth cycle. PMID:15701662

  6. Diversity and phylotype consistency of bacteria in the guts of three bee species (Apoidea) at an oilseed rape field.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Kathrin I; Tebbe, Christoph C

    2006-02-01

    The gut of insects may harbour one of the largest reservoirs of a yet unexplored microbial diversity. To understand how specific insects select for their own bacterial communities, the structural diversity and variability of bacteria found in the gut of different bee species was analysed. For three successive years, adults and larvae of Apis mellifera ssp. carnica (honey bee), and Bombus terrestris (bumble bee), as well as larvae of Osmia bicornis (red mason bee) were collected at a flowering oilseed rape field. Total DNA was extracted from gut material and the bacterial diversity was analysed, independent of cultivation, by genetic profiling with single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes. The SSCP profiles were specific for all bee species and for larvae and adults. Qualitative and quantitative differences were found in the bacterial community structure of larvae and adults of A. mellifera, but differences in B. terrestris were mainly quantitative. Sequencing of the PCR products revealed a dominance of Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes in all bee species. Single-strand conformation polymorphism profiles suggested a higher abundance and diversity of lactobacilli in adults of A. mellifera than in larvae. Further phylogenetic analyses indicated common bacterial phylotypes for all three bee species, e.g. those related to Simonsiella, Serratia, and Lactobacillus. Clades related to Delftia acidovorans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Lactobacillus intestinalis only contained sequences from larvae. Several of the bee-specific clusters also contained identical or highly similar sequences from bacteria detected in other A. mellifera subspecies from South Africa, suggesting the existence of cosmopolitan gut bacteria in bees.

  7. Genetic Diversity of Oilseed Rape Fields and Feral Populations in the Context of Coexistence with GM Crops

    PubMed Central

    Bailleul, Diane; Ollier, Sébastien; Lecomte, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing concern about transgenes escaping from fields, few studies have analysed the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem over several years. Accurate information about the dynamics and relationship of the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem is essential for risk assessment and policies concerning the containment of genetically modified crops and their coexistence with crops grown by conventional practices. Here, we analysed the genetic diversity of oilseed rape plants from fields and feral populations over 4 years in an agricultural landscape of 41 km2. We used exact compatibility and maximum likelihood assignment methods to assign these plants to cultivars. Even pure lines and hybrid cultivar seed lots contained several genotypes. The cultivar diversity in fields reflected the conventional view of agroecosystems quite well: that is, there was a succession of cultivars, some grown for longer than others because of their good performance, some used for one year and then abandoned, and others gradually adopted. Three types of field emerged: fields sown with a single cultivar, fields sown with two cultivars, and unassigned fields (too many cultivars or unassigned plants to reliably assign the field). Field plant diversity was higher than expected, indicating the persistence of cultivars that were grown for only one year. The cultivar composition of feral populations was similar to that of field plants, with an increasing number of cultivars each year. By using genetic tools, we found a link between the cultivars of field plants in a particular year and the cultivars of feral population plants in the following year. Feral populations on road verges were more diverse than those on path verges. All of these findings are discussed in terms of their consequences in the context of coexistence with genetically modified crops. PMID:27359342

  8. Impact of shortened crop rotation of oilseed rape on soil and rhizosphere microbial diversity in relation to yield decline.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Sally; Bennett, Amanda J; Keane, Gary; Bending, Gary D; Chandler, David; Stobart, Ron; Mills, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Oilseed rape (OSR) grown in monoculture shows a decline in yield relative to virgin OSR of up to 25%, but the mechanisms responsible are unknown. A long term field experiment of OSR grown in a range of rotations with wheat was used to determine whether shifts in fungal and bacterial populations of the rhizosphere and bulk soil were associated with the development of OSR yield decline. The communities of fungi and bacteria in the rhizosphere and bulk soil from the field experiment were profiled using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and sequencing of cloned internal transcribed spacer regions and 16S rRNA genes, respectively. OSR cropping frequency had no effect on rhizosphere bacterial communities. However, the rhizosphere fungal communities from continuously grown OSR were significantly different to those from other rotations. This was due primarily to an increase in abundance of two fungi which showed 100% and 95% DNA identity to the plant pathogens Olpidium brassicae and Pyrenochaeta lycopersici, respectively. Real-time PCR confirmed that there was significantly more of these fungi in the continuously grown OSR than the other rotations. These two fungi were isolated from the field and used to inoculate OSR and Brassica oleracea grown under controlled conditions in a glasshouse to determine their effect on yield. At high doses, Olpidium brassicae reduced top growth and root biomass in seedlings and reduced branching and subsequent pod and seed production. Pyrenochaeta sp. formed lesions on the roots of seedlings, and at high doses delayed flowering and had a negative impact on seed quantity and quality.

  9. Impact of Shortened Crop Rotation of Oilseed Rape on Soil and Rhizosphere Microbial Diversity in Relation to Yield Decline

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Sally; Bennett, Amanda J.; Keane, Gary; Bending, Gary D.; Chandler, David; Stobart, Ron; Mills, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Oilseed rape (OSR) grown in monoculture shows a decline in yield relative to virgin OSR of up to 25%, but the mechanisms responsible are unknown. A long term field experiment of OSR grown in a range of rotations with wheat was used to determine whether shifts in fungal and bacterial populations of the rhizosphere and bulk soil were associated with the development of OSR yield decline. The communities of fungi and bacteria in the rhizosphere and bulk soil from the field experiment were profiled using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and sequencing of cloned internal transcribed spacer regions and 16S rRNA genes, respectively. OSR cropping frequency had no effect on rhizosphere bacterial communities. However, the rhizosphere fungal communities from continuously grown OSR were significantly different to those from other rotations. This was due primarily to an increase in abundance of two fungi which showed 100% and 95% DNA identity to the plant pathogens Olpidium brassicae and Pyrenochaeta lycopersici, respectively. Real-time PCR confirmed that there was significantly more of these fungi in the continuously grown OSR than the other rotations. These two fungi were isolated from the field and used to inoculate OSR and Brassica oleracea grown under controlled conditions in a glasshouse to determine their effect on yield. At high doses, Olpidium brassicae reduced top growth and root biomass in seedlings and reduced branching and subsequent pod and seed production. Pyrenochaeta sp. formed lesions on the roots of seedlings, and at high doses delayed flowering and had a negative impact on seed quantity and quality. PMID:23573215

  10. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) as a resource for farmland insect pollinators: quantifying floral traits in conventional varieties and breeding systems.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, Jonathan M; Cook, Samantha M; Wright, Geraldine A; Osborne, Juliet L; Clark, Suzanne J; Swain, Jennifer L; Haughton, Alison J

    2017-08-01

    Oilseed rape (OSR; Brassica napus L.) is a major crop in temperate regions and provides an important source of nutrition to many of the yield-enhancing insect flower visitors that consume floral nectar. The manipulation of mechanisms that control various crop plant traits for the benefit of pollinators has been suggested in the bid to increase food security, but little is known about inherent floral trait expression in contemporary OSR varieties or the breeding systems used in OSR breeding programmes. We studied a range of floral traits in glasshouse-grown, certified conventional varieties of winter OSR to test for variation among and within breeding systems. We measured 24-h nectar secretion rate, amount, concentration and ratio of nectar sugars per flower, and sizes and number of flowers produced per plant from 24 varieties of OSR representing open-pollinated (OP), genic male sterility (GMS) hybrid and cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) hybrid breeding systems. Sugar concentration was consistent among and within the breeding systems; however, GMS hybrids produced more nectar and more sugar per flower than CMS hybrid or OP varieties. With the exception of ratio of fructose/glucose in OP varieties, we found that nectar traits were consistent within all the breeding systems. When scaled, GMS hybrids produced 1.73 times more nectar resource per plant than OP varieties. Nectar production and amount of nectar sugar in OSR plants were independent of number and size of flowers. Our data show that floral traits of glasshouse-grown OSR differed among breeding systems, suggesting that manipulation and enhancement of nectar rewards for insect flower visitors, including pollinators, could be included in future OSR breeding programmes.

  11. Resveratrol glucoside (Piceid) synthesis in seeds of transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Hüsken, Alexandra; Baumert, Alfred; Milkowski, Carsten; Becker, Heiko C; Strack, Dieter; Möllers, Christian

    2005-11-01

    Resveratrol is a phytoalexin produced in various plants like wine, peanut or pine in response to fungal infection or UV irradiation, but it is absent in members of the Brassicaceae. Moreover, resveratrol and its glucoside (piceid) are considered to have beneficial effects on human health, known to reduce heart disease, arteriosclerosis and cancer mortality. Therefore, the introduction of the gene encoding stilbene synthase for resveratrol production in rapeseed is a tempting approach to improve the quality of rapeseed products. The stilbene synthase gene isolated from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) was cloned under control of the seed-specific napin promotor and introduced into rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) by Agrobacterium-mediated co-transformation together with a ds-RNA-interference construct deduced from the sequence of the key enzyme for sinapate ester biosynthesis, UDP-glucose:sinapate glucosyltransferase (BnSGT1), assuming that the suppression of the sinapate ester biosynthesis may increase the resveratrol production in seeds through the increased availability of the precursor 4-coumarate. Resveratrol glucoside (piceid) was produced at levels up to 361 microg/g in the seeds of the primary transformants. This value exceeded by far piceid amounts reported from B. napus expressing VST1 in the wild type sinapine background. There was no significant difference in other important agronomic traits, like oil, protein, fatty acid and glucosinolate content in comparison to the control plants. In the third seed generation, up to 616 microg/g piceid was found in the seeds of a homozygous T3-plant with a single transgene copy integrated. The sinapate ester content in this homozygous T3-plant was reduced from 7.43 to 2.40 mg/g. These results demonstrate how the creation of a novel metabolic sink could divert the synthesis towards the production of piceid rather than sinapate ester, thereby increasing the value of oilseed products.

  12. An endophytic bacterium Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Sasm3-enhanced phytoremediation of nitrate-cadmium compound polluted soil by intercropping Sedum alfredii with oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bao; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Guiqing; Xu, Xiaomeng; Pan, Fengshan; Zhang, Jie; Tian, Shengke; Feng, Ying; Yang, Xiaoe

    2015-11-01

    Intensive agricultural system with high input of fertilizer results in high agricultural output. However, excessive fertilization in intensive agricultural system has great potential to cause nitrate and heavy metal accumulation in soil, which is adverse to human health. The main objective of the present study was to observe the effects of intercropping and inoculation of endophytic bacterium Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Sasm3 on phytoremediation of combined contaminated soil in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). The results showed that with Sasm3 inoculation, the biomass of rape was increased by 10-20% for shoot, 64% for root, and 23-29% for seeds while the nitrate accumulation in rape was decreased by 14% in root and by 12% in shoot. The cadmium concentration in rape increased significantly with mono-inoculating treatment, whereas it decreased significantly after intercropping treatment. By denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time quantitative PCR analysis, the diversity of bacterial community and the number of nirS and nirK gene copies increased significantly with inoculation or/and intercropping treatment. In conclusion, the endophytic bacterium Sasm3-inoculated intercropping system not only improved the efficiency of clearing cadmium from soil without obstructing crop production, but also improved the quality of crop.

  13. Enhanced Cd extraction of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) by plant growth-promoting bacteria isolated from Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fengshan; Meng, Qian; Luo, Sha; Shen, Jing; Chen, Bao; Khan, Kiran Yasmin; Japenga, Jan; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Xiaoe; Feng, Ying

    2017-03-04

    Four plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) were used as study materials, among them two heavy metal-tolerant rhizosphere strains SrN1 (Arthrobacter sp.) and SrN9 (Bacillus altitudinis) were isolated from rhizosphere soil, while two endophytic strains SaN1 (Bacillus megaterium) and SaMR12 (Sphingomonas) were identified from roots of the cadmium (Cd)/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance. A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of these PGPB on plant growth and Cd accumulation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) plants grown on aged Cd-spiked soil. The results showed that the four PGPB significantly boosted oilseed rape shoot biomass production, improved soil and plant analyzer development (SPAD) value, enhanced Cd uptake of plant and Cd translocation to the leaves. By fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and green fluorescent protein (GFP), we demonstrated the studied S. alfredii endophytic bacterium SaMR12 were able to colonize successfully in the B. napus roots. However, all four PGPB could increase seed Cd accumulation. Due to its potential to enhance Cd uptake by the plant and to restrict Cd accumulation in the seeds, SaMR12 was selected as the most promising microbial partner of B. napus when setting up a plant-microbe fortified remediation system.

  14. Transcript profiling of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) primed for biocontrol differentiate genes involved in microbial interactions with beneficial Bacillus amyloliquefaciens from pathogenic Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Sarosh, Bejai R; Danielsson, Jesper; Meijer, Johan

    2009-05-01

    Many microorganisms interact with plants but information is insufficient concerning requirements for plant colonization and if interactions become beneficial or detrimental. Pretreatment of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) with Bacillus results in disease suppression upon challenge with pathogens. We have studied transcriptome effects on oilseed rape primed with the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 5113 biocontrol strain and compared that with effects of the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Using the cDNA-AFLP technique 21,700 transcript fragments were obtained of which 120 were differentially expressed and verified by northern blot analysis for selected transcripts. Priming with Bacillus caused greater effect on leaf than root transcripts where sequencing and BLAST analysis suggested many of the transcripts to be involved in metabolism and bioenergy. Bacillus and Botrytis treatment also changed metabolic gene expression in addition to signaling and transcription control genes as well as a potential disease resistance (TIR-NBS-LRR) gene. The pathogen provoked non-primed plant profile was less dominated by metabolism than Bacillus and Bacillus-Botrytis treated plants. Several transcripts were homologues to unknown genes in the different treatments. Altogether Bacillus treatment of roots cause a systemic gene expression in leaves suggested to result in a metabolic reprogramming as a major event during priming.

  15. Nano-TiO2 Is Not Phytotoxic As Revealed by the Oilseed Rape Growth and Photosynthetic Apparatus Ultra-Structural Response

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiuping; Liu, Lixin; Chen, Chang; Ma, Ni; Zhang, Chunlei

    2015-01-01

    Recently nano-materials are widely used but they have shown contrasting effects on human and plant life. Keeping in view the contrasting results, the present study has evaluated plant growth response, antioxidant system activity and photosynthetic apparatus physiological and ultrastructural changes in Brassica napus L. plants grown under a wide range (0, 500, 2500, 4000 mg/l) of nano-TiO2 in a pot experiment. Nano-TiO2 has significantly improved the morphological and physiological indices of oilseed rape plants under our experimental conditions. All the parameters i-e morphological (root length, plant height, fresh biomass), physiological (photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll content, nitrate reductase activity) and antioxidant system (Superoxide dismutase, SOD; Guaiacol peroxidase, POD; Catalase, CAT) recorded have shown improvement in their performance by following nano-TiO2 dose-dependent manner. No significant chloroplast ultra-structural changes were observed. Transmission electron microscopic images have shown that intact & typical grana and stroma thylakoid membranes were in the chloroplast, which suggest that nano-TiO2 has not induced the stressful environment within chloroplast. Finally, it is suggested that, nano-TiO2 have growth promoting effect on oilseed rape plants. PMID:26624621

  16. Expression of green fluorescent protein in pollen of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and its utility for assessing pollen movement in the field.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hong S; Halfhill, Matthew D; Hudson, Laura C; Millwood, Reginald J; Stewart, C Neal

    2006-10-01

    Transgene movement via pollen is an important component of gene flow from transgenic plants. Here, we present proof-of-concept studies that demonstrate the monitoring of short distant movement of pollen expressing a genetically encoded fluorescent tag in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cv. Westar). Transgenic oilseed rape plants were produced using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method with the pBINDC1 construct containing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) variant, mGFP5-ER, under the control of the pollen-specific LAT59 promoter from tomato. Transgenic pollen was differentiated from non-transgenic pollen in vivo by a unique spectral signature, and was shown to be an effective tool to monitor pollen movement in the greenhouse and field. GFP-tagged pollen also served as a practical marker to determine the zygosity of plants. In a greenhouse pollen flow study, more pollen was captured at closer distances from the source plant plot with consistent wind generated by a fan. Under field conditions, GFP transgenic pollen grains were detected up to a distance of 15 m, the farthest distance from source plants assayed. GFP-tagged pollen was easily distinguishable from non-transgenic pollen using an epifluorescence microscope.

  17. Leaves play a central role in the adaptation of nitrogen and sulfur metabolism to ammonium nutrition in oilseed rape (Brassica napus).

    PubMed

    Coleto, Inmaculada; de la Peña, Marlon; Rodríguez-Escalante, Jon; Bejarano, Iraide; Glauser, Gaëtan; Aparicio-Tejo, Pedro M; González-Moro, M Begoña; Marino, Daniel

    2017-09-20

    The coordination between nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) assimilation is required to suitably provide plants with organic compounds essential for their development and growth. The N source induces the adaptation of many metabolic processes in plants; however, there is scarce information about the influence that it may exert on the functioning of S metabolism. The aim of this work was to provide an overview of N and S metabolism in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) when exposed to different N sources. To do so, plants were grown in hydroponic conditions with nitrate or ammonium as N source at two concentrations (0.5 and 1 mM). Metabolic changes mainly occurred in leaves, where ammonium caused the up-regulation of enzymes involved in the primary assimilation of N and a general increase in the concentration of N-compounds (NH4(+), amino acids and proteins). Similarly, the activity of key enzymes of primary S assimilation and the content of S-compounds (glutathione and glucosinolates) were also higher in leaves of ammonium-fed plants. Interestingly, sulfate level was lower in leaves of ammonium-fed plants, which was accompanied by the down-regulation of SULTR1 transporters gene expression. The results highlight the impact of the N source on different steps of N and S metabolism in oilseed rape, notably inducing N and S assimilation in leaves, and put forward the potential of N source management to modulate the synthesis of compounds with biotechnological interest, such as glucosinolates.

  18. Metabolic control analysis of developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv Westar) embryos shows that lipid assembly exerts significant control over oil accumulation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mingguo; Guschina, Irina A; O'Hara, Paul; Slabas, Antoni R; Quant, Patti A; Fawcett, Tony; Harwood, John L

    2012-10-01

    Metabolic control analysis allows the study of metabolic regulation. We applied both single- and double-manipulation top-down control analysis to examine the control of lipid accumulation in developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) embryos. The biosynthetic pathway was conceptually divided into two blocks of reactions (fatty acid biosynthesis (Block A), lipid assembly (Block B)) connected by a single system intermediate, the acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) pool. Single manipulation used exogenous oleate. Triclosan was used to inhibit specifically Block A, whereas diazepam selectively manipulated flux through Block B. Exogenous oleate inhibited the radiolabelling of fatty acids from [1-(14)C]acetate, but stimulated that from [U-14C]glycerol into acyl lipids. The calculation of group flux control coefficients showed that c. 70% of the metabolic control was in the lipid assembly block of reactions. Monte Carlo simulations gave an estimation of the error of the resulting group flux control coefficients as 0.27±0.06 for Block A and 0.73±0.06 for Block B. The two methods of control analysis gave very similar results and showed that Block B reactions were more important under our conditions. This contrasts notably with data from oil palm or olive fruit cultures and is important for efforts to increase oilseed rape lipid yields.

  19. Significant relationships among frost tolerance and net photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency and dehydrin accumulation in cold-treated winter oilseed rapes.

    PubMed

    Urban, Milan Oldřich; Klíma, Miroslav; Vítámvás, Pavel; Vašek, Jakub; Hilgert-Delgado, Alois Albert; Kučera, Vratislav

    2013-12-15

    Five winter oilseed rape cultivars (Benefit, Californium, Cortes, Ladoga, Navajo) were subjected to 30 days of cold treatment (4 °C) to examine the effect of cold on acquired frost tolerance (FT), dehydrin (DHN) content, and photosynthesis-related parameters. The main aim of this study was to determine whether there are relationships between FT (expressed as LT50 values) and the other parameters measured in the cultivars. While the cultivar Benefit accumulated two types of DHNs (D45 and D35), the other cultivars accumulated three additional DHNs (D97, D47, and D37). The similar-sized DHNs (D45 and D47) were the most abundant; the others exhibited significantly lower accumulations. The highest correlations were detected between LT50 and DHN accumulation (r=-0.815), intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi; r=-0.643), net photosynthetic rate (r=-0.628), stomatal conductance (r=0.511), and intracellular/intercellular CO2 concentration (r=0.505). Those cultivars that exhibited higher Pn rate in cold (and further a significant increase in WUEi) had higher levels of DHNs and also higher FT. No significant correlation was observed between LT50 and E, PRI, or NDVI. Overall, we have shown the selected physiological parameters to be able to distinguish different FT cultivars of winter oilseed rape.

  20. Antioxidant enzyme systems and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle as contributing factors to cadmium accumulation and tolerance in two oilseed rape cultivars (Brassica napus L.) under moderate cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhichao; Zhao, Xiaohu; Sun, Xuecheng; Tan, Qiling; Tang, Yafang; Nie, Zhaojun; Qu, Chanjuan; Chen, Zuoxin; Hu, Chengxiao

    2015-11-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) with high tolerance to cadmium (Cd) may be used in the phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated fields. However, the mechanisms responsible for Cd accumulation and tolerance in oilseed rape are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the physiological and molecular processes involved in Cd tolerance of two oilseed rape cultivars with different Cd accumulation abilities. The total Cd accumulation in cultivar L351 was higher than cultivar L338, particularly with increasing concentrations of Cd exposure. L338 was a more pronounced Cd-sensitive cultivar than L351, while higher activities of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, APX, GR, DHAR) as well as higher contents of GSH and AsA were all observed in L351 under Cd treatments, especially at high levels. No differences were found in SOD activities between the two cultivars under the same Cd treatments, suggesting that SOD was not the key factor in relation to the differences of Cd tolerance and accumulation between them. Gene expression levels of BnFe-SOD, BnCAT, BnAPX, BcGR and BoDHAR in roots of L351 were relatively higher than that in L338 under Cd exposure as well as BnCAT and BcGR in leaves. It is concluded that antioxidant enzymes and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle play important roles in oilseed rape Cd accumulation and tolerance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimization of medium composition and cultural conditions for production of antifungal substances by Streptomyces platensis 3-10 and evaluation of its efficacy in suppression of clubroot disease of oilseed rape

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to optimize the medium composition and cultural conditions for improving production of antifungal substances (AFS) by Streptomyces 3-10 and for enhancing its efficacy in suppression of clubroot disease of oilseed rape caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae. Results showed that t...

  2. Ideotype population exploration: growth, photosynthesis, and yield components at different planting densities in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Ma, Ni; Yuan, Jinzhan; Li, Ming; Li, Jun; Zhang, Liyan; Liu, Lixin; Naeem, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zhang, Chunlei

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed is one of the most important edible oil crops in the world and the seed yield has lagged behind the increasing demand driven by population growth. Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is widely cultivated with relatively low yield in China, so it is necessary to find the strategies to improve the expression of yield potential. Planting density has great effects on seed yield of crops. Hence, field experiments were conducted in Wuhan in the Yangtze River basin with one conventional variety (Zhongshuang 11, ZS11) and one hybrid variety (Huayouza 9, HYZ9) at five planting densities (27.0×10(4), 37.5×10(4), 48.0×10(4), 58.5×10(4), 69.0×10(4) plants ha(-1)) during 2010-2012 to investigate the yield components. The physiological traits for high-yield and normal-yield populations were measured during 2011-2013. Our results indicated that planting densities of 58.5×10(4) plants ha(-1) in ZS11 and 48.0×10(4) plants ha(-1) in HYZ9 have significantly higher yield compared with the density of 27.0×10(4) plants ha(-1) for both varieties. The ideal silique numbers for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ∼0.9×10(4) (n m(-2)) and ∼1×10(4) (n m(-2)), respectively, and ideal primary branches for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ∼250 (n m(-2)) and ∼300 (n m(-2)), respectively. The highest leaf area index (LAI) and silique wall area index (SAI) was ∼5.0 and 7.0, respectively. Moreover, higher leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and water use efficiency (WUE) were observed in the high-yield populations. A significantly higher level of silique wall photosynthesis and rapid dry matter accumulation were supposed to result in the maximum seed yield. Our results suggest that increasing the planting density within certain range is a feasible approach for higher seed yield in winter rapeseed in China.

  3. [Effect of atmospheric CO2 concentration and nitrogen application level on absorption and transportation of nutrient elements in oilseed rape].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-ming; Zhang, Zhen-hua; Song, Hai-xing; Liu, Qiang; Rong, Xiang-min; Guan, Chun-yun; Zeng, Jing; Yuan, Dan

    2015-07-01

    Effect of elevated atmospheric-CO2 (780 µmol . mol-1) on the absorption and transportation of secondary nutrient elements (calcium, magnesium, sulphur) and micronutrient elements (iron, manganese, zinc, molybdenum and boron) in oilseed rape at the stem elongation stage were studied by greenhouse simulated method. Compared with the ambient CO2 condition, the content of Zn in stem was increased and the contents of other nutrient elements were decreased under the elevated atmospheric-CO2 with no nitrogen (N) application; the contents of Ca, S, B and Zn were increased, and the contents of Mg, Mn, Mo and Fe were decreased under the elevated atmospheric CO2 with N application (0.2 g N . kg-1 soil); except the content of Mo in leaf was increased, the contents of other nutrient elements were decreased under the elevated atmospheric-CO2 with two levels of N application. Compared with the ambient CO2 condition, the amounts of Ca and S relative to the total amount of secondary nutrient elements in stem and the amounts of B and Zn relative to the total amount of micronutrient elements in stem were increased under the elevated-CO2 treatment with both levels of N application, and the corresponding values of Mg, Fe, Mn and Mo were decreased; no-N application treatment increased the proportion of Ca distributed into the leaves, and the proportion of Mg distributed into leaves was increased by the normal-N application level; the proportions of Mn, Zn and Mo distributed into the leaves were increased at both N application levels. Without N application, the elevation of atmospheric CO2 increased the transport coefficients of SFe, Mo and SS,B, but decreased the transport coefficients of SMg,Fe, SMg, Mn and SS,Fe, indicating the proportions of Mo, S transported into the upper part of plant tissues was higher than that of Fe, and the corresponding value of B was higher than that observed for S, the corresponding value of Mg was higher than that of Fe and Mn. Under normal-N application

  4. Ideotype Population Exploration: Growth, Photosynthesis, and Yield Components at Different Planting Densities in Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ni; Yuan, Jinzhan; Li, Ming; Li, Jun; Zhang, Liyan; Liu, Lixin; Naeem, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zhang, Chunlei

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed is one of the most important edible oil crops in the world and the seed yield has lagged behind the increasing demand driven by population growth. Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is widely cultivated with relatively low yield in China, so it is necessary to find the strategies to improve the expression of yield potential. Planting density has great effects on seed yield of crops. Hence, field experiments were conducted in Wuhan in the Yangtze River basin with one conventional variety (Zhongshuang 11, ZS11) and one hybrid variety (Huayouza 9, HYZ9) at five planting densities (27.0×104, 37.5×104, 48.0×104, 58.5×104, 69.0×104 plants ha–1) during 2010–2012 to investigate the yield components. The physiological traits for high-yield and normal-yield populations were measured during 2011–2013. Our results indicated that planting densities of 58.5×104 plants ha–1 in ZS11 and 48.0×104 plants ha–1 in HYZ9 have significantly higher yield compared with the density of 27.0×104 plants ha–1for both varieties. The ideal silique numbers for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ∼0.9×104 (n m–2) and ∼1×104 (n m-2), respectively, and ideal primary branches for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ∼250 (n m–2) and ∼300 (n m–2), respectively. The highest leaf area index (LAI) and silique wall area index (SAI) was ∼5.0 and 7.0, respectively. Moreover, higher leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and water use efficiency (WUE) were observed in the high-yield populations. A significantly higher level of silique wall photosynthesis and rapid dry matter accumulation were supposed to result in the maximum seed yield. Our results suggest that increasing the planting density within certain range is a feasible approach for higher seed yield in winter rapeseed in China. PMID:25517990

  5. Overexpression of Sinapine Esterase BnSCE3 in Oilseed Rape Seeds Triggers Global Changes in Seed Metabolism1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Clauß, Kathleen; von Roepenack-Lahaye, Edda; Böttcher, Christoph; Roth, Mary R.; Welti, Ruth; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Scheel, Dierk; Milkowski, Carsten; Strack, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Sinapine (O-sinapoylcholine) is the predominant phenolic compound in a complex group of sinapate esters in seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Sinapine has antinutritive activity and prevents the use of seed protein for food and feed. A strategy was developed to lower its content in seeds by expressing an enzyme that hydrolyzes sinapine in developing rape seeds. During early stages of seedling development, a sinapine esterase (BnSCE3) hydrolyzes sinapine, releasing choline and sinapate. A portion of choline enters the phospholipid metabolism, and sinapate is routed via 1-O-sinapoyl-β-glucose into sinapoylmalate. Transgenic oilseed rape lines were generated expressing BnSCE3 under the control of a seed-specific promoter. Two distinct single-copy transgene insertion lines were isolated and propagated to generate homozygous lines, which were subjected to comprehensive phenotyping. Sinapine levels of transgenic seeds were less than 5% of wild-type levels, whereas choline levels were increased. Weight, size, and water content of transgenic seeds were significantly higher than those of wild-type seeds. Seed quality parameters, such as fiber and glucosinolate levels, and agronomically important traits, such as oil and protein contents, differed only slightly, except that amounts of hemicellulose and cellulose were about 30% higher in transgenic compared with wild-type seeds. Electron microscopic examination revealed that a fraction of the transgenic seeds had morphological alterations, characterized by large cavities near the embryonic tissue. Transgenic seedlings were larger than wild-type seedlings, and young seedlings exhibited longer hypocotyls. Examination of metabolic profiles of transgenic seeds indicated that besides suppression of sinapine accumulation, there were other dramatic differences in primary and secondary metabolism. Mapping of these changes onto metabolic pathways revealed global effects of the transgenic BnSCE3 expression on seed metabolism. PMID

  6. Long-Term Monitoring of Field Trial Sites with Genetically Modified Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Fifteen Years Persistence to Date but No Spatial Dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Belter, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Oilseed rape is known to persist in arable fields because of its ability to develop secondary seed dormancy in certain agronomic and environmental conditions. If conditions change, rapeseeds are able to germinate up to 10 years later to build volunteers in ensuing crops. Extrapolations of experimental data acted on the assumption of persistence periods for more than 20 years after last harvest of rapeseed. Genetically-modified oilseed rape—cultivated widely in Northern America since 1996—is assumed not to differ from its conventional form in this property. Here, experimental data are reported from official monitoring activities that verify these assumptions. At two former field trial sites in Saxony-Anhalt genetically-modified herbicide-resistant oilseed rape volunteers are found up to fifteen years after harvest. Nevertheless, spatial dispersion or establishment of GM plants outside of the field sites was not observed within this period. PMID:26784233

  7. An Individual-Based Model of the Evolution of Pesticide Resistance in Heterogeneous Environments: Control of Meligethes aeneus Population in Oilseed Rape Crops

    PubMed Central

    Stratonovitch, Pierre; Elias, Jan; Denholm, Ian; Slater, Russell; Semenov, Mikhail A.

    2014-01-01

    Preventing a pest population from damaging an agricultural crop and, at the same time, preventing the development of pesticide resistance is a major challenge in crop protection. Understanding how farming practices and environmental factors interact with pest characteristics to influence the spread of resistance is a difficult and complex task. It is extremely challenging to investigate such interactions experimentally at realistic spatial and temporal scales. Mathematical modelling and computer simulation have, therefore, been used to analyse resistance evolution and to evaluate potential resistance management tactics. Of the many modelling approaches available, individual-based modelling of a pest population offers most flexibility to include and analyse numerous factors and their interactions. Here, a pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus) population was modelled as an aggregate of individual insects inhabiting a spatially heterogeneous landscape. The development of the pest and host crop (oilseed rape) was driven by climatic variables. The agricultural land of the landscape was managed by farmers applying a specific rotation and crop protection strategy. The evolution of a single resistance allele to the pyrethroid lambda cyhalothrin was analysed for different combinations of crop management practices and for a recessive, intermediate and dominant resistance allele. While the spread of a recessive resistance allele was severely constrained, intermediate or dominant resistance alleles showed a similar response to the management regime imposed. Calendar treatments applied irrespective of pest density accelerated the development of resistance compared to ones applied in response to prescribed pest density thresholds. A greater proportion of spring-sown oilseed rape was also found to increase the speed of resistance as it increased the period of insecticide exposure. Our study demonstrates the flexibility and power of an individual-based model to simulate how farming

  8. Potential effects of oilseed rape expressing oryzacystatin-1 (OC-1) and of purified insecticidal proteins on larvae of the solitary bee Osmia bicornis.

    PubMed

    Konrad, Roger; Ferry, Natalie; Gatehouse, Angharad M R; Babendreier, Dirk

    2008-07-16

    Despite their importance as pollinators in crops and wild plants, solitary bees have not previously been included in non-target testing of insect-resistant transgenic crop plants. Larvae of many solitary bees feed almost exclusively on pollen and thus could be highly exposed to transgene products expressed in the pollen. The potential effects of pollen from oilseed rape expressing the cysteine protease inhibitor oryzacystatin-1 (OC-1) were investigated on larvae of the solitary bee Osmia bicornis (= O. rufa). Furthermore, recombinant OC-1 (rOC-1), the Bt toxin Cry1Ab and the snowdrop lectin Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) were evaluated for effects on the life history parameters of this important pollinator. Pollen provisions from transgenic OC-1 oilseed rape did not affect overall development. Similarly, high doses of rOC-1 and Cry1Ab as well as a low dose of GNA failed to cause any significant effects. However, a high dose of GNA (0.1%) in the larval diet resulted in significantly increased development time and reduced efficiency in conversion of pollen food into larval body weight. Our results suggest that OC-1 and Cry1Ab expressing transgenic crops would pose a negligible risk for O. bicornis larvae, whereas GNA expressing plants could cause detrimental effects, but only if bees were exposed to high levels of the protein. The described bioassay with bee brood is not only suitable for early tier non-target tests of transgenic plants, but also has broader applicability to other crop protection products.

  9. Leaf chlorosis in oilseed rape plants (Brassica napus) grown on cadmium-polluted soil: causes and consequences for photosynthesis and growth.

    PubMed

    Baryla, A; Carrier, P; Franck, F; Coulomb, C; Sahut, C; Havaux, M

    2001-04-01

    Brassica napus L. (oilseed rape) was grown from seeds on a reconstituted soil contaminated with cadmium (100 mg Cd kg-1 dry soil), resulting in a marked chlorosis of the leaves which was investigated using a combination of biochemical, biophysical and physiological methods. Spectroscopic and chromatographic analyses of the photosynthetic pigments indicated that chlorosis was not due to a direct interaction of Cd with the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway. In addition, mineral deficiency and oxidative stress were apparently not involved in the pigment loss. Leaf chlorosis was attributable to a marked decrease in the chloroplast density caused by a reduction in the number of chloroplasts per cell and a change in cell size, suggesting that Cd interfered with chloroplast replication and cell division. Relatively little Cd was found in the chloroplasts and the properties of the photosynthetic apparatus (electron transport, protein composition, chlorophyll antenna size, chloroplast ultrastructure) were not affected appreciably in plants grown on Cd-polluted soil. Depth profiling of photosynthetic pigments by phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy revealed that the Cd-induced decrease in pigment content was very pronounced at the leaf surface (stomatal guard cells) compared to the leaf interior (mesophyll). This observation was consistent with light transmission and fluorescence microscopy analyses, which revealed that stomata density in the epidermis was noticeably reduced in Cd-exposed leaves. Concomitantly, the stomatal conductance estimated from gas-exchange measurements was strongly reduced with Cd. When plants were grown in a high-CO2 atmosphere (4,000 microliters CO2 l-1), the inhibitory effect of Cd on growth was not cancelled, suggesting that the reduced availability of CO2 at the chloroplast level associated with the low stomatal conductance was not the main component of Cd toxicity in oilseed rape.

  10. An individual-based model of the evolution of pesticide resistance in heterogeneous environments: control of Meligethes aeneus population in oilseed rape crops.

    PubMed

    Stratonovitch, Pierre; Elias, Jan; Denholm, Ian; Slater, Russell; Semenov, Mikhail A

    2014-01-01

    Preventing a pest population from damaging an agricultural crop and, at the same time, preventing the development of pesticide resistance is a major challenge in crop protection. Understanding how farming practices and environmental factors interact with pest characteristics to influence the spread of resistance is a difficult and complex task. It is extremely challenging to investigate such interactions experimentally at realistic spatial and temporal scales. Mathematical modelling and computer simulation have, therefore, been used to analyse resistance evolution and to evaluate potential resistance management tactics. Of the many modelling approaches available, individual-based modelling of a pest population offers most flexibility to include and analyse numerous factors and their interactions. Here, a pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus) population was modelled as an aggregate of individual insects inhabiting a spatially heterogeneous landscape. The development of the pest and host crop (oilseed rape) was driven by climatic variables. The agricultural land of the landscape was managed by farmers applying a specific rotation and crop protection strategy. The evolution of a single resistance allele to the pyrethroid lambda cyhalothrin was analysed for different combinations of crop management practices and for a recessive, intermediate and dominant resistance allele. While the spread of a recessive resistance allele was severely constrained, intermediate or dominant resistance alleles showed a similar response to the management regime imposed. Calendar treatments applied irrespective of pest density accelerated the development of resistance compared to ones applied in response to prescribed pest density thresholds. A greater proportion of spring-sown oilseed rape was also found to increase the speed of resistance as it increased the period of insecticide exposure. Our study demonstrates the flexibility and power of an individual-based model to simulate how farming

  11. Determination of acetolactate synthase activity and protein content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) leaves using visible/near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Zhang, Fan; Jin, Zonglai; He, Yong; Fang, Hui; Ye, Qingfu; Zhou, Weijun

    2008-11-23

    A new acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicide, propyl 4-(2-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy)benzylamino)benzoate (ZJ0273), was applied to oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) leaves in different leaf positions. Visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy was investigated for fast and non-destructive determination of ALS activity and protein content in rapeseed leaves. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis was the calibration method with comparison of different spectral preprocessing by Savitzky-Golay (SG) smoothing, standard normal variate (SNV), first and second derivative. The best PLS models were obtained by first-derivative spectra for ALS, whereas original spectra for soluble, non-soluble and total protein contents. Simultaneously, certain latent variables (LVs) were used as the inputs of back-propagation neural network (BPNN) and least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) models. All LS-SVM models outperformed PLS models and BPNN models. The correlation coefficient (r), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and bias in validation set by LS-SVM were 0.998, 0.715 and 0.079 for ALS, 0.999, 33.084 and 1.178 for soluble protein, 0.997, 42.773 and 6.244 for non-soluble protein, 0.999, 59.562 and 7.437 for total protein, respectively. The results indicated that Vis/NIR spectroscopy combined with LS-SVM could be successfully applied for the determination of ALS activity and protein content of rapeseed leaves. The results would be helpful for further on field analysis of using Vis/NIR spectroscopy to monitor the growing status and physiological properties of oilseed rape.

  12. Oilseed rape seeds with ablated defence cells of the glucosinolate–myrosinase system. Production and characteristics of double haploid MINELESS plants of Brassica napus L.

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Ishita; Borgen, Birgit Hafeld; Hansen, Magnor; Honne, Bjørn Ivar; Müller, Caroline; Rohloff, Jens; Rossiter, John Trevor; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2011-01-01

    Oilseed rape and other crop plants of the family Brassicaceae contain a unique defence system known as the glucosinolate–myrosinase system or the ‘mustard oil bomb’. The ‘mustard oil bomb’ which includes myrosinase and glucosinolates is triggered by abiotic and biotic stress, resulting in the formation of toxic products such as nitriles and isothiocyanates. Myrosinase is present in specialist cells known as ‘myrosin cells’ and can also be known as toxic mines. The myrosin cell idioblasts of Brassica napus were genetically reprogrammed to undergo controlled cell death (ablation) during seed development. These myrosin cell-free plants have been named MINELESS as they lack toxic mines. This has led to the production of oilseed rape with a significant reduction both in myrosinase levels and in the hydrolysis of glucosinolates. Even though the myrosinase activity in MINELESS was very low compared with the wild type, variation was observed. This variability was overcome by producing homozygous seeds. A microspore culture technique involving non-fertile haploid MINELESS plants was developed and these plants were treated with colchicine to produce double haploid MINELESS plants with full fertility. Double haploid MINELESS plants had significantly reduced myrosinase levels and glucosinolate hydrolysis products. Wild-type and MINELESS plants exhibited significant differences in growth parameters such as plant height, leaf traits, matter accumulation, and yield parameters. The growth and developmental pattern of MINELESS plants was relatively slow compared with the wild type. The characteristics of the pure double haploid MINELESS plant are described and its importance for future biochemical, agricultural, dietary, functional genomics, and plant defence studies is discussed. PMID:21778185

  13. Oilseed rape seeds with ablated defence cells of the glucosinolate-myrosinase system. Production and characteristics of double haploid MINELESS plants of Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Ishita; Borgen, Birgit Hafeld; Hansen, Magnor; Honne, Bjørn Ivar; Müller, Caroline; Rohloff, Jens; Rossiter, John Trevor; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2011-10-01

    Oilseed rape and other crop plants of the family Brassicaceae contain a unique defence system known as the glucosinolate-myrosinase system or the 'mustard oil bomb'. The 'mustard oil bomb' which includes myrosinase and glucosinolates is triggered by abiotic and biotic stress, resulting in the formation of toxic products such as nitriles and isothiocyanates. Myrosinase is present in specialist cells known as 'myrosin cells' and can also be known as toxic mines. The myrosin cell idioblasts of Brassica napus were genetically reprogrammed to undergo controlled cell death (ablation) during seed development. These myrosin cell-free plants have been named MINELESS as they lack toxic mines. This has led to the production of oilseed rape with a significant reduction both in myrosinase levels and in the hydrolysis of glucosinolates. Even though the myrosinase activity in MINELESS was very low compared with the wild type, variation was observed. This variability was overcome by producing homozygous seeds. A microspore culture technique involving non-fertile haploid MINELESS plants was developed and these plants were treated with colchicine to produce double haploid MINELESS plants with full fertility. Double haploid MINELESS plants had significantly reduced myrosinase levels and glucosinolate hydrolysis products. Wild-type and MINELESS plants exhibited significant differences in growth parameters such as plant height, leaf traits, matter accumulation, and yield parameters. The growth and developmental pattern of MINELESS plants was relatively slow compared with the wild type. The characteristics of the pure double haploid MINELESS plant are described and its importance for future biochemical, agricultural, dietary, functional genomics, and plant defence studies is discussed.

  14. Spontaneous capture of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) chloroplasts by wild B. rapa: implications for the use of chloroplast transformation for biocontainment.

    PubMed

    Haider, Nadia; Allainguillaume, Joel; Wilkinson, Mike J

    2009-04-01

    Environmental concerns over the cultivation of Genetically Modified (GM) crops largely centre on the ecological consequences following gene flow to wild relatives. One attractive solution is to deploy biocontainment measures that prevent hybridization. Chloroplast transformation is the most advanced biocontainment method but is compromised by chloroplast capture (hybridization through the maternal lineage). To date, however, there is a paucity of information on the frequency of chloroplast capture in the wild. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus, AACC) frequently hybridises with wild Brassica rapa (AA, as paternal parent) and yields B. rapa-like introgressed individuals after only two generations. In this study we used chloroplast CAPS markers that differentiate between the two species to survey wild and weedy populations of B. rapa for the capture of B. napus chloroplasts. A total of 464 B. rapa plants belonging to 14 populations growing either in close proximity to B. napus (i.e. sympatric <5 m) or else were allopatric from the crop (>1 km) were assessed for chloroplast capture using PCR (trnL-F) and CAPS (trnT-L-Xba I) markers. The screen revealed that two sympatric B. rapa populations included 53 plants that possessed the chloroplast of B. napus. In order to discount these B. rapa plants as F(1) crop-wild hybrids, we used a C-genome-specific marker and found that 45 out of 53 plants lacked the C-genome and so were at least second generation introgressants. The most plausible explanation is that these individuals represent multiple cases of chloroplast capture following introgressive hybridisation through the female germ line from the crop. The abundance of such plants in sympatric sites thereby questions whether the use of chloroplast transformation would provide a sufficient biocontainment for GM oilseed rape in the United Kingdom.

  15. A new near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy method for high-throughput analysis of oleic acid and linolenic acid content of single seeds in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Niewitetzki, Oliver; Tillmann, Peter; Becker, Heiko C; Möllers, Christian

    2010-01-13

    The development of oilseed rape cultivars with a high content of oleic acid (18:1) and a low content of linolenic acid (18:3) in the seed oil is an important breeding aim. Oil of this quality is increasingly being sought by the food and the oleochemical industry. Since the oil quality is determined by the genotype of the seed, a selection can be performed among single seeds of segregating populations. For this purpose a high-throughput Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) method using an automated sample presentation unit for single seeds of oilseed rape and a spectrometer equipped with a photodiode array detector was developed. Single-seed analyses have been accomplished with a throughput of up to 800 seeds per hour. Seeds from segregating populations of different origin were analyzed by NIRS and gas chromatography. Calibration equations were developed and validated applying the Modified Partial Least Square regression (MPLS) and LOCAL procedure. In three independent validations, standard errors of prediction corrected for bias between 2.7% and 3.7% for oleic acid and 1.2% and 1.8% for linolenic acid were determined using MPLS. Similar results were obtained applying the LOCAL procedure. The results show that the new high-throughput method can be applied to predict the oleic acid and linolenic acid content of single seeds of oilseed rape.

  16. Dynamics of Nitrogen Uptake and Mobilization in Field-grown Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus) From Stem Extension to Harvest. II. An 15N-labelling-based Simulation Model of N Partitioning Between Vegetative and Reproductive Tissues

    PubMed Central

    MALAGOLI, P.; LAINE, P.; ROSSATO, L.; OURRY, A.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) has often been used as a catch crop to deal with the issue of N leaching, but for this to be effective, prediction of the crop's N uptake capability and N partitioning is required. The aim of this work was to build a compartmental model of N dynamics in oilseed rape, based on the kinetic description of N uptake, partitioning and mobilization in each organ. • Model In this study, logistic and exponential equations were fitted to the N relations of each compartment, especially the leaf at each node. Data previously obtained from an 15N-labelling field experiment was used to quantify the partitioning of total N content, the allocation of N taken up and subsequent changes in the sink/source status for endogenous N in each tissue throughout the growth cycle. • Key Results and Conclusions This modelling approach provides a unique tool for the quantitative estimation of cycling of endogenous N in relation to changes in N uptake at the whole-plant level. Furthermore, as oilseed rape is known to release large amounts of N to the soil during spring through leaf loss, this model was used to identify potential methods for improving the N harvest index of the crop. Simulations showed that N content or yield could be improved by 15 % by optimizing N transfer from vegetative to reproductive tissues and by reducing the residual %N (DW) in abscised leaves. PMID:15802311

  17. Modeling Nitrogen Uptake in Oilseed Rape cv Capitol during a Growth Cycle Using Influx Kinetics of Root Nitrate Transport Systems and Field Experimental Data

    PubMed Central

    Malagoli, Philippe; Lainé, Philippe; Le Deunff, Erwan; Rossato, Laurence; Ney, Bertrand; Ourry, Alain

    2004-01-01

    The use of kinetic equations of NO3- transport systems in oilseed rape (Brassica napus), determined by 15NO3- labeling under controlled conditions, combined with experimental field data from the INRA-Châlons rape database were used to model NO3- uptake during the plant growth cycle. The quantitative effects of different factors such as day/night cycle, ontogenetic stages, root temperature, photosynthetically active radiation, and soil nitrate availability on different components of the constitutive high-affinity transport systems, constitutive low-affinity transport systems, inducible low-affinity transport systems, and inducible high-affinity transport systems of nitrate were then determined to improve the model's predictions. Simulated uptake correlated well with measured values of nitrogen (N) uptake under field conditions for all N fertilization rates tested. Model outputs showed that the high-affinity transport system accounted for about 89% of total NO3- uptake (18% and 71% for constitutive high-affinity transport systems and inducible high-affinity transport systems, respectively) when no fertilizer was applied. The low-affinity transport system accounted for a minor proportion of total N uptake, and its activity was restricted to the early phase of the growth cycle. However, N fertilization in spring increased the duration of its contribution to total N uptake. Overall, data show that this mechanistic and environmentally regulated approach is a powerful means to simulate total N uptake in the field with the advantage of taking both physiologically regulated processes at the overall plant level and specific nitrate transport system characteristics into account. PMID:14671012

  18. The impact of restrictions on neonicotinoid and fipronil insecticides on pest management in maize, oilseed rape and sunflower in eight EU regions.

    PubMed

    Kathage, Jonas; Castañera, Pedro; Alonso-Prados, José Luis; Gómez-Barbero, Manuel; Rodríguez-Cerezo, Emilio

    2017-08-26

    In 2013, the European Commission restricted the use of three neonicotinoids (clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam) and the pyrazole fipronil, widely used to control early season pests. Here, we use original farm survey data to examine the impact of the restrictions on pest management practices in eight regional case studies including maize, oilseed rape and sunflower in seven EU countries. In four case studies, farmers switched to using untreated seeds as no alternative seed treatments were available. In three case studies, farmers switched to using unrestricted neonicotinoid- or pyrethroid-treated seeds. In five case studies, farmers increased the use of soil or foliar treatments, with pyrethroids as the principal insecticide class. Other changes in pest management practices ranged from increased sowing density to more frequent scouting for pests. Many farmers perceived that the time, cost and amount of insecticides required for protecting crops increased, along with pest pressure. Alternative seed treatments were mostly perceived as being less effective than the restricted seed treatments. Farmers generally relied on alternative seed treatments or more soil/foliar treatments in the first growing season after the restrictions. Further study is required to assess the effectiveness and sustainability of these alternatives compared to the restricted insecticides. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Multivariate approach to evaluating the fatty acid composition of seed oil in a doubled haploid population of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Adamska, Elzbieta; Cegielska-Taras, Teresa; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Szała, Laurencja

    2004-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of oil of the zero erucic acid commercial Brassica napus L. is typical for this species. It is rich in oleic acid and contains moderate levels of linoleic and linolenic acid. For human nutrition, it is advantageous primarily to obtain the highest possible content of oleic acid and to maintain the 2:1 ratio of linoleic to linolenic acid, while preserving the average total content of saturated acids. Uni- and multivariate analyses of variance were used for evaluation of doubled haploid lines of winter oilseed rape in respect of five fatty acids: palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0) oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2) and linolenic (C18:3). Some proposals of studying doubled haploid (DH) lines with the use of canonical transformation were also given. In MANOVA, the five original variables (individual fatty acids) were replaced by three 'new' variables (combinations of these acids) and used to evaluate DH lines with respect to the requirements concerning the nutritional role of fatty acids. The first variable was the total content of the saturated acids (C16:0 + C18:0), the second (unchanging) was the content of the monounsaturated acid C18:1, and the third was the difference between polyunsaturated acids, i.e. between linoleic acid, and the doubled content of linolenic acid (C18:2 - 2 x C18:3).

  20. Alleviation of Lead Toxicity by 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Is Related to Elevated Growth, Photosynthesis, and Suppressed Ultrastructural Damages in Oilseed Rape

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Tian; Qin, Yebo; Gill, Rafaqat A.; Ali, Shafaqat

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a widely spread pollutant and leads to diverse morphological and structural changes in the plants. In this study, alleviating role of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was investigated with or without foliar application of ALA (25 mg L−1) in hydroponic environment under different Pb levels (0, 100, and 400 µM). Outcomes stated that plant morphology and photosynthetic attributes were reduced under the application of Pb alone. However, ALA application significantly increased the plant growth and photosynthetic parameters under Pb toxicity. Moreover, ALA also lowered the Pb concentration in shoots and roots under Pb toxicity. The microscopic studies depicted that exogenously applied ALA ameliorated the Pb stress and significantly improved the cell ultrastructures. After application of ALA under Pb stress, mesophyll cell had well-developed nucleus and chloroplast having a number of starch granules. Moreover, micrographs illustrated that root tip cell contained well-developed nucleus, a number of mitochondria, and golgi bodies. These results proposed that under 15-day Pb-induced stress, ALA improved the plant growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic parameters, and ultrastructural modifications in leaf mesophyll and root tip cells of the B. napus plants. PMID:24683549

  1. Comparison of the Oilseed rape mosaic virus and Tobacco mosaic virus movement proteins (MP) reveals common and dissimilar MP functions for tobamovirus spread.

    PubMed

    Niehl, Annette; Pasquier, Adrien; Ferriol, Inmaculada; Mély, Yves; Heinlein, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a longstanding model for studying virus movement and macromolecular transport through plasmodesmata (PD). Its movement protein (MP) interacts with cortical microtubule (MT)-associated ER sites (C-MERs) to facilitate the formation and transport of ER-associated viral replication complexes (VRCs) along the ER-actin network towards PD. To investigate whether this movement mechanism might be conserved between tobamoviruses, we compared the functions of Oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV) MP with those of MP(TMV). We show that MP(ORMV) supports TMV movement more efficiently than MP(TMV). Moreover, MP(ORMV) localizes to C-MERs like MP(TMV) but accumulates to lower levels and does not localize to larger inclusions/VRCs or along MTs, patterns regularly seen for MP(TMV). Our findings extend the role of C-MERs in viral cell-to-cell transport to a virus commonly used for functional genomics in Arabidopsis. Moreover, accumulation of tobamoviral MP in inclusions or along MTs is not required for virus movement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Improved biogas production and biodegradation of oilseed rape straw by using kitchen waste and duck droppings as co-substrates in two-phase anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuqiao; Hong, Feng; Lu, Yong; Li, Xianning; Liu, Hengming

    2017-01-01

    Oilseed rape straw (ORS) is a kind of biorefractory waste widely existing in the rural area of China, which is highly suitable to mix with kitchen waste (KW) and duck droppings (DD) in two-phase anaerobic digestion (AD). This research introduced the importance of KW and DD addition to improve the biogas production and biodegradation of ORS. A set of comparative experiments were conducted on two-phase mono- and co-digestion with organic load of 60 g VS/L. The total methane yield (TMY) and the biodegradation of ORS of co-digestions were obviously improving, and the synergistic effect found in the two-phase co-digestions. The optimum mixing ratio of ORS, KW and DD was 50:40:10, and the corresponding TMY and VS degradation rate of ORS were 374.5 mL/g VS and 49.7%, respectively. Addition of KW and DD maintained the pH within the optimal range for the hydrolyzing-acidification, improved the phase separation and buffering capacity of AD system.

  3. Structural Changes in Senescing Oilseed Rape Leaves at Tissue and Subcellular Levels Monitored by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxometry through Water Status

    PubMed Central

    Musse, Maja; De Franceschi, Loriane; Cambert, Mireille; Sorin, Clément; Le Caherec, Françoise; Burel, Agnès; Bouchereau, Alain; Mariette, François; Leport, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen use efficiency is relatively low in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) due to weak nitrogen remobilization during leaf senescence. Monitoring the kinetics of water distribution associated with the reorganization of cell structures, therefore, would be valuable to improve the characterization of nutrient recycling in leaf tissues and the associated senescence processes. In this study, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry was used to describe water distribution and status at the cellular level in different leaf ranks of well-watered plants. It was shown to be able to detect slight variations in the evolution of senescence. The NMR results were linked to physiological characterization of the leaves and to light and electron micrographs. A relationship between cell hydration and leaf senescence was revealed and associated with changes in the NMR signal. The relative intensities and the transverse relaxation times of the NMR signal components associated with vacuole water were positively correlated with senescence, describing water uptake and vacuole and cell enlargement. Moreover, the relative intensity of the NMR signal that we assigned to the chloroplast water decreased during the senescence process, in agreement with the decrease in relative chloroplast volume estimated from micrographs. The results are discussed on the basis of water flux occurring at the cellular level during senescence. One of the main applications of this study would be for plant phenotyping, especially for plants under environmental stress such as nitrogen starvation. PMID:23903438

  4. A Comparative Study of Proteolytic Mechanisms during Leaf Senescence of Four Genotypes of Winter Oilseed Rape Highlighted Relevant Physiological and Molecular Traits for NRE Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Girondé, Alexandra; Poret, Marine; Etienne, Philippe; Trouverie, Jacques; Bouchereau, Alain; Le Cahérec, Françoise; Leport, Laurent; Niogret, Marie-Françoise; Avice, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Winter oilseed rape is characterized by a low N use efficiency related to a weak leaf N remobilization efficiency (NRE) at vegetative stages. By investigating the natural genotypic variability of leaf NRE, our goal was to characterize the relevant physiological traits and the main protease classes associated with an efficient proteolysis and high leaf NRE in response to ample or restricted nitrate supply. The degradation rate of soluble proteins and D1 protein (a thylakoid-bound protein) were correlated to N remobilization, except for the genotype Samouraï which showed a low NRE despite high levels of proteolysis. Under restricted nitrate conditions, high levels of soluble protein degradation were associated with serine, cysteine and aspartic proteases at acidic pH. Low leaf NRE was related to a weak proteolysis of both soluble and thylakoid-bound proteins. The results obtained on the genotype Samouraï suggest that the timing between the onset of proteolysis and abscission could be a determinant. The specific involvement of acidic proteases suggests that autophagy and/or senescence-associated vacuoles are implicated in N remobilization under low N conditions. The data revealed that the rate of D1 degradation could be a relevant indicator of leaf NRE and might be used as a tool for plant breeding. PMID:27135221

  5. Is the remobilization of S and N reserves for seed filling of winter oilseed rape modulated by sulphate restrictions occurring at different growth stages?

    PubMed Central

    Dubousset, L.; Etienne, P.; Avice, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    How the remobilization of S and N reserves can meet the needs of seeds of oilseed rape subject to limitation of S fertilization remains largely unclear. Thus, this survey aims to determine the incidence of sulphate restriction [low S (LS)] applied at bolting [growth stage (GS) 32], visible bud (GS 53), and start of pod filling (GS 70) on source–sink relationships for S and N, and on the dynamics of endogenous/exogenous S and N contributing to seed yield and quality. Sulphate restrictions applied at GS 32, GS 53, and GS 70 were annotated LS32, LS53, and LS70. Long-term 34SO42− and 15NO3− labelling was used to explore S and N partitioning at the whole-plant level. In LS53, the sulphur remobilization efficiency (SRE) to seeds increased, but not enough to maintain seed quality. In LS32, an early S remobilization from leaves provided S for root, stem, and pod growth, but the subsequent demand for seed development was not met adequately and the N utilization efficiency (NUtE) was reduced when compared with high S (HS). The highest SRE (65±1.2% of the remobilized S) associated with an efficient foliar S mobilization (with minimal residual S concentrations of 0.1–0.2% dry matter) was observed under LS70 treatment, which did not affect yield components. PMID:20693411

  6. Is the remobilization of S and N reserves for seed filling of winter oilseed rape modulated by sulphate restrictions occurring at different growth stages?

    PubMed

    Dubousset, L; Etienne, P; Avice, J C

    2010-10-01

    How the remobilization of S and N reserves can meet the needs of seeds of oilseed rape subject to limitation of S fertilization remains largely unclear. Thus, this survey aims to determine the incidence of sulphate restriction [low S (LS)] applied at bolting [growth stage (GS) 32], visible bud (GS 53), and start of pod filling (GS 70) on source-sink relationships for S and N, and on the dynamics of endogenous/exogenous S and N contributing to seed yield and quality. Sulphate restrictions applied at GS 32, GS 53, and GS 70 were annotated LS(32), LS(53), and LS(70). Long-term (34)SO(4)(2-) and (15)NO(3)(-) labelling was used to explore S and N partitioning at the whole-plant level. In LS(53), the sulphur remobilization efficiency (SRE) to seeds increased, but not enough to maintain seed quality. In LS(32), an early S remobilization from leaves provided S for root, stem, and pod growth, but the subsequent demand for seed development was not met adequately and the N utilization efficiency (NUtE) was reduced when compared with high S (HS). The highest SRE (65 ± 1.2% of the remobilized S) associated with an efficient foliar S mobilization (with minimal residual S concentrations of 0.1-0.2% dry matter) was observed under LS(70) treatment, which did not affect yield components.

  7. Alleviation of lead toxicity by 5-aminolevulinic acid is related to elevated growth, photosynthesis, and suppressed ultrastructural damages in oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tian; Ali, Basharat; Qin, Yebo; Malik, Zaffar; Gill, Rafaqat A; Ali, Shafaqat; Zhou, Weijun

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a widely spread pollutant and leads to diverse morphological and structural changes in the plants. In this study, alleviating role of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was investigated with or without foliar application of ALA (25 mg L(-1)) in hydroponic environment under different Pb levels (0, 100, and 400 µM). Outcomes stated that plant morphology and photosynthetic attributes were reduced under the application of Pb alone. However, ALA application significantly increased the plant growth and photosynthetic parameters under Pb toxicity. Moreover, ALA also lowered the Pb concentration in shoots and roots under Pb toxicity. The microscopic studies depicted that exogenously applied ALA ameliorated the Pb stress and significantly improved the cell ultrastructures. After application of ALA under Pb stress, mesophyll cell had well-developed nucleus and chloroplast having a number of starch granules. Moreover, micrographs illustrated that root tip cell contained well-developed nucleus, a number of mitochondria, and golgi bodies. These results proposed that under 15-day Pb-induced stress, ALA improved the plant growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic parameters, and ultrastructural modifications in leaf mesophyll and root tip cells of the B. napus plants.

  8. Effects on weed and invertebrate abundance and diversity of herbicide management in genetically modified herbicide-tolerant winter-sown oilseed rape

    PubMed Central

    Bohan, David A; Boffey, Caroline W.H; Brooks, David R; Clark, Suzanne J; Dewar, Alan M; Firbank, Les G; Haughton, Alison J; Hawes, Cathy; Heard, Matthew S; May, Mike J; Osborne, Juliet L; Perry, Joe N; Rothery, Peter; Roy, David B; Scott, Rod J; Squire, Geoff R; Woiwod, Ian P; Champion, Gillian T

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of the herbicide management associated with genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) winter oilseed rape (WOSR) on weed and invertebrate abundance and diversity by testing the null hypothesis that there is no difference between the effects of herbicide management of GMHT WOSR and that of comparable conventional varieties. For total weeds there were few treatment differences between GMHT and conventional cropping, but large and opposite treatment effects were observed for dicots and monocots. In the GMHT treatment, there were fewer dicots and more monocots than in conventional crops. At harvest, dicot biomass and seed rain in the GMHT treatment were one-third of that in the conventional, while monocot biomass was threefold greater and monocot seed rain almost fivefold greater in the GMHT treatment than in the conventional. These differential effects persisted into the following two years of the rotation. Bees and butterflies that forage and select for dicot weeds were less abundant in GMHT WOSR management in July. Year totals for Collembola were greater under GMHT management. There were few other treatment effects on invertebrates, despite the marked effects of herbicide management on the weeds. PMID:15799941

  9. Electrocatalytic oxidation of phytohormone salicylic acid at copper nanoparticles-modified gold electrode and its detection in oilseed rape infected with fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhan; Wei, Fang; Liu, Sheng-Yi; Xu, Qiao; Huang, Jun-Yan; Dong, Xu-Yan; Yu, Jiu-Hong; Yang, Qin; Zhao, Yuan-Di; Chen, Hong

    2010-01-15

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a biological substance that acts as a phytohormone and plays an important role in signal transduction in plants. It is important to accurately and sensitively detect SA levels. A gold electrode modified with copper nanoparticles was used to assay the electrocatalytic oxidation of salicylic acid. It was found that the electrochemical behavior of salicylic acid was greatly improved at copper nanoparticles, indicating that anodic oxidation could be catalyzed at copper nanoparticles. And the pH had remarkable effect on the electrochemical process, a very well-defined oxidation peak appeared at pH 13.3 (0.2M NaOH). The kinetics parameters of this process were calculated and the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k) was determined to be 1.34x10(-3)cms(-1), and (1-alpha)n(alpha) was 1.22. The gold electrode modified with copper nanoparticles could detect SA at a higher sensitivity than common electrodes. The electrode was used to detect the SA levels in oilseed rape infected with the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The results showed that the SA concentration reached a maximum during the 10th-25th hours after infection. This result was very similar to that determined by HPLC, indicating that the gold electrodes modified with copper nanoparticles could be used as salicylic acid sensors.

  10. Synergistic Enhancement of the Antifungal Activity of Wheat and Barley Thionins by Radish and Oilseed Rape 2S Albumins and by Barley Trypsin Inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Terras, FRG.; Schoofs, HME.; Thevissen, K.; Osborn, R. W.; Vanderleyden, J.; Cammue, BPA.; Broekaert, W. F.

    1993-01-01

    Although thionins and 2S albumins are generally considered as storage proteins, both classes of seed proteins are known to inhibit the growth of pathogenic fungi. We have now found that the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) or barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) thionin concentration required for 50% inhibition of fungal growth is lowered 2- to 73-fold when combined with 2S albumins (at sub- or noninhibitory concentrations) from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) or oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). Furthermore, the thionin antifungal activity is synergistically enhanced (2- to 33-fold) by either the small subunit or the large subunit of the radish 2S albumins. Three other 2S albumin-like proteins, the barley trypsin inhibitor and two barley Bowman-Birk-type trypsin inhibitor isoforms, also act synergistically with the thionins (2- to 55-fold). The synergistic activity of thionins combined with 2S albumins is restricted to filamentous fungi and to some Gram-positive bacteria, whereas Gram-negative bacteria, yeast, cultured human cells, and erythrocytes do not show an increased sensitivity to thionin/albumin combinations (relative to the sensitivity to the thionins alone). Scanning electron microscopy and measurement of K+ leakage from fungal hyphae revealed that 2S albumins have the same mode of action as thionins, namely the permeabilization of the hyphal plasmalemma. Moreover, 2S albumins and thionins act synergistically in their ability to permeabilize fungal membranes. PMID:12232024

  11. Field study results on the probability and risk of a horizontal gene transfer from transgenic herbicide-resistant oilseed rape pollen to gut bacteria of bees.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Kathrin I; Tebbe, Christoph C

    2007-06-01

    Bees are specifically subjected to intimate contacts with transgenic plants due to their feeding activities on pollen. In this study, the probability and ecological risk of a gene transfer from pollen to gut bacteria of bees was investigated with larvae of Apis mellifera (honeybee), Bombus terrestris (bumblebee), and Osmia bicornis (red mason bee), all collected at a flowering transgenic oilseed rape field. The plants were genetically engineered with the pat-gene, conferring resistance against glufosinate (syn. phosphinothricin), a glutamine-synthetase inhibitor in plants and microorganisms. Ninety-six bacterial strains were isolated and characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, revealing that Firmicutes represented 58% of the isolates, Actinobacteria 31%, and Proteobacteria 11%, respectively. Of all isolates, 40% were resistant to 1 mM glufosinate, and 11% even to 10 mM. Resistant phenotypes were found in all phylogenetic groups. None of the resistant phenotypes carried the recombinant pat-gene in its genome. The threshold of detecting gene transfer in this field study was relatively insensitive due to the high background of natural glufosinate resistance. However, the broad occurrence of glufosinate-resistant bacteria from different phylogenetic groups suggests that rare events of horizontal gene transfer will not add significantly to natural bacterial glufosinate resistance.

  12. Improved biogas production and biodegradation of oilseed rape straw by using kitchen waste and duck droppings as co-substrates in two-phase anaerobic digestion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuqiao; Hong, Feng; Lu, Yong; Liu, Hengming

    2017-01-01

    Oilseed rape straw (ORS) is a kind of biorefractory waste widely existing in the rural area of China, which is highly suitable to mix with kitchen waste (KW) and duck droppings (DD) in two-phase anaerobic digestion (AD). This research introduced the importance of KW and DD addition to improve the biogas production and biodegradation of ORS. A set of comparative experiments were conducted on two-phase mono- and co-digestion with organic load of 60 g VS/L. The total methane yield (TMY) and the biodegradation of ORS of co-digestions were obviously improving, and the synergistic effect found in the two-phase co-digestions. The optimum mixing ratio of ORS, KW and DD was 50:40:10, and the corresponding TMY and VS degradation rate of ORS were 374.5 mL/g VS and 49.7%, respectively. Addition of KW and DD maintained the pH within the optimal range for the hydrolyzing-acidification, improved the phase separation and buffering capacity of AD system. PMID:28767709

  13. A Comparative Study of Proteolytic Mechanisms during Leaf Senescence of Four Genotypes of Winter Oilseed Rape Highlighted Relevant Physiological and Molecular Traits for NRE Improvement.

    PubMed

    Girondé, Alexandra; Poret, Marine; Etienne, Philippe; Trouverie, Jacques; Bouchereau, Alain; Le Cahérec, Françoise; Leport, Laurent; Niogret, Marie-Françoise; Avice, Jean-Christophe

    2015-12-22

    Winter oilseed rape is characterized by a low N use efficiency related to a weak leaf N remobilization efficiency (NRE) at vegetative stages. By investigating the natural genotypic variability of leaf NRE, our goal was to characterize the relevant physiological traits and the main protease classes associated with an efficient proteolysis and high leaf NRE in response to ample or restricted nitrate supply. The degradation rate of soluble proteins and D1 protein (a thylakoid-bound protein) were correlated to N remobilization, except for the genotype Samouraï which showed a low NRE despite high levels of proteolysis. Under restricted nitrate conditions, high levels of soluble protein degradation were associated with serine, cysteine and aspartic proteases at acidic pH. Low leaf NRE was related to a weak proteolysis of both soluble and thylakoid-bound proteins. The results obtained on the genotype Samouraï suggest that the timing between the onset of proteolysis and abscission could be a determinant. The specific involvement of acidic proteases suggests that autophagy and/or senescence-associated vacuoles are implicated in N remobilization under low N conditions. The data revealed that the rate of D1 degradation could be a relevant indicator of leaf NRE and might be used as a tool for plant breeding.

  14. Changes in tocopherol and plastochromanol-8 contents in seeds and oil of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) during storage as influenced by temperature and air oxygen.

    PubMed

    Goffman, F D; Möllers, C

    2000-05-01

    The changes in tocopherol and plastochromanol-8 contents in seeds and oil of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) were studied during a storage period of 24 weeks at different incubation temperatures and exposure to air oxygen (open and closed flasks). In the extracted oil, total tocopherol content remained unaltered at 5 and 20 degrees C throughout the 24 weeks of storage. At 40 degrees C, a beginning degradation was observed already after 4 weeks in both open and closed flasks; the alpha-tocopherol content was affected most, followed by gamma-tocopherol and plastochromanol-8. After 16 weeks at 40 degrees C, the total tocopherol content in the oil was reduced by more than 90%. In intact seeds, no tocopherol degradation was observed; only the seeds incubated at 40 degrees C and in open flasks showed slightly lower tocopherol contents. However, the analysis of the tocopherol composition in the stored seeds showed a decrease in the alpha-tocopherol content and an increase in the gamma-tocopherol content, which resulted in a decreasing alpha-/gamma-tocopherol ratio. This trend was most apparent at 40 degrees C and after 24 weeks of storage. A reduction of plastochromanol-8 occurred only at 40 degrees C and was more pronounced in open flasks. At 40 degrees C and in closed flasks a gradual increase in the content of alpha-tocotrienol was observed, a compound normally not accumulated in rapeseed.

  15. Metabolic network reconstruction and flux variability analysis of storage synthesis in developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, J.; Schwender, J.

    2011-08-01

    Computational simulation of large-scale biochemical networks can be used to analyze and predict the metabolic behavior of an organism, such as a developing seed. Based on the biochemical literature, pathways databases and decision rules defining reaction directionality we reconstructed bna572, a stoichiometric metabolic network model representing Brassica napus seed storage metabolism. In the highly compartmentalized network about 25% of the 572 reactions are transport reactions interconnecting nine subcellular compartments and the environment. According to known physiological capabilities of developing B. napus embryos, four nutritional conditions were defined to simulate heterotrophy or photoheterotrophy, each in combination with the availability of inorganic nitrogen (ammonia, nitrate) or amino acids as nitrogen sources. Based on mathematical linear optimization the optimal solution space was comprehensively explored by flux variability analysis, thereby identifying for each reaction the range of flux values allowable under optimality. The range and variability of flux values was then categorized into flux variability types. Across the four nutritional conditions, approximately 13% of the reactions have variable flux values and 10-11% are substitutable (can be inactive), both indicating metabolic redundancy given, for example, by isoenzymes, subcellular compartmentalization or the presence of alternative pathways. About one-third of the reactions are never used and are associated with pathways that are suboptimal for storage synthesis. Fifty-seven reactions change flux variability type among the different nutritional conditions, indicating their function in metabolic adjustments. This predictive modeling framework allows analysis and quantitative exploration of storage metabolism of a developing B. napus oilseed.

  16. Migration patterns and changes in population biology associated with the worldwide spread of the oilseed rape pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans.

    PubMed

    Dilmaghani, A; Gladieux, P; Gout, L; Giraud, T; Brunner, P C; Stachowiak, A; Balesdent, M-H; Rouxel, T

    2012-05-01

    Pathogen introductions into novel areas can lead to the emergence of new fungal diseases of plants. Understanding the origin, introduction pathways, possible changes in reproductive system and population size of fungal pathogens is essential in devising an integrated strategy for the control of these diseases. We used minisatellite markers to infer the worldwide invasion history of the fungal plant pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans, which causes stem canker (blackleg) of oilseed and vegetable brassicas. Clustering analyses partitioned genotypes into distinct populations corresponding to major geographic regions, along with two differentiated populations in Western Canada. Comparison of invasion scenarios using Approximate Bayesian Computation suggested an origin of the pathogen in the USA, the region where epidemics were first recorded, and independent introductions from there over the last few decades into Eastern Canada (Ontario), Europe and Australia. The population in Western Canada appeared to be founded from a source in Ontario and the population in Chile resulted from an admixture between multiple sources. A bottleneck was inferred for the introduction into Western Canada but not into Europe, Ontario or Australia. Clonality appeared high in Western Canada, possibly because environmental conditions there were less conducive to sexual reproduction. Leptosphaeria maculans is a model invasive pathogen with contrasting features in different regions: shallow population structure, high genetic variability and regular sexual recombination in some regions, by comparison with reduced genetic variability, high rates of asexual multiplication, strong population structure or admixture in others.

  17. Genome wide identification of the immunophilin gene family in Leptosphaeria maculans: a causal agent of Blackleg disease in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus).

    PubMed

    Singh, Khushwant; Zouhar, Miloslav; Mazakova, Jana; Rysanek, Pavel

    2014-10-01

    Abstract Phoma stem canker (blackleg) is a disease of world-wide importance on oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and can cause serious losses for crops globally. The disease is caused by dothideomycetous fungus, Leptosphaeria maculans, which is highly virulent/aggressive. Cyclophilins (CYPs) and FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs) are ubiquitous proteins belonging to the peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) family. They are collectively referred to as immunophilins (IMMs). In the present study, IMM genes, CYP and FKBP in haploid strain v23.1.3 of L. maculans genome, were identified and classified. Twelve CYPs and five FKBPs were determined in total. Domain architecture analysis revealed the presence of a conserved cyclophilin-like domain (CLD) in the case of CYPs and FKBP_C in the case of FKBPs. Interestingly, IMMs in L. maculans also subgrouped into single domain (SD) and multidomain (MD) proteins. They were primarily found to be localized in cytoplasm, nuclei, and mitochondria. Homologous and orthologous gene pairs were also determined by comparison with the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Remarkably, IMMs of L. maculans contain shorter introns in comparison to exons. Moreover, CYPs, in contrast with FKBPs, contain few exons. However, two CYPs were determined as being intronless. The expression profile of IMMs in both mycelium and infected primary leaves of B. napus demonstrated their potential role during infection. Secondary structure analysis revealed the presence of atypical eight β strands and two α helices fold architecture. Gene ontology analysis of IMMs predicted their significant role in protein folding and PPIase activity. Taken together, our findings for the first time present new prospects of this highly conserved gene family in phytopathogenic fungus.

  18. Different waves of effector genes with contrasted genomic location are expressed by Leptosphaeria maculans during cotyledon and stem colonization of oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Gervais, Julie; Plissonneau, Clémence; Linglin, Juliette; Meyer, Michel; Labadie, Karine; Cruaud, Corinne; Fudal, Isabelle; Rouxel, Thierry; Balesdent, Marie-Hélène

    2017-10-01

    Leptosphaeria maculans, the causal agent of stem canker disease, colonizes oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in two stages: a short and early colonization stage corresponding to cotyledon or leaf colonization, and a late colonization stage during which the fungus colonizes systemically and symptomlessly the plant during several months before stem canker appears. To date, the determinants of the late colonization stage are poorly understood; L. maculans may either successfully escape plant defences, leading to stem canker development, or the plant may develop an 'adult-stage' resistance reducing canker incidence. To obtain an insight into these determinants, we performed an RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) pilot project comparing fungal gene expression in infected cotyledons and in symptomless or necrotic stems. Despite the low fraction of fungal material in infected stems, sufficient fungal transcripts were detected and a large number of fungal genes were expressed, thus validating the feasibility of the approach. Our analysis showed that all avirulence genes previously identified are under-expressed during stem colonization compared with cotyledon colonization. A validation RNA-seq experiment was then performed to investigate the expression of candidate effector genes during systemic colonization. Three hundred and seven 'late' effector candidates, under-expressed in the early colonization stage and over-expressed in the infected stems, were identified. Finally, our analysis revealed a link between the regulation of expression of effectors and their genomic location: the 'late' effector candidates, putatively involved in systemic colonization, are located in gene-rich genomic regions, whereas the 'early' effector genes, over-expressed in the early colonization stage, are located in gene-poor regions of the genome. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  19. Characterization of the interactions between architecture and source-sink relationships in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus) using the GreenLab model.

    PubMed

    Jullien, Alexandra; Mathieu, Amélie; Allirand, Jean-Michel; Pinet, Amélie; de Reffye, Philippe; Cournède, Paul-Henry; Ney, Bertrand

    2011-04-01

    This study aimed to characterize the interaction between architecture and source-sink relationships in winter oilseed rape (WOSR): do the costs of ramification compromise the source-sink ratio during seed filling? The GreenLab model is a good candidate to address this question because it has been already used to describe interactions between source-sink relationships and architecture for other species. However, its adaptation to WOSR is a challenge because of the complexity of its developmental scheme, especially during the reproductive phase. Equations were added in GreenLab to compute expansion delays for ramification, flowering of each axis and photosynthesis of pods including the energetic cost of oil synthesis. Experimental field data were used to estimate morphological parameters while source-sink parameters of the model were estimated by adjustment of model outputs to the data. Ecophysiological outputs were used to assess the sources/sink relationships during the whole growth cycle. First results indicated that, at the plant scale, the model correctly simulates the dynamics of organ growth. However, at the organ scale, errors were observed that could be explained either by secondary growth that was not incorporated or by uncertainties in morphological parameters (durations of expansion and life). Ecophysiological outputs highlighted the dramatic negative impact of ramification on the source-sink ratio, as well as the decrease in this ratio during seed filling despite pod envelope photosynthesis that allowed significant biomass production to be maintained. This work is a promising first step in the construction of a structure-function model for a plant as complex as WOSR. Once tested for other environments and/or genotypes, the model can be used for studies on WOSR architectural plasticity.

  20. Genome Wide Identification of the Immunophilin Gene Family in Leptosphaeria maculans: A Causal Agent of Blackleg Disease in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus)

    PubMed Central

    Zouhar, Miloslav; Mazakova, Jana; Rysanek, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Phoma stem canker (blackleg) is a disease of world-wide importance on oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and can cause serious losses for crops globally. The disease is caused by dothideomycetous fungus, Leptosphaeria maculans, which is highly virulent/aggressive. Cyclophilins (CYPs) and FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs) are ubiquitous proteins belonging to the peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) family. They are collectively referred to as immunophilins (IMMs). In the present study, IMM genes, CYP and FKBP in haploid strain v23.1.3 of L. maculans genome, were identified and classified. Twelve CYPs and five FKBPs were determined in total. Domain architecture analysis revealed the presence of a conserved cyclophilin-like domain (CLD) in the case of CYPs and FKBP_C in the case of FKBPs. Interestingly, IMMs in L. maculans also subgrouped into single domain (SD) and multidomain (MD) proteins. They were primarily found to be localized in cytoplasm, nuclei, and mitochondria. Homologous and orthologous gene pairs were also determined by comparison with the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Remarkably, IMMs of L. maculans contain shorter introns in comparison to exons. Moreover, CYPs, in contrast with FKBPs, contain few exons. However, two CYPs were determined as being intronless. The expression profile of IMMs in both mycelium and infected primary leaves of B. napus demonstrated their potential role during infection. Secondary structure analysis revealed the presence of atypical eight β strands and two α helices fold architecture. Gene ontology analysis of IMMs predicted their significant role in protein folding and PPIase activity. Taken together, our findings for the first time present new prospects of this highly conserved gene family in phytopathogenic fungus. PMID:25259854

  1. Measurement and modelling of glyphosate fate compared with that of herbicides replaced as a result of the introduction of glyphosate-resistant oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Mamy, Laure; Gabrielle, Benoit; Barriuso, Enrique

    2008-03-01

    Crops resistant to glyphosate may mitigate the increasing contamination of the environment by herbicides, since their weeding requires smaller amounts of herbicides and fewer active ingredients. However, there are few published data comparing the fate of glyphosate with that of substitute herbicides under similar soil and climatic conditions. The objectives of the work reported here were (i) to evaluate and compare the fate in soil in field conditions of glyphosate, as used on glyphosate-resistant oilseed rape, with that of two herbicides frequently used for weed control on the same crop, albeit non-resistant: trifluralin and metazachlor, and (ii) to compare field results with predictions of the pesticide root zone model (PRZM), parameterized with laboratory data. Dissipation and vertical distribution in the soil profile of glyphosate, trifluralin and metazachlor were monitored in an experimental site located in Eastern France for 1 year. Herbicide persistence in the field increased as follows: metazachlor < glyphosate < trifluralin, contrary to laboratory results showing glyphosate to be least persistent. The main metabolite of glyphosate-aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA)-was more persistent than glyphosate. AMPA and trifluralin had the largest vertical mobility, followed by metazachlor and glyphosate. PRZM underestimated the dissipation rate of glyphosate in the field and the formation of AMPA, but its predictions for trifluralin and metazachlor were correct. The simulation of herbicides and AMPA distribution in the soil profile was satisfactory, but the mobility of trifluralin and metazachlor was slightly underestimated, probably because PRZM ignores preferential flow. In general, data from the laboratory allowed an acceptable parameterization of the model, as indicated by goodness-of-fit indices. Because of the detection of AMPA in the deep soil layer, the replacement of both trifluralin and metazachlor with glyphosate might not contribute to decreasing

  2. A novel Brassica–rhizotron system to unravel the dynamic changes in root system architecture of oilseed rape under phosphorus deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Pan; Ding, Guang-Da; Cai, Hong-Mei; Jin, Ke-Mo; Broadley, Martin Roger; Xu, Fang-Sen; Shi, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims An important adaptation of plants to phosphorus (P) deficiency is to alter root system architecture (RSA) to increase P acquisition from the soil, but soil-based observations of RSA are technically challenging, especially in mature plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the root development and RSA of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under low and high soil P conditions during an entire growth cycle. Methods A new large Brassica–rhizotron system (approx. 118-litre volume) was developed to study the RSA dynamics of B. napus ‘Zhongshuang11’ in soils, using top-soils supplemented with low P (LP) or high P (HP) for a full plant growth period. Total root length (TRL), root tip number (RTN), root length density (RLD), biomass and seed yield traits were measured. Key Results TRL and RTN increased more rapidly in HP than LP plants from seedling to flowering stages. Both traits declined from flowering to silique stages, and then increased slightly in HP plants; in contrast, root senescence was observed in LP plants. RSA parameters measured from the polycarbonate plates were empirically consistent with analyses of excavated roots. Seed yield and shoot dry weights were closely associated positively with root dry weights, TRL, RLD and RTN at both HP and LP. Conclusions The Brassica–rhizotron system is an effective method for soil-based root phenotyping across an entire growth cycle. Given that root senescence is likely to occur earlier under low P conditions, crop P deficiency is likely to affect late water and nitrogen uptake, which is critical for efficient resource use and optimal crop yields. PMID:27279575

  3. Differences between winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars in nitrogen starvation-induced leaf senescence are governed by leaf-inherent rather than root-derived signals.

    PubMed

    Koeslin-Findeklee, Fabian; Becker, Martin A; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas; Horst, Walter J

    2015-07-01

    Nitrogen (N) efficiency of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) line-cultivars (cvs.), defined as high grain yield under N limitation, has been primarily attributed to maintained N uptake during reproductive growth (N uptake efficiency) in combination with delayed senescence of the older leaves accompanied with maintained photosynthetic capacity (functional stay-green). However, it is not clear whether genotypic variation in N starvation-induced leaf senescence is due to leaf-inherent factors and/or governed by root-mediated signals. Therefore, the N-efficient and stay-green cvs. NPZ-1 and Apex were reciprocally grafted with the N-inefficient and early-senescing cvs. NPZ-2 and Capitol, respectively and grown in hydroponics. The senescence status of older leaves after 12 days of N starvation assessed by SPAD, photosynthesis and the expression of the senescence-specific cysteine protease gene SAG12-1 revealed that the stay-green phenotype of the cvs. NPZ-1 and Apex under N starvation was primarily under the control of leaf-inherent factors. The same four cultivars were submitted to N starvation for up to 12 days in a time-course experiment. The specific leaf contents of biologically active and inactive cytokinins (CKs) and the expression of genes involved in CK homeostasis revealed that under N starvation leaves of early-senescing cultivars were characterized by inactivation of biologically active CKs, whereas in stay-green cultivars synthesis, activation, binding of and response to biologically active CKs were favoured. These results suggest that the homeostasis of biologically active CKs was the predominant leaf-inherent factor for cultivar differences in N starvation-induced leaf senescence and thus N efficiency. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  4. Potential of genetically modified oilseed rape for biofuels in Austria: Land use patterns and coexistence constraints could decrease domestic feedstock production

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Dietmar; Eckerstorfer, Michael; Pascher, Kathrin; Essl, Franz; Zulka, Klaus Peter

    2013-01-01

    Like other EU Member States, Austria will meet the substitution target of the EU European Renewable Energy Directive for transportation almost exclusively by first generation biofuels, primarily biodiesel from oilseed rape (OSR). Genetically modified (GM) plants have been promoted as a new option for biofuel production as they promise higher yield or higher quality feedstock. We tested implications of GM OSR application for biodiesel production in Austria by means of high resolution spatially explicit simulation of 140 different coexistence scenarios within six main OSR cropping regions in Austria (2400 km2). We identified structural land use characteristics such as field size, land use diversity, land holding patterns and the proportion of the target crop as the predominant factors which influence overall production of OSR in a coexistence scenario. Assuming isolation distances of 800 m and non-GM-OSR proportions of at least 10% resulted in a loss of area for cultivation of OSR in all study areas ranging from −4.5% to more than −25%, depending on the percentage of GM farmers and on the region. We could show that particularly the current primary OSR cropping regions are largely unsuitable for coexistence and would suffer from a net loss of OSR area even at isolation distances of 400 or 800 m. Coexistence constraints associated with application of GM OSR are likely to offset possible GM gains by substantially reducing farmland for OSR cultivation, thus contradicting the political aim to increase domestic OSR area to meet the combined demands of food, feed and biofuel production. PMID:26109750

  5. Characterization of the interactions between architecture and source–sink relationships in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus) using the GreenLab model

    PubMed Central

    Jullien, Alexandra; Mathieu, Amélie; Allirand, Jean-Michel; Pinet, Amélie; de Reffye, Philippe; Cournède, Paul-Henry; Ney, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims This study aimed to characterize the interaction between architecture and source–sink relationships in winter oilseed rape (WOSR): do the costs of ramification compromise the source–sink ratio during seed filling? The GreenLab model is a good candidate to address this question because it has been already used to describe interactions between source–sink relationships and architecture for other species. However, its adaptation to WOSR is a challenge because of the complexity of its developmental scheme, especially during the reproductive phase. Methods Equations were added in GreenLab to compute expansion delays for ramification, flowering of each axis and photosynthesis of pods including the energetic cost of oil synthesis. Experimental field data were used to estimate morphological parameters while source–sink parameters of the model were estimated by adjustment of model outputs to the data. Ecophysiological outputs were used to assess the sources/sink relationships during the whole growth cycle. Key Results First results indicated that, at the plant scale, the model correctly simulates the dynamics of organ growth. However, at the organ scale, errors were observed that could be explained either by secondary growth that was not incorporated or by uncertainties in morphological parameters (durations of expansion and life). Ecophysiological outputs highlighted the dramatic negative impact of ramification on the source–sink ratio, as well as the decrease in this ratio during seed filling despite pod envelope photosynthesis that allowed significant biomass production to be maintained. Conclusions This work is a promising first step in the construction of a structure–function model for a plant as complex as WOSR. Once tested for other environments and/or genotypes, the model can be used for studies on WOSR architectural plasticity. PMID:20980324

  6. Differences between winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars in nitrogen starvation-induced leaf senescence are governed by leaf-inherent rather than root-derived signals

    PubMed Central

    Koeslin-Findeklee, Fabian; Becker, Martin A.; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas; Horst, Walter J.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) efficiency of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) line-cultivars (cvs.), defined as high grain yield under N limitation, has been primarily attributed to maintained N uptake during reproductive growth (N uptake efficiency) in combination with delayed senescence of the older leaves accompanied with maintained photosynthetic capacity (functional stay-green). However, it is not clear whether genotypic variation in N starvation-induced leaf senescence is due to leaf-inherent factors and/or governed by root-mediated signals. Therefore, the N-efficient and stay-green cvs. NPZ-1 and Apex were reciprocally grafted with the N-inefficient and early-senescing cvs. NPZ-2 and Capitol, respectively and grown in hydroponics. The senescence status of older leaves after 12 days of N starvation assessed by SPAD, photosynthesis and the expression of the senescence-specific cysteine protease gene SAG12-1 revealed that the stay-green phenotype of the cvs. NPZ-1 and Apex under N starvation was primarily under the control of leaf-inherent factors. The same four cultivars were submitted to N starvation for up to 12 days in a time-course experiment. The specific leaf contents of biologically active and inactive cytokinins (CKs) and the expression of genes involved in CK homeostasis revealed that under N starvation leaves of early-senescing cultivars were characterized by inactivation of biologically active CKs, whereas in stay-green cultivars synthesis, activation, binding of and response to biologically active CKs were favoured. These results suggest that the homeostasis of biologically active CKs was the predominant leaf-inherent factor for cultivar differences in N starvation-induced leaf senescence and thus N efficiency. PMID:25944925

  7. Metabolic network reconstruction and flux variability analysis of storage synthesis in developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) embryos.

    PubMed

    Hay, Jordan; Schwender, Jörg

    2011-08-01

    Computational simulation of large-scale biochemical networks can be used to analyze and predict the metabolic behavior of an organism, such as a developing seed. Based on the biochemical literature, pathways databases and decision rules defining reaction directionality we reconstructed bna572, a stoichiometric metabolic network model representing Brassica napus seed storage metabolism. In the highly compartmentalized network about 25% of the 572 reactions are transport reactions interconnecting nine subcellular compartments and the environment. According to known physiological capabilities of developing B. napus embryos, four nutritional conditions were defined to simulate heterotrophy or photoheterotrophy, each in combination with the availability of inorganic nitrogen (ammonia, nitrate) or amino acids as nitrogen sources. Based on mathematical linear optimization the optimal solution space was comprehensively explored by flux variability analysis, thereby identifying for each reaction the range of flux values allowable under optimality. The range and variability of flux values was then categorized into flux variability types. Across the four nutritional conditions, approximately 13% of the reactions have variable flux values and 10-11% are substitutable (can be inactive), both indicating metabolic redundancy given, for example, by isoenzymes, subcellular compartmentalization or the presence of alternative pathways. About one-third of the reactions are never used and are associated with pathways that are suboptimal for storage synthesis. Fifty-seven reactions change flux variability type among the different nutritional conditions, indicating their function in metabolic adjustments. This predictive modeling framework allows analysis and quantitative exploration of storage metabolism of a developing B. napus oilseed.

  8. Constitutive and herbivore-inducible glucosinolate concentrations in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) leaves are not affected by Bt Cry1Ac insertion but change under elevated atmospheric CO2 and O3.

    PubMed

    Himanen, Sari J; Nissinen, Anne; Auriola, Seppo; Poppy, Guy M; Stewart, C Neal; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Nerg, Anne-Marja

    2008-01-01

    Glucosinolates are plant secondary compounds involved in direct chemical defence by cruciferous plants against herbivores. The glucosinolate profile can be affected by abiotic and biotic environmental stimuli. We studied changes in glucosinolate patterns in leaves of non-transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera) under elevated atmospheric CO2 or ozone (O3) concentrations and compared them with those from transgenic for herbivore-resistance (Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac endotoxin), to assess herbivory dynamics. Both elevated CO2 and O3 levels decreased indolic glucosinolate concentrations in transgenic and non-transgenic lines, whereas O3 specifically increased the concentration of an aromatic glucosinolate, 2-phenylethylglucosinolate. The herbivore-inducible indolic glucosinolate response was reduced in elevated O3 whereas elevated CO2 altered the induction dynamics of indolic and aliphatic glucosinolates. Herbivore-resistant Bt plants experienced minimal leaf damage after target herbivore Plutella xylostella feeding, but exhibited comparatively similar increase in glucosinolate concentrations after herbivory as non-transgenic plants, indicating that the endogenous glucosinolate defence was not severely compromised by transgenic modifications. The observed differences in constitutive and inducible glucosinolate concentrations of oilseed rape under elevated atmospheric CO2 and O3 might have implications for plant-herbivore interactions in Brassica crop-ecosystems in future climate scenarios.

  9. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) responsive to infection with the pathogenic fungus Verticillium longisporum using Brassica AA (Brassica rapa) and CC (Brassica oleracea) as reference genomes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dan; Suhrkamp, Ina; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shenyi; Menkhaus, Jan; Verreet, Joseph-Alexander; Fan, Longjiang; Cai, Daguang

    2014-11-01

    Verticillium longisporum, a soil-borne pathogenic fungus, causes vascular disease in oilseed rape (Brassica napus). We proposed that plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the plant-V. longisporum interaction. To identify oilseed rape miRNAs, we deep-sequenced two small RNA libraries made from V. longisporum infected/noninfected roots and employed Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea genomes as references for miRNA prediction and characterization. We identified 893 B. napus miRNAs representing 360 conserved and 533 novel miRNAs, and mapped 429 and 464 miRNAs to the AA and CC genomes, respectively. Microsynteny analysis with the conserved miRNAs and their flanking protein coding sequences revealed 137 AA-CC genome syntenic miRNA pairs and 61 AA and 42 CC genome-unique miRNAs. Sixty-two miRNAs were responsive to the V. longisporum infection. We present data for specific interactions and simultaneously reciprocal changes in the expression levels of the miRNAs and their targets in the infected roots. We demonstrate that miRNAs are involved in the plant-fungus interaction and that miRNA168-Argonaute 1 (AGO1) expression modulation might act as a key regulatory module in a compatible plant-V. longisporum interaction. Our results suggest that V. longisporum may have evolved a virulence mechanism by interference with plant miRNAs to reprogram plant gene expression and achieve infection.

  10. High-throughput phenotyping (HTP) identifies seedling root traits linked to variation in seed yield and nutrient capture in field-grown oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Thomas, C L; Graham, N S; Hayden, R; Meacham, M C; Neugebauer, K; Nightingale, M; Dupuy, L X; Hammond, J P; White, P J; Broadley, M R

    2016-04-06

    Root traits can be selected for crop improvement. Techniques such as soil excavations can be used to screen root traits in the field, but are limited to genotypes that are well-adapted to field conditions. The aim of this study was to compare a low-cost, high-throughput root phenotyping (HTP) technique in a controlled environment with field performance, using oilseed rape (OSR;Brassica napus) varieties. Primary root length (PRL), lateral root length and lateral root density (LRD) were measured on 14-d-old seedlings of elite OSR varieties (n = 32) using a 'pouch and wick' HTP system (∼40 replicates). Six field experiments were conducted using the same varieties at two UK sites each year for 3 years. Plants were excavated at the 6- to 8-leaf stage for general vigour assessments of roots and shoots in all six experiments, and final seed yield was determined. Leaves were sampled for mineral composition from one of the field experiments. Seedling PRL in the HTP system correlated with seed yield in four out of six (r = 0·50, 0·50, 0·33, 0·49;P < 0·05) and with emergence in three out of five (r = 0·59, 0·22, 0·49;P < 0·05) field experiments. Seedling LRD correlated positively with leaf concentrations of some minerals, e.g. calcium (r = 0·46;P < 0·01) and zinc (r = 0·58;P < 0·001), but did not correlate with emergence, general early vigour or yield in the field. Associations between PRL and field performance are generally related to early vigour. These root traits might therefore be of limited additional selection value, given that vigour can be measured easily on shoots/canopies. In contrast, LRD cannot be assessed easily in the field and, if LRD can improve nutrient uptake, then it may be possible to use HTP systems to screen this trait in both elite and more genetically diverse, non-field-adapted OSR. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  11. Heat stress during seed filling interferes with sulfur restriction on grain composition and seed germination in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Brunel-Muguet, Sophie; D'Hooghe, Philippe; Bataillé, Marie-Paule; Larré, Colette; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Trouverie, Jacques; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Etienne, Philippe; Dürr, Carolyne

    2015-01-01

    In coming decades, increasing temperatures are expected to impact crop yield and seed quality. To develop low input systems, the effects of temperature and sulfur (S) nutrition in oilseed rape, a high S demanding crop, need to be jointly considered. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperatures [High Temperature (HT), 33°C/day, 19°C/night vs. Control Temperature (Ctrl T), 20°C/day, 15°C/day] and S supply [High S (HS), 500 μm SO(2-) 4 vs. Low S (LS), 8.7 μM SO(2-) 4] during seed filling on (i) yield components [seed number, seed dry weight (SDW) and seed yield], (ii) grain composition [nitrogen (N) and S contents] and quality [fatty acid (FA) composition and seed storage protein (SSP) accumulation] and (iii) germination characteristics (pre-harvest sprouting, germination rates and abnormal seedlings). Abscisic acid (ABA), soluble sugar contents and seed conductivity were also measured. HT and LS decreased the number of seeds per plant. SDW was less affected due to compensatory effects since the number of seeds decreased under stress conditions. While LS had negative effects on seed composition by reducing the FA contents and increasing the ratio S-poor SSPs (12S globulins)/S-rich SSPs (2S albumins) ratio, HT had positive effects by increasing S and FA contents and decreasing the C18:2/C18:3 ratio and the 12S/2S protein ratio. Seeds produced under HT showed high pre-harvest sprouting rates along with decreased ABA contents and high rates of abnormal seedlings. HT and LS restriction significantly accelerated germination times. High conductivity, which indicates poor seed storage capacity, was higher in HT seeds. Consistently, the lower ratio of (raffinose + stachyose)/sucrose in HT seeds indicated low seed storage capacity. We demonstrated the effects of HT and LS on grain and on germination characteristics. These results suggest that hormonal changes might control several seed characteristics simultaneously.

  12. Remobilization of leaf S compounds and senescence in response to restricted sulphate supply during the vegetative stage of oilseed rape are affected by mineral N availability.

    PubMed

    Dubousset, L; Abdallah, M; Desfeux, A S; Etienne, P; Meuriot, F; Hawkesford, M J; Gombert, J; Ségura, R; Bataillé, M-P; Rezé, S; Bonnefoy, J; Ameline, A F; Ourry, A; Le Dily, F; Avice, J C

    2009-01-01

    The impact of sulphur limitation on the remobilization of endogenous S compounds during the rosette stage of oilseed rape, and the interactions with N availability on these processes, were examined using a long-term (34)SO(4)(2-) labelling method combined with a study of leaf senescence progression (using SAG12/Cab as a molecular indicator) and gene expression of the transporters, BnSultr4;1 and BnSultr4;2, involved in vacuolar sulphate efflux. After 51 d on hydroponic culture at 0.3 mM (34)SO(4)(2-) (1 atom% excess), the labelling was stopped and plants were subject for 28 d to High S-High N (HS-HN, control), Low S-High N (LS-HN) or Low S-Low N (LS-LN) conditions. Compared with the control, LS-HN plants showed delayed leaf senescence and, whilst the shoot growth and the foliar soluble protein amounts were not affected, S, (34)S, and SO(4)(2-) amounts in the old leaves declined rapidly and were associated with the up-regulation of BnSultr4;1. In LS-LN plants, shoot growth was reduced, leaf senescence was accelerated, and the rapid S mobilization in old leaves was accompanied by decreased (34)S and SO(4)(2-), higher protein mobilization, and up-regulation of BnSultr4;2, but without any change of expression of BnSultr4;1. The data suggest that to sustain the S demand for growth under S restriction (i) vacuolar SO(4)(2-) is specifically remobilized in LS-HN conditions without any acceleration of leaf senescence, (ii) SO(4)(2-) mobilization is related to an up-regulation of BnSultr4;1 and/or BnSultr4;2 expression, and (iii) the relationship between sulphate mobilization and up-regulation of expression of BnSultr4 genes is specifically dependent on the N availability.

  13. High-throughput phenotyping (HTP) identifies seedling root traits linked to variation in seed yield and nutrient capture in field-grown oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, C. L.; Graham, N. S.; Hayden, R.; Meacham, M. C.; Neugebauer, K.; Nightingale, M.; Dupuy, L. X.; Hammond, J. P.; White, P. J.; Broadley, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Root traits can be selected for crop improvement. Techniques such as soil excavations can be used to screen root traits in the field, but are limited to genotypes that are well-adapted to field conditions. The aim of this study was to compare a low-cost, high-throughput root phenotyping (HTP) technique in a controlled environment with field performance, using oilseed rape (OSR; Brassica napus) varieties. Methods Primary root length (PRL), lateral root length and lateral root density (LRD) were measured on 14-d-old seedlings of elite OSR varieties (n = 32) using a ‘pouch and wick’ HTP system (∼40 replicates). Six field experiments were conducted using the same varieties at two UK sites each year for 3 years. Plants were excavated at the 6- to 8-leaf stage for general vigour assessments of roots and shoots in all six experiments, and final seed yield was determined. Leaves were sampled for mineral composition from one of the field experiments. Key Results Seedling PRL in the HTP system correlated with seed yield in four out of six (r = 0·50, 0·50, 0·33, 0·49; P < 0·05) and with emergence in three out of five (r = 0·59, 0·22, 0·49; P < 0·05) field experiments. Seedling LRD correlated positively with leaf concentrations of some minerals, e.g. calcium (r = 0·46; P < 0·01) and zinc (r = 0·58; P < 0·001), but did not correlate with emergence, general early vigour or yield in the field. Conclusions Associations between PRL and field performance are generally related to early vigour. These root traits might therefore be of limited additional selection value, given that vigour can be measured easily on shoots/canopies. In contrast, LRD cannot be assessed easily in the field and, if LRD can improve nutrient uptake, then it may be possible to use HTP systems to screen this trait in both elite and more genetically diverse, non-field-adapted OSR. PMID:27052342

  14. Heat stress during seed filling interferes with sulfur restriction on grain composition and seed germination in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Brunel-Muguet, Sophie; D'Hooghe, Philippe; Bataillé, Marie-Paule; Larré, Colette; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Trouverie, Jacques; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Etienne, Philippe; Dürr, Carolyne

    2015-01-01

    In coming decades, increasing temperatures are expected to impact crop yield and seed quality. To develop low input systems, the effects of temperature and sulfur (S) nutrition in oilseed rape, a high S demanding crop, need to be jointly considered. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperatures [High Temperature (HT), 33°C/day, 19°C/night vs. Control Temperature (Ctrl T), 20°C/day, 15°C/day] and S supply [High S (HS), 500 μm SO2−4 vs. Low S (LS), 8.7 μM SO2−4] during seed filling on (i) yield components [seed number, seed dry weight (SDW) and seed yield], (ii) grain composition [nitrogen (N) and S contents] and quality [fatty acid (FA) composition and seed storage protein (SSP) accumulation] and (iii) germination characteristics (pre-harvest sprouting, germination rates and abnormal seedlings). Abscisic acid (ABA), soluble sugar contents and seed conductivity were also measured. HT and LS decreased the number of seeds per plant. SDW was less affected due to compensatory effects since the number of seeds decreased under stress conditions. While LS had negative effects on seed composition by reducing the FA contents and increasing the ratio S-poor SSPs (12S globulins)/S-rich SSPs (2S albumins) ratio, HT had positive effects by increasing S and FA contents and decreasing the C18:2/C18:3 ratio and the 12S/2S protein ratio. Seeds produced under HT showed high pre-harvest sprouting rates along with decreased ABA contents and high rates of abnormal seedlings. HT and LS restriction significantly accelerated germination times. High conductivity, which indicates poor seed storage capacity, was higher in HT seeds. Consistently, the lower ratio of (raffinose + stachyose)/sucrose in HT seeds indicated low seed storage capacity. We demonstrated the effects of HT and LS on grain and on germination characteristics. These results suggest that hormonal changes might control several seed characteristics simultaneously. PMID:25914702

  15. Remobilization of leaf S compounds and senescence in response to restricted sulphate supply during the vegetative stage of oilseed rape are affected by mineral N availability

    PubMed Central

    Dubousset, L.; Abdallah, M.; Desfeux, A. S.; Etienne, P.; Meuriot, F.; Hawkesford, M. J.; Gombert, J.; Ségura, R.; Bataillé, M-P.; Rezé, S.; Bonnefoy, J.; Ameline, A. F.; Ourry, A.; Dily, F. Le; Avice, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of sulphur limitation on the remobilization of endogenous S compounds during the rosette stage of oilseed rape, and the interactions with N availability on these processes, were examined using a long-term 34SO42− labelling method combined with a study of leaf senescence progression (using SAG12/Cab as a molecular indicator) and gene expression of the transporters, BnSultr4;1 and BnSultr4;2, involved in vacuolar sulphate efflux. After 51 d on hydroponic culture at 0.3 mM 34SO42− (1 atom% excess), the labelling was stopped and plants were subject for 28 d to High S-High N (HS-HN, control), Low S-High N (LS-HN) or Low S-Low N (LS-LN) conditions. Compared with the control, LS-HN plants showed delayed leaf senescence and, whilst the shoot growth and the foliar soluble protein amounts were not affected, S, 34S, and SO42− amounts in the old leaves declined rapidly and were associated with the up-regulation of BnSultr4;1. In LS-LN plants, shoot growth was reduced, leaf senescence was accelerated, and the rapid S mobilization in old leaves was accompanied by decreased 34S and SO42−, higher protein mobilization, and up-regulation of BnSultr4;2, but without any change of expression of BnSultr4;1. The data suggest that to sustain the S demand for growth under S restriction (i) vacuolar SO42− is specifically remobilized in LS-HN conditions without any acceleration of leaf senescence, (ii) SO42− mobilization is related to an up-regulation of BnSultr4;1 and/or BnSultr4;2 expression, and (iii) the relationship between sulphate mobilization and up-regulation of expression of BnSultr4 genes is specifically dependent on the N availability. PMID:19553370

  16. Detecting management and fertilization effects on the carbon balance of winter oilseed rape with manual closed chamber measurements: Can we outrange gap-filling uncertainty and spatiotemporal variability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huth, Vytas; Moffat, Antje Maria; Calmet, Anna; Andres, Monique; Laufer, Judit; Pehle, Natalia; Rach, Bernd; Gundlach, Laura; Augustin, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Winter oilseed rape is the dominant biofuel crop in the young moraine landscape in North-Eastern Germany. However, studies on the effect of rapeseed cropping on net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) and the soil carbon (SC) balance are scarce. SC balance estimates are usually derived from long-term soil sampling field trials where rapeseed is part of different crop rotations. The estimated annual differences linked to rapeseed cropping are rather small (varying between losses of 40 g C m-2 and gains of up to 100 g C m-2). Testing management effects on the NEE and SC balance of cropping systems is best done by comparing plots with different treatments at the same site under the same climate. The soil sampling approach is in the need of field trials that run over decades, which has the disadvantage that management strategies of practical farming may have already changed when the results are derived. Continuous eddy covariance measurements of NEE would require large fields in flat terrain for each of the treatments, which is especially complicated in the heterogeneous landscapes of glacigenic origin of North-Eastern Germany. The common approach of using the chamber technique to derive NEE, however, is subject to the local soil and plant stand heterogeneities due to its tiny footprint. This technique might also disturb the ecosystem, the measurements are usually discontinuous requiring elaborate gap-filling techniques, and it has mostly been used on organic soils where large respiratory C losses occur. Therefore, our aim was to answer, if a combined approach of the eddy covariance and the chamber technique can detect the relatively small NEE and SC differences of rapeseed cropping on mineral soils within a shorter period of time than conventional soil sampling field trials can. We tested the new experimental design taking the advantages of both techniques into account: The eddy covariance tower measuring the NEE dynamics during the year; the chamber measurements to

  17. A profiling approach of the natural variability of foliar N remobilization at the rosette stage gives clues to understand the limiting processes involved in the low N use efficiency of winter oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Girondé, Alexandra; Poret, Marine; Etienne, Philippe; Trouverie, Jacques; Bouchereau, Alain; Le Cahérec, Françoise; Leport, Laurent; Orsel, Mathilde; Niogret, Marie-Françoise; Deleu, Carole; Avice, Jean-Christophe

    2015-05-01

    Oilseed rape, a crop requiring a high level of nitogen (N) fertilizers, is characterized by low N use efficiency. To identify the limiting factors involved in the N use efficiency of winter oilseed rape, the response to low N supply was investigated at the vegetative stage in 10 genotypes by using long-term pulse-chase (15)N labelling and studying the physiological processes of leaf N remobilization. Analysis of growth and components of N use efficiency allowed four profiles to be defined. Group 1 was characterized by an efficient N remobilization under low and high N conditions but by a decrease of leaf growth under N limitation. Group 2 showed a decrease in leaf growth under low N supply that was associated with a low N remobilization efficiency under both N supplies despite a high remobilization of soluble proteins. In response to N limitation, Group 3 is characterized by an increase in N use efficiency and leaf N remobilization compared with high N that is not sufficient to sustain the leaf biomass production at a similar level to non-limited plants. Genotypes of Group 4 subjected to low nitrate were able to maintain leaf growth to the same level as under high N. The profiling approach indicated that enhancement of amino acid export and soluble protein degradation was crucial for N remobilization improvement. At the whole-plant level, N fluxes revealed that Group 4 showed a high N remobilization in source leaves combined with a better N utilization in young leaves. Consequently, an enhanced N remobilization limits N loss in fallen leaves, but this remobilized N needs to be efficiently utilized in young leaves to improve N use efficiency.

  18. Increasing seed oil content in oil-seed rape (Brassica napus L.) by over-expression of a yeast glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase under the control of a seed-specific promoter.

    PubMed

    Vigeolas, Helene; Waldeck, Peter; Zank, Thorsten; Geigenberger, Peter

    2007-05-01

    Previous attempts to manipulate oil synthesis in plants have mainly concentrated on the genes involved in the biosynthesis and use of fatty acids, neglecting the possible role of glycerol-3-phosphate supply on the rate of triacylglycerol synthesis. In this study, a yeast gene coding for cytosolic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd1) was expressed in transgenic oil-seed rape under the control of the seed-specific napin promoter. It was found that a twofold increase in glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity led to a three- to fourfold increase in the level of glycerol-3-phosphate in developing seeds, resulting in a 40% increase in the final lipid content of the seed, with the protein content remaining substantially unchanged. This was accompanied by a decrease in the glycolytic intermediate dihydroxyacetone phosphate, the direct precursor of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The levels of sucrose and various metabolites in the pathway from sucrose to fatty acids remained unaltered. The results show that glycerol-3-phosphate supply co-limits oil accumulation in developing seeds. This has important implications for strategies that aim to increase the overall level of oil in commercial oil-seed crops for use as a renewable alternative to petrol.

  19. Simultaneous determination of 13 phytohormones in oilseed rape tissues by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry and the evaluation of the matrix effect.

    PubMed

    Fan, Sufang; Wang, Xiupin; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wen

    2011-03-01

    In the experiment, a high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry with selected reaction monitoring was used to simultaneously determine various classes of phytohormones, including indole-3-acetic acid, α-naphthaleneacetic acid, 2-chlorobenzoic acid, 4-chlorobenzoic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, gibberellic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid, abscisic acid, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, uniconazole, paclobutrazol and 2,4-epibassinolide in rape tissues. The analyses were separated by an HPLC equipped with a reversed-phase column using a binary solvent system composed of methanol and water, both containing 0.1% of formic acid. The matrix effect was also considered and determined. The technology was applied to analyze rape tissues, including roots, stems, leaves, flowers, immature pods and rape seeds. The rape tissues were subjected to ultrasound-assisted extraction and purified by dispersive solid-phase extraction, and then transferred into the liquid chromatography system. The detection limit for each plant hormone was defined by the ratio of signal/background noise (S/N) of 3. The results showed perfect linearity (R(2) values of 0.9987-1.0000) and reproducibility of elution times (relative standard deviations, RSDs,<1%) and peak areas (RSDs,<7%) for all target compounds.

  20. Molecular screening for avirulence alleles AvrLm1 and AvrLm6 in airborne inoculum of Leptosphaeria maculans and winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus) plants from Poland and the UK.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Joanna; Latunde-Dada, Akinwunmi O; Irzykowski, Witold; Cools, Hans J; Stonard, Jenna F; Brachaczek, Andrzej; Jedryczka, Malgorzata

    2014-11-01

    A combination of staining, light microscopy and SYBR green- and dual-labelled fluorescent probe-based qPCR chemistries with species- and gene-specific primers was employed to evaluate fluctuations in the aerial biomass of Leptosphaeria maculans spores captured by volumetric spore trappings in Poznan, Poland (2006, 2008) and Harpenden, UK (2002, 2006). Arising from these surveys, DNA samples extracted from Burkard spore-trap tapes were screened for fluctuation patterns in the frequencies of AvrLm1 and AvrLm6, the most prominent of the 15 genes that code for avirulence effectors in this Dothideomycete cause of the destructive phoma stem canker disease of oilseed rape worldwide. In Poznan, very low frequencies of AvrLm1 allele were found in the autumn of both 2006 and 2008, reflecting significantly increased cultivation of rape seed with Rlm1-based resistance. In contrast, at least six folds-higher frequencies of AvrLm6, which were also confirmed by end-point PCR bioassays on phoma-infected leaves from the same region of Poland, were obtained during both years. In the UK, however, relatively higher AvrLm1 allele titres were found in L. maculans spores captured in air samples from the autumn of 2002 on the experimental fields of Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, that were historically sown to genetically heterogeneous B. napus cultivars. In the 2006 screen these levels had plummeted, to a 1:4 ratio, in favour of frequencies of the AvrLm6 allele. Patterns of fluctuations in erg11 (CYP51) fragments coding for sterol 14α-demethylase suggest October as the month with the most viable wind-dispersed L. maculans propagules of each season of the screens.

  1. Suppression of the SUGAR-DEPENDENT1 triacylglycerol lipase family during seed development enhances oil yield in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Kelly, Amélie A; Shaw, Eve; Powers, Stephen J; Kurup, Smita; Eastmond, Peter J

    2013-04-01

    Increasing the productivity of oilseed crops is an important challenge for plant breeders and biotechnologists. To date, attempts to increase oil production in seeds via metabolic pathway engineering have focused on boosting synthetic capacity. However, in the tissues of many organisms, it is well established that oil levels are determined by both anabolism and catabolism. Indeed, the oil content of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) has been reported to decline by approximately 10% in the final stage of development, as the seeds desiccate. Here, we show that RNAi suppression of the SUGAR-DEPENDENT1 triacylglycerol lipase gene family during seed development results in up to an 8% gain in oil yield on either a seed, plant or unit area basis in the greenhouse, with very little adverse impact on seed vigour. Suppression of lipolysis could therefore constitute a new method for enhancing oil yield in oilseed crops. © 2012 The Authors Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. A systemic increase in the recombination frequency upon local infection of Arabidopsis thaliana plants with oilseed rape mosaic virus depends on plant age, the initial inoculum concentration and the time for virus replication.

    PubMed

    Yao, Youli; Kathiria, Palak; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2013-01-01

    In the past, we showed that local infection of tobacco leaves with either tobacco mosaic virus or oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV) resulted in a systemic increase in the homologous recombination frequency (HRF). Later on, we showed that a similar phenomenon occurs in Arabidopsis thaliana plants infected with ORMV. Here, we tested whether the time of removing the infected leaves as well as viral titer have any effect on the degree of changes in HRF in systemic tissues. An increase in HRF in systemic non-infected tissues was more pronounced when the infected leaves were detached from the infected plants at 60-96 h post-infection, rather than at earlier time. Next, we found that exposure to higher concentrations of inoculum was much more efficient in triggering an increase in HRF than exposure to lower concentrations. Finally, we showed that older plants exhibited a higher increase in HRF than younger plants. We found that an increase in genome instability in systemic tissues of locally infected plants depends on plant age, the concentration of initial inoculums and the time of viral replication.

  3. Ammonia Flux between Oilseed Rape Plants and the Atmosphere in Response to Changes in Leaf Temperature, Light Intensity, and Air Humidity (Interactions with Leaf Conductance and Apoplastic NH4+ and H+ Concentrations).

    PubMed

    Husted, S.; Schjoerring, J. K.

    1996-09-01

    NH3 exchange between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) plants and the atmosphere was examined at realistic ambient NH3 levels under controlled environmental conditions. Different leaf conductances to NH3 diffusion were obtained by changing leaf temperature (10 to 40[deg]C), light intensity (0 to 600 [mu]mol m-2 s-1), and air humidity (20 to 80%), respectively. NH3 adsorption to the cuticle with subsequent NH3 transport through the epidermis had no significant effect on the uptake of atmospheric NH3, even at 80% relative air humidity. NH3 fluxes increased linearly with leaf conductance when light intensities were increased from 0 to 600 [mu]mol m-2 s-1. Increasing leaf temperatures from 10 to 35[deg]C caused an exponential increase in NH3 emission from plants exposed to low ambient NH3 concentrations, indicating that leaf conductance was not the only factor responding to the temperature increase. The exponential relationship between NH3 emission and temperature was closely matched by the temperature dependence of the mole fraction of gaseous NH3 above the leaf apoplast (NH3 compensation point), as calculated on the basis of NH4+ and H+ concentrations in the leaf apoplast at the different leaf temperatures. NH3 fumigation experiments showed that an increase in leaf temperature may cause a plant to switch from being a strong sink for atmospheric NH3 to being a significant NH3 source. In addition to leaf temperature, the size of the NH3 compensation point depended on plant N status and was related to plant ontogeny.

  4. Analysis of gene expression profiles of two near-isogenic lines differing at a QTL region affecting oil content at high temperatures during seed maturation in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yana; Cao, Zhengying; Xu, Fei; Huang, Yi; Chen, Mingxun; Guo, Wanli; Zhou, Weijun; Zhu, Jun; Meng, Jinling; Zou, Jitao; Jiang, Lixi

    2012-02-01

    Seed oil production in oilseed rape is greatly affected by the temperature during seed maturation. However, the molecular mechanism of the interaction between genotype and temperature in seed maturation remains largely unknown. We developed two near-isogenic lines (NIL-9 and NIL-1), differing mainly at a QTL region influencing oil content on Brassica napus chromosome C2 (qOC.C2.2) under high temperature during seed maturation. The NILs were treated under different temperatures in a growth chamber after flowering. RNA from developing seeds was extracted on the 25th day after flowering (DAF), and transcriptomes were determined by microarray analysis. Statistical analysis indicated that genotype, temperature, and the interaction between genotype and temperature (G × T) all significantly affected the expression of the genes in the 25 DAF seeds, resulting in 4,982, 19,111, and 839 differentially expressed unisequences, respectively. NIL-9 had higher seed oil content than NIL-1 under all of the temperatures in the experiments, especially at high temperatures. A total of 39 genes, among which six are located at qOC.C2.2, were differentially expressed among the NILs regardless of temperature, indicating the core genetic divergence that was unaffected by temperature. Increasing the temperature caused a reduction in seed oil content that was accompanied by the downregulation of a number of genes associated with red light response, photosynthesis, response to gibberellic acid stimulus, and translational elongation, as well as several genes of importance in the lipid metabolism pathway. These results contribute to our knowledge of the molecular nature of QTLs and the interaction between genotype and temperature.

  5. The contrasting N management of two oilseed rape genotypes reveals the mechanisms of proteolysis associated with leaf N remobilization and the respective contributions of leaves and stems to N storage and remobilization during seed filling.

    PubMed

    Girondé, Alexandra; Etienne, Philippe; Trouverie, Jacques; Bouchereau, Alain; Le Cahérec, Françoise; Leport, Laurent; Orsel, Mathilde; Niogret, Marie-Françoise; Nesi, Nathalie; Carole, Deleu; Soulay, Fabienne; Masclaux-Daubresse, Céline; Avice, Jean-Christophe

    2015-02-21

    Oilseed rape is the third largest oleaginous crop in the world but requires high levels of N fertilizer of which only 50% is recovered in seeds. This weak N use efficiency is associated with a low foliar N remobilization, leading to a significant return of N to the soil and a risk of pollution. Contrary to what is observed during senescence in the vegetative stages, N remobilization from stems and leaves is considered efficient during monocarpic senescence. However, the contribution of stems towards N management and the cellular mechanisms involved in foliar remobilization remain largely unknown. To reach this goal, the N fluxes at the whole plant level from bolting to mature seeds and the processes involved in leaf N remobilization and proteolysis were investigated in two contrasting genotypes (Aviso and Oase) cultivated under ample or restricted nitrate supply. During seed filling in both N conditions, Oase efficiently allocated the N from uptake to seeds while Aviso favoured a better N remobilization from stems and leaves towards seeds. Nitrate restriction decreased seed yield and oil quality for both genotypes but Aviso had the best seed N filling. Under N limitation, Aviso had a better N remobilization from leaves to stems before the onset of seed filling. Afterwards, the higher N remobilization from stems and leaves of Aviso led to a higher final N amount in seeds. This high leaf N remobilization is associated with a better degradation/export of insoluble proteins, oligopeptides, nitrate and/or ammonia. By using an original method based on the determination of Rubisco degradation in the presence of inhibitors of proteases, efficient proteolysis associated with cysteine proteases and proteasome activities was identified as the mechanism of N remobilization. The results confirm the importance of foliar N remobilization after bolting to satisfy seed filling and highlight that an efficient proteolysis is mainly associated with (i) cysteine proteases and

  6. Rape prevention

    MedlinePlus

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. Updated June 4, 2015. www.cdc.gov/ ...

  7. Perceptions of Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witten, Barbara J.; Remer, Rory

    Society does not view rape seriously. Few rape crimes are successfully prosecuted. Rape results in permanent alteration of the victim's life. Besides street rape there is no consensus on the definition of rape. This study attempts to gather people's perceptions of rape. Subjects (N=96) were approached randomly and accepted if they fit into desired…

  8. Rape (sexual assault) - overview

    MedlinePlus

    Sex and rape; Date rape; Sexual assault ... Rape may occur between members of the same sex. This is more common in places such as prisons, military settings, and single-sex schools. People with physical or mental disabilities or ...

  9. Oilseed cuphea tolerates bromoxynil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Weed management is a critical feature of all crop production, but especially for new and alternative crops with which most growers have little experience. Oilseed cuphea is a new annual crop for temperate regions and, at present, it is known to tolerate only a narrow spectrum of herbicides. Addition...

  10. Post-harvest N2O emissions were not affected by various types of oilseed straw incorporated into soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köbke, Sarah; Senbayram, Mehmet; Hegewald, Hannes; Christen, Olaf; Dittert, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Oilseed rape post-harvest N2O emissions are seen highly critical as so far they are considered as one of the most crucial drawbacks in climate-saving bioenergy production systems. N2O emissions may substantially counterbalance the intended savings in CO2 emissions. Carbon-rich crop residues in conjunction with residual soil nitrate are seen as a key driver since they may serve as energy source for denitrification and, they may alter soil-borne N2O emissions. As oilseed rape straw is known to have high N/C ratio compared to other crop residues, its soil incorporation may specifically trigger post-harvest N2O emissions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine post-harvest N2O emissions in soils amended with various types of oilseed rape straw (with different N/C ratio) and barley straw in field and incubation experiments. In the incubation experiment, oilseed rape or 15N labelled barley straw were mixed with soil at a rate of 1.3 t DM ha-1 and studied for 43 days. Treatments consisted of non-treated control soil (CK), 15N labelled barley straw (BST), oilseed rape straw (RST), 15N labelled barley straw + N (BST+N), or oilseed rape straw + N (RST+N). N fertilizer was applied to the soil surface as ammonium-nitrate at a rate of 100 kg N ha-1 and soil moisture was adjusted to 80% water-holding capacity. In the field experiment, during the vegetation period 15N labelled fertilizer (15NH415NO3) was used to generate 15N labelled oilseed rape straw (up to 5 at%). Here, the three fertilizer treatments consisted of 5 kg N ha-1 (RST-5), 150 kg N ha-1 (RST-150) and 180 kg N ha-1 (RST-180). Post-harvest N2O emissions were determined during the period of August 2013 to February 2014 by using static flux chambers. In the incubation trial, cumulative N2O emissions were 5, 29, 40 g N2O-N ha-1 148 days-1 in non-fertilized control, BST and RST treatments, respectively. Here, emissions were slightly higher in RST than BST (p

  11. Oilseeds for renewable jet fuel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A multi-disciplinary research project was initiated to investigate the agronomic performance of different oilseed species under varying conditions across the western U.S. wheat belt, provide regionalized strategies to integrate sustainable oilseed production into existing land uses, and provide stra...

  12. Numerical estimation of deformation energy of selected bulk oilseeds in compression loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirel, C.; Kabutey, A.; Herak, D.; Gurdil, G. A. K.

    2017-09-01

    This paper aimed at the determination of the deformation energy of some bulk oilseeds or kernels namely oil palm, sunflower, rape and flax in linear pressing applying the trapezoidal rule which is characterized by the area under the force and deformation curve.The bulk samples were measured at the initial pressing height of 60 mm with the vessel diameter of 60 mm where they were compressed under the universal compression machine at a maximum force of 200 kN and speed of 5 mm/min.Based on the compression test, the optimal deformation energy for recovering the oil was observed at a force of 163 kN where there was no seed/kernel cake ejection in comparison to the initial maximum force used particularly for rape and flax bulk oilseeds.This information is needed for analyzing the energy efficiency of the non-linear compression process involving a mechanical screw press or expeller.

  13. Rape Myths, Rape Scripts, and Common Rape Experiences of College Women: Differences in Perceptions of Women Who Have Been Raped.

    PubMed

    Hockett, Jericho M; Saucier, Donald A; Badke, Caitlyn

    2016-03-01

    Rape is prevalent at colleges. Although research suggests commonalities across many college women's rape experiences (e.g., perpetrators using multiple coercive strategies), vignettes used to assess rape perceptions often reflect false beliefs. Two studies varying a perpetrator's coercive tactics examine rape perceptions using vignettes reflecting rape myths, rape scripts, or many college women's common rape experiences. Participants perceive a woman who was raped more positively in vignettes reflecting common rape experiences versus those reflecting rape myths or scripts. Theoretical, educational, and research implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Rape (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Right Sport for You Healthy School Lunch Planner Rape KidsHealth > For Teens > Rape Print A A A What's in this article? ... Exam? Dealing With Feelings en español Las violaciones Rape, sometimes also called sexual assault, can happen to ...

  15. Rape and Seduction Scripts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kathryn M.

    1988-01-01

    College students (N=18) wrote scripts about "typical" rape and "typical" seduction. Scripts were coded on 20 dimensions. Results showed that rape and seduction scripts were very different. Most subjects described blitz rape in which woman outdoors was attacked by male stranger. Seductions described were usually indoors and…

  16. Victims of Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasner William; And Others

    A scientific, multidisciplinary examination of the social and psychological effects of rape upon female victims is presented, which is then correlated with: (1) the circumstances that surrounded the rape; (2) the victim's personality and social adaptation before she was raped; and (3) the support available from organizations and people who were…

  17. Comparison of oilseed yields: a preliminary review

    SciTech Connect

    Duke, J.A.; Bagby, M.O.

    1982-01-01

    It was assumed that for most oilseed crops, 90% of the oil yield might be considered as profit. To compare oil seeds, pertinent portions of the yield and energy paragraphs from a summary published by Dr. Duke for DOE Grant No. 59-2246-1-6-054-0 with Dr. Bagby as ADODR were reproduced. The seed yields ranged from 200 to 14,000 kg/ha, the low one too low to consider and the high one suspiciously high. The yield of 14,000 kg oil per hectare is equivalent to more than 30 barrels of oil per hectare. The energy species included ambrette, tung-oil tree, cashew, wood-oil tree, mu-oil tree, peanut, mustard greens; rape, colza; black mustard, turnip, safflower, colocynth, coconut, crambe, African oil palm, soybean, cotton, sunflower, Eastern black walnut, Engligh walnut, meadow foam, flax, macadamia nuts, opium poppy, perilla, almond, castorbean, Chinese tallow tree, sesame, jojoba, yellow mustard, stokes' aster, and Zanzibar oilvine. 1 table. (DP)

  18. The Realities of Date Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presley, Cara; Watson, Jennifer; Williams, Audrey R.

    This poster presentation addresses the issue of date rape, specifically in the college environment. Highlighted are date rape statistics, demographics, and date rape drugs. Also discussed are date rape warnings and prevention strategies. It is concluded that college and university administrators must place the issue of date rape and acquaintance…

  19. Rape: medical and legal information.

    PubMed

    Price, H R

    1998-01-01

    The author explores the topic of rape in order to help security directors and rape victims better understand the medical and legal procedures a victim might experience. He describes how a rape case might be handled and what to expect.

  20. Rape: A Family Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Priscilla N.; Rollins, Judith C.

    1981-01-01

    Rape is a crisis shared by the victim and her family. The family's reaction is influenced by cultural views such as viewing rape as sex rather than violence. Adaptive responses can be supported by open expression, education, and family, as well as individual counseling. (JAC)

  1. Naming the Rape Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Nolan

    Since state laws prohibiting identification of rape victims were struck down in a 1975 United States Supreme Court ruling, the media have been reconsidering their traditional policy of preserving victims' anonymity. Explaining their decision to begin naming victims in rape trials, several newspapers cite the press's responsibility to provide the…

  2. Rape: an Asian perspective.

    PubMed

    Nadesan, K

    2001-06-01

    Rape is one of the fastest growing violent crimes in many parts of the world. Rape laws have been amended in most countries in an attempt to cope with the proliferation of this crime. Even though the legal definition of rape and the procedural laws have been amended, rape remains a serious problem in both the developed and developing nations. In some countries the offence of rape carries severe punishment sometimes even the death sentence. In many jurisdictions the term 'sexual penetration' is being used instead of 'sexual intercourse'. Sexual penetration includes sexual intercourse, anal intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio or any other intrusions involving any part of a human body or of any object into the genital or anal opening of a person's body. In many countries rape and other sexual offences have been replaced with a series of gender neutral and graded offences with appropriate punishments. Medical examination can provide independent, scientific, corroborative evidence that may be of value to the court in arriving at a judgement. Doctors should have a clear understanding of different rape laws in order to apprectiate the various issues involved. Special knowledge, skill and experience are essential to conduct a good-quality medical examination. There is a dearth of trained forensic physicians in many Asian countries. However, managing a rape victim (survivor) goes for beyond proving the case in a court of law. There should be an adequate rehabilitation programme available to the victims to help them cope.

  3. Explaining wartime rape.

    PubMed

    Gottschall, Jonathan

    2004-05-01

    In the years since the first reports of mass rapes in the Yugoslavian wars of secession and the genocidal massacres in Rwanda, feminist activists and scholars, human rights organizations, journalists, and social scientists have dedicated unprecedented efforts to document, explain, and seek solutions for the phenomenon of wartime rape. While contributors to this literature agree on much, there is no consensus on causal factors. This paper provides a brief overview of the literature on wartime rape in historical and ethnographical societies and a critical analysis of the four leading explanations for its root causes: the feminist theory, the cultural pathology theory, the strategic rape theory, and the biosocial theory. The paper concludes that the biosocial theory is the only one capable of bringing all the phenomena associated with wartime rape into a single explanatory context.

  4. Is the Rape Rate Increasing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Paul; And Others

    While it has been asserted that rape has increased in frequency over the past generation, part of this increase may be due to a greater willingness to report rape to the authorities. A study was conducted to examine the frequency of rape and to describe the characteristics of rape victims. A random questionnaire survey of 4,340 adults in five…

  5. Planting depth for oilseed calendula

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) is not only a popular ornamental plant in temperate climates, but also a potential oilseed crop. Its seed oil has high levels of calendic acid, which makes it a highly valued drying oil with important industrial applications. Much basic agronomic information on c...

  6. Experimental Study of Reciprocating Friction between Rape Stalk and Bionic Nonsmooth Surface Units.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zheng; Li, Yaoming; Xu, Lizhang

    2015-01-01

    Background. China is the largest producer of rape oilseed in the world; however, the mechanization level of rape harvest is relatively low, because rape materials easily adhere to the cleaning screens of combine harvesters, resulting in significant cleaning losses. Previous studies have shown that bionic nonsmooth surface cleaning screens restrain the adhesion of rape materials, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Objective. The reciprocating friction between rape stalk and bionic nonsmooth metal surface was examined. Methods. The short-time Fourier transform method was used to discriminate the stable phase of friction signals and the stick-lag distance was defined to analyze the stable reciprocating friction in a phase diagram. Results. The reciprocating friction between rape stalk and metal surface is a typical stick-slip friction, and the bionic nonsmooth metal surfaces with concave or convex units reduced friction force with increasing reciprocating frequency. The results also showed that the stick-lag distance of convex surface increased with reciprocating frequency, which indicated that convex surface reduces friction force more efficiently. Conclusions. We suggest that bionic nonsmooth surface cleaning screens, especially with convex units, restrain the adhesion of rape materials more efficiently compared to the smooth surface cleaning screens.

  7. Experimental Study of Reciprocating Friction between Rape Stalk and Bionic Nonsmooth Surface Units

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zheng; Li, Yaoming; Xu, Lizhang

    2015-01-01

    Background. China is the largest producer of rape oilseed in the world; however, the mechanization level of rape harvest is relatively low, because rape materials easily adhere to the cleaning screens of combine harvesters, resulting in significant cleaning losses. Previous studies have shown that bionic nonsmooth surface cleaning screens restrain the adhesion of rape materials, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Objective. The reciprocating friction between rape stalk and bionic nonsmooth metal surface was examined. Methods. The short-time Fourier transform method was used to discriminate the stable phase of friction signals and the stick-lag distance was defined to analyze the stable reciprocating friction in a phase diagram. Results. The reciprocating friction between rape stalk and metal surface is a typical stick-slip friction, and the bionic nonsmooth metal surfaces with concave or convex units reduced friction force with increasing reciprocating frequency. The results also showed that the stick-lag distance of convex surface increased with reciprocating frequency, which indicated that convex surface reduces friction force more efficiently. Conclusions. We suggest that bionic nonsmooth surface cleaning screens, especially with convex units, restrain the adhesion of rape materials more efficiently compared to the smooth surface cleaning screens. PMID:27034611

  8. Rape and the Serial Rapist

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Rape however, is a serious crime in which victims are both physically and mentally violated and abused. 10 Types of Rape According to Bopp and...characterized by physical brutality.ൔ We can see from this description that this rape pattern possess a high degree of physical force and violence...This type rape would leave the victim not only emotionally injured but probably physically harmed. He further states that typically the anger rape

  9. Plant genetics. Early allopolyploid evolution in the post-Neolithic Brassica napus oilseed genome.

    PubMed

    Chalhoub, Boulos; Denoeud, France; Liu, Shengyi; Parkin, Isobel A P; Tang, Haibao; Wang, Xiyin; Chiquet, Julien; Belcram, Harry; Tong, Chaobo; Samans, Birgit; Corréa, Margot; Da Silva, Corinne; Just, Jérémy; Falentin, Cyril; Koh, Chu Shin; Le Clainche, Isabelle; Bernard, Maria; Bento, Pascal; Noel, Benjamin; Labadie, Karine; Alberti, Adriana; Charles, Mathieu; Arnaud, Dominique; Guo, Hui; Daviaud, Christian; Alamery, Salman; Jabbari, Kamel; Zhao, Meixia; Edger, Patrick P; Chelaifa, Houda; Tack, David; Lassalle, Gilles; Mestiri, Imen; Schnel, Nicolas; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Fan, Guangyi; Renault, Victor; Bayer, Philippe E; Golicz, Agnieszka A; Manoli, Sahana; Lee, Tae-Ho; Thi, Vinh Ha Dinh; Chalabi, Smahane; Hu, Qiong; Fan, Chuchuan; Tollenaere, Reece; Lu, Yunhai; Battail, Christophe; Shen, Jinxiong; Sidebottom, Christine H D; Wang, Xinfa; Canaguier, Aurélie; Chauveau, Aurélie; Bérard, Aurélie; Deniot, Gwenaëlle; Guan, Mei; Liu, Zhongsong; Sun, Fengming; Lim, Yong Pyo; Lyons, Eric; Town, Christopher D; Bancroft, Ian; Wang, Xiaowu; Meng, Jinling; Ma, Jianxin; Pires, J Chris; King, Graham J; Brunel, Dominique; Delourme, Régine; Renard, Michel; Aury, Jean-Marc; Adams, Keith L; Batley, Jacqueline; Snowdon, Rod J; Tost, Jorg; Edwards, David; Zhou, Yongming; Hua, Wei; Sharpe, Andrew G; Paterson, Andrew H; Guan, Chunyun; Wincker, Patrick

    2014-08-22

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was formed ~7500 years ago by hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea, followed by chromosome doubling, a process known as allopolyploidy. Together with more ancient polyploidizations, this conferred an aggregate 72× genome multiplication since the origin of angiosperms and high gene content. We examined the B. napus genome and the consequences of its recent duplication. The constituent An and Cn subgenomes are engaged in subtle structural, functional, and epigenetic cross-talk, with abundant homeologous exchanges. Incipient gene loss and expression divergence have begun. Selection in B. napus oilseed types has accelerated the loss of glucosinolate genes, while preserving expansion of oil biosynthesis genes. These processes provide insights into allopolyploid evolution and its relationship with crop domestication and improvement. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Date Rape (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ve been drinking. continue Protect Yourself The best defense against date rape is to try to prevent ... for help if you feel threatened. Take self-defense courses. These can build confidence and teach valuable ...

  11. [Post-rape pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Muhlstein, J; Martrille, L; Guillet-May, F; Routiot, T; Coudane, H; Judlin, P

    2013-02-01

    A rape is a traumatizing circumstance for the victim. This aggression often has, regrettably, immediate repercussions, and then medium and long-term ones. Its complications are psychological, but also sometimes somatic, like pregnancy. Through an international literature review, and the study of the national legislation, we will summarize the main essential elements of the medical and forensic care of a pregnancy arising after a rape.

  12. Rape Beyond Crime.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Margo

    2017-02-01

    Public health experts agree that sexual violence constitutes a significant public health issue. Yet criminal law dominates rape law almost completely, with public health law playing at best a small supporting role. Recent civil law developments, such as university disciplinary proceedings, similarly fixate on how best to find and penalize perpetrators. As a result, rape law continues to spin its wheels in the same arguments and obstacles. This Article argues that, without broader cultural changes, criminal law faces a double bind: rape laws will either be ineffective or neglect the importance of individual culpability. Public health law provides more promising terrain for rape prevention because it is a strong legal framework that can engage the complex causes of rape, including the social norms that promote sexual aggression. While criminal law can only punish bad behavior, public health interventions can use the more effective prevention strategy of promoting positive behaviors and relationships. They can also address the myriad sexual behaviors and social determinants that increase the risk of rape but are outside the scope of criminal law. Perhaps most importantly, public health law relies on evidence-based interventions and the expertise of public health authorities to ensure that laws and policies are effective. Transforming rape law in this way provides a framework for legal feminism to undertake the unmet challenge of "theorizing yes," that is, moving beyond how to protect women’s right to refuse sex and toward promoting and exploring positive models of sex. Criminal law is simply incapable of meeting this challenge because it concerns only what sex should not be. A public health framework can give the law a richer role in addressing the full spectrum of sexual attitudes and behaviors.

  13. Rape Prevention With College Men

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Kari A.; George, William H.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of a theoretically based rape prevention intervention with college men who were at high or low risk to perpetrate sexually coercive behavior. Participants (N = 146) are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Outcomes include rape myth acceptance, victim empathy, attraction to sexual aggression, sex-related alcohol expectancies, and behavioral indicators, measured across three time points. Positive effects are found for rape myth acceptance, victim empathy, attraction to sexual aggression, and behavioral intentions to rape. Only rape myth acceptance and victim empathy effects sustain at the 5-week follow-up. High-risk men are generally unaffected by the intervention although low-risk men produced larger effects than the entire sample. Results suggest rape prevention studies must assess risk status moderation effects to maximize prevention for high-risk men. More research is needed to develop effective rape prevention with men who are at high risk to rape. PMID:18591366

  14. Campus Gang Rape: Party Games?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrhart, Julie K.; Sandler, Bernice R.

    The phenomenon of gang rape as it sometimes occurs on college campuses is described, with attention to causes, impacts on the victim and other students, responses the college should take, and prevention. Consideration is given to the role of alcohol, drugs, and pornography in fraternity gang rape; successful model programs for rape prevention…

  15. Factors affecting reactions to a rape victim.

    PubMed

    Barnett, M A; Quackenbush, S W; Sinisi, C S; Wegman, C M; Otney, K L

    1992-11-01

    We examined the influence of the sex of the subject reacting to the rape victim, the type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance), the location of the rape (inside vs. outside the victim's home), and the victim's attribution concerning the cause of the rape, on undergraduates' reactions to a rape victim. American undergraduates (264 women, 230 men) read a Rape Crisis Center Intake Form, watched a videotape of a rape victim (an actress) describing her psychological and behavioral reactions to the rape, and completed three questionnaires assessing their reactions to the victim. Women were more supportive of the rape victim than were men, and the stranger rape evoked more chance and characterological attributions than did the acquaintance rape. A rape outside the home evoked more chance attributions than did an "inside" rape. The rape victim was rated as having been more traumatized by the experience if she made any causal attribution than if she made no attribution at all.

  16. [Bacterial diseases of rape].

    PubMed

    Zakharova, O M; Mel'nychuk, M D; Dankevych, L A; Patyka, V P

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial destruction of the culture was described and its agents identified in the spring and winter rape crops. Typical symptoms are the following: browning of stem tissue and its mucilagization, chlorosis of leaves, yellowing and beginning of soft rot in the place of leaf stalks affixion to stems, loss of pigmentation (violet). Pathogenic properties of the collection strains and morphological, cultural, physiological, and biochemical properties of the agents of rape's bacterial diseases isolated by the authors have been investigated. It was found that all the isolates selected by the authors are highly or moderately aggressive towards different varieties of rape. According to the complex of phenotypic properties 44% of the total number of isolates selected by the authors are related to representatives of the genus Pseudomonas, 37% - to Xanthomonas and 19% - to Pectobacterium.

  17. Counseling Rape Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Deborah L.

    The psychological treatment of rape victims is complicated due to the nature of the crime; the trauma which may occur in four main areas of the victim's life (social, emotional, physical and sexual); community agency involvement and treatment, if any; and the societal attitude that places the blame on the victim. Therapists, in treating rape…

  18. Rape (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to ensure long-term healing. Working through the pain sooner rather than later can help reduce symptoms like nightmares and flashbacks. It can also help people avoid potentially harmful behaviors and emotions, like major depression or self-injury . Every rape ...

  19. Social Perception of Rape: How Rape Myth Acceptance Modulates the Influence of Situational Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frese, Bettina; Moya, Miguel; Megias, Jesus

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the role of rape myth acceptance (RMA) and situational factors in the perception of three different rape scenarios (date rape, marital rape, and stranger rape). One hundred and eighty-two psychology undergraduates were asked to emit four judgements about each rape situation: victim responsibility, perpetrator responsibility,…

  20. Social Perception of Rape: How Rape Myth Acceptance Modulates the Influence of Situational Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frese, Bettina; Moya, Miguel; Megias, Jesus

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the role of rape myth acceptance (RMA) and situational factors in the perception of three different rape scenarios (date rape, marital rape, and stranger rape). One hundred and eighty-two psychology undergraduates were asked to emit four judgements about each rape situation: victim responsibility, perpetrator responsibility,…

  1. Production and fuel characteristics of vegetable oil from oilseed crops in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Auld, D.L.; Bettis, B.L.; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the potential yield and fuel quality of various oilseed crops adapted to the Pacific Northwest as a source of liquid fuel for diesel engines. The seed yield and oil production of three cultivars of winter rape (Brassica napus L.), two cultivars of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and two cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were evaluated in replicated plots at Moscow. Additional trials were conducted at several locations in Idaho, Oregon and Washington. Sunflower, oleic and linoleic safflower, and low and high erucic acid rapeseed were evaluated for fatty acid composition, energy content, viscosity and engine performance in short term tests. During 20 minute engine tests power output, fuel economy and thermal efficiency were compared to diesel fuel. Winter rape produced over twice as much farm extractable oil as either safflower or sunflower. The winter rape cultivars, Norde and Jet Neuf had oil yields which averaged 1740 and 1540 L/ha, respectively. Vegetable oils contained 94 to 95% of the KJ/L of diesel fuel, but were 11.1 to 17.6 times more viscous. Viscosity of the vegetable oils was closely related to fatty acid chain length and number of unsaturated bonds (R/sup 2/=.99). During short term engine tests all vegetable oils produced power outputs equivalent to diesel, and had thermal efficiencies 1.8 to 2.8% higher than diesel. Based on these results it appears that species and cultivars of oilseed crops to be utilized as a source of fuel should be selected on the basis of oil yield. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  2. Precursors to rape: pressuring behaviors and rape proclivity.

    PubMed

    Strain, Megan L; Hockett, Jericho M; Saucier, Donald A

    2015-01-01

    We developed measures assessing personal and normative attitudes toward two types of behaviors that are symptomatic of rape culture. We conceptualize sexual violence as existing on a continuum and argue that two types of behaviors may be potential antecedents to (and consequences of) sexual violence: attempts to pressure, which mimic the power dynamics of rape in a less aggressive fashion, and benevolent dating behaviors, which are accepted dating scripts in which men initiate action. We examined individuals' acceptance of these behaviors in relation to their attitudes toward rape victims and among men to rape proclivity. This initial work suggests that these constructs and measures may be useful to investigate in future research.

  3. Mycotoxin production on rice, pulses and oilseeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begum, Fouzia; Samajpati, N.

    Mycotoxin-producing fungi were isolated from contaminated grains of rice, pulses and oilseeds sold in the local markets of Calcutta for human consumption. It was found that aflatoxin B1 was produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, aflatoxin G1 by A. flavus, ochratoxin by Aspergillus ochraceous, sterigmatocystin by Aspergillus japonicus and citrinin by Penicillium citrinum. Aflatoxin B1 (333-10416μg/kg) was produced by Aspergillus spp. in rice, pulses and oilseeds.

  4. The Culture of Rape

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-09

    FAULKNER, DYSFUNCTIONA.t FAMILY, AND THE OLD SOUTH; RAPE OF CHARLOTTE TEMPLE AND VICTIM-BLAMING; AMERICA , LINEARLY CYCLICAL Circle one: Abstract- Tech...VICTIM- /fz,.;. vo~~P BLAMING 4. AMERICA , LmEARL Y CYCUCAL AF IMT 1768, 19840901, V5 PREVIOUS EDITION WILL BE USE.D. Tobiah Kroskob Professor...lovely child , she being then only thirteen; but the improvement two years had made in her person, and the blush of recollection which suffused her

  5. Attitudes toward rape and victims of rape: a test of the feminist theory in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Boakye, Kofi E

    2009-10-01

    This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender stereotypes and false beliefs (myths) about rape, rapists, and victims of rape. Thus, the theory suggests a relationship between rape myths and less favorable attitudes toward rape and victims of rape. Results from a survey conducted in Ghana show some support for the feminist theory of rape: There is evidence of rape myth acceptance in Ghana; gender is significant in predicting levels of rape myth acceptance; and finally, education or profession and age, but not religion, are associated with levels of rape myth acceptance in a predictable way.

  6. Rape: Legal issues in mental health perspective.

    PubMed

    Jiloha, R C

    2013-07-01

    Rape of women by men has occurred throughout recorded history and across cultures and religions. It is a crime against basic human right and a most common crime against women in India. In this article, rape is discussed from legal and mental health perspective. In India 'rape laws' began with enactment of Indian Penal Code in 1860. There have been subsequent amendments and the main issue of focus remained the definition of 'rape and inclusion of 'marital rape' in the ambit of rape. Law Commission Reports related to rape and the psychological impacts of rape have been discussed.

  7. The costs of rape.

    PubMed

    Perilloux, Carin; Duntley, Joshua D; Buss, David M

    2012-10-01

    The current study examined costs experienced by victims of completed rape (n=49) and attempted sexual assault (n=91) using quantitative analyses of 13 domains: health, self-esteem, self-perceived attractiveness, self-perceived mate value, family relationships,work life, social life, social reputation, sexual reputation, desire to have sex, frequency of sex, enjoyment of sex, and long-term, committed relationships. Women also provided descriptive accounts of their experiences, and we used these to illustrate the costs in the victims' own words.Compared to victims of an attempted sexual assault, victims of a completed rape reported significantly more negative outcomes in 11 of the 13 domains. The most negatively affected domains were self-esteem, sexual reputation, frequency of sex, desire to have sex, and self-perceived mate value. Although victims of rape experienced more negative effects than victims of attempted sexual assault,both groups of victims reported negative effects in every domain.Discussion focuses on the implications of the differing degrees and patterns of the costs of attempted and completed sexual victimization.

  8. Rape: Counseling the Traumatized Victim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, P. Paul; Heppner, Mary

    1977-01-01

    There are at least three goals of intensive rape counseling: identifying and accepting feelings, reorienting perceptions, attributions, and self-statements, and resuming a normal lifestyle. Various counseling techniques can be employed to help rape victims restructure cognitions to reduce negative self-evaluations, physical distress, and loss of…

  9. Rape Myth Consistency and Gender Differences in Perceiving Rape Victims: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hockett, Jericho M; Smith, Sara J; Klausing, Cathleen D; Saucier, Donald A

    2016-02-01

    An overview discusses feminist analyses of oppression, attitudes toward rape victims, and previously studied predictors of individuals' attitudes toward rape victims. To better understand such attitudes, this meta-analysis examines the moderating influences of various rape victim, perpetrator, and crime characteristics' rape myth consistency on gender differences in individuals' perceptions of rape victims (i.e., victim responsibility and blame attributions and rape minimizing attitudes). Consistent with feminist theoretical predictions, results indicated that, overall, men perceived rape victims more negatively than women did. However, this sex difference was moderated by the rape myth consistency within the rape vignettes. Implications for research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Attitudes toward Rape and Victims of Rape: A Test of the Feminist Theory in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boakye, Kofi E.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender…

  11. Attitudes toward Rape and Victims of Rape: A Test of the Feminist Theory in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boakye, Kofi E.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender…

  12. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD…

  13. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD…

  14. Rape on Campus: Facts and Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Mary

    1992-01-01

    Literature on rape on college campuses is reviewed, beginning with definitions of rape and controversy over date or rape, analysis of the risk of rape on campus, and the actions college administrators can take to reduce the risk of sexual assault. Prevention, legal issues, and campus security safeguards are discussed. (MSE)

  15. Reactions to Stranger and Acquaintance Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetreault, Patricia A.; Barnett, Mark A.

    1987-01-01

    Investigated reactions to a woman who presumably had been raped by a stranger or an acquaintance. Undergraduates read one of two rape descriptions prior to watching a videotape of the woman who (they were led to believe) had been the victim of the rape. Females and males showed markedly different reactions to stranger and acquaintance rape and…

  16. Rape: Legal issues in mental health perspective

    PubMed Central

    Jiloha, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Rape of women by men has occurred throughout recorded history and across cultures and religions. It is a crime against basic human right and a most common crime against women in India. In this article, rape is discussed from legal and mental health perspective. In India ‘rape laws’ began with enactment of Indian Penal Code in 1860. There have been subsequent amendments and the main issue of focus remained the definition of ‘rape and inclusion of ‘marital rape’ in the ambit of rape. Law Commission Reports related to rape and the psychological impacts of rape have been discussed. PMID:24082245

  17. Regulated expression of the rat medium chain hydrolase gene in transgenic rape seed.

    PubMed

    Safford, R; Moran, M T; De Silva, J; Robinson, S J; Moscow, S; Jarman, C D; Slabas, A R

    1993-07-01

    Medium chain hydrolase (MCH) is an enzyme which regulates the chain length of fatty acid synthesis specifically in the mammary gland of the rat. During lactation, MCH interacts with fatty acid synthase (FAS) to cause premature release of acyl chains, thus providing medium chain fatty acids for synthesis of milk fat. In this study we have investigated the ability of rat MCH to interact with the phylogenetically more distant FAS structure present in plant systems and to cause a perturbation of fatty acid synthesis. In in vitro experiments, addition of purified MCH to rapeseed homogenates was found to cause a significant perturbation of fatty acid synthesis towards medium chain length products. The rat MCH gene was expressed in transgenic oilseed rape using a seed specific rape acyl carrier protein (ACP) promoter and a rape ACP plastid targeting sequence. Western analysis showed MCH protein to be present in transgenic seed and for its expression to be developmentally regulated in concert with storage lipid synthesis. The chimaeric preprotein was correctly processed and immunogold labelling studies confirmed MCH to be localized within plastid organelles. However, fatty acid analysis of oil from MCH-expressing rape seed showed no significant differences to that from control seed.

  18. Males disposed to commit rape.

    PubMed

    Freund, K; Scher, H; Racansky, I G; Campbell, K; Heasman, G

    1986-02-01

    The hypothesis that the preferential rape pattern belongs among the courtship disorders like voyeurism, exhibitionism, and toucheurism was tested. The study consisted of two experiments. The first compared 11 rape-prone males, who were most likely afflicted with the preferential rape pattern, with 11 sexually normal controls on penile response to narratives that depicted scenes in which the individual engaged in behavior typical of voyeurs, exhibitionists, or toucheurs. Narratives depicting normal tactile interaction (short of intercourse) with a genuinely participating woman, normal intercourse, and sexually neutral scenes were also presented. The rape-prone males responded more to the voyeuristic situations than did the controls. The standing of the normal intercourse situations on the scale of erotic value, relative to the other above-mentioned situations, was lower for the rape-prone males than for the normal controls. A second experiment compared 12 rape-prone males, who most likely demonstrated the preferential rape pattern, with 12 males with (other) courtship disorders and 12 sexually normal controls. Penile response to narratives depicting the individual involved in pretactile erotic activity, in tactile sexual activity short of intercourse, or in having intercourse was compared. Each situation was presented in two modalities depicting either a genuinely participating woman or a woman fearful of the individual. The penile responses of the rape-prone males, as well as those of males with other courtship disorders, differentiated less between sexual interaction with a fearful woman and such interaction with a participating woman than did the penile responses of normal controls. There was no significant difference in this respect between the rape-prone males and males with other courtship disorders.

  19. Reflections on researching rape resistance.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Sarah E

    2014-03-01

    This article provides a retrospective account of my experience embarking on research about women's resistance to rape, including reflections on personal and professional experiences related to studying this topic. I discuss factors inspiring my interest, including pioneering feminist rape researchers, my experience as a woman living with the reality and fear of rape, and influential mentors who facilitated my career development as a scholar in graduate school and beyond. I weave this narrative together with my thoughts about how the study of resistance relates to other important issues in the field of sexual assault including alcohol, recovery, and prevention.

  20. Predicting Rape Victim Empathy Based on Rape Victimization and Acknowledgment Labeling.

    PubMed

    Osman, Suzanne L

    2016-06-01

    Two studies examined rape victim empathy based on personal rape victimization and acknowledgment labeling. Female undergraduates (Study 1, n = 267; Study 2, n = 381) from a Northeast U.S. midsize public university completed the Rape-Victim Empathy Scale and Sexual Experiences Survey. As predicted, both studies found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than unacknowledged victims and nonvictims. Unexpectedly, these latter two groups did not differ. Study 1 also found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than victims who acknowledged being "sexually victimized." Findings suggest that being raped and acknowledging "rape" together may facilitate rape victim empathy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Oilseed Productivity Under Varying Water Availability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oilseeds for biofuel production may serve as one of the alternative energy strategies that the United States will employ in the future. Biodiesel can be produced from oil extracted from canola, mustard, camelina, sunflower, safflower, and soybean. This paper compares soil water extraction and water ...

  2. Breeding oilseed crops for climate change

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oilseed crops are the basis for biological systems that produce edible oils, contribute to renewable energy production, help stabilize greenhouse gases, and mitigate the risk of climate change. Their response to climate change will be dictated by reactions to temperature, carbon dioxide, solar radia...

  3. [Extragenital injuries in rape].

    PubMed

    Kernbach, G; Püschel, K; Brinkmann, B

    1984-10-01

    The documentation of extragenital injuries to verify violent cohabitation has considerable forensic relevance. 1,875 police files in Hamburg were investigated. Injuries were analysed under the following aspects: kinds, localisations and patterns. According to the most frequent conduct of the doer (manual fixation of the victim and beats in 60% of all cases), consequences of contused violence (i.e. effusions of blood, contusions, dehiscences) were found in 50% of all cases. Injuries due to semi-sharp violence, wounds of genitals or signs of choke were relatively rare (15-3-3%). An isolated state of genital organs is of minor importance. The most frequent localisations of injuries were face and arms, less frequently legs and back. Injuries as result of manual fixation, defence or abutment formed the main patterns. "Banal" hurts were also found. In numerous cases, the outer appearance of the lesions enabled conclusions regarding the instrument used (i.e. double wales after beats with a stick). Self-inflicted injuries can mostly be discerned by their kind and localisation. Rape without any injuries is conceivable as the result of missing defence in the presence of severe threat. Psychic alterations were found in 20% of the cases, half of them continuing for a long time. The medical examination of the suspected man must include the search of signs of a fight (scratch marks, bites), localised at the hands, face and neck (besides ascertainment of traces, for example, smears of semen and smegma, i.e. from the glans penis). Extent and thoroughness of medical examinations as presently practised are discussed critically. The manner in which these examinations are conducted, is considered to be the main cause of a "secondary victimisation" of the raped woman.

  4. Multiple group rape: psychosocial considerations.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, J W

    1979-02-01

    Psychiatric examination of the participants in repeated episodes of rape demonstrated that sexual assault combined with stealing represents symbolically an attack upon the bad mother, such hostile acting out enabling the individual to defend against strong, but ambivalent, wishes to be nurtured. Separation from home in each case was considered a crucial precipitant of such behavior. It is suggested that exhibitionistic-voyeuristic conflict may be an important determinant of whether or not rape is committed in group fashion.

  5. Rape reporting: "Classic Rape" and the behavior of law.

    PubMed

    Clay-Warner, Jody; McMahon-Howard, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Two theories of rape reporting, the Classic Rape perspective and Black's Theory of the Behavior of Law, are tested in this article. We offer the first comprehensive multivariate test of Classic Rape predictions among a nationally representative sample of victims, as well as the first test of Black's predictions for rape reporting. Through the construction of multinomial regression models, we are able to examine reporting patterns for both victims and third parties. Weapon use and physical injury consistently predicted reporting. The likelihood of victim reporting significantly increased when assaults occurred either in public or through a "home blitz," whereas place of assault did not affect the likelihood of third-party reporting. On the other hand, victim-offender relationship significantly affected the likelihood of third-party reporting but was not significant in the victim-reporting models. There were mixed findings regarding Black's stratification and morphology predictions, and we found no significant effects for culture, organization, or social control. Overall, these findings lend greater support to the Classic Rape perspective than to Black's model.

  6. Beyond Rape Myths: A More Complex View of Perceptions of Rape Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddie, Amy M.; Miller, Arthur G.

    2001-01-01

    Examined personal beliefs and perceptions of cultural stereotypes surrounding rape victims. Primarily white college students listed their beliefs and perceptions and rated a specific rape victim accordingly. Students' personal beliefs tended to focus more on perceptions of victim reactions to the rape rather than rape myths. However, their…

  7. A Study of Women Who Both Were Raped and Avoided Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, Pauline B.

    1981-01-01

    This article, based on interviews with women who had both been raped and avoided being raped when attacked, examines the situational circumstances under which women were more likely to be raped, and those under which they were more likely to avoid being raped. (Author/MJL)

  8. Rape myth acceptance impacts the reporting of rape to the police: a study of incarcerated women.

    PubMed

    Heath, Nicole M; Lynch, Shannon M; Fritch, April M; Wong, Maria M

    2013-09-01

    We examined the association between rape myth acceptance (RMA) and reporting rapes to the police. Situational characteristics of the rape (e.g., stranger attack, injury) are known predictors of reporting, but no existing studies have examined the association between beliefs about rape and reporting. In addition, most studies of RMA do not assess victimization history. Incarcerated women experience high rates of sexual assaults prior to incarceration. We recruited 74 rape survivors from a northwestern state prison. Results suggest that women who endorsed higher levels of RMA were less likely to report their rapes to police; however, participants endorsed few rape myths.

  9. Oppression through acceptance?: predicting rape myth acceptance and attitudes toward rape victims.

    PubMed

    Hockett, Jericho M; Saucier, Donald A; Hoffman, Bethany H; Smith, Sara J; Craig, Adam W

    2009-08-01

    Feminist theories of rape motivation are based on research suggesting a relationship between dominance and sexual aggression. However, the relationship between dominance and rape myth acceptance (RMA), a predictor of rape proclivity and sexual aggression and a key component in feminist theory, is understudied. The current study tests the hypotheses that individuals' scores on sex-based oppression and intergroup dominance measures will improve the predictive models for RMA and attitudes toward rape and rape victims. The hypotheses are supported. Individuals' general intergroup dominance and sex-based oppression attitudes provide significant unique prediction beyond previously studied predictors of attitudes about rape and rape victims.

  10. No Lies: Direct Cinema as Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobchack, Vivian C.

    1977-01-01

    Examines an alternative cinematic treatment of rape where the viewer is involved in a first person encounter with rape and betrayal of an intellectual and emotional nature rather than the more traditional physical nature. (MH)

  11. Law enforcement officers' perception of rape and rape victims: a multimethod study.

    PubMed

    Mennicke, Annelise; Anderson, Delaney; Oehme, Karen; Kennedy, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    In a study to assess law enforcement officers' perceptions of rape and rape victims, researchers asked 149 law enforcement officers to respond to surveys which included a definition of rape measure, an unfounded rape claims measure, and the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale-Revised (RMA-R) measure. Although most officers scored low on the RMA-R--indicating that they did not adhere to myths about rape--most officers also responded with incomplete definitions of rape and inaccurate estimates of the number of false rape claims. Multivariate analyses indicated that officers' open-ended responses did not predict their scores on the RMA-R scale. It is argued that the RMA-R alone does not accurately measure officers' understanding of rape. Officers need ongoing training on the legal elements of the crime, the necessity of sensitivity with victims, and research-based statistics on the prevalence of rape.

  12. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-01-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…

  13. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-01-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…

  14. Simulation and Baseline Research in Rape Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodsky, Stanley L.; Klemmack, Susan H.

    This paper begins by describing an organizational model for the disciplinary study of rape--the University of Alabama's Rape Research Group. It outlines the structure, function, and some techniques of the study group, including the use of simulations and prototypical situations. In one study, verbal responses of rape victims were classified into…

  15. Biologically based technologies for control of soil-borne plant pathogens of cucumber and oilseed rape

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sustainable intensification of food production is necessary if we are to feed the world’s future population and maintain the resources required to produce this food. Biologically based technologies for disease control, such as microbial biological control agents and cover crops, can be integral to ...

  16. Plant defence responses in oilseed rape MINELESS plants after attack by the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Ishita; van Dam, Nicole Marie; Winge, Per; Trælnes, Marianne; Heydarova, Aysel; Rohloff, Jens; Langaas, Mette; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2015-02-01

    The Brassicaceae family is characterized by a unique defence mechanism known as the 'glucosinolate-myrosinase' system. When insect herbivores attack plant tissues, glucosinolates are hydrolysed by the enzyme myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147) into a variety of degradation products, which can deter further herbivory. This process has been described as 'the mustard oil bomb'. Additionally, insect damage induces the production of glucosinolates, myrosinase, and other defences. Brassica napus seeds have been genetically modified to remove myrosinase-containing myrosin cells. These plants are termed MINELESS because they lack myrosin cells, the so-called toxic mustard oil mines. Here, we examined the interaction between B. napus wild-type and MINELESS plants and the larvae of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae. No-choice feeding experiments showed that M. brassicae larvae gained less weight and showed stunted growth when feeding on MINELESS plants compared to feeding on wild-type plants. M. brassicae feeding didn't affect myrosinase activity in MINELESS plants, but did reduce it in wild-type seedlings. M. brassicae feeding increased the levels of indol-3-yl-methyl, 1-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methyl, and total glucosinolates in both wild-type and MINELESS seedlings. M. brassicae feeding affected the levels of glucosinolate hydrolysis products in both wild-type and MINELESS plants. Transcriptional analysis showed that 494 and 159 genes were differentially regulated after M. brassicae feeding on wild-type and MINELESS seedlings, respectively. Taken together, the outcomes are very interesting in terms of analysing the role of myrosin cells and the glucosinolate-myrosinase defence system in response to a generalist cabbage moth, suggesting that similar studies with other generalist or specialist insect herbivores, including above- and below-ground herbivores, would be useful.

  17. Indications of selenium protection against cadmium and lead toxicity in oilseed rape (Brassica napus)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increased cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) pollution from industrial, agricultural, energy and municipal sources may have a toxic impact on food chain quality in China. In plants, Cd is readily taken up, while Pb is slowly absorbed. The uptake of both metals interferes with many cellular functions in the ...

  18. Plant defence responses in oilseed rape MINELESS plants after attack by the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Ishita; van Dam, Nicole Marie; Winge, Per; Trælnes, Marianne; Heydarova, Aysel; Rohloff, Jens; Langaas, Mette; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2015-01-01

    The Brassicaceae family is characterized by a unique defence mechanism known as the ‘glucosinolate–myrosinase’ system. When insect herbivores attack plant tissues, glucosinolates are hydrolysed by the enzyme myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147) into a variety of degradation products, which can deter further herbivory. This process has been described as ‘the mustard oil bomb’. Additionally, insect damage induces the production of glucosinolates, myrosinase, and other defences. Brassica napus seeds have been genetically modified to remove myrosinase-containing myrosin cells. These plants are termed MINELESS because they lack myrosin cells, the so-called toxic mustard oil mines. Here, we examined the interaction between B. napus wild-type and MINELESS plants and the larvae of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae. No-choice feeding experiments showed that M. brassicae larvae gained less weight and showed stunted growth when feeding on MINELESS plants compared to feeding on wild-type plants. M. brassicae feeding didn’t affect myrosinase activity in MINELESS plants, but did reduce it in wild-type seedlings. M. brassicae feeding increased the levels of indol-3-yl-methyl, 1-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methyl, and total glucosinolates in both wild-type and MINELESS seedlings. M. brassicae feeding affected the levels of glucosinolate hydrolysis products in both wild-type and MINELESS plants. Transcriptional analysis showed that 494 and 159 genes were differentially regulated after M. brassicae feeding on wild-type and MINELESS seedlings, respectively. Taken together, the outcomes are very interesting in terms of analysing the role of myrosin cells and the glucosinolate–myrosinase defence system in response to a generalist cabbage moth, suggesting that similar studies with other generalist or specialist insect herbivores, including above- and below-ground herbivores, would be useful. PMID:25563968

  19. Marital rape: history, research, and practice.

    PubMed

    Bennice, Jennifer A; Resick, Patricia A

    2003-07-01

    Despite the increased recognition that the topic of marital rape has generated in the past 2 decades, the literature in this area remains sparse. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current state of the marital rape literature. First, the lengthy history of legal, cultural, and professional invalidation of marital rape victims, and the resulting negative treatment implications, is discussed. Second, marital rape research is reviewed, including prevalence, descriptive, and comparison studies. This review highlights the seriousness of marital rape, in terms of prevalence and posttrauma distress, as well as the limitations of extant research. Finally, barriers to treatment and recommendations for professionals are discussed.

  20. Breaking the silence surrounding rape.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, S

    1999-12-11

    This article documents the turning points in the rape issue, which led to the acknowledgement of its prevalence in the world, especially in South Africa. November 25 marked the first day of the "Take a Stand" movement in South Africa, which coincided with the International Day Against Violence Against Women. This movement involves peaceful protests and poster campaigns, followed by months of sustained news coverage of rape. This was launched by a coalition of organizations, including women's groups, churches, businesses, and trades unions, that are speaking out against all forms of sexual violence. In the international community, rape is starting to be taken seriously. In 1996, sexual assault was cited as a crime against humanity by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. In addition, a forum in London, UK, on November 25, discussed rape issues and recommendations on how to prevent such violence were given. The need for a change in legal systems, which currently discourage women from taking legal actions, was also recognized. In view of this, the medical community is challenged to provide sensitive and appropriate help to women who have been assaulted.

  1. Nurses' attributions about rape victims.

    PubMed

    Damrosch, S P; Gallo, B; Kulak, D; Whitaker, C M

    1987-08-01

    In an evaluation experiment, 80 registered nurses (64% of whom had cared for at least one rape victim) read an account of a rape involving a woman who drove to a drugstore on her way home from work. By random assignment, the nurses read one of four versions of the rape which varied in terms of whether or not the victim locked her car door (carelessness manipulation) and time of attack (5:00 p.m. or midnight). Subjects evaluated the victim on a series of 0 to 9 bipolar adjective scales. MANOVA showed a significant main effect for the locked/unlocked conditions: Nurses who read the unlocked version, as compared to those reading the locked version, showed differences in terms of more negative ratings of the victim on such variables as less liking for her, less identification with her, and assigning greater responsibility for the rape to her (p less than or equal to .005). Time of attack and the interaction were not significant.

  2. If Your Child is Raped

    MedlinePlus

    ... look for and take samples of the rapist's hair, skin, nails, or bodily fluids from your child's clothes or body. If you think your child has been given a rape drug, a doctor or technician can test for this, too. Pictures of any injuries may ...

  3. Interpreting Rape: Differences Among Professionals and Non-Professional Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Lawrence G.

    Physicians and rape crisis counselors may play important roles in assisting a rape victim; their beliefs and perceptions about rape may influence their treatment of the victim. Physicians (N=10) and volunteer rape counselors (N=44) completed questionnaires focused on demographic characteristics, their experiences with rape victims, and personal…

  4. Counseling Date Rape Survivors: Implications for College Student Personnel Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Sherry K.

    A general legal definition of rape is sexual intercourse forced on an individual by another against his/her will and overcoming his/her resistance. Although the female is usually referred to as the survivor and the male as the perpetrator, there are cases of male rape. Rape may be divided into stranger rape and acquaintance rape. Types of…

  5. Counseling Date Rape Survivors: Implications for College Student Personnel Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Sherry K.

    A general legal definition of rape is sexual intercourse forced on an individual by another against his/her will and overcoming his/her resistance. Although the female is usually referred to as the survivor and the male as the perpetrator, there are cases of male rape. Rape may be divided into stranger rape and acquaintance rape. Types of…

  6. Preparation of food supplements from oilseed cakes.

    PubMed

    Sunil, L; Appaiah, Prakruthi; Prasanth Kumar, P K; Gopala Krishna, A G

    2015-05-01

    Oilseed cakes have been in use for feed preparation. Being rich in proteins, antioxidants, fibers, vitamins and minerals, oilseed cakes have been considered ideal for food supplementation. These oilseed cakes can be processed and made more palatable and edible by suitable treatments and then incorporated as food supplements for human consumption. Rice bran pellets (RBP), stabilized rice bran (SRB), coconut cake (CC) and sesame cake (SC) were taken up for the study. These were mixed with distilled water and cooked in such a way to separate the cooked solid residue and liquid extract followed by freeze drying to get two products from each. The raw, cooked dried residue and extract were analyzed for various parameters such as moisture (0.9-27.4 %), fat (2.1-16.1 %), ash (3.3-9.0 %), minerals (2.6-633.2 mg/100 g), total dietary fiber (23.2-58.2 %), crude fiber (2.7-10.5 %), protein (3.2-34.0 %), and the fat further analyzed for fatty acid composition, oryzanol (138-258 mg/100 g) and lignan (99-113 mg/100 g) contents and also evaluated sensory evaluation. Nutritional composition of products as affected by cooking was studied. The cooked products (residue and extract) showed changes in nutrients content and composition from that of the starting cakes and raw materials, but retained more nutrients in cooked residue than in the extract. The sensory evaluation of cooked residue and extract showed overall higher acceptability by the panelists than the starting cakes and raw materials. On the basis of these findings it can be concluded that these cooked residue and extract products are highly valuable for food supplementation than the raw ones.

  7. Child rape: facets of a heinous crime.

    PubMed

    Gangrade, K D; Sooryamoorthy, R; Renjini, D

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the extent of child rape in India, case studies of girl children in legal procedures, rape settings and perpetrators, public morality, and the nature of rape laws in India. It is concluded that there is no safe place for children. Currently, rapists are allowed to go free or are acquitted. Prevention and control of child rape must involve punishment of rapists. It is not appropriate that society ostracize the victim and her family. Victims should not remain silent. National Crime Records Bureau statistics reveal increases in rape during 1986-91. State figures are given for 1986-88. Madhya Pradesh had the highest reported incidence of rape in 1988. In 1993, Madhya Pradesh had a total of 2459 rapes. Nationally, 10,425 women were reported as raped in 1991. 51.7% were 16-30 years old. There were 1099 cases of pedophilia in 1991, which was an increase over 1990. Over 50% of the pedophilia cases were reported in Uttar Pradesh. The record of convictions shows very low figures. 1992 trial results of 276 rape cases indicated that only 46 persons were convicted. Victims suffer from psychological effects of embarrassment, disgust, depression, guilt, and even suicidal tendencies. There is police and prosecution indifference as well as social stigma and social ostracism of the victim and her family. Many cases go unreported. The case studies illustrate the difficulties for the victim of experiencing the rape and the social responses: police harassment, shame and fear, and occasionally public outrage. The case studies illustrate rape in familiar settings, such as schools, family homes, and neighbors and friends' homes; rape by policemen; and rape by political influentials. Most offenders are young, married, and socioeconomically poor. Mass media portrayals fuel the frustrations of poor and lonely men in cities. Rapists exhibit anti-social behavior or psychopathology. Sexual offenses are related to society's moral values.

  8. Rape myth acceptance and rape proclivity: expected dominance versus expected arousal as mediators in acquaintance-rape situations.

    PubMed

    Chiroro, Patrick; Bohner, Gerd; Viki, G Tendayi; Jarvis, Christopher I

    2004-04-01

    Individuals who are high in rape myth acceptance (RMA) have been found to report a high proclivity to rape. In a series of three studies, the authors examined whether the relationship between RMA and self-reported rape proclivity was mediated by anticipated sexual arousal or anticipated enjoyment of sexually dominating the rape victim. Results of all three studies suggest that the anticipated enjoyment of sexual dominance mediates the relationship between RMA and rape proclivity, whereas anticipated sexual arousal does not. These findings are consistent with the feminist argument that rape and sexual violence may be motivated by men's desire to exert power over women. Theoretical and practical implications of our findings are discussed.

  9. Cooperative involvement and opportunities in oilseeds

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.R.; Reynolds, B.J.; Eversull, E.E.; Skinner, R.A.; Thurston, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    This report focuses on the opportunities for US cooperatives to improve their position in the oilseeds complex as they face increasing vertical integration and restructuring by large, competing noncooperative firms. Cooperatives operated 38 oilseed processing plants, 19 of them soybean plants, 17 cottonseed plants, 1 peanut plant, and 1 sunflower/flaxseed plant. Total cooperative soybean crushing capacity was 280 million bushels in 1979-1980, representing a 20.7% share of US crushing capacity and an 8.2% share of world crushing capacity. Cooperative soybean crushing capacity increased by 75% during the 1970's. The four largest soybean processing firms in terms of crushing capacity operated 54.5% of total US capacity. The top eight firms operated 75.1%, and the top 20 firms operated 96.4%. Eight of the top 20 soybean processing firms are cooperatives. Cooperatives operated 17 of the 78 cottonseed mills active in 1979. These mills had a total capacity of 6690 tons per day for a 35% share of total US cottonseed crushing capacity. 28 references, 11 figures, 44 tables.

  10. War rape, natality and genocide.

    PubMed

    Schott, Robin May

    2011-01-01

    Feminist philosophy can make an important contribution to the field of genocide studies, and issues relating to gender and war are gaining new attention. In this article I trace legal and philosophical analyses of sexual violence against women in war. I analyze the strengths and limitations of the concept of social death—introduced into this field by Claudia Card—for understanding the genocidal features of war rape, and draw on the work of Hannah Arendt to understand the central harm of genocide as an assault on natality. The threat to natality posed by the harms of rape, forced pregnancy and forced maternity lie in the potential expulsion from the public world of certain groups—including women who are victims, members of the 'enemy' group, and children born of forced birth.

  11. A Plea for Rape Victims

    PubMed Central

    Mountifield, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    A woman was seen in the office several days after emergency department treatment for sexual assault. A cervical swab taken in the office grew Chlamydia trachomatis. No cultures for this organism had been taken in the emergency department, and the patient had not been given prophylactic antibiotics against Chlamydia. Physicians dealing with rape victims should culture for and cover with appropriate antibiotics for Chlamydia trachomatis, which is capable of causing pelvic inflammatory disease and eventual infertility or ectopic pregnancy. PMID:21279132

  12. Power, sex, and rape myth acceptance: testing two models of rape proclivity.

    PubMed

    Chapleau, Kristine M; Oswald, Debra L

    2010-01-01

    Power and sex are thought to be important factors associated with sexual aggression. The goal of this study was to offer a dual-process model to determine how both an implicit power-sex association and explicit power-sex beliefs contribute to rape myth acceptance and rape proclivity. In Study 1, an explicit measure of power-sex beliefs was developed using a participant sample of 131 college students (54% female; age: M = 20.2 years, SD = 3.5 years). In Study 2, 108 male college students (age: M = 19.1 years, SD = 1.3 years) completed a power-sex implicit association test and three explicit measures assessing power-sex beliefs, rape myth acceptance, and rape proclivity. Two models of rape proclivity were compared. The best-fitting model showed that rape myth acceptance mediated the relationships between rape proclivity and an implicit power-sex association, as well as explicit power-sex beliefs.

  13. Biodiesel From Alternative Oilseed Feedstocks: Production and Properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as potential biodiesel fuels from several alternative oilseed feedstocks, which included camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field mustard (Brassica juncea L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (L...

  14. Fatty acid profile of unconventional oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Sabikhi, Latha; Sathish Kumar, M H

    2012-01-01

    The continued increase in human population has resulted in the rise in the demand as well as the price of edible oils, leading to the search for alternative unconventional sources of oils, particularly in the developing countries. There are hundreds of un- or underexplored plant seeds rich in oil suitable for edible or industrial purposes. Many of them are rich in polyunsaturated essential fatty acids, which establish their utility as "healthy oils." Some agrowaste products such as rice bran have gained importance as a potential source of edible oil. Genetic modification has paved the way for increasing the oil yields and improving the fatty acid profiles of traditional as well as unconventional oilseeds. Single cell oils are also novel sources of edible oil. Some of these unconventional oils may have excellent potential for medicinal and therapeutic uses, even if their low oil contents do not promote commercial production as edible oils.

  15. The Psychological Impact of Rape Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This review article examines rape victims' experiences seeking postassault assistance from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and how those interactions impact their psychological well-being. This literature suggests that although some rape victims have positive, helpful experiences with social system personnel, for many victims,…

  16. Rape avoidance behavior among Slovak women.

    PubMed

    Prokop, Pavol

    2013-05-28

    Rape has been a recurrent adaptive problem for many species, including humans. Rape is costly to women in terms of disease transmission, partner abandonment, and unwanted pregnancy (among other costs). Therefore, behavioral strategies which allow women to avoid coercive men may have been favored by selection. In line with this evolutionary reasoning, the current research documented that physically stronger women and those in a committed romantic relationship reported more rape avoidance behavior. In addition, virgin women tended to perform more rape avoidance behavior compared with their non-virgin counterparts. Women with high conception risk perceived themselves as physically stronger, which may protect them against a potential rapist. Fear of unwanted pregnancy from rape decreased as age increased, reflecting higher fertility among younger participants. However, older women reported more rape avoidance behavior, which contradicts evolutionary predictions. The results provide some support for evolutionary hypotheses of rape avoidance behavior which suggest that woman's perception of rape is influenced by parental investment and perceived physical condition.

  17. The Psychological Impact of Rape Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This review article examines rape victims' experiences seeking postassault assistance from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and how those interactions impact their psychological well-being. This literature suggests that although some rape victims have positive, helpful experiences with social system personnel, for many victims,…

  18. Japanese International Students' Attitudes toward Acquaintance Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motoike, Janice; Stockdale, Margaret

    This study looked at the influence of an Asian sociocultural variable, loss of face or social integrity, as a predictor of perceptions of acquaintance rape among Japanese students. In addition to the expected associations between gender, sexism, and perceptions of rape, loss of face was predicted to interact with the perpetrator's reference group…

  19. National Directory: Rape Prevention and Treatment Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD. National Center for the Control and Prevention of Rape.

    This directory is a result of a 1976 study to identify rape prevention and treatment programs and resources in the United States and Canada. Seven hundred listings are included in this updated version. They include rape crisis centers, community mental health centers, medical facilities, government and police agencies, and individuals. The…

  20. Beliefs About Rape and Women's Social Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costin, Frank; And Others

    The hypothesis that views of rape which place women at a disadvantage are positively related to beliefs which restrict the rights and roles of women in our society is tested. Two scales, the R scale and the W scale, based on a survey of beliefs about rape (Hubert Feild) and the attitudes toward women's scale (Janet Spence and Robert Helmreich),…

  1. What has Reform of Rape Legislation Wrought?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Wallace D.

    1981-01-01

    Compares the impact of common law and reform rape legislation on prosecution based on analysis of 445 forcible and statutory rape cases in King County, Washington. Concludes that the impact of the statutory reform has been mainly symbolic and educative for society at large, rather than instrumental for law enforcement. (Author/MJL)

  2. From Kobe Bryant to Campus Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malveaux, Julianne

    2004-01-01

    Even though laws have been passed to protect young women--who are most at risk for rape--from sexual assault on campus, many young men think they can rape without consequence. Thus, the Campus Security Act of 1990 (now known as the Jerome Clery Act), which requires campuses to report serious crimes on campus, and the Campus Sexual Assault Victim's…

  3. Rape myths among Appalachian college students.

    PubMed

    Haywood, Holly; Swank, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Rape myths regularly admonish victims for supposedly provoking the violence done against them. While rape attitudes have been studied in national and urban samples, the support of rape myths in rural populations is seldom investigated. Furthermore, the few empirical studies on sexual coercion in Appalachia are mostly descriptive and rarely compare the sentiments of Appalachians and non-Appalachians. To address this gap, this study surveyed 512 college students at a public university in Eastern Kentucky. In testing an Appalachian distinctiveness question, this study revealed that Appalachian students were less likely to criticize rape victims. Students were also less inclined to condemn rape victims when they were victims themselves, came from egalitarian families, stayed in college longer, rejected modem sexism, and felt little animosity toward women.

  4. Determination of trace elements in rape honey and its corresponding rape flower and stem by ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Wang, Zhi-Bin; Chang, Qiao-Ying; Wang, Wei; Fan, Chun-Lin; Pang, Guo-Fang

    2014-02-01

    The determination of 10 trace elements including Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Mn, Zn, Rb, Sr and Ba, in rape honey and its corresponding rape flower and stem gathered from nine sampling sites was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The contents of K, P, Ca, Mg and Na were obviously higher than Zn, Rb, Mn, Sr and Ba in rape honey, rape flower and rape stem. For the first five elements, K had the highest content, followed by P, Ca, Mg and Na. However, the order of content for latter five elements was not the same in different matrixes. The contents of K, P and Ca were all higher than 1 000 mg x kg(-1) in rape flower and rape stem, while the contents of P, Ca, Mn, Zn and Rb in rape flower were slightly higher than in rape stem. It can be concluded that rape flower showed slightly higher concentrating ability for trace elements than rape stem. Based on these results, radar chart was firstly applied to research the relationship of 10 elements in rape honey and its corresponding rape flower and stem. The aim of the present work was to study the possibility of using trace elements contents in rape flower to trace the geographical and botanical origin of honey instead of rape honey. It can be found from the radar charts that the stars of rape honey, rape flower and rape stem were similar to each other. This research not only provides the basic data of trace elements in comparative study of rape honey, but also gives scientific basis for tracing the origin of rape honey according to the trace elements in corresponding rape flower that replaces those of rape honey.

  5. Male Rape Myths: The Role of Gender, Violence, and Sexism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapleau, Kristine M.; Oswald, Debra L.; Russell, Brenda L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the structure of Struckman-Johnson and Struckman-Johnson's Male Rape Myth Scale, examines gender differences in rape myth acceptance, and explores the underlying ideologies that facilitate male rape myth acceptance. A three-factor model, with rape myths regarding Trauma, Blame, and Denial as separate subscales, is the best…

  6. Male Rape Myths: The Role of Gender, Violence, and Sexism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapleau, Kristine M.; Oswald, Debra L.; Russell, Brenda L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the structure of Struckman-Johnson and Struckman-Johnson's Male Rape Myth Scale, examines gender differences in rape myth acceptance, and explores the underlying ideologies that facilitate male rape myth acceptance. A three-factor model, with rape myths regarding Trauma, Blame, and Denial as separate subscales, is the best…

  7. Social Context Variables in the Social Perception of Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cann, Arnie; And Others

    The physical and interpersonal contexts within which rapes occur were investigated. The physical context, defined in terms of observers' perceptions of the likelihood of rapes occurring in a particular setting, produce variations in the degree of responsibility assigned to the victim. Women raped in high probability of rape settings were held as…

  8. Understanding Attribution of Blame in Cases of Rape: An Analysis of Participant Gender, Type of Rape and Perceived Similarity to the Victim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, Amy Rose; Harrower, Julie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined a variety of factors that may influence attributions towards rape victims. A total of 156 participants completed a questionnaire, which included a measure of attitudes towards rape victims and a vignette depicting one of three rape scenarios (a stranger rape, date rape and seduction rape). Participants rated the extent to which…

  9. Understanding Attribution of Blame in Cases of Rape: An Analysis of Participant Gender, Type of Rape and Perceived Similarity to the Victim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, Amy Rose; Harrower, Julie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined a variety of factors that may influence attributions towards rape victims. A total of 156 participants completed a questionnaire, which included a measure of attitudes towards rape victims and a vignette depicting one of three rape scenarios (a stranger rape, date rape and seduction rape). Participants rated the extent to which…

  10. Hostile sexism, type of rape, and self-reported rape proclivity within a sample of Zimbabwean males.

    PubMed

    Viki, G Tendayi; Chiroro, Patrick; Abrams, Dominic

    2006-08-01

    The role of hostile sexism in accounting for rape proclivity among men was investigated using a sample of Zimbabwean students. Participants were presented with either an acquaintance rape or a stranger rape scenario and asked to respond to five questions about the scenario designed to assess rape proclivity. As expected, a significant relationship between hostile sexism and rape proclivity was obtained in the acquaintance rape but not the stranger rape condition. These results replicate previous research and suggest that hostile sexists are more likely to express their hostility toward women in situations where such behavior might be perceived as acceptable.

  11. Proposed Recruit Training Topic: Rape Awareness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    Rape . Forced sexual intercourse when the victim is unable, because of age or mental inability, to consent. The information on the Uniform Code of...person subject to this chapter who commits an act of sexual intercourse with a female not his wife, by force and without her consent, is guilty of rape and...not amounting to rape , commits an act of sexual intercourse with a female not his wife who has not attained the age of 16 years, is guilty of carnal

  12. The effects of resistance strategies on rape.

    PubMed Central

    Zoucha-Jensen, J M; Coyne, A

    1993-01-01

    This investigation sought to clarify which resistance strategies were associated with rape avoidance and at what cost. Data were gathered from initial and supplemental police reports about 150 sexual assault victims, ages 16 and older, who were assaulted between June 1, 1988, and May 31, 1989, in Omaha, Neb. Although this analysis could not determine causality, it did indicate that forceful verbal resistance, physical resistance, and fleeing were all associated with rape avoidance, whereas nonforceful verbal resistance and no resistance were associated with being raped. Further, women who used forceful resistance were no more likely to be injured than women who did not resist. PMID:8238695

  13. Compositional changes in developing rape seed (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Norton, G; Harris, J F

    1975-01-01

    The growth and composition of siliquas and seeds of oilseed rape was followed over 12 weeks from shortly after anthesis to maturity. Each plant produced 220 siliquas, this number being constant throughout development. Seed numbers per siliqua fell from 19 to 9 by week 5 and declined to 7 at maturity. Hull(1) and seed growth followed a sigmoid pattern, but were not in phase. Seed development could be divided into 3 phases: In Phase 1, seed weight was low and starch and ethanol soluble compounds accounted for 80% DM. Phase 2, seed growth increased and storage oil and proteins were deposited accounting for 40% and 20% DM respectively at the end of this stage. Starch, glucose and fructose were utilized in this process. Phase 3 was largely concerned with the deposition of oil and protein in fixed proportions. Seed weight more than doubled while DM composition remained constant. Sugars were transferred from the hull to the seed to support this growth.The proportion of hull lipids remained constant throughout development until shortly before maturity when MGDG and DGDG fell due to chloroplast breakdown as indicated by chlorophyll disappearance. The FA composition of the hull lipids resembled that of photosynthetic tissue. In the seeds, the neutral lipids increased from 20% of the total lipids in Phase 1 to 93% at maturity. The proportion of structural lipids declined as the storage lipids increased. In Phase 1 the FA composition of the lipid resembled that of photosynthetic tissue (high in C16:0; C18:2; C18:3). In Phase 2, FA typical of storage triglycerides (C20:1; C22:1, appeared, C18:1 transitorily increased, but C18:2 and C18:3 fell dramatically. In Phase 3, the content of C22:1 continued to rise, but the proportions of the other FA remained constant.

  14. Proteomics tools and resources for investigating protein allergens in oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Thelen, Jay J

    2009-08-01

    Oilseeds are important renewable sources of natural products including protein and oil which are produced during the maturation (or seed filling) phase of embryo development. My lab employed high-resolution, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry to profile and identify over 500 proteins expressed during seed filling in various oilseeds including soybean, canola, castor, and Arabidopsis. The principal objective of these studies was to develop predictive models for carbon assimilation for comparison among the four oilseeds. Other uses for these large proteomic datasets have come to light including characterization of the diversity and expression of known and yet-to-be-discovered protein allergens as they accumulate during seed development. Legume oilseeds such as soybean and peanut present a human and animal health concern for a small percentage of the population that are allergic to one or more of the seed proteins. Information about the expression and diversity of 2-DE spots that map to individual genes or gene families of allergens can prove useful for breeding- or biotechnology-based approaches aimed at silencing allergen expression. We have begun releasing these proteomics datasets for public access on the Oilseed Proteomics web portal, www.oilseedproteomics.missouri.edu. I will present the status of these projects and the website with specific emphasis on soybean.

  15. What is a typical rape? Effects of victim and participant gender in female and male rape perception.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Irina

    2007-03-01

    The study had three research aims: (1) to examine the current perception of female rape. Given recent changes in public awareness of female rape, it was predicted that respondents would conceptualize a typical female rape as an acquaintance rape rather than as the stranger rape stereotype; (2) to examine whether these perceptions differ according to respondents' gender; (3) to examine the 'cultural lag' theory of male rape, where it was hypothesized that if the public perception of male rape lags behind female rape, then a typical male rape will be conceptualized as the classic stranger rape stereotype. Findings showed that contrary to predictions, a typical female rape was conceptualized according to the stranger rape stereotype. It was also found that instead of lagging behind female rape along the stranger-acquaintance rape dimension, male rape was viewed predominantly in terms of 'other' factors (factors not found on the stranger-acquaintance dimension, e.g. victim/rapist sexual orientation, rapist calls victim names), which were erroneous, sexualizing and homophobic.

  16. Oilseeds for use in biodiesel and drop-in renewable jet fuel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oilseeds, primarily soybean and canola, are currently used as feedstocks for biodiesel production. Oilseeds can also be used to produce drop-in renewable jet fuel and diesel products. While soybean and canola are the most common oilseed crops used for renewable fuel production in the U.S., many othe...

  17. Windblown soil surface characteristics of a wheat-oilseed-fallow cropping system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The production of biofuels is dependent upon oilseed feedstocks in the Pacific Northwest United States (PNW), but evidence suggests that wind erosion may be enhanced as a result of growing oilseeds in conventional wheat rotations. Little is known concerning the impact of growing oilseeds on soil cha...

  18. 7 CFR 93.15 - Fees for analytical testing of oilseeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fees for analytical testing of oilseeds. 93.15 Section 93.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING....15 Fees for analytical testing of oilseeds. The fee charged for any laboratory analysis for oilseeds...

  19. 7 CFR 93.15 - Fees for analytical testing of oilseeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fees for analytical testing of oilseeds. 93.15 Section 93.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING....15 Fees for analytical testing of oilseeds. The fee charged for any laboratory analysis for oilseeds...

  20. 7 CFR 93.15 - Fees for analytical testing of oilseeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees for analytical testing of oilseeds. 93.15 Section 93.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING....15 Fees for analytical testing of oilseeds. The fee charged for any laboratory analysis for oilseeds...

  1. 7 CFR 93.15 - Fees for analytical testing of oilseeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fees for analytical testing of oilseeds. 93.15 Section 93.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING....15 Fees for analytical testing of oilseeds. The fee charged for any laboratory analysis for oilseeds...

  2. 7 CFR 93.15 - Fees for analytical testing of oilseeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fees for analytical testing of oilseeds. 93.15 Section 93.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING....15 Fees for analytical testing of oilseeds. The fee charged for any laboratory analysis for oilseeds...

  3. Multiple personality: self-rape.

    PubMed

    Beer, D; Beer, J; Beer, J

    1994-12-01

    Multiple personality disorder is the classification given a person for whom two or more distinct personalities are diagnosed. The personalities can be different and vary in character from aggressive to submissive (victimized). The victim alters can be abused and abuse or mutilate self to relieve anxiety or guilt (deserving punishment) or to exert control. Alters may provide a means of expressing anger or other feelings. Aggression towards the body may be sexually oriented, so one may ask whether aggression could make self-rape possible. If so, such expression of self-injuries may be observed in a person with multiple personality as when one alter may injure another. Clinical case material is presented on this concept for a woman who had been formally diagnosed with multiple personality disorder.

  4. Rape--victiminological and psychiatric aspects.

    PubMed

    Mezey, G C

    1985-03-01

    Rape is a violent crime in which sexuality is used to express power, anger, and aggression. The nature of the victim's reactions, which resembles those of other violent crimes, is discussed in relation to its origin in the doctrine of victimology. The distress experienced by victims of rape should entitle them to the same standards of care and sympathy as victims of other life crises.

  5. Effect of water stress on the agressiveness of oilsseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and two mustards (Sinapis alba L. and S. arvensis L.).

    PubMed

    Maataoui, A; Talouizte, A; Benbella, M; Bouhache, M

    2003-01-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), a winter sown crop, may compete for water especially with Brassicaceae weeds. Investigating plant competition under water stress conditions is necessary for achieving a good yield in a Mediterranean climate characterized by a scarse water availability. This experiment was carried out to study the competiveness of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) with two brassicaceae weeds (Sinapis alba L. and S. arvensis L.). Species were grown at a density of two plants per bucket either in monoculture or as a binary mixture under water stress conditions in a greenhouse. Results of monoculture showed that B. napus had the highest shoot dry matter. Shoot dry matter of B. napus was more reduced by intraspecific competition than by interspecific competition due to S. arvensis. Shoot dry matter of S. alba in monoculture was higher than in mixture with S. arvensis, but more reduced in mixture with B. napus. In case of S. arvensis, shoot dry matter was more reduced by interspecific competition than by intraspecific competition. Agressivity based on grain yield showed, that B. napus was the most agressive species followed by S. alba. This agressivity did not change by the imposed water stress.

  6. The Effects of Rape Residue Mulching on Net Global Warming Potential and Greenhouse Gas Intensity from No-Tillage Paddy Fields

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Sheng; Cao, Cou-Gui; Guo, Li-Jin; Li, Cheng-Fang

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to provide a complete greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting for global warming potential (GWP), net GWP, and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) from no-tillage (NT) paddy fields with different amounts of oilseed rape residue mulch (0, 3000, 4000, and 6000 kg dry matter (DM) ha−1) during a rice-growing season after 3 years of oilseed rape-rice cultivation. Residue mulching treatments showed significantly more organic carbon (C) density for the 0–20 cm soil layer at harvesting than no residue treatment. During a rice-growing season, residue mulching treatments sequestered significantly more organic C from 687 kg C ha−1 season−1 to 1654 kg C ha−1 season−1 than no residue treatment. Residue mulching significantly increased emissions of CO2 and N2O but decreased CH4 emissions. Residue mulching treatments significantly increased GWP by 9–30% but significantly decreased net GWP by 33–71% and GHGI by 35–72% relative to no residue treatment. These results suggest that agricultural economic viability and GHG mitigation can be achieved simultaneously by residue mulching on NT paddy fields in central China. PMID:25140329

  7. The effects of rape residue mulching on net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity from no-tillage paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Sheng; Cao, Cou-Gui; Guo, Li-Jin; Li, Cheng-Fang

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to provide a complete greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting for global warming potential (GWP), net GWP, and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) from no-tillage (NT) paddy fields with different amounts of oilseed rape residue mulch (0, 3000, 4000, and 6000 kg dry matter (DM) ha(-1)) during a rice-growing season after 3 years of oilseed rape-rice cultivation. Residue mulching treatments showed significantly more organic carbon (C) density for the 0-20 cm soil layer at harvesting than no residue treatment. During a rice-growing season, residue mulching treatments sequestered significantly more organic C from 687 kg C ha(-1) season(-1) to 1654 kg C ha(-1) season(-1) than no residue treatment. Residue mulching significantly increased emissions of CO2 and N2O but decreased CH4 emissions. Residue mulching treatments significantly increased GWP by 9-30% but significantly decreased net GWP by 33-71% and GHGI by 35-72% relative to no residue treatment. These results suggest that agricultural economic viability and GHG mitigation can be achieved simultaneously by residue mulching on NT paddy fields in central China.

  8. Demography and findings of reported rape cases.

    PubMed

    Quader, M M; Rahman, M H; Kamal, M; Ahmed, A U; Saha, S K

    2010-01-01

    Six hundred and ninety nine cases of alleged rape were studied by the authors during the period from 2007-2008 at the Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. Of these cases, 122 had positive findings of recent sexual intercourse; 250 cases had the positive findings of habituated sexual intercourse, and 327 cases had no findings of sexual intercourse but they complained of forcible sexual intercourse and found no sign of sexual intercourse. Most of the alleged victims of rape were nulliparous 87.12% and parous was only 12.87%. 430 (61.51%) cases of reported victims who were students of schools and colleges were not considered as rape cases considering their victim's history of love affairs, leaving home secretly with their lovers, living with them for many days. Gang rape was not so common (4.29% of raped cases) in our study. Age groups, their occupations, living areas, time of arrival for medico-legal examination have been studied. Most of the cases were students (61.51%). A few numbers of victims were subjected to gang rape. Examination and reporting the cases have been discussed.

  9. Do Rape Education Programs Influence Rape Patterns among New York State College Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrot, Andrea

    This study examined the differences in patterns of college student reports of rape and the availability of educational programs among college students. College students (N=994) from 26 colleges and universities in New York State were studied to determine the extent of forced sex and rape experiences. Additionally, they were studied to determine if…

  10. Prevention of post-rape psychopathology: preliminary findings of a controlled acute rape treatment study.

    PubMed

    Resnick, H; Acierno, R; Holmes, M; Kilpatrick, D G; Jager, N

    1999-01-01

    Violent sexual assault such as rape typically results in extremely high levels of acute distress. The intensity of these acute psychological reactions may play a role in later recovery, with higher levels of immediate distress associated with poorer outcome. Unfortunately, post-rape forensic evidence collection procedures may serve to increase, rather than reduce initial distress, potentially exacerbating future psychopathology. To address these concerns, an acute time-frame hospital-based video intervention was developed to: (a) minimize anxiety during forensic rape exams, and (b) prevent post-rape posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), panic, and anxiety. Preliminary data indicated that (1) psychological distress at the time of the exam was strongly related to PTSD symptomatology 6 weeks post-rape, and (2) the video intervention successfully reduced distress during forensic exams.

  11. Exploring rape myths, gendered norms, group processing, and the social context of rape among college women: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Deming, Michelle E; Covan, Eleanor Krassen; Swan, Suzanne C; Billings, Deborah L

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the negotiation strategies of college women as they interpret ambiguous rape scenarios. In focus groups, 1st- and 4th-year college women were presented with a series of three vignettes depicting incidents that meet the legal criteria for rape yet are ambiguous due to the presence of cultural rape myths, contexts involving alcohol consumption, varying degrees of consent, and a known perpetrator. These contexts are critical in understanding how college women define rape. Key findings indicated many of these college women utilized rape myths and norms within their peer groups to interpret rape scenarios.

  12. Male rape myths: the role of gender, violence, and sexism.

    PubMed

    Chapleau, Kristine M; Oswald, Debra L; Russell, Brenda L

    2008-05-01

    This study investigates the structure of Struckman-Johnson and Struckman-Johnson's Male Rape Myth Scale, examines gender differences in rape myth acceptance, and explores the underlying ideologies that facilitate male rape myth acceptance. A three-factor model, with rape myths regarding Trauma, Blame, and Denial as separate subscales, is the best fitting solution. However, the results indicate that additional scale development and validity tests are necessary. In exploratory analyses, men are more accepting of male rape myths than are women. Benevolent sexism toward men and acceptance of interpersonal violence are strong predictors of male rape myth acceptance for both men and women. Thus, the attitudes that facilitate rape myth acceptance against men appear to be similar to those that facilitate rape myth acceptance against women. Suggestions for future scale development are outlined and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.

  13. Rape, sex partnership, and substance use consequences in women veterans.

    PubMed

    Booth, Brenda M; Mengeling, Michelle; Torner, James; Sadler, Anne G

    2011-06-01

    The association of rape history and sexual partnership with alcohol and drug use consequences in women veterans is unknown. Midwestern women veterans (N = 1,004) completed a retrospective telephone interview assessing demographics, rape history, substance abuse and dependence, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One third met lifetime criteria for substance use disorder (SUD), half reported lifetime completed rape, a third childhood rape, one quarter in-military rape, 11% sex with women. Lifetime SUD was higher for women with rape history (64% vs. 44%). Women with women as sex partners had significantly higher rates of all measures of rape, and also lifetime substance use disorder. Postmilitary rape, sex partnership, and current depression were significantly associated with lifetime SUD in multivariate models (odds ratio = 2.3, 3.6, 2.1, respectively). Many women veterans have a high need for comprehensive mental health services.

  14. La Violacion Sexual--The Reality of Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Chris; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The Hispanic rape victim often finds herself in a situation where discussing a rape may jeopardize not only her self esteem but her residency status, job and familial relations. Small wonder she prefers to remain silent. (Author/NQ)

  15. Rape prevention with college men: evaluating risk status.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Kari A; George, William H

    2009-06-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of a theoretically based rape prevention intervention with college men who were at high or low risk to perpetrate sexually coercive behavior. Participants (N = 146) are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Outcomes include rape myth acceptance, victim empathy, attraction to sexual aggression, sex-related alcohol expectancies, and behavioral indicators, measured across three time points. Positive effects are found for rape myth acceptance, victim empathy, attraction to sexual aggression, and behavioral intentions to rape. Only rape myth acceptance and victim empathy effects sustain at the 5-week follow-up. High-risk men are generally unaffected by the intervention although low-risk men produced larger effects than the entire sample. Results suggest rape prevention studies must assess risk status moderation effects to maximize prevention for high-risk men. More research is needed to develop effective rape prevention with men who are at high risk to rape.

  16. Flowering dynamics and pollinator visitation of oilseed echium (Echium plantagineum)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Echium (Echium plantagineum L.) is an alternative oilseed crop in summer-wet temperate regions that provides floral resources to pollinators. Its seed oil is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, such as stearidonic acid, which is desired highly by the cosmetic industry. We examined flowering dynamics, polli...

  17. Green solvents and technologies for oil extraction from oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S P Jeevan; Prasad, S Rajendra; Banerjee, Rintu; Agarwal, Dinesh K; Kulkarni, Kalyani S; Ramesh, K V

    2017-01-01

    Oilseeds are crucial for the nutritional security of the global population. The conventional technology used for oil extraction from oilseeds is by solvent extraction. In solvent extraction, n-hexane is used as a solvent for its attributes such as simple recovery, non-polar nature, low latent heat of vaporization (330 kJ/kg) and high selectivity to solvents. However, usage of hexane as a solvent has lead to several repercussions such as air pollution, toxicity and harmfulness that prompted to look for alternative options. To circumvent the problem, green solvents could be a promising approach to replace solvent extraction. In this review, green solvents and technology like aqueous assisted enzyme extraction are better solution for oil extraction from oilseeds. Enzyme mediated extraction is eco-friendly, can obtain higher yields, cost-effective and aids in obtaining co-products without any damage. Enzyme technology has great potential for oil extraction in oilseed industry. Similarly, green solvents such as terpenes and ionic liquids have tremendous solvent properties that enable to extract the oil in eco-friendly manner. These green solvents and technologies are considered green owing to the attributes of energy reduction, eco-friendliness, non-toxicity and non-harmfulness. Hence, the review is mainly focussed on the prospects and challenges of green solvents and technology as the best option to replace the conventional methods without compromising the quality of the extracted products.

  18. Industrial oilseeds bolster "hub" crop yields when used in rotation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lack of agroecosystem diversity across the U.S. agricultural landscape is linked to several environmental issues associated with air, water, and soil quality and biodiversity. Several new industrial oilseed crops with commercial potential, offer farmers new economic opportunities and a portfolio of ...

  19. Present and potential future oilseed production systems for biofuels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    U.S. agriculture is now depended on to produce renewable energy in addition to food, feed, and fuel, which if not properly managed could threaten long-term sustainability of our agricultural lands. Biofuels produced from oilseed crops, primarily biodiesel, will be an important addition to the renewa...

  20. Addressing rape: the urgency for action.

    PubMed

    1998-09-01

    With 20% of women worldwide victimized by rape, the fear of rape haunts women throughout their lives. Victimization by violence costs women of reproductive age a loss of 5-16% of healthy years of life and is, thus, a major public health problem. Rape survivors incur medical costs 2.5 times those of non-victims and suffer problems with their physical, psychological, and emotional health. Interventions should involve 1) across-the-board political reforms, 2) integration of appropriate values into health education and training activities, 3) criminalizing gender violence with specific legislation, 4) creating gender-sensitive support groups, and 5) raising public consciousness. Some of these strategies are already being carried out in the Asia-Pacific region, but a paradigm shift is also needed to improve women's status and empower women by 1) reinterpreting discriminatory religious texts to eliminate biased interpretations that foster gender violence, 2) removing cultural relativity from considerations of rape and its impact, and 3) gender-sensitizing religious institutions so that rape survivors are no longer stigmatized.

  1. Religious Affiliation, Religiosity, Gender, and Rape Myth Acceptance: Feminist Theory and Rape Culture.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Michael D; Sligar, Kylie B; Wang, Chiachih D C

    2016-08-24

    Rape myths are false beliefs about rape, rape victims, and rapists, often prejudicial and stereotypical. Guided by feminist theory and available empirical research, this study aimed to examine the influences of gender, religious affiliation, and religiosity on rape myth acceptance of U.S. emerging adults. A sample of 653 university students aged 18 to 30 years were recruited from a large public university in the southern United States to complete the research questionnaires. Results indicated that individuals who identified as Roman Catholic or Protestant endorsed higher levels of rape myth acceptance than their atheist or agnostic counterparts. Men were found more likely to ascribe to rape myths than their female counterparts. Religiosity was positively associated with rape myth acceptance, even after controlling the effect of conservative political ideology. No significant interaction was found between gender and religious affiliation or gender and religiosity. Limitations, future research directions, and implications of the findings are discussed from the perspective of feminist theory. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. An Updated Measure for Assessing Subtle Rape Myths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Sarah; Farmer, G. Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Social workers responsible for developing rape prevention programs on college campuses must have valid evaluation instruments. This article presents the challenges encountered by the authors when they attempted to keep rape myth measures relevant to student populations by updating the language to reflect the subtleties involved with rape myths.…

  3. Reporting Rape in a National Sample of College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Studies indicate that a small percentage of rapes are reported to law enforcement officials. Research also suggests that rapes perpetrated by a stranger are more likely to be reported and that rapes involving drugs and/or alcohol are less likely to be reported. College women represent a unique and understudied population with regard to…

  4. Long-Term Effects of Labeling a Rape Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullin, Darcy; White, Jacquelyn W.

    2006-01-01

    Research has found that approximately half of women who report an experience that meets the legal definition of rape do not label it rape. It has been assumed that labeling the experience as rape is necessary and beneficial for recovery; however, conflicting findings have been reported. In the present study, a longitudinal design was utilized to…

  5. An Updated Measure for Assessing Subtle Rape Myths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Sarah; Farmer, G. Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Social workers responsible for developing rape prevention programs on college campuses must have valid evaluation instruments. This article presents the challenges encountered by the authors when they attempted to keep rape myth measures relevant to student populations by updating the language to reflect the subtleties involved with rape myths.…

  6. 3 CFR - Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of May 17, 2012 Implementing the Prison Rape... victim, is an assault on human dignity and an affront to American values. The Prison Rape Elimination Act...

  7. Reporting Rape in a National Sample of College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Studies indicate that a small percentage of rapes are reported to law enforcement officials. Research also suggests that rapes perpetrated by a stranger are more likely to be reported and that rapes involving drugs and/or alcohol are less likely to be reported. College women represent a unique and understudied population with regard to…

  8. Rape Myth Acceptance, Sexual Trauma History, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugher, Shannon N.; Elhai, Jon D.; Monroe, James R.; Gray, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    The prediction of false rape-related beliefs (rape myth acceptance [RMA]) was examined using the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (Payne, Lonsway, & Fitzgerald, 1999) among a nonclinical sample of 258 male and female college students. Predictor variables included measures of attitudes toward women, gender role identity (GRI), sexual trauma…

  9. Long-Term Effects of Labeling a Rape Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullin, Darcy; White, Jacquelyn W.

    2006-01-01

    Research has found that approximately half of women who report an experience that meets the legal definition of rape do not label it rape. It has been assumed that labeling the experience as rape is necessary and beneficial for recovery; however, conflicting findings have been reported. In the present study, a longitudinal design was utilized to…

  10. Freeing Our Lives: A Feminist Analysis of Rape Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Sunny; And Others

    The factors which contribute to women's vulnerability to rape are a lack of information about and understanding of rape; women's subordinate relationship to men; socially reinforced physical weakness and passivity; isolation from other women; isolation in the community. Prevention means more than just reducing the incidence of rape or providing…

  11. Rape Myth Acceptance, Sexual Trauma History, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugher, Shannon N.; Elhai, Jon D.; Monroe, James R.; Gray, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    The prediction of false rape-related beliefs (rape myth acceptance [RMA]) was examined using the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (Payne, Lonsway, & Fitzgerald, 1999) among a nonclinical sample of 258 male and female college students. Predictor variables included measures of attitudes toward women, gender role identity (GRI), sexual trauma…

  12. Empirically Enhanced Reflections on 20 Years of Rape Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Mary P.

    2005-01-01

    Using PsychInfo review of rape and sexual assault publications, the period of greatest fertility coincided with the establishment (1975) and demise (1987) of the National Center for the Prevention and Control of Rape. To document what has been learned and when, the era in which new rape concepts entered the literature is summarized and important…

  13. Clinical Treatment of Nonrecent Rape: How Much Do We Know?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Mary P.; And Others

    Although studies indicate that as many as 22 percent of women have been raped, few of these women seek help immediately after the rape. Most rape victims experience a postrape distress response which may not be resolved for some victims. Long-term symptom patterns include fear/avoidance responses, affective constriction, disturbances of…

  14. Working Together To Change the Rape and Violence Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Julie M.; And Others

    This publication is a collection of 20 supporting documents for a conference program, "Working Together To Change the Rape and Violence Culture." Contents include: (1) "Presenter Contact Information"; (2) "Characteristics of Rape-Prone versus Rape-Free Cultures"; (3) "Dater's Bill of Rights"; (4)…

  15. Exposure to Pornography and Acceptance of Rape Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Mike; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes the literature examining the association between acceptance of rape myths and exposure to pornography. States that nonexperimental methodology shows that exposure to pornography does not increase rape myth acceptance, while experimental studies show that exposure to pornography increases rape myth acceptance. Concludes that experimental…

  16. Rape: Is it a lifestyle or behavioral problem?

    PubMed

    Kamdar, Zeel N; Kosambiya, Jayendrakumar K; Chawada, Bansari L; Verma, Mamtarani; Kadia, Abhinav

    2017-01-01

    In India, girl is raped every 20 min. The majority of reports reveals youth is vulnerable group for rape victimization. A set of prejudicial, stereotyped, or false beliefs about rape, rape victims, and rapist exist in the community. To study the attitude and myths toward rape among college going students of Surat City. College students of various streams were participated in the study based on attitude toward rape scale (21 items) and updated Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (22 items). A total of 332 participants from three different colleges of the city took part in the survey. Data analysis was done with the SPSS version 19. Among the responders, 61.75% were female. Mean age of participants was 20.22 ± 1.27 years. Almost two-third (73%) of female participants and 42% of the male participants disagreed with the myth that "When a woman says 'no' she really means 'yes'." Around 30% of the participants were uncertain about the myth that "A woman cannot be raped by someone she previously knew or had sex with." While almost 35% of participants believed that "Most rapes are carried out by strangers." Strong sexual desire of guys, drunkenness, and girl's clothes were reported to be factors that provoke rape by 50%, 40%, and 33% of respondents, respectively, around 95% of female and 92% of male participants think that 7-year imprisonment for rape is not enough. Rape myths are found to be highly prevalent among youth and higher among males.

  17. Theoretical Consideration of Forcible Rape: A Critical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Arthur F.

    1988-01-01

    Examined differences in hypothetical apperceptive fantasies of committing forcible rape, which are held by male subjects, as compared with the hypothetical apperceptive fantasies of being forcibly raped, held by the female subjects. Developed a critical analysis of social and cross-cultural variables affecting rape. (Author/ABL)

  18. A Men's Support Group for Significant Others of Rape Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodkin, Lawrence I.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the trauma experienced by women rape victims and focuses on a men's support group for male-significant-others of women who have been raped. Describes the developmental phases through which the male significant others of rape victims achieve resolution and the impact of the male's response upon the relationship. (Author)

  19. Exposure to Pornography and Acceptance of Rape Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Mike; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes the literature examining the association between acceptance of rape myths and exposure to pornography. States that nonexperimental methodology shows that exposure to pornography does not increase rape myth acceptance, while experimental studies show that exposure to pornography increases rape myth acceptance. Concludes that experimental…

  20. "Friends" Raping Friends. Could It Happen to You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jean O'Gorman; Sandler, Bernice R.

    This publication concerning rape committed by acquaintances and "friends" is designed to provide information and support for college students. The early warning signs and how to react to potential "acquaintance" or "date" rape are addressed. Consideration is given to why this type of rape occurs and information is provided on how to avoid date…

  1. Race and Rape: The Black Woman as Legitimate Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Linda Meyer

    Scientific investigations of the relationship between race and rape have been flawed by the acceptance of official statistics and have been influenced by prevailing myths about rape and race. This paper proposes a theoretical framework for understanding rape and race. The thesis is presented that only the black victim of sexual assault is viewed…

  2. Resisting rape: the effects of victim self-protection on rape completion and injury.

    PubMed

    Tark, Jongyeon; Kleck, Gary

    2014-03-01

    The impact of victim resistance on rape completion and injury was examined utilizing a large probability sample of sexual assault incidents, derived from the National Crime Victimization Survey (1992-2002), and taking into account whether harm to the victim followed or preceded self-protection (SP) actions. Additional injuries besides rape, particularly serious injuries, following victim resistance are rare. Results indicate that most SP actions, both forceful and nonforceful, reduce the risk of rape completion, and do not significantly affect the risk of additional injury.

  3. Longitudinal Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking Following Rape

    PubMed Central

    Amstadter, Ananda B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Nugent, Nicole R.; Acierno, Ron; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Minhinnett, Robin; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    Although prior research has identified increases in cigarette smoking following trauma exposure, no studies have examined longitudinal trajectories of smoking following rape. The present investigation identifies and characterizes longitudinal (< 3 months, 3-6 months, and > 6 months post-assault) trajectories of smoking (N = 152) following a rape in a sample of 268 sexual assault victims participating in a forensic medical exam. Further, we examine acute predictors of subsequent smoking trajectories. Of participants endorsing smoking post-rape, a two-class solution was identified, with the majority of participants (74.6%) evidencing moderate smoking with a slight decrease over time and remaining participants showing heavy smoking with a slight increase over time. Having sustained an injury, minority status, and post-exam distress all predicted subsequent smoking trajectory. PMID:19370699

  4. Perceptions of, and Assistance Provided to, a Hypothetical Rape Victim: Differences between Rape Disclosure Recipients and Nonrecipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Lisa A.; Kehn, Andre; Gray, Matt J.; Salapska-Gelleri, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Undergraduate rape disclosure recipients' and nonrecipients' sociodemographic and life experience variables, attitudes towards rape, and responses to a hypothetical rape disclosure were compared to determine differences between them. Participants: One hundred ninety-two undergraduates at 3 universities participated in this online survey…

  5. Examining the Relationship between Male Rape Myth Acceptance, Female Rape Myth Acceptance, Victim Blame, Homophobia, Gender Roles, and Ambivalent Sexism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related…

  6. Perceptions of, and Assistance Provided to, a Hypothetical Rape Victim: Differences between Rape Disclosure Recipients and Nonrecipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Lisa A.; Kehn, Andre; Gray, Matt J.; Salapska-Gelleri, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Undergraduate rape disclosure recipients' and nonrecipients' sociodemographic and life experience variables, attitudes towards rape, and responses to a hypothetical rape disclosure were compared to determine differences between them. Participants: One hundred ninety-two undergraduates at 3 universities participated in this online survey…

  7. Examining the Relationship between Male Rape Myth Acceptance, Female Rape Myth Acceptance, Victim Blame, Homophobia, Gender Roles, and Ambivalent Sexism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related…

  8. Rape, War, and the Socialization of Masculinity: Why Our Refusal to Give up War Ensures that Rape Cannot Be Eradicated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L.

    2010-01-01

    Rape is endemic during war, suggesting that there may be important conceptual links between the two. A theoretical model is presented positing that rape and war are correlated because traditional (hegemonic) masculinity underlies, and is a cause of, both. An analysis of the literatures on masculinity, rape perpetration, and military socialization…

  9. The Effectiveness of Two Types of Rape Prevention Programs in Changing the Rape-Supportive Attitudes of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Linda A.; Stoelb, Matthew P.; Duggan, Peter; Hieger, Brad; Kling, Kathleen H.; Payne, June P.

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of two rape-prevention programs in changing college students' rape-supportive attitudes was investigated. (N=215) Conditions included an interactive mock talk show and a structured video intervention. Both interventions were effective, but attitudes were found to rebound over time. Implications for future rape-prevention…

  10. Rape, War, and the Socialization of Masculinity: Why Our Refusal to Give up War Ensures that Rape Cannot Be Eradicated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L.

    2010-01-01

    Rape is endemic during war, suggesting that there may be important conceptual links between the two. A theoretical model is presented positing that rape and war are correlated because traditional (hegemonic) masculinity underlies, and is a cause of, both. An analysis of the literatures on masculinity, rape perpetration, and military socialization…

  11. The Effectiveness of Two Types of Rape Prevention Programs in Changing the Rape-Supportive Attitudes of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Linda A.; Stoelb, Matthew P.; Duggan, Peter; Hieger, Brad; Kling, Kathleen H.; Payne, June P.

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of two rape-prevention programs in changing college students' rape-supportive attitudes was investigated. (N=215) Conditions included an interactive mock talk show and a structured video intervention. Both interventions were effective, but attitudes were found to rebound over time. Implications for future rape-prevention…

  12. Rape stereotypes and labeling: awareness of victimization and trauma.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Ilaria

    2011-02-01

    For years, studies in the U.S. college population have described the phenomena of date and acquaintance rape. These phenomena have perpetuated myths regarding rape leading to the faulty labeling of the experience by the survivors themselves. Compared with the U.S., in Europe there are very few studies concerning this issue. This preliminary study in Italy comprised surveys of 210 participants who were asked to express their opinions on 2 scenarios of sexual assault (a forced rape and an acquaintance rape). Only 48% of the participants thought that acquaintance rape should be tried in a criminal court.

  13. Man to Man about Rape: A Rape Prevention Program for Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ring, Timothy E.; Kilmartin, Christopher

    1992-01-01

    Describes "Man to Man about Rape," project offered at one university that uses both didactic and small group experiential formats to educate male college students about male socialization, intimacy, violent behavior, objectification, father-son relationships, and sexual behavior. (NB)

  14. Women's rape fantasies: an empirical evaluation of the major explanations.

    PubMed

    Bivona, Jenny M; Critelli, Joseph W; Clark, Michael J

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated explanations of rape fantasy in a sample of female undergraduates (N = 355) using a sexual fantasy checklist which included eight types of rape fantasy, participants' detailed descriptions of a rape fantasy they have had, a rape fantasy scenario audio presentation, and measures of personality. Three explanations of rape fantasy were tested: openness to sexual experience, sexual desirability, and sexual blame avoidance. Women who were higher in erotophilia and self-esteem and who had more frequent consensual sexual fantasies and more frequent desirability fantasies, particularly of performing as a stripper, had more frequent rape fantasies. Women who were higher in erotophilia, openness to fantasy, desirability fantasies, and self-esteem reported greater sexual arousal to rape fantasies. Sexual blame avoidance theory was not supported; sexual desirability theory was moderately supported; openness to sexual experience theory received the strongest support.

  15. Incapacitated rape and alcohol use: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Kaysen, Debra; Neighbors, Clayton; Martell, Joel; Fossos, Nicole; Larimer, Mary E

    2006-10-01

    This study examined timing of alcohol-related sexual assaults (incapacitated rape) in relation to both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences. The sample was drawn from a randomly selected pool of college students across three campuses (n=1238) followed over a three year time period. 91% of students never experienced an incapacitated rape, 2% reported an incapacitated rape prior to the first assessment point (n=30), and 6% reported one over the course of the study (n=76). Results indicated that incapacitated rape was associated with higher alcohol use and more negative consequences in the years prior to the assault. Incapacitated rape was also associated with higher alcohol use and more negative consequences during the year in which the rape took place and subsequent years, with highest rates measured for the year of the rape. These results suggest alcohol use can function as both risk factor and consequence of sexual victimization.

  16. Transcriptomic analysis of nitrogen starvation- and cultivar-specific leaf senescence in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Koeslin-Findeklee, Fabian; Rizi, Vajiheh Safavi; Becker, Martin A; Parra-Londono, Sebastian; Arif, Muhammad; Balazadeh, Salma; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Kunze, Reinhard; Horst, Walter J

    2015-04-01

    High nitrogen (N) efficiency, characterized by high grain yield under N limitation, is an important agricultural trait in Brassica napus L. cultivars related to delayed senescence of older leaves during reproductive growth (a syndrome called stay-green). The aim of this study was thus to identify genes whose expression is specifically altered during N starvation-induced leaf senescence and that can be used as markers to distinguish cultivars at early stages of senescence prior to chlorophyll loss. To this end, the transcriptomes of leaves of two B. napus cultivars differing in stay-green characteristics and N efficiency were analyzed 4 days after the induction of senescence by either N starvation, leaf shading or detaching. In addition to N metabolism genes, N starvation mostly (and specifically) repressed genes related to photosynthesis, photorespiration and cell-wall structure, while genes related to mitochondrial electron transport and flavonoid biosynthesis were predominately up-regulated. A kinetic study over a period of 12 days with four B. napus cultivars differing in their stay-green characteristics confirmed the cultivar-specific regulation of six genes in agreement with their senescence behavior: the senescence regulator ANAC029, the anthocyanin synthesis-related genes ANS and DFR-like1, the ammonium transporter AMT1;4, the ureide transporter UPS5, and SPS1 involved in sucrose biosynthesis. The identified genes represent markers for the detection of cultivar-specific differences in N starvation-induced leaf senescence and can thus be employed as valuable tools in B. napus breeding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Leaf Senescence, Root Morphology, and Seed Yield of Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) at Varying Plant Densities

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Naeem, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zhang, Liyan; Liu, Lixin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the yield and yield components were studied using a conventional variety Zhongshuang 11 (ZS 11) and a hybrid variety Zhongyouza 12 (ZYZ 12) at varying plant densities. The increase in plant density led to an initial increase in seed yield and pod numbers per unit area, followed by a decrease. The optimal plant density was 58.5 × 104 plants ha−1 in both ZS 11 and ZYZ 12. The further researches on physiological traits showed a rapid decrease in the green leaf area index (GLAI) and chlorophyll content and a remarkable increase in malondialdehyde content in high plant density (HPD) population than did the low plant density (LPD) population, which indicated the rapid leaf senescence. However, HPD had higher values in terms of pod area index (PAI), pod photosynthesis, and radiation use efficiency (RUE) after peak anthesis. A significantly higher level of dry matter accumulation and nitrogen utilization efficiency were observed, which resulted in higher yield. HPD resulted in a rapid decrease in root morphological parameters (root length, root tips, root surface area, and root volume). These results suggested that increasing the plant density within a certain range was a promising option for high seed yield in winter rapeseed in China. PMID:28840127

  18. Assessing quantitative resistance against Leptosphaeria maculans (phoma stem canker) in Brassica napus (oilseed rape) in young plants.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong-Ju; Qi, Aiming; King, Graham J; Fitt, Bruce D L

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative resistance against Leptosphaeria maculans in Brassica napus is difficult to assess in young plants due to the long period of symptomless growth of the pathogen from the appearance of leaf lesions to the appearance of canker symptoms on the stem. By using doubled haploid (DH) lines A30 (susceptible) and C119 (with quantitative resistance), quantitative resistance against L. maculans was assessed in young plants in controlled environments at two stages: stage 1, growth of the pathogen along leaf veins/petioles towards the stem by leaf lamina inoculation; stage 2, growth in stem tissues to produce stem canker symptoms by leaf petiole inoculation. Two types of inoculum (ascospores; conidia) and three assessment methods (extent of visible necrosis; symptomless pathogen growth visualised using the GFP reporter gene; amount of pathogen DNA quantified by PCR) were used. In stage 1 assessments, significant differences were observed between lines A30 and C119 in area of leaf lesions, distance grown along veins/petioles assessed by visible necrosis or by viewing GFP and amount of L. maculans DNA in leaf petioles. In stage 2 assessments, significant differences were observed between lines A30 and C119 in severity of stem canker and amount of L. maculans DNA in stem tissues. GFP-labelled L. maculans spread more quickly from the stem cortex to the stem pith in A30 than in C119. Stem canker symptoms were produced more rapidly by using ascospore inoculum than by using conidial inoculum. These results suggest that quantitative resistance against L. maculans in B. napus can be assessed in young plants in controlled conditions. Development of methods to phenotype quantitative resistance against plant pathogens in young plants in controlled environments will help identification of stable quantitative resistance for control of crop diseases.

  19. Effects of fertilization on crop production and nutrient-supplying capacity under rice-oilseed rape rotation system.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Muhammad; Li, Jifu; Lu, Jianwei; Ren, Tao; Cong, Rihuan; Fahad, Shah; Li, Xiaokun

    2017-04-28

    Incredible accomplishments have been achieved in agricultural production in China, but many demanding challenges for ensuring food security and environmental sustainability remain. Field experiments were conducted from 2011-2013 at three different sites, including Honghu, Shayang, and Jingzhou in China, to determine the effects of fertilization on enhancing crop productivity and indigenous nutrient-supplying capacity (INuS) in a rice (Oryza sativa L.)-rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) rotation. Four mineral fertilizer treatments (NPK, NP, NK and PK) were applied in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Crop yields were increased by 19-41% (rice) and 61-76% (rapeseed) during the two years of rice-rapeseed rotation under NPK fertilization compared to PK fertilization across the study sites. Yield responses to fertilization were ranked NPK > NP > NK > PK, illustrating that N deficiency was the most limiting condition in a rice-rapeseed rotation, followed by P and K deficiencies. The highest and lowest N, P and K accumulations were observed under NPK and PK fertilization, respectively. The INuS of the soil decreased to a significant extent and affected rice-rapeseed rotation productivity at each site under NP, NK, and PK fertilization when compared to NPK. Based on the study results, a balanced nutrient application using NPK fertilization is a key management strategy for enhancing rice-rapeseed productivity and environmental safety.

  20. Removing the mustard oil bomb from seeds: transgenic ablation of myrosin cells in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) produces MINELESS seeds

    PubMed Central

    Borgen, Birgit Hafeld; Thangstad, Ole Petter; Ahuja, Ishita; Rossiter, John Trevor; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2010-01-01

    Many plant phytochemicals constitute binary enzyme–glucoside systems and function in plant defence. In brassicas, the enzyme myrosinase is confined to specific myrosin cells that separate the enzyme from its substrate; the glucosinolates. The myrosinase-catalysed release of toxic and bioactive compounds such as isothiocyanates, upon activation or tissue damage, has been termed ‘the mustard oil bomb’ and characterized as a ‘toxic mine’ in plant defence. The removal of myrosin cells and the enzyme that triggers the release of phytochemicals have been investigated by genetically modifying Brassica napus plants to remove myrosinase-storing idioblasts. A construct with the seed myrosin cell-specific Myr1.Bn1 promoter was used to express a ribonuclease, barnase. Transgenic plants ectopically expressing barnase were embryo lethal. Co-expressing barnase under the control of the Myr1.Bn1 promoter with the barnase inhibitor, barstar, under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enabled a selective and controlled death of myrosin cells without affecting plant viability. Ablation of myrosin cells was confirmed with light and electron microscopy, with immunohistological analysis and immunogold-electron microscopy analysis showing empty holes where myrosin cells normally are localized. Further evidence for a successful myrosin cell ablation comes from immunoblots showing absence of myrosinase and negligible myrosinase activity, and autolysis experiments showing negligible production of glucosinolate hydrolysis products. The plants where the myrosin defence cells have been ablated and named ‘MINELESS plants’. The epithiospecifier protein profile and glucosinolate levels were changed in MINELESS plants, pointing to localization of myrosinases and a 35 kDa epithiospecifier protein in myrosin cells and a reduced turnover of glucosinolates in MINELESS plants. PMID:20219777

  1. Optimization of Nitrogen Rate and Planting Density for Improving Yield, Nitrogen Use Efficiency, and Lodging Resistance in Oilseed Rape

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shahbaz; Anwar, Sumera; Kuai, Jie; Ullah, Sana; Fahad, Shah; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2017-01-01

    Yield and lodging related traits are essential for improving rapeseed production. The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of plant density (D) and nitrogen (N) rates on morphological and physiological traits related to yield and lodging in rapeseed. We evaluated Huayouza 9 for two consecutive growing seasons (2014–2016) under three plant densities (LD, 10 plants m−2; MD, 30 plants m−2; HD, 60 plants m−2) and four N rates (0, 60, 120, and 180 kg ha−1). Experiment was laid out in split plot design using density as a main factor and N as sub-plot factor with three replications each. Seed yield was increased by increasing density and N rate, reaching a peak at HD with 180 kg N ha−1. The effect of N rate was consistently positive in increasing the plant height, pod area index, 1,000 seed weight, shoot and root dry weights, and root neck diameter, reaching a peak at 180 kg N ha−1. Plant height was decreased by increasing D, whereas the maximum radiation interception (~80%) and net photosynthetic rate were recorded at MD at highest N. Lodging resistance and nitrogen use efficiency significantly increased with increasing D from 10 to 30 plants m−2, and N rate up to 120 kg ha−1, further increase of D and N decreased lodging resistance and NUE. Hence, our study implies that planting density 30 plants m−2 can improve yield, nitrogen use efficiency, and enhance lodging resistance by improving crop canopy. PMID:28536581

  2. 'Myrosin cells' are not a prerequisite for aphid feeding on oilseed rape (Brassica napus) but affect host plant preferences.

    PubMed

    Borgen, B H; Ahuja, I; Thangstad, O P; Honne, B I; Rohloff, J; Rossiter, J T; Bones, A M

    2012-11-01

    The enzyme myrosinase (EC 3.2.3.1.147) is present in specialised myrosin cells and forms part of the glucosinolate-myrosinase system, also known as 'the mustard oil bomb', which has an important role in the defence system of cruciferous plants against insect pests. Transgenic Brassica napus MINELESS have been produced by transgenic ablation of myrosin cells. This prompted us to investigate the importance of myrosin cells in plant-aphid interactions. In order to study this, we challenged transgenic MINELESS and wild-type cultivar Westar seedlings with the aphids Brevicoryne brassicae (a specialist) and Myzus persicae (a generalist). Our study included aphid free-choice and aphid fecundity experiments. Data from these experiments showed that B. brassicae prefers wild-type seedlings and M. persicae prefers MINELESS. B. brassicae and M. persicae showed significant variation in establishment on plants regardless of whether they were wild type or MINELESS and also differed significantly in affecting plant parts. Myrosinase activity in MINELESS control seedlings was 83.6% lower than the wild-type control seedlings. Infestation with either of the two aphid species induced myrosinase levels in both wild-type and MINELESS seedlings. Infestation with M. persicae reduced the concentration of most glucosinolates while B. brassicae had the opposite effect. B. brassicae enhanced the formation of glucosinolate hydrolysis products both in wild-type and MINELESS seedlings. However, M. persicae decreased All ITC but increased 3,4ETBut NIT in wild-type seedlings. Taken together, the investigation shows that the presence of myrosin cells affects the preference of generalist and specialist aphid species for Brassica napus plants. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Removing the mustard oil bomb from seeds: transgenic ablation of myrosin cells in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) produces MINELESS seeds.

    PubMed

    Borgen, Birgit Hafeld; Thangstad, Ole Petter; Ahuja, Ishita; Rossiter, John Trevor; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2010-06-01

    Many plant phytochemicals constitute binary enzyme-glucoside systems and function in plant defence. In brassicas, the enzyme myrosinase is confined to specific myrosin cells that separate the enzyme from its substrate; the glucosinolates. The myrosinase-catalysed release of toxic and bioactive compounds such as isothiocyanates, upon activation or tissue damage, has been termed 'the mustard oil bomb' and characterized as a 'toxic mine' in plant defence. The removal of myrosin cells and the enzyme that triggers the release of phytochemicals have been investigated by genetically modifying Brassica napus plants to remove myrosinase-storing idioblasts. A construct with the seed myrosin cell-specific Myr1.Bn1 promoter was used to express a ribonuclease, barnase. Transgenic plants ectopically expressing barnase were embryo lethal. Co-expressing barnase under the control of the Myr1.Bn1 promoter with the barnase inhibitor, barstar, under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enabled a selective and controlled death of myrosin cells without affecting plant viability. Ablation of myrosin cells was confirmed with light and electron microscopy, with immunohistological analysis and immunogold-electron microscopy analysis showing empty holes where myrosin cells normally are localized. Further evidence for a successful myrosin cell ablation comes from immunoblots showing absence of myrosinase and negligible myrosinase activity, and autolysis experiments showing negligible production of glucosinolate hydrolysis products. The plants where the myrosin defence cells have been ablated and named 'MINELESS plants'. The epithiospecifier protein profile and glucosinolate levels were changed in MINELESS plants, pointing to localization of myrosinases and a 35 kDa epithiospecifier protein in myrosin cells and a reduced turnover of glucosinolates in MINELESS plants.

  4. Assessing Quantitative Resistance against Leptosphaeria maculans (Phoma Stem Canker) in Brassica napus (Oilseed Rape) in Young Plants

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yong-Ju; Qi, Aiming; King, Graham J.; Fitt, Bruce D. L.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative resistance against Leptosphaeria maculans in Brassica napus is difficult to assess in young plants due to the long period of symptomless growth of the pathogen from the appearance of leaf lesions to the appearance of canker symptoms on the stem. By using doubled haploid (DH) lines A30 (susceptible) and C119 (with quantitative resistance), quantitative resistance against L. maculans was assessed in young plants in controlled environments at two stages: stage 1, growth of the pathogen along leaf veins/petioles towards the stem by leaf lamina inoculation; stage 2, growth in stem tissues to produce stem canker symptoms by leaf petiole inoculation. Two types of inoculum (ascospores; conidia) and three assessment methods (extent of visible necrosis; symptomless pathogen growth visualised using the GFP reporter gene; amount of pathogen DNA quantified by PCR) were used. In stage 1 assessments, significant differences were observed between lines A30 and C119 in area of leaf lesions, distance grown along veins/petioles assessed by visible necrosis or by viewing GFP and amount of L. maculans DNA in leaf petioles. In stage 2 assessments, significant differences were observed between lines A30 and C119 in severity of stem canker and amount of L. maculans DNA in stem tissues. GFP-labelled L. maculans spread more quickly from the stem cortex to the stem pith in A30 than in C119. Stem canker symptoms were produced more rapidly by using ascospore inoculum than by using conidial inoculum. These results suggest that quantitative resistance against L. maculans in B. napus can be assessed in young plants in controlled conditions. Development of methods to phenotype quantitative resistance against plant pathogens in young plants in controlled environments will help identification of stable quantitative resistance for control of crop diseases. PMID:24454767

  5. Rape Myths and the Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale in China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jia; Fang, Gang; Huang, Hui; Cui, Naixue; Rhodes, Karin V; Gelles, Richard

    2016-06-05

    The study examines the similarities and differences between China and the United States with regard to rape myths. We assessed the individual level of rape myth acceptance among Chinese university students by adapting and translating a widely used measure of rape myth endorsement in the United States, the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance (IRMA) scale. We assessed whether the IRMA scale would be an appropriate assessment of attitudes toward rape among young adults in China. The sample consisted of 975 Chinese university students enrolled in seven Chinese universities. We used explorative factor analysis to examine the factor structure of the Chinese translation of the IRMA scale. Results suggest that the IRMA scale requires some modification to be employed with young adults in China. Our analyses indicate that 20 items should be deleted, and a five-factor model is generated. We discuss relevant similarities and differences in the factor structure and item loadings between the Chinese Rape Myth Acceptance (CRMA) and the IRMA scales. A revised version of the IRMA, the CRMA, can be used as a resource in rape prevention services and rape victim support services. Future research in China that employs CRMA will allow researchers to examine whether individual's response to rape myth acceptance can predict rape potential and judgments of victim blaming and community members' acceptance of marital rape. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Proposed Recruit Training Topic: Rape Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Janet R.

    This guide, prepared by the United States Navy Recruit Training Command, was designed to address the differential training needs of male and female recruits in the area of personal security, i.e., rape awareness/prevention. In section I, the role of the Recruit Training Command is noted, and information on the incidence of sexual assault is…

  7. Rape and the Elderly: An Initial Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerschner, Paul A.

    This paper presents some preliminary data on rape and older women as a means for informing the interested in gathering data in their own geographic and/or socio-economic areas. Utilizing data from the 1970 census in Los Angeles, the author attempts to paint a broad-brush picture of this situation in a large metropolitan city. In addition, he hopes…

  8. Attribution of Fault to Rape Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinman, Saul

    An experimental design, the impact of the marital status, physical attractiveness, amount of victim resistance, and immediate reaction of the victim as well as sex of observer on attributions of fault to hypothetical rape victims were investigated. Participants were 440 undergraduate students at the University of Wyoming. Each participant was…

  9. Risk Appraisal in Scripted Acquaintance Rape Scenarios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Doris J.

    Cognitive appraisals are believed to influence how women judge or appraise risk in acquaintance interactions which lead to sexual assault. Ways in which men and women judge the presence of risk factors in scripted acquaintance rape scenarios, and whether alcohol was a significant factor in assessing risk, are examined in this paper. Participants…

  10. Acquaintance Rape on College and University Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romeo, Felicia F.

    2004-01-01

    While a university experience offers young women many rewards, unfortunately, there are also significant dangers, and one of these dangers is men who are sexual predators. Acquaintance rape is a sexual assault perpetrated by someone who is known to the victim. It is a violent and serious crime that is far too common an occurrence at our…

  11. Numbing after rape, and depth of therapy.

    PubMed

    Barglow, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The author considers the reactions of four women who had been sexually assaulted, with a focus on the rape trauma of two women with the diagnosis of "Complex-PTSD." Both patients also had prolonged episodes of illegal drug dependence. The article investigates a variety of therapeutic responses to ameliorate disabling post-rape psychological symptoms, especially an intense feeling of numbing. Psychodynamic treatment was chosen for investigation rather than Prolonged Exposure (PET), or Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). Choice of these two treatments is supported by substantial statistical evidence. But many therapists continue to use psychoanalytic based approaches to treat rape victims. Schottenbauer et al, (2008) concluded that PET and CBT approaches had high non-response and dropout rates. Also psychodynamic comprehension may be particularly suitable for "complex PTSD" as defined below in this article. Two vignettes contrast the treatment processes and outcomes of these two women to two other patients who had been sexually assaulted, but whose psychopathology was less severe. The author proposes that full comprehension of severe numbing is essential in the selection of the best intervention strategy because this symptom (or affect) may determine the prognosis of raped patients.

  12. Rape Within the Hispanic Family Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinones-Sierra, Sylvia

    Because problems such as rape are often viewed as personal concerns of "la familia" there is great tendency on the part of Hispanics to accept this crime as something that must be resolved without intervention from the police, the hospitals or the courts. Seldom will much needed therapy and auxillary type services be sought due to the extreme…

  13. Rape Within the Hispanic Family Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinones-Sierra, Sylvia

    Because problems such as rape are often viewed as personal concerns of "la familia" there is great tendency on the part of Hispanics to accept this crime as something that must be resolved without intervention from the police, the hospitals or the courts. Seldom will much needed therapy and auxillary type services be sought due to the extreme…

  14. Stop Rape Crisis Center: An Exemplary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcomb, Debra; And Others

    An exemplary project, the Stop Rape Crisis Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, which was initially funded by the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA), is described. Issues addressed include the following: (1) initlal start-up and continuing program assessment; (2) staffing and the use of volunteers; (3) coordination with law enforcement…

  15. Contact with Counter-Stereotypical Women Predicts Less Sexism, Less Rape Myth Acceptance, Less Intention to Rape (in Men) and Less Projected Enjoyment of Rape (in Women).

    PubMed

    Taschler, Miriam; West, Keon

    2017-01-01

    Intergroup contact-(positive) interactions with people from different social groups-is a widely researched and strongly supported prejudice-reducing mechanism shown to reduce prejudice against a wide variety of outgroups. However, no known previous research has investigated whether intergroup contact can also reduce sexism against women. Sexism has an array of negative outcomes. One of the most detrimental and violent ones is rape, which is both justified and downplayed by rape myth acceptance. We hypothesised that more frequent, higher quality contact with counter-stereotypical women would predict lower levels of sexism and thus less rape myth acceptance (in men) and less sexualised projected responses to rape (in women). Two studies using online surveys with community samples supported these hypotheses. In Study 1, 170 male participants who experienced more positive contact with counter-stereotypical women reported less intention to rape. Similarly, in Study 2, 280 female participants who experienced more positive contact with counter-stereotypical women reported less projected sexual arousal at the thought of being raped. Thus, the present research is the first known to show that contact could be a potential tool to combat sexism, rape myth acceptance, intentions to rape in men, and sexualisation of rape by women.

  16. Economic feasibility of diesel fuel substitutes from oilseeds in New York State

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, W.F.; Pitt, R.E.

    1984-11-01

    The feasibility of producing oilseeds for feed and for a diesel fuel substitute has primarily been discussed in terms of the major oilseed producing areas. The Northeast region of the United States is a major agricultural producing area which imports large quantities of soybean meal for cattle feed. This paper considers the technical and economic feasibility of producing oilseeds for feed and fuel in New York State, which is selected as a case study for the region. The possible crops considered for expanded production are sunflowers, soybeans, and flax. It is found that if enough oilseeds are grown to replace 25% of the diesel fuel used on farms, then at most 5% of the cropland would have to be converted to oilseeds, and meal would not be produced in excess of the amount currently used. The cost of producing oil is calculated as the cost of producing the seed plus the cost of processing minus the value of the meal. Enterprise budgets are developed for estimating oilseed production costs in New York State. The cost of processing is estimated for both an industrial-size plant, which does not now exist in New York, and a small on-farm plant. It is found that the diesel fuel and vegetable oil prices would have to rise substantially before oilseeds were produced in the Northeast region for feed and fuel. Moreover, the construction of an oilseed processing facility would not necessarily stimulate production of oilseeds in the region. 22 references.

  17. World oilseed situation and U. S. export opportunities, December 1983. Foreign agriculture circular

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    A slight increase in world oilseed production above last month's forecast, to 163.0 million tons, still leaves 1983/84 production over 9 percent below last year. Forecast utilization of oilseeds and products remain essentially unchanged from last month. Despite the relatively unchanged world oilseed and product balance, prices have weakened in recent weeks, raising expectations that additional price strength will be needed to bring about the required rationing of reduced world supplies. The other major element of uncertainty is Southern Hemisphere oilseed production, especially the Brazilian and Argentine 1984 soybean crops.

  18. Examining the relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, victim blame, homophobia, gender roles, and ambivalent sexism.

    PubMed

    Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related to, and predicted by, the other attitude and attribution scales. Respondents comprised 323 undergraduates (146 males and 177 females) from a large University in the Northwest of England. Results broadly conformed to predictions, with men generally more negative than women, and male rape myth acceptance significantly related to female rape myth acceptance, negative attitudes about gay men, gender role attitudes, and victim blame. Furthermore, male rape myth acceptance was predicted by female rape myth acceptance, gender attitudes, and victim blame. Methodological issues and implications for future work and those working with victims are discussed.

  19. Occurrence of aflatoxins in oilseeds providing cocoa-butter substitutes.

    PubMed Central

    Kershaw, S J

    1982-01-01

    Four oilseeds providing cocoa-butter substitutes--shea, pentadecima, illipe, and salseed--when tested as substrates for aflatoxin production by two strains of Aspergillus parasiticus, gave varying levels of aflatoxin. Aflatoxins were found at low levels occurring naturally in moldy shea-nuts, but none of 21 commercial shea-nut samples contained greater than 20 micrograms of aflatoxin B1 per kg. PMID:6808919

  20. Occurrence of aflatoxins in oilseeds providing cocoa-butter substitutes.

    PubMed

    Kershaw, S J

    1982-05-01

    Four oilseeds providing cocoa-butter substitutes--shea, pentadecima, illipe, and salseed--when tested as substrates for aflatoxin production by two strains of Aspergillus parasiticus, gave varying levels of aflatoxin. Aflatoxins were found at low levels occurring naturally in moldy shea-nuts, but none of 21 commercial shea-nut samples contained greater than 20 micrograms of aflatoxin B1 per kg.

  1. Stop Blaming the Victim: A Meta-Analysis on Rape Myths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, Eliana; Gadalla, Tahany M.

    2010-01-01

    Although male rape is being reported more often than before, the majority of rape victims continue to be women. Rape myths--false beliefs used mainly to shift the blame of rape from perpetrators to victims--are also prevalent in today's society and in many ways contribute toward the pervasiveness of rape. Despite this, there has been limited…

  2. Stop Blaming the Victim: A Meta-Analysis on Rape Myths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, Eliana; Gadalla, Tahany M.

    2010-01-01

    Although male rape is being reported more often than before, the majority of rape victims continue to be women. Rape myths--false beliefs used mainly to shift the blame of rape from perpetrators to victims--are also prevalent in today's society and in many ways contribute toward the pervasiveness of rape. Despite this, there has been limited…

  3. Suggested Acquaintance/Date Rape Education & Prevention Strategies for School Health Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Robert M.; Walls, Nicole A.

    Data suggest that acquaintance and date rape may account for 50-70 percent of all reported rapes in the United States. Recent findings also indicate that one in four college women have been raped or a victim of attempted rape. As most rape victims are between 15 and 24 years of age, high school-based education programs must be provided if society…

  4. Antimicrobial polyphenols from small tropical fruits, tea and spice oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Aman, Sahar; Naim, Asma; Siddiqi, Rahmanullah; Naz, Shahina

    2014-06-01

    The polyphenolic fractions of fruits: Terminalia catappa, Carissa carandas, Ziziphus nummularia; spice oilseeds: thymol, mustard, fenugreek and poppy seeds; and herb: green and black teas were analyzed for their total phenolics, flavonoids and antimicrobial potential. All fractions from fruits, except anthocyanin of C. carandas, displayed substantial antibacterial activity in accordance to their phenolic contents, the difference in activity being quite significant (p < 0.05), highest for T. catappa (minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC: 7.8-1000 microg/mL) and lowest for C. carandas (MIC: 62.5-1000 microg/mL). With few exceptions, both green and black teas' fractions inhibited the tested strains, however, green tea fractions (MIC: 15.63-125 microg/mL) were more active than black (MIC: 31.25-1000 microg/mL) and neutral were more active than their corresponding acidic fractions. Oil fractions of all oilseeds were found to be more active than their polyphenolic fractions, their antibacterial action decreased in the order thymol > mustard > fenugreek > poppy seeds (p < 0.05). Though the fruits used for the study are underutilized and have been emphasized for processed products, they may potentially be important to fight against pathogenic bacteria in view of their MICs. The teas and oilseeds, though a small part of total food intake, are more functional and active against the tested bacterial species and may find potential applications in therapeutics and food preservation.

  5. Criminalizing rape within marriage: perspectives of Ghanaian university students.

    PubMed

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2011-09-01

    Forcing sexual intercourse on an unwilling marital partner, or marital rape, is not a crime in many societies around the world, because of a marital exemption rule that prohibits the prosecution of husbands who rape their wives. Concurrently, marital rape is one of the least studied phenomena in sexual violence research. This is particularly true for societies in the non-Western world. The current study examined the general attitudes of a sample of university students in Ghana, a West African country, toward marital rape. Respondents were also asked whether an ongoing legislative effort to criminalize marital rape in the country was warranted. The results indicated strong opposition toward criminalization. The results also indicated no marked differences between male and female respondents in attitudes toward marital rape and the need for a legislative response to the phenomenon. Patriarchal ideologies such as wifely submission to the husband and an implicit duty to provide sex in marriage provided some of the justifications furnished for why marital rape should remain noncriminalized. Advocates of criminalization mentioned the social, physical, and psychological effects of rape and how the enactment of marital rape legislation and the imposition of severe criminal sanctions would help prevent the incidence of marital rape and other forms of violence against women in the society.

  6. Meta-Analysis of the Prevalence of Unacknowledged Rape.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Laura C; Miller, Katherine E

    2016-04-01

    Many sexual violence survivors do not label their experiences as rape but instead use more benign labels, such as "bad sex" or "miscommunication." A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the mean prevalence of unacknowledged rape and to inform our understanding of methodological factors that influence the detection of this phenomenon. Studies were identified using PsycINFO, PubMED, and PILOTS and were required to report the percentage of unacknowledged rape that had occurred since the age of 14 among female survivors. Moderator variables included mean participant age, recruitment source, rape definition, and unacknowledged rape definition. Twenty-eight studies (30 independent samples) containing 5,917 female rape survivors met the inclusion criteria. Based on a random effects model, the overall weighted mean percentage of unacknowledged rape was 60.4% (95% confidence interval [55.0%, 65.6%]). There was a large amount of heterogeneity, Q(29) = 445.11, p < .001, and inconsistency (I(2) = 93.5%) among included studies. The prevalence was significantly higher among college student participants compared to noncollege participants. The findings supported that over half of all female rape survivors do not acknowledge that they have been raped. The results suggest that screening tools should use behaviorally descriptive items about sexual contact, rather than using terms such as "rape." © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Male Peer Support to Hostile Sexist Attitudes Influences Rape Proclivity.

    PubMed

    Durán, Mercedes; Megías, Jesús L; Moya, Miguel

    2016-01-12

    Sexual assault affects a large proportion of women in the world. Although most rapes are committed by one man, the act itself may be influenced by many (e.g., the peer group). Hostile sexism (HS) has repeatedly been associated with men's rape proclivity, but the influence exerted by the HS of the peer group on rape proclivity has not been investigated. In this study, we explored the impact of perceived male peer support to HS on participants' rape proclivity. A sample of Spanish undergraduate students from a university in the south of Spain (N = 134) completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory. Immediately afterwards, they received feedback on the supposed sexist responses of a peer group (high vs. low in HS); we kept the benevolent sexism (BS) of the peer group at medium levels. Next, we assessed participants' rape proclivity using acquaintance rape scenarios. Results showed an interaction between participants' own levels of HS and information about the HS of the peer group. Men high in HS reported higher rape proclivity in the high-HS peer-group condition than in the low-HS peer-group condition. By contrast, information on the peer group did not affect self-reported rape proclivity of men low in HS. Results also corroborated the relationship between participants' levels of HS and rape proclivity, and expanded the literature by revealing an unexpected influence of participants' BS on rape proclivity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Police officers' collaboration with rape victim advocates: barriers and facilitators.

    PubMed

    Rich, Karen; Seffrin, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Secondary victimization may occur when rape victims make police reports. This can compromise the quality of official statements and jeopardize criminal cases. Rape reporters receive better treatment by police officers when advocates are involved and best practice police work includes such collaboration. Studies of advocates have described tension, role confusion, and poor communication with police officers. Many variables, including rape myth acceptance (RMA) and training on sexual assault dynamics, may affect officers' collaboration with advocates. There were 429 police officers who responded to a survey measuring their victim interviewing skill, formal training about rape, years on the job, number of victims known personally, number of recent rape cases, RMA, and collaboration with advocates. Results suggest that officers' interviewing skill, years on the job, and specific training are related to collaboration with victim advocates on rape cases. Professional, rather than personal, variables were most predictive of collaboration. Implications for officer selection and training are explored.

  9. Dealing with rape in a new political landscape.

    PubMed

    Stern, Baroness Vivien

    2012-01-01

    Rape is controversial and constructing rape policy is complicated. Most victims, men and women, are raped by someone they know. The court case usually hangs on whether or not the complainant consented to the act. The defence feels free to portray the complainant in a negative light making the trial an ordeal. Some complainants decide it is one ordeal too many and withdraw from the process. Sustained criticism of the handling of rape cases over many years led to substantial improvements, with specially trained police officers, prosecutors and judges, and more defendants being convicted. Yet providing justice to rape victims requires more than an effective criminal justice response. It also requires recognition that victims are entitled to the support of the state. They should be treated with respect regardless of whether the case goes to trial or not. The rate of convictions for rape is not the only, or even the most important measure of a good policy.

  10. Effects of Two Versions of an Empathy-Based Rape Prevention Program on Fraternity Men's Survivor Empathy, Attitudes, and Behavioral Intent to Commit Rape or Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.; Newberry, Johnathan T.

    2006-01-01

    Fraternity men (N = 261) at a small to midsized public university saw one of two versions of a rape prevention program or were in a control group. Program participants reported significant increases in empathy toward rape survivors and significant declines in rape myth acceptance, likelihood of raping, and likelihood of committing sexual assault.…

  11. Communicating/Muting Date Rape: A Co-Cultural Theoretical Analysis of Communication Factors Related to Rape Culture on a College Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Ann; Mattern, Jody L.; Herakova, Liliana L.; Kahl, David H., Jr.; Tobola, Cloy; Bornsen, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that college campuses foster a rape culture in which date rape (most commonly, rape of women) is an accepted part of campus activity (Buchwald, Fletcher, & Roth, 1993; Sanday, 2007). In focus groups at a Midwestern university, researchers asked students about rape as they experienced it or knew about it on campus. The…

  12. Is Reporting of Rape on the Rise? A Comparison of Women with Reported versus Unreported Rape Experiences in the National Women's Study-Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Rape affects one in seven women nationwide. Historically, most rape victims do not report rape to law enforcement. Research is needed to identify barriers to reporting and correlates of reporting to guide policy recommendations that address such barriers. We investigated the prevalence of reporting rape among a national sample of women (N = 3,001)…

  13. Effects of Two Versions of an Empathy-Based Rape Prevention Program on Fraternity Men's Survivor Empathy, Attitudes, and Behavioral Intent to Commit Rape or Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.; Newberry, Johnathan T.

    2006-01-01

    Fraternity men (N = 261) at a small to midsized public university saw one of two versions of a rape prevention program or were in a control group. Program participants reported significant increases in empathy toward rape survivors and significant declines in rape myth acceptance, likelihood of raping, and likelihood of committing sexual assault.…

  14. Is Reporting of Rape on the Rise? A Comparison of Women with Reported versus Unreported Rape Experiences in the National Women's Study-Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Rape affects one in seven women nationwide. Historically, most rape victims do not report rape to law enforcement. Research is needed to identify barriers to reporting and correlates of reporting to guide policy recommendations that address such barriers. We investigated the prevalence of reporting rape among a national sample of women (N = 3,001)…

  15. Communicating/Muting Date Rape: A Co-Cultural Theoretical Analysis of Communication Factors Related to Rape Culture on a College Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Ann; Mattern, Jody L.; Herakova, Liliana L.; Kahl, David H., Jr.; Tobola, Cloy; Bornsen, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that college campuses foster a rape culture in which date rape (most commonly, rape of women) is an accepted part of campus activity (Buchwald, Fletcher, & Roth, 1993; Sanday, 2007). In focus groups at a Midwestern university, researchers asked students about rape as they experienced it or knew about it on campus. The…

  16. Soil characteristics and associated wind erosion potential altered by oilseeds in wheat-based cropping systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oilseeds are integral to the production of biofuels and diversifying rainfed cropping systems in the Pacific Northwest. However, there is evidence to suggest greater potential for wind erosion when growing oilseeds in wheat-based rotations when tillage is used during fallow. Little is known concerni...

  17. Nitrogen use in durum and selected Brassicaceae oilseeds in two-year rotations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brassicaceae oilseeds can serve as potential feedstocks for renewable biofuels to offset demand for petroleum-based alternatives. However, little is known about oilseed crop yield potential and N use in semiarid, wheat (Triticum spp.)-based cropping systems that dominate the northern Great Plains (N...

  18. 40 CFR 63.2855 - How do I determine the quantity of oilseed processed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... as received basis refers to the oilseed chemical and physical characteristics as initially received.... (b) Use Equation 1 of this section to determine the quantity of each oilseed type processed at your affected source during normal operating periods recorded within a calendar month. Equation 1 of...

  19. Windblown dust potential from oilseed cropping systems in the Pacific Northwest United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The volatility of petroleum reserves and prices coupled with concerns over greenhouse gas emissions and climate change has created a worldwide interest in renewable fuels. Although advances are being made in growing oilseeds for advanced biofuels, little is known about the impact of growing oilseed ...

  20. Ongoing development of dryland oilseed production systems in the northwestern region of the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report addresses the development of dryland oilseed crops to provide feedstock for production of biofuels in semiarid portions of the northwestern United States. Bioenergy feedstocks derived from Brassica oilseed crops have been considered for production of hydrotreated renewable jet fuel, but...

  1. Windblown soil surface characteristics altered by oilseeds in a wheat-fallow cropping system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oilseeds are integral to the production of biofuels and diversifying rainfed cropping systems in the Pacific Northwest United States (PNW). However, there is evidence to suggest greater potential for wind erosion when growing oilseeds in wheat rotations. Little is known concerning the impact of grow...

  2. Rape: Is it a lifestyle or behavioral problem?

    PubMed Central

    Kamdar, Zeel N.; Kosambiya, Jayendrakumar K.; Chawada, Bansari L.; Verma, Mamtarani; Kadia, Abhinav

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In India, girl is raped every 20 min. The majority of reports reveals youth is vulnerable group for rape victimization. A set of prejudicial, stereotyped, or false beliefs about rape, rape victims, and rapist exist in the community. Aims/Objectives: To study the attitude and myths toward rape among college going students of Surat City. Materials and Methods: College students of various streams were participated in the study based on attitude toward rape scale (21 items) and updated Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (22 items). A total of 332 participants from three different colleges of the city took part in the survey. Data analysis was done with the SPSS version 19. Results: Among the responders, 61.75% were female. Mean age of participants was 20.22 ± 1.27 years. Almost two-third (73%) of female participants and 42% of the male participants disagreed with the myth that “When a woman says ‘no’ she really means ‘yes’.” Around 30% of the participants were uncertain about the myth that “A woman cannot be raped by someone she previously knew or had sex with.” While almost 35% of participants believed that “Most rapes are carried out by strangers.” Strong sexual desire of guys, drunkenness, and girl's clothes were reported to be factors that provoke rape by 50%, 40%, and 33% of respondents, respectively, around 95% of female and 92% of male participants think that 7-year imprisonment for rape is not enough. Conclusions: Rape myths are found to be highly prevalent among youth and higher among males. PMID:28529364

  3. Drug-facilitated sexual assault ('date rape').

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R H; Milteer, R; LeBeau, M A

    2000-06-01

    In the past few years, drug-facilitated sexual assaults have received widespread media coverage. In addition to alcohol, the most frequently used date-rape drug, flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), a fast-acting benzodiazepine, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its congeners are among the most popular drugs used for this purpose. The latter drug is easily procured at some gymnasiums, popular bars, discos, and rave clubs, as well as over the Internet. Perpetrators choose these drugs because they act rapidly, produce disinhibition and relaxation of voluntary muscles, and cause the victim to have lasting anterograde amnesia for events that occur under the influence of the drug. Alcoholic beverages potentiate the drug effects. We review several date-rape drugs, provide information on laboratory testing for them, and offer guidelines for preventing drug-facilitated sexual assault.

  4. Introducing the Date and Acquaintance Rape Avoidance Scale.

    PubMed

    Resendez, Josephine R; Hughes, Jamie S

    2016-01-01

    We present the Date and Acquaintance Rape Avoidance Scale (DARAS). The DARAS is a measure of a woman's behaviors used to avoid date and acquaintance rape. Three factor structures were possible. The DARAS may have measured several factors related to alcohol and drug use, self-defense, and date behaviors; 2 factors related to behaviors to avoid acquaintance versus date rape; or a single factor that represented general vigilance. The data revealed a highly reliable, 63 item single factor that was correlated with stranger rape avoidance, rejection of rape myths, hostile sexist beliefs about men, and benevolent sexist beliefs about women. The creation of the DARAS adds to the growing body of research on rape avoidance. The DARAS is key to understanding the behaviors women employ to avoid date rape. Rather than placing the responsibility for rape on the victim, the DARAS was developed as a theoretical and applied tool that can be used to improve theory and construct rape education and prevention programs.

  5. Reporting Rape in a National Sample of College Women

    PubMed Central

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Studies indicate that a small percentage of rapes are reported to law enforcement officials. Research also suggests that rapes perpetrated by a stranger are more likely to be reported and that rapes involving drugs and/or alcohol are less likely to be reported. College women represent a unique and understudied population with regard to reporting rape. Methods In the current study, we interviewed a national sample of 2,000 college women about rape experiences in 2006. Results Only 11.5% of college women in the sample reported their most recent/only rape experience to authorities, with only 2.7% of rapes involving drugs and/or alcohol reported. Minority status (i.e., non-white race) was associated with lower likelihood of reporting, whereas sustaining injuries during the rape was associated with increased likelihood of reporting. Discussion Reporting, particularly for rapes involving drugs and alcohol, is low among college women. Implications for policy are discussed. PMID:21823952

  6. The role of the new "date rape drugs" in attributions about date rape.

    PubMed

    Girard, April L; Senn, Charlene Y

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of voluntary and involuntary drug use on attributions about sexual assault. The sample was composed of 280 randomly selected male and female undergraduate students. The type of drug used (GHB, alcohol, or none) and the voluntariness of the administration were varied in an unambiguous date rape scenario. Participants viewed sexual assault facilitated by alcohol or drugs similarly to sexual assault without drug or alcohol involvement, assigning the highest levels of responsibility and blame to the perpetrator and the lowest levels of both to the victim in these situations. In contrast, women's voluntary consumption of drugs prior to a sexual assault reduced perpetrator responsibility and blame and increased blame to the victim compared to other situations (except in some cases, voluntary drunkenness). These findings extend the limited research on date rape drugs and previous work on the influence of alcohol on date rape attributions.

  7. Athletes and rape: is there a connection?

    PubMed

    Caron, S L; Halteman, W A; Stacy, C

    1997-12-01

    The present study builds upon previous research examining variables related to sexual assault. Previous studies have linked sexual aggression with attitudes toward rape as well as hostility toward women. Recent high-profile cases involving athletes and sexual assault have raised questions about the link with athletes. In fact, recent research has suggested that athletes may be more prone to commit rape; however, no study has examined competitiveness. This characteristic, associated with athletes, may predict sexual aggression and help assess why rape is reportedly perpetrated by athletes significantly more frequently than by nonathletes. It may be that individuals with high competitiveness may be more likely to be involved in sexual assaults. Scores on Competitiveness in 104 college men were significantly correlated with reported sexual aggression and athletic participation; however, there was no significant difference between athletes and nonathletes on aggressive sexual behavior. These findings suggest that characteristics of athletes rather than athletic participation alone must be considered further in examining the presumed link between athletes and sexual assault.

  8. Antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from residues of different oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Matthäus, B

    2002-06-05

    Residues of the oil-extracting process of oilseeds contain bioactive substances such as phenolic compounds, which could be used as natural antioxidants for the protection of fats and oils against oxidative deterioration. Thus, the extraction of such constituents from residual material can be considered to contribute to the added value of these residues, which could justify their isolation. In the present work the fat-free residues of eight different oilseeds whose oils are usable for nutritional applications, and also as renewable resources, were extracted with 70% methanol, 70% acetone, water, and ethyl acetate/water, respectively. The resulting extracts were investigated regarding their content of total phenolic compounds by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, sinapine, flavanoids, and the UV-absorption spectra. Further, the antioxidant activity of the extracts was characterized by the DPPH method, the beta-carotene-linoleic acid assay, and ESR investigations. The fat-free residues of the different oilseeds contained considerable amounts of extractable substances. The yields decreased with decreasing polarity of the solvent in the order water, 70% methanol, 70% acetone, and ethyl acetate. The ratio of total phenolic compounds to the extractable compounds ranged from 3 to 19%. There was no significant correlation between the amount of total extractable compounds and the total phenolic compounds (p < 0.001). All extracts showed remarkable antioxidant activities determined with the different methods. The effects depended strongly on the solvent used for the extraction as well as on the extracted residue. A correlation between the methods used for the characterization of the antioxidant activity and the composition of the residues could not be shown.

  9. Oilseed crops as renewable sources of industrial chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    McKeon, T.A.; Lin, Jiann-Tsyh; Goodrich-Tanrikulu, M.

    1995-12-01

    The presence of specific functional groups on a fatty acid confers value for industrial uses. The plant kingdom contains numerous examples of plants that produce seed oils containing fatty acids with epoxy groups, hydroxyl groups, triple bonds or with unusual double bond positions. These fatty acids can be used directly or are readily modified for use in specialty lubricants, plastics and coatings. Many of these plants are not cultivated in the U.S. due to unsuitable climate or growth habit. Such plants provide a source of genes coding for enzymes that will carry out the desired fatty acid modification. Genetic technology allows the transfer of these genes into domestically grown crops such as rapeseed or soybean, with consequent production of the desired fatty acid in the seed oil. One biotechnology company has commercialized a transgenic oilseed crop with an altered fatty acid composition. This talk will review current and projected plans for developing oilseed crops to serve as renewable resources that meet current industrial needs or provide chemical feedstocks for new uses.

  10. A Protection Motivation Theory application to date rape education.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shweta; Orwat, John; Grossman, Susan

    2011-12-01

    Date rape risk communication is a key component of education-based Date Rape Prevention Programs, common across colleges. In such programs, risk assessment in date rape is approached cautiously in order to avoid a tone of "victim blaming." Since it is important in the assessment of any risk to understand the surrounding social context of the risky situation and the individual's unique relationship with that social context, this study examines Protection Motivation Theory as it applies to handling the risk of date rape without victim blaming. The paper links individual personality and social contexts with risk communication. The study sample comprised 367 undergraduate women enrolled in a large Southern Public University. The study examines the relationships between dating activity, social competency, and type of information provided with the dependents variables of date rape related protection behavior (intent), belief, and knowledge. A factorial multiple analysis of covariance analysis found that the dependent variables had a significant relationship with aspects of social competency and dating activity. The exposure to varying information about date rape was not significantly related to the dependent variables of date rape-related protection behavior (intent), belief, and knowledge. The identification of social competency and dating activity status as protective factors in this study makes a significant contribution to the practice and research efforts in date rape education.

  11. Rape Myth Beliefs and Bystander Attitudes among Incoming College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The bystander approach to rape prevention is gaining popularity on college campuses, although research is limited. This study explored bystander attitudes and their relationship with rape myths in a sample of college students. Participants: Surveys from 2,338 incoming undergraduate students at a large, northeastern university were…

  12. Rape Survivors' Agency within the Legal and Medical Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeson, Megan R.; Campbell, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Many rape survivors seek help from the legal and medical systems post-assault. Previous studies have examined how social system personnel treat survivors, but less attention has been paid to how survivors attempt to shape their interactions with these systems. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine rape survivors' agency--the active…

  13. Rape Prevention with College Men: Evaluating Risk Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Kari A.; George, William H.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of a theoretically based rape prevention intervention with college men who were at high or low risk to perpetrate sexually coercive behavior. Participants (N = 146) are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Outcomes include rape myth acceptance, victim empathy, attraction to sexual…

  14. Rape Survivors' Agency within the Legal and Medical Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeson, Megan R.; Campbell, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Many rape survivors seek help from the legal and medical systems post-assault. Previous studies have examined how social system personnel treat survivors, but less attention has been paid to how survivors attempt to shape their interactions with these systems. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine rape survivors' agency--the active…

  15. Rape Myth Beliefs and Bystander Attitudes among Incoming College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The bystander approach to rape prevention is gaining popularity on college campuses, although research is limited. This study explored bystander attitudes and their relationship with rape myths in a sample of college students. Participants: Surveys from 2,338 incoming undergraduate students at a large, northeastern university were…

  16. Multiple Perpetrator Rape: Naming an Offence and Initial Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Miranda Angel Helena; Kelly, Liz

    2009-01-01

    Multiple perpetrator rape presents a significant problem nationally and internationally. However, previous research is limited and findings are often contradictory. The details of 101 rape allegations recorded in a six-month period in a large police force in England were analysed. Findings are presented about case classification, victim and…

  17. "Spreading the Love" and Using Performances to Prevent Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Aurora

    2013-01-01

    While rape is ordinarily considered an invariable reality, Sharon Marcus argues that it is instead a cultural script, which casts women as victims and men as perpetrators. In imagining rape as a script, it may seem pertinent to suggest that the arts and performance have a role in its prevention. Performances can provide a forum to publicly reflect…

  18. Rape Prevention with College Men: Evaluating Risk Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Kari A.; George, William H.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of a theoretically based rape prevention intervention with college men who were at high or low risk to perpetrate sexually coercive behavior. Participants (N = 146) are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Outcomes include rape myth acceptance, victim empathy, attraction to sexual…

  19. Leda and the Swan--and other myths about rape.

    PubMed

    Norfolk, Guy A

    2011-07-01

    In his David Jenkins Memorial Lecture, Dr Norfolk discusses rape and some of the myths that surround the topic, exploring the research evidence about conviction rates, false allegations, clinician gender preferences of rape victims and the role of sexual assault referral centres in service delivery.

  20. Hidden, Unacknowledged, Acquaintance, and Date Rape: Looking Back, Looking Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Mary P.

    2011-01-01

    In this commentary, the author reflects on two articles that have been among the most highly cited publications in "Psychology of Women Quarterly" ("PWQ") over its first 35 years, "The Hidden Rape Victim: Personality, Attitudinal, and Situational Characteristics" (Koss, 1985) and "Stranger and Acquaintance Rape: Are There Differences in the…