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Sample records for broiler breeder chickens

  1. Estimation of the prevalence of Salmonella species on the slatted area compared to the scratch area of broiler breeder chicken houses.

    PubMed

    Behnke, Elena L; Hofacre, Charles L; Berghaus, Roy D

    2013-09-01

    With the objective of detecting Salmonella species in the poultry house environment, sampling broiler breeder houses in the two-thirds slatted area and the one-third scratch area with pine shavings bedding can be difficult. The slatted area is where the females, consisting of approximately 90% of the population, eat, drink, and spend the majority of their time. The scratch area is where the males eat and drink, as well as where mating and mortality occur. Besides the nest boxes, the female feeders and water lines make the slatted areas more difficult to sample. However, it is important to take samples from the area with the greatest likelihood of isolating Salmonella. Therefore, boot swab samples were collected from 21 commercial broiler breeder chicken houses representing three different companies in north Georgia to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on the slat vs. the scratch area in each chicken house. Every house sampled had a central scratch area covered with litter and two elevated slat areas constructed of wood. Four boot swab samples were collected on each side slat area by walking the entire length of the house for each swab. Eight samples were collected in the same manner from the scratch area. Results of 335 total samples were acquired, 167 of which were obtained from the slat area and 168 of which came from the scratch area, yielding 242 total Salmonella isolations. Salmonella was found in 117 of the slat samples, representing 70.1%, compared to 125 of the scratch area samples, representing 74.4%. Both the univariate (P = 0.311) and the multivariable (P = 0.303) analysis showed that sampling location was not associated with Salmonella prevalence.

  2. Measuring motivation for appetitive behaviour: food-restricted broiler breeder chickens cross a water barrier to forage in an area of wood shavings without food.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Laura M; Brocklehurst, Sarah; Sandilands, Vicky; Bateson, Melissa; Tolkamp, Bert J; D'Eath, Rick B

    2014-01-01

    Broiler breeders (parents of meat chickens) are selected for fast growth and become obese if fed ad libitum. To avoid this and maintain good health and reproductive ability, they are feed restricted to about 1/3 of what they would eat ad libitum. As a result, they experience chronic hunger and exhibit abnormal behaviour patterns that may indicate stress and frustration. One approach to measuring hunger is to observe how much birds will work, such as pecking a key, for access to more or different types of food. However, the sight, smell, and feedback from consumption of the feed reward changes the context and may artificially raise feeding motivation. To avoid this, we tested broiler breeders in an apparatus in which they could work for access to a wooden platform covered in wood shavings by crossing a water runway which increased in length and depth in 8 successive tests. In the wood shavings area, they could perform exploratory and foraging behaviour (the appetitive phase of feeding) but were never rewarded with feed. Sixty birds were divided into three feed quantity treatments: commercial restriction (R), and twice (2R) or three times (3R) this amount. Overall, birds fed R worked harder to reach the wood shavings area (reached it in a larger number of tests) than 2R and 3R birds (P<0.001). More restricted birds took less time to reach the area (P<0.001, R<2R<3R) and spent more time foraging while there (P<0.001, R>2R>3R). This indicates that restricted-fed birds were hungry and willing to work for the opportunity to forage even though food was never provided, suggesting that their motivation to perform the appetitive component of feeding behaviour (foraging/food searching) was sufficient to sustain their response. Thus food restriction in broiler breeders is a welfare concern. However these methods could be used to test alternative feeding regimes to attempt to find ways of alleviating hunger while still maintaining healthy growth and reproduction in these birds.

  3. Measuring motivation for appetitive behaviour: food-restricted broiler breeder chickens cross a water barrier to forage in an area of wood shavings without food.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Laura M; Brocklehurst, Sarah; Sandilands, Vicky; Bateson, Melissa; Tolkamp, Bert J; D'Eath, Rick B

    2014-01-01

    Broiler breeders (parents of meat chickens) are selected for fast growth and become obese if fed ad libitum. To avoid this and maintain good health and reproductive ability, they are feed restricted to about 1/3 of what they would eat ad libitum. As a result, they experience chronic hunger and exhibit abnormal behaviour patterns that may indicate stress and frustration. One approach to measuring hunger is to observe how much birds will work, such as pecking a key, for access to more or different types of food. However, the sight, smell, and feedback from consumption of the feed reward changes the context and may artificially raise feeding motivation. To avoid this, we tested broiler breeders in an apparatus in which they could work for access to a wooden platform covered in wood shavings by crossing a water runway which increased in length and depth in 8 successive tests. In the wood shavings area, they could perform exploratory and foraging behaviour (the appetitive phase of feeding) but were never rewarded with feed. Sixty birds were divided into three feed quantity treatments: commercial restriction (R), and twice (2R) or three times (3R) this amount. Overall, birds fed R worked harder to reach the wood shavings area (reached it in a larger number of tests) than 2R and 3R birds (P<0.001). More restricted birds took less time to reach the area (P<0.001, R<2R<3R) and spent more time foraging while there (P<0.001, R>2R>3R). This indicates that restricted-fed birds were hungry and willing to work for the opportunity to forage even though food was never provided, suggesting that their motivation to perform the appetitive component of feeding behaviour (foraging/food searching) was sufficient to sustain their response. Thus food restriction in broiler breeders is a welfare concern. However these methods could be used to test alternative feeding regimes to attempt to find ways of alleviating hunger while still maintaining healthy growth and reproduction in these birds

  4. Measuring Motivation for Appetitive Behaviour: Food-Restricted Broiler Breeder Chickens Cross a Water Barrier to Forage in an Area of Wood Shavings without Food

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Laura M.; Brocklehurst, Sarah; Sandilands, Vicky; Bateson, Melissa; Tolkamp, Bert J.; D'Eath, Rick B.

    2014-01-01

    Broiler breeders (parents of meat chickens) are selected for fast growth and become obese if fed ad libitum. To avoid this and maintain good health and reproductive ability, they are feed restricted to about 1/3 of what they would eat ad libitum. As a result, they experience chronic hunger and exhibit abnormal behaviour patterns that may indicate stress and frustration. One approach to measuring hunger is to observe how much birds will work, such as pecking a key, for access to more or different types of food. However, the sight, smell, and feedback from consumption of the feed reward changes the context and may artificially raise feeding motivation. To avoid this, we tested broiler breeders in an apparatus in which they could work for access to a wooden platform covered in wood shavings by crossing a water runway which increased in length and depth in 8 successive tests. In the wood shavings area, they could perform exploratory and foraging behaviour (the appetitive phase of feeding) but were never rewarded with feed. Sixty birds were divided into three feed quantity treatments: commercial restriction (R), and twice (2R) or three times (3R) this amount. Overall, birds fed R worked harder to reach the wood shavings area (reached it in a larger number of tests) than 2R and 3R birds (P<0.001). More restricted birds took less time to reach the area (P<0.001, R<2R<3R) and spent more time foraging while there (P<0.001, R>2R>3R). This indicates that restricted-fed birds were hungry and willing to work for the opportunity to forage even though food was never provided, suggesting that their motivation to perform the appetitive component of feeding behaviour (foraging/food searching) was sufficient to sustain their response. Thus food restriction in broiler breeders is a welfare concern. However these methods could be used to test alternative feeding regimes to attempt to find ways of alleviating hunger while still maintaining healthy growth and reproduction in these birds

  5. Impact of Feeding Systems and Vaccination Programs on Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization and Clearance of E. Coli In Broiler Broiler Breeders Pullets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler breeder pullets from a single grandparent flock were in ovo-vaccinated with Marek's vaccines herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) + chicken herpesvirus (SB1) or a vector HVT + Infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine+SB1. The chicks were placed in an experimental broiler breeder facility at the Univer...

  6. The broiler breeder paradox: ethical, genetic and physiological perspectives, and suggestions for solutions.

    PubMed

    Decuypere, E; Bruggeman, V; Everaert, N; Li, Yue; Boonen, R; De Tavernier, J; Janssens, S; Buys, N

    2010-10-01

    1. Due to intensive selection, broiler chickens became the most efficient meat-producing animals because of their fast growth, supported by a virtually unlimited voluntary feed intake. These characteristics cause many problems in the management of broiler breeder hens because of the negative correlation between muscle growth and reproduction effectiveness. 2. This problem, namely the fast muscle growth versus reproduction health paradox, induces a second paradox, acceptable reproduction and health versus hunger stress and impaired welfare, because broiler breeder hens require dedicated programmes of feed restriction (1) to maximise egg and chick production and (2) to avoid metabolic disorders and mortality in broiler breeders. 3. Given that poultry selection is a global large-scale business and chickens are a prolific species, improvement in profit can only be obtained by selecting on feed conversion and/or for higher breast meat percentage, which will intensify the broiler-breeder paradox. 4. New feeding strategies are being studied, but it is questionable if the paradox can be solved by management tools alone. Because breeding and selection are long-term processes, involving animals, farmers, consumers, industry, environment etc., a more sustainable breeding goal needs to be determined by a multidisciplinary approach and an open debate between several actors in the discussion. 5. Using dwarf broiler breeder hens could be one alternative, because dwarf hens combine relatively good reproductive fitness with ad libitum feeding. Another possibility is to accept lower broiler productivity by assigning economic values to welfare and including integrity traits in an extended breeding goal.

  7. Comparative differences in the composition and biomechanical properties of tibiae of seven- and seventy-two-week-old male and female broiler breeder chickens.

    PubMed

    Rath, N C; Balog, J M; Huff, W E; Huff, G R; Kulkarni, G B; Tierce, J F

    1999-08-01

    Skeletal problems are common in both young and old poultry and are often related to bone weakness. They affect mortality on the farm and condemnations within processing plant and thus raise both welfare and economic concerns. To understand the basis of bone strength, the metaphyseal histology, composition, and the biomechanical properties of tibiae from 7- and 72-wk-old male and female broiler breeder chickens were compared. The biochemical constituents included ash, collagen, proteoglycan, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), pyridinium crosslinks, and the organic matrix-associated fluorescence. Blood variables were measured to determine the metabolic status of these birds as related to bone physiology. Although there were no differences in blood chemistry of 7-wk-old males and females, there were several differences between young and old birds. The levels of calcium, triglyceride, and iron were higher in older females than in older males. The collagen content was reduced, and the proteoglycan content increased in 72-wk-old hens. The TGF-beta content of bones from 7-wk-old females was higher than that of other groups of birds. Bone strength and stiffness, measured using loads at break and Young's modulus, respectively, were higher in older birds. The presence of medullary bones in 72-wk-old hens did not affect their bone strength, although it reduced strain values and increased Young's modulus. Compared to other groups, the 72-wk-old hens had a higher content of an inorganic matrix. The levels of hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP) and lysylpyridinoline (LP) and the collagenase-extractable fluorescence of the organic matrix from older birds was higher. The decalcified bone matrix from older birds also showed higher susceptibility to bacterial collagenase than their younger counterparts. Bone strength showed positive correlations with its ash content, density, pyridinium crosslinks, and the fluorescence of the matrix. However, the correlation was strong with both

  8. Distribution and Genetic Profiles of Campylobacter in Commercial Broiler Production from Breeder to Slaughter in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Prachantasena, Sakaoporn; Charununtakorn, Petcharatt; Muangnoicharoen, Suthida; Hankla, Luck; Techawal, Natthaporn; Chaveerach, Prapansak; Tuitemwong, Pravate; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa; Williams, Nicola; Humphrey, Tom; Luangtongkum, Taradon

    2016-01-01

    Poultry and poultry products are commonly considered as the major vehicle of Campylobacter infection in humans worldwide. To reduce the number of human cases, the epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry must be better understood. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the distribution and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter in the Thai chicken production industry. During June to October 2012, entire broiler production processes (i.e., breeder flock, hatchery, broiler farm and slaughterhouse) of five broiler production chains were investigated chronologically. Representative isolates of C. jejuni from each production stage were characterized by flaA SVR sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Amongst 311 selected isolates, 29 flaA SVR alleles and 17 sequence types (STs) were identified. The common clonal complexes (CCs) found in this study were CC-45, CC-353, CC-354 and CC-574. C. jejuni isolated from breeders were distantly related to those isolated from broilers and chicken carcasses, while C. jejuni isolates from the slaughterhouse environment and meat products were similar to those isolated from broiler flocks. Genotypic identification of C. jejuni in slaughterhouses indicated that broilers were the main source of Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat during processing. To effectively reduce Campylobacter in poultry meat products, control and prevention strategies should be aimed at both farm and slaughterhouse levels. PMID:26886590

  9. Distribution and Genetic Profiles of Campylobacter in Commercial Broiler Production from Breeder to Slaughter in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Prachantasena, Sakaoporn; Charununtakorn, Petcharatt; Muangnoicharoen, Suthida; Hankla, Luck; Techawal, Natthaporn; Chaveerach, Prapansak; Tuitemwong, Pravate; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa; Williams, Nicola; Humphrey, Tom; Luangtongkum, Taradon

    2016-01-01

    Poultry and poultry products are commonly considered as the major vehicle of Campylobacter infection in humans worldwide. To reduce the number of human cases, the epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry must be better understood. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the distribution and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter in the Thai chicken production industry. During June to October 2012, entire broiler production processes (i.e., breeder flock, hatchery, broiler farm and slaughterhouse) of five broiler production chains were investigated chronologically. Representative isolates of C. jejuni from each production stage were characterized by flaA SVR sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Amongst 311 selected isolates, 29 flaA SVR alleles and 17 sequence types (STs) were identified. The common clonal complexes (CCs) found in this study were CC-45, CC-353, CC-354 and CC-574. C. jejuni isolated from breeders were distantly related to those isolated from broilers and chicken carcasses, while C. jejuni isolates from the slaughterhouse environment and meat products were similar to those isolated from broiler flocks. Genotypic identification of C. jejuni in slaughterhouses indicated that broilers were the main source of Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat during processing. To effectively reduce Campylobacter in poultry meat products, control and prevention strategies should be aimed at both farm and slaughterhouse levels. PMID:26886590

  10. Illuminance and egg production in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Lewis, P D; Danisman, R; Gous, R M

    2009-03-01

    1. Ross broiler breeders were reared at a nominal illuminance of 15, 20 or 45 lux and transferred to a nominal illuminance of 25, 55 or 70 lux at 20 weeks. 2. There were no significant interactions between the response to illuminance during rearing and in lay. This means that it matters not whether illuminance is increased, decreased or held constant on transfer to the laying house, provided it equals or exceeds the biological optimum for satisfactory egg production. 3. Whilst there were no significant effects of illuminance in either the rearing period or laying periods on egg numbers, peak rate of lay, terminal rate of lay, egg mass output or liveability, meta-analyses of these and other data indicated biological optima of 15 lux during rearing and 7 lux in the laying period. Birds reared at 45 lux had a lower mean egg weight (and earlier sexual maturity) than birds reared at 15 lux, and hens illuminated at 25 lux in the laying period laid more eggs on the floor than at either 55 or 70 lux. 4. Typical primary breeder recommendations of 10-20 lux during rearing and 30-60 lux in lay are appropriate for floor-housed birds; however, an illuminance of 7 lux could be used for caged birds, subject to welfare-code compliance.

  11. Circadian variation in heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature and EEG of immature broiler breeder chickens in restricted-fed and ad libitum-fed states.

    PubMed

    Savory, C J; Kostal, L; Nevison, I M

    2006-10-01

    1. Heart rate, intra-aortic blood pressure, deep body temperature and telencephalic EEG were monitored by radiotelemetry in 6 freely moving immature broiler breeders (three in each of two years), during routine food restriction and then ad libitum feeding, over two 24-h periods in each feeding state.2. Heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature were all higher during ad libitum than restricted feeding, and heart rate and body temperature were higher by day (12 h) than at night (12 h). The decreases in heart rate and body temperature at night were greater during restricted than ad libitum feeding. Blood pressure tended to be higher at night, except in year 2 during restricted feeding. Body temperature and ambient temperature were higher in year 2 than year 1.3. During restricted feeding, marked peaks in heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature in the 15 min after provision of the daily food ration at 09:00 h, when birds were eating, were equivalent to corresponding values seen during ad libitum feeding.4. Relative powers in delta (1 to 4 Hz) and theta (4 to 8 Hz) frequency bands of the EEG power spectrum were higher at night in year 2 only, while power in the alpha (8 to 12 Hz) band was higher at night in both years.5. It is concluded that most of the variation in heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature between feeding states and times of day/night can be accounted for in terms of variation in food intake and energy expenditure. The greater slow wave (delta, theta) EEG activity seen after lights-off in year 2 may reflect non-paradoxical sleep at that time.

  12. Photoperiod and oviposition time in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Lewis, P D; Backhouse, D; Gous, R M

    2004-08-01

    1. Oviposition times were recorded for broiler breeder hens under 8-, 10-, 11-, 12-, 13-, 14- and 16-h photoperiods. 2. Mean oviposition time (MOT) was delayed relative to dawn by approximately 0.5 h for each 1-h increase in photoperiod up to 14 h, but was similar for 14- and 16-h photoperiods. However, the 0.5 h/h regression for the time when half the eggs were laid continued through to 16 h. 3. The rate of change in MOT for each 1-h increase in < or = 14-h photoperiod was similar to that reported for early and modern egg-type hybrids, but, compared with modern genotypes, time of lay itself was 1 h later than white-egg and 2.5 h later than brown-egg hybrids. 4. At photoperiods < or = 12.25 h, the number of eggs laid before dawn increased by 4-5% for each 1-h reduction in daylength.

  13. Application OF LIBS To Estimate The Age Of Broiler Breeders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, Z. Abdel; Harith, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a well-known spectrochemical elemental analysis technique. In our investigations of the LIBS spectra it has been found that there is a remarkable correlation between the ionic to atomic spectral lines emission ratio and the surface hardness of eggshell for two Different Broiler Breeder at different age. The proposed technique has been applied successfully in poultry science to estimate the age of broiler breeders by measuring the surface hardness of their eggshell. The experiments have been performed on two different strains, Arbor Acres plus (AAP) and Hubard Classic (HC), and the results were satisfactory.

  14. THE EFFECT OF EMBRYONIC AGE AND BREEDER FLOCK AGE ON THE GASTROINTESTINAL MICROBIOME OF DEVELOPING BROILER CHICKEN: POTENTIAL IMPLICATIONS FOR FOOD SAFETY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: There are several food-safety issues related to broiler egg production, including the introduction/proliferation of zoonotic pathogens during embryonic gastrointestinal (GI) tract development. Little is known about the overall GI bacterial communities, how they change over time, or how ...

  15. Jojoba meal (Simmondsia chinensis) in the diet of broiler breeder pullets: physiological and endocrinological effects.

    PubMed

    Arnouts, S; Buyse, J; Cokelaere, M M; Decuypere, E

    1993-09-01

    The present studies evaluated the ability of jojoba meal (JO) to inhibit feed intake of broiler breeder pullets to limit body weight gain as recommended by the breeder company. A first experiment, using graded levels of JO supplementation (0 to 12%), was conducted to establish appropriate JO supplementation. Adequate reduction of growth rate was obtained with 4% JO supplementation. However, notwithstanding their similar growth rate, 4% JO chickens consumed considerably more feed compared with feed-restricted chickens. The dose-dependent impairment of feed intake with increasing levels of JO supplementation was also associated with increased plasma growth hormone and thyroxine and with decreased plasma insulin-like growth factor-I and triiodothyronine concentrations compared with 0% JO chickens. A second experiment included a pair-fed group. Notwithstanding their similar feed intake, 4% JO chickens gained significantly less body weight compared with their pair-fed counterparts. The 4% JO chickens also had a longer feed transit time per kilogram body weight. Again, circulating levels of the somatotrophic and thyrotrophic hormones were altered according to the dietary treatment. From all these observations, it was concluded that the growth retardation caused by JO supplementation was provoked by an inhibition of appetite linked with the simmondsin content of JO as well as by other antinutritional compounds affecting digestibility.

  16. Occurrence and characterization of rotavirus A in broilers, layers, and broiler breeders from Brazilian poultry farms.

    PubMed

    Beserra, L A R; Barbosa, B R P; Bernardes, N T C G; Brandão, P E; Gregori, F

    2014-03-01

    Rotaviruses are a major cause of diarrhea in humans and animals, including several mammalian and avian species. Using different PCR protocols, we report the occurrence of rotavirus A in 21 (53.84%; 21/39) from 39 fecal pool samples of broilers, layers, and broiler breeders from Brazilian avian farms. We typed the G5, G8, G11, G19, and P[31] genotypes. PMID:24758129

  17. Constant photoperiods and sexual maturity in broiler breeder pullets.

    PubMed

    Lewis, P D; Backhouse, D; Gous, R M

    2004-08-01

    1. Broiler breeder pullets were maintained on 10-, 11-, 12-, 13-, 14- or 16-h photoperiods to determine the effect of constant photoperiods on sexual development in broiler breeders. The birds were fed to achieve a 2100 g body weight at approximately 17 or 20 weeks to see if the photosexual response was modified by rate of growth. 2. In both body weight groups, pullets maintained on 10h were the first to reach sexual maturity (50 eggs/100 bird-d), and these and the 11-h pullets matured significantly earlier than any of the other photoperiod groups. Pullets maintained on 13 or 14 h matured latest, at about 3 weeks after the 10-h pullets, though both were only marginally later than the 12- or 16-h birds. These differences in maturation probably reflect the different rates at which photorefractoriness is dissipated in broiler breeders reared on photoperiods that vary in their degree of stimulatory competence. 3. There were no significant interactions among the photoperiods and the ages at 2100 g; faster-growing birds consistently matured about 10 d earlier than conventionally grown pullets.

  18. Impact of Skip a Day and Every Day Feeding Programs on the Colonization Rates of Salmonella Enteritidis in Broiler Breeder Pullets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of feeding programs in the colonization rate after challenge with Salmonella enteritidis was investigated. Broiler breeder pullets from were vaccinated at 19 d of incubation with herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) + chicken herpesvirus (SB1), or a vector HVT (vHVT) + Infectious bursal disease (...

  19. Role of the serotonergic axis in the reproductive failure associated with aging broiler breeder roosters.

    PubMed

    Avital-Cohen, N; Heiblum, R; Rosenstrauch, A; Chaiseha, Y; Mobarkey, N; Gumułka, M; Rozenboim, I

    2015-10-01

    Reproductive failure associated with aging is a well-known phenomenon. However, the mechanism by which this failure occurs in broiler breeder roosters is still unclear. A previous study conducted in our laboratory, comparing young and aging broiler breeder roosters, demonstrated an elevation in hypothalamic vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary prolactin (PRL) gene expression accompanied by a deterioration of gonadal axis function. This resulted in a decrease in semen-quality variables as roosters aged. The objective of this study was to examine the involvement of the serotonergic axis in the age-associated reproductive failure in broiler breeder roosters. Cobb roosters aged 64 wk were divided into 3 groups (n = 20 each): parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA) administration, active immunization against chicken VIP, and controls. At 69 wk of age, each group was divided into 2 equal subgroups: 1 received ovine PRL and the other served as controls. Weekly semen volume, concentration and motility, and plasma testosterone, estradiol, and PRL concentrations were examined. At the end of the experiment, roosters were euthanized, testes were weighed, and hypothalamus and pituitary were removed to assay the expression of genes encoding hypothalamic GnRH-I, pituitary FSH, pituitary LH, hypothalamic VIP, and pituitary PRL. Both PCPA administration and active immunization against chicken VIP significantly increased testis weight, semen volume, sperm concentration, ejaculation grade, plasma testosterone level, and GnRH-I, FSH and LH gene expression compared with controls (P ≤ 0.05). In addition, a decrease in plasma estradiol and PRL concentrations and VIP and PRL gene expression was observed in PCPA- and VIP-immunized birds compared with controls (P ≤ 0.05). Administration of PRL in all groups decreased gonadal axis function and semen-quality variables (P ≤ 0.05). Collectively, these results suggest that the increasing expression levels of the serotonergic axis

  20. The prevalence of Campylobacter amongst a free-range broiler breeder flock was primarily affected by flock age.

    PubMed

    Colles, Frances M; McCarthy, Noel D; Layton, Ruth; Maiden, Martin C J

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter successfully colonizes broiler chickens, but little is known about the longer term natural history of colonization, since most flocks are slaughtered at an immature age. In this study, the prevalence and genetic diversity of Campylobacter colonizing a single free-range broiler breeder flock was investigated over the course of a year. The age of the flock was the most important factor in determining both the prevalence and diversity of Campylobacter over time. There was no correlation with season, temperature, the amount of rain and sunshine, or the dynamics of colonization amongst geographically and temporally matched broiler flocks. The higher prevalence rates coincided with the age at which broiler chickens are typically slaughtered, but then in the absence of bio-security or other intervention methods, and despite changes in flock management, the prevalence fell to significantly lower levels for the remainder of the study. The genetic diversity of Campylobacter increased as the flock aged, implying that genotypes were accumulated within the flock and may persist for a long time. A better understanding of the ecology of Campylobacter within commercial chicken flocks will allow the design of more effective farm-based interventions.

  1. DIETARY AMINO ACID RESPONSES OF BROILER CHICKENS: A REVIEW

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In commercial practice, formulating diets to adequate amino acid (AA) minimums is critical to optimize live production and meat yield of broiler chickens. The modern broiler has lower feed intake per unit BW gain while having the potential to accrete more white meat than the commercial broiler of p...

  2. Isolation, identification, and pathogenicity of O142 avian pathogenic Escherichia coli causing black proventriculus and septicemia in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobo; Cao, Chunguang; Huan, Haixia; Zhang, Liuli; Mu, Xiaohui; Gao, Qingqing; Dong, Xianglei; Gao, Song; Liu, Xiufan

    2015-06-01

    Avian colibacillosis, characterized by black proventriculus and caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) with an uncommon O142 serogroup, was diagnosed in young broiler breeders. Colonization and persistence assays performed in 7-day-old broilers showed that the bacterial load of the APEC 4d/9-1 O142 proventricular isolate in the lung was about 10-fold higher than that of the APEC 4d/9-1 O142 heart blood isolate (P<0.01), and about 100-fold higher in the heart blood, livers, spleens, kidneys, and proventriculi of inoculated broilers (P<0.001). When 32 common virulence genes of APEC were tested, the two isolates had nearly identical profiles, except that only the APEC 4d/9-1 O142 proventricular isolate carried the feoB gene. Furthermore, 100% mortality was observed in both 1-day-old Arbor Acres (AA) broilers and 1-day-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens inoculated with 10(6) colony-forming units of the APEC 4d/9-1 O142 proventricular isolate. However, black proventriculus was only observed in the dead AA broilers, consistent with the clinical occurrence of the disease. This implies that the black proventriculi seen in the dead birds, caused by the APEC 4d/9-1 O142 proventricular isolate, was breed-specific. Both the APEC 4d/9-1 O142 proventricular and heart blood isolates belong to phylogroup B2. However, the former was assigned to ST131 and the latter to ST2704 with multilocus sequence typing, demonstrating the genetic heterogeneity of these two bacterial isolates, although they were derived from the same dead broiler. These results suggest that the O142 APEC isolate was the main pathogenic agent for black proventriculi in 7-day-old broiler breeders.

  3. Constant photoperiods and eggshell quality in broiler breeder pullets.

    PubMed

    Backhouse, D; Lewis, P D; Gous, R M

    2005-04-01

    Broiler breeder pullets were exposed to constant 10-, 11-, 12-, 13-, 14- or 16-h photoperiods from 3 d of age. Egg weight, eggshell weight and shell thickness index were determined at 52 weeks of age. Egg weight increased by 0.31 g, shell weight decreased by 30 mg and shell thickness index decreased by 0.57 mg/cm2 for each one-hour increase in photoperiod. Whilst the changes in egg weight and eggshell thickness index might be overstated because eggs were collected at the same chronological time, the effect of time of egg-laying within the day was minimal in comparison, and did not negate the conclusion that egg weight increases, and shell weight and thickness index decrease with lengthening photoperiods. The effect of photoperiod on eggshell quality was not due to differences in the rate of lay between treatments. Shell weight was unaffected by time of lay.

  4. Immunological differences between layer- and broiler-type chickens.

    PubMed

    Koenen, Marjorie E; Boonstra-Blom, Anneke G; Jeurissen, Suzan H M

    2002-10-01

    In commercial poultry husbandry, alternatives for the use of antibiotics and vaccines are under investigation, which preferably have to be applicable for both layer- and broiler-type chickens. There are indications that the defense mechanisms vary between layer- and broiler-type chickens. Therefore, the difference in immune response between layer- and broiler-type chickens of the same age was investigated, using TNP-KLH (trinitrophenyl-conjugated keyhole limpet hemocyanin) as antigen without adjuvant. First different routes of immunization (intravenously, intramuscular, subcutaneous and ocular) were examined to find out which immunization route gives the highest antibody titers. The intravenous immunization route resulted in higher TNP-specific antibody responses than the other immunization routes tested and therefore this immunization route was used in both following experiments. In order to investigate the optimal dose of antigen needed for immunization, a dose-response curve in broiler- and layer-type chickens was completed. The humoral immune response was measured in serum by a TNP-specific ELISA and the in vitro cellular immune response by an antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation assay. The antibody response of layer- and broiler-type chickens appeared to differ, not only in optimal dose and response, but also in kinetics of the response itself. Broiler chickens generated higher IgM anti-TNP titers whereas layer-type chickens generated higher IgG anti-TNP titers. This specific antibody response in broiler-type chickens did not last as long as in layer-type chickens. The TNP-specific cellular immune response was detectable in layer-type chickens, but not in broilers. Both types generate a non-specific cellular immune response, although this response in broilers is lower than in layer-type chickens. From these results, we conclude that broilers primarily respond to TNP-KLH with a high IgM antibody response whereas layer-type chickens respond with a high Ig

  5. Comparative study of the effects of organic selenium on hen performance and productivity of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Rajashree, K; Muthukumar, T; Karthikeyan, N

    2014-01-01

    1. A 10-week experiment was conducted with Ross 308 broiler breeder chickens in cages to evaluate the influence of organic and inorganic sources of selenium (Se) supplementation. A total of 600 birds at 29 weeks of age were divided at random into 4 groups and fed on a maize-soya basal diet supplemented with different forms of Se. 2. The first (control) group was given the basal diet without Se supplementation, whereas the second, third and fourth groups were given, respectively, the basal diet with 0.3 mg/kg of inorganic Se in the form of sodium selenite or 0.3 and 0.5 mg/kg of organic Se in the form of Se enriched yeast (Se-yeast). 3. The experiment was carried out for 10 weeks to compare and evaluate the influence of Se supplementation on breeder performance, egg production, hatchability and the quality of eggs. Samples were collected for analysis at weeks 0, 5 and 10 of the experimental period. 4. At the end of the experiment (39 weeks), there was a reduction in mortality in breeders given diets supplemented with 0.5 mg/kg of Se-yeast. Supplementation of feed with 0.5 mg/kg organic Se increased egg production, percentage of settable eggs and hatchability. 5. Selenium supplementation increased egg weight and specific gravity compared to the control diet. However, no significant variation was found in albumen or yolk protein content at the end of week 10. 6. Selenium accumulation and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activity were lower in the egg albumen and yolk of control compared with Se-supplemented treatments. Se accumulation and GSHPx activity were higher in the group given 0.3 mg/kg organic compared to 0.3 mg/kg of inorganic Se. 7. The results favour the use of Se-yeast at the dose of 0.5 mg/kg in broiler breeder diets for better productivity of eggs, settable eggs, hatchability and higher Se accumulation and antioxidant status in eggs. PMID:24814053

  6. Impact of Skip-a-Day and Every-Day Feeding Programs on the Colonization of Salmonella Typhimurium in Broiler Breeder Pullets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed restriction during pullet rearing is required to maintain flock uniformity, limit body weight gain, and optimize broiler breeder reproductive fitness. The impact of restrictive feeding programs on Salmonella colonization after environmental challenge was investigated for broiler breeder pullet...

  7. Development of the Intestinal RNA Virus Community of Healthy Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Shah, Jigna D; Desai, Prerak T; Zhang, Ying; Scharber, Sarah K; Baller, Joshua; Xing, Zheng S; Cardona, Carol J

    2016-01-01

    Several RNA viruses such as astrovirus, rotavirus, reovirus and parvovirus have been detected in both healthy and diseased commercial poultry flocks. The aim of this study was to characterize (a) the development of the RNA viral community in the small intestines of healthy broiler chickens from hatch through 6 weeks of age (market age) and (b) the contribution of the breeder source vs. bird age in development of the community structure. Intestinal tissue samples were harvested from breeders and their progeny, processed for viral RNA extraction and sequenced using Illumina Hiseq sequencing technology resulting in 100 bp PE reads. The results from this study indicated that the breeder source influenced the RNA viral community only at hatch but later environment i.e. bird age had the more significant effect. The most abundant RNA viral family detected at 2, 4 and 6 weeks of age was Astroviridae, which decreased in abundance with age while the abundance of Picornaviridae increased with age.

  8. Efficacy of Recombinant HVT-IBD Vaccines Administered to Broiler Chicks from a Single Breeder Flock at 30 and 60 Weeks of Age.

    PubMed

    Gelb, Jack; Jackwood, Daral J; Brannick, Erin M; Ladman, Brian S

    2016-09-01

    The efficacy of commercially available recombinant herpesvirus of turkeys-infectious bursal disease (rHVT-IBD) virus vaccines was studied in broiler chickens derived from an IBDV-vaccinated breeder flock at 30 wk of age (Trial 1) and 60 wk of age (Trial 2). In parallel, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) white leghorn chickens were used to evaluate vaccine efficacy to control for the effects of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) associated with the broiler chickens. Broilers and SPF leghorns were vaccinated subcutaneously in the neck at 1 day of age with Vaxxitek® HVT+IBD or Vectormune® HVT-IBD vaccines and were placed in isolators. On 10, 14, 18, 22, and 26 days postvaccination (DPV), vaccinated and nonvaccinated broilers and SPF leghorns were bled prior to challenge via the oral-nasal route with infectious bursal disease (IBD) reference strains ST-C, Delaware variant E (Del E), or contemporary field isolates DMV/5038/07 or FF6. Microscopic lesion assessment of the bursa was useful for assessing IBDV challenge in both rHVT-IBD-vaccinated broiler and SPF leghorn chickens. In general, rHVT-IBD vaccines induced greater protection as the time between vaccination and challenge increased. Based on incidence of microscopic lesions (IML) of bursa tissue, Vaxxitek HVT+IBD vaccination of SPF leghorns induced protection by 18 DPV and continued to protect 22 DPV and 26 DPV in Trials 1 and 2. Vectormune HVT-IBD vaccine induced protection of SPF leghorns by 18 or 22 DPV in Trial 1, depending upon the IBDV challenge strain. However, the onset of protection was delayed until 22 or 26 DPV in Trial 2. With either commercial vaccine, rHVT-IBD vaccination of broiler chickens was not as effective as was observed in SPF leghorns, based on IML of bursa tissue. However, Vaxxitek HVT+IBD vaccination protected broilers following challenge with ST-C in both Trial 1 (30-wk-old breeder progeny) and Trial 2 (60-wk-old breeder progeny). Partial protection against FF6 (Trial 1) and DMV/5038

  9. Effect of dietary antimicrobials on immune status in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary antimicrobials (anticoccidials plus antibiotic growth promoters) on the development of post-hatch immune systems in commercial broiler chickens. One hundred and five day-old broiler chicks were raised on the used litter and provi...

  10. Enteric disease in broiler chickens following experimental infection with chicken parvovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Day-old broiler chickens were inoculated orally with the chicken parvovirus strain, chicken parvovirus-P1. In four independent experiments, characteristic clinical signs of enteric disease including watery, mustard color diarrhea and growth retardation were observed following infection. The virus wa...

  11. Verification of specific selection SNPs between broiler and layer chicken in Chinese indigenous chicken breeds.

    PubMed

    Lan, D; Hu, Y D; Zhu, Q; Li, D Y; Liu, Y P

    2015-01-01

    The direction of production for indigenous chicken breeds is currently unknown and this knowledge, combined with the development of chicken genome-wide association studies, led us to investigate differences in specific loci between broiler and layer chicken using bioinformatic methods. In addition, we analyzed the distribution of these seven identified loci in four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds, Caoke chicken, Jiuyuan chicken, Sichuan mountain chicken, and Tibetan chicken, using DNA direct sequencing methods, and analyzed the data using bioinformatic methods. Based on the results, we suggest that Caoke chicken could be developed for meat production, while Jiuyuan chicken could be developed for egg production. As Sichuan mountain chicken and Tibetan chicken exhibited large polymorphisms, these breeds could be improved by changing their living environment.

  12. The long-term dynamics of Campylobacter colonizing a free-range broiler breeder flock: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Colles, Frances M; McCarthy, Noel D; Bliss, Carly M; Layton, Ruth; Maiden, Martin C J

    2015-04-01

    A free-range broiler breeder flock was studied in order to determine the natural patterns of Campylobacter colonization over a period of 63 weeks. Campylobacter sequence types (STs) were not mutually exclusive and on average colonized only 17.7% of the birds tested at any time. Campylobacter STs typically reached a peak in prevalence upon initial detection in the flock before tailing off, although the ST and antigenic flaA short variable region in combination were stable over a number of months. There was evidence that, with a couple of exceptions, the ecology of C. jejuni and C. coli differed, with the latter forming a more stable population. Despite being free range, no newly colonizing STs were detected over a 6-week period in autumn and a 10-week period in winter, towards the end of the study. There was limited evidence that those STs identified among broiler chicken flocks on the same farm site were likely to colonize the breeder flock earlier (R(2) 0.16, P 0.01). These results suggest that there is natural control of Campylobacter dynamics within a flock which could potentially be exploited in designing new intervention strategies, and that the two different species should perhaps be considered separately.

  13. Mating behavior and fertility of broiler breeder males reared on shortened growth cycles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the more difficult tasks when raising broiler breeder cockerels is controlling weight gain in the rearing house without inflicting excess stress. This is a period of time for the young male when many portions of reproductive system are in the formative stages and, if neglected, can have lif...

  14. Belgian citizens' and broiler producers' perceptions of broiler chicken welfare in Belgium versus Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vanhonacker, F; Tuyttens, F A M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-07-01

    New EU regulations require more stringent country-of-origin labeling, while imports of broiler meat from non-EU countries are increasing. In light of these trends, we have studied citizens' and producers' perceptions of broiler meat originating from Belgium versus Brazil and their perception of broiler production in Belgium versus Brazil. A particular focus was the association between country of origin and perceived level of animal welfare. We also investigated the perception of scaling-up and outdoor access in terms of perceived level of animal welfare. Cross-sectional survey data was collected among Flemish citizens (n = 541) and broiler producers (n = 114). In accordance with literature on general farm animal welfare, both stakeholder types claimed to allocate great importance to broiler welfare and generally agreed with the Welfare Quality model of broiler welfare. Citizens disagreed with the producers that 1) consumers are not willing to pay more for higher welfare products, 2) that broilers suffer little, 3) that broiler welfare in current Belgian production units is generally non-problematic, 4) that scaling-up production units would not have a positive impact on profitability nor a profoundly negative impact on broiler welfare, and 5) that the impact of providing broilers with outdoor access is negative for consumers, farmers, and broilers. Country of origin had a strong influence on the perception of both broiler production and broiler meat. Belgian citizens, and producers (much more than citizens) considered nearly all aspects related to broiler production and broiler meat to be significantly superior for chicken produced in Belgium compared to Brazil. Further research should focus on how these perceptions influence purchase intentions and production decisions. Future avenues for research are to quantify market opportunities for country-of-origin labeling and to investigate to which extent stakeholders' perceptions correspond with reality.

  15. Effects of restricted feeding on physiological stress parameters in growing broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    de Jong, I C; van Voorst, S; Ehlhardt, D A; Blokhuis, H J

    2002-05-01

    1. In previous studies, a lack of agreement in measurements of plasma corticosterone concentrations and heterophil:lymphocyte (H/L) ratio as physiological indices of stress, caused by hunger and frustration in restricted-fed broiler breeders, was observed. It could be suggested that the differences between previous studies were caused by differences in duration of restriction and time of the day of the measurements. Therefore, in the present study the plasma corticosterone concentration and the H/L ratio were again determined in restricted- and ad libitum-fed growing broiler breeders, taking possible causes of disagreement between previous studies into account. In addition, we measured the daily rhythm in body temperature and heart rate, and the corticosterone responses to an acute stressor as physiological indices of stress. 2. Female broiler breeders (64 per treatment, housed in groups of 4 birds) were used in the experiment. Behaviour, baseline plasma corticosterone concentrations and H/L ratio were determined at 21 d of age (immediately after the start of food restriction), and at 42 and 63 d of age. Body temperature, heart rate and activity were measured by radiotelemetry for 36 h at 49 and 70 d of age. In addition, the plasma corticosterone response to acute stress (5 min manual restraint) was measured at 77 or 78 d of age. 3. Restricted broiler breeders had higher plasma corticosterone concentrations at 42 and 63 d of age, but no differences in H/L. ratio were found between restricted birds and unrestricted control birds. Restricted broiler breeders had a higher corticosterone response to 5 min manual restraint than unrestricted birds. Restricted birds displayed a clear day-night rhythm in body temperature, heart rate and activity whereas such a rhythm was blunted in ad libitum-fed birds. 4. It is discussed that some physiological differences (plasma corticosterone concentrations, body temperature and heart rate) between ad libitum-fed and restricted broiler

  16. Unidentified Factors in Jojoba Meal Prevent Oviduct Development in Broiler Breeder Females.

    PubMed

    Vermaut; Onagbesan; Bruggeman; Verhoeven; Berghman; Flo; Cokelaere; Decuypere

    1998-01-19

    Supplementation of feed with jojoba meal, as a means for autonomous feed restriction, was successful in depressing feed intake and controlling body weight of broiler breeder pullets to the extent recommended by the breeder company. However, these broiler breeders never produced eggs. At the level of ovary, normal follicle development and maturation did occur. A considerable number of ovulations occurred which were not followed by oviposition. After ovulation, the ova could not be captured by the oviduct, because of the small size of the oviduct, resulting in "internal laying". The virtual absence of oviduct development cannot be explained presently but it must be due to some yet unidentified factor(s) in jojoba meal which prevent(s) the normal development of the oviduct. These factors may be acting by abnormally increasing plasma progesterone or triiodothyronin levels and/or directly by themselves interfering with oviduct development. The nature of these factors requires further investigations.

  17. Foodborne disease prevention and broiler chickens with reduced Campylobacter infection.

    PubMed

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen; Hald, Birthe

    2013-03-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks) in Denmark. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp.-positive flocks was significantly reduced, from 41.4% during 2003-2005 (before fly screens) to 10.3% in 2006-2009 (with fly screens). In fly screen houses, Campylobacter spp. prevalence did not peak during the summer. Nationally, prevalence of Campylobacter spp.-positive flocks in Denmark could have been reduced by an estimated 77% during summer had fly screens been part of biosecurity practices. These results imply that fly screens might help reduce prevalence of campylobacteriosis among humans, which is closely linked to Campylobacter spp. prevalence among broiler chicken flocks. PMID:23628089

  18. Foodborne disease prevention and broiler chickens with reduced Campylobacter infection.

    PubMed

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen; Hald, Birthe

    2013-03-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks) in Denmark. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp.-positive flocks was significantly reduced, from 41.4% during 2003-2005 (before fly screens) to 10.3% in 2006-2009 (with fly screens). In fly screen houses, Campylobacter spp. prevalence did not peak during the summer. Nationally, prevalence of Campylobacter spp.-positive flocks in Denmark could have been reduced by an estimated 77% during summer had fly screens been part of biosecurity practices. These results imply that fly screens might help reduce prevalence of campylobacteriosis among humans, which is closely linked to Campylobacter spp. prevalence among broiler chicken flocks.

  19. Effects of environmental temperature and dietary energy on energy partitioning coefficients of female broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Pishnamazi, A; Renema, R A; Paul, D C; Wenger, I I; Zuidhof, M J

    2015-10-01

    With increasing disparity between broiler breeder target weights and broiler growth potential, maintenance energy requirements have become a larger proportion of total broiler breeder energy intake. Because energy is partitioned to growth and egg production at a lower priority than maintenance, accurate prediction of maintenance energy requirements is important for practical broiler breeder feed allocation decisions. Environmental temperature affects the maintenance energy requirement by changing rate of heat loss to the environment. In the ME system, heat production (energy lost) is part of the maintenance requirement (ME). In the current study, a nonlinear mixed model was derived to predict ME partitioning of broiler breeder hens under varied temperature conditions. At 21 wk of age, 192 Ross 708 hens were individually caged within 6 controlled environmental chambers. From 25 to 41 wk, 4 temperature treatments (15°C, 19°C, 23°C, and 27°C) were randomly assigned to the chambers for 2-week periods. Half of the birds in each chamber were fed a high-energy (HE; 2,912 kcal/kg) diet, and half were fed a low-energy (LE; 2,790 kcal/kg) diet. The nonlinear mixed regression model included a normally distributed random term representing individual hen maintenance, a quadratic response to environmental temperature, and linear ADG and egg mass (EM) coefficients. The model assumed that energy requirements for BW gain and egg production were not influenced by environmental temperature because hens were homeothermic, and the cellular processes for associated biochemical processes occurred within a controlled narrow core body temperature range. Residual feed intake (RFI) and residual ME (RME) were used to estimate efficiency. A quadratic effect of environmental temperature on broiler breeder MEm was predicted ( < 0.0001), with a minimum energy expenditure at 24.3°C. Predicted ME at 21°C was 92.5 kcal/kg; requirements for gain and EM were 2.126 and 1.789 kcal/g, respectively

  20. Effects of incubational humidity and hen age on embryo composition in broiler hatching eggs from young breeders.

    PubMed

    Peebles, E D; Burnham, M R; Gardner, C W; Brake, J; Bruzual, J J; Gerard, P D

    2001-09-01

    There is a paucity of information regarding the influence of incubational humidity on the characteristics of broiler embryos from young hens that often produce chicks of marginal quality. Therefore, the effects of broiler breeder age (26, 28, and 30 wk) in young broiler breeders and incubator humidity (43, 53, and 63% RH) on embryonic growth between 16 and 21 d of incubation, hatching chick weight, and embryo and chick body compositions were evaluated. Hatching broiler chick BW at 21 d was lower for 26-wk-old breeders compared to those at 28 and 30 wk, and the lowest RH decreased relative wet embryo weight. Embryonic growth, on wet and DM bases, was increased in eggs from the youngest hens. Embryo moisture content (EM) was lower at 16, 17, and 19 d of incubation in eggs from breeders at 26 wk when compared to those at 28 wk of age. The effects of RH on embryo crude protein and fat composition were not consistent and varied with breeder age and length of incubation. It was demonstrated that broiler breeder age affects embryogenesis and hatching chick BW. Furthermore, EM was influenced by breeder age, and changes in incubational RH between 43 and 63% affected embryogenesis without having associated effects on EM or consistent effects on embryo crude fat and protein content. Nevertheless, a depression in embryogenesis with a reduction in incubational RH to 43% may accentuate poor posthatch performance of chicks from young breeders.

  1. Apparent Metabolizable Energy of Glycerin for Broiler Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three energy balance experiments were conducted to determine AMEn of glycerin using broiler chickens (1,104 total birds) of diverse ages. In experiment (Exp.) 1, two dietary treatments were fed from 4 to 11 d of age. Dietary treatments consisted of a control diet (no added glycerin) and a diet con...

  2. Experimental inoculation of specific pathogen free broiler chickens with a thyroid homogenate, containing chicken astrovirus, which was collected from broiler chickens with runting-stunting syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thyroid glands were collected from field broiler chickens with clinical signs and lesions of Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS), submitted for histopathology and processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing using chicken Astrovirus primers. One-day-old White Rock specific pathogen free (SPF) ...

  3. Illuminance, sexual maturation, and early egg production in female broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Lewis, P D; Danisman, R; Gous, R M

    2008-11-01

    1. Broiler breeders were reared at an initial illuminance of 13, 21 or 44 lux and transferred at 20 weeks and a mean body weight of 2.06 kg to floor pens at 25, 55 or 71 lux, or to individual cages at various intensities between 3 and 138 lux. 2. Rate of sexual maturation was not significantly affected by the light intensity experienced during the rearing period, but was progressively accelerated by the provision of a brighter illuminance after 20 weeks, up to a ceiling of about 14 lux. There was no interaction between the pre- and post-20-week illuminance. 3. Cumulative egg numbers to 39 weeks were unaffected by illuminance in the rearing period, positively correlated with illuminance post 20 weeks up to an asymptote at about 8 lux, and highly correlated with age at sexual maturity. Peak rate of lay was both delayed and depressed at 3 lux. 4. It is concluded that the minimum light intensity required at bird-head height to achieve satisfactory photostimulation and an optimal peak rate of lay in broiler breeders is 10 lux, but that a higher illuminance would be prudent for broiler breeders kept in floor pen facilities to maximise nest-box usage.

  4. A Systematic Review Characterizing On-Farm Sources of Campylobacter spp. for Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Agunos, Agnes; Waddell, Lisa; Léger, David; Taboada, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter are frequently isolated from broiler chickens worldwide. In Canada, campylobacteriosis is the third leading cause of enteric disease and the regional emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter in broiler chickens has raised a public health concern. This study aimed to identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature on sources of Campylobacter in broilers at the farm level using systematic review methodology. Literature searches were conducted in January 2012 and included electronic searches in four bibliographic databases. Relevant studies in French or English (n = 95) conducted worldwide in any year and all study designs were included. Risk of Bias and GRADE criteria endorsed by the Cochrane collaboration was used to assess the internal validity of the study and overall confidence in the meta-analysis. The categories for on-farm sources were: broiler breeders/vertical transfer (number of studies = 32), animals (n = 57), humans (n = 26), environment (n = 54), and water (n = 63). Only three studies examined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter from these on-farm sources. Subgroups of data by source and outcome were analyzed using random effect meta-analysis. The highest risk for contaminating a new flock appears to be a contaminated barn environment due to insufficient cleaning and disinfection, insufficient downtime, and the presence of an adjacent broiler flock. Effective biosecurity enhancements from physical barriers to restricting human movement on the farm are recommended for consideration to enhance local on-farm food safety programs. Improved sampling procedures and standardized laboratory testing are needed for comparability across studies. Knowledge gaps that should be addressed include farm-level drug use and antimicrobial resistance information, further evaluation of the potential for vertical transfer, and improved genotyping methods to

  5. Effects of floor eggs on hatchability and later life performance in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, H; Sosef, M P; Lourens, A; van Harn, J

    2016-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted in which effects of floor eggs, washed floor eggs, and clean nest eggs were investigated on incubation characteristics and performance in later life of broiler chickens. In both experiments, a young and an older breeder flock were used in a 3×2 factorial design during incubation. In the second experiment, male and female chickens were reared separately until d 35 of age in floor pens. During this grow out trial, an extra group was created in which chickens obtained from clean nest eggs were mixed with chickens obtained from floor eggs, meaning that grow out period was set up as a 4×2×2 factorial design with 4 egg types, 2 breeder ages, and 2 sexes. In both experiments, fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs were lower in floor and washed eggs than in clean nest eggs (hatchability: experiment 1: 74.4 vs. 70.6 vs. 92.6% for floor eggs, washed floor eggs and clean nest eggs, respectively, P<0.001; experiment 2: 78.3 vs. 81.7 vs. 90.2%, respectively, P<0.001). In experiment 2, BW at d 0 of chickens obtained from clean nest eggs was higher than that of chickens from floor eggs and washed floor eggs (41.5 vs. 40.4 and 40.3 g, respectively; P<0.001). This difference disappeared during the grow out period and was absent at slaughter age at d 35 of age. Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and mortality during the grow out period were not affected by egg type. Incidence and severity of hock burns and footpad dermatitis were not affected by egg type or breeder age. Litter friability at d 35 of age tended to be lower in pens with chickens obtained from washed floor eggs compared to clean nest eggs. We conclude that incubation of floor eggs or washed floor eggs resulted in lower fertility and hatchability compared to clean nest eggs, but that performance during the grow out period was not affected.

  6. Effects of floor eggs on hatchability and later life performance in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, H; Sosef, M P; Lourens, A; van Harn, J

    2016-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted in which effects of floor eggs, washed floor eggs, and clean nest eggs were investigated on incubation characteristics and performance in later life of broiler chickens. In both experiments, a young and an older breeder flock were used in a 3×2 factorial design during incubation. In the second experiment, male and female chickens were reared separately until d 35 of age in floor pens. During this grow out trial, an extra group was created in which chickens obtained from clean nest eggs were mixed with chickens obtained from floor eggs, meaning that grow out period was set up as a 4×2×2 factorial design with 4 egg types, 2 breeder ages, and 2 sexes. In both experiments, fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs were lower in floor and washed eggs than in clean nest eggs (hatchability: experiment 1: 74.4 vs. 70.6 vs. 92.6% for floor eggs, washed floor eggs and clean nest eggs, respectively, P<0.001; experiment 2: 78.3 vs. 81.7 vs. 90.2%, respectively, P<0.001). In experiment 2, BW at d 0 of chickens obtained from clean nest eggs was higher than that of chickens from floor eggs and washed floor eggs (41.5 vs. 40.4 and 40.3 g, respectively; P<0.001). This difference disappeared during the grow out period and was absent at slaughter age at d 35 of age. Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and mortality during the grow out period were not affected by egg type. Incidence and severity of hock burns and footpad dermatitis were not affected by egg type or breeder age. Litter friability at d 35 of age tended to be lower in pens with chickens obtained from washed floor eggs compared to clean nest eggs. We conclude that incubation of floor eggs or washed floor eggs resulted in lower fertility and hatchability compared to clean nest eggs, but that performance during the grow out period was not affected. PMID:26908895

  7. Clearance of Escherichia coli After Intravenous Inoculation in Broiler Breeder Pullets Fed Skip a day, Every Day in the feeder and Every Day on the Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of feeding programs on the time of clearance of Escherichia coli in broiler breeder pullets was investigated. Broiler breeder pullets from a single grandparent flock were in ovo-vaccinated at 19 d of incubation with a vector HVT (vHVT) vector HVT + Infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine....

  8. Impact of Feeding Systems and Hatchery Vaccination Programs on Immune System Development, Salmonella Colonization, Clearance of E. Coli and Reproductive Traits In Broiler Breeder Pullets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler breeder pullets from a single grandparent flock were vaccinated at 19 days of embryonation with Marek's vaccines HVT +SB1 or a Vector HVT + Infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine. The birds were placed in an experimental broiler breeder facility at the University of Georgia and fed ad libit...

  9. Vocalisation sound pattern identification in young broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Fontana, I; Tullo, E; Scrase, A; Butterworth, A

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we describe the monitoring of young broiler chicken vocalisation, with sound recorded and assessed at regular intervals throughout the life of the birds from day 1 to day 38, with a focus on the first week of life. We assess whether there are recognisable, and even predictable, vocalisation patterns based on frequency and sound spectrum analysis, which can be observed in birds at different ages and stages of growth within the relatively short life of the birds in commercial broiler production cycles. The experimental trials were carried out in a farm where the broiler where reared indoor, and audio recording procedures carried out over 38 days. The recordings were made using two microphones connected to a digital recorder, and the sonic data was collected in situations without disturbance of the animals beyond that created by the routine activities of the farmer. Digital files of 1 h duration were cut into short files of 10 min duration, and these sound recordings were analysed and labelled using audio analysis software. Analysis of these short sound files showed that the key vocalisation frequency and patterns changed in relation to increasing age and the weight of the broilers. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation (P<0.001) between the frequency of vocalisation and the age of the birds. Based on the identification of specific frequencies of the sounds emitted, in relation to age and weight, it is proposed that there is potential for audio monitoring and comparison with 'anticipated' sound patterns to be used to evaluate the status of farmed broiler chicken. PMID:26227085

  10. Effect of dietary vitamin A on reproductive performance and immune response of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jianmin; Roshdy, Abdelfatah Rashad; Guo, Yuming; Wang, Yongwei; Guo, Shuangshuang

    2014-01-01

    The effects of dietary vitamin A supplementation on reproductive performance, liver function, fat-soluble vitamin retention, and immune response were studied in laying broiler breeders. In the first phase of the experiment, 1,120 Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed a diet of corn and soybean meal supplemented with 5,000 to 35,000 IU/kg vitamin A (retinyl acetate) for 20 weeks. In the second phase, 384 Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed the same diet supplemented with 5,000 to 135,000 IU/kg vitamin A (retinyl acetate) for 24 weeks. The hens' reproductive performance, the concentrations of vitamins A and E in liver and egg yolk, liver function, mRNA expression of vitamin D receptor in duodenal mucosa, antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus vaccine, and T-cell proliferation responses were evaluated. Supplementation of vitamin A at levels up to and including 35,000 IU/kg did not affect reproductive performance and quadratically affected antibody titer to Newcastle disease virus vaccine (p<0.05). Dietary addition of vitamin A linearly increased vitamin A concentration in liver and yolk and linearly decreased α-, γ-, and total tocopherol concentration in yolk (p<0.01) and α-tocopherol in liver (p<0.05). Supplementation of vitamin A at doses of 45,000 IU/kg and above significantly decreased egg weight, yolk color, eggshell thickness and strength, and reproductive performance. Dietary vitamin A significantly increased mRNA expression of vitamin D receptor in duodenal mucosa (p<0.05), increased aspartate amino transferase activity, and decreased total bilirubin concentration in serum. Supplementation of vitamin A at 135,000 IU/kg decreased the proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes (p<0.05). Therefore, the maximum tolerable dose of vitamin A for broiler breeders appears to be 35,000 IU/kg, as excessive supplementation has been shown to impair liver function, reproductive performance, and immune response. PMID:25148198

  11. Effect of dietary vitamin A on reproductive performance and immune response of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jianmin; Roshdy, Abdelfatah Rashad; Guo, Yuming; Wang, Yongwei; Guo, Shuangshuang

    2014-01-01

    The effects of dietary vitamin A supplementation on reproductive performance, liver function, fat-soluble vitamin retention, and immune response were studied in laying broiler breeders. In the first phase of the experiment, 1,120 Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed a diet of corn and soybean meal supplemented with 5,000 to 35,000 IU/kg vitamin A (retinyl acetate) for 20 weeks. In the second phase, 384 Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed the same diet supplemented with 5,000 to 135,000 IU/kg vitamin A (retinyl acetate) for 24 weeks. The hens' reproductive performance, the concentrations of vitamins A and E in liver and egg yolk, liver function, mRNA expression of vitamin D receptor in duodenal mucosa, antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus vaccine, and T-cell proliferation responses were evaluated. Supplementation of vitamin A at levels up to and including 35,000 IU/kg did not affect reproductive performance and quadratically affected antibody titer to Newcastle disease virus vaccine (p<0.05). Dietary addition of vitamin A linearly increased vitamin A concentration in liver and yolk and linearly decreased α-, γ-, and total tocopherol concentration in yolk (p<0.01) and α-tocopherol in liver (p<0.05). Supplementation of vitamin A at doses of 45,000 IU/kg and above significantly decreased egg weight, yolk color, eggshell thickness and strength, and reproductive performance. Dietary vitamin A significantly increased mRNA expression of vitamin D receptor in duodenal mucosa (p<0.05), increased aspartate amino transferase activity, and decreased total bilirubin concentration in serum. Supplementation of vitamin A at 135,000 IU/kg decreased the proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes (p<0.05). Therefore, the maximum tolerable dose of vitamin A for broiler breeders appears to be 35,000 IU/kg, as excessive supplementation has been shown to impair liver function, reproductive performance, and immune response.

  12. Effect of Dietary Vitamin A on Reproductive Performance and Immune Response of Broiler Breeders

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yuming; Wang, Yongwei; Guo, Shuangshuang

    2014-01-01

    The effects of dietary vitamin A supplementation on reproductive performance, liver function, fat-soluble vitamin retention, and immune response were studied in laying broiler breeders. In the first phase of the experiment, 1,120 Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed a diet of corn and soybean meal supplemented with 5,000 to 35,000 IU/kg vitamin A (retinyl acetate) for 20 weeks. In the second phase, 384 Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed the same diet supplemented with 5,000 to 135,000 IU/kg vitamin A (retinyl acetate) for 24 weeks. The hens' reproductive performance, the concentrations of vitamins A and E in liver and egg yolk, liver function, mRNA expression of vitamin D receptor in duodenal mucosa, antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus vaccine, and T-cell proliferation responses were evaluated. Supplementation of vitamin A at levels up to and including 35,000 IU/kg did not affect reproductive performance and quadratically affected antibody titer to Newcastle disease virus vaccine (p<0.05). Dietary addition of vitamin A linearly increased vitamin A concentration in liver and yolk and linearly decreased α-, γ-, and total tocopherol concentration in yolk (p<0.01) and α-tocopherol in liver (p<0.05). Supplementation of vitamin A at doses of 45,000 IU/kg and above significantly decreased egg weight, yolk color, eggshell thickness and strength, and reproductive performance. Dietary vitamin A significantly increased mRNA expression of vitamin D receptor in duodenal mucosa (p<0.05), increased aspartate amino transferase activity, and decreased total bilirubin concentration in serum. Supplementation of vitamin A at 135,000 IU/kg decreased the proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes (p<0.05). Therefore, the maximum tolerable dose of vitamin A for broiler breeders appears to be 35,000 IU/kg, as excessive supplementation has been shown to impair liver function, reproductive performance, and immune response. PMID:25148198

  13. Relationships between fertility and some parameters in male broiler breeders (body and testicular weight, histology and immunohistochemistry of testes, spermatogenesis and hormonal levels).

    PubMed

    Sarabia Fragoso, J; Pizarro Díaz, M; Abad Moreno, J C; Casanovas Infesta, P; Rodriguez-Bertos, A; Barger, K

    2013-04-01

    In a farm of grandparent broiler breeder chickens, we followed the development of 350 roosters from 6 to 55 weeks of age. Data collected and evaluated from these males included body weight, testicular weight, histologic and immunohistochemistry studies of the testes, hormone levels (testosterone, estradiol and corticosterone) and sperm production. The objective was to understand the factors that affect or influence hatch loss that is commonly observed after 45 weeks of age in breeder flocksare often correlated to broiler breeder male chickens. The results of this study showed that in conjunction with the weight of the rooster, the testicle weight increases quickly after the rooster receives light stimulation. At an older age, the study showed that there is a process of testicular shrinkage, and the same effect is seen in sperm production and testosterone levels in broiler breeder roosters. From the histology evaluation, we defined 5 histologic phases that illustrate the evolution of the testicular tissue: perinatal, infantile, puberty, adult and senile. We observed that the adult males with a body weight <3800 g were infertile or had subfertile levels and also had low levels of testosterone and high levels of corticosterone. In contrast, the heaviest males showed correct testicular vitality, high levels of testosterone and low levels of corticosterone. However, the roosters that had acquired this high body weight were also at risk of having less complete copulations because of their physical mass. The loss of uniformity of the males and the appearance of hierarchies within the flock accompany a decline in the percentages of hatches as a consequence of the poor confirmation of the males for copulation or the restriction to the access to the females. Results of this study show that the decrease in fertility from 45 weeks of age has been associated with a decline in testicular weight, sperm production and the testosterone levels in animals with a sub-par weight

  14. Organic trace minerals (Mintrex P) in broiler breeder diets and pre-incubation conditions on bone development and leg health of broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leg health issues and bone disorders are developmental problems that may be increased by environmental stress, inadequate nutrition, and improper incubation conditions. Organic trace minerals (OTM) as Mintrex® P were added on top (1 kg/MT) of Ross 708 broiler breeder diets from start of lay. Eggs fr...

  15. Serological Incidence of Avian Reovirus Infection in Broiler-breeders and Progeny in Nova Scotia

    PubMed Central

    Ide, P. R.; Dewitt, W.

    1979-01-01

    The plaque neutralization test and the agar gel precipitation test were used to detect neutralizing and precipitating antibody to avian reovirus strain WVU2937 in sera from 14 commercial broiler breeder flocks and eight progeny flocks. Ten breeder flocks (71%) possessed positive agar gel precipitation reactors (598 sera tested) and 12 (86%) possessed plaque neutralization reactors (114 serum pools tested). All broiler flocks possessed agar gel precipitation reactors, but these were not examined for neutralizing antibody. As no avian reovirus vaccine had been used in Canada prior to this survey these reactions were presumably due to natural infection. Clinical evidence suggested that such infection was asymptomatic in most cases. The development and persistence of antibody to reovirus strain WVU2937 was followed in chicks exposed to the virus by oral inoculation or by contact. Neutralizing antibody was demonstrated in all birds by postinoculation day 17 and this persisted for at least six months. Precipitating antibody was also demonstrated in most chicks by postinoculation day 17, but by six months only 12% of the chicks were still agar gel precipitation positive. PMID:231481

  16. Effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on performance and metabolism of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Yegani, M; Smith, T K; Leeson, S; Boermans, H J

    2006-09-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on performance and metabolism of broiler breeders. Forty-two 26-wk-old broiler breeder hens and nine 26-wk-old roosters were fed the following diets: (1) control, (2) contaminated grains, and (3) contaminated grains + 0.2% polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) for 12 wk. The major contaminant was deoxynivalenol (12.6 mg/kg of feed), with lesser amounts of zearalenone and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol. Feed consumption and BW were not affected by diet. The feeding of contaminated grains did not significantly affect egg production. Decreased eggshell thickness was seen, however, at the end of wk 4, and dietary supplementation with GMA prevented this effect. There was no effect of diet on other egg parameters measured. There was a significant increase in early (1 to 7 d) embryonic mortality in eggs from birds fed contaminated grains at wk 4, but mid- (8 to 14 d) and late- (15 to 21 d) embryonic mortalities were not affected by diet. There were no differences in newly hatched chick weights or viability. The ratio of chick weight to egg weight was not affected by the feeding of contaminated grains. Weight gains of chicks fed a standard broiler starter diet at 7, 14, and 21 d of age were not significantly affected by previous dietary treatments for the dam. It was found that rooster semen volume and sperm concentration, viability, and motility were not affected by the feeding of contaminated diets. There was no effect of diet on the relative weights of liver, spleen, kidney, and testes. The feeding of contaminated grains decreased antibody titers against infectious bronchitis virus at the end of wk 12, and this was prevented by dietary supplementation with GMA. There was no effect of the diet on serum antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus. It was concluded that the feeding of blends of grains contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins could affect

  17. Content and distribution of different phosphorus forms in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, X-K; Wang, J-Z; Zhang, C-H; Li, X; Tang, C-H

    2016-04-01

    To understand the background value of phosphorus in chickens, the quantitative distribution of different phosphorus forms, including total phosphorus (TP), free phosphate (FP) and phospholipid (PL), in viscera, blood and bones of broiler chickens was investigated. Results showed that phosphorus contents exhibited significant differences in different parts of chickens. TP content of breast and thigh meat was over 5.0 g/kg, in which most of the phosphorus was in the form of water-soluble phosphates. TP content in viscera was higher than that in meat, and spleen was observed to contain the highest amount of phosphorus (10.0 g/kg). In all tested organs, FP and PL contents in liver were the highest, ranging between 1207-1989 and 81-369 mg/kg respectively. TP content in chicken bone was in the range of 52,716-136,643 mg/kg, and FP content in the bone was relatively lower than that in chicken meat. PMID:26189915

  18. Dietary High Fluorine Alters Intestinal Microbiota in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qin; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Liu, Juan; Deng, Yubing

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary high fluorine on ileal and cecal microbiota in broiler chickens. Two hundred eighty 1-day-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to four groups and raised for 42 days. The control group was fed a corn-soybean basal diet (fluorine 22.6 mg/kg). The other three groups were fed the same basal diet, but supplemented with 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg fluorine (high fluorine groups I, II, and III), administered in the form of sodium fluoride. The microbiota of ileal and cecal digesta was assessed with plate counts and polymerase chain reaction-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). It was found that, compared with those in the control group, the counts of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. were markedly decreased (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), whereas the counts of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. were significantly increased (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) in the high fluorine groups II and III. PCR-DGGE analysis showed that the number of DGGE bands, similarity, and Shannon index of ileal and cecal bacteria were markedly reduced in the high fluorine groups II and III from 21 to 42 days. Sequencing analysis revealed that the composition of the intestinal microbiota was altered in the high fluorine groups. In conclusion, dietary fluorine in the range of 800-1200 mg/kg obviously altered the bacterial counts, and the diversity and composition of intestinal microbiota in broiler chickens, a finding which implies that dietary high fluorine can disrupt the natural balance and structure of the intestinal microbiota.

  19. Necrotic enteritis predisposing factors in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Moore, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    Necrotic enteritis in chickens develops as a result of infection with pathogenic strains of Clostridium perfringens and the presence of predisposing factors. Predisposing factors include elements that directly change the physical properties of the gut, either damaging the epithelial surface, inducing mucus production, or changing gut transit times; factors that disrupt the gut microbiota; and factors that alter the immune status of birds. In the past research into necrotic enteritis predisposing factors was directed by the simple hypothesis that low-level colonization of C. perfringens commonly occurred within the gut of healthy chickens and the predisposing factors lead to a proliferation of those bacteria to produce disease. More recently, with an increasing understanding of the major virulence factors of C. perfringens and the application of molecular techniques to define different clades of C. perfringens strains, it has become clear that the C. perfringens isolates commonly found in healthy chickens are generally not strains that have the potential to cause disease. Therefore, we need to re-evaluate hypotheses regarding the development of disease, the origin of disease causing isolates of C. perfringens, and the importance of interactions with other C. perfringens strains and with predisposing factors. Many predisposing factors that affect the physical and immunological characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract may also change the resident microbiota. Research directed towards defining the relative importance of each of these different actions of predisposing factors will improve the understanding of disease pathogenesis and may allow refinement of experiment disease models. PMID:26926926

  20. Necrotic enteritis predisposing factors in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Moore, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    Necrotic enteritis in chickens develops as a result of infection with pathogenic strains of Clostridium perfringens and the presence of predisposing factors. Predisposing factors include elements that directly change the physical properties of the gut, either damaging the epithelial surface, inducing mucus production, or changing gut transit times; factors that disrupt the gut microbiota; and factors that alter the immune status of birds. In the past research into necrotic enteritis predisposing factors was directed by the simple hypothesis that low-level colonization of C. perfringens commonly occurred within the gut of healthy chickens and the predisposing factors lead to a proliferation of those bacteria to produce disease. More recently, with an increasing understanding of the major virulence factors of C. perfringens and the application of molecular techniques to define different clades of C. perfringens strains, it has become clear that the C. perfringens isolates commonly found in healthy chickens are generally not strains that have the potential to cause disease. Therefore, we need to re-evaluate hypotheses regarding the development of disease, the origin of disease causing isolates of C. perfringens, and the importance of interactions with other C. perfringens strains and with predisposing factors. Many predisposing factors that affect the physical and immunological characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract may also change the resident microbiota. Research directed towards defining the relative importance of each of these different actions of predisposing factors will improve the understanding of disease pathogenesis and may allow refinement of experiment disease models.

  1. Effect of broiler breeder feeding programme and feeder space change at photostimulation using maize- or wheat-based diets on broiler progeny growth performance and leg health.

    PubMed

    Eusebio-Balcazar, P; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Wineland, M J; Osborne, J; Brake, J

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diet type, maternal feeding programme at 29 weeks of age and breeder feeder space change at photostimulation on broiler progeny performance and leg health at 6 weeks of age. 2. Fast-feathering Cobb 500 broiler breeders were fed on either maize- or wheat-based diets that had been formulated to have similar nutrient composition during growing and layer phases. Two feeding programmes, fast or flow, were used from 14 to 29 weeks of age. At 22 weeks, 69 females from each pen were placed in a layer house where feeder space was either similar to that in rearing (6.3 to 6.5 cm/female) or was increased from 6.3 to 8.4 cm/female. Eggs produced at 32 and 44 weeks of age were collected and incubated for two broiler experiments. A total of 16 male and 16 female one-d-old chicks were placed in floor pens in two experiments, respectively, with 6 and 4 replicate pens. Broiler gait scores and leg problem prevalence were evaluated at 6 weeks of age. 3. Data were analysed as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design with diet type, feeding programme and feeder space change as main factors. 4. The wheat diet increased the probability of observing crooked toes in broiler progeny compared to the use of maize, but only when breeders were fed according to the fast feeding programme and given similar feeder space as during rearing. 5. Breeders given more feeder space in the laying period produced progeny with more locomotion problems compared with those provided similar feeder space, but only when maize was used and the slow feeding programme was applied to the breeders. 6. The maternal feeding programme interacted with other factors to influence progeny leg health, but it did not solely influence walking ability or leg problems of progeny. 7. In conclusion, an increased probability of observing walking impairment of broiler progeny was detected when breeders were given greater feeder space at photostimulation rather than no change and fed

  2. Acute phase proteins response to feed deprivation in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Najafi, P; Zulkifli, I; Soleimani, A F; Goh, Y M

    2016-04-01

    Feed deprivation in poultry farming imposes some degree of stress to the birds, and adversely affects their well -being. Serum levels of acute phase proteins (APP) are potential physiological indicators of stress attributed to feed deprivation. However, it has not been determined how long it takes for a measurable APP response to stressors to occur in avian species. An experiment was designed to delineate the APP and circulating levels of corticosterone responses in commercial broiler chickens to feed deprivation for 30 h. It was hypothesized that feed deprivation would elicit both APP and corticosterone (CORT) reactions within 30 h that is probably associated with stress of hunger. Twenty-one day old birds were subjected to one of 5 feed deprivation periods: 0 (ad libitum, AL), 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 h. Upon completion of the deprivation period, blood samples were collected to determine serum CORT, ovotransferrin (OVT), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), and ceruloplasmin (CP) concentrations. Results showed that feed deprivation for 24 h or more caused a marked elevation in CORT (P=0.002 and P<0.0001, respectively) when compared to AL. However, increases in AGP (P=0.0005), CP (P=0.0002), and OVT (P=0.0003) were only noted following 30 h of feed deprivation. It is concluded that elicitation of AGP, CP, and OVT response may represent a more chronic stressful condition than CORT response in assessing the well-being of broiler chickens.

  3. The effect of feeding time on shell quality and oviposition time in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Backhouse, D; Gous, R M

    2005-04-01

    Three experiments were performed to determine the effect of feeding time on shell quality and oviposition time in broiler breeders. Mean eggshell thickness was increased significantly by 3.5 microm (approximately 1%) per h delay in feeding time when hens were housed in individual cages. However, eggshell thickness was not significantly affected by feeding time when birds were housed on litter floors. Mean oviposition time was delayed relative to lights on by 5 min per h delay in feeding time. Egg weight was not significantly affected by feeding time, suggesting that differences in shell thickness and oviposition times were not due to increased oviducal transit times. Producers who wish to implement delayed feeding may have to turn lights on earlier than usual to compensate for delayed oviposition times.

  4. Comparative evaluation of carcass traits and meat quality in native Aseel chickens and commercial broilers.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, U; Muthukumar, M; Haunshi, S; Niranjan, M; Raju, M V L N; Rama Rao, S V; Chatterjee, R N

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to analyse the meat quality attributes, composition and carcass traits in Aseel chickens and commercial broilers at market age on the basis of physiological age. A total of 20 Aseel (26 and 56 weeks) and 20 broiler (6 weeks) chickens were divided into two groups on a live weight basis, i.e. large (≥2.5 kg) and small (<2.5 kg) with 10 birds in each subgroup. The pH of meat did not show any significant variation between Aseel and broiler chickens. The meat from heavier birds had significantly higher pH. Shear force value and hydroxyproline contents were significantly higher in Aseel chickens. Aseel birds had significantly higher red (a*) colouration and lower lightness (L*) than broiler chickens. The texture and acceptability of Aseel meat were significantly higher. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that muscle fibres in Aseels were arranged in a more coiled pattern making the muscle tough. A larger amount of connective tissue was also observed between the muscle fibres compared with the broiler chickens. The dressing percentage was significantly higher in larger chickens. Commercial broilers recorded significantly higher meat proportion and lower proportion of bone. The meat:bone ratio was 1.07:1.0 in Aseel and 1.31-1.0 in broiler chicken. Breast muscle content was significantly lower in smaller Aseel chickens. Aseel chicken had stronger and heavier backs and shanks. Abdominal fat percentage was significantly lower in Aseel (0.73-0.78%). The study concluded that the firm texture of Aseel meat was due to the high collagen content and interlocking connective tissue between the muscle fibres. The texture and acceptability of Aseel meat was higher. Aseel cocks had strong legs, lean meat and less abdominal fat, making them a high-value meat bird in addition to their aggressive fighting ability.

  5. Higher rates of internal ovulations occur in broiler breeder hens treated with testosterone.

    PubMed

    Navara, Kristen J; Pinson, Sara E; Chary, Parag; Taube, Patrick C

    2015-06-01

    Maximal profit in both the commercial egg and meat industries requires that the quantity of oviposited eggs closely matches the quantity of large yellow follicles maturing in the ovary. While laying hens are genetically selected for maximal egg production and strategies for management of broiler breeders have been constructed to achieve a similar outcome, a percentage of ovarian follicles that are selected into the ovulatory hierarchy in these hens still never make it to oviposition possibly due to atresia of large yellow follicles or internal ovulation of the oocyte into the peritoneal cavity rather than the oviduct. The causes and mechanisms responsible for these processes remain unclear, however, evidence in wild birds suggests that stressful and/or territorial challenges may stimulate oocyte losses. Since testosterone and corticosterone are central to the responses to territorial intrusions and stress, respectively, and since both large yellow follicles and the oviduct that will engulf them are sensitive to hormonal cues, one or both hormones may play a role in the loss of large yellow follicles via atresia and/or internal ovulation in laying hens. To test this, broiler breeder hens were treated with corticosterone or testosterone 5 h prior to ovulation and observed to see whether these treatments influenced the likelihood that a hen would lay an egg 24 h after the predicted ovulation time. A subset of hens that did not lay an egg were killed and dissected to look for evidence of follicle atresia and internal ovulation. Testosterone treatment resulted in significantly more oocyte losses, and 60% of these occurred due to internal ovulations, as was indicated by the presence of yolk in the peritoneal cavity. Corticosterone did not influence the rate of oocyte losses, follicle atresia, or internal ovulation. These results suggest that testosterone can cause disruptions that ultimately prevent the oviduct from capturing the oocyte after ovulation.

  6. Effect of propolis supplementations on behavioral activities of heat stressed broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment investigated effects of dietary supplementation of green Brazilian propolis on behavior of heat stressed broiler chickens. Five hundred and four 15-day old male Ross 708 broiler chicks were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments containing 0, 100, 250, 500, 1000 or 3000 mg kg-1 ...

  7. Effects of incubator humidity and hen age on yolk composition in broiler hatching eggs from young breeders.

    PubMed

    Burnham, M R; Peebles, E D; Gardner, C W; Brake, J; Bruzual, J J; Gerard, P D

    2001-10-01

    The effects of broiler breeder age (26, 28, and 30 wk) and incubator relative humidity (43, 53, and 63% RH) on yolk sac weight and composition in broiler hatching eggs between 16 and 19 d of incubation were evaluated. Percentage yolk sac weight was reduced in eggs from the youngest (26 wk) breeder hens and in eggs incubated at 53% RH. Percentage yolk moisture, in eggs from the youngest hens, was lowest at 16 d and was highest at 19 d, and percentage yolk lipid was highest at 16 and 17 d of incubation in eggs from 30-wk-old hens. Percentage yolk lipid content was higher at 63% RH compared with 53% RH in eggs from 26-wk-old breeders but was lower in eggs incubated at a 43% RH compared with 53 and 63% RH from 30-wk-old breeders. Yolk stearic and arachidonic acid concentrations were higher and myristic acid concentration was lower in eggs from the 26-wk-old hens. Conversely, the highest yolk concentrations of linolenic and palmitoleic acids occurred in eggs from 30- and 28-wk-old breeders, respectively. At 16, 17, 18, and 19 d of incubation, yolk oleic acid concentrations were significantly, but variably, affected by breeder age, whereas linoleic acid concentration was highest in 26-wk-old breeders only at 19 d. Palmitic acid concentration at 17 d was lower in eggs incubated at 53% RH compared with 43 and 63% RH. Rate of yolk uptake from the yolk sac by embryos may be increased by incubating eggs at 53% RH, and the effects of changes in RH between 43 and 63% on yolk lipid content are influenced by breeder age.

  8. Animal Welfare and Food Safety Aspects of Confining Broiler Chickens to Cages

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Sara; Greger, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In commercial chicken meat production, broiler chickens are usually kept on the floor in ware-house like buildings, but the use of cages is becoming more common. Confining chickens to cages is a welfare problem, as has been thoroughly demonstrated for laying hens used for egg production. Caged broiler chickens may suffer from poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, feather loss, and restriction of natural behavior. There are also potential food safety concerns associated with the use of cages. While cages may provide an economic advantage in some geographical regions of the world, the severe, inherent disadvantages should also be considered before cages are more widely adopted in the global broiler chicken industry. Abstract In most areas of the world, broiler chickens are raised in floor systems, but cage confinement is becoming more common. The welfare of broiler chickens in cages is affected by movement restriction, poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, and prevention of key behavioral patterns such as dustbathing and ground scratching. Cages for broiler chickens also have a long history of causing skin and leg conditions that could further compromise welfare, but a lack of controlled studies makes it difficult to draw conclusions about newer cage designs. Cage environments are usually stocked at a higher density than open floor systems, and the limited studies available suggest that caging may lead to increased levels of fear and stress in the birds. Further, birds reared on the floor appear less likely to harbor and shed Salmonella, as litter may serve as a seeding agent for competitive exclusion by other microorganisms. Cages for laying hens used in egg production have met with substantial opposition due to welfare concerns and caging broiler chickens will likely be subject to the same kinds of social disapproval. PMID:26487409

  9. Effect of long-term food restriction on pituitary sensitivity to cLHRH-I in broiler breeder females.

    PubMed

    Bruggeman, V; Onagbesan, O; Vanmontfort, D; Berghman, L; Verhoeven, G; Decuypere, E

    1998-11-01

    The effect of long-term food restriction on the sensitivity of the pituitary to exogenously administered chicken luteinizing hormone releasing hormone I (cLHRH-I) was investigated in three groups of broiler breeder females fed ad libitum, fed a restricted quantity of food or fed a restricted quantity of food to obtain an intermediate body weight between those of the first two groups. At 16 weeks of age, basal FSH release was higher in ad libitum fed birds, culminating in ovarian development and subsequent oestradiol production by the small follicles. At this age, LH secretion was independent of ovarian feedback factors. In all groups, cLHRH-I was most active in releasing LH in intact and ovariectomized animals and, to a lesser extent, in releasing FSH in ovariectomized birds. At 39 weeks of age, basal FSH concentrations were similar among intact animals of all groups, whereas LH concentrations differed among groups, with higher values in the restricted birds. This food effect was enhanced in ovariectomized birds. Furthermore, the high response to cLHRH-I in the ovariectomized, restricted birds compared with the ad libitum, ovariectomized group suggests an improved sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. In conclusion, birds fed ad libitum showed the highest responsiveness to ovarian factors and to cLHRH-I in releasing FSH in the period before sexual maturity. No effect of amount of feeding could be observed for LH. However, during the egg laying period, LH release by cLHRH-I was highly dependent on amount of feeding and on ovarian feedback regulation. This finding indicates that the amount of feeding can modify the sensitivity of the pituitary to cLHRH-I, and possibly to gonadal hormones, during the laying period.

  10. An examination of the role of feeding regimens in regulating metabolism during the broiler breeder grower period 2. Plasma hormones and metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A trial was conducted to determine the effects of different feeding regimens on plasma hormone and metabolite levels in 16 week old broiler breeder pullets. A flock of 350 Cobb 500 breeder pullets was divided in two at 4 weeks of age and fed either everyday (ED) or skip-a-day (SKIP) from 4 to 16 wee...

  11. Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia fergusonii Isolated from Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Karen; Islam, M Rashedul; Rempel, Heidi; Block, Glenn; Topp, Edward; Diarra, Moussa S

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antibiotic resistance of Escherichia fergusonii isolated from commercial broiler chicken farms. A total of 245 isolates from cloacal and cecal samples of 28- to 36-day-old chickens were collected from 32 farms. Isolates were identified using PCR, and their susceptibility to 16 antibiotics was determined by disk diffusion assay. All isolates were susceptible to meropenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin. The most common resistances were against ampicillin (75.1%), streptomycin (62.9%), and tetracycline (57.1%). Of the 184 ampicillin-resistant isolates, 127 were investigated using a DNA microarray carrying 75 probes for antibiotic resistance genetic determinants. Of these 127 isolates, the β-lactamase blaCMY2, blaTEM, blaACT, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M-15 genes were detected in 120 (94.5%), 31 (24.4%), 8 (6.3%), 6 (4.7%), and 4 (3.2%) isolates, respectively. Other detected genes included those conferring resistance to aminoglycosides (aadA1, strA, strB), trimethoprims (dfrV, dfrA1), tetracyclines (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetE), and sulfonamides (sul1, sul2). Class 1 integron was found in 35 (27.6%) of the ampicillin-resistant isolates. However, our data showed that the tested E. fergusonii did not carry any carbapenemase blaOXA genes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that the selected ampicillin-resistant E. fergusonii isolates were genetically diverse. The present study indicates that the monitoring of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria should include enteric bacteria such as E. fergusonii, which could be a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. The detection of isolates harboring extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes, particularly blaCTX-M-15, in this work suggests that further investigations on the occurrence of such genes in broilers are warranted.

  12. Paradoxical Effects of Short Term Triiodothyronine administration to hypothyroid broiler chickens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of these experiments were to determine possible relationships among certain indices of lipid metabolism and specific gene expression in chickens fed methimazole to induce a kind of artificial hypothyroidism. In both experiments, male, broiler chickens growing from 14 to 28 days of age we...

  13. Parvovirus associated cerebellar hypoplasia and hydrocephalus in day-old broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cerebellar hypoplasia and hydrocephalus were detected in day-old broiler chickens. Brains of chickens evaluated at necropsy appeared to be abnormal; some were disfigured and cerebellae appeared to be smaller than normal. Histopathologic examination of brains revealed cerebellar folia that were sho...

  14. Prevalence of Salmonella on retail broiler chicken meat carcasses in Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on retail market chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 1,003 broiler chicken carcasses from 23 departments (one city/department) were collected using a stratified sampling method. Carcass rinses were tested for the ...

  15. Failure of drinking water sanitisation to reduce the incidence of natural salmonella in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Al-Chalaby, Z A; Hinton, M H; Linton, A H

    1985-04-01

    The addition of a sanitiser, containing a mixture of organic acids and other approved additives, to water offered to broiler chickens was effective in eliminating salmonella from the drinking water. However, it failed to influence salmonella carriage by the chickens which were still shedding salmonella at market age (seven weeks old).

  16. Effect of dietary antimicrobials on immune status in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, K W; Lillehoj, H S; Lee, S H; Jang, S I; Park, M S; Bautista, D A; Ritter, G D; Hong, Y H; Siragusa, G R; Lillehoj, E P

    2012-03-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary anticoccidial drugs plus antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) on parameters of immunity in commercial broiler chickens. Day-old chicks were raised on used litter from a farm with endemic gangrenous dermatitis to simulate natural pathogen exposure and provided with diets containing decoquinate (DECX) or monensin (COBN) as anticoccidials plus bacitracin methylene disalicylate and roxarsone as AGPs. As a negative control, the chickens were fed with a non-supplemented diet. Immune parameters examined were concanavalin A (ConA)-stimulated spleen cell proliferation, intestine intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) and spleen cell subpopulations, and cytokine/chemokine mRNA levels in IELs and spleen cells. ConA-induced proliferation was decreased at 14 d post-hatch in DECX-treated chickens, and increased at 25 and 43 d in COBN-treated animals, compared with untreated controls. In DECX-treated birds, increased percentages of MHC2(+) and CD4(+) IELS were detected at 14 d, but decreased percentages of these cells were seen at 43 d, compared with untreated controls, while increased TCR2(+) IELs were evident at the latter time. Dietary COBN was associated with decreased fractions of MHC2(+) and CD4(+) IELs and reduced percentages of MHC2(+), BU1(+), and TCR1(+) spleen cells compared with controls. The levels of transcripts for interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, IL-17F, IL-13, CXCLi2, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and transforming growth factorβ4 were elevated in IELs, and those for IL-13, IL-17D, CXCLi2, and IFN-γ were increased in spleen cells, of DECX- and/or COBN-treated chickens compared with untreated controls. By contrast, IL-2 and IL-12 mRNAs in IELs, and IL-4, IL-12, and IL-17F transcripts in spleen cells, were decreased in DECX- and/or COBN-treated chickens compared with controls. These results suggest that DECX or COBN, in combination with bacitracin and roxarsone, modulate the development of the chicken post-hatch immune system.

  17. A Coronavirus Associated with Runting Stunting Syndrome in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Rüdiger; Gallardo, Rodrigo A; Woolcock, Peter R; Shivaprasad, H L

    2016-06-01

    Runting stunting syndrome (RSS) is a disease condition that affects broilers and causes impaired growth and poor feed conversion because of enteritis characterized by pale and distended small intestines with watery contents. The etiology of the disease is multifactorial, and a large variety of viral agents have been implicated. Here we describe the detection and isolation of an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) -like coronavirus from the intestines of a flock of 60,000 14-day-old brown/red broiler chicks. The birds showed typical clinical signs of RSS including stunting and uneven growth. At necropsy, the small intestines were pale and distended with watery contents. Histopathology of the intestines revealed increased cellularity of the lamina propria, blunting of villi, and cystic changes in the crypts. Negative stain electron microscopy of the intestinal contents revealed coronavirus particles. Transmission electron microscopy of the intestine confirmed coronavirus in the cytoplasm of enterocytes. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), IBV antigen was detected in the intestinal epithelial cells as well as in the proventriculus and pancreas. There were no lesions in the respiratory system, and no IBV antigen was detected in trachea, lung, air sac, conjunctiva, and cecal tonsils. A coronavirus was isolated from the intestine of chicken embryos but not from the allantoic sac inoculated with the intestinal contents of the broiler chicks. Sequencing of the S1 gene showed nucleic acid sequence identities of 93.8% to the corresponding region of IBV California 99 and of 85.7% to IBV Arkansas. Nucleic acid sequence identities to other IBV genotypes were lower. The histopathologic lesions in the intestines were reproduced after experimental infection of specific-pathogen-free chickens inoculated in the conjunctiva and nares. Five days after infection, six of nine investigated birds showed enteritis associated with IBV antigen as detected by IHC. In contrast to the field

  18. Construction of an infectious cDNA clone of genotype 1 avian hepatitis E virus: characterization of its pathogenicity in broiler breeders and demonstration of its utility in studying the role of the hypervariable region in virus replication.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Byung-Woo; Moon, Hyun-Woo; Sung, Haan Woo; Yoon, Byung-Il; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Kwon, Hyuk Moo

    2015-05-01

    A full-length infectious cDNA clone of the genotype 1 Korean avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) (pT11-aHEV-K) was constructed and its infectivity and pathogenicity were investigated in leghorn male hepatoma (LMH) chicken cells and broiler breeders. We demonstrated that capped RNA transcripts from the pT11-aHEV-K clone were translation competent when transfected into LMH cells and infectious when injected intrahepatically into the livers of chickens. Gross and microscopic pathological lesions underpinned the avian HEV infection and helped characterize its pathogenicity in broiler breeder chickens. The avian HEV genome contains a hypervariable region (HVR) in ORF1. To demonstrate the utility of the avian HEV infectious clone, several mutants with various deletions in and beyond the known HVR were derived from the pT11-aHEV-K clone. The HVR-deletion mutants were replication competent in LMH cells, although the deletion mutants extending beyond the known HVR were non-viable. By using the pT11-aHEV-K infectious clone as the backbone, an avian HEV luciferase reporter replicon and HVR-deletion mutant replicons were also generated. The luciferase assay results of the reporter replicon and its mutants support the data obtained from the infectious clone and its derived mutants. To further determine the effect of HVR deletion on virus replication, the capped RNA transcripts from the wild-type pT11-aHEV-K clone and its mutants were injected intrahepatically into chickens. The HVR-deletion mutants that were translation competent in LMH cells displayed in chickens an attenuation phenotype of avian HEV infectivity, suggesting that the avian HEV HVR is important in modulating the virus infectivity and pathogenicity.

  19. Construction of an infectious cDNA clone of genotype 1 avian hepatitis E virus: characterization of its pathogenicity in broiler breeders and demonstration of its utility in studying the role of the hypervariable region in virus replication.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Byung-Woo; Moon, Hyun-Woo; Sung, Haan Woo; Yoon, Byung-Il; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Kwon, Hyuk Moo

    2015-05-01

    A full-length infectious cDNA clone of the genotype 1 Korean avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) (pT11-aHEV-K) was constructed and its infectivity and pathogenicity were investigated in leghorn male hepatoma (LMH) chicken cells and broiler breeders. We demonstrated that capped RNA transcripts from the pT11-aHEV-K clone were translation competent when transfected into LMH cells and infectious when injected intrahepatically into the livers of chickens. Gross and microscopic pathological lesions underpinned the avian HEV infection and helped characterize its pathogenicity in broiler breeder chickens. The avian HEV genome contains a hypervariable region (HVR) in ORF1. To demonstrate the utility of the avian HEV infectious clone, several mutants with various deletions in and beyond the known HVR were derived from the pT11-aHEV-K clone. The HVR-deletion mutants were replication competent in LMH cells, although the deletion mutants extending beyond the known HVR were non-viable. By using the pT11-aHEV-K infectious clone as the backbone, an avian HEV luciferase reporter replicon and HVR-deletion mutant replicons were also generated. The luciferase assay results of the reporter replicon and its mutants support the data obtained from the infectious clone and its derived mutants. To further determine the effect of HVR deletion on virus replication, the capped RNA transcripts from the wild-type pT11-aHEV-K clone and its mutants were injected intrahepatically into chickens. The HVR-deletion mutants that were translation competent in LMH cells displayed in chickens an attenuation phenotype of avian HEV infectivity, suggesting that the avian HEV HVR is important in modulating the virus infectivity and pathogenicity. PMID:25593160

  20. Effect of climatic variables on production and reproduction traits of colored broiler breeder poultry

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, G. D.; Behura, N. C.; Sardar, K. K.; Mishra, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to investigate the important climatic variables affecting production and reproduction in a broiler breeder flock. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted for a period of 1 year on colored synthetic female line male and female poultry birds. 630 female progeny and 194 male progenies from 69 sires and 552 dams produced in four consecutive hatches at an interval of 10 days were used for the present study. Each of the seven, body weight and reproduction traits were regressed with nine environmental variables. Initially, the data were subjected to hatch effect and sire effect corrections through best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE) method and, then, multiple linear regressions of environmental variables on each trait were applied. Result: The overall regression was significant (p<0.01) in all traits except 20 week age body weight of females. The R2 value ranged from 0.12 to 0.90 for the traits. Regression coefficient values (b values) for maximum temperature and minimum temperature were significant (p<0.05) on 5th week age body weight of males. Similarly, evaporation and morning relative humidity (RH) was significant (p<0.05) for 5th week age body weight of females. Almost all b values were significant (p<0.05) for egg production up to 40 week age. The b values representing rainfall, morning RH, afternoon RH, sunshine hours, and rainy days were significant (p<0.05) on bodyweight at 20 week age. All environmental variables except maximum temperature and minimum temperature were significant (p<0.05) on body weight of females at 20 weeks of age. Age at sexual maturity was regressed significantly (p<0.05) with evaporation, afternoon RH whereas, egg shape index was regressed significantly (p<0.05) with a maximum temperature, evaporation and afternoon RH. Conclusion: The result indicated that various environmental variables play a significant role in production and reproduction of breeder broiler poultry. Controlling these

  1. Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of two different dietary cereal types, corn versus rye, on digesta viscosity, gut integrity, and gut microbiota composition in commercial broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, off-sex broiler chickens were randomly assigned ...

  2. Effects of Light Color on Energy Expenditure and Behavior in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nara; Lee, Sang-Rak; Lee, Sang-Jin

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted in order to investigate whether the presence of light or different colors of light would influence the energy expenditure and behavior of broiler chickens. Eight 8-week-old broiler chickens were adapted to a respiration chamber (Length, 28.5 cm; Height, 38.5 cm; Width, 44.0 cm) for one week prior to the initiation of the experiment. In experiment 1, energy expenditure and behavior of the chickens were analyzed in the presence or absence of light for four days. Chickens were exposed to 6 cycles of 2 h light/2 h dark period per day. In experiment 2, the broiler chickens that had been used in experiment 1 were used to evaluate the effect of 4 different wavelength light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the energy expenditure and behavior of broiler chickens. The LEDs used in this study had the following wavelength bands; white (control), red (618 to 635 nm), green (515 to 530 nm) and blue (450 to 470 nm). The chickens were randomly exposed to a 2-h LED light in a random and sequential order per day for 3 days. Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production of the chickens were recorded using an open-circuit calorimeter system, and energy expenditure was calculated based on the collected data. The behavior of the chickens was analyzed based on following categories i.e., resting, standing, and pecking, and closed-circuit television was used to record these behavioral postures. The analysis of data from experiment 1 showed that the energy expenditure was higher (p<0.001) in chickens under light condition compared with those under dark condition. The chickens spent more time with pecking during a light period, but they frequently exhibited resting during a dark period. Experiment 2 showed that there was no significant difference in terms of energy expenditure and behavior based on the color of light (white, red, green, and blue) to which the chickens were exposed. In conclusion, the energy expenditure and behavior of broiler chickens were found to be

  3. Utilization of house fly-maggots, a feed supplement in the production of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hwangbo, J; Hong, E C; Jang, A; Kang, H K; Oh, J S; Kim, B W; Park, B S

    2009-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested the utilization of maggots as a feed supplement forenhanced broiler performance. Maggots, which are a major dietary source of protein, appear during the biodegradation of chicken droppings using house flies. The objective ofthe present study was to investigate the effect of maggot supplementation on the meat quality and growth performance of broiler chickens. A total of 600 one-day-old male commercial broiler chicks (Ross) were randomly assigned into 5 treatment groups consisting of 40 replicates of 3 birds. The birds were fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0% maggots. Overall, broiler chicken performance was influenced by the optimal amino acid profile; high protein (63.99%) and essential amino acid content (29.46%), or high protein digestibility (98.50%) of the maggots. Maggot supplementation caused linear increases in live weight gain but not the feed conversion ratio. The diets of 10 and 15% maggots was the most efficient in terms of average weight gain forthe 4-5 week old broiler chickens (p<0.05). It also significantly increased dressing percentage, breast muscle, and thigh muscle (p<0.05). No differences were observed forliver abdominalfat, or meat color, and the crude protein contents of breast muscle were constant. However, in the maggot-fed broilers, breast muscle lysine and tryptophan levels increased significantly as compared to the birds fed the basal diet (p<0.05). These results indicate that feeding diets containing 10 to 15% maggots in chicken dropping after biodegradation can improve the carcass quality and growth performance of broiler chickens.

  4. Immunization of broiler chickens against Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, R R; Parreira, V R; Sharif, S; Prescott, J F

    2007-09-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) in broiler chickens is caused by Clostridium perfringens. Currently, no vaccine against NE is available and immunity to NE is not well characterized. Our previous studies showed that immunity to NE followed oral infection by virulent rather than avirulent C. perfringens strains and identified immunogenic secreted proteins apparently uniquely produced by virulent C. perfringens isolates. These proteins were alpha-toxin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), fructose 1,6-biphosphate aldolase, and a hypothetical protein (HP). The current study investigated the role of each of these proteins in conferring protection to broiler chickens against oral infection challenges of different severities with virulent C. perfringens. The genes encoding these proteins were cloned and purified as histidine-tagged recombinant proteins from Escherichia coli and were used to immunize broiler chickens intramuscularly. Serum and intestinal antibody responses were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All proteins significantly protected broiler chickens against a relatively mild challenge. In addition, immunization with alpha-toxin, HP, and PFOR also offered significant protection against a more severe challenge. When the birds were primed with alpha-toxoid and boosted with active toxin, birds immunized with alpha-toxin were provided with the greatest protection against a severe challenge. The serum and intestinal washings from protected birds had high antigen-specific antibody titers. Thus, we conclude that there are certain secreted proteins, in addition to alpha-toxin, that are involved in immunity to NE in broiler chickens. PMID:17634510

  5. Effects of supplementation with L. plantarum TN8 encapsulated in alginate-chitosan in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Imen; Ktari, Naourez; Ben Slima, Sirine; Bouchaala, Kamel; Ben Salah, Riadh

    2016-08-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of supplementation of probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum TN8 encapsulated in sodium alginate-chitosan or a commercial blend of essential oils on total cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and growth performance of broiler chickens. The results showed that the broiler chickens supplemented with encapsulated L. plantarum TN8 or essential oil has a higher growth than the control group. After 35days, the weight means were 1860 and 1880g respectively in dietary supplementation with probiotic or essential oil, while they are 1800g in the control group. The evolution of the feed consumption and feed conversion per week showed that the supplementation of encapsulated TN8 strain or essential oil in broiler chickens food has a positive influence on their appetite. Similarly, supplementation of the feed with this encapsulated strain significantly reduced the rate of cholesterol (HDL and LDL) as well as the contents of triglycerides in broiler chickens. Through our study, it appears that the use of the probiotic supplementation or essential oil to broilers were found to be better than the control group of chickens, resulting in a significant economic impact and promoting effect on health.

  6. Systemic Metabolic Responses of Broiler Chickens and Piglets to Acute T-2 Toxin Intravenous Exposure.

    PubMed

    Wan, Qianfen; He, Qinghua; Deng, Xianbai; Hao, Fuhua; Tang, Huiru; Wang, Yulan

    2016-01-27

    The aim of this study is to thoroughly investigate the toxicity mechanism of mycotoxin T-2 toxin and to further understand the endogenous metabolic alterations induced by T-2 toxin. To achieve this, a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics approach was used to analyze the metabolic alterations induced by a single intravenous injection of T-2 toxin (0.5 mg/kg of body weight) in piglets and broiler chickens. A range of metabolites in the plasma, liver, kidney, and spleen of broiler chickens and plasma of piglets was changed following T-2 toxin injection. For example, a rapid increase of amino acids together with a significant reduction of glucose and lipid occurred in the plasma of broiler chickens and piglets following T-2 toxin treatment. A significant accumulation of amino acids and modulated nucleotides were detected in the liver, kidney, and spleen of T-2 toxin-treated broiler chickens. These data indicated that T-2 toxin caused endogenous metabolic changes in multiple organs and perturbed various metabolic pathways, including energy, amino acid, and nucleotide metabolism, as well as oxidative stress. We also observed elevated levels of tryptophan in the T-2 toxin-treated broiler chickens, which may explain the reported neurotoxic effects of T-2 toxin. These findings provide important information on the toxicity of T-2 toxin and demonstrate the power of the NMR-based metabonomics approach in exploring the toxicity mechanism of xenobiotics.

  7. Choice of nest types by hens of three lines of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Holcman, A; Malovrh, S; Stuhec, I

    2007-06-01

    1. Choice of three different nest types by hens of broiler breeder lines was investigated: metal nests (26 x 29 x 33-45 cm, w x d x h) with inclined rubber mats, metal nests of the same size with litter, and larger wooden nests (30 x 40 x 38) with litter. Three lines were studied: line B (324 females + 36 males), line P (315 + 36), and line WM (306 + 32). Each line was housed in a pen 23.3 x 3.9 m (90.7 m2); half the area was concrete floor with litter, and the other half raised plastic slats, on which stood 84 nests, 28 of each type, in two-tier blocks. 2. Ninety-five per cent of eggs were laid in nests, with significant variation between types: 63% metal littered, 30% wooden littered, and 2.3% metal with inclined rubber mats. Choice between types was similar in the three lines. Hens of line B laid 66% of nest eggs in lower nests, P laid 57% and WM laid 64%. 3. The other 5.1% of eggs were laid on the floor: 1.2% on the litter and 3.9% on the slats in front of the nests. It is suggested that some subordinate hens were excluded from nests, and therefore laid on the floor. PMID:17578690

  8. Dynamics of populations of Campylobacter jejuni in two grandparent broiler breeder farms: persistent vs. transient strains.

    PubMed

    Perez-Boto, D; Garcia-Peña, F J; Abad-Moreno, J C; Echeita, M A

    2012-09-14

    The objectives of the study were to characterize and investigate the populations of Campylobacter jejuni in two grandparent broiler breeder farms over four years. Caecal as well as farm environmental samples were obtained. Campylobacter isolates were characterized by macrorestriction profile (SmaI and KpnI-PFGE) and PCR-RFLP of the flaA gene. Susceptibility tests against seven antimicrobials were also performed. Birds were negative for Campylobacter spp. when they came to these two production farms (20 weeks), and most of the flocks remained uncolonized until they were 23 weeks old. Eighteen genotypes were characterized, with one of them (genotype 2) appearing and persisting over the study period in the two farms. In general, the strains exhibited high genetic stability, and most of them could be seen as transient in the farms, being substituted by other strains when their flock was substituted. Only one environmental sampling was positive for C. jejuni. Two different genotypes were characterized; one of them was isolated from the birds of that farm two years before. The susceptibility data point to the idea of an environmental source or reservoir of this genotype. Regarding the susceptibility of the populations, as other studies have shown, quinolone resistance (alone or combined with other resistances) was the most frequent: 68.5%. Quinolone- and multidrug-resistant strains are a matter of concern in public health. In conclusion, this survey shows the complexity of the study of the colonization of farms by C. jejuni.

  9. Effects of dietary L-arginine on laying performance and antioxidant capacity of broiler breeder hens, eggs, and offspring during the late laying period.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaoxue; Li, Feng; Mou, Shaoyang; Feng, Jiawei; Liu, Peifeng; Xu, Liangmei

    2015-12-01

    The effects of maternal L-arginine supplementation on laying performance and the antioxidant capacity of broiler breeder hens, egg yolk, and their one-day-old offspring were investigated. In a 9 wk experiment, 210 60-week-old Arbor Acres healthy female broiler breeders were randomly divided into 5 treatments with 6 replicates of 7 females and fed a corn and soybean meal diet with 5 arginine levels (0.96%, 1.16%, 1.36%, 1.56%, and 1.76% digestible arginine). Laying performance and anti-oxidant capacity of broiler breeder hens, eggs, and offspring were evaluated. Digestible arginine level in the broiler breeder diet had a significant effect on the laying rate (linear and quadratic effect, P<0.0001). The highest laying rate was obtained when the diet with 1.36% digestible arginine was fed. There was a significant effect of digestible arginine level in the broiler breeder diet on the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) levels and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) concentration in the broiler breeder serum, egg yolk and serum, and liver and breast of one-day-old offspring (linear and quadratic effect, P<0.05). The T-AOC level was highest and the MDA concentration lowest in all tissues when a diet with 1.36% digestible arginine was fed. No difference in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity in the broiler breeder serum was observed. There were significant effects of digestible arginine level in the broiler breeder diet on the GSH-PX activity of the egg yolk (linear effect, P<0.01; quadratic effect, P<0.05) and serum, liver, and breast of one-day-old offspring (linear and quadratic effect, P≤0.01). The GSH-PX activity in all tissues measured in this experiment was highest when the dietary digestible arginine was 1.36%. These results indicate that the diet with 1.36% digestible arginine (1,972 mg/d) is optimal to satisfy the nutritional needs of a female broiler breeder during the late laying period.

  10. Effects of salinomycin and Bacillus subtilis on growth performance and immune responses in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Woo; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Jang, Seung I; Lee, Sung-Hyen

    2014-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the effect of salinomycin and Bacillus subtilis on growth performance, serum antibody levels against Clostridium spp. and Eimeria spp., and cytokine mRNA expression levels in broiler chickens raised in the used litter. Broiler chickens fed a diet containing salinomycin showed lower (P < 0.05) body weights compared with the control diet-fed counterparts. Serum nitric oxide levels were significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in chickens fed the B. subtilis-enriched diet compared with those on either the salinomycin-fed or control diet-fed chickens. None of the dietary treatments affected (P > 0.05) serum antibody levels against Clostridium perfringens toxins. Both salinomycin and B.subtilis significantly lowered (P < 0.05) the serum levels of Eimeria-specific antibodies compared with the control group. Salinomycin, but not B. subtilis, significantly modulated (P < 0.05) the expression of cytokines encoding interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor superfamily 15 (TNFSF15) compared with the control group. In conclusion, dietary salinomycin and B. subtilis affected serum anticoccidial antibody and intestinal cytokine expression, but failed to improve growth performance in broiler chickens. Further study is warranted to investigate the mode of action of salinomycin on host immune response and growth performance in broiler chickens. PMID:25135491

  11. Selection for Growth Performance in Broiler Chickens Associates with Less Diet Flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, Jana; Coopman, Frank; Cools, An; Michiels, Joris; Fremaut, Dirk; De Smet, Stefaan; Janssens, Geert P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Global competition for high standard feed-food resources between man and livestock, such as industrial broilers, is a concerning problem. In addition, the low productivity of scavenger chickens in developing countries leaves much to be desired. Changing the ingredients, and therefore, the nutrient composition of feed intake by commercial fed as well as scavenger chickens seems like an obvious solution. In this study, the ability of four broiler chicken breeds to perform on a commercial versus a scavenger diet was tested. The four broiler breeds differed genetically in growth potential. A significant (P < 0.01) negative effect of the scavenger diet on the bodyweight of the fast growing breeds was found and this effect decreased with decreasing growth rate in the other breeds. These differences in bodyweight gain could not be explained by differences in nutrient digestibility but were caused by the lack of ability of the fast growing breeds to increase their feed intake sufficiently. PMID:26042600

  12. Cryptosporidiosis in broiler chickens in Zhejiang Province, China: molecular characterization of oocysts detected in fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lengmei; Xue, Xue; Li, Jianqiu; Zhou, Qianjin; Yu, Yingchao; Du, Aifang

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is one of the most important parasites in poultry, and this pathogen can infect more than 30 avian species. The present study investigated the infection rate of Cryptosporidium among broiler chicken flocks. A total of 385 fecal samples from broiler chickens in 7 regions of Zhejiang Province collected from November 2010 to January 2012 were examined by microscopy. Thirty-eight (10%) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium infection, and 3 genotypes (Cryptosporidium baileyi, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, and avian genotype II) were identified by PCR and sequencing. A phylogenetic tree of the isolates was analyzed. These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis is widespread in poultry in Zhejiang Province, and is a potential threat to public health as well as the economy. This is the first report about the infection rate and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in broiler chickens in Zhejiang. PMID:25075975

  13. Cryptosporidiosis in broiler chickens in Zhejiang Province, China: molecular characterization of oocysts detected in fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lengmei; Xue, Xue; Li, Jianqiu; Zhou, Qianjin; Yu, Yingchao; Du, Aifang

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is one of the most important parasites in poultry, and this pathogen can infect more than 30 avian species. The present study investigated the infection rate of Cryptosporidium among broiler chicken flocks. A total of 385 fecal samples from broiler chickens in 7 regions of Zhejiang Province collected from November 2010 to January 2012 were examined by microscopy. Thirty-eight (10%) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium infection, and 3 genotypes (Cryptosporidium baileyi, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, and avian genotype II) were identified by PCR and sequencing. A phylogenetic tree of the isolates was analyzed. These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis is widespread in poultry in Zhejiang Province, and is a potential threat to public health as well as the economy. This is the first report about the infection rate and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in broiler chickens in Zhejiang.

  14. Selection for growth performance in broiler chickens associates with less diet flexibility.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Jana; Coopman, Frank; Cools, An; Michiels, Joris; Fremaut, Dirk; De Smet, Stefaan; Janssens, Geert P J

    2015-01-01

    Global competition for high standard feed-food resources between man and livestock, such as industrial broilers, is a concerning problem. In addition, the low productivity of scavenger chickens in developing countries leaves much to be desired. Changing the ingredients, and therefore, the nutrient composition of feed intake by commercial fed as well as scavenger chickens seems like an obvious solution. In this study, the ability of four broiler chicken breeds to perform on a commercial versus a scavenger diet was tested. The four broiler breeds differed genetically in growth potential. A significant (P < 0.01) negative effect of the scavenger diet on the bodyweight of the fast growing breeds was found and this effect decreased with decreasing growth rate in the other breeds. These differences in bodyweight gain could not be explained by differences in nutrient digestibility but were caused by the lack of ability of the fast growing breeds to increase their feed intake sufficiently.

  15. Serological and molecular detection of avian pneumovirus in chickens with respiratory disease in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, S M; Algharaibeh, G R

    2007-08-01

    Avian pneumovirus (APV) causes upper respiratory tract infection in chickens and turkeys. There is a serious respiratory disease in chickens, resulting in catastrophic economic losses to chicken farmers in Jordan. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of APV as a factor in the respiratory disease of chickens in Jordan by serological and molecular methods. Thirty-eight chicken flocks were examined by competitive ELISA (23 broilers, 8 layers, and 7 broiler breeders), and 150 chicken flocks were examined by reverse-transcription PCR (133 broiler flocks, 7 layer flocks, and 10 broiler breeder flocks). Avian pneumovirus antibodies were detected in 5 out of 23 broiler flocks (21.7%), 6 out of 8 layer flocks (75%), and 7 out of 7 broiler breeder flocks (100%). Avian pneumovirus nucleic acid was detected in 17 broiler flocks (12.8%) and 3 layer flocks (42.9%). None of the broiler breeder flocks tested by reverse-transcription PCR was positive. All of the 20 detected APV isolates were subtype B. This is the first report of APV infection in Jordan. In conclusion, the Jordanian poultry industry, vaccination programs should be adjusted to include the APV vaccine to aid in the control of this respiratory disease.

  16. Oligosaccharides Affect Performance and Gut Development of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Z.; Choct, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of oligosaccharide supplementation on the growth performance, flock uniformity and GIT development of broiler chickens were investigated. Four diets, one negative control, one positive control supplemented with zinc-bacitracin, and two test diets supplemented with mannoligosaccharide (MOS) and fructooligosaccharide (FOS), were used for the experiment. Birds given MOS or FOS had improved body weight (BW) and feed efficiency (FCR), compared to those fed the negative control diet during the 35-d trial period. The effect on FCR became less apparent when the birds got older. FOS and MOS supplementation reduced the pancreas weight as a percentage of BW, with an effect similar to that of the antibiotic, at 35 d of age. Birds given MOS tended to have a heavier bursa (p = 0.164) and lower spleen/bursa weight ratio (p = 0.102) at 35 d of age. MOS and Zn-bacitracin showed a clear improvement on flock uniformity, compared to FOS. The mortality rate was not affected by FOS or MOS. PMID:25049713

  17. The efficacy of Mycoplasma gallisepticum K-strain live vaccine in broiler and layer chickens.

    PubMed

    Ferguson-Noel, N M; Williams, S M

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of a live Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccine candidate (K-strain) was compared to commercially available vaccines in broiler-type chickens (Trial 1) and layer-type chickens (Trial 2). In Trial 1, three-week-old broiler-type chickens were vaccinated via aerosol with K-strain or an F-strain vaccine. The vaccinated chickens and 10 non-vaccinated controls were subsequently challenged with virulent R-strain via aerosol at six weeks post vaccination; both K-strain and F-strain vaccination resulted in significant protection from air sac and tracheal lesions, as well as R-strain colonization (P ≤ 0.05). In Trial 2, commercial layer-type chickens were vaccinated with ts-11 (via eye drop) or K-strain (via aerosol) at 12 weeks of age. At 25 weeks of age these birds were challenged with R-strain via aerosol. The ts-11 and K-strain vaccinated groups both had significantly lower air sac lesion scores and a lower prevalence of ovarian regression after challenge as compared to non-vaccinated chickens (P ≤ 0.05). K-strain vaccination also prevented significant tracheal lesions and R-strain colonization (P ≤ 0.05). K-strain shows great potential as a highly efficacious live MG vaccine in broiler and layer-type chickens for protection of the respiratory and reproductive systems as well as prevention of infection with field strains. PMID:25571953

  18. Quantitative Determination of Tenuazonic Acid in Pig and Broiler Chicken Plasma by LC-MS/MS and Its Comparative Toxicokinetics.

    PubMed

    Fraeyman, Sophie; Devreese, Mathias; Broekaert, Nathan; De Mil, Thomas; Antonissen, Gunther; De Baere, Siegrid; De Backer, Patrick; Rychlik, Michael; Croubels, Siska

    2015-09-30

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantitate tenuazonic acid (TeA) in pig and broiler chicken plasma was successfully developed and validated. Linear matrix-matched calibration curves ranged between 5 and 200 ng/mL. Correlation coefficients, goodness-of-fit coefficients, and within-day and between-day precision and accuracy fell well within the acceptance criteria. The limit of quantitation was 5.0 ng/mL in both pig and broiler chicken plasma. The LC-MS/MS method was applied in a comparative toxicokinetic study in both pigs and broiler chickens. TeA was completely bioavailable after oral administration in both animal species. However, absorption was deemed to be slower in broiler chickens (mean tmax 0.32 h in pigs vs 2.60 h in chickens). TeA was more slowly eliminated in broiler chickens (mean t1/2el 0.55 h in pigs vs 2.45 h in chickens after oral administration), mainly due to the significantly lower total body clearance (mean Cl 446.1 mL/h/kg in pigs vs 59.2 mL/h/kg in chickens after oral administration). Tissue residue studies and further research to elucidate the biotransformation and excretion processes of TeA in pigs, broiler chickens, and other animal species are imperative. PMID:26371380

  19. Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Fecal Escherichia coli Isolates from Penned Broiler and Scavenging Local Chickens in Arusha, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Rugumisa, Bernadether T; Call, Douglas R; Mwanyika, Gaspary O; Mrutu, Rehema I; Luanda, Catherine M; Lyimo, Beatus M; Subbiah, Murugan; Buza, Joram J

    2016-08-01

    We compared the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from household-level producers of broiler (commercial source breeds) and local chickens in the Arusha District of Tanzania. Households were composed of a single dwelling or residence with independent, penned broiler flocks. Free-range, scavenging chickens were mixed breed and loosely associated with individual households. A total of 1,800 E. coli isolates (1,200 from broiler and 600 from scavenging local chickens) from 75 chickens were tested for their susceptibility against 11 antibiotics by using breakpoint assays. Isolates from broiler chickens harbored a higher prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli relative to scavenging local chickens, including sulfamethoxazole (80.3 versus 34%), followed by trimethoprim (69.3 versus 27.7%), tetracycline (56.8 versus 20%), streptomycin (52.7 versus 24.7%), amoxicillin (49.6 versus 17%), ampicillin (49.1 versus 16.8%), ciprofloxacin (21.9 versus 1.7%), and chloramphenicol (1.5 versus 1.2%). Except for resistance to chloramphenicol, scavenging local chickens harbored fewer resistant E. coli isolates (P < 0.05). Broiler chickens harbored more isolates that were resistant to ≥7 antibiotics (P < 0.05). The higher prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli from broiler chickens correlated with the reported therapeutic and prophylactic use of antibiotics in this poultry population. We suggest that improved biosecurity measures and increased vaccination efforts would reduce reliance on antibiotics by these households. PMID:27497131

  20. Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Fecal Escherichia coli Isolates from Penned Broiler and Scavenging Local Chickens in Arusha, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Rugumisa, Bernadether T; Call, Douglas R; Mwanyika, Gaspary O; Mrutu, Rehema I; Luanda, Catherine M; Lyimo, Beatus M; Subbiah, Murugan; Buza, Joram J

    2016-08-01

    We compared the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from household-level producers of broiler (commercial source breeds) and local chickens in the Arusha District of Tanzania. Households were composed of a single dwelling or residence with independent, penned broiler flocks. Free-range, scavenging chickens were mixed breed and loosely associated with individual households. A total of 1,800 E. coli isolates (1,200 from broiler and 600 from scavenging local chickens) from 75 chickens were tested for their susceptibility against 11 antibiotics by using breakpoint assays. Isolates from broiler chickens harbored a higher prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli relative to scavenging local chickens, including sulfamethoxazole (80.3 versus 34%), followed by trimethoprim (69.3 versus 27.7%), tetracycline (56.8 versus 20%), streptomycin (52.7 versus 24.7%), amoxicillin (49.6 versus 17%), ampicillin (49.1 versus 16.8%), ciprofloxacin (21.9 versus 1.7%), and chloramphenicol (1.5 versus 1.2%). Except for resistance to chloramphenicol, scavenging local chickens harbored fewer resistant E. coli isolates (P < 0.05). Broiler chickens harbored more isolates that were resistant to ≥7 antibiotics (P < 0.05). The higher prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli from broiler chickens correlated with the reported therapeutic and prophylactic use of antibiotics in this poultry population. We suggest that improved biosecurity measures and increased vaccination efforts would reduce reliance on antibiotics by these households.

  1. Quantitative Determination of Tenuazonic Acid in Pig and Broiler Chicken Plasma by LC-MS/MS and Its Comparative Toxicokinetics.

    PubMed

    Fraeyman, Sophie; Devreese, Mathias; Broekaert, Nathan; De Mil, Thomas; Antonissen, Gunther; De Baere, Siegrid; De Backer, Patrick; Rychlik, Michael; Croubels, Siska

    2015-09-30

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantitate tenuazonic acid (TeA) in pig and broiler chicken plasma was successfully developed and validated. Linear matrix-matched calibration curves ranged between 5 and 200 ng/mL. Correlation coefficients, goodness-of-fit coefficients, and within-day and between-day precision and accuracy fell well within the acceptance criteria. The limit of quantitation was 5.0 ng/mL in both pig and broiler chicken plasma. The LC-MS/MS method was applied in a comparative toxicokinetic study in both pigs and broiler chickens. TeA was completely bioavailable after oral administration in both animal species. However, absorption was deemed to be slower in broiler chickens (mean tmax 0.32 h in pigs vs 2.60 h in chickens). TeA was more slowly eliminated in broiler chickens (mean t1/2el 0.55 h in pigs vs 2.45 h in chickens after oral administration), mainly due to the significantly lower total body clearance (mean Cl 446.1 mL/h/kg in pigs vs 59.2 mL/h/kg in chickens after oral administration). Tissue residue studies and further research to elucidate the biotransformation and excretion processes of TeA in pigs, broiler chickens, and other animal species are imperative.

  2. Growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens supplemented with Rhodopseudomonas palustris in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Xu, Q Q; Yan, H; Liu, X L; Lv, L; Yin, C H; Wang, P

    2014-01-01

    1. The effect of the bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, on the growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens was investigated. 2. A total of 900-d-old Arbor Acres broilers were allocated to three experimental treatments for 6 weeks. Chicks were administered with R. palustris in drinking water as follows: (i) control group without R. palustris; (ii) treatment 1 (R1) with R. palustris of 8 × 10(9) cells per chick per day in drinking water; (iii) treatment 2 (R2) with R. palustris of 1.6 × 10(10) cells per chick per day in drinking water. 3. The results showed that, compared with that of control, both groups of R. palustris treatment increased daily weight gain and improved feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens significantly during the whole growing period of 6 weeks. 4. Both total and glutamic acid contents of chicken breast fillet in R. palustris treatment R2 were higher, while the fat content was lower, than those of the control group. Furthermore, R. palustris treatments also improved sensory attributes of chicken breast fillet. 5. As a probiotic providing rich nutrients and biological active substances, R. palustris administration in drinking water displayed a growth promoting effect and improved meat quality of broiler chickens. PMID:24628388

  3. Growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens supplemented with Rhodopseudomonas palustris in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Xu, Q Q; Yan, H; Liu, X L; Lv, L; Yin, C H; Wang, P

    2014-01-01

    1. The effect of the bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, on the growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens was investigated. 2. A total of 900-d-old Arbor Acres broilers were allocated to three experimental treatments for 6 weeks. Chicks were administered with R. palustris in drinking water as follows: (i) control group without R. palustris; (ii) treatment 1 (R1) with R. palustris of 8 × 10(9) cells per chick per day in drinking water; (iii) treatment 2 (R2) with R. palustris of 1.6 × 10(10) cells per chick per day in drinking water. 3. The results showed that, compared with that of control, both groups of R. palustris treatment increased daily weight gain and improved feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens significantly during the whole growing period of 6 weeks. 4. Both total and glutamic acid contents of chicken breast fillet in R. palustris treatment R2 were higher, while the fat content was lower, than those of the control group. Furthermore, R. palustris treatments also improved sensory attributes of chicken breast fillet. 5. As a probiotic providing rich nutrients and biological active substances, R. palustris administration in drinking water displayed a growth promoting effect and improved meat quality of broiler chickens.

  4. Lysine partitioning in broiler breeders is not affected by energy or protein intake when fed at current industry levels.

    PubMed

    Ekmay, R D; Salas, C; England, J; Cerrate, S; Coon, C N

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary energy and protein intake on the partitioning of lysine in broiler breeder hens. One hundred twenty-six broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 (390, 450 kcal/d) × 3 (22, 24, 26 g of CP/d) fashion. Thirty-six hens were administered a daily oral dose of 15 mg of (15)N-Lys for a period of 2 wk or until first egg. After the 2-wk enrichment period, no isotopes were given for 2 d. After 2 d, a daily oral dose of 15 mg of (2)D4-Lys was administered until the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th egg (saved) after the initial (2)D4-Lys was given, at which point pectoralis muscle was sampled. Weeks 25, 29, and 45 were assessed. Isotopic enrichment of pectoralis muscle, egg yolk, and albumen was determined via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The (15)N-Lys was intended to represent endogenous lysine, whereas the (2)D4-Lys was intended to represent dietary lysine. Greater than 78% of all labeled lysine ((15)N and (2)D4-Lys) was found in breast muscle. Endogenous muscle was the main source of lysine for yolk formation at wk 25 and 45. Diet was the main source of lysine for albumen formation at wk 25 and 29. A consistent decrease in the (15)N-Lys in breast muscle from the 2nd to the 3rd egg was observed, while also seeing an increase in the (15)N-Lys in the egg from the 3rd to the 4th egg. No difference in the partitioning of lysine was determined by energy or protein intake at levels typical for the current poultry industry. Rather, age, and possibly rate of production, appear to be the main drivers of lysine partitioning in the broiler breeder hen.

  5. Melatonin modulates tonic immobility and vigilance behavioural responses of broiler chickens to lighting regimens during the hot-dry season.

    PubMed

    Sinkalu, Victor Olusegun; Ayo, Joseph O; Adelaiye, Alexander B; Hambolu, Joseph O

    2016-10-15

    Experiments were conducted with the aim of determining the influence of melatonin administration on vigilance and tonic immobility (TI) responses of Marshall broiler chickens. The broiler chickens were reared on different lighting regimens and subjected to heat stress during the hot-dry season. Simple random sampling was used to assign 300 broiler chicks into three groups, comprising 100 broiler chicks each. Group I (12D:12L cycle) was raised under natural photoperiod of 12-h light and 12-h darkness, without melatonin supplementation. Group II (CL) was kept under 24-h continuous lighting, without melatonin administration. Group III (CL+MEL) was raised under 24-h continuous lighting; with melatonin supplementation at 0.5mg/kg per os, via drinking water using a syringe. Beginning from day-old, broiler chickens in group III were individually administered with melatonin once daily for 8weeks at 17:00h. TI was induced by manual restraint, and vigilance elicited at self-righting graded for three days, two weeks apart, in 15 labeled broiler chickens from each of the three groups; at 06:00h, 13:00h and 18:00h, starting from week 4-8. Each broiler chicken was laid on its back in a U-shaped cradle, covered with cloth. Thermal microenvironment parameters of dry bulb temperature (DBT) and relative humidity (RH) were recorded at the experimental site, concurrently during the vigilance and TI tests. Inside the broiler chickens' house, the weekly temperature-humidity index (THI) was lowest at week 4 of the study, with the value of 48.60±0.08°C. At week 4, the relationship between the THI and TI induction attempts was stronger in 12D:12L cycle (r=0.589, P<0.001) than CL (r=0.264, P>0.05) or CL+MEL (r=0.096, P>0.05) broiler chickens. This indicated that the broiler chickens on 12D:12L cycle were more active compared to their melatonin-treated counterparts, apparently due to adverse effects of high DBT and high RH on the broiler chickens during the hot-dry season. The highest

  6. Effects of body weight at, and lighting regimen and growth curve to, 20 weeks on laying performance in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Gous, R M; Cherry, P

    2004-08-01

    1. A total of 4000 Ross broiler breeders were reared to a 20-week target body weight of 1.55, 2.16 (standard), 2.50 or 2.84 kg, using either a convex or concave growth curve. Each treatment group was either exposed to a conventional broiler breeder lighting regimen, with a series of weekly one-hour increments in photoperiod from 8h at 19 weeks to a 16-h maximum, or maintained from 4d on a 17-h photoperiod. 2. Each 100 g increment in body weight at 20 weeks was associated with a significant increase of 0.55 kg in cumulative food intake, and a 1.5-d advance in sexual maturity. However, leaner body weights at 20 weeks resulted in smaller body weight gains between 20 and 60 weeks (-2.4 g/d/kg body weight at 20 weeks), and an increased production of double-yolked eggs. Neither egg production nor mean egg weight was affected by 20-week body weight. 3. Birds fed to produce more rapid early growth had higher feed intakes to 20 weeks, but reached sexual maturity 7 d later than birds permitted accelerated growth from 15 weeks. Growth curve did not influence body weight gain in lay, egg production or mean egg weight. 4. Birds maintained on 17-h photoperiods reached sexual maturity 27 d later, produced 7 fewer eggs to 60 weeks, and had a mean egg weight 1.2 g heavier than birds photostimulated at 19 weeks. Lighting treatment did not affect food intake to 20 weeks, the proportion of double-yolked eggs or body weight gain between 20 and 60 weeks. 5. Birds fed to have a faster growth early in the rearing phase and maintained on 17-h photoperiods produced 11 fewer eggs than those fed to have accelerated growth at the end of the rearing phase, yet there was only one egg difference between the growth-curve groups for the conventionally lighted birds, which was not significant. 6. The earlier sexual maturity of the conventionally lighted birds compared with those maintained on 17-h photoperiods either indicates that broiler breeders require an increment in photoperiod to stimulate

  7. Use of neural network models to estimate early egg production in broiler breeder hens through dietary nutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Faridi, A; Golian, A

    2011-12-01

    In this study, neural network (NN) models were constructed to predict early egg production in broiler breeder hens. By breaking down the early egg production data collected from 98 breeder houses into weekly intervals, 5 NN-based models were developed for 25 to 29 wk of age. Starting with 98 data lines for each week, the NN models were trained by 69 data lines and the remainder (n = 29) were considered as the testing set. The variables of interest for developing the models were ME (kcal/bird per day) and CP, TSAA, Lys, Ca, and available P (g/bird per day). The constructed models were subjected to an optimization algorithm. Therefore, the optimal values for the input variables to maximize early egg production in broiler breeder hens were obtained. Based on the considered criteria to evaluate the goodness of fit, the efficiency of NN-based models to estimate early egg production was confirmed. The optimization results revealed that the breeder hens consuming 407, 457, 470, 486, and 487 kcal of ME/bird per day showed the highest egg production during 25, 26, 27, 28, and 29 wk of age, respectively. Moreover, optimal performance of hens required the intake (g/bird per day) of the following during 25, 26, 27, 28, and 29 wk of age, respectively: CP: 20.3, 22.6, 25, 25.8, and 26; TSAA: 0.88, 1.02, 1.06, 1.07, and 1.07; Lys: 0.98, 1.0, 1.2, 1.3, and 1.32; Ca: 4.5, 4.6, 5.3, 5.0, and 5.4; and available P: 0.48, 0.55, 0.6, 0.61, and 0.62. Although the results showed that the energy and other nutrient requirements of broiler breeder hens during early egg production do not change in parallel with age, it seems that the company recommendations underestimated the nutrient requirements of hens during these weeks.

  8. Diseases diagnosed in broiler chicken flocks in Victoria, Australia, 1977 to 1984.

    PubMed

    Reece, R L; Beddome, V D; Barr, D A

    1985-03-23

    During the period July 1977 to June 1984, specimens from 1402 broiler chicken flocks were submitted to the Veterinary Research Institute, Victoria, Australia for investigation of morbidity, mortality and, or, poor performance. A total of 19,450 post mortem examinations, as well as numerous ancillary tests, were performed. The findings on these flocks are presented and the consequences of some particular diseases noted.

  9. Role of water hardness in rinsing bacteria from the skin of processed broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of water hardness on the ability of water to rinse bacteria from the skin of processed broiler chickens was examined. Artificial hard water with a total hardness of 200 ppm (very hard water) was prepared by dissolving calcium chloride (CaCl2) and magnesium chloride hexahydrate (MgCl2 •6H2...

  10. Immune modulation by Bacillus subtilus-based direct-fed microbials in commercial broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Direct-fed microbials (DFMs), also known as probiotics, have been successfully used to improve the balance of gut microbiota. Spores of Bacillus subtilis, have been used as DFMs for food animals and humans and our previous studies showed that dietary supplementation of broiler chickens with a B. su...

  11. Interactive effects of ammonia and light intensity on hematochemical variables in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the influence of atmospheric ammonia exposure, light intensity, and their interaction on blood gases, electrolytes, and acid-base balance in broiler chickens under environmentally controlled conditions. The experiment consisted of a 3 × 3 factorial arranged in a randomized comple...

  12. Effect of ambient temperature and light intensity on physiological reactions of heavy broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of ambient temperature, light intensity, and their interaction on blood acid-base balance, metabolites, and electrolytes in broiler chickens under environmentally controlled conditions were examined in 2 trials. The experiment was consisted of a factorial arrangement of treatments in a r...

  13. Proteomic changes in plasma of broiler chickens with femoral head necrosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Femoral head necrosis (FHN) is a skeletal problem in broiler chickens where the proximal femoral head cartilage shows susceptibility to separation from its growth plate. The FHN selected birds showed higher bodyweights and reduced plasma cholesterol. The proteomic differences in the plasma of health...

  14. Dietary mannanase-hydrolyzed copra meal improves growth and increases muscle weights in growing broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ibuki, Masahisa; Yoshimoto, Yu; Inui, Mariko; Fukui, Kensuke; Yonemoto, Hiroko; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    The utilization of copra meal as a feed ingredient is limited because it contains a high level of mannan. However, recent findings indicate that the effect of copra meal on growth performance in broiler chickens can be improved by the supplementation of mannanase in the diet. In the present study, we examined the effect of mannanase-hydrolyzed copra meal (MCM) on growth performance and muscle protein metabolism in growing broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). Forty 8-day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to two groups (four birds in each pen, five replicates) and fed either a commercial diet (as a control diet) or a diet containing MCM at 0.2% until 22 days of age. Dietary MCM significantly increased the weights of body, breast muscle, and thighs in chickens, whereas the weights of abdominal adipose tissue and liver were not affected. Cumulative feed intake was significantly increased by MCM. Dietary MCM significantly decreased plasma 3-methylhistidine level. The messenger RNA and protein levels of muscle protein metabolism-related factors were not altered by MCM. These findings suggest that the growth-promoting effect of MCM is related to the suppression of muscle proteolysis in growing broiler chickens.

  15. Bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbials augment macrophage function in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the function of Bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbials (DFMs) on macrophage functions, i.e., nitric oxide (NO) production and phagocytosis in broiler chickens. DFMs used in this study were eight single strains designated as Bs2084, LSSAO1, 3AP4, Bs1...

  16. Systematic identification of genes involved in divergent skeletal muscle growth rates of broiler and layer chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qi; Zhang, Yong; Chen, Ying; Yang, Ning; Wang, Xiu-Jie; Zhu, Dahai

    2009-01-01

    Background The genetic closeness and divergent muscle growth rates of broilers and layers make them great models for myogenesis study. In order to discover the molecular mechanisms determining the divergent muscle growth rates and muscle mass control in different chicken lines, we systematically identified differentially expressed genes between broiler and layer skeletal muscle cells during different developmental stages by microarray hybridization experiment. Results Taken together, 543 differentially expressed genes were identified between broilers and layers across different developmental stages. We found that differential regulation of slow-type muscle gene expression, satellite cell proliferation and differentiation, protein degradation rate and genes in some metabolic pathways could give great contributions to the divergent muscle growth rates of the two chicken lines. Interestingly, the expression profiles of a few differentially expressed genes were positively or negatively correlated with the growth rates of broilers and layers, indicating that those genes may function in regulating muscle growth during development. Conclusion The multiple muscle cell growth regulatory processes identified by our study implied that complicated molecular networks involved in the regulation of chicken muscle growth. These findings will not only offer genetic information for identifying candidate genes for chicken breeding, but also provide new clues for deciphering mechanisms underlining muscle development in vertebrates. PMID:19232135

  17. Animal Welfare and Food Safety Aspects of Confining Broiler Chickens to Cages.

    PubMed

    Shields, Sara; Greger, Michael

    2013-05-13

    In most areas of the world, broiler chickens are raised in floor systems, but cage confinement is becoming more common. The welfare of broiler chickens in cages is affected by movement restriction, poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, and prevention of key behavioral patterns such as dustbathing and ground scratching. Cages for broiler chickens also have a long history of causing skin and leg conditions that could further compromise welfare, but a lack of controlled studies makes it difficult to draw conclusions about newer cage designs. Cage environments are usually stocked at a higher density than open floor systems, and the limited studies available suggest that caging may lead to increased levels of fear and stress in the birds. Further, birds reared on the floor appear less likely to harbor and shed Salmonella, as litter may serve as a seeding agent for competitive exclusion by other microorganisms. Cages for laying hens used in egg production have met with substantial opposition due to welfare concerns and caging broiler chickens will likely be subject to the same kinds of social disapproval.

  18. Effect of varying light intensity on welfare indices of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of varying light-intensity on ocular, immue, fear, and leg health of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights under environmentally controlled conditions were evaluated. Four identical trials were conducted with two replications per trial. In each trial, 600 Ross 308 chicks were randomly ...

  19. Review of antimicrobial therapy of selected bacterial diseases in broiler chickens in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Agunos, Agnes; Léger, Dave; Carson, Carolee

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews common therapeutic applications of antimicrobials in broiler chicken production in relation to Canadian guidelines, surveillance data, and emerging public health concerns about antimicrobial use (AMU). Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and Staphylococcus spp., were reviewed because of their animal health and economic significance. Enterococcus cecorum and Salmonella were included because of their importance in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance. This review identified that i) antimicrobials are available in Canada to treat infections by these agents, but may be through over the counter or extra-label use, ii) prevalence rates for these diseases are unknown, iii) antimicrobial use estimates in broilers are lacking, and iv) AMR has emerged in clinical isolates, though data are very sparse. This review highlights the need for surveillance of AMU and AMR in broiler chickens in Canada. PMID:23729827

  20. Review of antimicrobial therapy of selected bacterial diseases in broiler chickens in Canada.

    PubMed

    Agunos, Agnes; Léger, Dave; Carson, Carolee

    2012-12-01

    This paper reviews common therapeutic applications of antimicrobials in broiler chicken production in relation to Canadian guidelines, surveillance data, and emerging public health concerns about antimicrobial use (AMU). Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and Staphylococcus spp., were reviewed because of their animal health and economic significance. Enterococcus cecorum and Salmonella were included because of their importance in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance. This review identified that i) antimicrobials are available in Canada to treat infections by these agents, but may be through over the counter or extra-label use, ii) prevalence rates for these diseases are unknown, iii) antimicrobial use estimates in broilers are lacking, and iv) AMR has emerged in clinical isolates, though data are very sparse. This review highlights the need for surveillance of AMU and AMR in broiler chickens in Canada.

  1. Effects of growth patterns and dietary protein levels during rearing of broiler breeders on fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality, and offspring performance.

    PubMed

    van Emous, R A; Kwakkel, R P; van Krimpen, M M; van den Brand, H; Hendriks, W H

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different growth patterns and dietary crude protein levels during rearing in broiler breeder females on fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality, and offspring performance. A 2×3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used, with 2 growth patterns to reach a target body weight at 20 wk of age of 2,200 g (standard=standard growth pattern) or 2,400 g (high=high growth pattern), and 3 dietary protein levels (high=crude protein, high), (medium=crude protein, medium), and low=crude protein, low). Fresh egg composition and organ development in hatchlings were determined. Offspring of the different groups were reared until an age of 34 d and feed intake, body weight gain, mortality, and carcass composition were determined. In 29-wk-old high growth pattern breeders compared to standard growth pattern breeders, fertility and hatchability of set eggs were increased; embryonic mortality between d 1 and 9 was decreased whereas hatchability of fertile eggs was not affected. Breeders fed the medium crude protein diet showed a decreased hatchability of fertile eggs caused by an increased embryonic mortality between d 18 and 21 compared to breeders fed the high crude protein and low crude protein diets. Offspring of 29-wk-old high growth pattern breeders tended (P=0.059) to have a higher body weight at d 34 than offspring of standard growth pattern breeders, which was achieved by a tendency to a higher body weight gain (P=0.057). Offspring of breeders fed the medium and low crude protein diet showed a higher feed intake between d 18 and 27 and during the total growth period, as compared to offspring of high crude protein breeders. Male broilers of low crude protein breeders had higher breast meat yield than male broilers of high crude protein breeders, while breast meat yield of female broilers was not affected by dietary protein levels. This experiment showed that a higher growth pattern during the rearing period

  2. Kinematic analysis quantifies gait abnormalities associated with lameness in broiler chickens and identifies evolutionary gait differences.

    PubMed

    Caplen, Gina; Hothersall, Becky; Murrell, Joanna C; Nicol, Christine J; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E; Weeks, Claire A; Colborne, G Robert

    2012-01-01

    This is the first time that gait characteristics of broiler (meat) chickens have been compared with their progenitor, jungle fowl, and the first kinematic study to report a link between broiler gait parameters and defined lameness scores. A commercial motion-capturing system recorded three-dimensional temporospatial information during walking. The hypothesis was that the gait characteristics of non-lame broilers (n = 10) would be intermediate to those of lame broilers (n = 12) and jungle fowl (n = 10, tested at two ages: immature and adult). Data analysed using multi-level models, to define an extensive range of baseline gait parameters, revealed inter-group similarities and differences. Natural selection is likely to have made jungle fowl walking gait highly efficient. Modern broiler chickens possess an unbalanced body conformation due to intense genetic selection for additional breast muscle (pectoral hypertrophy) and whole body mass. Together with rapid growth, this promotes compensatory gait adaptations to minimise energy expenditure and triggers high lameness prevalence within commercial flocks; lameness creating further disruption to the gait cycle and being an important welfare issue. Clear differences were observed between the two lines (short stance phase, little double-support, low leg lift, and little back displacement in adult jungle fowl; much double-support, high leg lift, and substantial vertical back movement in sound broilers) presumably related to mass and body conformation. Similarities included stride length and duration. Additional modifications were also identified in lame broilers (short stride length and duration, substantial lateral back movement, reduced velocity) presumably linked to musculo-skeletal abnormalities. Reduced walking velocity suggests an attempt to minimise skeletal stress and/or discomfort, while a shorter stride length and time, together with longer stance and double-support phases, are associated with

  3. Prevalence and molecular characterization of meq in feather follicular epithelial cells of Korean broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Won; Cho, Sun-Hee; Mo, In-Pil; Lee, Dong-Woo; Kwon, Hyuk-Joon

    2007-10-01

    Marek's disease (MD) is a highly contagious lymphoproliferative disease of chickens. Meq is the relevant oncogene and four isoforms, long (L)-meq, meq, short (S)-meq and very short (VS)-meq, have been identified. Although MD is important in the poultry industry, the prevalence and molecular properties of Korean MD virus (MDV) among broiler chickens remain unclear. Therefore, we characterized meq in pooled feather tips sampled at 3- and 5-week-old chickens from 21 unvaccinated and 22 vaccinated broiler farms via nested-PCR and nucleotide sequence analysis. Multiple bands consisting of L-meq, meq, and S-meq amplicons were observed in a commercial vaccine (CVI988 + HVT), 1 (4.8%) and 5 samples (22.7%) from unvaccinated and vaccinated farms, respectively. A strong meq amplicon was observed in a MD-related tumor tissue, 6 (28.6%) and 1 (4.5%) samples from unvaccinated and vaccinated farms, respectively. Six and one amplicons from unvaccinated (28.6%) and vaccinated farms (4.5%), respectively, were differentiated from CVI988 by nucleotide sequence analysis. Therefore, the relatively high rate of meq in the unvaccinated broiler farms constitutes support for vaccination. However, the existence of CVI988-related meq in unvaccinated chickens necessitates further study regarding the origins and pathoimmunological effects of the viruses on chickens. PMID:17516161

  4. Nanosilver effects on growth parameters in experimental aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gholami-Ahangaran, Majid; Zia-Jahromi, Noosha

    2013-03-01

    Aflatoxicosis is a cause of economic losses in broiler production. In this study, the effect of one commercial nanocompound, Nanocid (Nano Nasb Pars Co., Iran) was evaluated in reduction of aflatoxin effects on the growth and performance indices in broiler chickens suffering from experimental aflatoxicosis. For this, a total of 300 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross strain) were randomly divided into 4 groups with 3 replicates of 15 chicks in each separated pen during the 28-day experiment. Treatment groups including group A: chickens fed basal diet, group B: chickens fed 3 ppm productive aflatoxin in basal diet, group C: chickens fed basal diet plus 2500 ppm Nanocid, and group D: chickens fed 3 ppm productive aflatoxin and 2500 ppm Nanocid, in basal diet. Data on body weight, body weight gain (BWG), feed intake, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were recorded at weekly intervals. Also cumulative data were assessed. Results showed, although supplement of Nanocid to conventional diet had no effect on performance but addition of Nanocid to diet containing 3 ppm aflatoxin increased significantly the cumulative BWG, cumulative feed consumption and decreased FCR in the last 2 weeks of experimental period. The improvement in these performance indices by supplement of Nanocid to diet containing aflatoxin showed the ability of Nanocid to diminish the inhibitory effects of aflatoxin.

  5. The effect of dietary alterations during rearing on feather condition in broiler breeder females.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, K L H; Widowski, T; Leeson, S; Sandilands, V; Arnone, A; Torrey, S

    2014-07-01

    In commercial production, broiler breeders are severely feed restricted to maintain healthy BW. This restriction can induce stereotypic behavior, including feather pecking, which has negative welfare implications for both the victim and performer. It has been suggested that the problem may be symptomatic of chronic hunger or the frustration of feeding motivation. In this study, we determined whether feather condition, as an indirect measure of feather pecking, could be improved via dietary manipulation. Six dietary treatments were tested, each with 5 replicate pens of 9 to 12 birds. Control diets (C) were fed on a daily or skip-a-day (SAD) basis. Alternative diets included soybean hulls as a bulking ingredient and calcium propionate (CaP) as an appetite suppressant of either a feed grade (F) or purified (P) quality. Both alternative diets were fed on either a daily or SAD basis. Five or 6 birds were randomly chosen from each pen and feather scored at 10, 14, 20, 26, and 36 wk of age. Six body parts (neck, back, wings, legs, vent area, tail) were given a score from 0 to 5 (0 = no feather damage, and 5 ≥ 50% feather loss with tissue damage). Scores were summed for each bird and averaged for each pen. Data were analyzed with room and feeding frequency as main factors and diet as the subfactor with repeated measures. There was an interaction between diet and time (P < 0.01) with the feather condition of the C birds worsening more quickly in comparison with the F and P birds. There was an interaction between feeding frequency and time (P = 0.015), with SAD-fed birds scoring better than daily-fed birds at 20, 26, and 36 wk. This interaction could indicate that SAD feeding increased satiety after the birds became accustomed to the schedule. Because feather condition was better with the alternative diets, this may indicate a reduction in stereotyped feather pecking with these diets. This suggests that the alternative diets increase satiety compared with the control diets.

  6. Immunostimulatory and protective effects of Aloe vera against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Masood; Hai, Abdul; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir; ul Haq, Ahsan; Anwar, Muhammad Irfan

    2012-05-25

    This paper reports the immunostimulatory and protective effects of Aloe vera extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens. The study was divided into two experiments. Experiment-I was conducted for the evaluation of immunostimulatory activity of A. vera and experiment-II demonstrated the protective efficacy of A. vera extracts against coccidiosis in chickens. Results of the experiment-I revealed significantly higher (p<0.05) lymphoproliferative responses in chickens administered with ethanolic extract of A. vera as compared to those administered with aqueous extract and control group. Microplate haemagglutination assay for humoral response on day 7th and 14th post primary and secondary injections of sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) revealed significantly higher (p<0.05) anti SRBC antibody (total Igs, IgG and IgM) titers in chickens of experimental groups as compared to the control group. None of the extracts, however, demonstrated significant effects on the development of lymphoid organs. Results of experiment-II revealed maximum protection (60%) in chickens administered with aqueous Aloe extract as compared to the ethanolic extract administered chickens (45%). Mean oocysts per gram of droppings in the control group was significantly higher (p<0.05) as compared to the chickens in both the experimental groups. Chickens administered with aqueous Aloe extract showed a minimal mean lesion score (2.3) followed by those administered with ethanolic Aloe extract (2.6) and control chickens (3.05) for caeca, and a similar pattern was observed for intestinal lesion scoring. Further, significantly higher weight gains and antibody titers (p<0.05) were observed in chickens administered with A. vera extracts as compared to those in the control group. It was concluded that A. vera may be a potential and valuable candidate to stimulate the immune responses and can be used successfully as an immunotherapeutic agent against coccidiosis in

  7. Resistance to gentamicin and vancomycin in enterococcal strains isolated from retail broiler chickens in Japan.

    PubMed

    Harada, Tetsuya; Mito, Yasuaki; Otsuki, Koichi; Murase, Toshiyuki

    2004-10-01

    A total of 137 Enterococcus strains isolated from chicken meat were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests. Strains with the vanCl gene were isolated from seven of nine samples of chicken meat processed in Japan and from all chickens from China and Brazil between July 2001 and April 2002. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of the isolates were distinguishable from each other, suggesting that VanCl-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus is preferentially colonized in broiler chickens in these countries. The incidence of high-level gentamicin resistant (HLGR) enterococci that harbored the aac(6')-le-aph(2")-la or aph(2')-Id gene varied among the countries from which the chickens originated (Japan, 2 of 65; China, 11 of 43; Brazil, 6 of 29). Moreover, the PFGE patterns of the HLGR strains were distinguishable from each other, except for two strains obtained from chickens from Brazil. The results suggest that HLGR Enterococcus is highly prevalent in broiler chickens. PMID:15508646

  8. Behavioral changes and feathering score in heat stressed broiler chickens fed diets containing different levels of propolis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of green Brazilian propolis on behavioral patterns and feather condition of heat stressed broiler chickens. Five hundred and four (504) male Ross 708 broiler chicks at 15-day old were randomly allotted to six dietary tr...

  9. Environmental augmentation with bacteriophage prevents colibacillosis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    El-Gohary, F A; Huff, W E; Huff, G R; Rath, N C; Zhou, Z Y; Donoghue, A M

    2014-11-01

    way to prevent colibacillosis in broiler chickens. PMID:25214555

  10. Ambient temperature: a factor affecting performance and physiological response of broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkoh, A.

    1989-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to elucidate the influence of four constant ambient temperatures (20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C) on the performance and physiological reactions of male commercial broiler chicks from 3 to 7 weeks of age. A 12 h light-dark cycle was operated, while relative humidity and air circulation were not controlled. Exposure of broiler chickens to the 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C treatments showed highly significant ( P<0.0001) depression in growth rate, food intake and efficiency of food utilization, and a significant increase in water consumption for the 30° and 35°C groups. Mortality was, however, not affected by the temperature treatments. Changes in physiological status, such as increased rectal temperatures, decreased concentration of red blood cells, haemoglobin, haematocrit, and total plasma protein were observed in birds housed in the higher temperature (30° and 35°C) environments. Moreover, in these broiler chickens, there was an increased blood glucose concentration and a decreased thyroid gland weight. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to high ambient temperatures markedly affects their performance and physiological response.

  11. Efficacy of Various HVT Vaccines (Conventional and Recombinant) Against Marek's Disease in Broiler Chickens: Effect of Dose and Age of Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, I M; Cortes, A L; Faiz, N; Villalobos, T; Badillo, H; Barbosa, T

    2016-09-01

    Herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) has been successfully used as a Marek's disease (MD) vaccine for more than 40 yr. Either alone (broiler chickens) or in combination with vaccines of other serotypes (broilers, broiler breeders, and layers), HVT is used worldwide. In recent years, several vector vaccines based on HVT (rHVT) have been developed. At present, there are both conventional HVT and rHVTs in the market, and it is unknown if all of them confer the same level of protection against MD. The objective of this study was to further characterize the protection conferred by two conventional HVTs (HVT-A and HVT-B) and three recombinant HVTs (rHVT-B, rHVT-C, and rHVT-D) against MD in broiler chickens. In a first study we evaluated the efficacy of two conventional HVTs (HVT-A and HVT-B) administered at different doses (475, 1500, and 4000 PFU) at day of age on the ability to protect against an early challenge with very virulent plus strain 645. In a second experiment we evaluated the protection ability of several HVTs (both conventional and recombinant) when administered in ovo at a dose of 1500 PFU using the same challenge model. Our results show that each HVT product is unique, regardless of being conventional or recombinant, in their ability to protect against MD and might require different PFUs to achieve its maximum efficacy. In Experiment 1, HVT-A at 4000 PFU conferred higher protection (protection index [PI] = 63) than any of the other vaccine protocols (PI ranging from 36 to 47). In Experiment 2, significant differences were found among vaccine protocols with PI varying from 66 (HVT-A) to 15 (rHVT-D). Our results show that each HVT is unique and age at vaccination and vaccine dose greatly affected vaccine efficacy. Furthermore, they highlight the need of following manufacturer's recommendations. PMID:27610727

  12. Effect of feeding guanidinoacetic acid and L-arginine on the fertility rate and sperm penetration in the perivitelline layer of aged broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Sharideh, H; Esmaeile Neia, L; Zaghari, M; Zhandi, M; Akhlaghi, A; Lotfi, L

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) and L-arginine (ARG) on fertility and sperm penetration (SP) rate of broiler breeder hens. In the first experiment, a total of 200 broiler breeder hens (Ross 308) aged 53 weeks were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments (0, 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 g GAA/kg diet) with five replicates of 10 birds each. In the second experiment, 320 broiler breeder hens (Ross 308) were used from 53 to 62 weeks of age in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (0 or 1.2 g GAA/kg diet along with 0, 3, 6 or 9 g ARG/kg diet). The hens received a diet containing 2800 kcal ME/kg and 14% CP. Sixteen sexually mature Ross 308 breeder roosters (34 weeks old) were used to artificially inseminate the hens. Fertility of the hens was determined in 61 and 62 weeks of age. The sperm penetration holes in the inner perivitelline layer (IPL) overlying the germinal disc were enumerated on days 3 and 7 following each insemination. Adding GAA to the breeder diet increased the number of SPs in the IPL and fertility in both experiments (p < 0.01). The interactive effect of ARG and GAA on the SP and fertility was significant. Supplementary ARG increased the SP rate in the IPL (p < 0.01). In conclusion, dietary supplementation of GAA and ARG might be potentially used to improve the fertility of broiler breeder hens at the later phase of the egg production period.

  13. A one-year study of campylobacter carriage by individual Danish broiler chickens as the basis for selection of Campylobacter spp. strains for a chicken infection model.

    PubMed Central

    Bang, D. D.; Nielsen, E. M.; Knudsen, K.; Madsen, M.

    2003-01-01

    From February 1999 to February 2000, 1,250 individual broiler chickens representing 125 broiler flocks originating from 62 broiler farms in Denmark were screened for campylobacter carriage. Every month, 10 flocks were tested for campylobacter carriage. The swabs were tested individually and as a pooled sample representing the flocks. Campylobacter spp. carriage was detected from 512 (40.9%) broiler chickens originating from 63 (50.4%) positive flocks. Campylobacter carriage by both individual chickens and flocks showed seasonal variation. Campylobacter jejuni was the dominant species (95.5%). Campylobacter isolates were typed using Penner heat-stable serotyping and flaA-typing methods. Data of campylobacter carriage by individual chickens and data generated by the use of different typing methods contributed to a better understanding of the dynamics of campylobacter infection within the broiler flocks. C. jejuni Penner heat-stable serotype HS2, flaA-type 1 was the most common type found in Danish broiler chickens. PMID:12729201

  14. Age effect of broiler breeders on fertility and sperm penetration of the perivitelline layer of the ovum.

    PubMed

    Gumułka, Małgorzata; Kapkowska, Ewa

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the age effect of a broiler breeder flock on duration of fertility and number of spermatozoa penetrating the perivitelline layer overlying the germinal disc (SP/mm(2) GDIPVL). Moreover, in the second half of the flock's reproductive life, the effect of using ejaculates of young roosters (CA2) in artificial insemination (AI) on the above parameters of fertility was estimated. The commercial flock of broiler breeder hens (n = 100) was inseminated six times from 31 to 62 weeks of age. Additional inseminations, with ejaculates of roosters aged 31 and 36 weeks (CA2), were performed at 56 and 62 weeks of age. AI was performed during two consecutive days (D0 and D1) with an insemination dose of 125 x 10(6) spermatozoa/0.06 ml containing pooled ejaculates. The following parameters were studied: the effective and maximum duration of fertility (De and Dm), percent of fertility on different days after AI (FD10, FD15 and FD20), indices of duration of sperm penetration (DSP, SP < or = 3/GDIPVL), SP/mm(2) GDIPVL in eggs laid on successive days after insemination of hens at different age, and correlations between some fertility indices. Both for De and Dm, the highest values were noted after AI of the layers at 36 weeks of age (14.8 +/- 0.49 and 17.4 +/- 0.46 days, respectively), which were about 2 days longer than at 56 weeks. All fertility indices decreased gradually with age, starting from AI at peak egg production (31-36 weeks of age), while the use of ejaculates from CA2 did not help to increase them significantly. Correlation coefficients between SP/mm(2) GDIPVL and the other fertility indices were positive and highest for eggs laid on D3. It is concluded that high De values can be obtained from broiler breeders in adequate environmental and technological conditions of AI. It is suggested that the age-related decrease in fertility is more pronounced in females, in which the efficiency of sperm storage tubules decreases. The

  15. Tissue residues, hematological and biochemical effects of tilmicosin in broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Mossad; Elkomy, Ashraf; Aboubakr, Mohamed; Morad, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the blood and tissue concentrations profile and effect of tilmicosin on some hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken. Fifty clinically healthy Hubbard chickens were orally administered 25 mg/kg BW of tilmicosin once daily for 5 consecutive days. Tissue residues of tilmicosin in slaughtered healthy chicken could not be detected by microbiological assay in all tested tissues except in lung (at 96 hours) and liver and kidneys (at 72 hours) after last administration. Tilmicosin caused temporary decrease in the RBCs and WBCs counts and has no effect on hemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume concentration (PCV). Also, the effect of tilmicosin on some biochemical parameters was as follows: the concentrations of creatinine, uric acid, electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and calcium), glucose, AST, ALT, ALP, and HDL-cholesterol in the serum of treated chicken did not change in response to the repeated oral administration of tilmicosin. There were only a temporary significant decrease in total protein and albumin concentrations and a significant increase in cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations. Chicken must not be slaughtered before 4 days from the stopping of tilmicosin administration. Tilmicosin makes temporary changes on hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken.

  16. Tissue Residues, Hematological and Biochemical Effects of Tilmicosin in Broiler Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Elsayed, Mossad; Elkomy, Ashraf; Morad, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the blood and tissue concentrations profile and effect of tilmicosin on some hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken. Fifty clinically healthy Hubbard chickens were orally administered 25 mg/kg BW of tilmicosin once daily for 5 consecutive days. Tissue residues of tilmicosin in slaughtered healthy chicken could not be detected by microbiological assay in all tested tissues except in lung (at 96 hours) and liver and kidneys (at 72 hours) after last administration. Tilmicosin caused temporary decrease in the RBCs and WBCs counts and has no effect on hemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume concentration (PCV). Also, the effect of tilmicosin on some biochemical parameters was as follows: the concentrations of creatinine, uric acid, electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and calcium), glucose, AST, ALT, ALP, and HDL-cholesterol in the serum of treated chicken did not change in response to the repeated oral administration of tilmicosin. There were only a temporary significant decrease in total protein and albumin concentrations and a significant increase in cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations. Chicken must not be slaughtered before 4 days from the stopping of tilmicosin administration. Tilmicosin makes temporary changes on hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken. PMID:24808972

  17. Effect of Yeast Probiotic on Growth, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Malondialdehyde Concentration of Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Aluwong, Tagang; Kawu, Mohammed; Raji, Moshood; Dzenda, Tavershima; Govwang, Felix; Sinkalu, Victor; Ayo, Joseph

    2013-11-06

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of yeast probiotic on body weight, and the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration of broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out on hybrid Hubbard broiler chickens (n = 200). Two-hundred day-old chicks were randomly selected and distributed into four groups of 50 day-old chicks each: Control, C, and treatment groups comprising T₁, T₂ and T₃ administered with 0.25 mL, 0.5 mL and 1.0 mL yeast probiotic, respectively. Chicks were fed a commercial starter diet for the first 28 days of age, followed by pelleted finisher diet from 29 to 42 days. Chickens in T₁ had a significantly (p < 0.01) higher body weight at 4th week of age when compared with the control. SOD activity in all treatment groups was not significantly (p > 0.05) different when compared with the control. GPx activity was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in T₁, when compared with the control. GPx activity in T₂ was higher (p < 0.01) when compared with the control. There was no significant (p > 0.05) difference in MDA level in all the treatment groups. In conclusion, administering yeast probiotic supplement increased body weight and enhanced serum anti-oxidant enzyme activities of broiler chickens.

  18. Effects of Xylo-Oligosaccharides on Broiler Chicken Performance and Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    De Maesschalck, C.; Eeckhaut, V.; Maertens, L.; De Lange, L.; Marchal, L.; Nezer, C.; De Baere, S.; Croubels, S.; Daube, G.; Dewulf, J.; Haesebrouck, F.; Ducatelle, R.; Taminau, B.

    2015-01-01

    In broiler chickens, feed additives, including prebiotics, are widely used to improve gut health and to stimulate performance. Xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) are hydrolytic degradation products of arabinoxylans that can be fermented by the gut microbiota. In the current study, we aimed to analyze the prebiotic properties of XOS when added to the broiler diet. Administration of XOS to chickens, in addition to a wheat-rye-based diet, significantly improved the feed conversion ratio. XOS significantly increased villus length in the ileum. It also significantly increased numbers of lactobacilli in the colon and Clostridium cluster XIVa in the ceca. Moreover, the number of gene copies encoding the key bacterial enzyme for butyrate production, butyryl-coenzyme A (butyryl-CoA):acetate CoA transferase, was significantly increased in the ceca of chickens administered XOS. In this group of chickens, at the species level, Lactobacillus crispatus and Anaerostipes butyraticus were significantly increased in abundance in the colon and cecum, respectively. In vitro fermentation of XOS revealed cross-feeding between L. crispatus and A. butyraticus. Lactate, produced by L. crispatus during XOS fermentation, was utilized by the butyrate-producing Anaerostipes species. These data show the beneficial effects of XOS on broiler performance when added to the feed, which potentially can be explained by stimulation of butyrate-producing bacteria through cross-feeding of lactate and subsequent effects of butyrate on gastrointestinal function. PMID:26092452

  19. Genome Analysis of Staphylococcus agnetis, an Agent of Lameness in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ojha, Sohita; Pummill, Jeff F.; Koon, Joseph A.; Wideman, Robert F.; Rhoads, Douglas D.

    2015-01-01

    Lameness in broiler chickens is a significant animal welfare and financial issue. Lameness can be enhanced by rearing young broilers on wire flooring. We have identified Staphylococcus agnetis as significantly involved in bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) in proximal tibia and femorae, leading to lameness in broiler chickens in the wire floor system. Administration of S. agnetis in water induces lameness. Previously reported in some cases of cattle mastitis, this is the first report of this poorly described pathogen in chickens. We used long and short read next generation sequencing to assemble single finished contigs for the genome and a large plasmid from the chicken pathogen. Comparison of the S. agnetis genome to those of other pathogenic Staphylococci shows that S.agnetis contains a distinct repertoire of virulence determinants. Additionally, the S. agnetis genome has several regions that differ substantially from the genomes of other pathogenic Staphylococci. Comparison of our finished genome to a recent draft genome for a cattle mastitis isolate suggests that future investigations focus on the evolutionary epidemiology of this emerging pathogen of domestic animals. PMID:26606420

  20. The influence of stocking density on body weight, egg weight, and feed intake of adult broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Mtileni, B J; Nephawe, K A; Nesamvuni, A E; Benyi, K

    2007-08-01

    The influence of stocking density on BW, egg weight (EW), and feed intake (FI) in Ross broiler breeder hens (n = 120) was investigated during the late medium egg production period (from 50 to 54 wk of age). Birds were randomly allocated to 6 pens in densities of 15, 20, and 25 birds/pen, giving rise to a floor space allowance of 5, 6.67, and 8.33 birds/m(2), respectively. Each density was replicated twice, and the order among the 6 pens was chosen at random. Data were analyzed using the repeated measures techniques of the Statistical Analysis System, considering the covariance structure of the observed data. There was a significant effect attributable to stocking density, time (in days), and their interaction for BW, EW, and FI. Birds in density of 6.67 per m(2) were lighter but had heavier eggs than birds in density of 5 per m(2); however, birds in density of 8.33 per m(2) had similar BW and EW with birds in the other 2 groups. The mean FI were statistically different among the 3 groups, with a reduction in FI as density increases. Total egg production within the 3 density groups and average egg production per bird were also analyzed using categorical data techniques. The results indicated that stocking density influenced egg production, with birds at higher density producing fewer eggs per bird. Although generous floor space allowances were allocated per bird in this experiment, stocking density influenced the performance of broiler breeder hens.

  1. Efficacy of several vaccination programmes in commercial layer and broiler breeder hens against experimental challenge with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Penha Filho, Rafael Antonio Casarin; de Paiva, Jacqueline Boldrin; Arguello, Yuli Melisa Sierra; da Silva, Mariana Dias; Gardin, Yannick; Resende, Fernando; Berchieri Junior, Angelo Berchieri; Sesti, Luiz

    2009-10-01

    Two experiments were performed to evaluate the protective effect of various vaccination combinations given at 5 and 9 weeks of age against experimental challenge with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) phage type 4 at 12 weeks of age. In Experiment 1, groups of commercial layers were vaccinated by one of the following programmes: Group 1, two doses of a SE bacterin (Layermune SE); Group 2, one dose of a live Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum vaccine (Cevac SG9R) followed by one dose of the SE bacterin; Group 3, one dose of each of two different multivalent inactivated vaccines containing SE cells (Corymune 4K and Corymune 7K; and Group 4, unvaccinated, challenged controls. In Experiment 2, groups of broiler breeders were vaccinated by the same programmes as Groups 1 and 2 above while Group 3 was an unvaccinated, challenged control group. All vaccination programmes and the challenge induced significant (P < 0.05) seroconversion as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, in both experiments, all vaccination schemes were significantly effective in reducing organ (spleen, liver and caeca) colonization by the challenge strain as well as reducing faecal excretion for at least 3 weeks. Vaccinated layers in Groups 1 and 2 and broiler breeders in Group 2 showed the greatest reduction in organ colonization and the least faecal excretion. In Experiment 1, layers vaccinated with multivalent inactivated vaccines containing a SE component (Group 3) were only moderately protected, indicating that such a vaccination programme may be useful in farms with good husbandry and housing conditions and low environmental infectious pressure by Salmonella.

  2. Expression of interleukins, neuropeptides, and growth hormone receptor and leptin receptor genes in adipose tissue from growing broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, total RNA was collected from abdominal adipose tissue samples obtained from ten broiler chickens at 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks of age and prepared for quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Studies of the gene expression of cytokines and associated genes in chicken adipose tissue were initia...

  3. Imidapril inhibits right ventricular remodeling induced by low ambient temperature in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xue-Qin; Zhang, Shou-Yan; Cheng, Xiang-Chao; Li, Meng; Sun, Tong-Wen; Zhang, Ji-Liang; Guo, Wen; Li, Li

    2013-06-01

    This study explored the effect of imidapril on the right ventricular remodeling induced by low ambient temperature in broiler chickens. Twenty-four broiler chickens were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 8), including the control group, low temperature group, and imidapril group. Chickens in the control group were raised at normal temperature, whereas chickens in the low temperature group and imidapril group were exposed to low ambient temperature (12 to 18°C) from 14 d of age until 45 d of age. At the same time, chickens in the imidapril group were gavaged with imidapril at 3 mg/kg once daily for 30 d. The thickness of the right ventricular wall was observed with echocardiography. The BW and wet lung weight as well as weight of right and left ventricles and ventricular septum were measured. Both wet lung weight index and right ventricular hypertrophy index were calculated. Pulmonary arterial systolic pressure was assessed according to echocardiography. The expression of ACE and ACE2 mRNA in the right ventricular myocardial tissue was quantified by real-time PCR. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells were detected by immunohistostaining. The concentration of angiotensin (Ang) II and Ang (1-7) in the right ventricular myocardial tissue was measured with ELISA. The results showed that right ventricular hypertrophy index, wet lung weight index, pulmonary arterial systolic pressure, expression of ACE mRNA in the right ventricular tissue, Ang II concentration, and the thickness of the right ventricular wall in the low temperature group increased significantly compared with those in the control group and imidapril group. The ACE2 mRNA expression increased 36%, whereas Ang (1-7) concentration decreased significantly in the low temperature group compared with that in the control group and imidapril group. In conclusion, imidapril inhibits right ventricular remodeling induced by low ambient temperature in broiler chickens.

  4. Postnatal growth of broilers in response to in ovo administration of chicken growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Kocamis, H; Yeni, Y N; Kirkpatrick-Keller, D C; Killefer, J

    1999-08-01

    The effect of in ovo administration of chicken growth hormone (cGH) on growth rate and efficiency of gain, organ, and long bone growth of 42-d-old broiler chickens was investigated. Eggs were injected once with 100 microL vehicle (0.03 M NaHCO3, 0.15 M NaCl, pH 8.3) per embryo or vehicle containing 100 ng cGH/100 microL per embryo (n = 630 eggs total) on one of the following Days: 1, 4, or 7 through 18 of embryogenesis. There was no significant difference in hatchability between control and cGH treatment groups on any given injection day. Cumulative feed conversion of all treatment groups was improved relative to their respective control groups (P < 0.05). In ovo administration of cGH on Day 15 or 16 of incubation increased body weights (P < 0.01) of female broilers. On the other hand, body weights of male broilers were significantly increased by treatment on Day 1 (P < 0.04). Breast weights of female broilers from treatment groups Day 15 or 16 were increased (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively). Liver weights of female broilers from treatment groups Day 1 and 15 were increased (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, respectively). In contrast, in ovo administration of cGH on Day 11 of incubation increased liver weights of male broilers (P < 0.03). There was no significant difference between control and treatment groups, in terms of heart or leg weights, or in Warner-Bratzler shear force of Pectoralis profundus muscle. Hydroxyproline concentration and cross-sectional area of female broiler tibias from treatment groups Day 11 or Day 16 were increased (P < 0.05), and ultimate breaking strength (stress) of tibias from the same groups was reduced (P < 0.05). In ovo administration of cGH altered growth and tissue development of broiler chickens in a time by sex dependent fashion.

  5. A novel Lactobacillus plantarum strain P-8 activates beneficial immune response of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifeng; Liu, Caihong; Chen, Ma; Ya, Tuo; Huang, Weiqiang; Gao, Pengfei; Zhang, Heping

    2015-12-01

    To investigate whether Lactobacillus plantarum P-8 may be used as an alternative to antibiotics in the broiler chicken diet, we compared P-8 and antibiotics for their immunobiotic properties and their effect on growth performance of broiler chickens in a 42-day trial. The results showed that P-8 provided similar benefits in weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency as antibiotics did. Importantly, P-8 activated protective immune responses of the broilers while antibiotics lacked this effect. P-8 induced higher fecal secretory IgA (sIgA) levels on day 42 (P≤0.027) and IgA(+) lymphocytes in the jejunum and Peyer's patches (PP) (P<0.001) compared to antibiotic treatment. Antibiotics reduced the IgA(+) lymphocytes in jejunum and PP on day 42 compared to the control. P-8 increased CD3(+) T cells in the small intestinal tissues in most test situations whereas antibiotics had fewer CD3(+) cells in PP and cecal tonsil compared with the control broilers at the end of the trial. In addition, P-8 increased CD4(+) T cells significantly in the intestinal tissues compared to both antibiotics and the control (P<0.0052). Both Th1 and Th2 cytokine expression were enhanced by P-8 on day 14, consistent with the clinical trial results showing probiotic benefits in diseases. Antibiotics up- and down-regulated interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4 and IL-10 transcripts in an age-dependent manner, and showed anti-inflammatory potential. These data indicate that P-8 may provide protective immune response to broilers while maintaining similar growth performance and may be a potential alternative to antibiotics supplemented in chicken feeds. PMID:26481964

  6. A novel Lactobacillus plantarum strain P-8 activates beneficial immune response of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifeng; Liu, Caihong; Chen, Ma; Ya, Tuo; Huang, Weiqiang; Gao, Pengfei; Zhang, Heping

    2015-12-01

    To investigate whether Lactobacillus plantarum P-8 may be used as an alternative to antibiotics in the broiler chicken diet, we compared P-8 and antibiotics for their immunobiotic properties and their effect on growth performance of broiler chickens in a 42-day trial. The results showed that P-8 provided similar benefits in weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency as antibiotics did. Importantly, P-8 activated protective immune responses of the broilers while antibiotics lacked this effect. P-8 induced higher fecal secretory IgA (sIgA) levels on day 42 (P≤0.027) and IgA(+) lymphocytes in the jejunum and Peyer's patches (PP) (P<0.001) compared to antibiotic treatment. Antibiotics reduced the IgA(+) lymphocytes in jejunum and PP on day 42 compared to the control. P-8 increased CD3(+) T cells in the small intestinal tissues in most test situations whereas antibiotics had fewer CD3(+) cells in PP and cecal tonsil compared with the control broilers at the end of the trial. In addition, P-8 increased CD4(+) T cells significantly in the intestinal tissues compared to both antibiotics and the control (P<0.0052). Both Th1 and Th2 cytokine expression were enhanced by P-8 on day 14, consistent with the clinical trial results showing probiotic benefits in diseases. Antibiotics up- and down-regulated interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4 and IL-10 transcripts in an age-dependent manner, and showed anti-inflammatory potential. These data indicate that P-8 may provide protective immune response to broilers while maintaining similar growth performance and may be a potential alternative to antibiotics supplemented in chicken feeds.

  7. Comparative amino acid digestibility for broiler chickens and White Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Kong, C; Adeola, O

    2013-09-01

    A total of 608 three-week-old male broiler chickens and White Pekin ducks were used in a 5-d trial to compare ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility of soybean meal (SBM) and canola meal (CM) using the regression method. A corn-casein-cornstarch-based diet was mixed to contain 15% CP. Cornstarch was replaced with test ingredient (SBM or CM) to contain 18 or 21% of CP in 4 other diets. A nitrogen-free diet (NFD) was used for standardization of apparent digestibility. Birds received a standard starter diet (23% CP) from d 0 to 14 posthatch and then 6 experimental diets for 5 d. On d 19 posthatch, birds were asphyxiated with CO(2), and digesta from the distal section of ileum was collected. The ileal digestibility of AA from the test ingredients was assessed by multiple linear regression analysis using data on daily apparent ileal digestible AA and total AA intakes. The basal endogenous losses of N and all AA for ducks were significantly higher than those for broilers. For ileal AA digestibility by regression of apparent digestible AA intake against AA intake, there was a higher (P < 0.05) digestibility for Cys and Pro in ducks compared with broilers (P < 0.05). Within species, digestibility was not different between SBM and CM except for Lys of ducks, and Lys and Pro of broilers (P < 0.05). The results of this study showed that ducks have higher basal endogenous AA losses compared with broiler chickens as well as higher ileal Cys and Pro digestibility estimates derived from regression approach, indicating that data obtained from broilers should not be used to formulate diets for ducks.

  8. Effects of feed additives on ileal mucosa-associated microbiota composition of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, R; Peinado, M J; Aranda-Olmedo, I; Abecia, L; Suárez-Pereira, E; Ortiz Mellet, C; García Fernández, J M; Rubio, L A

    2015-07-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation with 2 recently developed feed additives on the composition of the mucosa-associated microbiota of the ileum were studied in growing broiler chickens. A total of 48 male 1-d-old broiler chickens of the Cobb 500 strain were distributed in 4 treatments with 2 replicates of 6 birds each. The 2 additives tested were a di-d-fructose dianhydride–enriched caramel (FC) and the garlic derivative propyl propane thiosulfonate (PTS-O). Dietary treatments were a control (commercial diet with no additive), INU (20 g inulin/kg diet), CAR (20 g FC/kg diet), and GAR (90 mgPTS-O/kg diet). As a result of this study, inulin supplementation resulted in lower (P < 0.05) and FC feeding resulted in higher (P < 0.05) Blautia coccoides/Eubacterium rectale log10 number of copies respect to controls. Higher (P < 0.05) bifidobacteria log10 number of copies with respect to the controls was determined in the ileal mucosa of birds fed the PTS-O–supplemented diet. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and PCR analysis on Bifidobacterium spp. revealed the presence of Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum in samples from chickens fed the control and the PTS-O–supplemented diet. Bifidobacterium longum was exclusively found in poultry fed the control diet, whereas B. pseudocatenulatum was found only in poultry fed the PTS-O–supplemented diet. This study showed that both PTS-O and FC were able to modulate the composition of the ileal mucosa-associated microbiota of growing broiler chickens. Finally, in addition to B. pseudolongum, the presence of B. longum and B. pseudocatenulatum, species not previously described in intestinal samples of broilers, was also demonstrated. PMID:26440010

  9. Effect of intermittent feeding, structural components and phytase on performance and behaviour of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Svihus, B; Lund, V B; Borjgen, B; Bedford, M R; Bakken, M

    2013-01-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of intermittent feeding on performance and the efficacy of an exogenous phytase, and to assess whether intermittent feeding changed the activity pattern of broiler chickens. 2. Broiler chickens were given, either ad libitum or intermittently, a phosphorus deficient pelleted diet containing either coarsely or finely ground oat hulls and either no enzyme or a phytase added from 10 d of age, in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Ad libitum feeding consisted of continuous access to feed in a room with 18 h of light and 6 h of complete darkness, whereas birds on intermittent feeding had restricted access to feed from 7 d of age, with 4 1-h feeding bouts/d and one 2-h feeding bout/d from d 14. 3. Performance, characteristics of the anterior digestive tract and phosphorus retention were assessed in experiment 1, while in experiment 2, birds were observed during 4-h periods to quantify different behaviours. 4. Intermittent feeding and phytase improved performance, but intermittent feeding did not improve the efficacy of the enzyme added. Ad libitum fed broiler chickens ate and drank on average twice per hour, and spent close to three-quarters of their time resting. Apart from an increased standing and feed searching activity for intermittently fed birds compared to ad libitum fed birds during the last hour before feed was presented, no differences in activity was detected. 5. It was concluded that broiler chickens quickly adapt to intermittent feeding without reduction in final body weight and with improvements in feed efficiency, but without improving the efficacy of dietary phytase. Only small changes occur in the behaviour of intermittently fed birds compared to ad libitum fed birds.

  10. Oral immunization of broiler chickens against necrotic enteritis with an attenuated Salmonella vaccine vector expressing Clostridium perfringens antigens.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, R R; Parreira, V R; Sharif, S; Prescott, J F

    2008-08-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) in broiler chickens is caused by Clostridium perfringens but currently no effective vaccine is available. Our previous study showed that certain C. perfringens secreted proteins when administered intramuscularly protected chickens against experimental infection. In the current study, genes encoding three C. perfringens proteins: fructose-biphosphate-aldolase (FBA), pyruvate:ferredoxin-oxidoreductase (PFOR) and hypothetical protein (HP), were cloned into an avirulent Salmonella enterica sv. typhimurium vaccine vector. Broiler chickens immunized orally with recombinant Salmonella expressing FBA or HP proteins were significantly protected against NE challenge. Immunized birds developed serum and mucosal antibodies to both clostridial and Salmonella antigens. This study showed the oral immunizing ability of two C. perfringens antigens against NE in broiler chickens through an attenuated Salmonella vaccine vector. PMID:18597901

  11. Effect of dietary phosphorus levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Ke; Wang, Jin-Zhi; Wang, Chun-Qing; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Li, Xia; Tang, Chun-Hong; Wei, Xiu-Li

    2016-08-15

    To analyze the influence of dietary phosphorus (P) levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism, a 42-day feeding experiment (P deficient group; normal group; high P level groups of H1 and H2, respectively) using 100 one-day-old broilers was conducted. Results demonstrated that the quality of broiler chicken meat in deficient or high P groups decreased relative to the normal group. High P diets resulted in increased lightness, redness values, shear forces and decreased fatty acid contents and intramuscular fat content in breast meat (p<0.01). Compared with normal group, lower malic enzyme activity, higher fatty acid synthase and AMP-activated protein kinase activities were observed in the treatment groups (p<0.05). Chickens fed with normal diets had the lowest serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels which differed from that of other treatments (p<0.05). High-P diets significantly decreased the lipid accumulation in the liver (p<0.01), whereas phosphorus levels in breast meat increased significantly (p<0.01). It can be concluded that deficient or higher P levels could affect meat quality and expression of indicators on lipid metabolism of broiler chickens.

  12. Effect of dietary astaxanthin rich yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma, on meat quality of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Perenlei, Ganzaya; Tojo, Hitomi; Okada, Toru; Kubota, Masatoshi; Kadowaki, Motoni; Fujimura, Shinobu

    2014-10-01

    We evaluated effects of dietary supplementation with astaxanthin (Ax)-rich yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous), on broiler chicken meat quality. Fourteen-day-old female Ross broilers were divided into three groups: control group, Ax-free diet; Ax 10 group, 10 mg/kg Ax diet; and Ax 20 group, 20 mg/kg Ax diet for 28 days. At 42 days old, chickens were slaughtered, and then growth performance, meat quality and sensory attributes were analyzed. Compared with the control, a* values increased significantly after slaughter and 48 h postmortem for Ax 20 samples (P<0.05) and for b* values in Ax 20 and Ax 10 groups (P<0.05). Cooking loss decreased in the Ax 20 group (P<0.05). After 120 h aging, contents of several free amino acids and total free amino acid content of Ax 20 group were significantly higher than the control (P<0.05). In sensory evaluation, meat texture attributes improved significantly in the Ax 20 group (P<0.01). No significant changes occurred in flavor attribute scores of meat soup from the Ax 20 group compared with the control even though most assessors preferred meat soup from the Ax 20 group. Overall, Ax-rich yeast in the diet improves broiler chicken meat quality. PMID:24840792

  13. Effect of dietary phosphorus levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Ke; Wang, Jin-Zhi; Wang, Chun-Qing; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Li, Xia; Tang, Chun-Hong; Wei, Xiu-Li

    2016-08-15

    To analyze the influence of dietary phosphorus (P) levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism, a 42-day feeding experiment (P deficient group; normal group; high P level groups of H1 and H2, respectively) using 100 one-day-old broilers was conducted. Results demonstrated that the quality of broiler chicken meat in deficient or high P groups decreased relative to the normal group. High P diets resulted in increased lightness, redness values, shear forces and decreased fatty acid contents and intramuscular fat content in breast meat (p<0.01). Compared with normal group, lower malic enzyme activity, higher fatty acid synthase and AMP-activated protein kinase activities were observed in the treatment groups (p<0.05). Chickens fed with normal diets had the lowest serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels which differed from that of other treatments (p<0.05). High-P diets significantly decreased the lipid accumulation in the liver (p<0.01), whereas phosphorus levels in breast meat increased significantly (p<0.01). It can be concluded that deficient or higher P levels could affect meat quality and expression of indicators on lipid metabolism of broiler chickens. PMID:27006242

  14. Chicken parvovirus-induced runting-stunting syndrome in young broilers.

    PubMed

    Zsak, Laszlo; Cha, Ra Mi; Day, J Michael

    2013-03-01

    Previously we identified a novel parvovirus from enteric contents of chickens that were affected by enteric diseases. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the chicken parvovirus (ChPV) represented a new member in the Parvoviridae family. Here, we describe some of the pathogenic characteristics of ChPV in young broilers. Following experimental infection, 2-day-old broiler chickens showed characteristic signs of enteric disease. Runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) was observed in four of five experimental groups with significant growth retardation between 7 and 28 days postinoculation (DPI). Viral growth in small intestine and shedding was detected at early times postinoculation, which was followed by viremia and generalization of infection. ChPV could be detected in most of the major tissues for 3 to 4 wk postinoculation. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed parvovirus-positive cells in the duodenum of inoculated birds at 7 and 14 DPI. Our data indicate that ChPV alone induces RSS in broilers and is important determinant in the complex etiology of enteric diseases of poultry.

  15. Effect of indomethacin on hyperthermia induced by heat stress in broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlan, R. L.; Macari, M.; Malheiros, E. B.; Secato, E. R.; Guerreiro, J. R.

    An investigation was carried out to verify whether the heat stress hyperthermia response of broilers is prostaglandin-dependent. Male broiler chickens of the Hubbard-Petterson strain, aged 35-49 days, were used. Chickens were injected with indomethacin (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally ) 15 min before or 2 h after heat exposure (at 35°C for 4 h), and rectal temperature was measured before injection and up to 4 h thereafter. Birds were separated into two groups with and without access to water during heat stress. The increase in rectal temperature was lower (P<0.05) in birds with access to drinking water during heat exposure. All birds injected with indomethacin exhibited an increase in rectal temperature, irrespective of whether indomethacin was administered before or in the course of the rise in temperature. The results revealed that the increase in rectal temperature during heat exposure is not prostaglandin-dependent, and that the use of cyclooxigenase inhibitors is not recommended to attenuate heat stress hyperthermia in broiler chickens.

  16. Effect of dietary astaxanthin rich yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma, on meat quality of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Perenlei, Ganzaya; Tojo, Hitomi; Okada, Toru; Kubota, Masatoshi; Kadowaki, Motoni; Fujimura, Shinobu

    2014-10-01

    We evaluated effects of dietary supplementation with astaxanthin (Ax)-rich yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous), on broiler chicken meat quality. Fourteen-day-old female Ross broilers were divided into three groups: control group, Ax-free diet; Ax 10 group, 10 mg/kg Ax diet; and Ax 20 group, 20 mg/kg Ax diet for 28 days. At 42 days old, chickens were slaughtered, and then growth performance, meat quality and sensory attributes were analyzed. Compared with the control, a* values increased significantly after slaughter and 48 h postmortem for Ax 20 samples (P<0.05) and for b* values in Ax 20 and Ax 10 groups (P<0.05). Cooking loss decreased in the Ax 20 group (P<0.05). After 120 h aging, contents of several free amino acids and total free amino acid content of Ax 20 group were significantly higher than the control (P<0.05). In sensory evaluation, meat texture attributes improved significantly in the Ax 20 group (P<0.01). No significant changes occurred in flavor attribute scores of meat soup from the Ax 20 group compared with the control even though most assessors preferred meat soup from the Ax 20 group. Overall, Ax-rich yeast in the diet improves broiler chicken meat quality.

  17. Day-of-hatch vaccination is not protective against necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mot, Dorien; Timbermont, Leen; Delezie, Evelyne; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2013-04-01

    Necrotic enteritis, caused by netB toxin-producing Clostridium perfringens type A, is an important disease in broiler chickens worldwide. Earlier attempts to prevent necrotic enteritis by vaccination have not sufficiently taken into account the practical limitations of broiler vaccination. In most published studies on vaccination against necrotic enteritis, multiple doses at different ages are administered, which is not practical for broilers. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of subcutaneous single vaccination at day 1 or day 3 and double vaccination at day 3 and day 12, using crude supernatant containing active toxin or formaldehyde-inactivated supernatant (toxoid) of a netB-positive C. perfringens strain in a subclinical necrotic enteritis model. Double vaccination with crude supernatant resulted in a significant decrease in the number of chickens with necrotic enteritis lesions. The efficacy of vaccination using toxoid was lower compared with crude supernatant. Single vaccination with crude supernatant at day 3 resulted in significant protection, while vaccination of 1-day-old chickens with crude supernatant or toxoid, as envisaged for practical field application, did not induce protection.

  18. Comparison of embryo physiological parameters during incubation, chick quality, and growth performance of three lines of broiler breeders differing in genetic composition and growth rate.

    PubMed

    Tona, K; Onagbesan, O M; Jego, Y; Kamers, B; Decuypere, E; Bruggeman, V

    2004-03-01

    In broiler breeder management, stringent feed restriction is practiced to reduce body size in order to improve egg production and meet broiler production demand, but this practice has raised welfare issues. The potential for the dwarfing (dw) gene to reduce feed intake and body size of breeders under ad libitum feeding or less stringent restriction while maintaining improved egg production has been reported. In this study, we compared embryo physiology, quality of chicks, and performance of broilers from eggs of dwarf breeders with those from a standard broiler breeder. Hatching eggs from 3 commercial lines of broiler breeders were compared for incubation parameters, 1-d-old chick weight, chick quality, and broiler growth to 41 d of age. The lines included a standard heavy (S) line, an experimental (E) line, and a label-type (L) line. The E and L line breeders carry the sex-linked dw gene and are being used to assess the potential for dw to reduce feed intake or lower feed restriction and improve reproductive performance in heavy female broiler parent stock. Two separate experiments were conducted. All female parent stocks were mated to Cornish males, and fertile eggs were collected. In the first experiment, eggs were incubated for 21 d under standard conditions to determine, during final stages of incubation, corticosterone and thyroid hormone levels (triiodothyronine, T3; thyroxine, T4) in embryos and hatchlings, CO2 partial pressure (pCO2), and O2 partial pressure (pO2) in air cells, heat production by eggs and 1-d-old weights. In the second experiment, eggs were incubated for 21 d to compare chick quality, chick weights at 1 d of age, and broiler growth to 7 and 41 d. Average egg weights were higher for the S and L lines than the E line, but weight loss during incubation was lowest for the E line. Plasma T3 and T3/T4 ratio was similar between lines at IP, but corticosterone was higher in the S line. At hatch, T3/T4 ratio was higher in the S line compared with

  19. Apple peel waste as a natural antioxidant for heat-stressed broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Heidarisafar, Zahra; Sadeghi, Ghorbanali; Karimi, Ahmad; Azizi, Osman

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of processed apple peel waste (APW), alone or in combination with an enzyme, as a natural antioxidant on broiler chickens under heat stress. A total of 360 unsexed, 28-day-old broilers were assigned to 6 dietary treatments with four replicates (15 broilers per pen). The experiment consisted of a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement with three levels of apple peel waste (0, 50 or 100 g/kg of diet) and two levels of enzyme (0 or 500 mg/kg, ZY Multi(®)). Inclusion of 100-g APW/kg of diet decreased broiler weight gain at 42 days of age. Inclusion of 50 and 100-g APW/kg of diet increased gizzard and small intestine weights. Feeding 50 and 100-g APW/kg increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and decreased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and malondialdehyde in blood serum at 49 days of age. At 49 days of age, apparent ileal protein digestibility was reduced when 50 and 100-g APW/kg were used in the diet. This study showed that feeding APW up to 50 g/kg from 28 to 49 days of age increased HDL cholesterol and decreased LDL cholesterol in serum and had no adverse effect on broiler performance. PMID:26970974

  20. Molecular Differences in Hepatic Metabolism between AA Broiler and Big Bone Chickens: A Proteomic Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guohua; Yue, Ying; Li, Jianke; Zhang, Shu; Cai, Huiyi; Yang, Aijun; Chen, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the metabolic differences in the livers of modern broilers and local chicken breeds is important for understanding their biological characteristics, and many proteomic changes in their livers are not well characterized. We therefore analyzed the hepatic protein profiles of a commercial breed, Arbor Acres (AA) broilers, and a local dual purpose breed, Big Bone chickens, using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with liquid chromatography-chip/electrospray ionization-quadruple time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 145 proteins were identified as having differential abundance in the two breeds at three growth stages. Among them, 49, 63 and 54 belonged to 2, 4, and 6 weeks of age, respectively. The higher abundance proteins in AA broilers were related to the energy production pathways suggesting enhanced energy metabolism and lipid biosynthesis. In contrast, the higher abundance proteins in Big Bone chickens showed enhanced lipid degradation, resulting in a reduction in the abdominal fat percentage. Along with the decrease in fat deposition, flavor substance synthesis in the meat of the Big Bone chickens may be improved by enhanced abundance of proteins involved in glycine metabolism. In addition, the identified proteins in nucleotide metabolism, antioxidants, cell structure, protein folding and transporters may be critically important for immune defense, gene transcription and other biological processes in the two breeds. These results indicate that selection pressure may have shaped the two lines differently resulting in different hepatic metabolic capacities and extensive metabolic differences in the liver. The results from this study may help provide the theoretical basis for chicken breeding. PMID:27760160

  1. Progress and problems in vaccination against necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mot, Dorien; Timbermont, Leen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2014-01-01

    Necrotic enteritis in broilers is caused by Clostridium perfringens type A strains that produce the NetB toxin. Necrotic enteritis is one of the gastrointestinal diseases in poultry that has gained worldwide importance during the last decade due to efforts to improve broiler performance. Prevention strategies include avoiding predisposing factors, such as coccidiosis, and in-feed supplementation with a variety of feed additives. However, vaccination with modified toxin or other secreted immunogenic proteins seems a logical preventive tool for protection against a toxin-producing bacterium. Formalin-inactivated crude supernatant has been used initially for vaccination. Several studies have been carried out recently to identify the most important immunogenic and protective proteins that can be used for vaccination. These include the NetB toxin, as well as a number of other proteins. There is evidence that immunization with single proteins is not protective against severe challenge and that combinations of different antigens are needed. Most published studies have used multiple dosage vaccination regimens that are not relevant for practical use in the broiler industry. Single vaccination regimens for 1-day-old chicks appear to be non-protective. This review describes the history of vaccination strategies against necrotic enteritis in broilers and gives an update on future vaccination strategies that are applicable in the field. These may include breeder hen vaccination, in ovo vaccination and live attenuated vectors to be used in feed or in drinking water.

  2. Effect of Chitosan on Salmonella Typhimurium in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Menconi, Anita; Pumford, Neil R.; Morgan, Marion J.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Kallapura, Gopala; Latorre, Juan D.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Public concern with the incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly among foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, has been challenging the poultry industry to find alternative means of control. The purposes of the present study were to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effects of chitosan on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) infection in broiler chicks. For in vitro crop assay experiments, tubes containing feed, water, and ST were treated with either saline as a control or 0.2% chitosan. The entire assay was repeated in three trials. In two independent in vivo trials, 40 broiler chicks were assigned to an untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 7 days (20 broiler chicks/treatment). At day 4, chicks were challenged with 2×105 colony-forming units (CFU) ST/bird. In a third in vivo trial, 100 broiler chicks were assigned to untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 10 days (50 broiler chicks/treatment) to evaluate ST horizontal transmission. At day 3, 10 birds were challenged with 105 CFU ST/bird, and the remaining nonchallenged birds (n=40) were kept in the same floor pen. In all three in vitro trials, 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of ST at 0.5 and 6 h postinoculation compared with control (p<0.05). In two in vivo trials, at 7 days, dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of recovered ST in the ceca in both experiments. Dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total ST CFU recovered in the ceca of horizontally challenged birds in the third in vivo trial. Chitosan at 0.2% significantly reduced the CFU of recovered ST in vitro and in vivo, proving to be an alternative tool to reduce crop, ceca, and consequently carcass ST contamination as well as decreasing the amount of ST shed to the environment. PMID:24237042

  3. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and

  4. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and

  5. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and

  6. Effect of butyric acid on the performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Leeson, S; Namkung, H; Antongiovanni, M; Lee, E H

    2005-09-01

    Short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate are considered potential alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters. The efficacy of butyric acid on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens was tested in two studies. The effect of dietary butyrate on the ability to withstand coccidial oocyte challenge also was investigated. In experiment 1, male broiler chickens were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 11 ppm virginiamycin or 0.2 or 0.4% butyric acid (as mono-, di-, and triglyceride). In experiment 2, broilers were fed bacitracin methylene disalicylate or 0.1 or 0.2% butyric acid. In another trial, birds vaccinated against coccidiosis were challenged with oocytes at 21 d and examined 6 d later. In experiment 1, diet treatments had no effect on body weight gain. Feed intake of the birds fed 0.4% butyric acid was decreased (P < 0.01) compared with birds fed the nonmedicated diet during the starter period, whereas birds fed 0.2% butyric acid had similar feed intake to the control birds. In experiment 2, diet treatments did not affect the performance of broiler chicks while carcass weight and breast meat yield increased (P < 0.01) in birds fed 0.2% butyric acid. With oocyte challenge, birds that had received butyric acid before challenge showed higher growth rate following the challenge compared with birds that received nonmedicated feed. Bacitracin decreased (P < 0.05%) duodenal villi crypt depth, whereas villus length was similar in birds fed butyric acid or the nonmedicated control diet. These results show that 0.2% butyric acid can help to maintain the performance and carcass quality of broilers, especially in vaccinated birds challenged with coccidiosis. PMID:16206563

  7. Variations of clinical biochemical parameters of laying hens and broiler chickens fed aflatoxin-containing feed.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, A; Verde, M T; Gascon, M; Ramos, J; Gomez, J; Luco, D F; Chavez, G

    1994-03-01

    Two groups of 32 laying hens (Hyssex Brown) and two groups of 32 23-day-old (Hybro) broiler chickens were fed 2.5 and 5 parts/10(6) of aflatoxin in their diet for 4, 8, 16 and 32 days; 16 hens and 32 chicks were maintained as control groups (0 parts/10(6)). After the intoxication period, a clearance period was established of 1, 2, 4 and 8 days. Relative weights of liver and kidneys significantly increased in intoxicated hens, but not in broiler chickens. Histological lesions in both types of bird consisted of hepatic cell vacuolation with fatty infiltration. There was a significant decrease (P< 0.001) in egg production in the 5 parts/10(6) group, which started to recover during the clearance period. No morbidity or mortality due to the aflatoxicosis were observed in either type of bird. In intoxicated laying hens, cholesterol levels were not significantly (P> 0.05) different from control values, but triglyceride levels decreased (P< 0.001) in both intoxicated groups. The effect of aflatoxin on calcium and phosphorus levels was important, because on the 4th day their values decreased significantly. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) serum levels remained normal, whereas alanino aminotransferase (ALT) activity decreased in both intoxicated groups. The activity of serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and gammaglutamil transferase (GGT) increased significantly. In intoxicated broiler chickens, aflatoxins did not alter (P> 0.05) the biochemical parameters studied, except that the serum calcium concentration was lower in the 5 parts/10(6) group. These data indicated that in intoxicated laying hens, a severe clinical biochemical alteration was produced, and that this together with the hepatic lesions observed in hens and broilers may aid disease diagnosis.

  8. Energy utilization and heat production of embryos from eggs originating from young and old broiler breeder flocks.

    PubMed

    Nangsuay, A; Meijerhof, R; Ruangpanit, Y; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2013-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the interaction between breeder age and egg size on the energy utilization (experiment 1) and heat production (experiment 2) of broiler embryos. In experiment 1, a total of 4,800 Ross-308 hatching eggs from 2 breeder ages (29 and 53 wk of age, or young and old) and, within each age, 2 egg sizes (57 to 61 g and 66 to 70 g, or small and large) were used. In experiment 2, a total of 240 Ross-308 hatching eggs from 2 breeder flocks at 29 (young) and 53 (old) wk of age, and which were selected from the same egg weight range (58 to 61 g), were tested in 2 replicate chambers. In experiment 1, it was shown that the amount of yolk relative to albumen was higher in the old flock eggs, and this effect was more pronounced in the large eggs. The old flock eggs, especially the larger egg size, contained more energy as a result of a greater yolk size. Energy utilization of the embryos was positively related to yolk size and the amount of energy transferred to yolk-free body (YFB) was largely determined by the available egg energy. The efficiency of converting egg energy into chick body energy (E(YFB)) was equal for both egg sizes and both breeder age groups. Chick YFB weight of young and old flock eggs was equal. However, dry YFB weight of chicks from old flock eggs was higher than in chicks from young flock eggs, which was associated with more protein and fat content and thus more energy accumulated into YFB. As a consequence, embryos derived from old flock eggs produced more heat from d 16 of incubation onward than those of the young flock eggs. In conclusion, the higher energy deposition into chick YFB of old flock eggs, leading to higher embryonic heat production, is the result of a higher amount of available energy in the egg and is not due to changes in E(YFB).

  9. Laboratory study of methane production from broiler-chicken litter

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, J.C.H.; Huang, J.J.H.

    1980-01-01

    North Carolina is one of the largest poultry-production states in the United States. Although a considerable amount of work has been done on methane production from livestock, brewery, and municipal wastes, little is known concerning poultry waste. Consequently, a laboratory study was conducted to delineate the potential for thermophilic (60/sup 0/C) methane generation from broiler litter. Broiler litter was chosen as the substrate for the following reasons: first, it is the most abundant waste of poultry production in North Carolina; second, wood chips which are used as the bedding material could be a potential source of carbon for methane biosynthesis; and third, it has a desirable nitrogen content of 3 to 4%, a level similar to that of the cattle waste..

  10. Effect of the ratio of dietary n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on broiler breeder performance, egg quality, and yolk fatty acid composition at different breeder ages.

    PubMed

    Koppenol, A; Delezie, E; Aerts, J; Willems, E; Wang, Y; Franssens, L; Everaert, N; Buyse, J

    2014-03-01

    When added to the feed of broiler breeder hens, dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) can be incorporated into the yolk and therefore become available to the progeny during their early development. The mechanism involved in lipid metabolism and deposition in the egg may be influenced by breeder age. Before the effect of an elevated concentration of certain polyunsaturated FA on the embryo can be investigated, the effect at breeder level and egg quality must be further assessed. The aim of the present experiment was to evaluate the effects of dietary n-6/n-3 ratios and dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) ratios, provided to broiler breeder hens, in terms of their zoo technical performance, egg quality, and yolk FA composition. Starting at 6 wk of age, 640 Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed 1 of 4 different diets. The control diet was a basal diet, rich in n-6 FA. The 3 other diets were enriched in n-3 FA, formulated to obtain a different EPA/DHA ratio of 1/1 (EPA = DHA), 1/2 (DHA), or 2/1 (EPA). In fact, after analysis the EPA/DHA ratio was 0.8, 0.4, or 2.1, respectively. Dietary EPA and DHA addition did not affect the performance of the breeder hens, except for egg weight. Egg weight was lower (P < 0.001) for all n-3 treatments. Dietary EPA improved number of eggs laid in the first 2 wk of the production cycle (P = 0.029). The absolute and relative yolk weight of eggs laid by EPA = DHA fed hens was lowest (P = 0.004 and P = 0.025, respectively). The EPA and DHA concentrations in the yolk were highly dependent on dietary EPA and DHA concentrations with a regression coefficient equal to 0.89. It can be concluded that dietary EPA and DHA can be incorporated in the breeder egg yolk to become available for the developing embryo, without compromising the performance and egg quality of the flock.

  11. Campylobacter infection of broiler chickens in a free-range environment.

    PubMed

    Colles, Frances M; Jones, Tracey A; McCarthy, Noel D; Sheppard, Samuel K; Cody, Alison J; Dingle, Kate E; Dawkins, Marian S; Maiden, Martin C J

    2008-08-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, with contaminated chicken meat considered to represent a major source of human infection. Biosecurity measures can reduce C. jejuni shedding rates of housed chickens, but the increasing popularity of free-range and organic meat raises the question of whether the welfare benefits of extensive production are compatible with food safety. The widespread assumption that the free-range environment contaminates extensively reared chickens has not been rigorously tested. A year-long survey of 64 free-range broiler flocks reared on two sites in Oxfordshire, UK, combining high-resolution genotyping with behavioural and environmental observations revealed: (i) no evidence of colonization of succeeding flocks by the C. jejuni genotypes shed by preceding flocks, (ii) a high degree of similarity between C. jejuni genotypes from both farm sites, (iii) no association of ranging behaviour with likelihood of Campylobacter shedding, and (iv) higher genetic differentiation between C. jejuni populations from chickens and wild birds on the same farm than between the chicken samples, human disease isolates from the same region and national samples of C. jejuni from chicken meat.

  12. Influence of in ovo prebiotic and synbiotic administration on meat quality of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Maiorano, G; Sobolewska, A; Cianciullo, D; Walasik, K; Elminowska-Wenda, G; Slawinska, A; Tavaniello, S; Zylinska, J; Bardowski, J; Bednarczyk, M

    2012-11-01

    A trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of in ovo injection of prebiotic and synbiotics on growth performance, meat quality traits (cholesterol content, intramuscular collagen properties, fiber measurements), and the presence of histopathological changes in the pectoral muscle (PS) of broiler chickens. On d 12 of incubation, 480 eggs were randomly divided into 5 experimental groups treated with different bioactives, in ovo injected: C, control with physiological saline; T1 with 1.9 mg of raffinose family oligosaccharides; T2 and T3 with 1.9 mg of raffinose family oligosaccharides enriched with different probiotic bacteria, specifically 1,000 cfu of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis SL1 and Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris IBB SC1, respectively; T4 with commercially available synbiotic Duolac, containing 500 cfu of both Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus faecium with the addition of lactose (0.001 mg/embryo). Among the hatched chickens, 60 males were randomly chosen (12 birds for each group) and were grown to 42 d in collective cages (n = 3 birds in each 4 cages: replications for experimental groups). Broilers were fed ad libitum commercial diets according to age. In ovo prebiotic and synbiotic administration had a low effect on investigated traits, but depend on the kind of bioactives administered. Commercial synbiotic treatment (T4) reduced carcass yield percentage, and the feed conversion ratio was higher in T3 and T4 groups compared with other groups. The abdominal fat, the ultimate pH, and cholesterol of the PS were not affected by treatment. Broiler chickens of the treated groups with both slightly greater PS and fiber diameter had a significantly lower amount of collagen. The greater thickness of muscle fibers (not significant) and the lower fiber density (statistically significant), observed in treated birds in comparison with those of the C group, are not associated with histopathological changes in the PS of broilers. The incidence of

  13. Evaluation of Emblica officinalis fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Patel, A. P.; Bhagwat, S. R.; Pawar, M. M.; Prajapati, K. B.; Chauhan, H. D.; Makwana, R. B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the dietary addition of Emblica officinalis (Amla) fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: An experiment was conducted on 135 commercial broiler chicks (Ven-Cobb 400 strain) divided into three groups with three replicates of 15 chicks each. Three treatment groups were as follows – T1: Basal diet as per BIS standards; T2: Basal diet supplemented with 0.4% of E. officinalis fruit powder; and T3: Basal diet supplemented with 0.8% of E. officinalis fruit powder. Results: The average body weights at the end of the 6th week were significantly higher (p<0.05) in groups T2 and T3 compared to group T1. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio and feed cost per kg live weight production were similar among the treatment groups. The net profit per bird was the highest in group T2 (Rs. 19.22/bird) followed by group T3 (Rs. 17.86/bird) and the lowest in group T1 (Rs. 14.61/bird). Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, it was concluded that dietary addition of E. officinalis (Amla) fruit powder had a positive effect on growth performance and net profit per bird in commercial broiler chickens. PMID:27051210

  14. A note on the effects of perches and litter substrate on leg weakness in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Su, G; Sørensen, P; Kestin, S C

    2000-09-01

    Two trials were conducted to investigate the effect of availability of perches on indices of leg weakness in broiler chickens. A third trial investigated the effect of litter substrate on similar indices of leg weakness in broiler chickens. Leg weakness traits examined were walking ability and tibial dyschondroplasia, tibial curvature, foot burn, and hock burn. Body weight was also measured in all trials. The presence of perches in the rearing pens had no effect on any of the indices of leg weakness examined in either trial. There were no consistent effects of perches on BW. Litter substrate significantly affected some indices of leg weakness; birds reared on wheat straw had poorer walking ability and more foot burn than birds reared on wood shavings, and birds reared on hemp waste were intermediate between them. There was no effect of litter substrate on tibial dyschondroplasia or tibial curvature. Turning the straw litter regularly and adding fresh supplies when necessary did not significantly improve indices of leg weakness. It was concluded that wood shavings provide a better litter substrate than straw, but that perches have no beneficial effect on reducing leg weakness in broilers. PMID:11020069

  15. Effects of environmental temperature and dietary manganese on egg production performance, egg quality, and some plasma biochemical traits of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y W; Xie, J J; Li, W X; Lu, L; Zhang, L Y; Ji, C; Lin, X; Liu, H C; Odle, J; Luo, X G

    2015-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of environmental temperature and dietary Mn on egg production performance, egg quality, and some plasma biochemical traits of broiler breeders. A completely randomized factorial design involved 2 environmental temperatures (a normal temperature, 21 ± 1°C, and a high temperature, 32 ± 1°C) × 3 dietary Mn treatments (a Mn-unsupplemented corn–soybean meal basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 120 mg of Mn/kg of diet as either MnSO4·H2O or manganese proteinate). There were 6 treatments with 6 replicates (4 birds per replicate). High temperature decreased egg weight (P < 0.0001), laying rate (P < 0.0001), egg yield (P < 0.0001), feed intake (P < 0.0001), egg:feed ratio (P < 0.0001), eggshell strength (P < 0.05) and thickness (P < 0.0001), plasma triiodothyronine level (P < 0.05), and alkaline phosphatase activity (P < 0.04) whereas it increased rectal temperature (P < 0.0001); plasma malondialdehyde level (P < 0.02); and activities (P < 0.002) of lactic dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase. Broiler breeders fed the diets supplemented with Mn regardless of source had greater (P < 0.05) eggshell strength and lower (P ≤ 0.05) plasma triiodothyronine level and protein carbonyl content than those fed the control diet. The broiler breeders fed the diet supplemented with the organic Mn had greater (P < 0.01) eggshell thickness than those fed the control diet. There were interactions (P < 0.05) between environmental temperature and dietary Mn in laying rate, egg yield, feed intake, and egg:feed ratio. Under normal temperature, dietary Mn did not affect the above 4 parameters; however, under high temperature, broiler breeders fed the diet supplemented with the organic Mn showed greater (P < 0.03) improvements in these 4 parameters than those fed the control diet. The results from this study indicated that high temperature significantly impaired egg production performance and

  16. Melatonin modulates tonic immobility and vigilance behavioural responses of broiler chickens to lighting regimens during the hot-dry season.

    PubMed

    Sinkalu, Victor Olusegun; Ayo, Joseph O; Adelaiye, Alexander B; Hambolu, Joseph O

    2016-10-15

    Experiments were conducted with the aim of determining the influence of melatonin administration on vigilance and tonic immobility (TI) responses of Marshall broiler chickens. The broiler chickens were reared on different lighting regimens and subjected to heat stress during the hot-dry season. Simple random sampling was used to assign 300 broiler chicks into three groups, comprising 100 broiler chicks each. Group I (12D:12L cycle) was raised under natural photoperiod of 12-h light and 12-h darkness, without melatonin supplementation. Group II (CL) was kept under 24-h continuous lighting, without melatonin administration. Group III (CL+MEL) was raised under 24-h continuous lighting; with melatonin supplementation at 0.5mg/kg per os, via drinking water using a syringe. Beginning from day-old, broiler chickens in group III were individually administered with melatonin once daily for 8weeks at 17:00h. TI was induced by manual restraint, and vigilance elicited at self-righting graded for three days, two weeks apart, in 15 labeled broiler chickens from each of the three groups; at 06:00h, 13:00h and 18:00h, starting from week 4-8. Each broiler chicken was laid on its back in a U-shaped cradle, covered with cloth. Thermal microenvironment parameters of dry bulb temperature (DBT) and relative humidity (RH) were recorded at the experimental site, concurrently during the vigilance and TI tests. Inside the broiler chickens' house, the weekly temperature-humidity index (THI) was lowest at week 4 of the study, with the value of 48.60±0.08°C. At week 4, the relationship between the THI and TI induction attempts was stronger in 12D:12L cycle (r=0.589, P<0.001) than CL (r=0.264, P>0.05) or CL+MEL (r=0.096, P>0.05) broiler chickens. This indicated that the broiler chickens on 12D:12L cycle were more active compared to their melatonin-treated counterparts, apparently due to adverse effects of high DBT and high RH on the broiler chickens during the hot-dry season. The highest

  17. Use of Caprylic Acid in Broiler Chickens: Effect on Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Hovorková, Petra; Skřivanová, Eva

    2015-08-01

    The effect of caprylic acid (CA) on Campylobacter jejuni in chickens was evaluated using two approaches: dietary supplementation or surface treatment of chilled chicken carcasses. To analyze the dietary effect of CA, individually housed broiler chickens (n = 48) were artificially infected with C. jejuni VFU612 (10(6) colony-forming units [CFU]/bird) on the 21st and 35th days of life. Dietary CA (2.5 and 5 g/kg of feed, fed throughout the entire experiment) significantly decreased C. jejuni shedding (p<0.05). However, the effect only lasted for 3-7 days after infection. The numbers of Campylobacter shed by the positive control birds reached its maximum on the 37th day of life, while on that same day, both Treatment I and Treatment II groups shed significantly lower (p<0.05) numbers of Campylobacter (by 0.8 and 1.8 log10 CFU/g, respectively). Also, peak shedding was delayed by 1 day in both treated groups. After euthanasia of each chicken on the 42nd day of life, no differences in Campylobacter counts in the crop, gizzard, ileum, and cecum were found between the positive control and the treated groups (p>0.05). Surface contamination of the chilled chicken halves was performed with C. jejuni VFU612 (clinical isolate) and CCM6214 (collection strain). Surface treatment with CA at 1.25 and 2.5 mg/mL for 1 min significantly reduced C. jejuni VFU612 contamination of chicken skin (p<0.05) by 0.29-0.53 and 1.14-1.58 log10 CFU/g of skin, respectively. Counts of C. jejuni CCM6214 were reduced by 0.68-1.65 log10 CFU/g of skin). In conclusion, dietary CA affected numbers of C. jejuni in the gastrointestinal contents of chickens, whereas surface treatment reduced C. jejuni contamination in processed chicken carcasses.

  18. Functional assessment of encapsulated citral for controlling necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuexi; Wang, Qi; Diarra, Moussa S; Yu, Hai; Hua, Yufei; Gong, Joshua

    2016-04-01

    Development of viable alternatives to antibiotics to control necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by Clostridium perfringensis becoming urgent for chicken production due to pessures on poultry producers to limit or stop the use of antibiotics in feed. We have previously identified citral as a potential alternative to antibiotics. Citral has strong antimicrobial activity and can be encasupsulated in a powder form for protection from loss during feed processing, storage, and intestinal delivery. In the present study, encapsulated citral was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo for its antimicrobial activity against C. perfringens Encapsulation did not adversely affect the antimicrobial activity of citral. In addition, encapsulated citral was superior to the unencapsulated form in retaining its antimicrobial activity after treatment with simulated gastrointestinal fluids and in the presence of chicken intestinal digesta. In addition, the higher antimicrobial activity of encapsulated citral was confirmed in digesta samples from broilers that had been gavaged with encapsulated or unencapsulated citral. In broilers infected with C. perfringens, the diets supplemented with encapsualted citral at both 250 and 650 μg/g significantly reduced intestinal NE lesions, which was comparable to the effect of bacitracin- and salinomycin-containing diets. However, supplementation with the encapsulated citral appeared to have no significant impact on the intestinal burden of Lactobacillus These data indicate that citral can be used to control NE in chickens after proper protection by encapsulation. PMID:26740132

  19. Functional assessment of encapsulated citral for controlling necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuexi; Wang, Qi; Diarra, Moussa S; Yu, Hai; Hua, Yufei; Gong, Joshua

    2016-04-01

    Development of viable alternatives to antibiotics to control necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by Clostridium perfringensis becoming urgent for chicken production due to pessures on poultry producers to limit or stop the use of antibiotics in feed. We have previously identified citral as a potential alternative to antibiotics. Citral has strong antimicrobial activity and can be encasupsulated in a powder form for protection from loss during feed processing, storage, and intestinal delivery. In the present study, encapsulated citral was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo for its antimicrobial activity against C. perfringens Encapsulation did not adversely affect the antimicrobial activity of citral. In addition, encapsulated citral was superior to the unencapsulated form in retaining its antimicrobial activity after treatment with simulated gastrointestinal fluids and in the presence of chicken intestinal digesta. In addition, the higher antimicrobial activity of encapsulated citral was confirmed in digesta samples from broilers that had been gavaged with encapsulated or unencapsulated citral. In broilers infected with C. perfringens, the diets supplemented with encapsualted citral at both 250 and 650 μg/g significantly reduced intestinal NE lesions, which was comparable to the effect of bacitracin- and salinomycin-containing diets. However, supplementation with the encapsulated citral appeared to have no significant impact on the intestinal burden of Lactobacillus These data indicate that citral can be used to control NE in chickens after proper protection by encapsulation.

  20. Altered development and protein metabolism in skeletal muscles of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) by corticosterone.

    PubMed

    Dong, H; Lin, H; Jiao, H C; Song, Z G; Zhao, J P; Jiang, K J

    2007-05-01

    Two trials were conducted to investigate the effect of corticosterone (CORT) on protein metabolism and the amino acid composition in muscle tissues of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). In Trial 1, two groups of 30 broiler chickens were subjected to control or CORT treatment (30 mg/kg diet) from 28 to 39 days of age. In Trial 2, three groups of chickens of 28 days of age were randomly subjected to one of the following treatments for 7 days: CORT (30 mg/kg diet), pair-fed (maintaining the same feed intake as CORT treatment) and control treatments. The body mass gain and feed efficiency was significantly decreased by CORT treatment, while the food intake was decreased. The breast and thigh masses (% body mass) were significantly suppressed by CORT treatment, while the abdominal fat and liver masses (%) were obviously increased. The plasma levels of glucose, urate and total amino acid were significantly elevated by CORT treatment. The capacity for protein synthesis, estimated by RNA:protein ratio, were significantly suppressed by CORT in M. pectoralis major and M. biceps femoris. The 3-methylhistidine concentrations were significantly increased in both M. pectoralis major and M. biceps femoris of CORT chickens, compared to control but not the pair-fed chickens. The amino acid composition of M. pectoralis major and M. biceps femoris was not significantly affected by CORT treatment. In conclusion, the arrested growth in skeletal muscles induced by CORT administration has tissue specificity. The CORT treatment retards the growth of skeletal muscle by suppressed protein synthesis and augmented protein catabolism.

  1. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat.

    PubMed

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-07-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat's unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods.

  2. Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Guillermo; Latorre, Juan D; Kuttappan, Vivek A; Kogut, Michael H; Wolfenden, Amanda; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M; Bottje, Walter G; Bielke, Lisa R; Faulkner, Olivia B

    2014-01-01

    Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the utilization of rye as energy source on bacterial translocation (BT), intestinal viscosity, gut integrity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with a traditional cereal (corn) in broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, broiler chickens were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 20 chickens/group). At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 chickens/group were randomly selected, and given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood samples were collected to determine the passage of FITC-d. The liver was collected from each bird to evaluate BT. Duodenum, ileum, and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with rye showed increased (p < 0.05) intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that chickens fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to chickens fed with corn. Chickens fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in chickens fed with rye when compared with corn fed chickens. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in chickens that alter the intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition as well as bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected DFM candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed chickens are currently being evaluated.

  3. Performance of broiler chickens fed diets containing DAS-68416-4 soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Herman, Rod A; Dunville, Christina M; Juberg, Daland R; Fletcher, Dale W; Cromwell, Gary L

    2011-01-01

    Broiler chickens are a fast growing monogastric animal commonly used to evaluate the equivalence between transgenic and non-transgenic grains as part of the human safety assessment process. While commonly viewed like other livestock feeding trials, such studies are performed with transgenic crops with input traits (that are not designed to improve nutrition) to aid regulatory authorities in evaluating safety. Studies of this type are actually more similar to toxicology studies in purpose, with sensitive endpoints like growth used to detect metabolic perturbations. DAS-68416-4 soybean expresses the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-12 (AAD-12) enzyme which inactivates 2,4-diclorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and provides DAS-68416-4 soybeans tolerance to this herbicide. DAS-68416-4 also expresses the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) enzyme from Streptomyces viridochromogenes which confers tolerance to glufosinate-ammonium herbicides. A 6-week broiler study was conducted with diets containing toasted DAS-68416-4 soybean meal (40, 36, and 32% in starter, grower and finisher diets, respectively) to evaluate nutritional wholesomeness and safety compared with conventional comparators. Toasting soybean meal is required to inactivate endogenous antinutrients making soybean suitable for consumption by monogastric animals like broiler chickens. Toasting was found to denature both the AAD-12 and PAT proteins rendering them non-detectable by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Broiler growth and performance parameters were measured over a 6-week period of exposure to diets containing different sources of toasted soybean meal, and results indicate that DAS-68416-4 soybean is nutritionally equivalent to non-transgenic soybean.

  4. Multilevel analysis of environmental Salmonella prevalences and management practices on 49 broiler breeder farms in four south-eastern States, USA.

    PubMed

    Berghaus, R D; Mathis, D L; Bramwell, R K; Macklin, K S; Wilson, J L; Wineland, M J; Maurer, J J; Lee, M D

    2012-08-01

    A two-part serial survey of 49 broiler breeder farms was conducted in four south-eastern states: Arkansas, Alabama, Georgia and North Carolina. Broiler breeder farms from three to five broiler company complexes in each state were visited on two separate occasions to document management practices and perform environmental sampling for Salmonella prevalence estimation. Salmonella was detected in 88% of the broiler breeder houses that were sampled and was identified on all 49 farms enrolled. Many management characteristics were consistent across the different states and companies. Multilevel analysis was used to evaluate management characteristics as risk factors for Salmonella prevalence and to estimate the proportion of variance residing at the different hierarchical sampling levels. Management characteristics associated with increased Salmonella prevalence included treatment of the flock for any disease, having dusty conditions in the house, having dry conditions under the slats and walking through the house more than one time per day to pick-up dead birds. After adjusting for state as a fixed effect, the percentages of variance in Salmonella prevalence occurring at the complex, farm, visit, house and individual sample levels were 5.2%, 6.8%, 11.8%, 2.8% and 73.4%, respectively. The intraclass correlations for samples collected from the same house; for samples from different houses during the same visit; for samples from different visits to the same farm; and for samples from different farms in the same complex were as follows: 0.27, 0.24, 0.12 and 0.05, respectively.

  5. Leaky Gut and Mycotoxins: Aflatoxin B1 Does Not Increase Gut Permeability in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Galarza-Seeber, Rosario; Latorre, Juan D; Bielke, Lisa R; Kuttappan, Vivek A; Wolfenden, Amanda D; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Vicente, Jose L; Donoghue, Annie; Cross, David; Hargis, Billy M; Tellez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by diet ingredients or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Two experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect of three concentrations of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1; 2, 1.5, or 1 ppm) on gastrointestinal leakage and liver bacterial translocation (BT). In experiment 1, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in two groups, each group had six replicates of 20 chickens (n = 120/group): Control feed or feed + 2 ppm AFB1. In experiment 2, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in three groups, each group had five replicates of 16 chickens (n = 80/group): Control feed; feed + 1 ppm AFB1; or feed + 1.5 ppm AFB1. In both experiments, chickens were fed starter (days 1-7) and grower diets (days 8-21) ad libitum and performance parameters were evaluated every week. At day 21, all chicks received an oral gavage dose of FITC-d (4.16 mg/kg) 2.5 h before collecting blood samples to evaluate gastrointestinal leakage of FITC-d. In experiment 2, a hematologic analysis was also performed. Liver sections were aseptically collected and cultured using TSA plates to determine BT. Cecal contents were collected to determine total colony-forming units per gram of Gram-negative bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), or anaerobes by plating on selective media. In experiment 2, liver, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius were removed to determine organ weight ratio, and also intestinal samples were obtained for morphometric analysis. Performance parameters, organ weight ratio, and morphometric measurements were significantly different between Control and AFB1 groups in both experiments. Gut leakage of FITC-d was not affected by the three concentrations of AFB1 evaluated (P > 0.05). Interestingly, a significant reduction in BT was observed in chickens that received 2 and 1

  6. Leaky Gut and Mycotoxins: Aflatoxin B1 Does Not Increase Gut Permeability in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Galarza-Seeber, Rosario; Latorre, Juan D.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Vicente, Jose L.; Donoghue, Annie; Cross, David; Hargis, Billy M.; Tellez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by diet ingredients or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Two experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect of three concentrations of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1; 2, 1.5, or 1 ppm) on gastrointestinal leakage and liver bacterial translocation (BT). In experiment 1, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in two groups, each group had six replicates of 20 chickens (n = 120/group): Control feed or feed + 2 ppm AFB1. In experiment 2, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in three groups, each group had five replicates of 16 chickens (n = 80/group): Control feed; feed + 1 ppm AFB1; or feed + 1.5 ppm AFB1. In both experiments, chickens were fed starter (days 1–7) and grower diets (days 8–21) ad libitum and performance parameters were evaluated every week. At day 21, all chicks received an oral gavage dose of FITC-d (4.16 mg/kg) 2.5 h before collecting blood samples to evaluate gastrointestinal leakage of FITC-d. In experiment 2, a hematologic analysis was also performed. Liver sections were aseptically collected and cultured using TSA plates to determine BT. Cecal contents were collected to determine total colony-forming units per gram of Gram-negative bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), or anaerobes by plating on selective media. In experiment 2, liver, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius were removed to determine organ weight ratio, and also intestinal samples were obtained for morphometric analysis. Performance parameters, organ weight ratio, and morphometric measurements were significantly different between Control and AFB1 groups in both experiments. Gut leakage of FITC-d was not affected by the three concentrations of AFB1 evaluated (P > 0.05). Interestingly, a significant reduction in BT was observed in chickens that received 2 and

  7. Effects of Corticosterone and Dietary Energy on Immune Function of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Li, Congcong; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary energy level on the performance and immune function of stressed broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). A total of 96 three-day-old male broiler chickens (Ross × Ross) were divided into two groups. One group received a high energy (HE) diet and the other group received a low energy (LE) diet for 7 days. At 5 days of age, the chickens from each group were further divided into two sub-groups and received one of the following two treatments for 3 days: (1) subcutaneous injection of corticosterone, twice per day (CORT group; 2 mg of CORT/kg BW in corn oil) and (2) subcutaneous injection of corn oil, twice per day (Control/Sham treatment group). At 10 days of age, samples of blood, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were obtained. Compared with the other three groups, the LE group treated with CORT had the lowest average daily gain (ADG) and the poorest feed conversion ratio (FCR, P < 0.05). Furthermore, CORT treatment decreased the relative weight (RW) of the bursa independent of the dietary energy level, but it decreased the RW of the thymus only in the chickens fed the LE diet. By contrast, CORT administration decreased the RW of the spleen only in the chickens fed the HE diet (P < 0.05). The plasma total protein, albumin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 2 and immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels were affected by the CORT treatment (P < 0.05); however, these factors were not significantly affected by the dietary energy level. Toll-like receptor-5 mRNA level was down-regulated by CORT injection in the duodenum and ileum (P < 0.05) and showed a trend of down-regulation in the jejunum (P=0.0846). The present study showed that CORT treatment induced immunosuppressive effects on the innate immune system of broiler chickens, which were ameliorated by consumption of higher dietary energy. PMID:25803644

  8. Dietary Inulin Supplementation Modifies Significantly the Liver Transcriptomic Profile of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sevane, Natalia; Bialade, Federica; Velasco, Susana; Rebolé, Almudena; Rodríguez, Maria Luisa; Ortiz, Luís T.; Cañón, Javier; Dunner, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Inclusion of prebiotics in the diet is known to be advantageous, with positive influences both on health and growth. The current study investigated the differences in the hepatic transcriptome profiles between chickens supplemented with inulin (a storage carbohydrate found in many plants) and controls. Liver is a major metabolic organ and has been previously reported to be involved in the modification of the lipid metabolism in chickens fed with inulin. A nutrigenomic approach through the analysis of liver RNA hybridized to the Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Array identified 148 differentially expressed genes among both groups: 104 up-regulated (≥1.4-fold) and 44 down-regulated (≤0.6-fold). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for five out of seven genes tested. The functional annotation analyses revealed a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in chicken growth and performance, while reinforcing the immune status of animals, and fostering the production of long chain fatty acids in broilers supplemented with 5 g of inulin kg−1 diet. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study on the effect of dietary inulin supplementation, supporting further research on the use of this prebiotic on chicken diets as a useful alternative to antibiotics for improving performance and general immunity in poultry farming, along with a healthier meat lipid profile. PMID:24915441

  9. Dietary inulin supplementation modifies significantly the liver transcriptomic profile of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sevane, Natalia; Bialade, Federica; Velasco, Susana; Rebolé, Almudena; Rodríguez, Maria Luisa; Ortiz, Luís T; Cañón, Javier; Dunner, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Inclusion of prebiotics in the diet is known to be advantageous, with positive influences both on health and growth. The current study investigated the differences in the hepatic transcriptome profiles between chickens supplemented with inulin (a storage carbohydrate found in many plants) and controls. Liver is a major metabolic organ and has been previously reported to be involved in the modification of the lipid metabolism in chickens fed with inulin. A nutrigenomic approach through the analysis of liver RNA hybridized to the Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Array identified 148 differentially expressed genes among both groups: 104 up-regulated (≥ 1.4-fold) and 44 down-regulated (≤ 0.6-fold). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for five out of seven genes tested. The functional annotation analyses revealed a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in chicken growth and performance, while reinforcing the immune status of animals, and fostering the production of long chain fatty acids in broilers supplemented with 5 g of inulin kg(-1) diet. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study on the effect of dietary inulin supplementation, supporting further research on the use of this prebiotic on chicken diets as a useful alternative to antibiotics for improving performance and general immunity in poultry farming, along with a healthier meat lipid profile.

  10. Effect of warm drinking water on the performance and immunological responses of broiler breeder hens raised at low air temperatures.

    PubMed

    Spinu, M; Degen, A A; Rosenstrauch, A

    1993-05-01

    1. The effect of warmed drinking water on the performance and immunological responses of broiler breeder hens maintained at low air temperatures (5.0 degrees to 12.9 degrees C) was tested. From 22 weeks of age hens (mean body mass = 2.4 kg) were offered either warm water (27.7 degrees C; WARM; n = 24) or tap water (12.7 degrees C; CONR; n = 24) twice daily for a total time of 2.5 h or tap water ad libitum (CONA; n = 16). Food was restricted for all hens. 2. Daily water intake in the WARM hens (103 ml/kg) was similar to that of the CONR (93 ml/kg) and CONA hens (106 ml/kg). 3. There were no significant differences in either body mass change or egg production among treatment groups. 4. There was no difference among groups in heterophil/lymphocyte ratios. Similarly, there was no difference among groups in either phagocytic activity or wattle index after phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) injection. Total and IgG antibody titres to SRBC tended to be highest in the WARM hens and these titres were significantly higher than in CONR hens 14 d after challenge.

  11. Influence of relative humidity on transmission of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Line, J E

    2006-07-01

    Horizontal transmission of Campylobacter jejuni among broiler chickens has been documented; however, the influence of RH on transmission rates is an important factor that has not been extensively studied. The purpose of our experiments was to determine the rate of C. jejuni colonization among groups of broilers raised in microbiological isolation under high (approximately 80%) and low (approximately 30%) RH conditions. Day-of-hatch chicks (n = 100 per group) were placed on wood shavings in high and low humidity-controlled pens and challenged with C. jejuni by introducing 2 seeder birds orally inoculated with C. jejuni into each group. The rate of colonization was monitored by analyzing ceca from 10 chicks from each group at d 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7. After 3 wk, the remaining chickens were removed, and 100 newly hatched chicks were placed on the contaminated litter. A second trial was conducted with the litter as the only inoculum source. Trials were repeated in this manner with the time between removing birds and placing newly hatched chicks on the litter extended to 6 h, 24 h, and 1 wk. Significant differences in Campylobacter colonization rates were observed between chickens raised under the high and low RH conditions. A delay in colonization was observed in birds raised under the low RH conditions, which increased with the increased time between removal of birds and placement of newly hatched chicks. These experiments demonstrate the importance of humidity in the transmission of Campylobacter from litter, and they could lead to practical applications to help reduce Campylobacter colonization in broilers. PMID:16830853

  12. Alternatives to Antibiotics to Prevent Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens: A Microbiologist's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Caly, Delphine L; D'Inca, Romain; Auclair, Eric; Drider, Djamel

    2015-01-01

    Since the 2006 European ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed, numerous studies have been published describing alternative strategies to prevent diseases in animals. A particular focus has been on prevention of necrotic enteritis in poultry caused by Clostridium perfringens by the use of microbes or microbe-derived products. Microbes produce a plethora of molecules with antimicrobial properties and they can also have beneficial effects through interactions with their host. Here we review recent developments in novel preventive treatments against C. perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens that employ yeasts, bacteria and bacteriophages or secondary metabolites and other microbial products in disease control. PMID:26648920

  13. [Avian Escherichia coli virulence factors associated with coli septicemia in broiler chickens].

    PubMed

    Ramirez Santoyo, R M; Moreno Sala, A; Almanza Marquez, Y

    2001-01-01

    In order to detect phenotypic characteristics associated with pathogenicity, 25 strains of Escherichia coli, isolated from clinical cases of colisepticemia in broiler chickens, were examined to determine the following properties: colicinogenicity, colicin V production, type 1 fimbriae, hemolysin expression and motility. Colicinogenicity occurred in 72% of the strains, 56% of all strains produced colicin V, 84% were positive for type 1 fimbriae and 80% were positive for motility. None of the strains had hemolytic activity; however, all of them, expressed at least one of the other characteristics studied. These results suggest that the diversity of phenotypes detected partially explain the multifactorial nature of avian colisepticemia.

  14. Alternatives to Antibiotics to Prevent Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens: A Microbiologist's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Caly, Delphine L.; D'Inca, Romain; Auclair, Eric; Drider, Djamel

    2015-01-01

    Since the 2006 European ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed, numerous studies have been published describing alternative strategies to prevent diseases in animals. A particular focus has been on prevention of necrotic enteritis in poultry caused by Clostridium perfringens by the use of microbes or microbe-derived products. Microbes produce a plethora of molecules with antimicrobial properties and they can also have beneficial effects through interactions with their host. Here we review recent developments in novel preventive treatments against C. perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens that employ yeasts, bacteria and bacteriophages or secondary metabolites and other microbial products in disease control. PMID:26648920

  15. Effect of heating system using a geothermal heat pump on the production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Choi, H C; Salim, H M; Akter, N; Na, J C; Kang, H K; Kim, M J; Kim, D W; Bang, H T; Chae, H S; Suh, O S

    2012-02-01

    A geothermal heat pump (GHP) is a potential heat source for the economic heating of broiler houses with optimum production performance. An investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of a heating system using a GHP on production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens. A comparative analysis was also performed between the GHP system and a conventional heating system that used diesel for fuel. In total, 34,000 one-day-old straight run broiler chicks were assigned to 2 broiler houses with 5 replicates in each (3,400 birds/replicate pen) for 35 d. Oxygen(,) CO(2), and NH(3) concentrations in the broiler house, energy consumption and cost of heating, and production performance of broilers were evaluated. Results showed that the final BW gain significantly (P < 0.05) increased when chicks were reared in the GHP broiler house compared with that of chicks reared in the conventional broiler house (1.73 vs. 1.62 kg/bird). The heating system did not affect the mortality of chicks during the first 4 wk of the experimental period, but the mortality markedly increased in the conventional broiler house during the last wk of the experiment. Oxygen content in the broiler house during the experimental period was not affected by the heating system, but the CO(2) and NH(3) contents significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the conventional broiler house compared with those in the GHP house. Fuel consumption was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) and electricity consumption significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the GHP house compared with the consumption in the conventional house during the experiment. The total energy cost of heating the GHP house was significantly lower (P < 0.05) compared with that of the conventional house. It is concluded that a GHP system could increase the production performance of broiler chicks due to increased inside air quality of the broiler house. The GHP system had lower CO(2) and NH(3) emissions with lower energy cost than the

  16. Effect of heating system using a geothermal heat pump on the production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Choi, H C; Salim, H M; Akter, N; Na, J C; Kang, H K; Kim, M J; Kim, D W; Bang, H T; Chae, H S; Suh, O S

    2012-02-01

    A geothermal heat pump (GHP) is a potential heat source for the economic heating of broiler houses with optimum production performance. An investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of a heating system using a GHP on production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens. A comparative analysis was also performed between the GHP system and a conventional heating system that used diesel for fuel. In total, 34,000 one-day-old straight run broiler chicks were assigned to 2 broiler houses with 5 replicates in each (3,400 birds/replicate pen) for 35 d. Oxygen(,) CO(2), and NH(3) concentrations in the broiler house, energy consumption and cost of heating, and production performance of broilers were evaluated. Results showed that the final BW gain significantly (P < 0.05) increased when chicks were reared in the GHP broiler house compared with that of chicks reared in the conventional broiler house (1.73 vs. 1.62 kg/bird). The heating system did not affect the mortality of chicks during the first 4 wk of the experimental period, but the mortality markedly increased in the conventional broiler house during the last wk of the experiment. Oxygen content in the broiler house during the experimental period was not affected by the heating system, but the CO(2) and NH(3) contents significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the conventional broiler house compared with those in the GHP house. Fuel consumption was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) and electricity consumption significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the GHP house compared with the consumption in the conventional house during the experiment. The total energy cost of heating the GHP house was significantly lower (P < 0.05) compared with that of the conventional house. It is concluded that a GHP system could increase the production performance of broiler chicks due to increased inside air quality of the broiler house. The GHP system had lower CO(2) and NH(3) emissions with lower energy cost than the

  17. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Zhu; Lamont, Susan J.; Lee, William R.; Abasht, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE) are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE) chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE) commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample) in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE) at q (False Discover Rate) < 0.05 and fold change > 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01) enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences. PMID:26295149

  18. Effect of acquisition of improved thermotolerance on the induction of heat shock proteins in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Yahav, S; Shamay, A; Horev, G; Bar-Ilan, D; Genina, O; Friedman-Einat, M

    1997-10-01

    The role of heat shock proteins (HSP) in the protection of cells from heat stress is well established. However, very little is known about their contribution to thermotolerance in the complexity of a whole homeotherm animal. Here we report on the analysis of protein synthesis in lung and heart muscle tissues of broiler chickens following exposure to high ambient temperature. Half of the flock was treated by an early age exposure to heat (conditioning), to improve thermotolerance. In contrast to what has been expected, lower levels of HSP induction was observed in the treated chickens. We suggest that 1) the induction of HSP in the heart and lung tissues of the whole animal correlates with the body temperature and 2) HSP response does not represent a part of the long-term mechanism that is evoked by the early age conditioning. PMID:9316120

  19. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Alters Oxidative Stability and Alleviates Plasma Cholesterol Content in Meat of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kumari Ramiah, Suriya; Meng, Goh Yong

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on fatty acid composition, lipoprotein content, lipid peroxidation, and meat colour of broiler chickens. A total of 180 broiler chickens were allocated to 3 dietary treatments (0, 2.5, and 5% Lutrell) and given a standard broiler starter diet and finisher diet. Body weight of chickens and feed intake were recorded weekly. After slaughter, the breast meat was aged at 4°C for 0, 3, and 6 days. The fatty acid composition was measured in the breast meat. Body weight (BW) and feed efficiency were decreased by dietary CLA level (P < 0.05). Chicken fed with 2.5% Lutrell had the highest feed intake compared to the control (CON) group. The total CLA increased significantly (P < 0.05) in breast meat from birds supplemented with CLA. Propensity for lipid peroxidation was significantly higher after 6 days of meat storage (P < 0.05) and the redness in chicken breast meat was lower in CLA-fed birds (P < 0.05). It is also notable that a 5% Lutrell supplementation decreased the plasma total cholesterol (TC), low density protein (LDL), and HDL (high-density lipoprotein)/LDL ratio in chickens (P < 0.05). PMID:25386625

  20. Oyster Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Higher Basidiomycetes), Growth in Grain-Based Diet Improves Broiler Chicken Production.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mateus P; Marcante, Rafael C; Santana, Thiago T; Tanaka, Henrique S; Funari, Pascoal; Alberton, Luiz R; Faria, Eliete V; Valle, Juliana S; Colauto, Nelson B; Linde, Giani A

    2015-01-01

    Many alternative compounds have been tested to improve poultry performance but few of them have previously used mycelial-colonized substrate to partially replace standard diet in broiler chickens. The objective of this study was to evaluate broiler chicken production, health, and meat sensory characteristics, with partial replacement of the standard diet by Pleurotus ostreatus-colonized substrate. One hundred fifty 1-day-old male Cobb chicks were given standard diet partially replaced by 0, 5, 10, 100, or 200 g·kg⁻¹ of P. ostreatus-colonized substrate and randomly distributed into five treatments. Each treatment had three replicates, with 10 birds per replicate, totaling 30 birds. The replacement of the standard diet by 10 g·kg⁻¹ of colonized substrate increased (P≤0.05) chicken body mass up to 57% at 21 days, and up to 28% at 42 days. In general, partial replacement of standard diet by colonized substrate increased hematocrits and typical lymphocytes, and reduced low density lipoproteins. Also, it reduced chicken production period up to 21% and there is no meat taste alteration. The use of P. ostreatus-colonized substrate in chicken feeding is an alternative method to improve broiler chicken production. PMID:25746622

  1. Oyster Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Higher Basidiomycetes), Growth in Grain-Based Diet Improves Broiler Chicken Production.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mateus P; Marcante, Rafael C; Santana, Thiago T; Tanaka, Henrique S; Funari, Pascoal; Alberton, Luiz R; Faria, Eliete V; Valle, Juliana S; Colauto, Nelson B; Linde, Giani A

    2015-01-01

    Many alternative compounds have been tested to improve poultry performance but few of them have previously used mycelial-colonized substrate to partially replace standard diet in broiler chickens. The objective of this study was to evaluate broiler chicken production, health, and meat sensory characteristics, with partial replacement of the standard diet by Pleurotus ostreatus-colonized substrate. One hundred fifty 1-day-old male Cobb chicks were given standard diet partially replaced by 0, 5, 10, 100, or 200 g·kg⁻¹ of P. ostreatus-colonized substrate and randomly distributed into five treatments. Each treatment had three replicates, with 10 birds per replicate, totaling 30 birds. The replacement of the standard diet by 10 g·kg⁻¹ of colonized substrate increased (P≤0.05) chicken body mass up to 57% at 21 days, and up to 28% at 42 days. In general, partial replacement of standard diet by colonized substrate increased hematocrits and typical lymphocytes, and reduced low density lipoproteins. Also, it reduced chicken production period up to 21% and there is no meat taste alteration. The use of P. ostreatus-colonized substrate in chicken feeding is an alternative method to improve broiler chicken production.

  2. Linear regression approach to study amino acid digestibility in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Rodehutscord, M; Kapocius, M; Timmler, R; Dieckmann, A

    2004-02-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to investigate whether a linear regression approach is a suitable tool for determining the amino acid (AA) digestibility up to the terminal ileum of broiler chickens. Solvent-extracted rapeseed meal (RSM) was used as the model ingredient. 2. Ten diets with 5 different inclusion rates of RSM (60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 g/kg, corresponding to crude protein concentrations from 170 to 250 g/kg in the diet), each without or with a supplementation of phytase (500 U/kg), were fed ad libitum to broiler chickens between 14 and 21 d of age. Seven pens of 12 chickens were allocated to each treatment. Digesta were sampled on a pen basis from the section of the gastrointestinal tract between Meckel's diverticulum and 2 cm anterior to the ileo-caeco-colonic junction. Titanium dioxide was included as an indigestible marker. 3. The amounts of crude protein and AAs digested up to the terminal ileum constantly increased with increasing AA intake over the entire range of intakes. When the amount of an AA digested at the terminal ileum is linearly regressed against its intake, the deviation of the slope from 1 is caused by both the unabsorbed AA from RSM and from specific endogenous losses related to RSM. These slopes varied between 0.68 and 0.88 for individual AAs, and the slopes were unaffected by phytase supplementation. 4. It is suggested that a linear regression approach be adopted to study the AA digestibility of raw materials in chickens. Digestibility determined this way does not need any correction for basal endogenous loss.

  3. Use of Aviguard and other intestinal bioproducts in experimental Clostridium perfringens-associated necrotizing enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hofacre, C L; Froyman, R; Gautrias, B; George, B; Goodwin, M A; Brown, J

    1998-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens-associated necrotic enteritis (CPANE) is a common problem among rapidly growing broiler strains of chickens that are raised intensively in modern microenvironments. The purpose of this study was to compare the use of Aviguard and three other intestinal bioproducts (two normal gut flora [NGF] products and one probiotic product) in experimental CPANE in broiler chickens. Male broiler chicks were housed in the same environmentally controlled facility and given one of six treatments. The necrotic enteritis infection model (NEIM) used in the present study was effective in inducing CPANE intestinal gross lesions in broiler chickens. Equally important, Aviguard was found to be significantly more effective than either the other two NGF products or the probiotic for reducing gross lesions induced by the NEIM. In addition, Aviguard/NEIM-treated chicks ate more feed and had better feed efficiency than their NGF- or probiotic/NEIM-treated counterparts. Other significant differences among these four reconstituted microbial preparations were not found. Results from this study have additional importance because they further support the use of reconstituted microbial preparations as novel and effective alternatives to antibiotics that can reduce the severity of C. perfringens-associated necrotic enteritis challenge in broilers. PMID:9777159

  4. Exogenous administration of chronic corticosterone affects hepatic cholesterol metabolism in broiler chickens showing long or short tonic immobility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Duan, Yujing; Hu, Yun; Sun, Lili; Wang, Song; Fu, Wenyan; Ni, Yingdong; Zhao, Ruqian

    2016-01-01

    Tonic immobility (TI) is an innate characteristic of animals related to fear or stress response. Animals can be classified into long TI (LTI) and short TI (STI) phenotypes based on TI test duration. In this study, effect of TI phenotype, chronic corticosterone administration (CORT), and their interaction on cholesterol metabolism in liver was evaluated in broilers. LTI broilers showed higher level of cholesterol in liver compared to STI chickens (p<0.05), and CORT significantly increased hepatic cholesterol content (p<0.01). Real-time PCR results showed that both TI and CORT potentially altered ABCA1 and CYP7A1 gene expressions (0.05broilers showed higher level of HMGCR protein expression in liver than STI (p<0.05). These results indicate that chronic CORT administration causes hepatic cholesterol accumulation in broiler chickens mainly by enhancing cholesterol synthesis and uptake into liver. LTI chickens had higher amount of total cholesterol in liver, which might be associated with an increase of hepatic HMGCR protein expression. However, there is no interaction between TI and CORT on cholesterol metabolism in liver of broilers.

  5. Campylobacter jejuni is not merely a commensal in commercial broiler chickens and affects bird welfare.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Suzanne; Chaloner, Gemma; Kemmett, Kirsty; Davidson, Nicola; Williams, Nicola; Kipar, Anja; Humphrey, Tom; Wigley, Paul

    2014-07-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial food-borne infection; chicken meat is its main source. C. jejuni is considered commensal in chickens based on experimental models unrepresentative of commercial production. Here we show that the paradigm of Campylobacter commensalism in the chicken is flawed. Through experimental infection of four commercial breeds of broiler chickens, we show that breed has a significant effect on C. jejuni infection and the immune response of the animals, although these factors have limited impact on the number of bacteria in chicken ceca. All breeds mounted an innate immune response. In some breeds, this response declined when interleukin-10 was expressed, consistent with regulation of the intestinal inflammatory response, and these birds remained healthy. In another breed, there was a prolonged inflammatory response, evidence of damage to gut mucosa, and diarrhea. We show that bird type has a major impact on infection biology of C. jejuni. In some breeds, infection leads to disease, and the bacterium cannot be considered a harmless commensal. These findings have implications for the welfare of chickens in commercial production where C. jejuni infection is a persistent problem. Importance: Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of food-borne bacterial diarrheal disease in the developed world. Chicken is the most common source of infection. C. jejuni infection of chickens had previously not been considered to cause disease, and it was thought that C. jejuni was part of the normal microbiota of birds. In this work, we show that modern rapidly growing chicken breeds used in intensive production systems have a strong inflammatory response to C. jejuni infection that can lead to diarrhea, which, in turn, leads to damage to the feet and legs on the birds due to standing on wet litter. The response and level of disease varied between breeds and is related to regulation of the inflammatory immune response. These findings

  6. Growth performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition and blood serum metabolites of broiler chicken fed on diets containing flaxseed oil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, D C N; Xavier, E G; Santos, V L; Gonçalves, F M; Anciuti, M A; Roll, V F B; Del Pino, F A B; Feijó, J O; Catalan, A A S

    2013-01-01

    1. This study evaluated the effects of diets with partial and total substitution of soya bean oil (SO) with flaxseed (linseed) oil (FO) on broiler chicken performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition and blood serum metabolites. 2. A total of 448 one-d-old Cobb 500 broiler chicken were used. They were allotted among 4 treatments with 8 replications, using a completely randomised design, for 35 d. Four diets were compared: T1 = 100% SO (3%, 1-7 d; 4%, 8-21 d; and 5%, 22-35 d); T2 = 50% SO + 50% FO; T3 = 25% SO + 75% FO and T4 = 100% FO. 3. No significant differences were observed in body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and blood serum metabolites (total triglycerides, TRI; total cholesterol, CHO; high-density lipoprotein, HDL; low-density lipoprotein, LDL; glucose, GLU; albumin, ALB; globulin, GLO; and total proteins, TPs). Significant effects were observed for TRI, CHO, HDL, GLU, HDL, LDL, ALB and GLO with regard to the day of collection. 4. Carcass traits did not show significant differences for the treatments. No significant differences were observed for breast and drumstick chemical compositions, with the exception of drumstick fat concentration (quadratic effect). 5. In conclusion, the partial or total substitution of SO with FO did not affect growth performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition or blood serum profile in broiler chicken. Therefore, FO can be an alternative to SO in the diet formulation for broiler chicken.

  7. Detection of Campylobacter on the Outer Surface of Retail Broiler Chicken Meat Packages and on product within

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare prevalence of Campylobacter on the outside of broiler meat packages to the product inside the same packages. Chicken meat products were purchased at retail. Samples comprised whole carcasses and six different cut-up part products. Fifteen packages of eac...

  8. Comparison of live Eimeria vaccination with in-feed Salinomycin on growth and immune status in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidiosis vaccines and coccidiostat drugs are commonly used to control Eimeria infection during commercial poultry production. The present study was conducted to compare the relative effectiveness of these two disease control strategies in broiler chickens in an experimental research facility. B...

  9. Effect of heat stress and drinking water salt supplements on plasma electrolytes and aldosterone concentration in broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deyhim, F.; Teeter, R. G.

    1995-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing drinking water with isomolar (0.067 mol/l) KCl or NaCl on mass gain, food and water consumption, rectal temperature, and plasma concentrations of aldosterone, Na+, and K+ in broiler chickens reared in thermoneutral and cycling heat stressing environments. Heat stress decreased ( P≤0.05) mass gain, food consumption, and plasma concentrations of Na+ and K+, while increases ( P≤0.05) in plasma concentrations of aldosterone, rectal temperature, and water consumption were observed. Drinking water supplemented with either KCl or NaCl increased ( P≤0.05) broiler mass gain and water consumption, but had no effect ( P>0.1) on the other variables evaluated. The results of this study indicate that broiler chickens in a heat stress environment are under osmotic stress and supplementing drinking water with 0.067 mol/1 KCl or NaCl does not lessen this stress.

  10. Changes in the Salmonella status of broiler chickens subjected to simulated shipping conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Rigby, C E; Pettit, J R

    1980-01-01

    Market-age broiler chickens from flocks infected with Salmonella typhimurium were killed after being placed in crates and subjected to simulated shipping conditions for five, 19 or 24 hours. The cloacal feces, ceca and exteriors of the birds were cultured for salmonellae to identify shedders, cecal carriers and external carriers respectively, and the results compared with those obtained from pen-mates killed at the time the tested birds were put into the crates. Carriage of S. typhimurium was significantly higher among birds placed in clean crates than among the uncrated controls, mainly due to an increase in cecal carriers (from 23.5% to 61.5%). This increase was not related to the time spent in the crate. Twenty-four chickens were placed in crates contaminated with Salmonella alachua and all 24 became carriers of this organism: 22 (91.5%) of these were cecal carriers and 18 (75%) were shedders. This contamination also spread to 15/24 chickens placed in clean crates and "shipped" in the same truck: six of these became cecal carriers and seven were shedders. These results indicated that chickens in shipping crates which are exposed to salmonellae under transport conditions may readily become infected and begin to shed salmonellae within 24 hours. PMID:7004609

  11. Intestinal Microbiota of Broiler Chickens As Affected by Litter Management Regimens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingling; Lilburn, Mike; Yu, Zhongtang

    2016-01-01

    Poultry litter is a mixture of bedding materials and enteric bacteria excreted by chickens, and it is typically reused for multiple growth cycles in commercial broiler production. Thus, bacteria can be transmitted from one growth cycle to the next via litter. However, it remains poorly understood how litter reuse affects development and composition of chicken gut microbiota. In this study, the effect of litter reuse on the microbiota in litter and in chicken gut was investigated using 2 litter management regimens: fresh vs. reused litter. Samples of ileal mucosa and cecal digesta were collected from young chicks (10 days of age) and mature birds (35 days of age). Based on analysis using DGGE and pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons, the microbiota of both the ileal mucosa and the cecal contents was affected by both litter management regimen and age of birds. Faecalibacterium, Oscillospira, Butyricicoccus, and one unclassified candidate genus closely related to Ruminococcus were most predominant in the cecal samples, while Lactobacillus was predominant in the ileal samples at both ages and in the cecal samples collected at day 10. At days 10 and 35, 8 and 3 genera, respectively, in the cecal luminal microbiota differed significantly in relative abundance between the 2 litter management regimens. Compared to the fresh litter, reused litter increased predominance of halotolerant/alkaliphilic bacteria and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a butyrate-producing gut bacterium. This study suggests that litter management regimens affect the chicken GI microbiota, which may impact the host nutritional status and intestinal health.

  12. Mycotoxins Deoxynivalenol and Fumonisins Alter the Extrinsic Component of Intestinal Barrier in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Antonissen, Gunther; Van Immerseel, Filip; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Janssens, Geert P J; De Baere, Siegrid; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Su, Shengchen; Wong, Eric A; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Verlinden, Marc; Devreese, Mathias; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Novak, Barbara; Dohnal, Ilse; Martel, An; Croubels, Siska

    2015-12-23

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FBs) are secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium fungi that frequently contaminate broiler feed. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of DON and/or FBs on the intestinal barrier in broiler chickens, more specifically on the mucus layer and antioxidative response to oxidative stress. One-day-old broiler chicks were divided into four groups, each consisting of eight pens of seven birds each, and were fed for 15 days either a control diet, a DON-contaminated diet (4.6 mg DON/kg feed), a FBs-contaminated diet (25.4 mg FB1 + FB2/kg feed), or a DON+FBs-contaminated diet (4.3 mg DON and 22.9 mg FB1 + FB2/kg feed). DON and FBs affected the duodenal mucus layer by suppressing intestinal mucin (MUC) 2 gene expression and altering the mucin monosaccharide composition. Both mycotoxins decreased gene expression of the intestinal zinc transporter (ZnT)-1 and regulated intracellular methionine homeostasis, which are both important for preserving the cell's critical antioxidant activity. Feeding a DON- and/or FBs-contaminated diet, at concentrations close to the European Union maximum guidance levels (5 mg DON and 20 mg FB1 + FB2/kg feed) changes the intestinal mucus layer and several intestinal epithelial antioxidative mechanisms.

  13. Identification of genes involved in regulatory mechanism of pigments in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tarique, T M; Yang, S; Mohsina, Z; Qiu, J; Yan, Z; Chen, G; Chen, A

    2014-01-01

    Chicken is an important model organism that unites the evolutionary gap between mammals and other vertebrates and provide major source of protein from meat and eggs for all over the world population. However, specific genes underlying the regulatory mechanism of broiler pigmentation have not yet been determined. In order to better understand the genes involved in the mechanism of pigmentation in the muscle tissues of broilers, the Affymetrix microarray hybridization experiment platform was used to identify gene expression profiles at 7 weeks of age. Broilers fed canthaxanthin, natural lutein, and orangeII pigments (100 mg/kg) were used to explore gene expression profiles). Our data showed that the 7th week of age was a very important phase with regard to gene expression profiles. We identified a number of differentially expressed genes; in canthaxanthin, natural lutein, and orangeII, there were 54 (32 upregulated and 22 downregulated), 23 (15 upregulated and 8 downregulated), and 7 (5 upregulated and 2 downregulated) known genes, respectively. Our data indicate that the numbers of differentially expressed genes were more upregulated than downregulated, and several genes showed conserved signaling to previously known functions. Thus, functional characterization of differentially expressed genes revealed several categories that are involved in important biological processes, including pigmentation, growth, molecular mechanisms, fat metabolism, cell proliferation, immune response, lipid metabolism, and protein synthesis and degradation. The results of the present study demonstrate that the genes associated with canthaxanthin, natural lutein, and orangeII are key regulatory genes that control the regulatory mechanisms of pigmentation.

  14. Lighting schedule and dimming period in early life: consequences for broiler chicken leg bone development.

    PubMed

    van der Pol, Carla W; Molenaar, Roos; Buitink, Christiaan J; van Roovert-Reijrink, Inge A M; Maatjens, Conny M; van den Brand, Henry; Kemp, Bas

    2015-12-01

    Prolonged (>20 h) light periods during grow-out of broiler chickens have been shown to increase the occurrence of skeletal abnormalities, but the effects of early life light-dark schedules are not well known. The present experiment investigated the effect of lighting schedule and light-dark transition during the first days of a broiler chicken's life on leg bone development. In 2 experiments, Ross-308 broiler chicks (n = 2,500 per experiment) were subjected to 1 of 5 treatments for 4 d: 24L; 2L:1D lighting schedule with either an abrupt or gradual light-dark transition ("dimming"); and a 2L:6D lighting schedule with an abrupt transition or dimming. At d 4, tibia and femur weight, length, and diameter, yolk free body mass, organ weights, realized weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and mortality were determined. In Experiment 2, chick length and relative asymmetry of the femur and tibia were determined additionally. Data were analyzed using orthogonal contrasts. 24L resulted in higher femur diameter (P<0.028; both experiments), tibia diameter (P<0.001; Experiment 1), relative asymmetry of tibia length (P=0.002; Experiment 2), and relative asymmetry of femur length (P=0.003) than applying a light-dark schedule. A 2L:1D lighting schedule resulted in higher femur length (P=0.039; Experiment 1) and relative asymmetry of tibia length (P=0.032; Experiment 2) and lower relative asymmetry of tibia diameter (P=0.016) than a 2L:6D lighting schedule. An abrupt light-dark transition resulted in higher relative asymmetry of tibia length (P=0.004; Experiment 2) and relative asymmetry of tibia diameter (P=0.018) than dimming. To conclude, leg bone development in the first 4 d of a broiler chicken's life was higher for 24L than when a lighting schedule was applied, but relative asymmetry was higher as well, suggesting developmental instability. The effect of dimming on leg bone development was less pronounced, but the decreased relative asymmetry levels in the dimming

  15. Genotoxic effects of deoxynivalenol in broiler chickens fed low-protein feeds.

    PubMed

    Awad, W A; Ghareeb, K; Dadak, A; Gille, L; Staniek, K; Hess, M; Böhm, J

    2012-03-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most abundant and important trichothecenes in food and feed, and it is a significant contaminant due to its frequent occurrence at toxicologically relevant concentrations worldwide. Deoxynivalenol has negative influences on the health and performance of chicks. However, there is little information available regarding the effect of DON on DNA fragmentation in blood lymphocytes. In addition, the effects of Mycofix select (Biomin GmbH, Herzogenburg, Austria) supplementation to DON-contaminated broiler diets on lymphocyte DNA have not yet been demonstrated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish the effect of DON on lipid peroxidation and lymphocyte DNA fragmentation in broilers and to evaluate the potential of Mycofix select in the prevention of toxin-mediated changes. Thirty-two 1-d-old (Ross 308 male) broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups. The control group was fed a noncontaminated diet, and a second group was fed the same diet but supplemented with Mycofix select (0.25%). A third group of broilers was fed a diet artificially contaminated with 10 mg of feed-grade DON/kg of diet, and a fourth group was fed a DON-contaminated diet supplemented with Mycofix select. At the end of the feeding trial, blood was collected and the degree of lymphocyte DNA damage was measured in the plasma by comet assay. Deoxynivalenol increased (P = 0.016) the amount of DNA damage in chicken lymphocytes by 46.8%. Mycofix select protected lymphocyte DNA from the DON effects. To our knowledge, these are the first data on genotoxic effects of a moderate dose of DON on chicken lymphocytes. However, the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level in liver and liver enzyme activity did not differ among the groups. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the diets contaminated with the mycotoxin DON at moderate levels in combination with low-protein feed are able to induce lymphocyte DNA damage in chickens

  16. Effects of feed deprivation on the AMPK signaling pathway in skeletal muscle of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiyi; Liu, Lei; Song, Zhigang; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Buyse, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in rapid metabolic adaptations to maintain energy homeostasis in poultry. It remains unclear if AMPK is involved in muscular energy metabolism in broiler chickens. Hence, in the present study, seven-day-old male broilers were equally divided into three groups: fed ad libitum (control); feed-deprived for 24h (S24); feed-deprived for 24h and then refed for 24h (S24R24). Compared to the control group, the plasma levels of glucose, insulin, T3 and triglycerides in the S24 group were significantly lower (P<0.05), whereas the uric acid levels were significantly higher (P<0.01). Except for glucose, refeeding for 24h reversed the fasting-induced alterations in plasma metabolite. Fasting decreased the liver kinase B1 (LKB1), AMPK alpha 2 subunit (AMPKα2), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA levels (P<0.05) in M. pectoralis major (PM). Feed deprivation did not affect the phosphorylated AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) in PM (P>0.05), but upregulated carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) gene expression and increased phosphorylated LKB1 (0.050.05). However, refeeding after 24h of fasting increased the phosphorylated mTOR level in BF muscle which was in parallel with increased plasma insulin concentration. It was likely that increased phospho-mTOR level in the BF muscle was

  17. Gastric duplication: proventricular cystic choristoma on the spleen of a broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed Sabry; Sasaki, Jun; Goryo, Masanobu

    2014-09-01

    Gastric duplication (choristoma) is a very rare anomaly in both humans and other animal species. We report herein a case of proventricular cystic choristoma in a 62-day-old broiler chicken. The broiler chicken was brought from the slaughterhouse to our laboratory after a pale-brown cystic structure closely attached to a thin, compressed spleen was identified. On necropsy, the cystic structure showed a clear mucinous fluid. Histopathologically, the cystic structure was lined by proventricular mucosa presenting in folds and sulci. Submucosal proventricular glands, consisting of secretory units and collecting tubules, occupied parts of the choristomal wall. The gastric mucosa lining the choristomal wall stained positive with periodic acid-Schiff stain, stained negative with Alcian blue staining, and showed a thin layer of smooth muscle fibers and a thick connective tissue layer with Masson trichrome. Ectopic pancreas was noticed attached to the wall of the choristoma. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first report of choristoma in an avian species.

  18. Higher inclusion rate of canola meal under high ambient temperature for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Aljuobori, A; Zulkifli, I; Soleimani, A F; Abdullah, N; Liang, J B; Mujahid, A

    2016-06-01

    Extruded canola meal (ECM) was included in diet of broiler chickens at 0, 10, 20, and 30% (wt/wt) from 1 to 35 days of age. A total of 240 day-old male chicks were assigned in groups of 5 to 48 battery cages in environmentally controlled chambers and diets were replicated with 12 cages/treatment. From d 29 to 35, birds from each dietary group were exposed to either thermoneutral (23 ± 1°C; unheated) or high (36 ± 1°C; heated) temperature conditions. High ambient temperature, irrespective of ECM inclusion, depressed the growth performance of birds. Inclusion of ECM increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) linearly in unheated birds during d 1 to 28 (P < 0.001) and d 29 to 35 (P = 0.001). However, no adverse effects of ECM inclusion were observed on the growth performance of heated birds. The absence of these detrimental effects could be associated with the lack of triiodothyronine (T3) elevation by ECM inclusion in heated birds. In conclusion, ECM can be fed, at least, up to 30%, without any adverse effect on growth performance of broiler chickens raised under chronic high ambient temperature. PMID:26944983

  19. Suppression of fat deposition in broiler chickens by (-)-hydroxycitric acid supplementation: A proteomics perspective

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Mengling; Han, Jing; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated. Biological network analysis showed that the identified proteins were involved in glycometabolism and lipid metabolism, whereas PDHA1, PDHB, ECHS1, and ME1 were identified in the canonical pathway by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA inhibited fatty acid synthesis by reducing the acetyl-CoA supply, via promotion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (upregulation of PDHA1, PDHB, ACO2, and DLST expression) and inhibition of ME1 expression. Moreover, (-)-HCA promoted fatty acid beta-oxidation by upregulating ECHS1 expression. These results reflect a biochemically relevant mechanism of fat reduction by (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. PMID:27586962

  20. Suppression of fat deposition in broiler chickens by (-)-hydroxycitric acid supplementation: A proteomics perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Mengling; Han, Jing; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-09-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated. Biological network analysis showed that the identified proteins were involved in glycometabolism and lipid metabolism, whereas PDHA1, PDHB, ECHS1, and ME1 were identified in the canonical pathway by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA inhibited fatty acid synthesis by reducing the acetyl-CoA supply, via promotion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (upregulation of PDHA1, PDHB, ACO2, and DLST expression) and inhibition of ME1 expression. Moreover, (-)-HCA promoted fatty acid beta-oxidation by upregulating ECHS1 expression. These results reflect a biochemically relevant mechanism of fat reduction by (-)-HCA in broiler chickens.

  1. High-fibre sunflower cake affects small intestinal digestion and health in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kalmendal, R; Elwinger, K; Holm, L; Tauson, R

    2011-02-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to evaluate high-fibre sunflower cake (HF-SFC); a feed ingredient distinguished by large amounts of crude fibre and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides (i-NSP). 2. Broiler chickens (n = 160) were fed on pelleted maize-based diets free from coccidiostats and antibiotic growth promoters between 15 and 31 d of age. Diets included 0, 10, 20 or 30% HF-SFC. Performance and small intestinal health were assessed. 3. In general, HF-SFC inclusion mediated significant linear increases in ileal digestibility of fat and protein and significant linear decreases in ileal digestibility of dry matter, ash and energy. 4. Weight gain increased linearly with HF-SFC inclusion. Feed conversion was negatively affected by 30% HF-SFC but not by 20% HF-SFC. 5. In the jejunal lumen, inclusion of HF-SFC was associated with significant decreases in colony counts of Clostridium spp. 6. HF-SFC inclusion resulted in significant linear reductions of villus height, thickness of muscularis mucosa, and the circular and longitudinal layers of muscularis in the jejunum. Crypt depth and submucosal thickness were not affected. 7. The data indicate that broiler chickens may thrive on feeds with insoluble fibre contents far exceeding those used in practice, and that HF-SFC exerts some positive effects on digestion and small intestinal health. PMID:21337203

  2. Developmental study of rectum in broiler chicken: A stereological and morphometrical study

    PubMed Central

    Fatahian Dehkordi, Rahmat-Allah; Ghahremani, Poria

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate development of the weight and the morphological development of the rectum in broiler chickens. Twenty broiler chickens (Ross 308) were used in this experiment and they were 12, 20, 35 and 44 days of age. Samples from the rectum of chicks were sectioned in an unbiased manner and examined quantitatively using stereology. In addition, the weight of both body (BW) and rectum and also rectum weight as a proportion of BW, height and width of the villi and thickness of rectum wall were measured. The results revealed that the body and rectum weight were increased with age. The greatest rectum weight as a proportion of BW was observed on day 20. An increase in height and width of the villi during the study period were obtained. The increase was more significant on days 35 and 44 than on days 12 and 20 (p < 0.05). There were significant difference in thickness of tunica mucosa, submucosa and muscular layer of the rectum on day 20 compared to day 35 (p < 0.05). The increase in the volume density of the wall, tunica mucosa and tunica muscular was greater on day 20 than on day 35. However, significant differences were observed in volume density of this layers between days 35 and 44 compared to days 12 and 20 (p < 0.05). PMID:27226886

  3. Suppression of fat deposition in broiler chickens by (-)-hydroxycitric acid supplementation: A proteomics perspective.

    PubMed

    Peng, Mengling; Han, Jing; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated. Biological network analysis showed that the identified proteins were involved in glycometabolism and lipid metabolism, whereas PDHA1, PDHB, ECHS1, and ME1 were identified in the canonical pathway by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA inhibited fatty acid synthesis by reducing the acetyl-CoA supply, via promotion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (upregulation of PDHA1, PDHB, ACO2, and DLST expression) and inhibition of ME1 expression. Moreover, (-)-HCA promoted fatty acid beta-oxidation by upregulating ECHS1 expression. These results reflect a biochemically relevant mechanism of fat reduction by (-)-HCA in broiler chickens.

  4. Molecular survey of avian respiratory pathogens in commercial broiler chicken flocks with respiratory diseases in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Roussan, D A; Haddad, R; Khawaldeh, G

    2008-03-01

    Acute respiratory tract infections are of paramount importance in the poultry industry. Avian influenza virus (AIV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian pneumovirus (APV), and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) have been recognized as the most important pathogens in poultry. In this study, trachea swabs from 115 commercial broiler chicken flocks that suffered from respiratory disease were tested for AIV subtype H9N2, IBV, NDV, and APV by using reverse transcription PCR and for MG by using PCR. The PCR and reverse transcription PCR results showed that 13 and 14.8% of these flocks were infected with NDV and IBV, respectively, whereas 5.2, 6.0, 9.6, 10.4, 11.3, and 15.7% of these flocks were infected with both NDV and MG; MG and APV; IBV and NDV; IBV and MG; NDV and AIV; and IBV and AIV, respectively. Furthermore, 2.6% of these flocks were infected with IBV, NDV, and APV at the same time. On the other hand, 11.3% of these flocks were negative for the above-mentioned respiratory diseases. Our data showed that the above-mentioned respiratory pathogens were the most important causes of respiratory disease in broiler chickens in Jordan. Further studies are necessary to assess circulating strains, economic losses caused by infections and coinfections of these pathogens, and the costs and benefits of countermeasures. Furthermore, farmers need to be educated about the signs and importance of these pathogens.

  5. The effects of the dark house system on growth, performance and meat quality of broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Rafael Humberto; Soares, Adriana Lourenço; Grespan, Moisés; Spurio, Rafael Sanches; Coró, Fábio Augusto Garcia; Oba, Alexandre; Shimokomaki, Massami

    2015-02-01

    Meat production with minimum animal suffering is a humanitarian concern. Thus, the objective of this work was to observe the performance of Cobb broiler chickens from 7 to 46 days of age when raised under different installations: dark house system (DHS), conventional yellow system (CYC) and conventional blue system (CBC). The feed conversion ratio for the birds raised on the DHS was 3.8% and 2.7% lower than those for the CYC and CBC systems, respectively. Compared with the CYC and CBC systems, average daily gain under the DHS was 11.4% and 9.3% higher, respectively, and body weight at 46 days was 11.4% and 9.3% higher, respectively (P ≤ 0.05). The birds' welfare was assessed based on their stress by determining the amount of pale, soft and exudative (PSE) meat in the breast fillets. The CYC and CBC birds had 24.3% and 25.3% PSE meat, respectively, whereas the DHS birds had 37.0%. We concluded that the DHS has a greater potential to produce broiler chickens, with superior performance to conventional systems, despite the higher stress faced by the birds during the maneuvers just before slaughter.

  6. Suppression of fat deposition in broiler chickens by (-)-hydroxycitric acid supplementation: A proteomics perspective.

    PubMed

    Peng, Mengling; Han, Jing; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated. Biological network analysis showed that the identified proteins were involved in glycometabolism and lipid metabolism, whereas PDHA1, PDHB, ECHS1, and ME1 were identified in the canonical pathway by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA inhibited fatty acid synthesis by reducing the acetyl-CoA supply, via promotion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (upregulation of PDHA1, PDHB, ACO2, and DLST expression) and inhibition of ME1 expression. Moreover, (-)-HCA promoted fatty acid beta-oxidation by upregulating ECHS1 expression. These results reflect a biochemically relevant mechanism of fat reduction by (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. PMID:27586962

  7. Expression of Potential Regulatory Genes in Abdominal Adipose Tissue of Broiler Chickens during Early Development.

    PubMed

    Bohannon-Stewart, Ann; Kelley, Gary; Kimathi, Boniface; Subramanya, Sri Harsha K V; Donkor, Joseph; Darris, Carl; Tyus, James; Payne, Ashley; Byers, Shannon; Hui, Dafeng; Nahashon, Samuel; Chen, Fur-Chi; Ivy, Michael; Wang, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    The identities of genes that underlie population variation in adipose tissue development in farm animals are poorly understood. Previous studies in our laboratory have suggested that increased fat tissue involves the expression modulation of an array of genes in broiler chickens. Of special interest are eight genes, FGFR3, EPHB2, IGFBP2, GREM1, TNC, COL3A1, ACBD7, and SCD. To understand their expression regulation and response to dietary manipulation, we investigated their mRNA levels after dietary manipulation during early development. Chickens were fed either a recommended standard or a high caloric diet from hatch to eight weeks of age (WOA). The high caloric diet markedly affected bodyweight of the broiler birds. mRNA levels of the eight genes in the abdominal adipose tissue were assayed at 2, 4, 6, and 8 WOA using RT-qPCR. Results indicate that (1) FGFR3 mRNA level was affected significantly by diet, age, and diet:age interaction; (2) COL3A mRNA level was repressed by high caloric diet; (3) mRNA levels of EPHB2, ACBD7, and SCD were affected by age; (4) mRNA level of TNC was modulated by age:diet interaction; (5) changes in GREM1 and IGFBP2 mRNA levels were not statistically different. PMID:24551454

  8. Expression of Potential Regulatory Genes in Abdominal Adipose Tissue of Broiler Chickens during Early Development

    PubMed Central

    Bohannon-Stewart, Ann; Subramanya, Sri Harsha K. V.; Donkor, Joseph; Tyus, James; Hui, Dafeng; Ivy, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The identities of genes that underlie population variation in adipose tissue development in farm animals are poorly understood. Previous studies in our laboratory have suggested that increased fat tissue involves the expression modulation of an array of genes in broiler chickens. Of special interest are eight genes, FGFR3, EPHB2, IGFBP2, GREM1, TNC, COL3A1, ACBD7, and SCD. To understand their expression regulation and response to dietary manipulation, we investigated their mRNA levels after dietary manipulation during early development. Chickens were fed either a recommended standard or a high caloric diet from hatch to eight weeks of age (WOA). The high caloric diet markedly affected bodyweight of the broiler birds. mRNA levels of the eight genes in the abdominal adipose tissue were assayed at 2, 4, 6, and 8 WOA using RT-qPCR. Results indicate that (1) FGFR3 mRNA level was affected significantly by diet, age, and diet:age interaction; (2) COL3A mRNA level was repressed by high caloric diet; (3) mRNA levels of EPHB2, ACBD7, and SCD were affected by age; (4) mRNA level of TNC was modulated by age:diet interaction; (5) changes in GREM1 and IGFBP2 mRNA levels were not statistically different. PMID:24551454

  9. Estimating marbofloxacin withdrawal time in broiler chickens using a population physiologically based pharmacokinetics model.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Yang, Y R; Wang, L; Huang, X H; Qiao, G; Zeng, Z L

    2014-12-01

    Residue depletion of marbofloxacin in broiler chicken after oral administration at 5 mg/kg/day for three consecutive days was studied in this study. The areas under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to ∞ (AUC0-∞ s) of marbofloxacin in tissues and plasma were used to calculate tissue/plasma partition coefficients (PX s). Based on PX s and the other parameters derived from published studies, a flow-limited physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) model was developed to predict marbofloxacin concentrations, which were then compared with those derived from the residue depletion study so as to validate this model. Considering individual difference in drug disposition, a Monte Carlo simulation included 1000 iterations was further incorporated into the validated model to generate a population PBPK model and to estimate the marbofloxacin residue withdrawal times in edible tissues. The withdrawal periods were compared to those derived from linear regression analysis. The PBPK model presented here successfully predicted the measured concentrations in all tissues. The withdrawal times in all edible tissues derived from the population PBPK model were longer than those from linear regression analysis, and based on the residues in kidney, a withdrawal time of 4 days was estimated for marbofloxacin after oral administration at 5 mg/kg/day for three consecutive days. It was shown that population PBPK model could be used to accurately predict marbofloxacin residue withdrawal time in edible tissues in broiler chickens.

  10. Polymerase chain reaction detection of naturally occurring Campylobacter in commercial broiler chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Hiett, K L; Cox, N A; Rothrock, M J

    2013-04-01

    Campylobacter, a foodborne pathogen closely associated with poultry, is recognized as a leading bacterial etiologic agent of human gastroenteritis in the United States. In this investigation, 2 trials were performed where tissues from 7-, 14/15-, and 19-d-old commercial broiler chicken embryos were tested for the presence of Campylobacter using both culturing methodology and PCR. Conventional culturing methods failed to detect Campylobacter from any samples tested during this investigation. Using a set of primers specific for the Campylobacter flagellinA short variable region (flaA SVR), Campylobacter DNA was amplified in 100, 80, and 100% of gastrointestinal tracts from 7-, 15-, and 19-d-old embryos, respectively, in the first trial. Similarly, Campylobacter DNA was detected in 100, 70, and 60% of gastrointestinal tracts of 7-, 14-, and 18-d-old embryos, respectively, in the second trial. In both trials, yolk sac, albumin, and liver/gallbladder samples from 19-d-old embryos all failed to produce amplicons indicative of Campylobacter DNA. Subsequent DNA sequence analyses of the flaA SVR PCR products were consistent with the amplicon arising from Campylobacter. Although a determination of whether the Campylobacter was living or dead within the embryos could not be made, these results demonstrate that Campylobacter-specific DNA is present within the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chicken embryos; however, the means by which it is present and the relative contribution to subsequent Campylobacter contamination of poultry flocks requires further investigation.

  11. Effect of Dietary Lead on Intestinal Nutrient Transporters mRNA Expression in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Roohollah; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Liang, Juan Boo; Soleimani Farjam, Abdoreza; Shokryazdan, Parisa; Idrus, Zulkifli

    2015-01-01

    Lead- (Pb-) induced oxidative stress is known to suppress growth performance and feed efficiency in broiler chickens. In an attempt to describe the specific underlying mechanisms of such phenomenon we carried out the current study. Ninety-six one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatment groups of 6 pen replicates, namely, (i) basal diet containing no lead supplement (control) and (ii) basal diet containing 200 mg lead acetate/kg of diet. Following 3 weeks of experimental period, jejunum samples were collected to examine the changes in gene expression of several nutrient transporters, antioxidant enzymes, and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) using quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that addition of lead significantly decreased feed intake, body weight gain, and feed efficiency. Moreover, with the exception of GLUT5, the expression of all sugar, peptide, and amino acid transporters was significantly downregulated in the birds under Pb induced oxidative stress. Exposure to Pb also upregulated the antioxidant enzymes gene expression together with the downregulation of glutathione S-transferase and Hsp70. In conclusion, it appears that Pb-induced oxidative stress adversely suppresses feed efficiency and growth performance in chicken and the possible underlying mechanism for such phenomenon is downregulation of major nutrient transporter genes in small intestine. PMID:25695048

  12. Growth performance and carcase quality in broiler chickens fed on bacterial protein grown on natural gas.

    PubMed

    Øverland, M; Schøyen, H F; Skrede, A

    2010-10-01

    1. The effects of increasing concentrations (0, 40, 80 or 120 g/kg) of bacterial protein meal (BPM) and bacterial protein autolysate (BPA) grown on natural gas on growth performance and carcase quality in broiler chickens were examined. 2. Adding BPM to diets reduced feed intake and improved gain: feed from 0 to 21 d and overall to 35 d, but did not significantly affect weight gain compared to the soybean meal based control diet. 3. Increasing concentrations of BPA significantly reduced growth rate, feed intake, gain: feed, carcase weight and dressing percentage, but significantly increased carcase dry matter, fat and energy content. 4. Adding BPM to diets had no effect on viscosity of diets and jejunal digesta, and minor effects on litter quality, whereas BPA increased the viscosity of diets and jejunal digesta, improved litter quality at 21 d, but decreased litter quality at 32 d. 5. To conclude, broiler chickens performed better on a BPM product with intact proteins than on an autolysate with ruptured cell walls and a high content of free amino acids and low molecular-weight peptides.

  13. The cysteine, total sulfur amino acid, tyrosine, phenylalanine + tyrosine, and non-essential amino acid maintenance requirements of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Ekmay, R D; Mei, S J; Sakomura, N K; Coon, C N

    2016-06-01

    Two hundred and fifty Cobb-Vantress broiler breeders were used to determine the maintenance requirement and efficiency of utilization of dietary Cys, Tyr, and non-essential amino acids (AA) in a 21-day experiment. The breeders were fed crystalline amino acid diets containing graded levels of Cys or Tyr representing 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% of their suggested requirement level with all other amino acids maintained at 40% of their suggested requirement level. To determine the non-essential AA maintenance requirement, graded levels of non-essential AA were provided by glutamic acid to represent 12, 19, 26, 33, and 40% of the ideal level of glutamic acid with all other amino acids maintained at their maintenance requirement level. The total sulfur amino acid (TSAA) and Phe + Tyr requirements were calculated by combining Cys and Tyr results, respectively, with previously determined Met and Phe, respectively. The slope of Cys, Tyr, and non-essential AA accretion regression line indicated that 29% Cys, 24% TSAA, 21% Tyr, 20% Phe + Tyr, and 9% non-essential AA of crystalline amino acids were retained. The Cys requirement for zero protein accretion was calculated to be 30.48 mg/d or 17.006 mg/ kgBW(0.75)/d or 75.426 mg/kgCP/d. The TSAA requirement for zero accretion was calculated to be 132.25 mg/b/d, 71.48 mg/kgBW(0.75)/d, and 307.55 mg/kgCP/d. The Tyr requirement for zero protein accretion was calculated to be 65.907 mg/d or 37.233 mg/ kgBW(0.75)/d or 175.566 mg/kgCP/d. The Phe + Tyr requirement for zero protein accretion was calculated to be 352.18 mg/b/d, 190.37 mg/kgBW(0.75)/d, and 749.33 mg/kgCP/d. The non-essential AA requirement for zero protein accretion was calculated to be 3715.194 mg/d or 2003.155 mg/kgBW(0.75)/d or 9452.954 mg/kgCP/d.

  14. A quantitative trait locus for ascites on chromosome 9 in broiler chicken lines

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Smith, Candace D.; Al-Rubaye, Adnan A.; Erf, Gisela F.; Wideman, Robert F.; Anthony, Nicholas B.; Rhoads, Douglas D.

    2014-01-01

    A genome-wide SNP survey was used to identify chromosomal regions that showed linkage disequilibrium with respect to ascites susceptibility and ventricular hypertrophy in an F2 cross between previously described ascites-resistant and -susceptible lines. Variable number tandem repeats were used to obtain genotype data to further characterize these regions. A region on chromosome 9 (12 to 13 Mbp in 2011 assembly) shows association with ascites in the ascites lines and in several commercial broiler breeder lines with a significant sex effect. There are 2 candidate genes, AGTR1 (an angiotensin II type 1 receptor) and UTS2D (urotensin 2 domain containing), in this region that have been associated with hypertension and hypoxic response in mammals. PMID:24570451

  15. Dietary Nisin Modulates the Gastrointestinal Microbial Ecology and Enhances Growth Performance of the Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Józefiak, Damian; Kierończyk, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Rawski, Mateusz; Długosz, Jakub; Sip, Anna; Højberg, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Due to antimicrobial properties, nisin is one of the most commonly used and investigated bacteriocins for food preservation. Surprisingly, nisin has had limited use in animal feed as well as there are only few reports on its influence on microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The present study therefore aimed at investigating effects of dietary nisin on broiler chicken GIT microbial ecology and performance in comparison to salinomycin, the widely used ionophore coccidiostat. In total, 720 one-day-old male Ross 308 chicks were randomly distributed to six experimental groups. The positive control (PC) diet was supplemented with salinomycin (60 mg/kg). The nisin (NI) diets were supplemented with increasing levels (100, 300, 900 and 2700 IU nisin/g, respectively) of the bacteriocin. The negative control (NC) diet contained no additives. At slaughter (35 days of age), activity of specific bacterial enzymes (α- and β-glucosidases, α-galactosidases and β-glucuronidase) in crop, ileum and caeca were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the NC group, and nisin supplementation decreased the enzyme activities to levels observed for the PC group. A similar inhibitory influence on bacterial activity was reflected in the levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and putrefactive SCFA (PSCFA) in digesta from crop and ileum; no effect was observed in caeca. Counts of Bacteroides and Enterobacteriacae in ileum digesta were significantly (P<0.001) decreased by nisin and salinomycin, but no effects were observed on the counts of Clostridium perfringens, Lactobacillus/Enterococcus and total bacteria. Like salinomycin, nisin supplementation improved broiler growth performance in a dose-dependent manner; compared to the NC group, the body weight gain of the NI900 and NI2700 groups was improved by 4.7 and 8.7%, respectively. Our findings suggest that dietary nisin exerts a mode of action similar to salinomycin and could be considered as a dietary supplement for broiler

  16. Effect of ambient temperature and light intensity on physiological reactions of heavy broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Olanrewaju, H A; Purswell, J L; Collier, S D; Branton, S L

    2010-12-01

    The effects of ambient temperature, light intensity, and their interaction on blood acid-base balance, metabolites, and electrolytes in broiler chickens under environmentally controlled conditions were examined in 2 trials. The experiment consisted of a factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design. The 9 treatments consisted of 3 levels of temperatures (low = 15.6°C; moderate = 21.1°C; high = 26.7°C) from 21 to 56 d of age and 3 levels of light intensities (0.5, 3.0, 20 lx) from 8 to 56 d of age at 50% RH. A total of 540 Ross 708 chicks were randomly distributed into 9 environmentally controlled chambers (30 male and 30 female chicks/chamber) at 1 d of age. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Venous blood samples were collected on d 21 (baseline), 28, 42, and 56. High ambient temperature significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced BW, partial pressure of CO(2), bicarbonate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, K(+), and Na(+) along with significantly (P ≤ 0.05) elevated pH level, Cl(-), glucose, osmolality, and anion gap concentrations. Partial pressure of O(2) was slightly increased in response to increased ambient temperature. There was no effect of light intensity on most of the blood variables examined. Acid-base regulation during high ambient temperature and light intensity exposure did not deteriorate despite a lower partial pressure of CO(2), which consequently increased blood pH because of a compensatory decrease in HCO(3)(-) concentration. Plasma corticosterone was not affected by temperature, light intensity, or their interaction. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to varying light intensities had a minor effect on physiological blood variables, whereas high ambient temperature markedly affected various blood variables without inducing stress in broilers.

  17. Dietary nisin modulates the gastrointestinal microbial ecology and enhances growth performance of the broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Józefiak, Damian; Kierończyk, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Rawski, Mateusz; Długosz, Jakub; Sip, Anna; Højberg, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Due to antimicrobial properties, nisin is one of the most commonly used and investigated bacteriocins for food preservation. Surprisingly, nisin has had limited use in animal feed as well as there are only few reports on its influence on microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The present study therefore aimed at investigating effects of dietary nisin on broiler chicken GIT microbial ecology and performance in comparison to salinomycin, the widely used ionophore coccidiostat. In total, 720 one-day-old male Ross 308 chicks were randomly distributed to six experimental groups. The positive control (PC) diet was supplemented with salinomycin (60 mg/kg). The nisin (NI) diets were supplemented with increasing levels (100, 300, 900 and 2700 IU nisin/g, respectively) of the bacteriocin. The negative control (NC) diet contained no additives. At slaughter (35 days of age), activity of specific bacterial enzymes (α- and β-glucosidases, α-galactosidases and β-glucuronidase) in crop, ileum and caeca were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the NC group, and nisin supplementation decreased the enzyme activities to levels observed for the PC group. A similar inhibitory influence on bacterial activity was reflected in the levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and putrefactive SCFA (PSCFA) in digesta from crop and ileum; no effect was observed in caeca. Counts of Bacteroides and Enterobacteriacae in ileum digesta were significantly (P<0.001) decreased by nisin and salinomycin, but no effects were observed on the counts of Clostridium perfringens, Lactobacillus/Enterococcus and total bacteria. Like salinomycin, nisin supplementation improved broiler growth performance in a dose-dependent manner; compared to the NC group, the body weight gain of the NI₉₀₀ and NI₂₇₀₀ groups was improved by 4.7 and 8.7%, respectively. Our findings suggest that dietary nisin exerts a mode of action similar to salinomycin and could be considered as a dietary supplement

  18. Effect of ambient temperature and light intensity on physiological reactions of heavy broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Olanrewaju, H A; Purswell, J L; Collier, S D; Branton, S L

    2010-12-01

    The effects of ambient temperature, light intensity, and their interaction on blood acid-base balance, metabolites, and electrolytes in broiler chickens under environmentally controlled conditions were examined in 2 trials. The experiment consisted of a factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design. The 9 treatments consisted of 3 levels of temperatures (low = 15.6°C; moderate = 21.1°C; high = 26.7°C) from 21 to 56 d of age and 3 levels of light intensities (0.5, 3.0, 20 lx) from 8 to 56 d of age at 50% RH. A total of 540 Ross 708 chicks were randomly distributed into 9 environmentally controlled chambers (30 male and 30 female chicks/chamber) at 1 d of age. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Venous blood samples were collected on d 21 (baseline), 28, 42, and 56. High ambient temperature significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced BW, partial pressure of CO(2), bicarbonate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, K(+), and Na(+) along with significantly (P ≤ 0.05) elevated pH level, Cl(-), glucose, osmolality, and anion gap concentrations. Partial pressure of O(2) was slightly increased in response to increased ambient temperature. There was no effect of light intensity on most of the blood variables examined. Acid-base regulation during high ambient temperature and light intensity exposure did not deteriorate despite a lower partial pressure of CO(2), which consequently increased blood pH because of a compensatory decrease in HCO(3)(-) concentration. Plasma corticosterone was not affected by temperature, light intensity, or their interaction. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to varying light intensities had a minor effect on physiological blood variables, whereas high ambient temperature markedly affected various blood variables without inducing stress in broilers. PMID:21076106

  19. Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella isolates from broiler chickens at slaughter in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mainali, C; McFall, M; King, R; Irwin, R

    2014-03-01

    Antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella species are threatening to become a serious public health problem. Therefore, surveillance and prudent use of antimicrobials is needed in both the agricultural and human health sectors. The aim of this study was to describe the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Salmonella isolates recovered from healthy broiler chickens at slaughter from November 2004 to April 2005. Salmonella isolates recovered from 36 broiler flocks in Alberta, Canada, were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility against 15 antimicrobials. Of 272 Salmonella isolates tested, 64.0% were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, 10.0% were resistant to three or more antimicrobials, and 1.8% were resistant to five antimicrobials. All isolates were susceptible to amikacin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid. The highest prevalence of resistance was to tetracycline (54.8%), followed by streptomycin (24.2%) and sulfisoxazole (8.4%). The most common multiantimicrobial resistance patterns were to streptomycin-tetracycline (24.3%), streptomycin-sulfisoxazole-tetracycline (6.6%), and ampicillin-streptomycin-sulfisoxazole-tetracycline (3.7%). The strongest associations were observed between resistance to kanamycin and tetracycline (odds ratio = 65.7, P = 0.001) and to ampicillin and sulfisoxazole (odds ratio = 62.9, P = 0.001). Salmonella Hadar and Salmonella Heidelberg were the two most common serovars accounting for 40.4 and 13.6% of the total isolates, respectively. Eighty-one percent and 12.7% of Salmonella Hadar isolates and 62.0 and 8.1% of Salmonella Heidelberg isolates were resistant to 1 or more and three or more antimicrobials, respectively. The flock level prevalence of resistance ranged from 5.6% for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to 83.3% for tetracycline. This study provides baseline information on antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolates of broiler chickens at

  20. Analysis of right ventricular areas to assess the severity of ascites syndrome in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    McGovern, R H; Feddes, J J; Robinson, F E; Hanson, J A

    1999-01-01

    Ascites syndrome in broiler chickens is defined as a condition associated with pulmonary hypertension leading to right heart failure, increased central venous pressure, passive congestion of the liver, and accumulations of serous fluids in body cavities. The syndrome is currently seen in fast-growing broiler chickens associated with an increase in the weight, volume, and area of the right ventricle of the heart. The ratio of the right ventricle weight to the total heart mass has been used to assess the consequences of increased blood pressure. The right ventricle area (RVA) can be quantified using image analysis technology. Hearts were removed from 719 male broilers at slaughter (42 d). All birds were visually scored for the incidence of ascites. A score of 0 or 1 represented slight hydropericardium, slight right heart hypertrophy, and slight edema. A score of 4 was assigned to birds with marked accumulation of ascitic fluid in one or more ceolomic cavities, pronounced dilation of the right heart, and prominent liver lesions. A cross-sectional image of each heart slice (a 4-mm-thick slice of the ventricles) was digitally recorded. Using image analysis software, the RVA, left ventricular area (LVA), and total heart area (HA) were determined. Because a slice of the heart was used in image analysis, the importance of maintaining the original shape was determined. Twenty hearts in five ranges of RVA size were scanned in four different positions, which have differing heart slice orientations and differing RVA shapes, for a comparison of positioning technique (placement) relating to the RVA. The shape of the heart slice for image analysis was observed not to be critical for the small RVA. For heart slices with large RVA values, it was found to be critical to analyze the heart slice in a standardized placement. PMID:10023748

  1. The genetic basis of pectoralis major myopathies in modern broiler chicken lines

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Richard A.; Watson, Kellie A.; Bilgili, S. F.; Avendano, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    This is the first report providing estimates of the genetic basis of breast muscle myopathies (BMM) and their relationship with growth and yield in broiler chickens. In addition, this paper addresses the hypothesis that genetic selection for increase breast yield has contributed to the onset of BMM. Data were analyzed from ongoing recording of BMM within the Aviagen breeding program. This study focused on three BMM: deep pectoral myopathy (DPM; binary trait), white striping (WS; 4 categories) and wooden breast (WB; 3 categories). Data from two purebred commercial broiler lines (A and B) were utilized providing greater than 40,000 meat quality records per line. The difference in selection history between these two lines has resulted in contrasting breast yield (BY): 29% for Line A and 21% for Line B. Data were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters using a multivariate animal model including six traits: body weight (BW), processing body weight (PW), BY, DPM, WB, and WS, in addition to the appropriate fixed effects and permanent environmental effect of the dam. Results indicate similar patterns of heritability and genetic correlations for the two lines. Heritabilities (h2) of BW, PW and BY ranged from 0.271–0.418; for DPM and WB h2 <0.1; and for WS h2 ≤0.338. Genetic correlations between the BMM and BW, PW, or BY were ≤0.132 in Line A and ≤0.248 in Line B. This paper demonstrates the polygenic nature of these traits and the low genetic relationships with BW, PW, and BY, which facilitates genetic improvement across all traits in a balanced breeding program. It also highlights the importance of understanding the environmental and/or management factors that contribute greater than 65% of the variance in the incidence of white striping of breast muscle and more than 90% of the variance of the incidence of wooden breast and deep pectoral myopathy in broiler chickens. PMID:26476091

  2. Thermal nociceptive threshold testing detects altered sensory processing in broiler chickens with spontaneous lameness.

    PubMed

    Hothersall, Becky; Caplen, Gina; Parker, Richard M A; Nicol, Christine J; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E; Weeks, Claire A; Murrell, Joanna C

    2014-01-01

    Lameness is common in commercially reared broiler chickens but relationships between lameness and pain (and thus bird welfare) have proved complex, partly because lameness is often partially confounded with factors such as bodyweight, sex and pathology. Thermal nociceptive threshold (TNT) testing explores the neural processing of noxious stimuli, and so can contribute to our understanding of pain. Using an acute model of experimentally induced articular pain, we recently demonstrated that TNT was reduced in lame broiler chickens, and was subsequently attenuated by administration of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). This study extended these findings to a large sample of commercial broilers. It examined factors affecting thermal threshold (Part 1) and the effect of an NSAID drug (meloxicam, 5 mg/kg) and of an opioid (butorphanol; 4 mg/kg) (Part 2). Spontaneously lame and matched non-lame birds (n=167) from commercial farms were exposed to ramped thermal stimulations via a probe attached to the lateral aspect of the tarsometatarsus. Baseline skin temperature and temperature at which a behavioural avoidance response occurred (threshold) were recorded. In Part 1 bird characteristics influencing threshold were modelled; In Part 2 the effect of subcutaneous administration of meloxicam or butorphanol was investigated. Unexpectedly, after accounting for other influences, lameness increased threshold significantly (Part 1). In Part 2, meloxicam affected threshold differentially: it increased further in lame birds and decreased in non-lame birds. No effect of butorphanol was detected. Baseline skin temperature was also consistently a significant predictor of threshold. Overall, lameness significantly influenced threshold after other bird characteristics were taken into account. This, and a differential effect of meloxicam on lame birds, suggests that nociceptive processing may be altered in lame birds, though mechanisms for this require further investigation

  3. Influence of different prebiotics and mode of their administration on broiler chicken performance.

    PubMed

    Bednarczyk, M; Stadnicka, K; Kozłowska, I; Abiuso, C; Tavaniello, S; Dankowiakowska, A; Sławińska, A; Maiorano, G

    2016-08-01

    In the post-antibiotics era, prebiotics are proposed as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in poultry production. The goal of this study was to compare in ovo method of prebiotic delivery with in-water supplementation and with both methods combined (in ovo+in-water) in broiler chickens. Two trials were conducted. Trial 1 was carried out to optimize the doses of two prebiotics, DN (DiNovo®, extract of beta-glucans) and BI (Bi2tos, trans-galactooligosaccharides), for in ovo delivery. The estimated parameters were hatchability and bacteriological status of the newly hatched chicks. Prebiotics were dissolved in 0.2 ml of physiological saline, at the doses: 0.18, 0.88, 3.5 and 7.0 mg/embryo; control group (C) was injected in ovo with 0.2 ml of physiological saline. Trial 2 was conducted to evaluate effects of different prebiotics (DN, BI and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO)) delivered in ovo, in-water and in a combined way (in ovo+in-water) on broiler chickens performance. The results of the Trial 1 indicated that the optimal dose of DN and BI prebiotics delivered in ovo, that did not reduce chicks' hatchability, was 0.88 mg/embryo (DN) and 3.5 mg/embryo (BI). Both prebiotics numerically increased number of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in chicken feces (P>0.05). In Trial 2, all prebiotics (DN, BI and RFO) significantly increased BW gain compared with the C group (P<0.05), especially during the first 21 days of life. However, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were increased upon prebiotics delivery irrespective of method used. Injection of prebiotics in ovo combined with in-water supplementation did not express synergistic effects on broilers performance compared with in ovo injection only. Taken together, those results confirm that single in ovo prebiotics injection into the chicken embryo can successfully replace prolonged in-water supplementation post hatching. PMID:26936310

  4. Effects of aflatoxins on performance and exocrine pancreas of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Marchioro, A; Mallmann, A O; Diel, A; Dilkin, P; Rauber, R H; Blazquez, F J H; Oliveira, M G A; Mallmann, C A

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate, on a weekly basis, the effects of aflatoxins on the activity of digestive enzymes (alpha-amylase, lipase, and trypsin) in the pancreas as well as on the performance and histology of pancreas in broiler chickens over the course of 42 days. One thousand and eighty 1-day-old male Cobb broilers were divided into four treatments with 18 replicates and 15 birds per replicate (i.e., 270 broilers per treatment). Treatments were established according to the amount of aflatoxins added to the diet, as follows: T1 = 0 mg of aflatoxins per kilogram of feed (mg/kg); T2 = 0.7 mg/kg; T3 = 1.7 mg/kg; and T4 = 2.8 mg/kg. Pancreas sample collection was performed from one bird out of each replicate at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days of experiment, which yielded a total of 18 samples per treatment on each collection. Each sample was homogenized in distilled water, frozen in liquid nitrogen, lyophilized, and stored at -20 C until analysis. Performance parameters (body weight, feed consumption, and feed conversion rate) were measured at 21, 35, and 42 days of experiment. At the end of the experiment (42 days), six birds from each treatment were randomly chosen for histologic evaluation of the pancreas. The presence of aflatoxins in the diet induced a negative effect on all performance parameters. The pancreatic activity of lipase and alpha-amylase were significantly increased in treatments T3 and T4, while the specific activity of trypsin was only affected during treatment T4. In addition, several histologic changes were observed in the pancreas of birds receiving aflatoxin-contaminated feed. Aflatoxins present in the feed determined an increase in the activity of pancreatic enzymes in broilers, affecting the digestibility of the diet, thereby leading to losses in performance and productivity.

  5. Age-related changes in meat tenderness and tissue pentosidine: effect of diet restriction and aminoguanidine in broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M; Kenney, P B; Klandorf, H

    1999-09-01

    The nonenzymatic glycosylation of tissue protein contributes to the formation of crosslinks that leads to structural and functional deterioration in the long-lived tissue protein, collagen. The accumulation of these crosslinks thus contributes to the objectionable toughness of meat from aged animals, decreases its economic value, and limits its use in whole muscle foods. The objectives of this study were to determine the effectiveness of diet restriction and the crosslinking inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG), on reducing the accumulation of crosslinks, thereby improving meat tenderness in broiler breeder hens. The glycoxidation product, pentosidine, was also measured in skin (Ps) to determine whether changes in its concentrations correlated with the changes in shear value (SV). Chicks (n = 450) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups from 8 to 125 wk after hatch: ad libitum (AL), diet restricted (DR), AL and DR groups supplemented with 400 ppm AG each (AL+AG and DR+AG, respectively). Shear value was measured with an Instron Universal Mechanical Machine. Skin pentosidine was isolated by reverse phase HPLC. There was an age-related, linear increase in SV (P<0.0001, r = 0.96), which correlated (r = 0.86) with the age-related increase in Ps in AL hens. Diet restriction retarded SV (P<0.0001) over the sampling period. In general, SV values for AL+AG were similar to those measured in DR, whereas no additive effect was observed for AG in DR birds. It was concluded that there was a linear increase in meat toughness (SV) with age that correlates with the accumulation of Ps, and that the decline in meat tenderness can be retarded by DR or AG. Secondly, the effect of DR on accumulation of Ps was so pronounced that AG supplementation did not further enhance this effect.

  6. Dietary vitamin A supplementation improved reproductive performance by regulating ovarian expression of hormone receptors, caspase-3 and Fas in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Jiang, Zongyong; Jiang, Shouqun; Li, Long; Lin, Xiajing; Gou, Zongyong; Fan, Qiuli

    2016-01-01

    The effects of dietary vitamin A (VA) supplementation on reproductive performance, VA deposition, and potential mechanisms of action were studied in Chinese yellow-feathered broiler breeders. A total of 528 yellow-feathered broiler breeders that were 46 wk old were fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet supplemented with 0; 5,400; 10,800; or 21,600 IU/kg VA for 9 wk. Each dietary treatment had 6 replicates with 22 birds per replicate. After 7 wk of treatment, 60 settable eggs per replicate were collected for hatching. The results showed that dietary VA improved the laying rate, egg-to-feed ratio, and hatch weight of offspring (P < 0.05). Hepatic retinyl palmitate in broiler breeders and hatchlings (within 12 h) increased with increasing VA (P < 0.05). VA supplementation increased insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) receptor transcripts in the ovarian stroma and the walls of yellow follicles, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor expression in the walls of white and yellow follicles, and luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor and growth hormone (GH) receptor transcripts in the walls of yellow follicles (P < 0.05). Caspase-3 and Fas mRNA levels in the ovarian stroma and the walls of white and yellow follicles decreased with VA supplementation (P < 0.05). The relative expression of retinol dehydrogenase 10 (RDH10) transcripts in the walls of white follicles increased with 5,400 IU/kg VA supplementation (P < 0.05). Supplemental 21,600 IU/kg VA increased cytochrome P450 26A1 (CYP26A1) transcripts in the ovarian stroma and the walls of white follicles (P < 0.05). Dietary VA elevated retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) expression in the ovarian stroma and the walls of yellow follicles and retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) expression in the walls of yellow follicles. It was concluded that VA supplementation improved reproductive performance and hepatic storage of VA, and this was associated with the regulation of ovarian hormone receptor expression and suppression of apoptosis

  7. Effect of amount and source of supplemental dietary vegetable oil on broiler chickens exposed to aflatoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Raju, M V L N; Rama Rao, S V; Radhika, K; Panda, A K

    2005-10-01

    1. Addition of sunflower oil (SFO) at 30 or 60 g/kg or three vegetable oils, namely SFO, soybean (SBO) or groundnut (GNO), at 30 g/kg to isocaloric and isonitrogenous broiler chicken diets were evaluated for possible counteractive effects against aflatoxin (AF) (0.3 microg B1/g diet) from 0 to 42 d of age. 2. Body weight, food intake and serum concentration of protein were lower in the AF group than in the control, whereas in the SFO and SBO supplemented groups they were comparable with those of the control. Sunflower oil at both concentrations exerted similar effects on growth. Groundnut oil did not improve growth or food intake in AF-fed birds. 3. The serum concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides decreased with AF feeding and was increased by supplementation of any of the three oils both in the control and in AF-fed groups. 4. Liver and giblet weight and liver fat content were increased by AF; these effects were countered by dietary oil inclusion, except for liver weight at 60 g/kg SFO. Weights of pancreas and gall bladder were increased by AF. Oil supplementation reduced the weight of pancreas in chickens given AF. 5. Humoral immune response was depressed by AF and dietary oil supplementation (particularly SFO or SBO) countered this effect. Other variables, namely, serum gamma glutamyl transferase activity, bone mineralisation, weights of lymphoid organs, kidney and adrenals, ready-to-cook yields and fat content in muscle and skin showed little or no effect of dietary oil supplementation. 6. It is concluded that dietary inclusion of SFO or SBO at 30 g/kg may alleviate the adverse effects of 0.3 microg/g of AF B1 in commercial broiler chickens. Groundnut oil, although showing beneficial effects on some biochemical variables, failed to improve growth performance.

  8. Effect of therapeutic supplementation of plant molecules, trans-cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in market-age broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the therapeutic efficacy of food-grade plant compounds, trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) and eugenol (EG) on reducing SE in commercial, market-age broiler chickens. In two separate experiments, day-old commercial broiler chicks were randomly grouped into six groups of 14 birds each ...

  9. The influence of phytoncides on the immune system of broiler chickens and turkeys

    PubMed Central

    Śmiałek, Marcin; Tykałowski, Bartłomiej; Pestka, Daria; Stenzel, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of adiSalmoSOL PF dietary supplement, given for 3 days in drinking water, on selected parameters of cell-mediated (Experiment I) and humoral (Experiment II) immunity in chicken and turkey broilers. In Experiment I, birds were randomly divided into two groups of 10 birds each. Group 1 comprised control turkeys or chickens, whereas group 2 birds were administered adiSalmoSOLPF. In Experiment II, a total of 69 chickens were divided into three groups (1-3) of 23 birds each. At the age of 25 days, group 1 was given adiSalmoSOLPF. Birds from groups 1-3 were vaccinated at 28 days of age. Group 2 was given adiSalmoSOLPF after vaccination. In Experiment I, a significant increase in percentages of CD4 + T lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius, cecal tonsils and spleen, CD8 + T lymphocytes in the thymus and spleen, CD4 + CD8 + T lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius and ileal mucosa and IgM + B lymphocyte in the ileal mucosa were observed in group 2 chickens. In Experiment I, a significant increase in percentages of CD4 + T lymphocytes in the thymus and spleen, CD8+ T lymphocytes in the cecal tonsils and blood, and CD4 + CD8 + T lymphocytes in the thymus and ileal mucosa was recorded in group 2 turkeys. No differences in percentages of IgM + B lymphocytes were observed between turkey groups. In Experiment II, the highest post-vaccination titers of anti-IB antibodies were observed in group 2, but it was not statistically significant. The results of our study indicate that adiSalmoSOLPF showed immunomodulatory activity in chickens and turkeys. PMID:26648771

  10. Metabolism of deoxynivalenol and deepoxy-deoxynivalenol in broiler chickens, pullets, roosters and turkeys.

    PubMed

    Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi E; Fruhmann, Philipp; Dänicke, Sven; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Caha, Sylvia; Weber, Julia; Berthiller, Franz

    2015-11-12

    Recently, deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate (DON-3-sulfate) was proposed as a major DON metabolite in poultry. In the present work, the first LC-MS/MS based method for determination of DON-3-sulfate, deepoxy-DON-3-sulfate (DOM-3-sulfate), DON, DOM, DON sulfonates 1, 2, 3, and DOM sulfonate 2 in excreta samples of chickens and turkeys was developed and validated. To this end, DOM-3-sulfate was chemically synthesized and characterized by NMR and LC-HR-MS/MS measurements. Application of the method to excreta and chyme samples of four feeding trials with turkeys, chickens, pullets, and roosters confirmed DON-3-sulfate as the major DON metabolite in all poultry species studied. Analogously to DON-3-sulfate, DOM-3-sulfate was formed after oral administration of DOM both in turkeys and in chickens. In addition, pullets and roosters metabolized DON into DOM-3-sulfate. In vitro transcription/translation assays revealed DOM-3-sulfate to be 2000 times less toxic on the ribosome than DON. Biological recoveries of DON and DOM orally administered to broiler chickens, turkeys, and pullets were 74%-106% (chickens), 51%-72% (roosters), and 131%-151% (pullets). In pullets, DON-3-sulfate concentrations increased from jejunum chyme samples to excreta samples by a factor of 60. This result, put into context with earlier studies, indicates fast and efficient absorption of DON between crop and jejunum, conversion to DON-3-sulfate in intestinal mucosa, liver, and possibly kidney, and rapid elimination into excreta via bile and urine.

  11. Metabolism of Deoxynivalenol and Deepoxy-Deoxynivalenol in Broiler Chickens, Pullets, Roosters and Turkeys

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi E.; Fruhmann, Philipp; Dänicke, Sven; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Caha, Sylvia; Weber, Julia; Berthiller, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Recently, deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate (DON-3-sulfate) was proposed as a major DON metabolite in poultry. In the present work, the first LC-MS/MS based method for determination of DON-3-sulfate, deepoxy-DON-3-sulfate (DOM-3-sulfate), DON, DOM, DON sulfonates 1, 2, 3, and DOM sulfonate 2 in excreta samples of chickens and turkeys was developed and validated. To this end, DOM-3-sulfate was chemically synthesized and characterized by NMR and LC-HR-MS/MS measurements. Application of the method to excreta and chyme samples of four feeding trials with turkeys, chickens, pullets, and roosters confirmed DON-3-sulfate as the major DON metabolite in all poultry species studied. Analogously to DON-3-sulfate, DOM-3-sulfate was formed after oral administration of DOM both in turkeys and in chickens. In addition, pullets and roosters metabolized DON into DOM-3-sulfate. In vitro transcription/translation assays revealed DOM-3-sulfate to be 2000 times less toxic on the ribosome than DON. Biological recoveries of DON and DOM orally administered to broiler chickens, turkeys, and pullets were 74%–106% (chickens), 51%–72% (roosters), and 131%–151% (pullets). In pullets, DON-3-sulfate concentrations increased from jejunum chyme samples to excreta samples by a factor of 60. This result, put into context with earlier studies, indicates fast and efficient absorption of DON between crop and jejunum, conversion to DON-3-sulfate in intestinal mucosa, liver, and possibly kidney, and rapid elimination into excreta via bile and urine. PMID:26569307

  12. Sodium butyrate maintains growth performance by regulating the immune response in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W H; Jiang, Y; Zhu, Q F; Gao, F; Dai, S F; Chen, J; Zhou, G H

    2011-06-01

    1. The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary sodium butyrate on the growth performance and immune response of broiler chickens. In experiment 1, 240 1-d-old chickens were allocated into 4 dietary groups (0, 0·25, 0·50 or 1·00 g sodium butyrate/kg) with 6 replicates each. In experiment 2, 120 1-d-old chickens were fed a control diet (without sodium butyrate) or 1·00 g sodium butyrate/kg diet. Half of the chickens fed on each diet were injected intra-peritoneally with 0·5 g/kg body weight of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 16, 18 and 20 d of age. 2. There was no effect of dietary sodium butyrate on growth performance. On d 21, serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were decreased in chickens given 1·00 g sodium butyrate/kg, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities were significantly increased, and malondialdehyde (MDA) was decreased by dietary sodium butyrate at 0·50 or 1·00 g/kg. On d 42, serum IL-6 was markedly decreased by dietary sodium butyrate, while 1·00 g sodium butyrate/kg greatly reduced MDA and increased catalase. 3. LPS challenge significantly reduced the growth performance of chickens. Serum IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, corticosterone, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were increased in LPS-challenged chickens. Dietary sodium butyrate supplementation maintained the body weight gain and feed intake. Sodium butyrate supplementation inhibited the increase in IL-6 and AGP in serum at 16 d of age and TNF-α, corticosterone, AGP and PGE(2) at 20 d of age. Similar inhibitory effects of sodium butyrate in serum glucose and total protein concentrations were also found at 20 d of age. 4. The results indicated that dietary sodium butyrate supplementation can improve the growth performance in chickens under stress and that this may be used to moderate the immune response and reduce tissue damage.

  13. Histopathology and serum clinical chemistry evaluation of broilers with femoral head separation disorder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Femoral head disarticulation (FHD) and necrosis is a sporadic leg problem of unknown etiology in broiler breeders. To determine the underlying physiology of FHD, the blood chemistry and the histopathology of the femoral heads of the affected chickens were compared with their age matched controls. Ch...

  14. Dietary Alpha Lipoic Acid Improves Body Composition, Meat Quality and Decreases Collagen Content in Muscle of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    El-Senousey, H. K.; Fouad, A. M.; Yao, J. H.; Zhang, Z. G.; Shen, Q. W.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 192 broiler chicks were used to evaluate the influence of dietary α-lipoic acid (ALA) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of broiler chickens with the purpose of developing a strategy to prevent the occurrence of pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) meat and to improve the meat quality of broilers. At 22 d of age, birds were allocated to 4 ALA treatments (0, 400, 800, and 1200 ppm). The results showed that dietary ALA significantly decreased average feed intake (AFI), average daily gain (ADG), final live body weight (BW) and carcass weight (p<0.05), while no difference in feed conversion ratio (FCR) was detected among chickens fed with and without ALA. Abdominal fat weight significantly decreased (p<0.05) for broilers fed 800 and 1200 ppm ALA. However when calculated as the percentage of carcass weight there was no significant difference between control and ALA treatments. Meat quality measurements showed that dietary ALA regulated postmortem glycolysis and improved meat quality as evidenced by increased muscle pH and decreased drip loss of meat (p<0.05). Although ALA did not change the tenderness of meat as indicated by meat shear force, dietary ALA decreased collagen content and mRNA expression of COL3A1 gene (p<0.05). In conclusion, the results indicate that dietary ALA may contribute to the improvement of meat quality in broilers. PMID:25049802

  15. Effect of different levels of dietary sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel extract on humoral immune system responses in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Pourhossein, Zohreh; Qotbi, Ali Ahmad Alaw; Seidavi, Alireza; Laudadio, Vito; Centoducati, Gerardo; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel extract (SOPE) on humoral immune system responses in broiler chickens. Three hundred 1-day broilers (Ross-308) were randomly allocated to treatments varying in supplemental SOPE added in the drinking water. The experimental groups consisted of three treatments fed for 42 days as follows: a control treatment without feed extract, a treatment containing 1000 ppm of SOPE and a treatment containing 1250 ppm of SOPE. All treatments were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Broilers were vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian influenza (AI), infectious bursal disease (IBD) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines. Antibody titer response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was higher in the group fed 1250 ppm of SOPE (P < 0.05) as well as for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM. Similarly, antibody titer responses to all vaccines were constantly elevated (P < 0.05) by SOPE enrichment in a dose-dependent manner. Relative weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were unaffected by treatments. Dietary SOPE supplementation may improve the immune response and diseases resistance, indicating that it can constitute a useful additive in broiler feeding. Thus, supplying SOPE in rations may help to improve relative immune response in broiler chickens. PMID:24990585

  16. Effect of different levels of dietary sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel extract on humoral immune system responses in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Pourhossein, Zohreh; Qotbi, Ali Ahmad Alaw; Seidavi, Alireza; Laudadio, Vito; Centoducati, Gerardo; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel extract (SOPE) on humoral immune system responses in broiler chickens. Three hundred 1-day broilers (Ross-308) were randomly allocated to treatments varying in supplemental SOPE added in the drinking water. The experimental groups consisted of three treatments fed for 42 days as follows: a control treatment without feed extract, a treatment containing 1000 ppm of SOPE and a treatment containing 1250 ppm of SOPE. All treatments were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Broilers were vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian influenza (AI), infectious bursal disease (IBD) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines. Antibody titer response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was higher in the group fed 1250 ppm of SOPE (P < 0.05) as well as for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM. Similarly, antibody titer responses to all vaccines were constantly elevated (P < 0.05) by SOPE enrichment in a dose-dependent manner. Relative weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were unaffected by treatments. Dietary SOPE supplementation may improve the immune response and diseases resistance, indicating that it can constitute a useful additive in broiler feeding. Thus, supplying SOPE in rations may help to improve relative immune response in broiler chickens.

  17. Effect of encapsulated carvacrol on the incidence of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaozhen; Diarra, Moussa S; Zhang, Yonggang; Wang, Qi; Yu, Hai; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong; Gong, Joshua

    2016-06-01

    There is an urgent need to control necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by Clostridium perfringens in chickens when antibiotics are withdrawn from feed. Carvacrol has strong antimicrobial activity and its delivery to the animal intestine can be significantly enhanced after encapsulation. The present study has investigated the potential of encapsulated carvacrol in controlling NE. In general, micro-encapsulation of carvacrol in an alginate-whey protein matrix showed no adverse effect on its antimicrobial activity towards C. perfringens in either Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth or a simulated gastrointestinal model. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of both encapsulated and un-encapsulated carvacrol were approximately 200 μl/l against C. perfringens in BHI. In a broiler infection model with C. perfringens, the diets supplemented with encapsulated carvacrol at the dose of either 250 or 650 μg/g significantly reduced NE in the chicken intestine, which was close to the degree of lesions observed in bacitracin/salinomycin treated birds. Supplementation with either bacitracin/salinomycin or encapsulated carvacrol showed no significant impact on intestinal burden of Lactobacillus. However, the treatment with bacitracin/salinomycin or the low dose of encapsulated carvacrol reduced the level of C. perfringens in the ileum of birds at 35 days of age. These results suggest that our encapsulated carvacrol can be used to combat NE disease in chickens. PMID:27245304

  18. Prevalence of newcastle disease virus in broiler chickens (Gallus gallus) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Orsi, M.A.; Doretto Jr, L.; Camillo, S.C.A.; Reischak, D.; Ribeiro, S.A.M.; Ramazzoti, A.; Mendonça, A.O.; Spilki, F.R.; Buzinaro, M.G.; Ferreira, H.L.; Arns, C.W.

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out during 2002/2003, aiming to determine the prevalence of virulent Newcastle disease virus strains (NDV) in Brazilian commercial poultry farms. Clinical samples were obtained from the Southeastern, Southern and Central-Western regions, which comprise the main area of the Brazilian poultry production. Serum samples and tracheal and cloacal swabs of 23,745 broiler chickens from 1,583 flocks, including both vaccinated chickens and those with no vaccination information, were tested for NDV using a diagnostic ELISA kit. The seropositivity was 39.1%, and the isolation percentage by flock varied from 1.0 to 7.6%, and by region from 6.5 to 58.4%. Higher isolation rates (74.3-83.3%) were obtained after three passages in embryonated chicken eggs. All isolates preliminarily identified as NDV were characterized as nonpathogenic strains, as their Intracerebral Pathogenicity Index (ICPI) was below 0.7. Based on results of this study, Brazil can claim a virulent NDV-free status for commercial flocks. PMID:24031503

  19. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry determination of maduramycin residues in the tissues of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tkáciková, Sona; Kozárová, Ivona; Máté, Dionýz

    2010-09-01

    Maduramycin is a polyether ionophoric coccidiostat used to prevent coccidiosis in poultry at a prescribed concentration over a certain time interval. Due to public health concerns about the presence of coccidiostat residues in poultry, the aim of the present study was to determine the level of maduramycin residues in the tissues of broiler chickens fed commercially produced feed containing 5 mg kg(-1) of maduramycin in complete feed throughout the 5-day withdrawal period (WP). The residues were investigated by liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with electrospray ionisation (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method were 0.3 and 0.8 microg kg(-1), respectively. The average recovery based on matrix-fortified calibrations for chicken tissues was 90%. Maduramycin was found to be rapidly distributed in all tissues. The highest concentrations of maduramycin residues were found in the heart followed by the skin, liver, gizzard, kidneys and, finally, muscle (thigh and breast). On day 5 of the WP, residue concentrations of maduramycin did not decline below the LOQ of the method. Our results emphasize the need to establish a maximum residue limit (MRL) for maduramycin to control its residue levels in edible tissues from chickens before slaughter. PMID:20521190

  20. Insights on the host stress, fear and growth responses to the deoxynivalenol feed contaminant in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ghareeb, Khaled; Awad, Wageha A; Sid-Ahmed, Omer E; Böhm, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins pose an important danger to human and animal health. Poultry feeds are frequently contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin. It is thus of great importance to evaluate the effects of DON on the welfare related parameters in poultry industry. In the present study, the effects of contamination of broiler diet with 10 mg DON/kg feed on plasma corticosterone and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio as indicators of stress, tonic immobility duration as an index for fear response and growth performance of broiler chickens were studied. In addition, the effect of a microbial feed additive either alone or in combination with DON contamination on these different aspects was also evaluated. The results showed that DON feeding significantly affected the welfare related parameters of broiler chickens. The feeding of DON contaminated diet resulted in an elevation of plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and increased the fear levels as indicated by longer duration of tonic immobility reaction. Furthermore, DON reduced the body weight and body weight gain during the starter phase definitely at the second and third week. However, during grower phase, feeding of DON decreased the body weight at the fourth week and reduced the body gain at the fifth week. Addition of the microbial feed additive, a commercial antidote for DON mycotoxin, was able to overcome DON effects on stress index (H/L ratio), fearfulness and growth parameters of broilers. In conclusion, we showed for the first time that the DON feeding increased the underlying fearfulness and physiological stress responses of broilers and resulted in a reduction in the welfare status as indicated by higher plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and higher fearfulness. Additionally, feeding the microbial feed additive was effective in reducing the adverse effects of DON on the bird's welfare and can improve the performance of broiler chickens.

  1. Insights on the host stress, fear and growth responses to the deoxynivalenol feed contaminant in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ghareeb, Khaled; Awad, Wageha A; Sid-Ahmed, Omer E; Böhm, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins pose an important danger to human and animal health. Poultry feeds are frequently contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin. It is thus of great importance to evaluate the effects of DON on the welfare related parameters in poultry industry. In the present study, the effects of contamination of broiler diet with 10 mg DON/kg feed on plasma corticosterone and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio as indicators of stress, tonic immobility duration as an index for fear response and growth performance of broiler chickens were studied. In addition, the effect of a microbial feed additive either alone or in combination with DON contamination on these different aspects was also evaluated. The results showed that DON feeding significantly affected the welfare related parameters of broiler chickens. The feeding of DON contaminated diet resulted in an elevation of plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and increased the fear levels as indicated by longer duration of tonic immobility reaction. Furthermore, DON reduced the body weight and body weight gain during the starter phase definitely at the second and third week. However, during grower phase, feeding of DON decreased the body weight at the fourth week and reduced the body gain at the fifth week. Addition of the microbial feed additive, a commercial antidote for DON mycotoxin, was able to overcome DON effects on stress index (H/L ratio), fearfulness and growth parameters of broilers. In conclusion, we showed for the first time that the DON feeding increased the underlying fearfulness and physiological stress responses of broilers and resulted in a reduction in the welfare status as indicated by higher plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and higher fearfulness. Additionally, feeding the microbial feed additive was effective in reducing the adverse effects of DON on the bird's welfare and can improve the performance of broiler chickens. PMID:24498179

  2. Insights on the Host Stress, Fear and Growth Responses to the Deoxynivalenol Feed Contaminant in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ghareeb, Khaled; Awad, Wageha A.; Sid-Ahmed, Omer E.; Böhm, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins pose an important danger to human and animal health. Poultry feeds are frequently contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin. It is thus of great importance to evaluate the effects of DON on the welfare related parameters in poultry industry. In the present study, the effects of contamination of broiler diet with 10 mg DON/kg feed on plasma corticosterone and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio as indicators of stress, tonic immobility duration as an index for fear response and growth performance of broiler chickens were studied. In addition, the effect of a microbial feed additive either alone or in combination with DON contamination on these different aspects was also evaluated. The results showed that DON feeding significantly affected the welfare related parameters of broiler chickens. The feeding of DON contaminated diet resulted in an elevation of plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and increased the fear levels as indicated by longer duration of tonic immobility reaction. Furthermore, DON reduced the body weight and body weight gain during the starter phase definitely at the second and third week. However, during grower phase, feeding of DON decreased the body weight at the fourth week and reduced the body gain at the fifth week. Addition of the microbial feed additive, a commercial antidote for DON mycotoxin, was able to overcome DON effects on stress index (H/L ratio), fearfulness and growth parameters of broilers. In conclusion, we showed for the first time that the DON feeding increased the underlying fearfulness and physiological stress responses of broilers and resulted in a reduction in the welfare status as indicated by higher plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and higher fearfulness. Additionally, feeding the microbial feed additive was effective in reducing the adverse effects of DON on the bird's welfare and can improve the performance of broiler chickens. PMID:24498179

  3. Effect of dietary supplementation of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sarangi, Nihar Ranjan; Babu, L. K.; Kumar, A.; Pradhan, C. R.; Pati, P. K.; Mishra, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementations of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 360 1-day-old Vencobb broiler chickens of either sex were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments each consisting of three replicates and each replicate having 30 birds for 6 weeks. The dietary treatments were (1) control group with basal diet, (2) basal diet supplemented with prebiotic (at 400 g/tonne of starter as well as finisher ration), (3) basal diet supplemented with probiotic (at 100 g/tonne of starter ration and 50 g/tonne of finisher ration), and (4) basal diet supplemented with synbiotic(at 500 g/tonne of starter as well as finisher ration). The birds were provided with ad-libitum feed and drinking water during the entire experimental period. Results: The highest body weight observed in asynbiotic group, which was non-significantly (p>0.05) higher than thecontrol group. Prebiotic and probiotic groups showed lower body weight than synbiotic and control groups. A total feed intake did not show any significant (p>0.05) difference between experimental groups. There were no significant (p>0.05) differences in feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens in prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic groups as compared with control group. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the carcass traits with respect to dressing percentage, carcass percentage, heart weight, liver weight and gizzard weight, wing percentage, breast percentage, back percentage, thigh percentage, and drumstick percentage in Cobb broilers under study. Conclusion: The growth performance and percentage of carcass yield did not show any significant increase by the dietary inclusion of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic compared with unsupplemented control in a commercial broiler chicken. PMID:27057118

  4. Effect of wet feeding on growth performance of broiler chickens in a hot climate.

    PubMed

    Dei, H K; Bumbie, G Z

    2011-02-01

    1. The Guinea Savanna in the tropics is characterised by high diurnal temperatures, often beyond the thermo-neutral zone of modern poultry, which imposes heat stress on them. 2. An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of partially (12 h wet mash in the day and 12 h dry mash in the night) or wholly (24 h) feeding wet mash on the growth performance of broiler chickens. 3. Three treatments: dry mash (control), wet mash (day) + dry mash (night) and wet mash (day + night) were tested. At 28 d of age, a total of 120 broiler chickens (Hybro, Netherlands) were randomly divided, using a completely randomised design, into 12 groups of 10 birds, each with mean live weight of approximately 800 g/bird. A maize-soybean based grower mash (200 g CP/kg and 12·5 MJ/kg ME) was fed. The wet mash was prepared daily by addition of 1·3 parts of water to 1 part of dry mash and fed from 28 to 56 d of age. The birds were housed in raised-floor pens. Feed and water were given ad libitum and light provided 24 h. Mean daily room temperature was 28-29°C in the morning and 35-41°C in the afternoon. 4. Mean feed intake of birds fed the wet mash (174 g/day) or wet + dry mash (166 g/day) was higher than that of birds fed the dry mash (152 g/day). Mean live weight gain of birds fed the wet mash (64 g/day) or wet + dry mash (64 g/day) was higher than that of birds fed the dry mash (58 g/day). There were no differences in gain/feed ratios (0·38-0·39) of any of the treatments, neither were there any differences between the feeding of wet mash partly or wholly for all variables. 5. It was concluded that wet feeding, particularly during day-time, had the potential to improve growth performance of broiler chickens in a hot climate.

  5. Effects of heat stress on the gene expression of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens ( Gallus gallus domesticus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Zhang, Haichao; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang

    2015-02-01

    In broiler chickens, heat stress disrupts nutrient digestion and absorption. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not clearly understood. Hence, to investigate the effects of high ambient temperatures on the expression levels of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens, seventy-two 35-day-old male broiler chickens with similar body weights were randomly allocated into two groups: control (24 ± 1 °C) and heat-stressed (32 ± 1 °C). The chickens in the heat-stressed group were exposed to 10 h of heat daily from 08:00 to 18:00 and then raised at 24 ± 1 °C. The rectal temperature and feed intake of the chickens were recorded daily. After 7 days, nine chickens per group were sacrificed by exsanguination, and the jejunum was collected. The results show that heat exposure significantly decreased the feed intake and increased the rectal temperature of the broiler chickens. The plasma concentrations of uric acid and triglyceride significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in the heat-stressed group. No significant differences in the levels of plasma glucose, total amino acids, and very low-density lipoprotein were observed between the heat-stressed and control groups. However, the plasma concentration of glucose tended to be higher ( P = 0.09) in the heat-stressed group than in the control group. Heat exposure did not significantly affect the mRNA levels of Na+-dependent glucose transporter 1 and amino acid transporters y + LAT1, CAT1, r-BAT, and PePT-1. However, the expression levels of GLUT-2, FABP1, and CD36 were significantly decreased by heat exposure. The results of this study provide new insights into the mechanisms by which heat stress affects nutrient absorption in broiler chickens. Our findings suggest that periodic heat exposure might alter the jejunal glucose and lipid transport rather than amino acid transport. However, intestinal epithelial damage and cell loss should be considered when interpreting the effects of heat

  6. Association of increased rate of condemnation of broiler carcasses due to hepatic abnormalities with immunosuppressive diseases in the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Amini, Keyvan; Zachar, Tara; Popowich, Shelly; Knezacek, Tennille; Goodhope, Bob; Willson, Philip; Gomis, Susantha

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the causative agents of hepatitis observed in broiler chickens at processing. Livers of chickens from 16 broiler farms in Saskatchewan with gross lesions of hepatitis were collected at processing. In addition to routine bacterial isolation and histopathological examination, serologic studies for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and Chicken anaemia virus (CAV), calculation of the ratio of the weight of the bursa of Fabricius (BF) to body weight (BBW), and histopathological examination of the BF were done. Of the 264 livers with gross lesions, 83% had multifocal to coalescing necrotizing hepatitis, 16% had perihepatitis, and 1% had hemorrhages. No definitive causative microorganisms were isolated from the hepatic lesions; however, no significant bacterial isolations were made. Bursal atrophy, low BBW ratio, and high titer of antibody against IBDV each correlated with the rate of total condemnations (P = 0.0188, P = 0.0001, and P = 0.0073, respectively). Nucleotide sequencing of IBDV isolated from the BF identified the variant strains Delaware-E and 586. Condemnation because of hepatic lesions was correlated with titer of antibody against IBDV and BBW (P = 0.016 and P = 0.027). The results of this study demonstrate that hepatic lesions in Saskatchewan chickens are not currently caused by a primary bacterial pathogen but are associated with indicators of immunosuppression that is likely due to variant IBDV. PMID:26424905

  7. Association of increased rate of condemnation of broiler carcasses due to hepatic abnormalities with immunosuppressive diseases in the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Amini, Keyvan; Zachar, Tara; Popowich, Shelly; Knezacek, Tennille; Goodhope, Bob; Willson, Philip; Gomis, Susantha

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the causative agents of hepatitis observed in broiler chickens at processing. Livers of chickens from 16 broiler farms in Saskatchewan with gross lesions of hepatitis were collected at processing. In addition to routine bacterial isolation and histopathological examination, serologic studies for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and Chicken anaemia virus (CAV), calculation of the ratio of the weight of the bursa of Fabricius (BF) to body weight (BBW), and histopathological examination of the BF were done. Of the 264 livers with gross lesions, 83% had multifocal to coalescing necrotizing hepatitis, 16% had perihepatitis, and 1% had hemorrhages. No definitive causative microorganisms were isolated from the hepatic lesions; however, no significant bacterial isolations were made. Bursal atrophy, low BBW ratio, and high titer of antibody against IBDV each correlated with the rate of total condemnations (P = 0.0188, P = 0.0001, and P = 0.0073, respectively). Nucleotide sequencing of IBDV isolated from the BF identified the variant strains Delaware-E and 586. Condemnation because of hepatic lesions was correlated with titer of antibody against IBDV and BBW (P = 0.016 and P = 0.027). The results of this study demonstrate that hepatic lesions in Saskatchewan chickens are not currently caused by a primary bacterial pathogen but are associated with indicators of immunosuppression that is likely due to variant IBDV.

  8. Association of increased rate of condemnation of broiler carcasses due to hepatic abnormalities with immunosuppressive diseases in the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Keyvan; Zachar, Tara; Popowich, Shelly; Knezacek, Tennille; Goodhope, Bob; Willson, Philip; Gomis, Susantha

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the causative agents of hepatitis observed in broiler chickens at processing. Livers of chickens from 16 broiler farms in Saskatchewan with gross lesions of hepatitis were collected at processing. In addition to routine bacterial isolation and histopathological examination, serologic studies for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and Chicken anaemia virus (CAV), calculation of the ratio of the weight of the bursa of Fabricius (BF) to body weight (BBW), and histopathological examination of the BF were done. Of the 264 livers with gross lesions, 83% had multifocal to coalescing necrotizing hepatitis, 16% had perihepatitis, and 1% had hemorrhages. No definitive causative microorganisms were isolated from the hepatic lesions; however, no significant bacterial isolations were made. Bursal atrophy, low BBW ratio, and high titer of antibody against IBDV each correlated with the rate of total condemnations (P = 0.0188, P = 0.0001, and P = 0.0073, respectively). Nucleotide sequencing of IBDV isolated from the BF identified the variant strains Delaware-E and 586. Condemnation because of hepatic lesions was correlated with titer of antibody against IBDV and BBW (P = 0.016 and P = 0.027). The results of this study demonstrate that hepatic lesions in Saskatchewan chickens are not currently caused by a primary bacterial pathogen but are associated with indicators of immunosuppression that is likely due to variant IBDV. PMID:26424905

  9. Studies on Emblica officinalis Derived Tannins for Their Immunostimulatory and Protective Activities against Coccidiosis in Industrial Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kaleem, Qari Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Zafar, Muddassar; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO) derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT) and commercial tannins (CT) were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) by haemagglutination assay. Protective efficacy of tannins was measured against coccidial infection, induced by Eimeria species. Results revealed higher geomean titers against SRBCs in chickens administered with EOT as compared to those administered with CT and control group. Mean oocysts per gram of droppings were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in EOT administered chickens as compared to control group. Lesion scoring also showed the lowest caecal and intestinal lesion score of mild to moderate intensity in chickens administered with EOT. Further, significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily body weight gains and antibody titers were detected in EOT administered chickens as compared to those of CT administered and control groups. EOT showed the immunostimulatory properties in broilers and their administration in chickens boost the protective immunity against coccidiosis. PMID:24578631

  10. Studies on Emblica officinalis derived tannins for their immunostimulatory and protective activities against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kaleem, Qari Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Zafar, Muddassar; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir; Anwar, Muhammad Irfan

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO) derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT) and commercial tannins (CT) were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) by haemagglutination assay. Protective efficacy of tannins was measured against coccidial infection, induced by Eimeria species. Results revealed higher geomean titers against SRBCs in chickens administered with EOT as compared to those administered with CT and control group. Mean oocysts per gram of droppings were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in EOT administered chickens as compared to control group. Lesion scoring also showed the lowest caecal and intestinal lesion score of mild to moderate intensity in chickens administered with EOT. Further, significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily body weight gains and antibody titers were detected in EOT administered chickens as compared to those of CT administered and control groups. EOT showed the immunostimulatory properties in broilers and their administration in chickens boost the protective immunity against coccidiosis.

  11. Supplementation of dietary vitamins, protein and probiotics on semen traits and immunohistochemical study of pituitary hormones in zinc-induced molted broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Khan, Rifat Ullah; Rahman, Zia-ur-; Javed, Ijaz; Muhammad, Faqir

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary vitamin E and vitamin C, probiotics mixture and protein level and their combination on semen quality and immunohistochemical study of some pituitary hormones in male broiler breeders. One hundred and eighty male broiler breeders 65 weeks old were divided into six groups by completely randomized design. The birds were subjected to zinc-induced molt by mixing zinc oxide at the rate of 3000mg/kg in the feed. After molting, one group was fed control diet (CP16%). The other groups were fed vitamin E (100IU/kg), vitamin C (500IU/kg), probiotics (50mg/L of drinking water), protein (CP14%) and combination of these components. These treatments were given for five weeks. After the feeding period, semen samples were taken and analyzed for semen volume, sperm concentration, motility and dead sperm percentage. Pituitary samples were collected from three birds per replicate and were processed for immunohistochemical study. The results of semen quality parameters revealed that semen volume and sperm motility were significantly high in the vitamin E fed group, while the dead sperm percentage decreased significantly in the vitamin C group. The morphometric analysis revealed that compared to other groups, vitamin E caused a significant increase in the size and area of FSH, LH gonadotropes and lactotropes. These results showed that vitamin E alone may play some role in the enhancement of semen quality and growth of gonadotropes and lactotropes.

  12. Identification of Potential Biomarkers for Gut Barrier Failure in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Juxing; Tellez, Guillermo; Richards, James D.; Escobar, Jeffery

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify potential biomarkers for gut barrier failure in chickens. A total of 144 day-of-hatch Ross 308 male broiler chickens were housed in 24 battery cages with six chicks per cage. Cages were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON) or gut barrier failure (GBF) group. During the first 13 days, birds in CON or GBF groups were fed a common corn–soy starter diet. On day 14, CON chickens were switched to a corn grower diet, and GBF chickens were switched to rye–wheat–barley grower diet. In addition, on day 21, GBF chickens were orally challenged with a coccidiosis vaccine. At days 21 and 28, birds were weighed by cage and feed intake was recorded to calculate feed conversion ratio. At day 28, one chicken from each cage was euthanized to collect intestinal samples for morphometric analysis, blood for serum, and intestinal mucosa scrapings for gene expression. Overall performance and feed efficiency was severely affected (P < 0.05) by a GBF model when compared with CON group at days 21 and 28. Duodenum of GBF birds had wider villi, longer crypt depth, and higher crypt depth/villi height ratio than CON birds. Similarly, GBF birds had longer crypt depth in jejunum and ileum when compared with CON birds. Protein levels of endotoxin and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) in serum, as well as mRNA levels of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β4, and fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) 6 were increased (P < 0.05) in GBF birds compared to CON birds; however, mRNA levels of FABP2, occludin, and mucin 2 (MUC2) were reduced by 34% (P < 0.05), 24% (P = 0.107), and 29% (P = 0.088), respectively, in GBF birds compared to CON birds. The results from the present study suggest that serum endotoxin and AGP, as well as, gene expression of FABP2, FABP6, IL-8, IL-1β, TGF-β4, occludin, and MUC2 in mucosa may work as potential biomarkers for gut barrier health in chickens. PMID:26664943

  13. A comparison survey of organic and conventional broiler chickens for infectious agents affecting health and food safety.

    PubMed

    Van Overbeke, I; Duchateau, L; De Zutter, L; Albers, G; Ducatelle, R

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the health status of organic broiler chickens and the contamination rate with Salmonella and Campylobacter in organic broiler production in Belgium. The broilers were screened for antibodies against routinely monitored poultry diseases at 1 day old and at slaughter. Fecal examination for the presence of worm eggs was done at slaughter. Bacteriological examination for the detection of Salmonella and Campylobacter was performed at day 1, week 2, week 4, week 7, week 10, and slaughter. Conventional broilers of the same poultry integration and reared in the same geographic area were also screened and served as reference. Serologic data indicated lower antibody titers against infectious bronchitis and Newcastle disease in organic flocks. No significant differences could be found in prevalence of Salmonella between organic and conventional broilers at slaughter. In contrast, Campylobacter infections at slaughter were significantly higher in organic flocks. Organic flocks most probably become infected with Campylobacter between week 7 and week 10. Worm eggs were found in neither the organic flocks nor the conventional flocks. In conclusion, there are indications that the respiratory health status is better in organic broilers but that organic flocks are more often infected with Campylobacter than are conventional flocks.

  14. Different sources of maternal selenium affect selenium retention, antioxidant status, and meat quality of 56-day-old offspring of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Wang, Y X; Zhou, Y; Zheng, L; Zhan, X A; Pu, Q H

    2014-09-01

    The maternal effect of different Se source in offspring of young broiler breeders has been reported, but the lasting maternal effect of different sources of Se on offspring of breeders has received limited attention, so this study was conducted to investigate the effects of different maternal Se sources on Se retention, antioxidant status, and meat quality of 56-d-old offspring of broiler breeders. A total of two hundred forty 39-wk-old Lingnan Yellow broiler breeders were randomly distributed into 2 treatments, each of which was replicated 3 times with 40 birds per replicate, with a 14-d pretreatment and 56-d trial period. The treatments were fed a basal corn-soybean diet (0.04 mg∙kg⁻¹ Se) supplemented with 0.3 mg∙kg⁻¹ sodium selenite (SS) or selenomethionine (Se-Met). Fertile eggs were collected for incubation, after which 180 healthy chicks from each treatment were selected and randomly allocated into 3 replicates, with 60 birds per replicate. All the chicks were fed the same basal diet (0.04 mg∙kg⁻¹ Se) for 56 d. The Se concentrations in serum and tissues (liver, kidney, and breast muscle) of the 56-d-old offspring were significantly (P < 0.01) increased by maternal Se-Met intake compared with maternal SS intake. The antioxidant status of the 56-d-old offspring was greatly improved by maternal Se-Met supplementation in contrast with maternal SS supplementation, which was shown by increased glutathione peroxidase activity in serum and breast muscle (P < 0.01), glutathione concentration in serum (P < 0.05), and total antioxidant capability in pancreas (P < 0.01), as well as cytosolic glutathione peroxidase mRNA abundance in breast muscle, liver (P < 0.01), and pancreas (P < 0.05). The maternal Se-Met treatment was more effective in maintaining the shape of liver and pancreas cells, cell nuclei, chromatin, as well as cell membrane structure, and more organelles were observed in liver cells. The maternal Se-Met treatment had significant (P < 0

  15. Molecular typing and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens from broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Saad; Al Rifai, Rami; Al-Majali, Ahmad

    2010-12-01

    Clostridium perfringens (Cp) causes necrotic enteritis disease in commercial poultry. Antimicrobials are used to control and treat this disease and sometimes clinical outbreaks do not respond well to certain treatments. This study was designed to isolate Cp from clinical cases, type these isolates by multiplex PCR, and determine their antimicrobial susceptibility by micro-dilution method. A total of 67 Cp isolates were obtained from 155 broiler chicken flocks. All isolates were classified as type A and non-enterotoxin producers. Lincomycin, erythromycins, and tilmicosin showed very high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 50 of ≥256 μg/ml. However, tylosin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, penicillin, florfenicol, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, and oxytetracycline had variable MIC₅₀ of 64, 0.5, 1, 1, 8, 4, 8, 4, 8, 0.5 μg/ml, respectively. It is recommended that Cp infections in Jordan be treated with either penicillins or tetracyclines especially amoxicillin and oxytetracycline. PMID:20969969

  16. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and cereals differently affect gut development in broiler chickens and young pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haoyu; Ivarsson, Emma; Lundh, Torbjörn; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P < 0.01). In contrast, a decreased TTAD of all fiber fractions was observed in chickens fed on diet CF120 (P < 0.05). Moreover, diet induced changes in gut morphology were observed in the large intestine of chickens. The alteration of cecal mucosal thickness was further positively correlated with TTAD of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and its constituent sugars (P < 0.05). In addition, in pigs, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of intestinal microbiota revealed substantial dietary effects (cereal control diet vs. chicory forage inclusion) on the relative abundance of 2 dominant bacterial phylotypes (Prevotella sp. vs. Roseburia sp

  17. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and cereals differently affect gut development in broiler chickens and young pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P < 0.01). In contrast, a decreased TTAD of all fiber fractions was observed in chickens fed on diet CF120 (P < 0.05). Moreover, diet induced changes in gut morphology were observed in the large intestine of chickens. The alteration of cecal mucosal thickness was further positively correlated with TTAD of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and its constituent sugars (P < 0.05). In addition, in pigs, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of intestinal microbiota revealed substantial dietary effects (cereal control diet vs. chicory forage inclusion) on the relative abundance of 2 dominant bacterial phylotypes (Prevotella sp. vs. Roseburia sp

  18. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and cereals differently affect gut development in broiler chickens and young pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haoyu; Ivarsson, Emma; Lundh, Torbjörn; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-12-17

    Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P < 0.01). In contrast, a decreased TTAD of all fiber fractions was observed in chickens fed on diet CF120 (P < 0.05). Moreover, diet induced changes in gut morphology were observed in the large intestine of chickens. The alteration of cecal mucosal thickness was further positively correlated with TTAD of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and its constituent sugars (P < 0.05). In addition, in pigs, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of intestinal microbiota revealed substantial dietary effects (cereal control diet vs. chicory forage inclusion) on the relative abundance of 2 dominant bacterial phylotypes (Prevotella sp. vs. Roseburia sp

  19. Intestinal Microbiota of Broiler Chickens As Affected by Litter Management Regimens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingling; Lilburn, Mike; Yu, Zhongtang

    2016-01-01

    Poultry litter is a mixture of bedding materials and enteric bacteria excreted by chickens, and it is typically reused for multiple growth cycles in commercial broiler production. Thus, bacteria can be transmitted from one growth cycle to the next via litter. However, it remains poorly understood how litter reuse affects development and composition of chicken gut microbiota. In this study, the effect of litter reuse on the microbiota in litter and in chicken gut was investigated using 2 litter management regimens: fresh vs. reused litter. Samples of ileal mucosa and cecal digesta were collected from young chicks (10 days of age) and mature birds (35 days of age). Based on analysis using DGGE and pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons, the microbiota of both the ileal mucosa and the cecal contents was affected by both litter management regimen and age of birds. Faecalibacterium, Oscillospira, Butyricicoccus, and one unclassified candidate genus closely related to Ruminococcus were most predominant in the cecal samples, while Lactobacillus was predominant in the ileal samples at both ages and in the cecal samples collected at day 10. At days 10 and 35, 8 and 3 genera, respectively, in the cecal luminal microbiota differed significantly in relative abundance between the 2 litter management regimens. Compared to the fresh litter, reused litter increased predominance of halotolerant/alkaliphilic bacteria and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a butyrate-producing gut bacterium. This study suggests that litter management regimens affect the chicken GI microbiota, which may impact the host nutritional status and intestinal health. PMID:27242676

  20. Intestinal Microbiota of Broiler Chickens As Affected by Litter Management Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingling; Lilburn, Mike; Yu, Zhongtang

    2016-01-01

    Poultry litter is a mixture of bedding materials and enteric bacteria excreted by chickens, and it is typically reused for multiple growth cycles in commercial broiler production. Thus, bacteria can be transmitted from one growth cycle to the next via litter. However, it remains poorly understood how litter reuse affects development and composition of chicken gut microbiota. In this study, the effect of litter reuse on the microbiota in litter and in chicken gut was investigated using 2 litter management regimens: fresh vs. reused litter. Samples of ileal mucosa and cecal digesta were collected from young chicks (10 days of age) and mature birds (35 days of age). Based on analysis using DGGE and pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons, the microbiota of both the ileal mucosa and the cecal contents was affected by both litter management regimen and age of birds. Faecalibacterium, Oscillospira, Butyricicoccus, and one unclassified candidate genus closely related to Ruminococcus were most predominant in the cecal samples, while Lactobacillus was predominant in the ileal samples at both ages and in the cecal samples collected at day 10. At days 10 and 35, 8 and 3 genera, respectively, in the cecal luminal microbiota differed significantly in relative abundance between the 2 litter management regimens. Compared to the fresh litter, reused litter increased predominance of halotolerant/alkaliphilic bacteria and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a butyrate-producing gut bacterium. This study suggests that litter management regimens affect the chicken GI microbiota, which may impact the host nutritional status and intestinal health. PMID:27242676

  1. Nutritional Value of electron beam irradiated cottonseed meal in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Nayefi, M; Salari, S; Sari, M; Behgar, M

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of electron beam-irradiated cottonseed meal on performance, carcass characteristics and some blood parameters of broiler chicks. Treatments were cottonseed meal (CSM) at levels of 12% and 24% (raw and irradiated at 30 kGy) and corn-soya bean meal diet (as control, without CSM and without irradiation) that used with five dietary treatments, four replicates and 10 birds of each for 42 days in completely randomized design. Feed intake (FI) and body weight gain (BWG) were recorded weekly. At 42 days of age, two birds per pen were randomly selected for the determination of carcass characteristics and blood parameters. BWG decreased with increasing levels of dietary CSM during the experiment (p < 0.05). In addition, radiation had significant positive effect in broilers fed 12% compared with those fed 24% CSM. FI in chicks fed control and diet containing 24% CSM were increased significantly in starter period. But FI was significantly decreased in broilers consumed CSM compare to the control in grower and during the experiment. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) increased with increasing levels of CSM in the diets. Relative weights of liver, gastrointestinal tract (GI), pancreas, gizzard and abdominal fat were increased by increasing levels of CSM in the diet (p < 0.05). Glucose, cholesterol, HDL, triglyceride and phosphorous concentrations increased, and LDL concentration decreased as the dietary CSM levels increased (p < 0.05). But radiation had not significant effect on blood parameters. Electron irradiation seems to be a good procedure to improve the nutritional quality of CSM, but it seems higher dose of it was needed to improve performance of chickens. PMID:26621476

  2. A meta-analysis of experiments linking incubation conditions with subsequent leg weakness in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Groves, Peter J; Muir, Wendy I

    2014-01-01

    A series of incubation and broiler growth studies were conducted using one strain of broiler chicken (fast feathering dam line) observing incubation effects on femoral bone ash % at hatch and the ability of the bird to remain standing at 6 weeks of age (Latency-To-Lie). Egg shell temperatures during incubation were consistently recorded. Parsimonious models were developed across eight studies using stepwise multiple linear regression of egg shell temperatures over 3-day periods and both bone ash at hatch and Latency-To-Lie. A model for bone ash at hatch explained 70% of the variation in this factor and revealed an association with lower egg shell temperatures during days 4-6 and 13-15 and higher egg shell temperatures during days 16-18 of incubation. Bone ash at hatch and subsequent Latency-To-Lie were positively correlated (r = 0.57, P<0.05). A model described 66% of the variation Latency-To-Lie showing significant association of the interaction of femoral ash at hatch and lower average egg shell temperatures over the first 15 days of incubation. Lower egg shell temperature in the early to mid incubation process (days 1-15) and higher egg shell temperatures at a later stage (days 16-18) will both tend to delay the hatch time of incubating eggs. Incubation profiles that resulted in later hatching chicks produced birds which could remain standing for a longer time at 6 weeks of age. This supports a contention that the effects of incubation observed in many studies may in fact relate more to earlier hatching and longer sojourn of the hatched chick in the final stage incubator. The implication of these outcomes are that the optimum egg shell temperature during incubation for broiler leg strength development may be lower than that regarded as ideal (37.8°C) for maximum hatchability and chick growth.

  3. Broiler chicken adipose tissue dynamics during the first two weeks post-hatch.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shiping; Wang, Guoqing; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Rice, Brittany Breon; Cline, Mark Andrew; Gilbert, Elizabeth Ruth

    2015-11-01

    Selection of broiler chickens for growth has led to increased adipose tissue accretion. To investigate the post-hatch development of adipose tissue, the abdominal, clavicular, and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots were collected from broiler chicks at 4 and 14 days post-hatch. As a percent of body weight, abdominal fat increased (P<0.001) with age. At day 4, clavicular and subcutaneous fat depots were heavier (P<0.003) than abdominal fat whereas at day 14, abdominal and clavicular weighed more (P<0.003) than subcutaneous fat. Adipocyte area and diameter were greater in clavicular and subcutaneous than abdominal fat at 4 and 14 days post-hatch (P<0.001). Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) activity increased (P<0.001) in all depots from day 4 to 14, and at both ages was greatest in subcutaneous, intermediate in clavicular, and lowest in abdominal fat (P<0.05). In clavicular fat, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (CEBP)α, CEBPβ, fatty acid synthase (FASN), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and NPY receptor 5 (NPYR5) mRNA increased and NPYR2 mRNA decreased from day 4 to 14 (P<0.001). Thus, there are site-specific differences in broiler chick adipose development, with larger adipocytes and greater G3PDH activity in subcutaneous fat at day 4, more rapid growth of abdominal fat, and clavicular fat intermediate for most traits. Adipose tissue expansion was accompanied by changes in gene expression of adipose-associated factors.

  4. A Meta-Analysis of Experiments Linking Incubation Conditions with Subsequent Leg Weakness in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Groves, Peter J.; Muir, Wendy I.

    2014-01-01

    A series of incubation and broiler growth studies were conducted using one strain of broiler chicken (fast feathering dam line) observing incubation effects on femoral bone ash % at hatch and the ability of the bird to remain standing at 6 weeks of age (Latency-To-Lie). Egg shell temperatures during incubation were consistently recorded. Parsimonious models were developed across eight studies using stepwise multiple linear regression of egg shell temperatures over 3-day periods and both bone ash at hatch and Latency-To-Lie. A model for bone ash at hatch explained 70% of the variation in this factor and revealed an association with lower egg shell temperatures during days 4–6 and 13–15 and higher egg shell temperatures during days 16–18 of incubation. Bone ash at hatch and subsequent Latency-To-Lie were positively correlated (r = 0.57, P<0.05). A model described 66% of the variation Latency-To-Lie showing significant association of the interaction of femoral ash at hatch and lower average egg shell temperatures over the first 15 days of incubation. Lower egg shell temperature in the early to mid incubation process (days 1–15) and higher egg shell temperatures at a later stage (days 16–18) will both tend to delay the hatch time of incubating eggs. Incubation profiles that resulted in later hatching chicks produced birds which could remain standing for a longer time at 6 weeks of age. This supports a contention that the effects of incubation observed in many studies may in fact relate more to earlier hatching and longer sojourn of the hatched chick in the final stage incubator. The implication of these outcomes are that the optimum egg shell temperature during incubation for broiler leg strength development may be lower than that regarded as ideal (37.8°C) for maximum hatchability and chick growth. PMID:25054636

  5. Protection Against Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens by Regulated Delayed Lysis Salmonella Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanlong; Mo, Hua; Willingham, Crystal; Wang, Shifeng; Park, Jie-Yeun; Kong, Wei; Roland, Kenneth L; Curtiss, Roy

    2015-12-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE), caused by Gram-positive Clostridium perfringens type A strains, has gained more attention in the broiler industry due to governmental restrictions affecting the use of growth-promoting antibiotics in feed. To date, there is only one commercial NE vaccine available, based on the C. perfringens alpha toxin. However, recent work has suggested that the NetB toxin, not alpha toxin, is the most critical virulence factor for causing NE. These findings notwithstanding, it is clear from prior research that immune responses against both toxins can provide some protection against NE. In this study, we delivered a carboxyl-terminal fragment of alpha toxin and a GST-NetB fusion protein using a novel attenuated Salmonella vaccine strain designed to lyse after 6-10 rounds of replication in the chicken host. We immunized birds with vaccine strains producing each protein individually, a mixture of the two strains, or with a single vaccine strain that produced both proteins. Immunization with strains producing either of the single proteins was not protective, but immunization with a mixture of the two or with a single strain producing both proteins resulted in protective immunity. The vaccine strain synthesizing both PlcC and GST-NetB was able to elicit strong production of intestinal IgA, IgY, and IgM antibodies and significantly protect broilers against C. perfringens challenge against both mild and severe challenges. Although not part of our experimental plan, the broiler chicks we obtained for these studies were apparently contaminated during transit from the hatchery with group D Salmonella. Despite this drawback, the vaccines worked well, indicating applicability to real-world conditions.

  6. Effects of pitamin on growth performance, carcass characteristics and cecal microflora of broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Park, Byung-Sung

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of dietary pitamin as an antibiotic replacement in broiler chicken. The treated groups were as follows: 1) the control, 2) the antibiotics (8 mg of avilamycin kg(-1) of diet) and 3) the pitamin (70 mg of pitamin kg(-1) of diet) groups. Body weight gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency were significantly higher in the pitamin group than in the antibiotics and control groups (p<0.05). Carcass weight, dressing percentage, and the weight of breast and thigh muscle recorded significantly higher levels in the pitamin group as compared to the other groups (p<0.05). The addition of pitamin to the diets for broilers reduced abdominal fat by 23.35% and stimulated the growth of the thymus, the spleen, and the bursa of Fabricius. TAG levels of the pitamin group declined by 12.03 and 10.45% as compared to the control and antibiotics groups, and their TC levels were reduced by 15.17 and 14.39%, and LDL. C levels were reduced by 10.56 and 11.24%, respectively. Serum IgG was increased significantly by 137.43 and 36.80% in the pitamin group as compared to the control and antibiotics groups, respectively (p<0.05). The numbers of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus on the cecum digesta were significantly higher in the pitamin group than in the antibiotics and control groups and the numbers of Escherichia coli and Salmonella tended to be reduced (p<0.05). In conclusion, when Korean red pine bark extract, pitamin, was added to the broiler diets at a concentration of 70 mg of pitamin kg(-1) of diet, it resulted in better growth performance as compared to the antibiotics by improving immunity and the cecal beneficial microfloral population. PMID:22319873

  7. Molecular characterization of infectious bronchitis viruses isolated from broiler chicken farms in Iran, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Hamideh; Langeroudi, Arash Ghalyanchi; Hashemzadeh, Masoud; Karimi, Vahid; Madadgar, Omid; Ghafouri, Seyed Ali; Maghsoudlo, Hossein; Farahani, Reza Khaltabadi

    2016-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis (IB) is a viral avian disease with economic importance in the world, including Iran. S1 gene sequencing has been used for molecular epidemiological studies and genotypic characterization of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). A total of 118 IBV isolates were obtained from tissue samples from chickens with clinically suspected IB from Iranian broiler farms (eight provinces, 200 samples). The isolates were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and characterized by sequencing the spike glycoprotein gene. The isolates formed six distinct phylogenetic groups (IS/1494/06 [Var2] like, 4/91-like, IS/720-like, QX-like, IR-1 and Mass-like) that were related to variants isolated in the region. The most frequently detected viruses were of the Var2-like (IS/1494/06-like) genotype, with an overall prevalence of 34 %. Twenty-one percent of the isolates formed a cluster together with the 4/91 IBV type, 10 % were of the QX genotype, and 8 % were of the IS/720 genotype. In addition, 4 % and 3 % of the isolates belonged to the Massachusetts and IR-1 genotype, respectively. For the first time, we have isolated and characterized IBV variants from broiler farms in different provinces of Iran. This study demonstrates a constant evolution of IBV in Iran, demonstrating the need for continuous monitoring and development of new vaccines based on indigenous viruses.

  8. Digestibility of solvent-treated Jatropha curcas kernel by broiler chickens in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Nesseim, Thierry Daniel Tamsir; Dieng, Abdoulaye; Mergeai, Guy; Ndiaye, Saliou; Hornick, Jean-Luc

    2015-12-01

    Jatropha curcas is a drought-resistant shrub belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family. The kernel contains approximately 60 % lipid in dry matter, and the meal obtained after oil extraction could be an exceptional source of protein for family poultry farming, in the absence of curcin and, especially, some diterpene derivatives phorbol esters that are partially lipophilic. The nutrient digestibility of J. curcas kernel meal (JKM), obtained after partial physicochemical deoiling was thus evaluated in broiler chickens. Twenty broiler chickens, 6 weeks old, were maintained in individual metabolic cages and divided into four groups of five animals, according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design where deoiled JKM was incorporated into grinded corn at 0, 4, 8, and 12 % levels (diets 0, 4, 8, and 12 J), allowing measurement of nutrient digestibility by the differential method. The dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) digestibility of diets was affected to a low extent by JKM (85 and 86 % in 0 J and 81 % in 12 J, respectively) in such a way that DM and OM digestibility of JKM was estimated to be close to 50 %. The ether extract (EE) digestibility of JKM remained high, at about 90 %, while crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) digestibility were largely impacted by JKM, with values closed to 40 % at the highest levels of incorporation. J. curcas kernel presents various nutrient digestibilities but has adverse effects on CP and CF digestibility of the diet. The effects of an additional heat or biological treatment on JKM remain to be assessed. PMID:26255184

  9. Digestibility of solvent-treated Jatropha curcas kernel by broiler chickens in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Nesseim, Thierry Daniel Tamsir; Dieng, Abdoulaye; Mergeai, Guy; Ndiaye, Saliou; Hornick, Jean-Luc

    2015-12-01

    Jatropha curcas is a drought-resistant shrub belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family. The kernel contains approximately 60 % lipid in dry matter, and the meal obtained after oil extraction could be an exceptional source of protein for family poultry farming, in the absence of curcin and, especially, some diterpene derivatives phorbol esters that are partially lipophilic. The nutrient digestibility of J. curcas kernel meal (JKM), obtained after partial physicochemical deoiling was thus evaluated in broiler chickens. Twenty broiler chickens, 6 weeks old, were maintained in individual metabolic cages and divided into four groups of five animals, according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design where deoiled JKM was incorporated into grinded corn at 0, 4, 8, and 12 % levels (diets 0, 4, 8, and 12 J), allowing measurement of nutrient digestibility by the differential method. The dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) digestibility of diets was affected to a low extent by JKM (85 and 86 % in 0 J and 81 % in 12 J, respectively) in such a way that DM and OM digestibility of JKM was estimated to be close to 50 %. The ether extract (EE) digestibility of JKM remained high, at about 90 %, while crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) digestibility were largely impacted by JKM, with values closed to 40 % at the highest levels of incorporation. J. curcas kernel presents various nutrient digestibilities but has adverse effects on CP and CF digestibility of the diet. The effects of an additional heat or biological treatment on JKM remain to be assessed.

  10. Prevalence of and risk factors for Campylobacter spp. contamination of broiler chicken carcasses at the slaughterhouse.

    PubMed

    Hue, Olivier; Le Bouquin, Sophie; Laisney, Marie-José; Allain, Virginie; Lalande, Françoise; Petetin, Isabelle; Rouxel, Sandra; Quesne, Ségolène; Gloaguen, Pierre-Yves; Picherot, Mélanie; Santolini, Julien; Salvat, Gilles; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Chemaly, Marianne

    2010-12-01

    A study was conducted in 2008 to estimate the prevalence and identify the risk factors for Campylobacter spp. contamination of broiler carcasses during the slaughtering process. A pool of 10 caeca and one carcass were collected from 425 batches of broiler chickens slaughtered in 58 French slaughterhouses over a 12-month period. Potential risk factors were identified according to the Campylobacter contamination status of carcasses and processing variables identified from questionnaires. The statistical analysis took into account confounding factors that have already been associated with the presence of Campylobacter on carcasses such as the slaughter age of the chicken or seasonal variations. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 77.2% of caeca (95% CI 73.2 to 81.2) and from 87.5% of carcasses (95% CI 84.4 to 90.7). A multiple logistic regression showed 4 parameters as significant risk factors (p < 0.05) for contamination: (I) batches were not the first to be slaughtered in the logistic schedule (OR = 3.5), (II) temperature in the evisceration room was higher than 15 °C (OR = 3.1), (III) dirty marks on carcasses after evisceration were visible (OR = 2.6) and (IV) previous thinning of the flocks, from which slaughtered batches came, had occurred at the farm (OR = 3.3). This last result highlighted the need for sanitary precautions to be taken when catching birds for transport. At the slaughterhouse, evisceration seemed to be the operation contributing most to the spread of contamination. Effective risk management solutions could include the systematic external rinsing of carcasses after evisceration and the implementation of slaughtering schedules according to the Campylobacter contamination status of flocks.

  11. Evaluation of phytate-degrading Lactobacillus culture administration to broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Askelson, Tyler E; Campasino, Ashley; Lee, Jason T; Duong, Tri

    2014-02-01

    Probiotics have been demonstrated to promote growth, stimulate immune responses, and improve food safety of poultry. While widely used, their effectiveness is mixed, and the mechanisms through which they contribute to poultry production are not well understood. Microbial phytases are increasingly supplemented in feed to improve digestibility and reduce antinutritive effects of phytate. The microbial origin of these exogenous enzymes suggests a potentially important mechanism of probiotic functionality. We investigated phytate degradation as a novel probiotic mechanism using recombinant Lactobacillus cultures expressing Bacillus subtilis phytase. B. subtilis phyA was codon optimized for expression in Lactobacillus and cloned into the expression vector pTRK882. The resulting plasmid, pTD003, was transformed into Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, and Lactobacillus gasseri. SDS-PAGE revealed a protein in the culture supernatants of Lactobacillus pTD003 transformants with a molecular weight similar to that of the B. subtilis phytase. Expression of B. subtilis phytase increased phytate degradation of L. acidophilus, L. gasseri, and L. gallinarum approximately 4-, 10-, and 18-fold over the background activity of empty-vector transformants, respectively. Phytase-expressing L. gallinarum and L. gasseri were administered to broiler chicks fed a phosphorus-deficient diet. Phytase-expressing L. gasseri improved weight gain of broiler chickens to a level comparable to that for chickens fed a control diet adequate in phosphorus, demonstrating proof of principle that administration of phytate-degrading probiotic cultures can improve performance of livestock animals. This will inform future studies investigating whether probiotic cultures are able to provide both the performance benefits of feed enzymes and the animal health and food safety benefits traditionally associated with probiotics. PMID:24271165

  12. Molecular characterisation of Escherichia coli from dead broiler chickens with signs of colibacillosis and ready-to-market chicken meat in the West Bank.

    PubMed

    Qabajah, M; Awwad, E; Ashhab, Y

    2014-01-01

    1. The aim of this work was to compare a group of virulence-associated characteristics of Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chickens that had died with signs of colibacillosis against E. coli isolates from ready-to-market chicken meat in the West Bank. 2. The isolates were investigated to determine the virulence factor (VF) profile, phylogenetic group and the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). A total of 66 avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains from different affected broiler farms and 21 E. coli isolates from ready-to-market chicken carcasses (hereinafter called meat strains) from 8 slaughter houses were analysed. 3. The overall content of VFs was significantly higher (P < 0.05) among APEC strains, with over 75% of APEC strains having ≥4 VFs, while over 75% of the meat strains had <4 VFs. The VFs iss, astA and iucD were frequently detected in APEC and meat strains, whereas cvi, papC, vat, tsh and irp2 occurred more significantly in APEC strains. Phylogenetic typing showed that 67% of the meat strains belonged to group B2. Phylogroup D was predominant (50%) in the APEC strains. Using double disc diffusion and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 10.6% of the APEC and 9.5% of the meat strains were determined to be ESBL positive. 4. Our findings show that the VFs papC, vat, irp2 and to a lesser extent tsh and cvi are significantly more prevalent in APEC strains. The results demonstrate that chicken meat can be contaminated with APEC strains (≥4 VF). A significant percentage of the meat strains fall in the B2 group, which is a phylogroup largely associated with human pathogenic ExPEC strains. The results of ESBL screening indicated that broiler chicken products in Palestine represent a potential reservoir of ESBL genes and therefore could be considered a possible public health risk.

  13. Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella species in entire steps of a single integrated broiler supply chain in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo-Won; Ha, Jong-Su; Kim, Byoung-Yoon; Lee, Dong-Hun; Park, Jae-Keun; Youn, Ha-Na; Hong, Young-Ho; Lee, Sang-Bae; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution of Salmonella species in an integrated broiler supply chain in Korea. A total of 1,214 samples from various steps of an integrated broiler production company including broiler breeder farms, broiler farms, broiler trucks, slaughterhouse, and retail chicken meats were collected and investigated. Salmonella was detected in 195 of the samples. The highest prevalence of Salmonella was observed in broiler transporting trucks (71.43%), followed by the slaughterhouse (63.89%) and broiler farms (16.05%). Salmonella Hadar was the most frequently isolated serotype (83.08%). All Salmonella Hadar isolates investigated in this study with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed the same XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pulsotype.

  14. Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella species in entire steps of a single integrated broiler supply chain in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo-Won; Ha, Jong-Su; Kim, Byoung-Yoon; Lee, Dong-Hun; Park, Jae-Keun; Youn, Ha-Na; Hong, Young-Ho; Lee, Sang-Bae; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution of Salmonella species in an integrated broiler supply chain in Korea. A total of 1,214 samples from various steps of an integrated broiler production company including broiler breeder farms, broiler farms, broiler trucks, slaughterhouse, and retail chicken meats were collected and investigated. Salmonella was detected in 195 of the samples. The highest prevalence of Salmonella was observed in broiler transporting trucks (71.43%), followed by the slaughterhouse (63.89%) and broiler farms (16.05%). Salmonella Hadar was the most frequently isolated serotype (83.08%). All Salmonella Hadar isolates investigated in this study with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed the same XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pulsotype. PMID:24795319

  15. Phosphorus digestibility response of broiler chickens to dietary calcium-to-phosphorus ratios.

    PubMed

    Liu, J B; Chen, D W; Adeola, O

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the true digestibility of P in soybean meal (SBM) for broiler chickens fed diets with different dietary calcium-to-phosphorus ratios (Ca:P) using the regression method. The experiment used a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement with 12 diets formulated to contain combinations of 4 levels of dietary Ca:P: 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, or 2.0 and 3 levels of SBM: 31.0, 44.0, or 57.0%. A total of 576 male Ross 708 broilers were allocated to 12 dietary treatments with 8 cages (6 birds per cage) per treatment from d 15 to 22 posthatching, and the BW between groups were similar. Chromic dioxide was used as an indigestible marker to calculate P digestibility and retention. The results showed that BW gain and feed efficiency were increased (linear, P < 0.01), and prececal DM digestibility and DM retention were decreased (linear, P < 0.01) with graded SBM in diets for each Ca:P. Decreasing linear (P < 0.01) relationships were observed for apparent prececal P digestibility and total tract P retention with increased dietary SBM levels. The prececal and excreta P output increased (linear, P < 0.01; quadratic, P < 0.05) as increasing levels of SBM were added to the experimental diets. True prececal P digestibility in SBM was greater (P < 0.05) for birds fed a diet with Ca:P of 0.8 compared with those fed higher Ca:P, but there was no difference among the Ca:P ratios between 1.2 and 2.0. However, the total tract retention of P from SBM was not affected by Ca:P between 0.8 and 2.0. In conclusion, results of the present experiment demonstrated that prececal digestibility of P in SBM was not affected by Ca:P ratio between 1.2 and 2.0; and there was no difference in total tract retention of P from SBM among the Ca:P ratios between 0.8 and 2.0 in broiler chickens.

  16. Molecular detection of chicken parvovirus in broilers with enteric disorders presenting curving of duodenal loop, pancreatic atrophy, and mesenteritis.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, L F N; Sá, L R M; Parra, S H S; Astolfi-Ferreira, C S; Carranza, C; Ferreira, A J P

    2016-04-01

    Enteric disorders are an important cause of economic losses in broiler chickens worldwide. Several agents have been associated with enteric problems, such as viruses, bacteria, and parasites. In this study, broiler chickens showing signs of enteric disorders were subjected to molecular diagnosis for several viral agents and also for pathological examination for elucidating this problem. Thus, the chickens were screened for avian nephritis virus (ANV), chicken astrovirus (CAstV), avian rotavirus (ArtV), avian reovirus (AReoV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), fowl adenovirus group I (FAdV-1), and chicken parvovirus (ChPV). Postmortem examinations revealed a curving of the duodenal loop (J-like appearance) and intestines filled with liquid and gaseous content. Histopathological analysis of the duodenal loop showed pancreatic atrophy, acute mesenteritis, and enteritis. PCR results showed that ChPV was the sole viral agent detected in samples with lesions such as the curved duodenal loop and pancreatic atrophy. Molecular characterization of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences revealed a high similarity with other strains of ChPV from Brazil, Canada, United States, Europe, and Asia. These findings suggest an association between ChPV and the development of enteritis, pancreatitis, and pancreatic atrophy, which may lead to curling of the duodenal loop. Together, these alterations may disrupt the normal functioning of the digestive system, diminishing digestion and the absorption of dietary nutrients and consequently leading to reduced weight gain, flock impairment, dwarfism, and an elevated feed conversion rate. PMID:26908891

  17. Changes in apparent metabolizable energy and digestive tract of broiler chickens fed diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Masri, M. R.

    2003-05-01

    Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of feeding broiler chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 kGy), at a rate of 100 g/kg diet, on the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values, using total collection of feed and excreta, during different age periods (14-21, 21-28, 28-35 and 35-42 days) and on the biological aspects of the digestive organs during the last 4 weeks of chickens'age (14-42 days). Results indicated that feeding of broiler chickens with diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal had insignificant effects on the AME values which amounted to an average of 18.6 MJ/kg diet during the four weeks of experimental periods. The AME values increased significantly by 0.36-0.99 MJ/kg diet during the late fourth age period compared with the other earlier three age periods. No significant difference was noticed in the AME values between the second and third experimental age periods. Feeding chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal for 4 weeks (14-42 day of age) had no significant effects on the relative weights of crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caeca, colon, pancreas and liver. Therefore, radiation sterilized meat-bone meal could be used as feedstuff in poultry diets without any deleterious effect on the diet energy utilization and biological aspects of chickens'digestive tract.

  18. Molecular detection of chicken parvovirus in broilers with enteric disorders presenting curving of duodenal loop, pancreatic atrophy, and mesenteritis.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, L F N; Sá, L R M; Parra, S H S; Astolfi-Ferreira, C S; Carranza, C; Ferreira, A J P

    2016-04-01

    Enteric disorders are an important cause of economic losses in broiler chickens worldwide. Several agents have been associated with enteric problems, such as viruses, bacteria, and parasites. In this study, broiler chickens showing signs of enteric disorders were subjected to molecular diagnosis for several viral agents and also for pathological examination for elucidating this problem. Thus, the chickens were screened for avian nephritis virus (ANV), chicken astrovirus (CAstV), avian rotavirus (ArtV), avian reovirus (AReoV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), fowl adenovirus group I (FAdV-1), and chicken parvovirus (ChPV). Postmortem examinations revealed a curving of the duodenal loop (J-like appearance) and intestines filled with liquid and gaseous content. Histopathological analysis of the duodenal loop showed pancreatic atrophy, acute mesenteritis, and enteritis. PCR results showed that ChPV was the sole viral agent detected in samples with lesions such as the curved duodenal loop and pancreatic atrophy. Molecular characterization of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences revealed a high similarity with other strains of ChPV from Brazil, Canada, United States, Europe, and Asia. These findings suggest an association between ChPV and the development of enteritis, pancreatitis, and pancreatic atrophy, which may lead to curling of the duodenal loop. Together, these alterations may disrupt the normal functioning of the digestive system, diminishing digestion and the absorption of dietary nutrients and consequently leading to reduced weight gain, flock impairment, dwarfism, and an elevated feed conversion rate.

  19. Effect of dietary dehydrated pasture and citrus pulp on the performance and meat quality of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mourão, J L; Pinheiro, V M; Prates, J A M; Bessa, R J B; Ferreira, L M A; Fontes, C M G A; Ponte, P I P

    2008-04-01

    Some feedstuffs containing significant levels of fiber may be a good source of bioactive compounds that may contribute to improving broiler meat quality. However, high fiber level can have a negative impact on broiler performance. A study was undertaken to investigate the impact of incorporating citrus pulp (5 or 10%) or dehydrated pasture (5 or 10%) on the performance, carcass yield, and characteristics of broiler chickens. A diet containing neither citrus pulp nor dehydrated pasture was used as control. The results on growth performances showed that daily weight gain was reduced by 26% in birds of the 10% citrus pulp treatment (P<0.05). Compared with the control treatment, increases in feed intake occurred in birds consuming diets with 5 or 10% citrus pulp, which resulted in significantly higher feed conversion rates with the 10% level. Under the same incorporation rate, dehydrated pasture had effects less evident on the performances of broiler chicken. In addition, diets containing citrus pulp, displaying higher percentages of soluble nonstarch polysaccharides, increased small intestine relative length, and reduced carcass yield. Inclusion of 10% dehydrated pasture in diets resulted in improved breast skin yellowness (P<0.05). Finally, the results revealed that incorporation of the nonstarch polysaccharide-rich feedstuffs had a major impact on the fatty acid profile (affected 16 of 21 fatty acids) of broiler meat. Polyunsaturated fatty acids content in meat was higher in birds consuming the highest levels of both citrus pulp and dehydrated pasture, leading to increased ratios of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids. Together, the results suggest that incorporation of moderate levels of dehydrated pastures in poultry diets has a minor impact on broiler performance and can contribute significantly to improve breast skin yellowness and fatty acid composition of meat.

  20. Effect of dietary dehydrated pasture and citrus pulp on the performance and meat quality of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mourão, J L; Pinheiro, V M; Prates, J A M; Bessa, R J B; Ferreira, L M A; Fontes, C M G A; Ponte, P I P

    2008-04-01

    Some feedstuffs containing significant levels of fiber may be a good source of bioactive compounds that may contribute to improving broiler meat quality. However, high fiber level can have a negative impact on broiler performance. A study was undertaken to investigate the impact of incorporating citrus pulp (5 or 10%) or dehydrated pasture (5 or 10%) on the performance, carcass yield, and characteristics of broiler chickens. A diet containing neither citrus pulp nor dehydrated pasture was used as control. The results on growth performances showed that daily weight gain was reduced by 26% in birds of the 10% citrus pulp treatment (P<0.05). Compared with the control treatment, increases in feed intake occurred in birds consuming diets with 5 or 10% citrus pulp, which resulted in significantly higher feed conversion rates with the 10% level. Under the same incorporation rate, dehydrated pasture had effects less evident on the performances of broiler chicken. In addition, diets containing citrus pulp, displaying higher percentages of soluble nonstarch polysaccharides, increased small intestine relative length, and reduced carcass yield. Inclusion of 10% dehydrated pasture in diets resulted in improved breast skin yellowness (P<0.05). Finally, the results revealed that incorporation of the nonstarch polysaccharide-rich feedstuffs had a major impact on the fatty acid profile (affected 16 of 21 fatty acids) of broiler meat. Polyunsaturated fatty acids content in meat was higher in birds consuming the highest levels of both citrus pulp and dehydrated pasture, leading to increased ratios of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids. Together, the results suggest that incorporation of moderate levels of dehydrated pastures in poultry diets has a minor impact on broiler performance and can contribute significantly to improve breast skin yellowness and fatty acid composition of meat. PMID:18339996

  1. The Impact of the Fusarium Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol on the Health and Performance of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Wageha A.; Hess, Michael; Twarużek, Magdalena; Grajewski, Jan; Kosicki, Robert; Böhm, Josef; Zentek, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on morphometric indices of jejunum and to follow the passage of deoxynivalenol (DON) through subsequent segments of the digestive tract of broilers. A total of 45 1-d-old broiler chickens (Ross 308 males) were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments (15 birds/treatment): (1) control diet; (2) diet contaminated with 1 mg DON/kg feed; (3) diet contaminated with 5 mg DON/kg feed for five weeks. None of the zootechnical traits (body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion) responded to increased DON levels in the diet. However, DON at both dietary levels (1 mg and 5 mg DON/kg feed) significantly altered the small intestinal morphology. In the jejunum, the villi were significantly (P < 0.01) shorter in both DON treated groups compared with the controls. Furthermore, the dietary inclusion of DON decreased (P < 0.05) the villus surface area in both DON treated groups. The absolute or relative organ weights (liver, heart, proventriculus, gizzard, small intestine, spleen, pancreas, colon, cecum, bursa of Fabricius and thymus) were not altered (P > 0.05) in broilers fed the diet containing DON compared with controls. DON and de-epoxy-DON (DOM-1) were analyzed in serum, bile, liver, feces and digesta from consecutive segments of the digestive tract (gizzard, cecum, and rectum). Concentrations of DON and its metabolite DOM-1 in serum, bile, and liver were lower than the detection limits of the applied liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Only about 10 to 12% and 6% of the ingested DON was recovered in gizzard and feces, irrespective of the dietary DON-concentration. However, the DON recovery in the cecum as percentage of DON-intake varied between 18 to 22% and was not influenced by dietary DON-concentration. Interestingly, in the present trial, DOM-1 did not appear in the large intestine

  2. The impact of the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol on the health and performance of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Awad, Wageha A; Hess, Michael; Twarużek, Magdalena; Grajewski, Jan; Kosicki, Robert; Böhm, Josef; Zentek, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on morphometric indices of jejunum and to follow the passage of deoxynivalenol (DON) through subsequent segments of the digestive tract of broilers. A total of 45 1-d-old broiler chickens (Ross 308 males) were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments (15 birds/treatment): (1) control diet; (2) diet contaminated with 1 mg DON/kg feed; (3) diet contaminated with 5 mg DON/kg feed for five weeks. None of the zootechnical traits (body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion) responded to increased DON levels in the diet. However, DON at both dietary levels (1 mg and 5 mg DON/kg feed) significantly altered the small intestinal morphology. In the jejunum, the villi were significantly (P < 0.01) shorter in both DON treated groups compared with the controls. Furthermore, the dietary inclusion of DON decreased (P < 0.05) the villus surface area in both DON treated groups. The absolute or relative organ weights (liver, heart, proventriculus, gizzard, small intestine, spleen, pancreas, colon, cecum, bursa of Fabricius and thymus) were not altered (P > 0.05) in broilers fed the diet containing DON compared with controls. DON and de-epoxy-DON (DOM-1) were analyzed in serum, bile, liver, feces and digesta from consecutive segments of the digestive tract (gizzard, cecum, and rectum). Concentrations of DON and its metabolite DOM-1 in serum, bile, and liver were lower than the detection limits of the applied liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Only about 10 to 12% and 6% of the ingested DON was recovered in gizzard and feces, irrespective of the dietary DON-concentration. However, the DON recovery in the cecum as percentage of DON-intake varied between 18 to 22% and was not influenced by dietary DON-concentration. Interestingly, in the present trial, DOM-1 did not appear in the large intestine

  3. Predicted optimum ambient temperatures for broiler chickens to dissipate metabolic heat do not affect performance or improve breast muscle quality

    PubMed Central

    Zahoor, I.; Mitchell, M.A.; Hall, S.; Beard, P.M.; Gous, R.M.; De Koning, D.J.; Hocking, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that muscle damage in fast-growing broiler chickens is associated with an ambient temperature that does not permit the birds to lose metabolic heat resulting in physiological heat stress and a reduction in meat quality.The experiment was performed in 4 climate chambers and was repeated in 2 trials using a total of 200 male broiler chickens. Two treatments compared the recommended temperature profile and a cool regimen. The cool regimen was defined by a theoretical model that determined the environmental temperature that would enable heat generated by the bird to be lost to the environment.There were no differences in growth rate or feed intake between the two treatments. Breast muscles from birds on the recommended temperature regimen were lighter, less red and more yellow than those from the cool temperature regimen. There were no differences in moisture loss or shear strength but stiffness was greater in breast muscle from birds housed in the cool compared to the recommended regimen.Histopathological changes in the breast muscle were similar in both treatments and were characterised by mild to severe myofibre degeneration and necrosis with regeneration, fibrosis and adipocyte infiltration. There was no difference in plasma creatine kinase activity, a measure of muscle cell damage, between the two treatments consistent with the absence of differences in muscle pathology.It was concluded that breast muscle damage in fast-growing broiler chickens was not the result of an inability to lose metabolic heat at recommended ambient temperatures. The results suggest that muscle cell damage and breast meat quality concerns in modern broiler chickens are related to genetic selection for muscle yields and that genetic selection to address breast muscle integrity in a balanced breeding programme is imperative. PMID:26670305

  4. Acute heat stress induces differential gene expressions in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shih-Han; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Lee, Yen-Pai; Huang, San-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The expression of testicular genes following acute heat stress has been reported in layer-type roosters, but few similar studies have been conducted on broilers. This study investigated the effect of acute heat stress on the gene expression in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens. Roosters were subjected to acute heat stress (38°C) for 4 h, and then exposed to 25°C, with testes collected 0, 2, and 6 h after the cessation of heat stress, using non-heat-stressed roosters as controls (n = 3 roosters per group). The body temperature and respiratory rate increased significantly (p<0.05) during the heat stress. The numbers of apoptotic cells increased 2 h after the acute heat stress (79 ± 7 vs. 322 ± 192, control vs. heat stress; p<0.05), which was earlier than the time of increase in layer-type roosters. Based on a chicken 44 K oligo microarray, 163 genes were found to be expressed significantly different in the testes of the heat-stressed chickens from those of the controls, including genes involved in the response to stimulus, protein metabolism, signal transduction, cell adhesion, transcription, and apoptosis. The mRNA expressions of upregulated genes, including HSP25, HSP90AA1, HSPA2, and LPAR2, and of downregulated genes, including CDH5, CTNNA3, EHF, CIRBP, SLA, and NTF3, were confirmed through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Moreover, numerous transcripts in the testes exhibited distinct expressions between the heat-stressed broiler-type and layer-type chickens. We concluded that the transcriptional responses of testes to acute heat stress may differ between the broiler-type and layer-type roosters. Whether the differential expression patterns associate with the heat-tolerance in the strains require a further exploration.

  5. Echocardiographic Assessment of Cardiac Structural and Functional Indices in Broiler Chickens Treated with Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Raieszadeh, Hamid; Yadegari, Mehrdad

    2013-01-01

    270 Ross broiler chickens of twenty days old were housed in 18-floor pens in a completely randomized design with six treatment groups and three replicate groups and fifteen chicks per each pen. The treatment groups (1–6) consisted of 0, 10, 20, 30, 50, and 70 ppm of nanocide in drinking water, respectively. At 26 days of age, 3 chickens were selected randomly for echocardiography using a 7.5 MHz linear probe, and the left ventricular internal diameter at the end of diastole (LVIDd), left ventricular internal diameter at the end of systole (LVIDs), left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS), ejection fraction (EF), stroke volume (SV), interventricular septum thickness at the end of systole (IVSTs), and interventricular septum thickness at the end of diastole (IVSTd) were evaluated. LVIDd and LVIDs in group six were of higher rate than other groups and showed statistically significant differences with groups two, three, and four (P < 0.05). LVFS, percentage of EF, and IVSTd were minimum in group six and had significant difference with other groups (P < 0.05). The results of this study showed that prescription of high dosage of nanocide leads to cardiovascular problems with decrease in myocardial contractility and increase in the internal diameter of left ventricle. PMID:24288513

  6. Isolation and Metagenomic Identification of Avian Leukosis Virus Associated with Mortality in Broiler Chicken

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) belongs to the family Retroviridae and causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. Following an outbreak associated with high mortality in a broiler flock in northern part of Malaysia, kidney tissues from affected chickens were submitted for virus isolation and identification in chicken embryonated egg and MDCK cells. Evidence of virus growth was indicated by haemorrhage and embryo mortality in egg culture. While viral growth in cell culture was evidenced by the development of cytopathic effects. The isolated virus was purified by sucrose gradient and identified using negative staining transmission electron microscopy. Further confirmation was achieved through next-generation sequencing and nucleotide sequence homology search. Analysis of the viral sequences using the NCBI BLAST tool revealed 99-100% sequence homology with exogenous ALV viral envelope protein. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial envelope sequences showed the Malaysian isolate clustered with Taiwanese and Japanese ALV strains, which were closer to ALV subgroup J, ALV subgroup E, and recombinant A/E isolates. Based on these findings, ALV was concluded to be associated with the present outbreak. It was recommended that further studies should be conducted on the molecular epidemiology and pathogenicity of the identified virus isolate. PMID:27597865

  7. Virulence and Genomic Feature of Multidrug Resistant Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Broiler Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Haihong; Ren, Ni; Han, Jing; Foley, Steven L.; Iqbal, Zahid; Cheng, Guyue; Kuang, Xiuhua; Liu, Jie; Liu, Zhenli; Dai, Menghong; Wang, Yulian; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal the molecular mechanism involved in multidrug resistance and virulence of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler chickens. The virulence of six multidrug resistant C. jejuni was determined by in vitro and in vivo methods. The de novo whole genome sequencing technology and molecular biology methods were used to analyze the genomic features associated with the multidrug resistance and virulence of a selected isolate (C. jejuni 1655). The comparative genomic analyses revealed a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms, deletions, rearrangements, and inversions in C. jejuni 1655 compared to reference C. jejuni genomes. The co-emergence of Thr-86-Ile mutation in gyrA gene, A2075G mutation in 23S rRNA gene, tetO, aphA and aadE genes and pTet plasmid in C. jejuni 1655 contributed its multidrug resistance to fluoroquinolones, macrolides, tetracycline, and aminoglycosides. The combination of multiple virulence genes may work together to confer the relative higher virulence in C. jejuni 1655. The co-existence of mobile gene elements (e.g., pTet) and CRISPR-Cas system in C. jejuni 1655 may play an important role in the gene transfer and immune defense. The present study provides basic information of phenotypic and genomic features of C. jejuni 1655, a strain recently isolated from a chicken displaying multidrug resistance and relatively high level of virulence. PMID:27790202

  8. Mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of the feed contaminant deoxynivalenol on glucose absorption in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Awad, W A; Ghareeb, K; Zentek, J

    2014-10-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), a major contaminant of cereals and grains, is of public health concern worldwide and has been shown to reduce the electrogenic transport of glucose. However, the full effects of Fusarium mycotoxins on nutrient absorption are still not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether decreased nutrient absorption was due to specific effects on transporter trafficking in the intestine and whether inhibition of phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI-3-kinase) affected the electrogenic jejunal transport of glucose. Jejunal mucosa of 6-week-old broiler chickens were mounted in Ussing chambers and treated with DON, wortmannin (a specific inhibitor of PI-3-kinase), DON + wortmannin, phlorizin and cytochalasin B. DON was found to decrease the short-circuit current (Isc) after glucose addition. A similar decline in Isc after glucose addition was observed following pre-application of wortmannin, or phlorizin (Na(+)/glucose co-transporter, SGLT1 inhibitor). The results indicate that DON decreased glucose absorption in the absence of wortmannin or phlorizin but had no additional effect on glucose absorption in their presence. Glucose transport was not affected by cytochalasin B (facilitative glucose transporter, GLUT2 inhibitor). The study provides evidence that the suppressive effect of DON on the electrogenic transport of glucose may be due to an inhibitory activity of the PI3 kinase pathway and intestinal SGLT1. Furthermore, the effect of cytochalasin B on glucose transport in chicken tissues differs from that in mammals. PMID:25011710

  9. A new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism: Response to mixed LED light system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Pan, Jinming; Ying, Yibin; Zhou, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Present study introduced a new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism by mixing the growth-advantage LED. We found that the green/blue LED mixed light system (G-B and G × B) have the similar stimulatory effect on chick body weight with single green light and single blue light (G and B), compared with normal artificial light (P = 0.028). Moreover, the percentage of carcass was significantly greater in the mixed light (G × B) when compared with the single light (P = 0.003). Synchronized with body weight, the mixed light (G-B and G × B) had a significant improved influence on the feed conversion of birds compared with normal light (P = 0.002). A significant improvement in feed conversion were found in mixed light (G × B) compared with single LED light (P = 0.037). G group resulted in a greater high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than B group (P = 0.002), whereas B group resulted in a greater low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than G group (P = 0.017). The mixed light significantly increased the birds' glucose level in comparison with the single light (P = 0.003). This study might establish an effective strategy for maximizing growth of chickens by mixed LED technology. PMID:27170597

  10. Effects of feeding plant-derived agents on the colonization of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kurekci, Cemil; Al Jassim, Rafat; Hassan, Errol; Bishop-Hurley, Sharon L; Padmanabha, Jagadish; McSweeney, Christopher S

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this work was to test the potential use of plant-derived extracts and compounds to control Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens. Over a 7-wk feeding period, birds were fed a commercial diet with or without plant extracts (Acacia decurrens, Eremophila glabra), essential oil [lemon myrtle oil (LMO)], plant secondary compounds [terpinene-4-ol and α-tops (including α-terpineol, cineole, and terpinene-4-ol)], and the antibiotic virginiamycin. Traditional culture and real-time quantitative PCR techniques were used to enumerate the numbers of C. jejuni in chicken fecal and cecal samples. In addition, BW and feed intake were recorded weekly for the calculation of BW gain and feed conversion ratio. The mean log10 counts of C. jejuni were similar (P > 0.05) across treatments. However, significantly lower levels of fecal Campylobacter counts (P < 0.05) were recorded at d 41 for the α-tops treatment by culture methods. No differences (P > 0.05) in BW gain were obtained for dietary supplementation, except for the E. glabra extract, which had a negative impact (P < 0.001) on BW, resulting in sporadic death. Results from this study suggest that supplemental natural compounds used in the current study did not reduce the shedding of C. jejuni to desired levels.

  11. Anticoccidial efficacy of drinking water soluble diclazuril on experimental and field coccidiosis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    El-Banna, H A; El-Bahy, M M; El-Zorba, H Y; El-Hady, M

    2005-08-01

    Prophylactic and curative capacity of water soluble formulation of Diclazuril (Diclosol 1%) and feed additive form (Clinacox, 0.5%) were tested against Eimeria infection in broiler chickens. Such testing was performed both experimentally and in the field. Toltrazuril (Baycox, 2.5%) was used as reference control drug. Water soluble formulation of Diclazuril induced a marked inhibitory effect on the different stages of the parasite life cycle in experimentally infected treated birds especially when applied on the day when blood first appeared in the faeces [fifth day post-infection (d.p.i.)] as well as on the second day of blood dropping (6 d.p.i.). Both tested dosage levels of Diclazuril water soluble formulation in drinking water (5 and 10 ppm) showed the same effect in controlling coccidial infection and reducing the total oocyst numbers, lesion and faecal scores. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the efficacy of water soluble form of Diclazuril and the reference control drug (Toltrazuril, 25 ppm). In addition, testing the water soluble formulation (5 ppm) in naturally infected poultry farm (20,000 birds), showed the same anticoccidial effect observed when using Toltrazuril, as a treatment for coccidiosis. In conclusion, addition of Diclazuril at the dose of 5 ppm in the drinking water of naturally coccidia infected bird induced the same effect as 25 ppm of Toltrazuril as a treatment for coccidiosis in chickens.

  12. Isolation and Metagenomic Identification of Avian Leukosis Virus Associated with Mortality in Broiler Chicken

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) belongs to the family Retroviridae and causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. Following an outbreak associated with high mortality in a broiler flock in northern part of Malaysia, kidney tissues from affected chickens were submitted for virus isolation and identification in chicken embryonated egg and MDCK cells. Evidence of virus growth was indicated by haemorrhage and embryo mortality in egg culture. While viral growth in cell culture was evidenced by the development of cytopathic effects. The isolated virus was purified by sucrose gradient and identified using negative staining transmission electron microscopy. Further confirmation was achieved through next-generation sequencing and nucleotide sequence homology search. Analysis of the viral sequences using the NCBI BLAST tool revealed 99-100% sequence homology with exogenous ALV viral envelope protein. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial envelope sequences showed the Malaysian isolate clustered with Taiwanese and Japanese ALV strains, which were closer to ALV subgroup J, ALV subgroup E, and recombinant A/E isolates. Based on these findings, ALV was concluded to be associated with the present outbreak. It was recommended that further studies should be conducted on the molecular epidemiology and pathogenicity of the identified virus isolate.

  13. Proteomic Changes in the Plasma of Broiler Chickens with Femoral Head Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Packialakshmi, Balamurugan; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jackson O.; Okimoto, Ronald; Rath, Narayan C.

    2016-01-01

    Femoral head necrosis (FHN) is a skeletal problem in broiler chickens, where the proximal femoral head cartilage shows susceptibility to separation from its growth plate. The selected birds with FHN showed higher body weights and reduced plasma cholesterol. The proteomic differences in the plasma of healthy and FHN-affected chickens were explored using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to prospect for protein biomarkers. We isolated two differentially expressed low molecular weight proteins and identified them by MALDI peptide mass fingerprinting as fibrinogen- and fetuin-derived peptides, respectively. These peptides were reduced in birds susceptible to femoral head problems. Quantitation of LC-MS/MS spectra showed elevated levels of gallinacin-9, apolipoprotein A1, and hemoglobin and reduced levels of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, albumin, and SPINK7 proteins in FHN. These results suggest that the bodyweight and the lipid profiles along with the above proteins can be useful as noninvasive biomarkers of FHN. PMID:27147818

  14. A new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism: Response to mixed LED light system

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Pan, Jinming; Ying, Yibin; Zhou, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Present study introduced a new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism by mixing the growth-advantage LED. We found that the green/blue LED mixed light system (G-B and G × B) have the similar stimulatory effect on chick body weight with single green light and single blue light (G and B), compared with normal artificial light (P = 0.028). Moreover, the percentage of carcass was significantly greater in the mixed light (G × B) when compared with the single light (P = 0.003). Synchronized with body weight, the mixed light (G-B and G × B) had a significant improved influence on the feed conversion of birds compared with normal light (P = 0.002). A significant improvement in feed conversion were found in mixed light (G × B) compared with single LED light (P = 0.037). G group resulted in a greater high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than B group (P = 0.002), whereas B group resulted in a greater low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than G group (P = 0.017). The mixed light significantly increased the birds’ glucose level in comparison with the single light (P = 0.003). This study might establish an effective strategy for maximizing growth of chickens by mixed LED technology. PMID:27170597

  15. Isolation and Metagenomic Identification of Avian Leukosis Virus Associated with Mortality in Broiler Chicken.

    PubMed

    Bande, Faruku; Arshad, Siti Suri; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) belongs to the family Retroviridae and causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. Following an outbreak associated with high mortality in a broiler flock in northern part of Malaysia, kidney tissues from affected chickens were submitted for virus isolation and identification in chicken embryonated egg and MDCK cells. Evidence of virus growth was indicated by haemorrhage and embryo mortality in egg culture. While viral growth in cell culture was evidenced by the development of cytopathic effects. The isolated virus was purified by sucrose gradient and identified using negative staining transmission electron microscopy. Further confirmation was achieved through next-generation sequencing and nucleotide sequence homology search. Analysis of the viral sequences using the NCBI BLAST tool revealed 99-100% sequence homology with exogenous ALV viral envelope protein. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial envelope sequences showed the Malaysian isolate clustered with Taiwanese and Japanese ALV strains, which were closer to ALV subgroup J, ALV subgroup E, and recombinant A/E isolates. Based on these findings, ALV was concluded to be associated with the present outbreak. It was recommended that further studies should be conducted on the molecular epidemiology and pathogenicity of the identified virus isolate. PMID:27597865

  16. Nd:YAG laser in experimentally induced chronic degenerative osteoarthritis in broiler chickens: pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortuna, Damiano; Rossi, Giacomo; Bilotta, Teresa W.; Zati, Allesandro; Cardillo, Ilaria; Venturini, Antonio; Pinna, Stefania; Serra, Christian; Masotti, Leonardo

    2002-10-01

    The Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) has been widely tested in arthritis disorders, but there is still some disagreement in the results, therefore in this study we have investigated High Intensity Laser Therapy (HILT). The degenerative arthritis was induced in 18 chickens by intra-articular inoculation of Freund's complete adjuvant. Clinical studies were carried out (weight increase and grades of lameness) as well as morphological (macroscopic and histological) tests and seroassay (C Reactive Protein). The Nd:YAG pulsed wave was employed. The serologic data revealed the anti-inflammatory effect on the laser, with a highly significant difference between those treated and the control group. No lesion on the skin, i.e. burn, or in depth has been observed in the Treated group. Heavyline of broiler chickens in growing age has been revealed a good animal model of O.A.. The Nd:YAG Pulsed Wave it is safe on these structures. The anti-inflammatory effect of the HILT it seems to contrast the destructive degenerative process.

  17. Mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of the feed contaminant deoxynivalenol on glucose absorption in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Awad, W A; Ghareeb, K; Zentek, J

    2014-10-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), a major contaminant of cereals and grains, is of public health concern worldwide and has been shown to reduce the electrogenic transport of glucose. However, the full effects of Fusarium mycotoxins on nutrient absorption are still not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether decreased nutrient absorption was due to specific effects on transporter trafficking in the intestine and whether inhibition of phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI-3-kinase) affected the electrogenic jejunal transport of glucose. Jejunal mucosa of 6-week-old broiler chickens were mounted in Ussing chambers and treated with DON, wortmannin (a specific inhibitor of PI-3-kinase), DON + wortmannin, phlorizin and cytochalasin B. DON was found to decrease the short-circuit current (Isc) after glucose addition. A similar decline in Isc after glucose addition was observed following pre-application of wortmannin, or phlorizin (Na(+)/glucose co-transporter, SGLT1 inhibitor). The results indicate that DON decreased glucose absorption in the absence of wortmannin or phlorizin but had no additional effect on glucose absorption in their presence. Glucose transport was not affected by cytochalasin B (facilitative glucose transporter, GLUT2 inhibitor). The study provides evidence that the suppressive effect of DON on the electrogenic transport of glucose may be due to an inhibitory activity of the PI3 kinase pathway and intestinal SGLT1. Furthermore, the effect of cytochalasin B on glucose transport in chicken tissues differs from that in mammals.

  18. Protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets in Eimeria maxima-infected broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Yim, Dongjean; Kang, Sang S; Kim, Dong W; Kim, Sang H; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Min, Wongi

    2011-01-01

    Aloes have been widely used for a broad range of pharmacological activities, including parasitic problems. Avian coccidiosis is the most costly and wide-spread parasitic disease in the poultry industry, and has been mainly controlled by the use of chemotherapeutic agents. Due to the emergence of drug-resistant strains, alternative control strategies are needed. In this study, the protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets were assessed in broiler chickens following oral infection with Eimeria maxima. Chickens were fed a regular diet supplemented with ground Aloe vera throughout the duration of the experiment beginning 2 days prior to infection with 1 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of E. maxima. No significant differences were found in body weight gain or loss between the Aloe vera-supplemented and unsupplemented groups with or without E. maxima infections. Fecal oocyst shedding decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in all of the treatment groups that were supplemented with Aloe vera as compared to the unsupplemented group. Furthermore, the Aloe vera-supplemented group showed significantly fewer intestinal lesions (p < 0.05) than the unsupplemented group following infection. The findings of this study suggest that Aloe vera could be used an alternative treatment for controlling avian coccidiosis.

  19. A new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism: Response to mixed LED light system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Pan, Jinming; Ying, Yibin; Zhou, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Present study introduced a new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism by mixing the growth-advantage LED. We found that the green/blue LED mixed light system (G-B and G × B) have the similar stimulatory effect on chick body weight with single green light and single blue light (G and B), compared with normal artificial light (P = 0.028). Moreover, the percentage of carcass was significantly greater in the mixed light (G × B) when compared with the single light (P = 0.003). Synchronized with body weight, the mixed light (G-B and G × B) had a significant improved influence on the feed conversion of birds compared with normal light (P = 0.002). A significant improvement in feed conversion were found in mixed light (G × B) compared with single LED light (P = 0.037). G group resulted in a greater high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than B group (P = 0.002), whereas B group resulted in a greater low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than G group (P = 0.017). The mixed light significantly increased the birds’ glucose level in comparison with the single light (P = 0.003). This study might establish an effective strategy for maximizing growth of chickens by mixed LED technology.

  20. Effects of different limestone particle sizes in the diet of broiler breeders post molting on their performance, egg quality, incubation results, and pre-starter performance of their progeny.

    PubMed

    Bueno, I J M; Surek, D; Rocha, C; Schramm, V G; Muramatsu, K; Dahlke, F; Maiorka, A

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that a coarse limestone diet improves productivity, reproductive performance and the calcium utilization of molted broiler breeders. In total, 640 broiler breeder females, 73-week-old and sixty-four 27-week-old cockerels, Cobb 500, were evaluated during 10 weeks, according to a randomized block design composed of 4 treatments with 8 replicates each. Treatments consisted of diets with the inclusion of 100% fine limestone-fine PS (0.2 mm GMD-geometric mean diameter); PS1: 30% fine limestone+70% limestone with 1.0 mm GMD; PS2: 30% fine limestone+70% limestone with 2.0 mm GMD; and PS3: 30% fine limestone+70% limestone with 3.0 mm GMD. Calcium retention in the gizzard of the breeders, bone characteristics, and breeder performance, egg characteristics, eggshell quality, incubation performance, chick quality and yield, chick pre-starter live performance, and chick bone characteristics were determined. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the rate of lay, percentage of non-settable eggs, egg weight, egg shape index, egg specific gravity, eggshell weight, thickness, and percentage hatchability and egg weight loss of broiler breeders fed with diets with different limestone particle sizes. The chick quality and yield, chick pre-starter live performance, and chick bone characteristics were not affected (P>0.05) by any of the limestone particle sizes. It was concluded that live and reproductive performance parameters of broiler breeders post molting is not affected by limestone particle size in the feed. PMID:26769267

  1. Tissue lipid metabolism and hepatic metabolomic profiling in response to supplementation of fermented cottonseedmeal in the diets of broiler chickens*

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Cun-xi; Zhang, Wen-ju; Wang, Yong-qiang; Liu, Yan-feng; Ge, Wen-xia; Liu, Jian-cheng

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) on lipid metabolites, lipid metabolism-related gene expression in liver tissues and abdominal adipose tissues, and hepatic metabolomic profiling in broiler chickens. One hundred and eighty 21-d-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into three diet groups with six replicates of 10 birds in each group. The three diets consisted of a control diet supplemented with unfermented cottonseed meal, an experimental diet of cottonseed meal fermented by Candida tropicalis, and a second experimental diet of cottonseed meal fermented by C. tropicalis plus Saccharomyces cerevisae. The results showed that FCSM intake significantly decreased the levels of abdominal fat and hepatic triglycerides (P<0.05 for both). Dietary FCSM supplementation down-regulated the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and acetyl CoA carboxylase in liver tissues and the lipoprotein lipase expression in abdominal fat tissues (P<0.05 for both). FCSM intake resulted in significant metabolic changes of multiple pathways in the liver involving the tricarboxylic acid cycle, synthesis of fatty acids, and the metabolism of glycerolipid and amino acids. These findings indicated that FCSM regulated lipid metabolism by increasing or decreasing the expression of the lipid-related gene and by altering multiple endogenous metabolites. Lipid metabolism regulation is a complex process, this discovery provided new essential information about the effects of FCSM diets in broiler chickens and demonstrated the great potential of nutrimetabolomics in researching complex nutrients added to animal diets. PMID:26055906

  2. Morphometric Documentation of a High Prevalence of Left Ventricular Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Both Clinically Normal and Cyanotic Mature Commercial Broiler Breeder Roosters with Comparisons to Market-Age Broilers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Floyd D; Magee, Danny L; Jones, Kelli H; Baravik-Munsell, Erica; Cummings, Timothy S; Wills, Robert W; Pace, Lanny W

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies documented the common occurrence of transitory cyanosis and echocardiographic aortic insufficiency in mature commercial broiler breeder roosters. During further investigations, we observed a high prevalence of hearts exhibiting extensive dilation of the left ventricle chamber compatible with dilated left ventricular cardiomyopathy present in both cyanotic and normal subpopulations. We conducted quantitative studies focused on documentation of cardiac ventricle parameters by using simple gross morphometric methods performed on formalin-fixed hearts obtained from both clinically normal roosters and those exhibiting variable transitory cyanosis, echocardiographic aortic insufficiency, or both. A high prevalence of often dramatic left ventricular dilation reflected in enlarged left ventricular chamber areas and elevated left ventricle-to-total ventricle area ratios was morphometrically documented. However, no statistically significant differences in the occurrence of ventricular abnormalities were observed between normal and cyanotic roosters. Age-associated changes were also demonstrated by comparative morphometric studies on hearts from normal market-age broilers (average age of 7 wk) and those of mature roosters (average age of 42 wk). Elevation in both left and right ventricular weight-to-total heart weight ratios dramatically increased with aging. In addition, values (average ± SD) for the left ventricle chamber area-to-total ventricle area ratios increased from 3.2 ± 2.0% in broilers up to 10.0 ± 8.8% in roosters. None of the normal broilers studied demonstrated left ventricular volume ratios above 10%, whereas 33% of the roosters had left ventricular volume ratios above 10%, including 13% with ratios of 20% or higher. However, the left ventricle wall area-to-body weight ratios were much closer for the two age groups (0.85 ± 0.18 cm(2)/kg in broilers and 0.79 ± 0.13 cm(2)/kg in roosters). Also, the standard right ventricle-to-total ventricle

  3. Morphometric Documentation of a High Prevalence of Left Ventricular Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Both Clinically Normal and Cyanotic Mature Commercial Broiler Breeder Roosters with Comparisons to Market-Age Broilers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Floyd D; Magee, Danny L; Jones, Kelli H; Baravik-Munsell, Erica; Cummings, Timothy S; Wills, Robert W; Pace, Lanny W

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies documented the common occurrence of transitory cyanosis and echocardiographic aortic insufficiency in mature commercial broiler breeder roosters. During further investigations, we observed a high prevalence of hearts exhibiting extensive dilation of the left ventricle chamber compatible with dilated left ventricular cardiomyopathy present in both cyanotic and normal subpopulations. We conducted quantitative studies focused on documentation of cardiac ventricle parameters by using simple gross morphometric methods performed on formalin-fixed hearts obtained from both clinically normal roosters and those exhibiting variable transitory cyanosis, echocardiographic aortic insufficiency, or both. A high prevalence of often dramatic left ventricular dilation reflected in enlarged left ventricular chamber areas and elevated left ventricle-to-total ventricle area ratios was morphometrically documented. However, no statistically significant differences in the occurrence of ventricular abnormalities were observed between normal and cyanotic roosters. Age-associated changes were also demonstrated by comparative morphometric studies on hearts from normal market-age broilers (average age of 7 wk) and those of mature roosters (average age of 42 wk). Elevation in both left and right ventricular weight-to-total heart weight ratios dramatically increased with aging. In addition, values (average ± SD) for the left ventricle chamber area-to-total ventricle area ratios increased from 3.2 ± 2.0% in broilers up to 10.0 ± 8.8% in roosters. None of the normal broilers studied demonstrated left ventricular volume ratios above 10%, whereas 33% of the roosters had left ventricular volume ratios above 10%, including 13% with ratios of 20% or higher. However, the left ventricle wall area-to-body weight ratios were much closer for the two age groups (0.85 ± 0.18 cm(2)/kg in broilers and 0.79 ± 0.13 cm(2)/kg in roosters). Also, the standard right ventricle-to-total ventricle

  4. Vaccination with recombinant NetB toxin partially protects broiler chickens from necrotic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Keyburn, Anthony L; Portela, Ricardo W; Sproat, Kathy; Ford, Mark E; Bannam, Trudi L; Yan, Xuxia; Rood, Julian I; Moore, Robert J

    2013-07-16

    NetB toxin from Clostridium perfringens is a major virulence factor in necrotic enteritis in poultry. In this study the efficacy of NetB as a vaccine antigen to protect chickens from necrotic enteritis was examined. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with purified recombinant NetB (rNetB), formalin treated bacterin and cell free toxoid with or without rNetB supplementation. Intestinal lesion scores and NetB antibody levels were measured to determine protection after mild oral gavage, moderate in-feed and heavy in-feed challenges with virulent C. perfringens isolates. Birds immunized with rNetB were significantly protected against necrotic enteritis when challenged with a mild oral dose of virulent bacteria, but were not protected when a more robust challenge was used. Bacterin and cell free toxoid without rNetB supplementation did not protect birds from moderate and severe in-feed challenge. Only birds immunized with bacterin and cell free toxoid supplemented with rNetB showed significant protection against moderate and severe in-feed challenge, with the later giving the greatest protection. Higher NetB antibody titres were observed in birds immunized with rNetB compared to those vaccinated with bacterin or toxoid, suggesting that the in vitro levels of NetB produced by virulent C. perfringens isolates are too low to induce the development of a strong immune response. These results suggest that vaccination with NetB alone may not be sufficient to protect birds from necrotic enteritis in the field, but that in combination with other cellular or cell-free antigens it can significantly protect chickens from disease.

  5. Electrolysed reduced water decreases reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improves performance in broiler chickens exposed to medium-term chronic heat stress.

    PubMed

    Azad, M A K; Kikusato, M; Zulkifli, I; Toyomizu, M

    2013-01-01

    1. The present study was designed to achieve a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and to improve the performance of broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress. 2. Chickens were given a control diet with normal drinking water, or diets supplemented with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) or grape seed extract (GSE), or a control diet with electrolysed reduced water (ERW) for 19 d after hatch. Thereafter, chickens were exposed to a temperature of either 34°C continuously for a period of 5 d, or maintained at 24°C, on the same diets. 3. The control broilers exposed to 34°C showed decreased weight gain and feed consumption and slightly increased ROS production and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in skeletal muscle. The chickens exposed to 34°C and supplemented with ERW showed significantly improved growth performance and lower ROS production and MDA contents in tissues than control broilers exposed to 34°C. Following heat exposure, CNSL chickens performed better with respect to weight gain and feed consumption, but still showed elevated ROS production and skeletal muscle oxidative damage. GSE chickens did not exhibit improved performance or reduced skeletal muscle oxidative damage. 4. In conclusion, this study suggests that ERW could partially inhibit ROS-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improve growth performance in broiler chickens under medium-term chronic heat treatment.

  6. Electrolysed reduced water decreases reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improves performance in broiler chickens exposed to medium-term chronic heat stress.

    PubMed

    Azad, M A K; Kikusato, M; Zulkifli, I; Toyomizu, M

    2013-01-01

    1. The present study was designed to achieve a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and to improve the performance of broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress. 2. Chickens were given a control diet with normal drinking water, or diets supplemented with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) or grape seed extract (GSE), or a control diet with electrolysed reduced water (ERW) for 19 d after hatch. Thereafter, chickens were exposed to a temperature of either 34°C continuously for a period of 5 d, or maintained at 24°C, on the same diets. 3. The control broilers exposed to 34°C showed decreased weight gain and feed consumption and slightly increased ROS production and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in skeletal muscle. The chickens exposed to 34°C and supplemented with ERW showed significantly improved growth performance and lower ROS production and MDA contents in tissues than control broilers exposed to 34°C. Following heat exposure, CNSL chickens performed better with respect to weight gain and feed consumption, but still showed elevated ROS production and skeletal muscle oxidative damage. GSE chickens did not exhibit improved performance or reduced skeletal muscle oxidative damage. 4. In conclusion, this study suggests that ERW could partially inhibit ROS-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improve growth performance in broiler chickens under medium-term chronic heat treatment. PMID:23815735

  7. Knowledge and attitudes toward food safety and use of good production practices among Canadian broiler chicken producers.

    PubMed

    Young, Ian; Rajić, Andrijana; Letellier, Ann; Cox, Bill; Leslie, Mira; Sanei, Babak; McEwen, Scott A

    2010-07-01

    Provincial broiler-chicken marketing boards in Canada have recently implemented an on-farm food safety program called Safe, Safer, Safest. The purpose of this study was to measure broiler chicken producers' attitudes toward the program and food safety topics and use of highly recommended good production practices (GPP). Mailed and Web-based questionnaires were administered to all producers registered in British Columbia, Ontario, and Quebec in 2008. The response percentage was 33.2% (642 of 1,932). Nearly 70% of respondents rated the program as effective in producing safe chicken, and 49.1% rated the program requirements as easy to implement. Most respondents (92.9%) reported that they do not raise other poultry or keep birds as pets, and 79.8% reported that they clean and disinfect their barns between each flock cycle. Less than 50% of respondents reported that visitors wash their hands or change their clothes before entering barns, 38.4% reported that catching crews wear clean clothes and boots, and 35.8% reported that a crew other than from the hatchery places chicks. Respondents who rated the program requirements as effective or easy to implement were more likely to report the use of five of six highly recommended GPP. Only 21.1% of respondents indicated that Campylobacter can be transmitted from contaminated chicken meat to humans, and 26.6% believed that antimicrobial use in their industry is linked to antimicrobial resistance in humans. Continuing education of producers should focus on improving their awareness of these issues, while mandatory GPP should include those that are known to be effective in controlling Campylobacter and Salmonella in broiler chicken flocks.

  8. The effect of Bacillus coagulans-fermented and nonfermented Ginkgo biloba on the immunity status of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Cao, Guanjun; Wang, Qin; Yao, Xuan; Fang, Binghu

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate and compare the effects of Bacillus coagulans-fermented Ginkgo biloba (FG) and nonfermented Ginkgo biloba (NFG) on the immunity status of broiler chickens, 180 1-d-old female Arbor Acres chicks were divided into 3 groups and fed either a basal diet, a basal diet supplemented with 0.3% NFG, or a basal diet supplemented with 0.3% FG. Blood samples were taken on the seventh (before vaccination), 14th, 21st, 28th and 35th day for the assessment of serum IL-18 and interferon γ (IFN-γ) levels by ELISA. In addition, Newcastle disease antibody titer analysis was made via hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition test methods. On d 35, 6 chickens from each group were sacrificed and the thymus, liver, spleen, small intestine (jejunum segment), cecum, and bursa of Fabricius from each chicken were removed for analysis. RNA was isolated for defensin expression detection by real-time PCR (q-PCR). The results showed that serum IL-18 and IFN-γ levels decreased after treatment with NFG and FG compared with untreated control chickens. The ND antibody titers did not differ significantly between the 3 groups on the seventh, 14th, 21st and 28th day; however, on the 35th day, the ND antibody titers of the NFG and FG chickens were both significantly higher than those of control group chickens. Defensin RNA expression levels were inhibited by NFG; however, they were induced by FG. In conclusion, fermentation of Ginkgo biloba with Bacillus coagulans can promote the beneficial effect of Gingko biloba on the immunity status of broiler chickens.

  9. In vitro bile acid-binding capacity of dietary fibre sources and their effects with bile acid on broiler chicken performance and lipid digestibility.

    PubMed

    Hemati Matin, H R; Shariatmadari, F; Karimi Torshizi, M A; Chiba, L I

    2016-06-01

    A 4 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets-containing dietary fibre (DF) sources and a source of bile acid (BA) on growth performance and lipid metabolism. In addition, in vitro BA-binding capacity of fibre sources was investigated. A total of 256 one-d-old male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were assigned to DF sources [maize-soybean meal (control, C), or 30 g/kg of wheat bran (WB), barley bran (BB) or soybean hulls (SH)] and BA (with or without 1.5 g Na-deoxycholate/kg). Each treatment was replicated 4 times with 8 broiler chickens per cage. The highest in vitro BA-binding capacity was observed with BB (8.76 mg/g BB). From 0 to 21 d, with the addition of BA, the average daily feed intake (ADFI) decreased in broiler chickens fed on the C, WB or BB diets, while there was no difference with the SH diet. With added BA, the average daily gain decreased in broiler chickens fed on the C or SH diets, but it did not change in those fed on the other diets. The addition of BA decreased feed conversion ratio (FCR) in broiler chickens fed on the BB or WB diets, but it increased in those fed on the C or SH diets. Interaction results indicated that the apparent ileal digestibility of lipid increased in broiler chickens fed the C and other DF diets with BA compared to those fed the diets without BA. The addition of BA decreased the pancreas lipase activity (PLA) in broiler chickens fed on the C diet compared to those fed the C diet without BA, while no changes observed in those fed the DF diets with or without BA. No interaction was observed in total liver bile acid (TLBA). The WB, BB and SH with little Na-deoxycholate-binding capacity (<10 mg/g of DF) under in vitro conditions had particular effects with BA on the measured criteria in broiler chickens. The magnitude of improvement in digestibility of lipid with the addition of BA depends on the source of fibre used and the addition of BA in DF diets had little effect on growth

  10. A meta-analysis of the feed intake and growth performance of broiler chickens challenged by bacteria.

    PubMed

    Remus, A; Hauschild, L; Andretta, I; Kipper, M; Lehnen, C R; Sakomura, N K

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of a bacterial immune challenge (Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp.) on the ADFI, ADG, and nutrient partitioning (maintenance requirements and feed efficiency) of broiler chickens. The database used for the meta-analysis included 65 articles that were published between 1997 and 2012 concerning a total of 86,300 broilers and containing information on the feed intake, protein intake, methionine intake, and weight gain of broilers that were challenged with Clostridium spp., E. coli, or Salmonella spp. and were fed or not fed feed additives. The results of the ADFI and the ADG of the challenged broilers were transformed into values relative to those obtained in control broilers (ADG and ADFI). The meta-analysis involved 3 sequential analyses: graphical, correlation, and variance-covariance analysis. The results obtained for the birds that were challenged with Clostridium spp., E. coli, or Salmonella spp. indicated that the ADFI was reduced by 16, 7, and 9%, respectively, and the ADG was reduced by 40, 10, and 29%, respectively. When the results for the challenged birds that were treated or nontreated were compared, ADFI reductions of 26.0 and 26.5% and ADG reductions of 2.9 and 21.6% were observed, respectively. Regression analyses of the ADG as a function of the protein or methionine intake of the challenged birds suggested that nutrients were diverted to the immune system. The relationship between the ADG and the ADFI was quadratic in the challenged and nontreated or treated broilers, as well as for each disease. The intercept of the regression-based curves for the data from all of the challenges were different from zero and negative (-2.20, -0.70, and -3.37, respectively), indicating that all of the challenges increased the maintenance requirements. In general, this meta-analysis allowed for the quantification of the effects of bacteriological challenges on the maintenance and feed

  11. Treatment with PPARα Agonist Clofibrate Inhibits the Transcription and Activation of SREBPs and Reduces Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels in Liver of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijun; Li, Chunyan; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Shenghua; Shangguan, Mingjun; Xue, Lina; Zhang, Bianying; Ding, Fuxiang; Hui, Dequan; Liang, Aihua; He, Dongchang

    2015-01-01

    PPARα agonist clofibrate reduces cholesterol and fatty acid concentrations in rodent liver by an inhibition of SREBP-dependent gene expression. In present study we investigated the regulation mechanisms of the triglyceride- and cholesterol-lowering effect of the PPARα agonist clofibrate in broiler chickens. We observed that PPARα agonist clofibrate decreases the mRNA and protein levels of LXRα and the mRNA and both precursor and nuclear protein levels of SREBP1 and SREBP2 as well as the mRNA levels of the SREBP1 (FASN and GPAM) and SREBP2 (HMGCR and LDLR) target genes in the liver of treated broiler chickens compared to control group, whereas the mRNA level of INSIG2, which inhibits SREBP activation, was increased in the liver of treated broiler chickens compared to control group. Taken together, the effects of PPARα agonist clofibrate on lipid metabolism in liver of broiler chickens involve inhibiting transcription and activation of SREBPs and SREBP-dependent lipogenic and cholesterologenic gene expression, thereby resulting in a reduction of the triglyceride and cholesterol levels in liver of broiler chickens. PMID:26693219

  12. Bacteriophage-induced reduction in Salmonella Enteritidis counts in the crop of broiler chickens undergoing preslaughter feed withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Guilherme Augusto Marietto; Donato, Tais Cremasco; Baptista, Ana Angelita Sampaio; Corrêa, Isadora Mainieri de Oliveira; Garcia, Keila Carolina Ornellas Dutka; Andreatti Filho, Raphael Lucio

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella food poisoning is a public health problem. Feed withdrawal from broiler chickens before slaughter can favor the multiplication of Salmonella in the cecum and crop of contaminated animals and subsequently lead to contamination of carcasses in the processing plant. In the present study, a cocktail of lytic bacteriophages isolated from sewage water was orally administered to 45-d-old broiler chickens 1 h after they received an oral dose of 10(7) cfu/mL Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Enteritidis. Immediately after phage administration and 30 min, 1, 3, 6, and 12 h thereafter, groups of chicken were killed. Ceca and crops were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella. At 3 h posttreatment, there were 10(3) cfu/g and 10(1) cfu/g of cecal and crop suspension, respectively. At 6 h after treatment, the number of Salmonella was 10(3) cfu/g in the cecal suspension, but below the detection limit in the crops. Our results suggest that bacteriophage therapy may be able to reduce the contamination of chicken carcasses by reducing the preslaughter load of Salmonella in the birds. PMID:24570442

  13. Influence of enrofloxacin traces in drinking water to doxycycline tissue pharmacokinetics in healthy and infected by Mycoplasma gallisepticum broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gbylik-Sikorska, Malgorzata; Posyniak, Andrzej; Sniegocki, Tomasz; Sell, Bartosz; Gajda, Anna; Sawicka, Anna; Olszewska-Tomczyk, Monika; Bladek, Tomasz; Tomczyk, Grzegorz; Zmudzki, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Most of antibiotics, administrated in the treatment of poultry diseases are dissolved in drinking water, and it can lead to water supply systems contamination, especially when the regular cleaning is not using. This situation can lead to unconscious administration of low doses of antibiotics to untreated animals. The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of the exposure of enrofloxacin traces (500 μg l(-1)) to doxycycline pharmacokinetics in healthy and experimentally Mycoplasma gallisepticum infected broiler chickens., Two experimental groups, received of enrofloxacin in water and all groups, received 20 mg kg(-1) bw of doxycycline. The compounds concentrations in muscles and livers were determined by LC-MS/MS. The maximum drug tissue concentration (Cmax) of doxycycline was highest in liver obtained from infected chickens which, received enrofloxacin traces (ENR + DC/MG). It was about 40% higher than in healthy chickens from group I which received only doxycycline. It was found that the concentration-time curve AUC(0-t) values in group ENR + DC/MG were almost 75% higher than in the group (DC) and 35% higher than in group (ENR + DC) which also received enrofloxacin traces. The constant exposure of broiler chickens on enrofloxacin traces as well as infection, may significantly influenced on doxycycline tissue pharmacokinetic profile.

  14. Effects of a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (T-Bind) on mycotoxicosis in young broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kubena, L F; Harvey, R B; Bailey, R H; Buckley, S A; Rottinghaus, G E

    1998-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the ability of a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (T-Bind) sorbent to reduce the toxicity of aflatoxins (AF) or T-2 toxin in male broiler chickens from day of hatch to 21 d of age. In Experiment 1, the sorbent was added at 0.250 or 0.375% to diets containing AF at 5 or T-2 toxin at 8 mg/kg of diet. When compared with controls, AF reduced BW gain by 27% and T-2 toxin reduced BW gain by 17%. The addition of the sorbent at 0.250 or 0.375%, in the absence of added mycotoxins, did not alter the performance of the chicks. The sorbent reduced the toxic effects of 5 mg AF/kg of diet on BW gain by 43% but did not significantly diminish the toxic effects of 8 mg T-2 toxin/kg of diet. The decreased efficiency of feed utilization and the increased relative organ weights caused by AF were significantly diminished to differing degrees by the sorbent. Oral lesions caused by T-2 toxin were not affected by the sorbent. In Experiment 2, the sorbent was added at 0.80% to a diet containing 8 mg T-2 toxin/kg of diet. The sorbent did not diminish the toxic effects of T-2 toxin when added at 0.80% of the diet. These data demonstrate that this specific sorbent can provide protection against the toxicity of AF, but not T-2 toxin, in young broiler chicks.

  15. Pathway underlying small intestine apoptosis by dietary nickel chloride in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bangyuan; Guo, Hongrui; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Xun; Huang, Jianying

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the pathways which dietary nickel chloride (NiCl2) affects small intestine apoptosis in broiler chickens by observing the ultrastructure, and bcl-2, bax, and caspase-3 protein expression and mRNA expression, and cytochrome C, bak and caspase-9 mRNA expression of the small intestine. A total of 240 one-day-old avian broilers were divided into four groups and fed a corn-soybean basal diet as the control diet or three experimental diets supplemented with 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg of NiCl2 for 42 days. Ultrastructurally, the microvilli were apparently exfoliated, and the mitochondria were swollen and the number of lysosomes increased in the intestinal cells of three experimental groups. As measured by TUNEL and flow cytometry (FCM), the percentage of apoptotic cells in the small intestine and the lymphocytes in the ileum were significantly increased in three experimental groups when compared with those of the control group. Meanwhile, immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) tests showed that the protein expression, mRNA expression levels were decreased in the bcl-2, whereas those of bax and caspase-3, and the cytochrome C, bak and caspase-9 mRNA expression levels were increased in three experimental groups. The abovementioned results show that pathway of dietary NiCl2-induced small intestine apoptosis is related to the mitochondrial damage and promotion of the cytochrome C release from mitochondria, which activates the mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis pathway.

  16. Pathway underlying small intestine apoptosis by dietary nickel chloride in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bangyuan; Guo, Hongrui; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Xun; Huang, Jianying

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the pathways which dietary nickel chloride (NiCl2) affects small intestine apoptosis in broiler chickens by observing the ultrastructure, and bcl-2, bax, and caspase-3 protein expression and mRNA expression, and cytochrome C, bak and caspase-9 mRNA expression of the small intestine. A total of 240 one-day-old avian broilers were divided into four groups and fed a corn-soybean basal diet as the control diet or three experimental diets supplemented with 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg of NiCl2 for 42 days. Ultrastructurally, the microvilli were apparently exfoliated, and the mitochondria were swollen and the number of lysosomes increased in the intestinal cells of three experimental groups. As measured by TUNEL and flow cytometry (FCM), the percentage of apoptotic cells in the small intestine and the lymphocytes in the ileum were significantly increased in three experimental groups when compared with those of the control group. Meanwhile, immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) tests showed that the protein expression, mRNA expression levels were decreased in the bcl-2, whereas those of bax and caspase-3, and the cytochrome C, bak and caspase-9 mRNA expression levels were increased in three experimental groups. The abovementioned results show that pathway of dietary NiCl2-induced small intestine apoptosis is related to the mitochondrial damage and promotion of the cytochrome C release from mitochondria, which activates the mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis pathway. PMID:26585591

  17. Effects of sodium butyrate and salinomycin upon intestinal microbiota, mucosal morphology and performance of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Czerwiński, Jan; Højberg, Ole; Smulikowska, Stefania; Engberg, Ricarda M; Mieczkowska, Anna

    2012-04-01

    The effect of dietary sodium butyrate (SB) or salinomycin (SAL) or both additives on performance, small intestinal morphology and microbial ecology of broiler chickens was studied. A growth trial was conducted with 96 Ross 308 female broilers from 1 to 30 days of age. Four treatment groups were fed with a non-supplemented control diet or three experimental diets supplemented with i) 300 mg SB (Adimix 30 coated) per kg, ii) 60 mg SAL (Sacox) per kg or iii) both additives in combination. Feed intake and body-weight gain decreased and gain-to-feed ratio increased due to SAL supplementation, while addition of SB did not affect performance in comparison with the control diet but positively affected feed intake and body-weight gain in comparison with birds fed the SAL-supplemented diet. Villus height in jejunum decreased, while crypt depth increased due to SAL supplementation. Addition of SB increased crypt depth in jejunum. No significant effect of either additive was observed in ileum morphology. Total short-chain organic acids concentration in ileal digesta decreased with SAL supplementation, mainly due to lower lactic acid concentration, but no effects were observed in the caeca. The SAL supplementation was accompanied by a pH increase in ileum and a pH decrease in caecum. No significant effect of SB addition was observed for these parameters. Total bacterial numbers and Lactobacillus [lactic acid bacteria (LAB)] counts in ileal and caecal contents were lower in birds fed with SAL-supplemented diet in comparison with birds fed with control or SB diet. DNA fingerprints revealed SAL supplementation to affect the microbial population by suppressing dominating LAB, potentially L. aviarius. The presented results show that dietary SAL, supplemented alone or in combination with SB, suppressed the microbial activity and altered the microbial community structure mainly in ileum. SAL alone negatively affected feed intake and body-weight gain; however, the effect was

  18. Antibiotic resistance and diversity of Salmonella enterica serovars associated with broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Diarra, Moussa Sory; Delaquis, Pascal; Rempel, Heidi; Bach, Susan; Harlton, Colleen; Aslam, Mueen; Pritchard, Jane; Topp, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the antibiotic resistance phenotype and genotype of Salmonella isolated from broiler production facilities. A total of 193 Salmonella isolates recovered from commercial farms in British Columbia, Canada, were evaluated. Susceptibility to antibiotics was determined with the Sensititre system. Virulence and antibiotic resistance genes were detected by PCR assay. Genetic diversity was determined by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing. Seventeen serovars of Salmonella were identified. The most prevalent Salmonella serovars were Kentucky (29.0% of isolates), Typhimurium (23.8%), Enteritidis (13.5%), and Hadar (11.9%); serovars Heidelberg, Brandenburg, and Thompson were identified in 7.7, 4.1, and 3.6% of isolates, respectively. More than 43% of the isolates were simultaneously resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, cefoxitim, and ceftriaxone. This β-lactam resistance pattern was observed in 33 (58.9%) of the Salmonella Kentucky isolates; 2 of these isolates were also resistant to chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline. Genes associated with resistance to aminoglycosides (aadA1, aadA2, and strA), β-lactams (blaCMY-2, blaSHV, and blaTEM), tetracycline (tetA and tetB), and sulfonamide (sul1) were detected among corresponding resistant isolates. The invasin gene (invA) and the Salmonella plasmid virulence gene (spvC) were found in 97.9 and 25.9% of the isolates, respectively, with 33 (71.7%) of the 46 Salmonella Typhimurium isolates and 17 (65.4%) of the 26 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates carrying both invA and spvC. PGFE typing revealed that the antibiotic-resistant serovars were genetically diverse. These data confirm that broiler chickens can be colonized by genetically diverse antibiotic-resistant Salmonella isolates harboring virulence determinants. The presence of such strains is highly relevant to food safety and public health.

  19. Fumonisins affect the intestinal microbial homeostasis in broiler chickens, predisposing to necrotic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Antonissen, Gunther; Croubels, Siska; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Devreese, Mathias; Verlinden, Marc; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Eeckhout, Mia; De Saeger, Sarah; Antlinger, Birgit; Novak, Barbara; Martel, An; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2015-09-23

    Fumonisins (FBs) are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium fungi. This study aimed to investigate the effect of these feed contaminants on the intestinal morphology and microbiota composition, and to evaluate whether FBs predispose broilers to necrotic enteritis. One-day-old broiler chicks were divided into a group fed a control diet, and a group fed a FBs contaminated diet (18.6 mg FB1+FB2/kg feed). A significant increase in the plasma sphinganine/sphingosine ratio in the FBs-treated group (0.21 ± 0.016) compared to the control (0.14 ± 0.014) indicated disturbance of the sphingolipid biosynthesis. Furthermore, villus height and crypt depth of the ileum was significantly reduced by FBs. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed a shift in the microbiota composition in the ileum in the FBs group compared to the control. A reduced presence of low-GC containing operational taxonomic units in ileal digesta of birds exposed to FBs was demonstrated, and identified as a reduced abundance of Candidatus Savagella and Lactobaccilus spp. Quantification of total Clostridium perfringens in these ileal samples, previous to experimental infection, using cpa gene (alpha toxin) quantification by qPCR showed an increase in C. perfringens in chickens fed a FBs contaminated diet compared to control (7.5 ± 0.30 versus 6.3 ± 0.24 log10 copies/g intestinal content). After C. perfringens challenge, a higher percentage of birds developed subclinical necrotic enteritis in the group fed a FBs contaminated diet as compared to the control (44.9 ± 2.22% versus 29.8 ± 5.46%).

  20. Effect of electrostatic space charge on reduction of airborne transmission of Salmonella and other bacteria in broiler breeders in production and their progeny.

    PubMed

    Richardson, L J; Hofacre, C L; Mitchell, B W; Wilson, J L

    2003-01-01

    Salmonella in birds is a concern because of the human foodborne illness associated with the consumption of poultry meat and eggs. One of the methods of transmission of Salmonella within a flock can be by the air. Therefore, we used reduction of transmission of Salmonella to monitor the effectiveness of the electrostatic space charge system (ESCS). During the average broiler breeder laying cycle of 40 wk, a large amount of dust becomes airborne and accumulates on walls, ceiling, and equipment. Many microorganisms adhere to these dust particles, making dust an excellent vector for horizontal disease transmission between birds. We used two environmentally controlled rooms containing commercial broiler breeders to evaluate the effectiveness of an ESCS that produced a strong negative electrostatic charge to reduce airborne dust and, subsequently, microorganism levels. The ESCS caused the dust to become negatively charged, therefore moving to the grounded floor in the treatment room. The use of the ESCS resulted in a significant reduction (P < 0.0001, 61% reduction) in airborne dust concentration levels, which resulted in a significant reduction (P < 0.0001, 76% reduction) in total airborne bacteria and gram-negative bacteria (48% reduction) in the treatment room. Significant reductions (P < 0.05) of gram-negative bacteria (63% reduction) on the egg collection belts were also recorded in the treatment room, which resulted in a significant reduction (P < 0.0001) of gram-negative bacteria (28% reduction) on the eggshell surface. The ESCS treatment resulted in fewer Salmonella enteritidis-positive hens and their progeny from the treatment room due to reductions of dust and airborne bacteria. In addition, this significant reduction in bacteria on the eggshell surface should result in less bacteria in the day-old chicks, therefore better early chick livability. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in egg production, male or female body weights, mortality, or

  1. Constant and changing photoperiods in the laying period for broiler breeders allowed [corrected] normal or accelerated growth during the rearing period.

    PubMed

    Lewis, P D; Gous, R M

    2006-02-01

    Broiler breeder pullets were grown on 8-h photoperiods to 2.23 or 2.42 kg of BW at 20 wk, and then transferred abruptly to 11- or 16-h photoperiods. Subsequently, some of the 11-h photoperiod birds were given 15-min increases in day length weekly or a 1-h increase every 4 wk to reach 16 h of light at 54 wk. The birds transferred abruptly to a 16-h photoperiod at 20 wk matured 4 d earlier than 11-h photoperiod birds, required 500 g less feed to reach 50% lay, but, because of a 3% lower rate of lay after peak, produced 5 fewer eggs to 60 wk. However, the number of settable eggs was similar for the 2 groups because the 11-h photoperiod birds laid more eggs on the floor, resulting in more cracked and dirty eggs. The 11-h photoperiod birds converted feed into egg more efficiently, and were 100 g heavier at end of lay. Increasing the photoperiod in 15-min or 1-h increments from 11 to 16 h during the laying cycle depressed egg production. Mean egg weight and mortality were similar for all lighting groups. The heavier BW birds at 20 wk reached maturity 1 d earlier, but used 1 kg more feed to reach maturity, laid 5 fewer total eggs (because of a 3% lower rate of lay after peak), produced 7 more unsettable eggs (because more eggs were laid on the floor), and converted feed into egg less efficiently than did the lighter BW birds. Mean egg weight, BW at 57 wk, and mortality were similar for both groups. There was no significant light x growth interaction for any performance parameter. It is concluded that there is no benefit to egg production from extending the photoperiod to 16 h when broiler breeders are kept in light-proofed housing, especially if they have access to illuminated nest boxes.

  2. Age-related energy values of bakery meal for broiler chickens determined using the regression method.

    PubMed

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Xue, P; Ajuwon, K M; Adeola, O

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the ileal digestible energy (IDE), ME, and MEn contents of bakery meal using the regression method and to evaluate whether the energy values are age-dependent in broiler chickens from zero to 21 d post hatching. Seven hundred and eighty male Ross 708 chicks were fed 3 experimental diets in which bakery meal was incorporated into a corn-soybean meal-based reference diet at zero, 100, or 200 g/kg by replacing the energy-yielding ingredients. A 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of 3 ages (1, 2, or 3 wk) and 3 dietary bakery meal levels were used. Birds were fed the same experimental diets in these 3 evaluated ages. Birds were grouped by weight into 10 replicates per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Apparent ileal digestibility and total tract retention of DM, N, and energy were calculated. Expression of mucin (MUC2), sodium-dependent phosphate transporter (NaPi-IIb), solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, Y(+) system, SLC7A2), glucose (GLUT2), and sodium-glucose linked transporter (SGLT1) genes were measured at each age in the jejunum by real-time PCR. Addition of bakery meal to the reference diet resulted in a linear decrease in retention of DM, N, and energy, and a quadratic reduction (P < 0.05) in N retention and ME. There was a linear increase in DM, N, and energy as birds' ages increased from 1 to 3 wk. Dietary bakery meal did not affect jejunal gene expression. Expression of genes encoding MUC2, NaPi-IIb, and SLC7A2 linearly increased (P < 0.05) with age. Regression-derived MEn of bakery meal linearly increased (P < 0.05) as the age of birds increased, with values of 2,710, 2,820, and 2,923 kcal/kg DM for 1, 2, and 3 wk, respectively. Based on these results, utilization of energy and nitrogen in the basal diet decreased when bakery meal was included and increased with age of broiler chickens.

  3. Energy Value of Cassava Products in Broiler Chicken Diets with or without Enzyme Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, M M; Iji, P A

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the metabolizable energy (ME) intake, net energy of production (NEp), heat production (HP), efficiencies of ME use for energy, lipid and protein retention as well as the performance of broiler chickens fed diets based on cassava chips or pellets with or without supplementation with an enzyme product containing xylanase, amylase, protease and phytase. The two products, cassava chips and pellets, were analysed for nutrient composition prior to feed formulation. The cassava chips and pellets contained 2.2% and 2.1% crude protein; 1.2% and 1.5% crude fat; and 75.1% and 67.8% starch, respectively. Lysine and methionine were 0.077%, 0.075%, and 0.017%, 0.020% protein material, respectively, while calculated ME was 12.6 and 11.7 MJ/kg, respectively. Feed intake to day 21 was lower (p<0.01) on the diet containing cassava chips compared to diets with cassava pellets. Enzyme supplementation increased (p<0.01) feed intake on all diets. Live weight at day 21 was significantly (p<0.01) reduced on the diet based on cassava chips compared to pellets, but an improvement (p<0.01) was noticed with the enzyme supplementation. Metabolizable energy intake was reduced (p<0.01) by both cassava chips and pellets, but was increased (p<0.01) on all diets by enzyme supplementation. The NEp was higher (p<0.01) in the maize-based diets than the diets containing cassava. Enzyme supplementation improved (p<0.01) NEp in all the diets. Heat production was highest (p<0.01) on diets containing cassava pellets than on cassava chips. It is possible to use cassava pellets in diets for broiler chickens at a level close to 50% of the diet to reduce cost of production, and the nutritive value of such diets can be improved through supplementation of enzyme products containing carbohydrases, protease, and phytase. PMID:26194227

  4. Evaluation of an indigenous source of rock phosphate as a supplement for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tahir, M; Lughmani, A B; Pesti, G M

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of replacing dicalcium phosphate (DCP) with Hazara rock phosphate (HRP) on the growth performance of broiler chickens. The purpose was to determine the maximum level of F that could be well tolerated. The HRP (13.16% P and 2.98% F) was incorporated into a standard corn- and soybean meal-based diet by replacing 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of DCP based on P. Each treatment consisted of 5 replicate pens of 10 chicks each. The Ca and nonphytate P contents of all diets were maintained constant at 1.0 and 0.45%, respectively. Replacing 25% DCP with HRP significantly increased average BW gain. Substituting 100% HRP (562 mg of F/kg) decreased (P < 0.05) BW gain. The BW gain was maximized at 63.5:36.5 (DCP:HRP) using a quadratic relationship: BW gain (g) = 1,128.6 + 2.6848 × HRP - 0.0368 × HRP(2). Increasing the level of HRP decreased feed intake: feed intake (g) = 1,987.4 + 2.775 × HRP - 0.0515 × HRP(2). The effect of HRP was not pronounced (significant at P < 0.05) until 75% of DCP was replaced by HRP. Feed intake decreased by an average 3.77 g with each 1.0% increase in the levels of HRP beyond 27% HRP substitution. Replacing DCP with HRP up to 50% caused a significant increase in hot carcass weights. The Ca content of tibia was a quadratic function of HRP and was predicted to be highest at 56% HRP substitution. However, increasing HRP in the diet gradually decreased tibia P content (linear function). Serum Ca was increased by substituting HRP for DCP (linear effect). Increasing HRP in the diet decreased the P content of the serum and was predicted to be lowest (P < 0.05) beyond 50% HRP substitution, suggesting poor P availability at high HRP. In conclusion, growth was maximized by feeding about 36.5% HRP (205 mg of F/kg) and 63.5% DCP as P supplements. Using a multiple range test, it was concluded that between 25 and 50% DCP with HRP replacement (141 and 281 mg of F/kg, respectively) could be used safely without significantly

  5. Energy Value of Cassava Products in Broiler Chicken Diets with or without Enzyme Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Bhuiyan, M. M.; Iji, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the metabolizable energy (ME) intake, net energy of production (NEp), heat production (HP), efficiencies of ME use for energy, lipid and protein retention as well as the performance of broiler chickens fed diets based on cassava chips or pellets with or without supplementation with an enzyme product containing xylanase, amylase, protease and phytase. The two products, cassava chips and pellets, were analysed for nutrient composition prior to feed formulation. The cassava chips and pellets contained 2.2% and 2.1% crude protein; 1.2% and 1.5% crude fat; and 75.1% and 67.8% starch, respectively. Lysine and methionine were 0.077%, 0.075%, and 0.017%, 0.020% protein material, respectively, while calculated ME was 12.6 and 11.7 MJ/kg, respectively. Feed intake to day 21 was lower (p<0.01) on the diet containing cassava chips compared to diets with cassava pellets. Enzyme supplementation increased (p<0.01) feed intake on all diets. Live weight at day 21 was significantly (p<0.01) reduced on the diet based on cassava chips compared to pellets, but an improvement (p<0.01) was noticed with the enzyme supplementation. Metabolizable energy intake was reduced (p<0.01) by both cassava chips and pellets, but was increased (p<0.01) on all diets by enzyme supplementation. The NEp was higher (p<0.01) in the maize-based diets than the diets containing cassava. Enzyme supplementation improved (p<0.01) NEp in all the diets. Heat production was highest (p<0.01) on diets containing cassava pellets than on cassava chips. It is possible to use cassava pellets in diets for broiler chickens at a level close to 50% of the diet to reduce cost of production, and the nutritive value of such diets can be improved through supplementation of enzyme products containing carbohydrases, protease, and phytase. PMID:26194227

  6. Metal ion-oxytetracycline pharmacokinetic interactions after oral co-administration in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ziółkowski, H; Jasiecka, A; Zuśka-Prot, M; Przybysz, J; Grabowski, T; Jaroszewski, J J

    2016-08-01

    The influence of the composition of calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), and iron (Fe(3+)) ions in two concentration levels (low-500 mg/L of CaCl2, 125 mg/L of MgCl2, and 10 mg/L of FeCl3 and high-2,500 mg/L of CaCl2, 625 mg/L of MgCl2, and 50 mg/L of FeCl3) contained in water on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of oxytetracycline (OTC) was determined. OTC hydrochloride was administered at a dose of 25 mg/kg of body weight to broiler chickens divided into four groups of nine birds each, including 3 oral groups (in deionized water -control, in water with low ion concentration, and in water with high ion concentration) and 1 intravenous group. OTC concentrations in plasma were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, after which non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted.The absolute bioavailability of OTC in the group of birds exposed to higher ions concentration was reduced (8.68% ± 2.56) as compared to the control (13.71% ± 2.60). Additionally, in this group, decrease in PK parameters such as: area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity (15.36 μg × h/mL ± 4.36), from 0 to t (14.78 μg × h/mL ± 4.37), area under the first moment of curve from 0 to t (107.54 μg × h/mL ± 36.48), and maximum plasma concentration (2.13 μg/mL ± 0.32) were also observed. It is noteworthy, all mentioned parameters demonstrated a downward trend with high correlation coefficient (P = 0.004, P = 0.002, P = 0.005, P = 0.004, P = 0.011, respectively), reflecting the influence of increasing concentrations of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Fe(3+) ions on the decreasing absorption rate of OTC.Based on the current research results, it can be assumed that high concentrations of several ions applied concomitantly are able to decrease the absorption of OTC from gastrointestinal tract in broiler chickens. This occurrence might impair the drug's clinical efficacy toward some pathogenic microorganisms. It implies that using OTC on a farm may require

  7. Floor space covered by broiler chickens kept at stocking densities according to Council Directive 2007/43/EC.

    PubMed

    Giersberg, M F; Hartung, J; Kemper, N; Spindler, B

    2016-07-30

    It is controversially discussed whether the stocking densities set by the EU Directive 2007/43/EC allow a species-appropriate housing of broiler chickens. To calculate the exact area broilers occupy due to their physical size and shape, planimetric measurements using a colour-contrast method were carried out. In total, 1949 photographs of standing and 1482 of squatting chickens, taken from a top view, were analysed. A computer program counted the pixels representing the previously weighed animal in the photograph and calculated the animal area. The average area covered by chickens with 400 g live weight was 116.64±13.12 cm(2) in a standing and 138.61±12.92 cm(2) in a squatting position. These areas increased linearly as a function of live weight to 452.57±58.89 cm(2) (R(2)=0.90 standing) and 513.54±42.70 cm(2) (R(2)=0.82 squatting) at the end of the study (3200 g live weight). Squatting chickens occupied more space compared with a standing position in most of the tested weight classes (P<0.05). Depending on target weights, stocking densities and body positions, broilers occupied 48.5-77.7 per cent of 1 m(2) Thus, from a physical point of view, simultaneous resting is possible at any stocking density provided by the EU Directive and at common target weights. PMID:27377394

  8. Floor space covered by broiler chickens kept at stocking densities according to Council Directive 2007/43/EC.

    PubMed

    Giersberg, M F; Hartung, J; Kemper, N; Spindler, B

    2016-07-30

    It is controversially discussed whether the stocking densities set by the EU Directive 2007/43/EC allow a species-appropriate housing of broiler chickens. To calculate the exact area broilers occupy due to their physical size and shape, planimetric measurements using a colour-contrast method were carried out. In total, 1949 photographs of standing and 1482 of squatting chickens, taken from a top view, were analysed. A computer program counted the pixels representing the previously weighed animal in the photograph and calculated the animal area. The average area covered by chickens with 400 g live weight was 116.64±13.12 cm(2) in a standing and 138.61±12.92 cm(2) in a squatting position. These areas increased linearly as a function of live weight to 452.57±58.89 cm(2) (R(2)=0.90 standing) and 513.54±42.70 cm(2) (R(2)=0.82 squatting) at the end of the study (3200 g live weight). Squatting chickens occupied more space compared with a standing position in most of the tested weight classes (P<0.05). Depending on target weights, stocking densities and body positions, broilers occupied 48.5-77.7 per cent of 1 m(2) Thus, from a physical point of view, simultaneous resting is possible at any stocking density provided by the EU Directive and at common target weights.

  9. Clostridium perfringens challenge and dietary fat type affect broiler chicken performance and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Józefiak, D; Kierończyk, B; Rawski, M; Hejdysz, M; Rutkowski, A; Engberg, R M; Højberg, O

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to examine how different fats commonly used in the feed industry affect broiler performance, nutrient digestibility and microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens challenged with virulent Clostridium perfringens strains. Two experiments were carried out, each including 480-day-old male broilers (Ross 308), which were randomly distributed to eight experimental groups using six replicate pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. In Experiment 1, birds were fed diets containing soybean oil, palm kernel fatty acid distillers, rendered pork fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens did not affect broiler chicken body weight gain (BWG) and mortality in either of the two experiments. The BWG was affected by dietary fat type in both experiments, indicating that the fatty acid composition of the fat source affects broiler growth performance. In particular, the inclusion of animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v. 1.69) and at 42 days (1.65 v. 1.68). In both experiments apparent metabolizable energy values were affected by dietary fat type. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge decreased the digesta pH in the crop and ileum, but had no effect in cecal contents. Moreover, in Experiment 1, total organic acid concentration in the ileum was two to three times lower on soybean oil diets as compared with other treatments, indicating that C. perfringens as well as

  10. On-farm euthanasia of broiler chickens: effects of different gas mixtures on behavior and brain activity.

    PubMed

    Gerritzen, M A; Lambooij, B; Reimert, H; Stegeman, A; Spruijt, B

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the suitability of gas mixtures for euthanasia of groups of broilers in their housing by increasing the percentage of CO2. The suitability was assessed by the level of discomfort before loss of consciousness, and the killing rate. The gas mixtures injected into the housing were 1) 100% CO2, 2) 50% N2 + 50% CO2, and 3) 30% O2 + 40% CO2 + 30% N2, followed by 100% CO2. At 2 and 6 wk of age, groups of 20 broiler chickens per trial were exposed to increasing CO2 percentages due to the injection of these gas mixtures. Behavior and killing rate were examined. At the same time, 2 broilers per trial equipped with brain electrodes were observed for behavior and brain activity. Ten percent of the 2-wk-old broilers survived the increasing CO2 percentage due to the injection of 30% O2 + 40% CO2 + 30% N2 mixture, therefore this mixture was excluded for further testing at 6 wk of age. At 6 wk of age, 30% of the broilers survived in the 50% N2 + 50% CO2 group. The highest level of CO2 in the breathing air (42%) was reached by the injection of the 100% CO2 mixture, vs. 25% for the other 2 mixtures. In all 3 gas mixtures, head shaking, gasping, and convulsions were observed before loss of posture. Loss of posture and suppression of electrical activity of the brain (n = 7) occurred almost simultaneously. The results of this experiment indicate that euthanasia of groups of 2- and 6-wk-old broilers by gradually increasing the percentage of CO2 in the breathing air up to 40% is possible. PMID:15339003

  11. Effects of feeding deoxynivalenol contaminated wheat on growth performance, organ weights and histological parameters of the intestine of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Awad, W A; Böhm, J; Razzazi-Fazeli, E; Zentek, J

    2006-02-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of moderate dietary concentrations of deoxynivalenol (DON) during a 21-day feeding experiment on the performance of broilers. Fifteen 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into two groups. The control group was fed non-contaminated diet. Another group of broilers was fed a diet naturally contaminated with 5 mg DON/kg diet. Deoxynivalenol had no effect (p > 0.05) on feed consumption, feed conversion, body-weight gain, live body weight or mortality. The absolute and relative weight of the organs (gizzard, pancreas, heart, spleen, colon and caecum) were not altered by the dietary inclusion of DON contaminated grain. However, both the absolute and relative weight of small intestine was decreased (p < 0.01) in DON fed broilers compared to the controls. No gross lesions were detected in any of the organs of birds fed contaminated wheat during the feeding trial. The microscopic examination revealed that, the height and the width of villi in duodenum decreased (p < 0.05) in birds fed DON contaminated wheat compared to controls. On the other hand the height and the width of jejunum villi were not affected (p > 0.05). This study indicates that feeding DON for 21 days to broiler chickens at a concentration of up to 5 mg/kg of diet influenced the weight of the small intestine as well as intestinal histology, especially the duodenum, as evidenced by shorter and thinner villi. In conclusion, diets with DON contamination below levels that induce negative impact on health and performance could affect small intestinal morphology in broilers.

  12. Influence of granite-grit on nutrient digestibility and haematological parameters of broiler chickens fed rice offal based diets.

    PubMed

    Idachaba, C U; Abeke, F O; Olugbemi, T S; Ademu, L A

    2013-10-01

    A total of 270 broiler chickens were used for the study. The birds were fed common diet containing 23% Crude protein and 2864 kcal kg(-1) Metabolizable energy at the starter phase while 20% Crude protein and 2923 kcal kg(-1) Metabolizable energy was fed at the finisher phase. Starter and finisher diets contained 10 and 15% inclusion levels of rice offal respectively. Granite grit was added to the basal diet at 0.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 g per bird per month thus making a total of six treatments. Each treatment was replicated three times with 15 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design. Packed cell volume and haemoglobin level were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by dietary grit levels while total protein increased across the graded levels of granite grit. Crude protein, crude fibre and nitrogen free extract significantly (p<0.05) improved with increasing grit levels. These parameters improved up to the highest level of grit addition (10.0 g) granite-grit. It was concluded that 10.0 g granite grit per bird per month is beneficial to broiler chickens as it allows for efficient nutrient utilization. Further study to determine the optimum level of granite grit in broiler diet is encouraged since result obtained showed the optimum level was not attained. PMID:24502172

  13. Use of Vitamin D3 and Its Metabolites in Broiler Chicken Feed on Performance, Bone Parameters and Meat Quality

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Ana Flávia Quiles Marques; Murakami, Alice Eiko; Duarte, Cristiane Regina do Amaral; Rojas, Iván Camilo Ospina; Picoli, Karla Paola; Puzotti, Maíra Mangili

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to assess the use of different vitamin D metabolites in the feed of broiler chickens and the effects of the metabolites on performance, bone parameters and meat quality. A total of 952 one-day-old male broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomised design, with four treatments, seven replicates and 34 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of four different sources of vitamin D included in the diet, D3, 25(OH)D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, and 1α(OH)D3, providing 2000 and 1600 IU of vitamin D in the starter (1 to 21 d) and growth phases (22 to 42 d), respectively. Mean weight, feed:gain and weight gain throughout the rearing period were less in animals fed 1α(OH)D3 when compared with the other treatments (p<0.05). No significant differences were noted among the treatments (p>0.05) for various bone parameters. Meat colour differed among the treatments (p>0.05). All of the metabolites used in the diets, with the exception of 1α(OH)D3, can be used for broiler chickens without problems for performance and bone quality, however, some aspects of meat quality were affected. PMID:25049804

  14. Comparison of the anticoccidial effect of granulated extract of Artemisia sieberi with monensin in experimental coccidiosis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Pirali Kheirabadi, Khodadad; Kaboutari Katadj, Jahangir; Bahadoran, Shahab; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Dehghani Samani, Amir; Cheraghchi Bashi, Mehdi

    2014-06-01

    Coccidiosis is the most important parasitic disease of the poultry production industry. Due to increasing resistance to conventional anticoccidial agents, it is necessary to find new anticoccidial compounds. Herbal compounds such as those from Artemisia species are promising weapons in this regard since preliminary studies have shown its anticoccidial effects. To compare the anticoccidial effect of a granulated extract of Artemisia sieberi (GEAS) versus monensin in experimental broiler coccidiosis, 120 one-day old Ross 308 broiler chickens were divided in four groups, each with three replicates (n=10). Group 1 was separated as an uninfected negative control and received no treatment. At 21days of age, groups 2, 3 and 4 were inoculated with a mixed suspension of 2×10(5) oocysts of Eimeria tenella, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria necatrix. Group 2 was maintained as an infected positive control and received no treatment while groups 3 and 4 received GEAS (5mg/kg feed), and monensin (110mg/kg feed) from the first day until 42days of age as a feed additive, respectively. Five days after inoculation, the number of oocycts per gram (OPG) of feces for 7 successive days was measured. Also, mean body weight (MBW), weight gain (WG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were determined weekly in all groups and replicates. The results showed that GEAS and monensin improved performance attributes (FI, MBW, WG, FCR) and significantly (P<0.05) decreased OPG in inoculated broiler chickens.

  15. Influence of granite-grit on nutrient digestibility and haematological parameters of broiler chickens fed rice offal based diets.

    PubMed

    Idachaba, C U; Abeke, F O; Olugbemi, T S; Ademu, L A

    2013-10-01

    A total of 270 broiler chickens were used for the study. The birds were fed common diet containing 23% Crude protein and 2864 kcal kg(-1) Metabolizable energy at the starter phase while 20% Crude protein and 2923 kcal kg(-1) Metabolizable energy was fed at the finisher phase. Starter and finisher diets contained 10 and 15% inclusion levels of rice offal respectively. Granite grit was added to the basal diet at 0.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 g per bird per month thus making a total of six treatments. Each treatment was replicated three times with 15 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design. Packed cell volume and haemoglobin level were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by dietary grit levels while total protein increased across the graded levels of granite grit. Crude protein, crude fibre and nitrogen free extract significantly (p<0.05) improved with increasing grit levels. These parameters improved up to the highest level of grit addition (10.0 g) granite-grit. It was concluded that 10.0 g granite grit per bird per month is beneficial to broiler chickens as it allows for efficient nutrient utilization. Further study to determine the optimum level of granite grit in broiler diet is encouraged since result obtained showed the optimum level was not attained.

  16. Influence of Butyrate Loaded Clinoptilolite Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performance, Development of Intestine and Antioxidant Capacity in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanan; Zhou, Yanmin; Lu, Changhui; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhang, Hao; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary butyrate loaded clinoptilolite (CLI-B) on growth performance, pancreatic digestive enzymes, intestinal development and histomorphology, as well as antioxidant capacity of serum and intestinal mucosal in chickens. Two hundred forty 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups: CON group (fed basal diets), SB group (fed basal diet with 0.05% sodium butyrate), CLI group (fed basal diet with 1% clinoptilolite), and CLI-B group (fed basal diet with 1% CLI-B). The results showed that supplementation of CLI-B significantly decreased (P < 0.05) feed conservation ratio at both 21 and 42 days of age, improved the pancreatic digestive enzymes activities (P < 0.05), increased the villus length and villus/crypt ratio (P < 0.05), and decreased the crypt depth of intestine (P < 0.05) as compared to the other experimental groups. Furthermore, the CLI-B environment improved the antioxidant capacity by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05) in intestine mucosal, and decreasing the NO content and iNOS activity (P < 0.05) in serum. In addition, CLI-B supplementation had improved the development of intestine and antioxidant capacity of broilers than supplementation with either clinoptilolite or butyrate sodium alone. In conclusion, 1% CLI-B supplementation improved the health status, intestine development and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens, thus appearing as an important feed additive for the poultry industry. PMID:27104860

  17. Effect of dietary sodium phytate and microbial phytase on the lipase activity and lipid metabolism of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Ru, Yingjun; Wang, Jianping; Xu, Tingsheng

    2010-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary phytate and microbial phytase on the lipase activity, lipid metabolism and mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and leptin in broiler chickens. The study was conducted as a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with phytate phosphorus at 0.20 and 0.40 % (added as the sodium phytate) and supplemental microbial phytase at 0, 500, or 1000 phytase units/kg. The results showed that phytase improved (P < 0.05) the growth performance and ileal digestibility of nutrients of broilers, but phytate had no effect (P>0.05) on these parameters, except the decrease (P < 0.01) in the digestibility of Ca. Phytate decreased (P < 0.05) the lipase activity, serum total cholesterol (T-CHO) and hepatic TAG, and elevated (P < 0.01) serum NEFA and HDL cholesterol. Phytase decreased (P < 0.05) serum NEFA, but increased (P < 0.01) serum T-CHO and hepatic TAG. Phytate and phytase also influenced (P < 0.01) the mRNA expressions of leptin in the liver. There were significant (P < 0.05) interactions of phytate and phytase on the concentrations of serum TAG and LDL cholesterol, hepatic NEFA and T-CHO, and the mRNA expressions of FASN. The results suggest that phytate and phytase can affect lipase activity and lipid metabolism of broiler chickens.

  18. A rapid microbiological method for enumerating Escherichia coli from broiler chicken carcasses.

    PubMed

    Edmiston, A L; Russell, S M

    1998-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate a rapid method for enumerating Escherichia coli from broiler chicken carcasses. In three separate trials, carcasses were obtained from a commercial processing plant, temperature abused at 37 degrees C for 0, 3, 6, 9, or 12 h, and then rinsed. E. coli were enumerated from carcass rinses using Petrifilm E. coli count plates (PC) and by placing the rinse into double-strength colifiform medium supplemented with 2% dextrose (CMD). The CMD mixture was placed into a Bactometer module and conductance was measured at 44 degrees C. Once a detection time (DT) was recorded, the sample was immediately recovered from the module well, diluted, and spread onto plate count agar. Colonies on plates at the highest dilution from each module well were randomly selected and identified. After 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h of temperature abuse, E. coli was the bacterial species identified 97, 92, 88, 87, and 61% of the time, respectively. These results indicate that the medium/temperature combination was excellent for enumerating E. coli from samples that contain mixed microflora using conductance. Significant linear correlations were observed between time of abuse (TA) and log10 PC (LPC) or DT (R2 = 0.86 and R2 = -0.90, respectively). A significant linear correlation was observed between LPC and DT (R2 = -0.92). This rapid method (1 to 7.6 h) for enumeration of E. coli on chicken should provide a way to determine E. coli levels before a product is shipped, and it should aid the poultry industry in meeting the E. coli testing requirement of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service pathogen reduction regulation.

  19. Tissue distribution and developmental changes of ghrelin and GOAT expression in broiler chickens during embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jinyou; Yu, Yan; Xue, Jiajia; Ou, Changbo; Mo, Haizhen; Liu, Xingyou

    2015-03-01

    Ghrelin plays important roles, such as regulating growth hormone release and energy metabolism, but little is known about its developmental changes in the proventriculi of chicken embryos. This study was designed to elucidate the distributions and developmental changes of ghrelin and ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT) expression in broiler embryos using qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrated the following: (1) on E18, ghrelin and GOAT are ubiquitously expressed in every tissue examined. The expression level of ghrelin mRNA was the highest in the proventriculus, reaching a level that was 50-fold higher than that in the hypothalamus, while GOAT mRNA expression was low in the proventriculus and it was only 67.6% as high as that of hypothalamus; (2) ghrelin and GOAT mRNA expression were detected in the proventriculus on E9, but only at 1.9% and 1.7% of the level expressed on E18, respectively, and their expression levels increased rapidly from E18 to E21. There was similar developmental pattern in the ghrelin and GOAT mRNA expression; and (3) ghrelin-immunopositive cells were first detected in the proventriculus on E15, were located only in the compound tubular glands of the proventriculus, and were of the closed-cell type. The density of ghrelin-immunopositive cells increased significantly from E15 to E21. These results suggest that ghrelin may be an important regulating factor that plays a vital role during the development of chicken embryos. PMID:25449181

  20. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin given by the oral, intravenous and intramuscular routes in broiler chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Bugyei, K; Black, W D; McEwen, S

    1999-01-01

    Enrofloxacin was given to broiler chickens, 3 groups of 6 birds each, at a dose of 5 mg/kg. Routes of administration were intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.) and oral (p.o.) and blood samples were collected from the jugular vein for determination of serum drug levels over a 54-hour period after administration. Drug levels were determined using Bacillus subtilis spore suspension on Meuller-Hinton antibiotic medium. Intravenous administration produced drug levels which followed a bi-exponential decay according to the model C = 101e(-1.84(t)) + 1.30e(-0.06(t)). After i.m. administration, the mean Cmax observed (2.01 microg/mL) occurred at 1 h and levels were detected for up to 48 h. The mean time to maximum concentration (Tmax) for the birds occurred at 0.79 h. The model describing serum concentrations after i.m. administration was C = 1.35e(-0.48(t)) + 1.27e(-0.07(t)) - 2.06e(-2.1(t)). Serum concentrations after oral administration were lower and the mean +/- standard error of mean, of the maximum concentrations (Cmax) was 0.99 microg/mL at 2 h after administration. The mean residence times after the 3 routes of administration were not significantly different and ranged from 12.5-13.7 h. Bioavailability by the oral route was 80.1%. Dialysis of chicken plasma vs saline indicated that the protein binding was 22.7%. PMID:10480461

  1. Comparison of postprandial lipaemia between native and palm random esterified acid oils in two different monogastric species (dogs and broiler chickens).

    PubMed

    Fragua, V; Vilarrasa, E; Manzanilla, E G; Villaverde, C; Barroeta, A C

    2013-05-01

    It has been reported that applying a chemical reesterification process to a native fat results in a new fat source with different physicochemical properties due to their different fatty acid (FA) positional distribution within the glycerol moiety and their different proportions of mono (MAG)-, di (DAG)- and triacylglycerides (TAG). Thus, this reesterification could affect fat digestion, absorption and metabolism; and this effect could vary among species given their differences in fat metabolism. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of feeding two different random esterified acid oils (REAO), presenting different MAG, DAG and TAG proportions, with their corresponding native oil on postprandial lipaemia in broiler chickens and dogs. For this purpose, 18 dogs and 54 broiler chickens were fed a basal diet supplemented with palm native oil, palm REAO low MAG or palm REAO high MAG. The inclusion level of the oils was 10% of the diet in dogs and 6% in broiler chickens. Serum postprandial TAG concentration (mg/dl) after feeding a single meal was measured at different time points during 12 h in dogs and 3 h in chickens. Although fasting serum TAG concentration values were similar for both species (47 ± 2.4 mg/dl for dogs and 44 ± 3.0 mg/dl for broilers; p = 0.522), postprandial TAG concentrations tended to be higher in broilers than in dogs (p = 0.058). Treatment had no effect on TAG concentration at any time point in any species (p = 0.768 for dogs, p = 0.947 for broilers). However, the postprandial TAG curves were very different between species; in broiler chickens, TAG concentration returned to the fasting values 3 h after feeding while in dogs, the TAG concentration still had not returned to basal levels 12 h after feeding. PMID:23639020

  2. Effect of feeder space during the growing and laying periods and the rate of feed increase at the onset of lay on broiler breeder female reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Leksrisompong, N; Romero-Sanchez, H; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Brake, J

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted to examine how 2 feeder space allocations during the rearing period followed by 2 feeder space allocations after photostimulation and 2 female feeding to peak programs (fast or slow) affected female broiler breeder reproductive performance and mortality. Sixteen pens of 76 breeder females each were equipped with either 4 tube feeders with a 132 cm circumference pan (7.0 cm/female) or 6 feeders (10.4 cm/female) to 21 wk of age. Thereafter, 64 females were moved to breeding pens, photostimulated, and fed sex-separate from either 3 (6.2 cm/female) or 5 (10.3 cm/female) feeders with either fast or slow feeding to peak feeding programs applied to complete a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. Seven males that were separately reared in a similar manner were added per pen. Individual female BW was determined at 6, 20, and 32 wk of age and BW uniformity assessed. Greater feeder space during rearing increased BW at 32 wk of age, whereas greater feeder space during lay or slow feeding to peak decreased BW at 32 wk. There were no differences in BW uniformity. Hens from the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination produced a significantly greater number of eggs as compared with the 7.0 to 10.3 cm/female and 10.4 to 6.2 cm/female combinations with the 7.0 to 6.2 cm/female combination intermediate. Percentage hen-day egg production of the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination hens was significantly greater than all other combinations. Livability was improved in the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination relative to the 7.0 to 10.3 cm/female combination with the others intermediate. The fast feeding to peak program increased yolk weight as well as yolk:albumen ratio at 28 and 30 wk of age, but egg weight did not differ. These data indicated that increased or decreased feeder space between the growing and laying periods did not affect broiler breeder female BW, uniformity, egg weight, fertility, or hatchability. The 10.3 cm/female laying feeder space exhibited the best hen

  3. Genomic Comparison of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Hadar and Kentucky Isolates from Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Dhanani, Akhilesh S.; Block, Glenn; Dewar, Ken; Forgetta, Vincenzo; Topp, Edward; Beiko, Robert G.; Diarra, Moussa S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars, associated with different foods including poultry products, are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The colonization of the chicken gut by S. enterica could result in the contamination of the environment and food chain. The aim of this study was to compare the genomes of 25 S. enterica serovars isolated from broiler chicken farms to assess their intra- and inter-genetic variability, with a focus on virulence and antibiotic resistance characteristics. Methodology/Principal Finding The genomes of 25 S. enterica isolates covering five serovars (ten Typhimurium including three monophasic 4,[5],12:i:, four Enteritidis, three Hadar, four Heidelberg and four Kentucky) were sequenced. Most serovars were clustered in strongly supported phylogenetic clades, except for isolates of serovar Enteritidis that were scattered throughout the tree. Plasmids of varying sizes were detected in several isolates independently of serovars. Genes associated with the IncF plasmid and the IncI1 plasmid were identified in twelve and four isolates, respectively, while genes associated with the IncQ plasmid were found in one isolate. The presence of numerous genes associated with Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs) was also confirmed. Components of the type III and IV secretion systems (T3SS and T4SS) varied in different isolates, which could explain in part, differences of their pathogenicity in humans and/or persistence in broilers. Conserved clusters of genes in the T3SS were detected that could be used in designing effective strategies (diagnostic, vaccination or treatments) to combat Salmonella. Antibiotic resistance genes (CMY, aadA, ampC, florR, sul1, sulI, tetAB, and srtA) and class I integrons were detected in resistant isolates while all isolates carried multidrug efflux pump systems regardless of their antibiotic susceptibility profile. Conclusions/Significance This study showed that the predominant

  4. Ameliorative effects of melatonin administration and photoperiods on diurnal fluctuations in cloacal temperature of Marshall broiler chickens during the hot dry season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkalu, Victor O.; Ayo, Joseph O.; Adelaiye, Alexander B.; Hambolu, Joseph O.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were performed with the aim of determining the effect of melatonin administration on diurnal fluctuations in cloacal temperature (CT) of Marshall broiler chickens during the hot dry season. Birds in group I (12L:12D cycle) were raised under natural photoperiod of 12-h light and 12-h darkness, without melatonin supplementation, while those in group II (LL) were kept under 24-h continuous lighting, without melatonin administration. Broiler chickens in group III (LL + melatonin) were raised under 24-h continuous lighting, with melatonin supplementation at 0.5 mg/kg per os. The cloacal temperatures of 15 labeled broiler chickens from each group were measured at 6:00, 13:00, and 19:00 h, 7 days apart, from days 14-42. Temperature-humidity index was highest at day 14 of the study, with the value of 36.72 ± 0.82 °C but lowest at day 28 with the value of 30.91 ± 0.80 °C ( P < 0.0001). The overall mean hourly cloacal temperature value of 41.51 ± 0.03 °C obtained in the 12L:12D cycle birds was significantly higher ( P < 0.001) than the value of 41.16 ± 0.03 °C recorded in the melatonin-treated group but lower than that of 41.65 ± 0.03 °C obtained in the LL birds. Mortality due to hyperthermia commenced at day 28 in both 12L:12D cycle and LL broiler chickens but was delayed till day 42 in LL + MEL broiler chickens. In conclusion, melatonin administration alleviated the deleterious effects of heat stress on broiler chickens by maintaining their cloacal temperature at relatively low values.

  5. Passive immunization to reduce Campylobacter jejuni colonization and transmission in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hermans, David; Van Steendam, Katleen; Verbrugghe, Elin; Verlinden, Marc; Martel, An; Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Heyndrickx, Marc; Haesebrouck, Freddy; De Zutter, Lieven; Deforce, Dieter; Pasmans, Frank

    2014-03-04

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterium-mediated diarrheal disease in humans worldwide. Poultry products are considered the most important source of C. jejuni infections in humans but to date no effective strategy exists to eradicate this zoonotic pathogen from poultry production. Here, the potential use of passive immunization to reduce Campylobacter colonization in broiler chicks was examined. For this purpose, laying hens were immunized with either a whole-cell lysate or the hydrophobic protein fraction of C. jejuni and their eggs were collected. In vitro tests validated the induction of specific ImmunoglobulinY (IgY) against C. jejuni in the immunized hens' egg yolks, in particular. In seeder experiments, preventive administration of hyperimmune egg yolk significantly (P < 0.01) reduced bacterial counts of seeder animals three days after oral inoculation with approximately 104 cfu C. jejuni, compared with control birds. Moreover, transmission to non-seeder birds was dramatically reduced (hydrophobic protein fraction) or even completely prevented (whole-cell lysate). Purified IgY promoted bacterial binding to chicken intestinal mucus, suggesting enhanced mucosal clearance in vivo. Western blot analysis in combination with mass spectrometry after two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis revealed immunodominant antigens of C. jejuni that are involved in a variety of cell functions, including chemotaxis and adhesion. Some of these (AtpA, EF-Tu, GroEL and CtpA) are highly conserved proteins and could be promising targets for the development of subunit vaccines.

  6. Changes in variance explained by top SNP windows over generations for three traits in broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Fragomeni, Breno de Oliveira; Misztal, Ignacy; Lourenco, Daniela Lino; Aguilar, Ignacio; Okimoto, Ronald; Muir, William M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the set of genomic regions inferred as accounting for the majority of genetic variation in quantitative traits remain stable over multiple generations of selection. The data set contained phenotypes for five generations of broiler chicken for body weight, breast meat, and leg score. The population consisted of 294,632 animals over five generations and also included genotypes of 41,036 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) for 4,866 animals, after quality control. The SNP effects were calculated by a GWAS type analysis using single step genomic BLUP approach for generations 1-3, 2-4, 3-5, and 1-5. Variances were calculated for windows of 20 SNP. The top ten windows for each trait that explained the largest fraction of the genetic variance across generations were examined. Across generations, the top 10 windows explained more than 0.5% but less than 1% of the total variance. Also, the pattern of the windows was not consistent across generations. The windows that explained the greatest variance changed greatly among the combinations of generations, with a few exceptions. In many cases, a window identified as top for one combination, explained less than 0.1% for the other combinations. We conclude that identification of top SNP windows for a population may have little predictive power for genetic selection in the following generations for the traits here evaluated.

  7. Changes in variance explained by top SNP windows over generations for three traits in broiler chicken

    PubMed Central

    Fragomeni, Breno de Oliveira; Misztal, Ignacy; Lourenco, Daniela Lino; Aguilar, Ignacio; Okimoto, Ronald; Muir, William M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the set of genomic regions inferred as accounting for the majority of genetic variation in quantitative traits remain stable over multiple generations of selection. The data set contained phenotypes for five generations of broiler chicken for body weight, breast meat, and leg score. The population consisted of 294,632 animals over five generations and also included genotypes of 41,036 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) for 4,866 animals, after quality control. The SNP effects were calculated by a GWAS type analysis using single step genomic BLUP approach for generations 1–3, 2–4, 3–5, and 1–5. Variances were calculated for windows of 20 SNP. The top ten windows for each trait that explained the largest fraction of the genetic variance across generations were examined. Across generations, the top 10 windows explained more than 0.5% but less than 1% of the total variance. Also, the pattern of the windows was not consistent across generations. The windows that explained the greatest variance changed greatly among the combinations of generations, with a few exceptions. In many cases, a window identified as top for one combination, explained less than 0.1% for the other combinations. We conclude that identification of top SNP windows for a population may have little predictive power for genetic selection in the following generations for the traits here evaluated. PMID:25324857

  8. Comparative Oral Bioavailability, Toxicokinetics, and Biotransformation of Enniatin B1 and Enniatin B in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Fraeyman, Sophie; Devreese, Mathias; Antonissen, Gunther; De Baere, Siegrid; Rychlik, Michael; Croubels, Siska

    2016-09-28

    A toxicokinetic study of the Fusarium mycotoxins enniatin B1 (ENN B1) and enniatin B (ENN B) was performed in broiler chickens. Each animal received ENN B1 or B orally via an intracrop bolus and intravenously at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg body weight. Both enniatins were poorly absorbed after oral administration, with absolute oral bioavailabilities of 0.05 and 0.11 for ENNs B1 and B, respectively. Both enniatins were readily distributed to the tissues, with mean volumes of distribution of 25.09 and 33.91 L/kg for ENNs B1 and B, respectively. The mean total body clearance was rather high, namely, 6.63 and 7.10 L/h/kg for ENNs B1 and B, respectively. Finally, an UHPLC-HRMS targeted approach was used to investigate the phase I and II biotransformations of both mycotoxins. Oxygenation was the major phase I biotransformation pathway for both ENNs B1 and B. Neither glucuronide nor sulfate phase II metabolites were detected. PMID:27632250

  9. Effects of a diet containing genetically modified rice expressing the Cry1Ab/1Ac protein (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) on broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Zeyang; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Minhong; Feng, Jinghai; Xiong, Yandan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice expressing the Cry1Ab/1Ac protein on broiler chicken. The genetically modified (GM) Bt rice was compared with the corresponding non-GM rice regarding performance of feeding groups, their health status, relative organ weights, biochemical serum parameters and occurrence of Cry1Ab/1Ac gene fragments. One hundred and eighty day-old Arbor Acres female broilers with the same health condition were randomly allocated to the two treatments (6 replicate cages with 15 broilers in each cage per treatment). They received diets containing GM rice (GM group) or its parental non-GM rice (non-GM group) at 52-57% of the air-dried diet for 42 days. The results show that the transgenic rice had a similar nutrient composition as the non-GM rice and had no adverse effects on chicken growth, biochemical serum parameters and necropsy during the 42-day feeding period. In birds fed the GM rice, no transgenic gene fragments were detected in the samples of blood, liver, kidneys, spleen, jejunum, ileum, duodenum and muscle tissue. In conclusion, the results suggest that Bt rice expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac protein has no adverse effects on broiler chicken. Therefore, it can be considered as safe and used as feed source for broiler chicken.

  10. Effects of a diet containing genetically modified rice expressing the Cry1Ab/1Ac protein (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) on broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Zeyang; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Minhong; Feng, Jinghai; Xiong, Yandan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice expressing the Cry1Ab/1Ac protein on broiler chicken. The genetically modified (GM) Bt rice was compared with the corresponding non-GM rice regarding performance of feeding groups, their health status, relative organ weights, biochemical serum parameters and occurrence of Cry1Ab/1Ac gene fragments. One hundred and eighty day-old Arbor Acres female broilers with the same health condition were randomly allocated to the two treatments (6 replicate cages with 15 broilers in each cage per treatment). They received diets containing GM rice (GM group) or its parental non-GM rice (non-GM group) at 52-57% of the air-dried diet for 42 days. The results show that the transgenic rice had a similar nutrient composition as the non-GM rice and had no adverse effects on chicken growth, biochemical serum parameters and necropsy during the 42-day feeding period. In birds fed the GM rice, no transgenic gene fragments were detected in the samples of blood, liver, kidneys, spleen, jejunum, ileum, duodenum and muscle tissue. In conclusion, the results suggest that Bt rice expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac protein has no adverse effects on broiler chicken. Therefore, it can be considered as safe and used as feed source for broiler chicken. PMID:26414482

  11. Behavioural, brain and cardiac responses to hypobaric hypoxia in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jessica E; Christensen, Karen; Vizzier-Thaxton, Yvonne; Mitchell, Malcolm A; McKeegan, Dorothy E F

    2016-09-01

    A novel approach to pre-slaughter stunning of chickens has been developed in which birds are rendered unconscious by progressive hypobaric hypoxia. Termed Low Atmospheric Pressure Stunning (LAPS), this approach involves application of gradual decompression lasting 280s according to a prescribed curve. We examined responses to LAPS by recording behaviour, electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) in individual male chickens, and interpreted these with regard to the welfare impact of the process. We also examined the effect of two temperature adjusted pressure curves on these responses. Broiler chickens were exposed to LAPS in 30 triplets (16 and 14 triplets assigned to each pressure curve). In each triplet, one bird was instrumented for recording of EEG and ECG while the behaviour of all three birds was observed. Birds showed a consistent sequence of behaviours during LAPS (ataxia, loss of posture, clonic convulsions and motionless) which were observed in all birds. Leg paddling, tonic convulsions, slow wing flapping, mandibulation, head shaking, open bill breathing, deep inhalation, jumping and vocalisation were observed in a proportion of birds. Spectral analysis of EEG responses at 2s intervals throughout LAPS revealed progressive decreases in median frequency at the same time as corresponding progressive increases in total power, followed later by decreases in total power as all birds exhibited isoelectric EEG and died. There was a very pronounced increase in total power at 50-60s into the LAPS cycle, which corresponded to dominance of the signal by high amplitude slow waves, indicating loss of consciousness. Slow wave EEG was seen early in the LAPS process, before behavioural evidence of loss of consciousness such as ataxia and loss of posture, almost certainly due to the fact that it was completely dark in the LAPS chamber. ECG recordings showed a pronounced bradycardia (starting on average 49.6s into LAPS), often associated with arrhythmia, until

  12. Behavioural, brain and cardiac responses to hypobaric hypoxia in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jessica E; Christensen, Karen; Vizzier-Thaxton, Yvonne; Mitchell, Malcolm A; McKeegan, Dorothy E F

    2016-09-01

    A novel approach to pre-slaughter stunning of chickens has been developed in which birds are rendered unconscious by progressive hypobaric hypoxia. Termed Low Atmospheric Pressure Stunning (LAPS), this approach involves application of gradual decompression lasting 280s according to a prescribed curve. We examined responses to LAPS by recording behaviour, electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) in individual male chickens, and interpreted these with regard to the welfare impact of the process. We also examined the effect of two temperature adjusted pressure curves on these responses. Broiler chickens were exposed to LAPS in 30 triplets (16 and 14 triplets assigned to each pressure curve). In each triplet, one bird was instrumented for recording of EEG and ECG while the behaviour of all three birds was observed. Birds showed a consistent sequence of behaviours during LAPS (ataxia, loss of posture, clonic convulsions and motionless) which were observed in all birds. Leg paddling, tonic convulsions, slow wing flapping, mandibulation, head shaking, open bill breathing, deep inhalation, jumping and vocalisation were observed in a proportion of birds. Spectral analysis of EEG responses at 2s intervals throughout LAPS revealed progressive decreases in median frequency at the same time as corresponding progressive increases in total power, followed later by decreases in total power as all birds exhibited isoelectric EEG and died. There was a very pronounced increase in total power at 50-60s into the LAPS cycle, which corresponded to dominance of the signal by high amplitude slow waves, indicating loss of consciousness. Slow wave EEG was seen early in the LAPS process, before behavioural evidence of loss of consciousness such as ataxia and loss of posture, almost certainly due to the fact that it was completely dark in the LAPS chamber. ECG recordings showed a pronounced bradycardia (starting on average 49.6s into LAPS), often associated with arrhythmia, until

  13. Total mercury determination in different tissues of broiler chicken by using cloud point extraction and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shah, A Q; Kazi, T G; Baig, J A; Afridi, H I; Kandhro, G A; Arain, M B; Kolachi, N F; Wadhwa, S K

    2010-01-01

    A cloud point extraction (CPE) method has been developed for the determination of total mercury (Hg) in different tissues of broiler chicken by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). The broiler chicken tissues (leg, breast, liver and heart) were subjected to microwave assisted digestion in a mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide (2:1 ratio), prior to preconcentration by CPE. Various parameters such as the amount of ammonium O,O-diethyldithiophosphate (DDTP), concentrations of Triton X-114, equilibrium temperature, time and centrifugation have been studied in order to find the best conditions for the determination of mercury. For validation of proposed method a certified reference material, DORM-2 was used. No significant difference p>0.05 was observed between the experimental results and the certified values of CRM (paired t-test). The limit of detection and quantitation obtained under the optimal conditions were 0.117 and 0.382 microg/kg, respectively. The accumulation of Hg in different tissues were found in the order of, liver>muscles>heart. The concentration of Hg in chicken tissues were found in the range of 1.57-2.75, 1.40-2.27, 1.55-4.22, and 1.39-2.61 microg/kg in leg, breast, liver and heart, respectively.

  14. Synbiotic enhances immune responses against infectious bronchitis, infectious bursal disease, Newcastle disease and avian influenza in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Alireza; Amani, Amir; Pourmahmod, Masoud; Saghaei, Poya; Rezaie, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Increased susceptibility of birds to avian pathogens in intensive husbandry system has emphasized on necessity of improvement of innate and specific immune responses of birds by the fast establishment of a beneficial microflora and immune stimulator factors to guarantee healthy and low-price products. During this study, 192 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross-380) in four groups with three replicates per group were used to investigate effectiveness of synbiotic Biomin Imbo on immune responses of the chickens following routine vaccination against Newcastle disease (ND), avian influenza (AI), infectious bronchitis (IB) and infectious bursal disease (IBD). The results of this study indicated that supplementation of Biomin Imbo in diet enhanced humoral immune responses significantly in the case of ND, IB, IBD (p = 0.049, p = 0.020, p = 0.036, respectively), but insignificantly in the case of AI (p = 0.160) following vaccination of the chickens against these most common important viral poultry diseases. It was more effective following vaccination with live than killed vaccines. In conclusion, application of synbiotic Biomin Imbo, as a feed-additive adjuvant promotes acquired humoral immune responses of broiler chickens. PMID:26893807

  15. Thermal manipulation during embryogenesis improves certain semen parameters in layer breeder chicken during hot climatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, M; Vinoth, A; Rajaravindra, K S; Rajkumar, U

    2015-10-01

    Thermal manipulation during incubation has been shown to improve post hatch performance in poultry. The aim of the present experiment was to evaluate thermal manipulation on semen quality of roosters during hot climatic conditions. Eggs obtained after artificial insemination from Dahlem Red layer breeders were randomly divided into two groups control (C) and heat exposed (HE). C group eggs were incubated at 37.5°C throughout the incubation period while the HE group eggs were exposed to higher temperature 40.5°C from 15th to 17th day of incubation for 3h each day. The relative humidity was maintained at 65% in both the groups throughout incubation. The chicks hatched were reared separately under standard husbandry conditions. During high ambient temperature semen from roosters (45 weeks of age) was collected and evaluated for different gross parameters, sperm chromatin integrity and sperm HSP27 and HSP70 gene expression by real-time PCR. The seminal plasma was evaluated for lipid peroxidation, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), triiodothyronine (T3) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity. The shed average Temperature Humidity Index (THI) during the experiment period was 78.55. The percent live sperm and FRAP level were significantly (P<0.05) higher and sperm gene expressions were significantly (P<0.05) lower in the HE group. No differences in other parameters were observed between the groups. Thus from the results it could be concluded that thermal manipulation during incubation improves certain semen parameters of roosters at high ambient temperature.

  16. [The use of ionizing radiation for the decontamination of salmonella-containing slaughtered broiler chickens and powdered eggs].

    PubMed

    Köhler, B; Hübner, H; Krautschick, M

    1989-11-01

    The effect of cobalt-60 gamma irradiation was investigated on the concentration of Salmonella (S.) typhimurium in artificial contaminated chicken carcasses and on the number of S. tennessee and S. agona in artificial contaminated spray-dried whole egg powder and liquid whole egg. Irradiation of carcasses and of liquid whole egg was carried out at deep frozen conditions between -10 degrees C and -18 degrees C and whole egg powder at 15-20 degrees C. The irradiation doses used where between 0.05 and 8.0 KGy. The D10-value of S. typhimurium in broiler chicks ranged between 0.57 and 0.74 and of S. agona respectively S. tennessee amounted to 0.95 and 1.07 in spray dried whole egg powder and 0.47 respectively 0.53 in whole egg content. Irradiation causes drastic reduction of physiological microflora in chicken carcasses. By radiation treatment using a dose of 4.0 KGy, germ count reductions by 3-5 decimal powers were achieved. Resistance of microbes increases in following succession: Pseudomonas spp., Salmonella spp., other Enterobacteriaceae spp., Micrococcus spp., Flavobacterium spp., yeasts, Bacillus spp., Streptomyces spp., fungi. Results of microbiological and sensorial examinations allow following conclusions: 1. Irradiation is highly effective against Salmonella. 2. Irradiation dose of 4.0 KGy is able to kill about 1 Million Salmonella bacteria per chicken. This guarantees safe elimination of natural occurring Salmonella bacteria in broiler chicken carcasses. 3. Irradiation of chicken carcasses up to 4.0 KGy causes no injury of quality, however storage longer than 4 months deteriorates sensorial qualities more than of unirradiated carcasses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Addition of a Worm Leachate as Source of Humic Substances in the Drinking Water of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Rosales, S.; de L. Angeles, M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the growth performance, the apparent ileal digestibility of nitrogen and energy, the retention of nutrients and the apparent metabolizable energy corrected to zero nitrogen retention (AMEn) in broiler chickens supplemented with increasing doses of a worm leachate (WL) as a source of humic substances (HS) in the drinking water. In Exp. 1, 140 male broilers were penned individually and assigned to four WL levels (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%) mixed in the drinking water from 21 to 49 days of age. Water was offered in plastic bottles tied to the cage. In Exp. 2, 600 male broilers from 21 to 49 days of age housed in floor pens were assigned to three levels of WL (0%, 10%, and 20%) mixed in the drinking water. The WL was mixed with tap water in plastic containers connected by plastic tubing to bell drinkers. The results of both experiments were subjected to analysis of variance and polynomial contrasts. In Exp. 1, the daily water consumption was similar among treatments but the consumption of humic, fulvic, and total humic acids increased linearly (p<0.01) as the WL increased in the drinking water. The feed conversion (p<0.01) and the ileal digestibility of energy, the excretion of dry matter and energy, the retention of dry matter, ash and nitrogen and the AMEn showed quadratic responses (p<0.05) relative to the WL levels in drinking water. In Exp. 2, the increasing level of WL in the drinking water had quadratic effects on the final body weight, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio (p<0.05). The addition of WL as a source of HS in the drinking water had beneficial effects on the growth performance, ileal digestibility of energy, the retention of nutrients as well on the AMEn in broiler chickens; the best results were observed when the WL was mixed at levels of 20% to 30% in the drinking water. PMID:25557817

  18. Addition of a worm leachate as source of humic substances in the drinking water of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Rosales, S; de L Angeles, M

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the growth performance, the apparent ileal digestibility of nitrogen and energy, the retention of nutrients and the apparent metabolizable energy corrected to zero nitrogen retention (AMEn) in broiler chickens supplemented with increasing doses of a worm leachate (WL) as a source of humic substances (HS) in the drinking water. In Exp. 1, 140 male broilers were penned individually and assigned to four WL levels (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%) mixed in the drinking water from 21 to 49 days of age. Water was offered in plastic bottles tied to the cage. In Exp. 2, 600 male broilers from 21 to 49 days of age housed in floor pens were assigned to three levels of WL (0%, 10%, and 20%) mixed in the drinking water. The WL was mixed with tap water in plastic containers connected by plastic tubing to bell drinkers. The results of both experiments were subjected to analysis of variance and polynomial contrasts. In Exp. 1, the daily water consumption was similar among treatments but the consumption of humic, fulvic, and total humic acids increased linearly (p<0.01) as the WL increased in the drinking water. The feed conversion (p<0.01) and the ileal digestibility of energy, the excretion of dry matter and energy, the retention of dry matter, ash and nitrogen and the AMEn showed quadratic responses (p<0.05) relative to the WL levels in drinking water. In Exp. 2, the increasing level of WL in the drinking water had quadratic effects on the final body weight, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio (p<0.05). The addition of WL as a source of HS in the drinking water had beneficial effects on the growth performance, ileal digestibility of energy, the retention of nutrients as well on the AMEn in broiler chickens; the best results were observed when the WL was mixed at levels of 20% to 30% in the drinking water.

  19. Comparison of growth performance and excreta composition in broiler chickens when ranked according to various feed efficiency metrics.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Molnár, A; Hollmann, M; Magowan, E; Hawken, R J; Lawlor, P G; Zebeli, Q

    2016-07-01

    Several feed efficiency (FE) metrics are currently used in livestock production to select for improved FE. Whether or not different FE metrics similarly estimate physiological characteristics in chickens of diverging FE has not been reported so far. This study aimed to assess potential differences in feed intake (FI), performance, and nutrient excretion in broiler chickens of diverging FE when ranked according to their residual FI (RFI), residual BW gain (RBG), RFI and BW gain (RIG), and G:F between d 7 and 35 of life. The FI was determined daily and BW was recorded once a week. The ranking of chickens into good, medium, and poor FE groups was completed separately for each FE metric. Freshly dropped excreta were collected for pH and DM measurements on d 30 to 32 of life and total excreta for determination of nutrient excretion was collected on d 34 to 36 of life. Relationships among FE metrics were evaluated using regression analysis showing that RFI, RIG, and G:F were more related to each other than to RBG. The FE values greatly varied among chickens for all FE metrics and chickens did not always cluster within the same FE group when using RFI, RIG, RBG, and G:F as the FE metrics because of the calculation approaches. Due to sex-related differences in performance, data of male and female chickens were analyzed separately. The RFI and RIG metrics showed a linear increase ( < 0.01) in total FI from good to poor FE in male and female chickens, whereas G:F showed this effect ( ≤ 0.011) only when BW gain was standardized to 1,500 g. The RBG did not clearly select chickens of enhanced total BW gain and only tended ( < 0.1) to select for greater BW gain from good to poor FE in female chickens. Excreta pH linearly decreased by 0.7 log units and DM content increased in males from good to poor FE when using RFI and RIG, respectively ( < 0.01). In both sexes, RFI ( < 0.05) and RIG metrics ( ≤ 0.06) showed a linear increase in daily nitrogen excretion from good to poor FE

  20. Thermal manipulation of the embryo modifies the physiology and body composition of broiler chickens reared in floor pens without affecting breast meat processing quality.

    PubMed

    Loyau, T; Berri, C; Bedrani, L; Métayer-Coustard, S; Praud, C; Duclos, M J; Tesseraud, S; Rideau, N; Everaert, N; Yahav, S; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Collin, A

    2013-08-01

    Selection in broiler chickens has increased muscle mass without similar development of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, resulting in limited ability to sustain high ambient temperatures. The aim of this study was to determine the long-lasting effects of heat manipulation of the embryo on the physiology, body temperature (Tb), growth rate and meat processing quality of broiler chickens reared in floor pens. Broiler chicken eggs were incubated in control conditions (37.8°C, 56% relative humidity; RH) or exposed to thermal manipulation (TM; 12 h/d, 39.5°C, 65% RH) from d 7 to 16 of embryogenesis. This study was planned in a pedigree design to identify possible heritable characters for further selection of broiler chickens to improve thermotolerance. Thermal manipulation did not affect hatchability but resulted in lower Tb at hatching and until d 28 post-hatch, with associated changes in plasma thyroid hormone concentrations. At d 34, chickens were exposed to a moderate heat challenge (5 h, 32°C). Greater O2 saturation and reduced CO2 partial pressure were observed (P < 0.05) in the venous blood of TM than in that of control chickens, suggesting long-term respiratory adaptation. At slaughter age, TM chickens were 1.4% lighter and exhibited 8% less relative abdominal fat pad than controls. Breast muscle yield was enhanced by TM, especially in females, but without significant change in breast meat characteristics (pH, color, drip loss). Plasma glucose/insulin balance was affected (P < 0.05) by thermal treatments. The heat challenge increased the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio in controls (P < 0.05) but not in TM birds, possibly reflecting a lower stress status in TM chickens. Interestingly, broiler chickens had moderate heritability estimates for the plasma triiodothyronine/thyroxine concentration ratio at d 28 and comb temperature during the heat challenge on d 34 (h(2) > 0.17). In conclusion, TM of the embryo modified the physiology of broilers in the long

  1. Effect of in ovo administration of inulin and Lactococcus lactis on immune-related gene expression in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Płowiec, Arkadiusz; Sławińska, Anna; Siwek, Maria Z; Bednarczyk, Marek F

    2015-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of in ovo administration of inulin and Lactococcus lactis on immune-related gene expression in broiler chickens. ANIMALS 45 Ross broilers. PROCEDURES On day 12 of embryonic development, 360 eggs were equally allocated among 3 treatment groups and injected with 0.2 mL of a solution that contained 1.76 mg of inulin (prebiotic group) or 1.76 mg of inulin enriched with 1,000 CFUs of L lactis subsp lactis 2955 (synbiotic group), or they were injected with 0.2 mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control). At 1, 14, and 35 days after hatching, 5 male birds from each group were euthanized, and the spleen and cecal tonsils were harvested for determination of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p40, IL-18, cluster of differentiation 80, interferon-β, and interferon-γ expression by means of a reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay. Gene expressions in the cecal tonsils and spleens of chickens in the prebiotic and synbiotic groups were compared with those of control chickens at each tissue collection time. RESULTS Compared with control birds, immune-related gene expression was downregulated in birds in the prebiotic and synbiotic groups, and the magnitude of that downregulation was more pronounced in the cecal tonsils than in the spleen and increased with age. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that in ovo administration of a prebiotic or synbiotic to broilers was associated with downregulation of immune-related gene expression in the cecal tonsils and spleen. The magnitude of that downregulation increased with age and was most likely caused by stabilization of the gastrointestinal microbiota.

  2. The effect of level of straw bale provision on the behaviour and leg health of commercial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bailie, C L; O'Connell, N E

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of the number of straw bales (SBs) provided on the behaviour and leg health of commercial broiler chickens. Houses containing ~23 000 broiler chickens were assigned to one of two treatments: (1) access to 30 SBs per house, '30SB' or (2) access to 45 SB per house, '45SB'. This equated to bale densities of 1 bale/44 m2 and 1 bale/29 m2 of floor space within houses, respectively. Treatments were applied in one of two houses on a commercial farm, and were replicated over six production cycles. Both houses had windows and were also artificially lit. Behaviour was observed in weeks 3 to5 of the cycle. This involved observations of general behaviour and activity, gait scores (0: perfect to 5: unable to walk) and latency to lie (measured in seconds from when a bird had been encouraged to stand). Production performance and environmental parameters were also measured. SB density had no significant effect on activity levels (P>0.05) or walking ability (P>0.05). However, the average latency to lie was greater in 30SB birds compared with 45SB birds (P<0.05). The incidence of hock burn and podo dermatitis, average BW at slaughter and levels of mortality and culling were unaffected by SB density (P>0.05). The results from this study suggest that increasing SB levels from 1 bale/44 m2 to 1 bale/29 m2 floor space does not lead to significant improvements in the welfare of commercial broiler chickens in windowed houses.

  3. Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance profiles of escherichia coli isolates of broiler chickens at slaughter in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Chunu; McFall, Margaret; King, Robin; Irwin, Rebecca

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial resistance profiles of Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chickens in Alberta, Canada. Cecal contents of broiler chickens from 24 flocks were collected at slaughter between January and March 2005 for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing against a panel of 15 antimicrobials using a broth microdilution technique. Of 600 E. coli isolates tested, 475 (79.2%) were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, 326 (54.3%) were resistant to three or more antimicrobials, 65 (10.8%) were resistant to five or more antimicrobials, and 15 (2.5%) were resistant to seven or more antimicrobials. The most common resistance was to tetracycline (69.2%), followed by streptomycin (48.2%), kanamycin (40.3%), and sulfisoxazole (38.0%). None of the E. coli isolates were resistant to amikacin, ceftriaxone, or ciprofloxacin. Of the isolates that were resistant to two or more antimicrobials, the most common multidrug resistance patterns were streptomycinte-tracycline (44.0%), streptomycin-sulfisoxazole-tetracycline (30.7%), and kanamycin-streptomycin-sulfisoxazole-tetracycline (23.5%). Resistance to tetracycline and kanamycin (odds ratio = 46.7, P = 0.0001) was highly associated, followed by resistance to streptomycin and sulfisoxazole (odds ratio = 12.0, P = 0.0001), and streptomycin and tetracycline (odds ratio = 10.3, P = 0.0001). The flock level prevalence of resistance varied from 16.7% for chloramphenicol to 100.0% for ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline. The results of this study provided baseline information on antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli isolates of broiler chickens at slaughter in Alberta, which can serve as a bench mark for future research.

  4. Effect of lycopene on the copper-induced oxidation of low-density lipoprotein in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Woo; Choo, Won-Don; Kang, Chang-Won; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate whether dietary lycopene (LP) could prevent the copper-mediated oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL), and affect growth performance, relative organ weights, plasma and meat lipid profiles, and LP contents in plasma and tissues in broiler chickens. A total of 160 day-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into 16 pens with rice husk as a bedding material. Each experiment had 4 replicates, 10 chicks per replicate (n = 4 per treatment). A corn-soybean meal base diet was used as a control diet (CONT). To formulate the experimental diets, the base diet was added with LP at the levels of 10 (LP10) or 20 mg/kg (LP20), or 17 g/kg of tomato paste (TP17) which was equivalent to 5 ppm of LP. The experiment lasted 4 weeks. Growth performance and relative organ weights were not affected (p > 0.05) by any of dietary treatments. Dietary LP significantly lowered (p < 0.05) triglyceride and LDL cholesterol at 2 weeks of age, but did not affect them at 4 weeks of age. Total cholesterol in thigh meats was not altered by dietary treatments. LP was not detected in leg meats in all chicks, nor in liver or plasma of the CONT group. LP was found in liver and plasma, being the former greater in the concentration, of the chicks fed diets containing LP10, LP20, or TP17. At 2 and 4 weeks, the copper-mediated oxidation of LDL was delayed (p < 0.05) in either LP- or TP-fed chickens compared with the CONT group. In conclusion, LP lowers triglyceride and LDL cholesterol, is deposited into serum and liver, and prevents the LDL oxidation in broiler chickens, confirming the role of LP in the lipid-lowering and antioxidant properties in broiler chickens. PMID:27047715

  5. Performance of broiler chickens fed event DAS-40278-9 maize containing the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-1 protein.

    PubMed

    Herman, Rod A; Dunville, Christina M; Juberg, Daland R; Fletcher, Dale W; Cromwell, Gary L

    2011-08-01

    Event DAS-40278-9 maize grain (containing the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-1 protein), a non-transgenic near-isogenic maize grain, or one of three commercial maize grains were included in the diets of broiler chickens for six weeks. Growth, feed conversion, and carcass measurements indicated no significant difference between the groups fed the diets containing the DAS-40278-9 maize grain and those fed diets containing the matched control grain. The absence of adverse effects in this study supports the dietary safety of the AAD-1 protein expressed in event DAS-40278-9 maize.

  6. Automated assessment of footpad dermatitis in broiler chickens at the slaughter-line: evaluation and correspondence with human expert scores.

    PubMed

    Vanderhasselt, R F; Sprenger, M; Duchateau, L; Tuyttens, F A M

    2013-01-01

    Footpad dermatitis is increasingly used as an indicator of decreased broiler welfare, and automation of dermatitis monitoring potentially reduces the effort needed to monitor commercial flocks. In this study we evaluated a prototype system for the automatic assessment of footpad dermatitis in broiler chickens by comparing the automatic assessment with a human expert assessment. The expert aimed at selecting 2 times (different period) 20 broilers per footpad dermatitis category (5 categories in total), from 2 different flocks of 38-d-old broilers on an experimental farm. Two days later these broilers were transported to the slaughterhouse, where footpad dermatitis was assessed by the automatic system. Subsequently the footpads were reassessed by the same expert that had selected the birds. Automatic scores were only weakly correlated with scores given by the expert on-farm (r = 0.54) and at the slaughterhouse (r = 0.59). Manual evaluation of the photographs on which the automatic system based its scores revealed several errors. For 41.1% of the birds, the automatic system assessed only one of the footpads, whereas for 15.2% neither footpad was assessed. For 49.4% of the birds, scores were based on partially incorrectly identified areas. When data from such incomplete and obviously incorrect assessments were discarded, stronger correlations between automatic and expert scores were found (r = 0.68 and r = 0.74 for expert scores given on-farm and at-slaughter, respectively). Footpads that were missed by the automatic system were more likely to receive a high expert score at slaughter (P = 0.02). However, average flock scores did not differ greatly between automatic and expert scores. The prototype system for automatic dermatitis assessment needs to be improved on several points if it is to replace expert assessment of footpad dermatitis.

  7. Evaluation of the efficacy of yeast extract in reducing intestinal Clostridium perfringens levels in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Thanissery, R; McReynolds, J L; Conner, D E; Macklin, K S; Curtis, P A; Fasina, Y O

    2010-11-01

    The etiological agent of necrotic enteritis is Clostridium perfringens. Traditionally, necrotic enteritis is controlled with in-feed antibiotics. However, increasing consumer demand for drug-free poultry has fostered the search for nonantibiotic alternatives. Yeast extract contain nucleotides that are immunomodulatory and also essential for cellular functions. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of NuPro yeast extract (Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) in reducing intestinal C. perfringens levels in broiler chickens. One hundred ninety-two 1-d-old male broiler chicks were obtained and randomly assigned to 6 treatments in a battery cage trial. Treatment 1 consisted of chicks fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet (BD) without added bacitracin methylene disalicylate or NuPro. Treatment 2 consisted of chicks fed BD into which bacitracin methylene disalicylate was added at 0.055 g/kg. Treatment 3 consisted of chicks fed BD supplemented with NuPro at a 2% level for the first 10 d of the experiment. Treatments 4 (PX), 5, and 6 (PN) consisted of chicks that were challenged with 3 mL of the C. perfringens inoculum (~10(7) cfu/mL) on d 14, 15, and 16 of the experiment and fed diets similar to treatments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. On d 1 and 7 postchallenge, intestinal C. perfringens levels, lesion scores, and alkaline phosphatase activity were assessed. On d 1 postchallenge, C. perfringens level in treatment 5 (2.09 log(10) cfu/g) was lower (P < 0.05) compared with the PX treatment (4.71 log(10) cfu/g) but similar to the PN treatment (2.98 log(10) cfu/g). A similar trend was observed on d 7 postchallenge. NuPro supplementation enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity (P < 0.05) in C. perfringens-challenged chicks and appeared to reduce intestinal lesion scores. Although dietary supplementation of NuPro in the PN treatment reduced C. perfringens levels by 1.73 and 0.68 log(10) cfu/g compared with the PX treatment on d 1 and 7 postchallenge, respectively, these

  8. Phytogenic Feed Additives as an Alternative to Antibiotic Growth Promoters in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, Ganapathi Raj; Syed, Basharat; Haldar, Sudipto; Pender, Chasity

    2015-01-01

    The recent trend toward reduction of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in North American poultry diets has put tremendous pressure on the industry to look for viable alternatives. In this context, phytogenic feed additives (PFA) are researched to improve gut health and thereby performance. An experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the effects of PFA as an alternative to AGP on small intestinal histomorphology, cecal microbiota composition, nutrient digestibility, and growth performance in broiler chickens. A total of 432-day-old Vencobb 400 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of three dietary groups, each consisting of 12 replicate pens (n = 12 chicks/pen). The chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal-based control (CON), CON + 500 mg/kg of AGP (bacitracin methylene disalicylate containing 450 mg active BMD/g), or CON + 150 mg/kg of proprietary blend of PFA (Digestarom(®) Poultry) until 39 days of age when samples were collected. Birds fed either AGP or PFA had increased villus height in all three segments of the small intestine in comparison to the birds fed CON (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the PFA-fed birds had significantly increased villus height and lower crypt depth compared to AGP fed birds (P ≤ 0.05). Birds fed either additive also had increased total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and ether extract (P ≤ 0.05). The strong effect of the PFA on villus height in the jejunum may suggest augmented nutrient absorption in PFA-fed birds. Although both additives reduced total cecal counts of anaerobic bacteria and Clostridium spp., PFA alone reduced the total coliform count while increasing the Lactobacillus spp. count (P ≤ 0.05). These results suggest the establishment of beneficial microbial colonies in PFA-fed birds. Overall, both PFA and AGP increased body weight gain while lowering the feed conversion ratio (P ≤ 0.05). Hence data from this experiment demonstrate the efficacy

  9. Campylobacter infection has different outcomes in fast- and slow-growing broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Williams, L K; Sait, L C; Trantham, E K; Cogan, T A; Humphrey, T J

    2013-06-01

    Campylobacter spp. are frequently carried by poultry, but they are not believed to cause significant disease in these animals. Modern poultry breeds have been selected to grow rapidly under intensive conditions, but recently, consumers have moved toward purchasing birds produced in higher welfare, free-range or organic systems. Birds reared in these systems tend to be a slower growing breed and are fed a different diet. Birds reared in such systems are stocked at a lower density compared with the standard conventional broilers, and they have access to environmental enrichment, such as perches. In previous research, these slower growing birds have been shown to have different levels of Campylobacter carriage in commercial rearing conditions, but the reasons for, and effect of, these different levels are unknown; is it the bird breed, diet, or environmental conditions? In this study, experimental flocks of fast- and slow-growing breeds of broiler chickens were reared to a standard commercial slaughter weight, with their weight gain being measured during the growing period. At 21 days, birds were either infected with Campylobacter jejuni or given a placebo as control. Cohorts of birds were euthanatized at various intervals, and samples were taken for examination for Campylobacter. The fast-growing birds gained weight more rapidly than the slow-growing birds. By 2 days postinfection (dpi), C. jejuni was detected in the caeca and by enrichment from the liver and spleen samples from both breeds of birds. Low-level colonization persisted in the spleen and liver samples but was undetectable by 28 dpi. Fast- and slow-growing birds did not show detectably different levels of Campylobacter carriage. Infection with C. jejuni affected the incidence of hock marks and pododermatitis in both breeds of birds, but the differences were greater with the fast-growing breed compared with the uninfected control birds. In addition, the incidence of pododermatitis was significantly higher

  10. Phytogenic Feed Additives as an Alternative to Antibiotic Growth Promoters in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Murugesan, Ganapathi Raj; Syed, Basharat; Haldar, Sudipto; Pender, Chasity

    2015-01-01

    The recent trend toward reduction of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in North American poultry diets has put tremendous pressure on the industry to look for viable alternatives. In this context, phytogenic feed additives (PFA) are researched to improve gut health and thereby performance. An experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the effects of PFA as an alternative to AGP on small intestinal histomorphology, cecal microbiota composition, nutrient digestibility, and growth performance in broiler chickens. A total of 432-day-old Vencobb 400 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of three dietary groups, each consisting of 12 replicate pens (n = 12 chicks/pen). The chicks were fed a corn–soybean meal-based control (CON), CON + 500 mg/kg of AGP (bacitracin methylene disalicylate containing 450 mg active BMD/g), or CON + 150 mg/kg of proprietary blend of PFA (Digestarom® Poultry) until 39 days of age when samples were collected. Birds fed either AGP or PFA had increased villus height in all three segments of the small intestine in comparison to the birds fed CON (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the PFA-fed birds had significantly increased villus height and lower crypt depth compared to AGP fed birds (P ≤ 0.05). Birds fed either additive also had increased total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and ether extract (P ≤ 0.05). The strong effect of the PFA on villus height in the jejunum may suggest augmented nutrient absorption in PFA-fed birds. Although both additives reduced total cecal counts of anaerobic bacteria and Clostridium spp., PFA alone reduced the total coliform count while increasing the Lactobacillus spp. count (P ≤ 0.05). These results suggest the establishment of beneficial microbial colonies in PFA-fed birds. Overall, both PFA and AGP increased body weight gain while lowering the feed conversion ratio (P ≤ 0.05). Hence data from this experiment demonstrate the efficacy

  11. Biochemical studies in experimentally Escherichia coli infected broiler chicken supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikash; Jakhar, K. K.; Nehra, Vikas; Kumar, Sarvan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: An experimental study was conducted on 192-day-old broiler chicks for evaluating the effect of 10% neem leaf extract (NLE) supplementationon biochemical parameters in chickens experimentally infected with Escherichia coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml at 7 days of age. Materials and Methods: The 192-day-old broiler chicks were procured. These chicks were divided into two groups (A and B) containing 96 birds each on the 1st day. Diet of all the chicks of Group A was supplemented with 10%NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were given feed and water devoid of NLE supplementation throughout the experiment. After rearing for 1 week, chicks of both the groups (A and B) were again divided into two subgroups (Group A into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2) of 54 and 42 birds, respectively. At the age of 7 days all the chicks of groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected from six chicks from each group at day 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 days post-infection and serum was separated for biochemical studies. Results: There was a significant increase in serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, globulin concentration and a decrease in total protein (TP), albumin concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in both the infected groups. However, the changes in biochemical values, i.e., ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, TP, albumin, and globulin wereof lower magnitude in NLE supplemented group suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. Conclusions: Fromthe present study, it is reasonable to conclude that significant increase in the value of ALT, AST, LDH, globulin, and significant decrease in the value of ALP, TP, and albumin was of lower magnitude in supplemented infected group (A1) as compared to non-supplemented infected group (B1) suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. PMID:27047040

  12. An l-Arginine supplement improves broiler hypertensive response and gut function in broiler chickens reared at high altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajali, Fariborz; Moghaddam, Maryam Heydary; Hassanpour, Hossein

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of supplemental dietary arginine (ARG) on growth, hypertensive response, and gut function in broilers reared at high altitude (2,100 m). A total of 120 day-old male broilers (Cobb 500) were divided equally into two treatment groups. Treatments included a control basal diet composed of corn and soybean meal and an experimental diet to which an l-ARG supplement was added at 10 g/kg. The trial lasted for 42 days. There were no treatment differences with regard to feed intake, body weight gain, or feed conversion ratio. However ARG supplementation did increase the plasma concentration of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator ( P < 0.05), and attenuated indices of pulmonary hypertension as reflected by reductions in the hematocrit and the right to total ventricular weight ratio ( P < 0.05). Significantly enhanced intestinal mucosal development was observed in broilers receiving ARG supplement when compared with controls ( P < 0.05), suggesting that ARG supplementation increased the absorptive surface area of the jejunum and ileum. In conclusion, broiler diets supplemented with ARG beneficially improved pulmonary hemodynamics and appeared to enhance gut function.

  13. Tracking Campylobacter contamination along a broiler chicken production chain from the farm level to retail in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Licai; Wang, Yang; Shen, Jianzhong; Zhang, Qijing; Wu, Congming

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of Campylobacter species along a broiler production chain from farm to retail, and to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance profile of Campylobacter isolates. A total of 259 Campylobacter isolates (C. jejuni n=106, C. coli n=153) were isolated from broiler ceca samples (72.5%, 103/142), broiler carcasses (34.1%, 46/135), and retail broiler meat (31.3%, 40/128) samples collected in Shanghai, China. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of six antimicrobials were determined using the agar dilution method. High prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin (C. jejuni: 99.1%;C. coli: 100%) and tetracycline (C. jejuni: 100%;C. coli: 98.7%) was detected among the C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. The vast majority of C. coli were resistant to clindamycin (92.2%), gentamicin (95.4%), and erythromycin (94.1%), but only 25.5%, 53.8%, and 16.0% of C. jejuni exhibited resistance to these three antimicrobials, respectively. In contrast, the prevalence of florfenicol resistance in C. jejuni (37.7%) was significantly higher than that in C. coli (7.8%) (P<0.05). It is noteworthy that all Campylobacter isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, and 71.7% of C. jejuni and 98.0% of C. coli isolates exhibited multi-drug resistance (resistant to three or more antimicrobials). Fifty-five C. jejuni and sixty C. coli isolates, selected from different production stages, species, and antimicrobial resistance patterns, were analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), among which 15 unique PFGE patterns (PFGE patterns represented by a single strain) and 31 clusters (PFGE patterns represented by multiple strains) were detected. Furthermore, nearly all of the PFGE patterns of the Campylobacter strains isolated from retail broiler meats overlapped with those of the strains from ceca and slaughterhouse carcasses. Together, these findings revealed the high prevalence of Campylobacter species in a broiler chicken

  14. Effects of Heat-oxidized Soy Protein Isolate on Growth Performance and Digestive Function of Broiler Chickens at Early Age

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X.; Chen, Y. P.; Wu, D. W.; Wen, C.; Zhou, Y. M.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate effects of heat-oxidized soy protein isolate (HSPI) on growth performance, serum biochemical indices, apparent nutrient digestibility and digestive function of broiler chickens. A total of 320 1-day-old Arbor Acres chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 replicates of 10 birds, receiving diets containing soy protein isolate (SPI, control group) or the same amount of SPI heated in an oven at 100°C for 1, 4, or 8 h, for 21 days, respectively. The results indicated that compared with the control group, body weight gain and feed intake of birds fed diet containing SPI heated for 8 h were significantly lower (p<0.05). Serum urea nitrogen concentration was higher in the broilers fed diet containing SPI heated for 4 or 8 h at d 21 (p<0.05). In contrast, serum glucose content was decreased by HSPI substitution at d 21 (p<0.05). The relative pancreas weight in HSPI groups was higher than that in the control group at d 21 (p<0.05). Meanwhile, the opposite effect was observed for relative weight of anterior intestine and ileum in broilers fed a diet containing SPI heated for 8 h (p<0.05). Birds fed diets containing SPI heated for 4 or 8 h had a decreased lipase activity in anterior intestinal content at d 14 and 21 (p<0.05), respectively. In addition, the same effect was also noted in broilers given diets containing SPI heated for 1 h at d 21 (p<0.05). Similarly, amylase, protease and trypsin activity in anterior intestinal content were lower in broilers fed diets containing SPI heated for 8 h at d 21 (p<0.05). The apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM) from d 8 to 10 and DM, crude protein (CP), and ether extract from d 15 to 17 were lower in broilers fed diets containing SPI heated for 8 h (p<0.05). Besides, birds given diets containing SPI heated for 4 h also exhibited lower CP apparent digestibility from d 15 to 17 (p<0.05). It was concluded that HSPI inclusion can exert a negative influence on the growth performance of

  15. Direct effects of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) acetone leaf extract on broiler chickens naturally infected with Eimeria species.

    PubMed

    Ola-Fadunsin, Shola David; Ademola, Isaiah Oluwafemi

    2013-08-01

    Avian coccidiosis is one of the most important diseases of poultry and it is responsible for a large number of all broiler mortalities worldwide. The control of this disease relies mainly on the use of anticoccidial drugs. However, herbal preparations could be an alternative for the treatment against coccidiosis in chickens. The direct effects of Moringa oleifera acetone extracts on broiler chickens naturally infected with mixed Eimeria species was investigated to determine the relative efficacy of the extracts against coccidiosis in birds. The investigations were carried out in seven groups (ten chickens per group). The birds were given various doses (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 g/kg body weight) of acetone extract of leaves of M. toltrazuril (positive control) and untreated (negative control). The extract was evaluated for anticoccidial activity by means of inhibition of oocyst output in faeces, faecal score, weight gain and mortality. Haematological indices were evaluated by standard methods. The group treated with 1.0 g/ kg body weight Moringa oleifera extract produced the least inhibitory effect on oocyst shed in the faeces (96.4%), while the groups treated with 2.0 g/kg, 3.0 g/kg, 4.0 g/kg and 5.0 g/kg body weight of the extract produced 97.4, 98.7, 99.1 and 99.8%, respectively. Body weight gains of infected chickens treated with the extract significantly improved (p < 0.05), and faecal scores were milder. Packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration and red blood count of the treated birds were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of the infected untreated group. Moringa oleifera leaves could find application in the treatment of avian coccidiosis in veterinary practice. PMID:23440591

  16. Direct effects of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) acetone leaf extract on broiler chickens naturally infected with Eimeria species.

    PubMed

    Ola-Fadunsin, Shola David; Ademola, Isaiah Oluwafemi

    2013-08-01

    Avian coccidiosis is one of the most important diseases of poultry and it is responsible for a large number of all broiler mortalities worldwide. The control of this disease relies mainly on the use of anticoccidial drugs. However, herbal preparations could be an alternative for the treatment against coccidiosis in chickens. The direct effects of Moringa oleifera acetone extracts on broiler chickens naturally infected with mixed Eimeria species was investigated to determine the relative efficacy of the extracts against coccidiosis in birds. The investigations were carried out in seven groups (ten chickens per group). The birds were given various doses (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 g/kg body weight) of acetone extract of leaves of M. toltrazuril (positive control) and untreated (negative control). The extract was evaluated for anticoccidial activity by means of inhibition of oocyst output in faeces, faecal score, weight gain and mortality. Haematological indices were evaluated by standard methods. The group treated with 1.0 g/ kg body weight Moringa oleifera extract produced the least inhibitory effect on oocyst shed in the faeces (96.4%), while the groups treated with 2.0 g/kg, 3.0 g/kg, 4.0 g/kg and 5.0 g/kg body weight of the extract produced 97.4, 98.7, 99.1 and 99.8%, respectively. Body weight gains of infected chickens treated with the extract significantly improved (p < 0.05), and faecal scores were milder. Packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration and red blood count of the treated birds were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of the infected untreated group. Moringa oleifera leaves could find application in the treatment of avian coccidiosis in veterinary practice.

  17. Intestinal function and gut microflora of broiler chickens as influenced by cereal grains and microbial enzyme supplementation.

    PubMed

    Shakouri, M D; Iji, P A; Mikkelsen, L L; Cowieson, A J

    2009-10-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of the key cereal grains and a microbial enzyme supplement on broiler chicken performance, gut microflora and intestinal function. Ingestion of the barley-based diet was associated with low 28-day body weight, decreased feed intake and high FCR. The supplemental enzyme increased feed intake and weight gain of the chickens on a wheat-based diet. The pH of the gizzard and caecal contents varied with the grain type. Enzyme supplementation reduced ileal viscosity, particularly in birds that received the diet based on wheat. The birds on the barley-based diet had lower ileal digestibility of dry matter, protein and energy than those given maize and sorghum-based diets. The ileal digestibility of starch was increased by enzyme supplementation. Enzyme supplementation increased the number of total anaerobic bacteria in the gizzard of birds fed on sorghum and increased lactobacilli in the gizzard of those fed both sorghum and wheat. The birds fed the sorghum-based diet had the lowest counts of caecal total anaerobic bacteria and lactobacilli. Jejunal villus height and villus:crypt ratio of birds fed the barley-based diet were the lowest when compared with those fed the other diets. Enzyme application induced an increase in villus height and villus:crypt ratio of birds on wheat, crypt depth on barley and a reduction in crypt depth of chickens on the sorghum-based diets. The highest activity of maltase and the lowest activity of sucrase were observed in tissue from birds fed on maize and sorghum-based diets respectively. The differences in the performance of broilers on cereal grains could be explained by changes in intestinal morphology, enzyme activities and gut microflora as well as nutrient digestibility. The improved performance by supplemental enzyme in wheat-fed chickens was associated with beneficial changes in intestinal morphology and digesta viscosity.

  18. Transcriptome analysis of post-hatch breast muscle in legacy and modern broiler chickens reveals enrichment of several regulators of myogenic growth.

    PubMed

    Davis, Richard V N; Lamont, Susan J; Rothschild, Max F; Persia, Michael E; Ashwell, Chris M; Schmidt, Carl J

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture provides excellent model systems for understanding how selective pressure, as applied by humans, can affect the genomes of plants and animals. One such system is modern poultry breeding in which intensive genetic selection has been applied for meat production in the domesticated chicken. As a result, modern meat-type chickens (broilers) exhibit enhanced growth, especially of the skeletal muscle, relative to their legacy counterparts. Comparative studies of modern and legacy broiler chickens provide an opportunity to identify genes and pathways affected by this human-directed evolution. This study used RNA-seq to compare the transcriptomes of a modern and a legacy broiler line to identify differentially enriched genes in the breast muscle at days 6 and 21 post-hatch. Among the 15,945 genes analyzed, 10,841 were expressed at greater than 0.1 RPKM. At day 6 post-hatch 189 genes, including several regulators of myogenic growth and development, were differentially enriched between the two lines. The transcriptional profiles between lines at day 21 post-hatch identify 193 genes differentially enriched and still include genes associated with myogenic growth. This study identified differentially enriched genes that regulate myogenic growth and differentiation between the modern and legacy broiler lines. Specifically, differences in the ratios of several positive (IGF1, IGF1R, WFIKKN2) and negative (MSTN, ACE) myogenic growth regulators may help explain the differences underlying the enhanced growth characteristics of the modern broilers.

  19. Transcriptome Analysis of Post-Hatch Breast Muscle in Legacy and Modern Broiler Chickens Reveals Enrichment of Several Regulators of Myogenic Growth

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Richard V. N.; Lamont, Susan J.; Rothschild, Max F.; Persia, Michael E.; Ashwell, Chris M.; Schmidt, Carl J.

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture provides excellent model systems for understanding how selective pressure, as applied by humans, can affect the genomes of plants and animals. One such system is modern poultry breeding in which intensive genetic selection has been applied for meat production in the domesticated chicken. As a result, modern meat-type chickens (broilers) exhibit enhanced growth, especially of the skeletal muscle, relative to their legacy counterparts. Comparative studies of modern and legacy broiler chickens provide an opportunity to identify genes and pathways affected by this human-directed evolution. This study used RNA-seq to compare the transcriptomes of a modern and a legacy broiler line to identify differentially enriched genes in the breast muscle at days 6 and 21 post-hatch. Among the 15,945 genes analyzed, 10,841 were expressed at greater than 0.1 RPKM. At day 6 post-hatch 189 genes, including several regulators of myogenic growth and development, were differentially enriched between the two lines. The transcriptional profiles between lines at day 21 post-hatch identify 193 genes differentially enriched and still include genes associated with myogenic growth. This study identified differentially enriched genes that regulate myogenic growth and differentiation between the modern and legacy broiler lines. Specifically, differences in the ratios of several positive (IGF1, IGF1R, WFIKKN2) and negative (MSTN, ACE) myogenic growth regulators may help explain the differences underlying the enhanced growth characteristics of the modern broilers. PMID:25821972

  20. Effects of roxarsone and monensin on digital flexoral tendons of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Rath, N C; Chapman, H D; Fitz-Coy, S H; Balog, J M; Huff, G R; Huff, W E

    1998-04-01

    Roxarsone and monensin are common poultry feed additives that are used alone or in combination with other drugs to improve growth and feed utilization in young birds. The effects of monensin and roxarsone on the physiology of flexoral tendons of broiler chickens were examined to understand their relationships to leg weakness that have been occasionally associated with these drugs. Day-old chickens were fed either roxarsone or monensin for a period of 6 wk with two regimens of each of the drugs (roxarsone, 45.4 or 90.8 g/ton feed; monensin, 100 or 150 g/ton feed). None of the treatments had any adverse effect on the growth of the birds or caused any significant leg problem. Roxarsone at 45.4 g/ton caused a significant gain in body weight. The biomechanical strength of digital flexoral tendons was measured in several ways. There were no statistical differences in load at break, the modulus of elasticity, or stress or strain levels between different treatment groups and birds that received no medication. There were no differences in collagen, proteoglycan, and pyridinoline content of tendons. Sequential extraction of tendons with different solvents revealed a significant increase in the percentage of guanidine HCl extractible collagens in monensin-treated birds, and a decrease in the acid extractible collagen in both roxarsone- and monensin-treated groups. The relative content of collagen in acid extractible collagens were significantly small relative to total collagen content. Majority of collagen (84 to 90%) was extractible with pepsin. About 8 to 11% of total collagen was resistant to pepsin that was extractible with collagenase; this did not differ between treatment groups. Roxarsone treatment had no effect on the guanidine soluble collagen pool. The effect of monensin on the increase in guanidine soluble pool of collagen may relate to its disruptive effects on cellular secretory processes, which may be of significance in modulating connective tissue function in

  1. A comparison of the effects of feeding treatments and lighting on age at first egg and subsequent laying performance and carcase composition of broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Ciacciariello, M; Gous, R M

    2005-04-01

    The effects of the growth curve from 15 to 20 weeks, age at photostimulation and pattern of photostimulus on sexual maturity, egg production and egg weight were evaluated in two trials with broiler breeder females to 56 and 34 weeks of age (housed in litter pens and individually caged, respectively). Carcase composition and reproductive morphology of hens varying in laying efficiency were measured in the second trial. Trial 1: Four growth curves were applied from 15 to 20 weeks to pullets housed in litter pens. Birds were transferred from 8- to 10-h photoperiods at 20 or 24 weeks of age, followed by weekly increments of one hour to reach a 16-h final photoperiod. Lower-than-recommended body weights at 20 weeks significantly delayed sexual maturity, reduced peak rate of lay, total eggs and mean egg weight. However, double-yolked egg production was lower, resulting in non-significant differences in settable egg numbers between body weight treatments. Birds reared to the heaviest body weight exhibited a significantly advanced sexual maturity, but total egg numbers, peak rate of lay and mean egg weight were not significantly affected. However, the laying of more double-yolked eggs resulted in a decrease in the number of settable eggs. Delaying photostimulation to 24 weeks significantly retarded sexual maturity, reduced total and settable egg numbers, and increased mean egg weight. A tendency for fewer double-yolked eggs was observed. Trial 2: At 19 weeks, birds were selected from the 4 body weight categories in Trial 1 and moved to individual cages in 8 rooms. Five lighting programmes were applied. The pattern of photostimulation applied did not affect any of the production traits measured. At 34 weeks, 24 birds were selected for the analysis of reproductive morphology, presence of internal or multiple ovulations, and carcase composition. Eight hens showing an early age at first egg and regular egg production records, 8 birds showing erratic laying performance and 8

  2. Protein utilization and amino acid digestibility of canola meal in response to phytase in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kong, C; Adeola, O

    2011-07-01

    The regression method was used in a 14-d broiler chicken study to determine the true ileal digestibility of amino acid (AA) and protein utilization in canola meal (CM, 388 g of CP/kg) without or with added phytase. Experimental treatments consisted of 2 factors, phytase at 2 levels (0 or 1,500 phytase units/kg) and CM at 3 levels (125, 250, or 375 g/kg). Birds received a standard starter diet from d 1 to 8 and the assay diets from d 8 to 22 posthatch. On d 8, a total of 384 birds were allocated to 6 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design; excreta were collected from d 12 to 14 and d 19 to 21, and ileal digesta were collected on d 22 posthatch. True ileal indispensable AA digestibility of CM were derived from the regression of AA flow (mg/kg of DM intake) at the terminal ileum against the intake of AA (mg/kg of dietary DM) of birds fed diets without or with phytase. Body weight gain (BWG), protein gain, and protein intake increased linearly (P < 0.001) with increasing CM level, regardless of phytase supplementation. Effects of phytase (P < 0.05) were observed on BWG and the protein efficiency ratio from d 8 to 15, whereas effects of phytase (P < 0.05) were observed on BWG and protein gain from d 15 to 22. There was no effect of phytase on protein intake and net protein utilization from d 8 to 22. Phytase supplementation at 1,500 phytase units/kg did not affect true ileal digestibility of any AA in CM. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that phytase supplementation improved the protein efficiency ratio of birds fed diets containing CM as the sole protein source from d 8 to 15 posthatch but did not affect the true ileal digestibility of AA in CM as determined by the regression method.

  3. Diversity and succession of the intestinal bacterial community of the maturing broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiangrang; Idris, Umelaalim; Harmon, Barry; Hofacre, Charles; Maurer, John J; Lee, Margie D

    2003-11-01

    The diversity of bacterial floras in the ilea and ceca of chickens that were fed a vegetarian corn-soy broiler diet devoid of feed additives was examined by analysis of 1,230 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences. Nearly 70% of sequences from the ileum were related to those of Lactobacillus, with the majority of the rest being related to Clostridiaceae (11%), Streptococcus (6.5%), and Enterococcus (6.5%). In contrast, Clostridiaceae-related sequences (65%) were the most abundant group detected in the cecum, with the other most abundant sequences being related to Fusobacterium (14%), Lactobacillus (8%), and Bacteroides (5%). Statistical analysis comparing the compositions of the different 16S rRNA libraries revealed that population succession occurred during some sampling periods. The significant differences among cecal libraries at 3 and 7 days of age, at 14 to 28 days of age, and at 49 days of age indicated that successions occurred from a transient community to one of increasing complexity as the birds aged. Similarly, the ileum had a stable bacterial community structure for birds at 7 to 21 days of age and between 21 to 28 days of age, but there was a very unique community structure at 3 and 49 days of age. It was also revealed that the composition of the ileal and cecal libraries did not significantly differ when the birds were 3 days old, and in fact during the first 14 days of age, the cecal microflora was a subset of the ileal microflora. After this time, the ileum and cecum had significantly different library compositions, suggesting that each region developed its own unique bacterial community as the bird matured. PMID:14602645

  4. Passive immunization to reduce Campylobacter jejuni colonization and transmission in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hermans, David; Van Steendam, Katleen; Verbrugghe, Elin; Verlinden, Marc; Martel, An; Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Heyndrickx, Marc; Haesebrouck, Freddy; De Zutter, Lieven; Deforce, Dieter; Pasmans, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterium-mediated diarrheal disease in humans worldwide. Poultry products are considered the most important source of C. jejuni infections in humans but to date no effective strategy exists to eradicate this zoonotic pathogen from poultry production. Here, the potential use of passive immunization to reduce Campylobacter colonization in broiler chicks was examined. For this purpose, laying hens were immunized with either a whole-cell lysate or the hydrophobic protein fraction of C. jejuni and their eggs were collected. In vitro tests validated the induction of specific ImmunoglobulinY (IgY) against C. jejuni in the immunized hens' egg yolks, in particular. In seeder experiments, preventive administration of hyperimmune egg yolk significantly (P < 0.01) reduced bacterial counts of seeder animals three days after oral inoculation with approximately 104 cfu C. jejuni, compared with control birds. Moreover, transmission to non-seeder birds was dramatically reduced (hydrophobic protein fraction) or even completely prevented (whole-cell lysate). Purified IgY promoted bacterial binding to chicken intestinal mucus, suggesting enhanced mucosal clearance in vivo. Western blot analysis in combination with mass spectrometry after two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis revealed immunodominant antigens of C. jejuni that are involved in a variety of cell functions, including chemotaxis and adhesion. Some of these (AtpA, EF-Tu, GroEL and CtpA) are highly conserved proteins and could be promising targets for the development of subunit vaccines. PMID:24589217

  5. Passive immunization to reduce Campylobacter jejuni colonization and transmission in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterium-mediated diarrheal disease in humans worldwide. Poultry products are considered the most important source of C. jejuni infections in humans but to date no effective strategy exists to eradicate this zoonotic pathogen from poultry production. Here, the potential use of passive immunization to reduce Campylobacter colonization in broiler chicks was examined. For this purpose, laying hens were immunized with either a whole-cell lysate or the hydrophobic protein fraction of C. jejuni and their eggs were collected. In vitro tests validated the induction of specific ImmunoglobulinY (IgY) against C. jejuni in the immunized hens’ egg yolks, in particular. In seeder experiments, preventive administration of hyperimmune egg yolk significantly (P < 0.01) reduced bacterial counts of seeder animals three days after oral inoculation with approximately 104 cfu C. jejuni, compared with control birds. Moreover, transmission to non-seeder birds was dramatically reduced (hydrophobic protein fraction) or even completely prevented (whole-cell lysate). Purified IgY promoted bacterial binding to chicken intestinal mucus, suggesting enhanced mucosal clearance in vivo. Western blot analysis in combination with mass spectrometry after two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis revealed immunodominant antigens of C. jejuni that are involved in a variety of cell functions, including chemotaxis and adhesion. Some of these (AtpA, EF-Tu, GroEL and CtpA) are highly conserved proteins and could be promising targets for the development of subunit vaccines. PMID:24589217

  6. Duplex PCR Methods for the Molecular Detection of Escherichia fergusonii Isolates from Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Karen; Rempel, Heidi; Block, Glenn; Forgetta, Vincenzo; Vaillancourt, Rolland; Malouin, François; Topp, Edward; Delaquis, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia fergusonii is an emerging pathogen that has been isolated from a wide range of infections in animals and humans. Primers targeting specific genes, including yliE (encoding a conserved hypothetical protein of the cellulose synthase and regulator of cellulose synthase island), EFER_1569 (encoding a hypothetical protein, putative transcriptional activator for multiple antibiotic resistance), and EFER_3126 (encoding a putative triphosphoribosyl-dephospho-coenzyme A [CoA]), were designed for the detection of E. fergusonii by conventional and real-time PCR methods. Primers were screened by in silico PCR against 489 bacterial genomic sequences and by both PCR methods on 55 reference and field strains. Both methods were specific and sensitive for E. fergusonii, showing amplification only for this bacterium. Conventional PCR required a minimum bacterial concentration of approximately 102 CFU/ml, while real-time PCR required a minimum of 0.3 pg of DNA for consistent detection. Standard curves showed an efficiency of 98.5%, with an R2 value of 0.99 for the real-time PCR assay. Cecal and cloacal contents from 580 chickens were sampled from broiler farms located in the Fraser Valley (British Columbia, Canada). Presumptive E. fergusonii isolates were recovered by enrichment and plating on differential and selective media. Of 301 total presumptive isolates, 140 (46.5%) were identified as E. fergusonii by biochemical profiling with the API 20E system and 268 (89.0%) using PCR methods. E. fergusonii detection directly from cecal and cloacal samples without preenrichment was achieved with both PCR methods. Hence, the PCR methods developed in this work significantly improve the detection of E. fergusonii. PMID:24441160

  7. Effect of dietary manganese on antioxidant status and expression levels of heat-shock proteins and factors in tissues of laying broiler breeders under normal and high environmental temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong-Wen; Lu, Lin; Li, Wen-Xiang; Zhang, Li-Yang; Ji, Cheng; Lin, Xi; Liu, Hsiao-Ching; Odle, Jack; Luo, Xu-Gang

    2015-12-28

    To investigate the effect of Mn on antioxidant status and expression levels of heat-shock proteins/factors in tissues of laying broiler breeders subjected to heat challenge, we used a completely randomised design (n 6) with a factorial arrangement of 2 environmental temperatures (normal, 21 (sem 1)°C and high, 32 (sem 1)°C)×3 dietary Mn treatments (an Mn-unsupplemented basal diet (CON), or a basal diet supplemented with 120 mg Mn/kg diet as inorganic Mn sulphate (iMn) or organic Mn proteinate (oMn)). There were no interactions (P>0·10) between environmental temperature and dietary Mn in all of the measured indices. High temperature decreased (P<0·003) Mn content, and also tended (P=0·07) to decrease copper zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) activity in the liver and heart. However, an increased manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity (P<0·05) and a slight increase of malondialdehyde level (P=0·06) were detected in breast muscle. Up-regulated (P<0·05) expression levels of heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1) and HSF3 mRNA and heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA and protein were found in all three tissues. Broiler breeders fed either iMn or oMn had higher tissue Mn content (P<0·0001), heart MnSOD and CuZnSOD activities (P<0·01) and breast muscle MnSOD protein levels (P<0·05), and lower (P<0·05) breast muscle HSP70 mRNA and protein levels than those fed CON. Broiler breeders fed oMn had higher (P<0·03) bone Mn content than those fed iMn. These results indicate that high temperature decreases Mn retention and increases HSP70 and HSF1, HSF3 expression levels in tissues of laying broiler breeders. Furthermore, dietary supplementation with Mn in either source may enhance heart antioxidant ability and inhibit the expression of HSP70 in breast muscle. Finally, the organic Mn appears to be more available than inorganic Mn for bone in laying broiler breeders regardless of environmental temperatures.

  8. Associations of chicken Mx1 polymorphism with antiviral responses in avian influenza virus infected embryos and broilers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Brahmakshatriya, V; Lupiani, B; Reddy, S; Okimoto, R; Li, X; Chiang, H; Zhou, H

    2012-12-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is a major respiratory disease of poultry that causes catastrophic losses to the poultry industry. The Mx protein has been shown to confer antiviral responses to influenza viruses in mice. One nonsynonymous substitution (S631N) in the chicken Mx protein is reported to be associated with resistance to AIV infection in vitro. The previous studies suggested controversy over whether this substitution in the Mx protein plays an important antiviral role in AIV infection in the chicken. It would be intriguing to investigate if the substitution is associated with resistance to AIV infection both in ovo and in vivo in chickens. In this study, the embryos and young chicks were generated from the cross of Mx1 heterozygous (S631N) parents with an expected segregating ratio of 1:2:1 in the progeny. A PCR length polymorphism was developed to genotype the Mx1 gene from 119 embryos and 48 chickens. The embryonated chicken eggs were inoculated with 10(6) 50% embryo infectious dose (EID(50)) H5N9 AIV on d 13. Hemagglutinating units in allantoic fluid were determined at 48 h postinoculation. For the in vivo study, twenty-four 1-wk-old broilers were inoculated with 10(6) EID(50) H5N3, and virus titers in lungs were evaluated at d 4 postinoculation. This is the first report revealing no significant association between Mx1 genotypes and low pathogenesis AIV infection both in ovo and in vivo in the chicken. Total RNA samples were isolated from chicken lung tissues in the in vivo study, and the Mx1 mRNA expression assay among 3 genotypes also suggested that only heterozygote birds had significantly greater expression with AIV infection than noninfected birds. A recombination breakpoint within Mx1 gene was also first identified, which has laid a solid foundation for further understanding biological function of the Mx1 gene in chickens. The current study provides valuable information on the effect of the Mx1 gene on the genetic resistance to AIV in chickens, and

  9. Comparison of cumulative drip sampling to whole carcass rinses for estimation of Campylobacter spp. and quality indicator organisms associated with processed broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The whole carcass rinse (WCR) procedure is routinely used as a sampling method for determining the presence and number of quality-indicator organisms and pathogens associated with broiler chicken carcasses in processing facilities. Collection of a cumulative drip sample by placing collection vessel...

  10. Temperature-related risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler-chicken flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, 2001-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to identify temperature-related risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler-chicken flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, with an underlying assumption that at minimum ambient temperatures, flies (Musca domestica) play a role in the epidemiology and seasonality of...

  11. Caprylic acid reduces Salmonella Enteritidis populations in various segments of digestive tract and internal organs of three- and six-week-old broiler chickens, therapeutically

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the efficacy of feed supplemented with caprylic acid, a natural, 8-carbon fatty acid for reducing Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in commercial broiler chickens. In two separate 3- and 6-wk trials, day-old straight run (N=70 per trial), chicks were assigned to 5 treatment groups ...

  12. Evaluation of changes in serum chemistry in association with feed withdrawal or high dose oral gavage with Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) induced gut leakage in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) has been shown to be effective at inducing enteric inflammation in broiler chickens, resulting in increased leakage of orally administered fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran to circulation. In a previous study, two doses of DSS (0.45g/dose) administered as oral gavage re...

  13. Clinical and morphological investigations on the incidence of forms of rickets and their association with other pathological states in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Dinev, I

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of investigations was to determine, by means of pathomorphological methods, the incidence of different rickets forms and their role for the occurrence of other illnesses in broiler chickens in Bulgaria. Clinical, blood biochemical, gross anatomy and histological investigations were carried out in broiler chickens with signs of rickets. The studies were performed in 12 broiler flocks in 4 farms located in different regions of the country. Based on macro- and microscopic lesions, alterations specific for hypocalcaemic rickets were observed in two farms, whereas signs of hypophosphataemic rickets - in the other two. The rickets diagnosis was confirmed by analysis of blood serum calcium, magnesium and inorganic phosphate concentrations. At the age of 30-35 days, various pathological states were observed in the same farms. The presented results suggested that existing problems in studied flocks were associated with an earlier occurrence of rickets.

  14. A genome-wide scan of selective sweeps in two broiler chicken lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genomic regions controlling abdominal fatness (AF) were studied in the Northeast Agricultural University broiler line divergently selected for AF. In this study, the chicken 60KSNP chip and extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) test were used to detect genome-wide signatures of AF. Results A total of 5357 and 5593 core regions were detected in the lean and fat lines, and 51 and 57 reached a significant level (P<0.01), respectively. A number of genes in the significant core regions, including RB1, BBS7, MAOA, MAOB, EHBP1, LRP2BP, LRP1B, MYO7A, MYO9A and PRPSAP1, were detected. These genes may be important for AF deposition in chickens. Conclusions We provide a genome-wide map of selection signatures in the chicken genome, and make a contribution to the better understanding the mechanisms of selection for AF content in chickens. The selection for low AF in commercial breeding using this information will accelerate the breeding progress. PMID:23241142

  15. Organic trace mineral supplementation enhances local and systemic innate immune responses and modulates oxidative stress in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Echeverry, H; Yitbarek, A; Munyaka, P; Alizadeh, M; Cleaver, A; Camelo-Jaimes, G; Wang, P; O, K; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C

    2016-03-01

    The effect of organic trace mineral supplementation on performance, intestinal morphology, immune organ weights (bursa of Fabricius and spleen), expression of innate immune response related genes, blood heterophils/lymphocytes ratio, chemical metabolic panel, natural antibodies (IgG), and oxidative stress of broiler chickens was studied. A total of 1,080 day-old male broilers were assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments, which included basal diet with Monensin (control), control diet supplemented with bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD), and BMD diet supplemented with organic trace minerals (OTM). No difference in feed conversion ratio was observed among treatments; ileum histomorphological analysis showed a lower crypt depth, higher villi height/crypt depth ratio, and lower villi width in the OTM treatment compared to control. Furthermore, OTM treatment resulted in higher uric acid and lower plasma malondehaldehyde (MDA), indicating lower oxidative stress. Gene expression analysis showed that OTM treatment resulted in up-regulations of TLR2 bin the ileum, and TLR2b, TLR4, and IL-12p35 in the bursa of Fabricius, and down-regulation of TLR2b and TLR4 in the cecal tonsils. In the spleen, OTM treatment resulted in up-regulation of IL-10. In conclusion, OTM supplementation to broiler diets may have beneficial effects on intestinal development, immune system status, and survival by improving ileum histomorphological parameters, modulation of Toll-like receptors and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and decreasing level of MDA, which in conjunction could enhance health status. PMID:26740133

  16. Dietary supplementation of a mixture of Lactobacillus strains enhances performance of broiler chickens raised under heat stress conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Wesam Altaher, Yassir; Shokryazdan, Parisa; Ebrahimi, Roohollah; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Idrus, Zulkifli; Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Liang, Juan Boo

    2016-07-01

    High ambient temperature is a major problem in commercial broiler production in the humid tropics because high producing broiler birds consume more feed, have higher metabolic activity, and thus higher body heat production. To evaluate the effects of two previously isolated potential probiotic strains ( Lactobacillus pentosus ITA23 and Lactobacillus acidophilus ITA44) on broilers growing under heat stress condition, a total of 192 chicks were randomly allocated into four treatment groups of 48 chickens each as follows: CL, birds fed with basal diet raised in 24 °C; PL, birds fed with basal diet plus 0.1 % probiotic mixture raised in 24 °C; CH, birds fed with basal diet raised in 35 °C; and PH, birds fed with basal diet plus 0.1 % probiotic mixture raised in 35 °C. The effects of probiotic mixture on the performance, expression of nutrient absorption genes of the small intestine, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and microbial population of cecal contents, antioxidant capacity of liver, and fatty acid composition of breast muscle were investigated. Results showed that probiotic positively affected the final body weight under both temperature conditions (PL and PH groups) compared to their respective control groups (CL and CH). Probiotic supplementation numerically improved the average daily gain (ADG) under lower temperature, but significantly improved ADG under the higher temperature ( P < 0.05) by sustaining high feed intake. Under the lower temperature environment, supplementation of the two Lactobacillus strains significantly increased the expression of the four sugar transporter genes tested (GLUT2, GLUT5, SGLT1, and SGLT4) indicating probiotic enhances the absorption of this nutrient. Similar but less pronounced effect was also observed under higher temperature (35 °C) condition. In addition, the probiotic mixture improved bacterial population of the cecal contents, by increasing beneficial bacteria and decreasing Escherichia coli population, which could be

  17. Dietary supplementation of a mixture of Lactobacillus strains enhances performance of broiler chickens raised under heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Wesam Altaher, Yassir; Shokryazdan, Parisa; Ebrahimi, Roohollah; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Idrus, Zulkifli; Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Liang, Juan Boo

    2016-07-01

    High ambient temperature is a major problem in commercial broiler production in the humid tropics because high producing broiler birds consume more feed, have higher metabolic activity, and thus higher body heat production. To evaluate the effects of two previously isolated potential probiotic strains (Lactobacillus pentosus ITA23 and Lactobacillus acidophilus ITA44) on broilers growing under heat stress condition, a total of 192 chicks were randomly allocated into four treatment groups of 48 chickens each as follows: CL, birds fed with basal diet raised in 24 °C; PL, birds fed with basal diet plus 0.1 % probiotic mixture raised in 24 °C; CH, birds fed with basal diet raised in 35 °C; and PH, birds fed with basal diet plus 0.1 % probiotic mixture raised in 35 °C. The effects of probiotic mixture on the performance, expression of nutrient absorption genes of the small intestine, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and microbial population of cecal contents, antioxidant capacity of liver, and fatty acid composition of breast muscle were investigated. Results showed that probiotic positively affected the final body weight under both temperature conditions (PL and PH groups) compared to their respective control groups (CL and CH). Probiotic supplementation numerically improved the average daily gain (ADG) under lower temperature, but significantly improved ADG under the higher temperature (P < 0.05) by sustaining high feed intake. Under the lower temperature environment, supplementation of the two Lactobacillus strains significantly increased the expression of the four sugar transporter genes tested (GLUT2, GLUT5, SGLT1, and SGLT4) indicating probiotic enhances the absorption of this nutrient. Similar but less pronounced effect was also observed under higher temperature (35 °C) condition. In addition, the probiotic mixture improved bacterial population of the cecal contents, by increasing beneficial bacteria and decreasing Escherichia coli population, which could

  18. Effects of nickel supply on the fattening performance and several biochemical parameters of broiler chickens and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bersényi, A; Fekete, S Gy; Szilágyi, M; Berta, Erzsébet; Zöldág, L; Glávits, R

    2004-01-01

    Broiler chicken and rabbit experiments were carried out to study the effects of nickel (Ni) supplementation on growth performance and Ni metabolism. ROSS cockerels and New Zealand White female rabbits were fed a diet containing Ni in concentrations of 0, 50 and 500 mg/kg in dry matter (DM). Dietary supplementation of 50 mg Ni/kg slightly improved the body weight gain (BWG) and had a beneficial effect on the feed conversion efficiency (FCE) in broiler chickens. However, Ni added at a level of 500 mg/kg significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the BWG by 10% and resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) worse (2.3 +/- 0.2 kg/kg) FCE. The relative weight of the liver in cockerels was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by Ni as compared to the control group (1.7 and 2.1% vs. 2.6%). The activity of AST and CHE enzymes was increased insignificantly by dietary supplementation of 500 mg Ni/kg, indicating damage of the liver parenchyma. The results of serum biochemistry were confirmed by a mild or moderate form of pathological focal fatty infiltration of the liver in broilers. Supplemental Ni of 50 mg/kg concentration resulted in non-significantly increased BWG in rabbits. Ni added to the diet at a level of 500 mg/kg reduced the digestibility of crude protein by 3-4% and that of crude fibre by 20-25% in rabbits. Approx. 98% of the ingested Ni was lost from the body via the faeces, 0.5-1.5% via the urine and approx. 1% was incorporated into the organs of rabbits. As a result of dietary supplementation of 50 and 500 mg Ni/kg, Ni accumulated in the kidneys (4.9 +/- 0.5 and 17.1 +/- 3.1 vs. 1.9 +/- 0.3 mg/kg DM), ribs (10.3 +/- 0.4 and 10.4 +/- 0.6 vs. 9.1 +/- 0.6 mg/kg DM), heart (1.4 +/- 0.2 and 2.5 +/- 0.4 vs. 1.0 +/- 0.1 mg/kg DM) and liver (1.3 +/- 0.1 and 2.2 +/- 0.2 vs. 0.9 +/- 0.05 mg/kg DM), as compared to the control animals. It can be stated that supplementation of the diet with 50 mg Ni/kg had slight but non-significant beneficial effects on the growth performance of broiler

  19. Histomorphological studies of broiler chicken fed diets supplemented with either raw or enzyme treated dandelion leaves and fenugreek seeds

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Saim; Banday, Mohammed Tufail; Shakeel, Irfan; Adil, Sheikh; Mir, Masood Saleem; Beigh, Yasir Afzal; Amin, Umar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Herbal plants and their derived products are extensively used particularly in many Asian, African, and other countries of the world as they are considered as ideal feed additives because of their non-residual effect and ability to influence the ecosystem of gastrointestinal microbiota in a positive way. Further, the enzymatic treatment of these herbs helps in their efficient utilization by the host. Dandelion leaves and fenugreek seeds have been reported to have positive effect in terms of improving the performance of broiler chicken, but not much literature is available regarding their effect on gut histomorphology; therefore, the present study was conducted to explore the effect of these herbs either alone or in combination with or without enzyme treatment on histomorphology of liver and small intestine of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: To achieve the envisaged objective, 273-day-old commercial broiler chicks were procured from a reputed source and reared together until 7 days of age. On the 7th day, the chicks were individually weighed, distributed randomly into 7 groups of 3 replicates with 13 chicks each. Birds in the control group were fed diets without additives (T1). The other six treatment groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.5% dandelion leaves (T2), 1% fenugreek seeds (T3), combination of 0.5% dandelion leaves and 1% fenugreek seeds (T4), enzyme treated dandelion leaves 0.5% (T5), enzyme treated fenugreek seeds 1% (T6), and combination of enzyme treated dandelion leaves (0.5%) and (1%) fenugreek seeds (T7). The histomorphological study of liver and small intestines was conducted among different treatment groups. Results: The results revealed the hepato-protective nature of both dandelion leaves and fenugreek seeds either alone or in combination with or without enzyme treatment when compared with the control group. Moreover, the histomorphological findings of jejunum revealed the beneficial effect of dandelion leaves, fenugreek

  20. Study of broiler chicken responses to dietary protein and lysine using neural network and response surface models.

    PubMed

    Faridi, A; Golian, A; France, J; Heravi Mousavi, A

    2013-01-01

    1. In this study, neural network (NN) and response surface (RS) models were developed to investigate the response [average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency (FE)] of young broiler chickens to dietary protein and lysine. For this purpose, data on their responses to dietary protein and lysine were extracted from the literature and separate NN and RS models were constructed. 2. Comparison between the NN and RS models revealed higher accuracy of prediction with the NN models compared to the RS models. In terms of R (2) values, the NN models developed for both ADG (R (2) = 0.923) and FE (R (2) = 0.904) were far superior to the RS models (R (2) for ADG = 0.511; R (2) for FE = 0.67). This suggests that the NN models can serve as an alternative option to conventional regression approaches including use of RS models. 3. Optimisation of the NN models developed for response to protein and lysine showed that diets containing 220.7 (g/kg of diet) protein and 12.85 (g/kg of diet) lysine maximise ADG, whereas maximum FE is achieved with diets containing 241.3 and 13.12 (g/kg) protein and lysine, respectively. Based on the optimisation results, optimal dietary protein and lysine concentrations for maximum FE in broiler chickens during the starting period are higher than for ADG.

  1. Immuno-pathological studies on broiler chicken experimentally infected with Escherichia coli and supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikash; Jakhar, K. K.; Dahiya, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of neem leaf extract (NLE) supplementation on immunological response and pathology of different lymphoid organs in experimentally Escherichia coli challenged broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: For this study, we procured 192-day-old broiler chicks from local hatchery and divided them into Groups A and Group B containing 96 birds each on the first day. Chicks of Group A were supplemented with 10% NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were not supplemented with NLE throughout the experiment. At 7th day of age, chicks of Group A were divided into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 with 54 and 42 chicks, respectively, and chicks of Groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 colony-forming units/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Six chicks from each group were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection; blood was collected and thorough post-mortem examination was conducted. Tissue pieces of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were collected in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological examination. Serum was separated for immunological studies. Result: E. coli specific antibody titer was significantly higher in Group A1 in comparison to Group B1. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response against 2,4 dinirochlorobenzene (DNCB) antigen was significantly higher in Group A1 as compared to Group B1. Pathological studies revealed that E. coli infection caused depletion of lymphocytes in bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Severity of lesions in Group A1 was significantly lower in comparison to Group B1. Conclusion: 10% NLE supplementation enhanced the humoral as well as cellular immune responses attributed to its immunomodulatory property in experimentally E. coli infected broiler chicken. PMID:27536035

  2. Effects of feeding raw or reconstituted high tannin red sorghum on nutrient utilisation and certain welfare parameters of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Elangovan, A V; Mandal, A B; Tyagi, P K; Bhanja, S K; Dash, B B

    2007-04-01

    1. A feeding trial was conducted on 360 1-d-old chicks from 0 to 6 weeks of age to assess the effect of processed high tannin red sorghum in the diet of broiler chickens on nutrient utilisation and certain welfare parameters. 2. Each of 9 dietary treatments was allotted to 4 groups (replicates) of chicks in a completely randomised design. The treatments were a maize-soy based standard broiler diet (control, RS(0)) and eight test diets formulated by incorporating either raw red sorghum (RS(25), RS(50), RS(75), RS(100)) or reconstituted red sorghum (RS(25)(R), RS(50)(R), RS(75)(R), RS(100)(R)) replacing 25, 50, 75 or 100% of maize from the control diet. 3. The tannin content was reduced from 23 to 16 g/kg in reconstituted red sorghum. 4. Utilisations of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus retention were similar in all the dietary groups. 5. The cell-mediated immune response measured as footpad index (FPI) value of birds given raw red sorghum was significantly higher than in control and reconstituted red sorghum groups. Similarly, comparatively better humoral response measured as HA titre value was observed in raw red sorghum based groups than in reconstituted ones. 6. Plasma albumin, globulin, protein, glucose, calcium, phosphorus, SGOT, SGPT and uric acid levels did not differ significantly due to dietary treatments. 7. Mild histopathological changes were observed in liver and kidney tissues of birds given raw red sorghum. 8. From the present study, it is concluded that (1) the reconstitution of high tannin red sorghum resulted in about 30% reduction in its tannin concentration; (2) the feeding of reconstituted sorghum based diets to broiler chickens did not exert any appreciable influence on nutrient utilisation, blood biochemicals and enzymes and gross pathological changes; and (3) the birds fed on raw red sorghum exhibited higher immuno-responsiveness in comparison to their reconstituted counterparts.

  3. Performance in broiler chickens supplemented with Mexican oregano oil Lippia berlandieri Schauer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the inclusion of two qualities of Mexican oregano oil (MOO) in the broiler diet on broiler weight, feed intake, feed efficiency, average daily gain, and water intake. The qualities were MOO1 (4% thymol, 60% carvacrol) and MOO2 (40% thymol, 20% carvacro...

  4. Performance, blood parameters and meat yield in broiler chickens supplemented with Mexican oregano oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the inclusion of Mexican oregano oil (MOO) Lippia berlandieri Schauer in broiler diets during grow-out on performance, blood parameters, and meat yield. One hundred and sixty-two one-day-old broilers, randomly divided into three equal groups (treatments): CON =...

  5. Effects of feeder space allocations during rearing, female strain, and feed increase rate from photostimulation to peak egg production on broiler breeder female performance.

    PubMed

    Leksrisompong, N; Romero-Sanchez, H; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Brake, J

    2014-05-01

    A study was conducted to determine if there were differences in female broiler breeder performance of 2 strains that had been subjected to 2 feeder space allocations during the growing period followed by 2 feeding to peak programs. Ross 308 and 708 pullets were reared with a single feeding program to 23 wk of age and with 2 circumferential feeder space allocations (5.3 cm/female or 7.0 cm/female) and then assigned to 2 feed increase programs (slow or fast) from photostimulation to peak egg production. The flock was moved to the laying house with 8.8 cm/female of female feeder space and photostimulated at 23 wk of age when Ross 344 males were added to create 16 pens with 60 females and 7 males each in a 2 × 2 × 2 design. The fast feed increase program significantly increased female BW at 31 wk of age, which could have contributed to an increased female mortality during the summer weather of early lay. The 708 females with 5.3 cm/female feeder space produced smaller eggs at 28 and 30 wk of age. The 708 females exhibited better fertile hatchability than 308 females due to fewer late dead embryos. There were no differences in egg production, fertility, or fertile hatchability due to the main effects of feeding to peak program or growing feeder space, but the slow feed increase from photostimulation to peak production reduced cumulative mortality.

  6. Effect of an electrostatic space charge system on airborne dust and subsequent potential transmission of microorganisms to broiler breeder pullets by airborne dust.

    PubMed

    Richardson, L J; Mitchell, B W; Wilson, J L; Hofacre, C L

    2003-01-01

    High levels of dust and microorganisms are known to be associated with animal confinement rearing facilities. Many of the microorganisms are carried by dust particles, thus providing an excellent vector for horizontal disease transmission between birds. Two environmentally controlled rooms containing female broiler breeder pullets (n = 300) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of an electrostatic space charge system (ESCS) in reducing airborne dust and gram-negative bacteria levels over an 8-wk period (starting when the birds were 10 wk old). The ESCS was used to evaluate the effectiveness of reducing airborne microorganism levels by charging airborne dust particles and causing the particles to be attracted to grounded surfaces (i.e., walls, floor, equipment). The use of the ESCS resulted in a 64% mean reduction in gram-negative bacteria. Airborne dust levels were reduced an average of 37% over a 1-wk period in the experimental room compared with the control room on the basis of samples taken every 10 min. The reductions of airborne dust and bacteria in this study are comparable with earlier results obtained with the ESCS in commercial hatching cabinets and experimental caged layer rooms, suggesting the system could also be applied to other types of enclosed animal housing. PMID:12713167

  7. Illuminance and UV-A exposure during rearing affects egg production in broiler breeders transferred to open-sided adult housing.

    PubMed

    Lewis, P D; Ghebremariam, W; Gous, R M

    2007-08-01

    1. Broiler breeders were reared in light-proof accommodation on 8-h photoperiods at an illuminance of 10 (W10), 40 (W40) or 100 lux (W100) from warm-white fluorescent lamps, or 10 lux (UV10) from Arcadia bird lamps (white light plus UV-A emission). At 20 weeks, 200 birds from each group were transferred to open-sided housing and a 16-h mixture of natural and warm-white fluorescent light. 2. Mortality during rearing and body weight at 20 weeks were similar for all groups. 3. The W10 birds matured 2 d later, had inferior rates of lay over peak production and laid 9 fewer eggs to 60 weeks than the other groups. Mean egg weight, extra large egg production and mortality between 20 and 60 weeks were unaffected by lighting during the rearing period. The UV10 birds had a significantly better rate of lay between 52 and 60 weeks than any of the groups reared on white light. 4. The findings suggest that ultraviolet radiation does not directly affect hypothalamic activity, but that retinally received UV during the rearing period prolongs the laying cycle through a modification of the hormonal control of photorefractoriness.

  8. Effect of dietary supplementation of organic chromium on performance, carcass traits, oxidative parameters, and immune responses in commercial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Rao, S V Rama; Raju, M V L N; Panda, A K; Poonam, N S; Murthy, O Krishna; Sunder, G Shyam

    2012-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to study effect of supplementing graded concentrations (0, 100, 200, 300, or 400 μg/kg diet) of organic chromium (Cr) on performance, carcass traits, oxidative stress, and immune responses in commercial broiler chickens reared in open-sided poultry house under tropical climatic conditions. Each diet was fed ad libitum to eight replicates consisting of six birds in each pen from 1 to 42 days of age. Body mass gain and feed efficiency at 21 and 42 days of age and relative mass of liver, abdominal fat, and ready to cook yields at 42 days of age were not affected (P > 0.05) by supplementing organic Cr in broiler diet. Body mass loss during pre-slaughter holding period (12 h) reduced and relative breast mass increased nonlinearly (P < 0.01) with concentration of Cr in diet. Lipid peroxidation decreased, while activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma increased nonlinearly with Cr supplementation. The ratio between heterophyl and lymphocyte was not affected (P > 0.05) with Cr supplementation in broiler diet. Relative mass of lymphoid organs (bursa, spleen, and thymus) and antibody production to Newcastle disease vaccination were not affected (P > 0.05) by the treatments employed. The cell-mediated immunity (lymphocyte proliferation ratio) increased nonlinearly with dietary Cr concentration. The results of the present study indicated that supplementation of organic Cr did not influence body mass and feed efficiency. However, supplementation of the Cr reduced pre-slaughter holding losses, increased the relative mass of breast, and increased antioxidant status and lymphocyte proliferation in broilers reared in tropics.

  9. Identification of differentially expressed genes in the growth plate of broiler chickens with thiram-induced tibial dyschondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Tian, W X; Zhang, W P; Li, J K; Bi, D R; Guo, D Z; Pan, S Y; Zhang, Y H; Qin, P

    2009-04-01

    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is characterized by expansion of the proximal growth plates of the tibiotarsus that fail to form bone, lack blood vessels, and contain non-viable cells. Thiram (a carbamate pesticide), when fed to young broiler chicks, induces TD with high regularity and precision. We used this experimental model to understand the cause of the defects associated with TD by selecting and identifying the genes differentially expressed in the TD growth plate of broiler chickens. Broiler chicks at 7 days of age were randomly divided into two groups. After fasting overnight, they were fed with regular diet (control) or the same diet containing 100 mg/kg thiram for 96 h to induce TD (thiram-fed). mRNA was purified from the growth plates of control and thiram-fed broilers. Forward and reverse-subtracted cDNA libraries were generated by suppression subtractive hybridization technology. Ten selected genes from cDNA libraries were identified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. All were differentially expressed in TD growth plates (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The levels of collagen type X (Col X), pro-alpha-1 collagen type I (Col I alpha1), collagen type IX (Col IX), NADH dehydrogenase (NADH DH), cytochrome C oxidase subunit III (COX III), enolase 1, alpha (ENO1), carbonic anhydrase II (CA2) and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) mRNA transcripts were up-regulated, while the expression levels of Matrilin 3 (MATN3) and chondromodulin-I (ChM-I) were down-regulated. Col I and Hsp90 were detected by immunohistochemistry at different stages. Given that these genes are involved in matrix formation, endochondral ossification, developmental regulation, electron transport in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and vascularization, our findings may provide new insights into understanding the pathogenesis of TD.

  10. Effect of dietary supplementation of organic chromium on performance, carcass traits, oxidative parameters, and immune responses in commercial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Rao, S V Rama; Raju, M V L N; Panda, A K; Poonam, N S; Murthy, O Krishna; Sunder, G Shyam

    2012-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to study effect of supplementing graded concentrations (0, 100, 200, 300, or 400 μg/kg diet) of organic chromium (Cr) on performance, carcass traits, oxidative stress, and immune responses in commercial broiler chickens reared in open-sided poultry house under tropical climatic conditions. Each diet was fed ad libitum to eight replicates consisting of six birds in each pen from 1 to 42 days of age. Body mass gain and feed efficiency at 21 and 42 days of age and relative mass of liver, abdominal fat, and ready to cook yields at 42 days of age were not affected (P > 0.05) by supplementing organic Cr in broiler diet. Body mass loss during pre-slaughter holding period (12 h) reduced and relative breast mass increased nonlinearly (P < 0.01) with concentration of Cr in diet. Lipid peroxidation decreased, while activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma increased nonlinearly with Cr supplementation. The ratio between heterophyl and lymphocyte was not affected (P > 0.05) with Cr supplementation in broiler diet. Relative mass of lymphoid organs (bursa, spleen, and thymus) and antibody production to Newcastle disease vaccination were not affected (P > 0.05) by the treatments employed. The cell-mediated immunity (lymphocyte proliferation ratio) increased nonlinearly with dietary Cr concentration. The results of the present study indicated that supplementation of organic Cr did not influence body mass and feed efficiency. However, supplementation of the Cr reduced pre-slaughter holding losses, increased the relative mass of breast, and increased antioxidant status and lymphocyte proliferation in broilers reared in tropics. PMID:22237421

  11. Comparison of mucosal competitive exclusion and competitive exclusion treatment to reduce Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. colonization in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Stern, N J; Cox, N A; Bailey, J S; Berrang, M E; Musgrove, M T

    2001-02-01

    Control of Salmonella spp. during the earliest phases of broiler production may provide the best opportunity to reduce human pathogens on processed broiler carcasses. Application of the "Nurmi concept" has been demonstrated to be an effective means in reducing Salmonella colonization among broiler chicks. In 1989, Aho et al. developed a competitive exclusion (CE) culture for control of Salmonella spp., whereas a mucosal competitive exclusion culture (MCE) developed in the United States was originally created to control Campylobacter colonization (Stern et al., 1995). The major differences in the two patents were the higher level of anaerobic culture required, the degree of epithelial scraping and washing of the ceca, media used for subculturing, and the culture incubation temperatures (35 C vs. 42 C). The CE and MCE were compared for efficacy in reducing Salmonella and Campylobacter colonization in broiler chicks. Nine adult birds (three for each of three replicates) were slaughtered, and each of a bird's paired ceca were used to produce corresponding antagonistic microflora, which were administered to day-of-hatch chicks. The chicks (a total of 210) were challenged 24 h later with Salmonella and Campylobacter and were killed 1 wk later, and levels of the pathogens were determined. Ninety CE-treated birds were significantly more colonized by Salmonella typhimurium than those 90 chicks treated with the MCE microflora (3.97 log 10 cfu/g cecal contents vs. 1.25 log 10 cfu/g cecal contents). Also, Campylobacter spp. colonization of these birds was significantly higher for CE-treated birds when compared with MCE-treated birds (6.96 log 10 cfu/g cecal contents vs. 5.03 log 10 cfu/g cecal contents). These results can be useful in developing intervention strategies to reduce chicken colonization by Salmonella and Campylobacter.

  12. Evaluation of a pneumatically operated captive bolt for stunning/killing broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Raj, A B; O'Callaghan, M

    2001-07-01

    1. Two separate experiments were carried out in this study. In experiment 1, the effectiveness of stunning broilers, as determined from physical responses, with a 6 mm diameter bolt and an air line pressure of 827 kPa, when fired at 90 degrees (perpendicular to the skull) 110 degrees, 120 degrees and 130 degrees (leaning towards beak) was evaluated. 2. In experiment 2, the effects of perpendicular shooting with two bolt diameters (3 and 6 mm) and two air line pressures (620 and 827 kPa) on spontaneous behaviour, electroencephalogram (EEG) and visually evoked potentials (VEPs) were evaluated in broilers. 3. Only the perpendicular shooting was effective in stunning/killing broilers (n= 10) as indicated by the immediate cessation of breathing and loss of neck muscle tension and eye reflexes. Deviations from the perpendicular shooting failed to stun 5 out of 9 broilers. The perpendicular vs non-perpendicular effect was significant. 4. Shooting broilers with a 3 mm bolt at air line pressures of 620 kPa (n=2) or 827 kPa (n=2) failed stun as indicated by the unaltered physical reflexes, EEG and VEPs. Shooting of two broilers with a 6 mm bolt at 620 kPa resulted in effective stunning and a very rapid recovery of consciousness in one bird and death in the other. 5. Captive bolt stunning of broilers with a 6 mm bolt and air line pressure of 827 kPa resulted in an immediate stun leading to death in all 6 broilers tested. In these broilers, a profound EEG suppression and abolition of VEPs occurred immediately after shooting. 6. It is suggested that the appropriate variables for captive bolt stunning of broilers are a minimum of 6 mm bolt diameter driven at an air line pressure of 827 kPa and a penetration depth of 10 mm. PMID:11469546

  13. Screening of differentially expressed genes in the growth plate of broiler chickens with Tibial Dyschondroplasia by microarray analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a common skeletal disorder in broiler chickens. It is characterized by the presence of a non-vascularized and unmineralized cartilage in the growth plate. Previous studies have investigated differential expression of genes related to cartilage development during latter stages of TD. The aim of our study was to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the growth plate of broiler chickens, which were associated with early stage TD. We induced TD using tetramethylthiuram disulfide (thiram) for 1, 2, and 6 days and determined DEGs with chicken Affymetrix GeneChip assays. The identified DEGs were verified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays. Results We identified 1630 DEGs, with 82, 1385, and 429 exhibiting at least 2.0-fold changes (P < 0.05) at days 1, 2, and 6, respectively. These DEGs participate in a variety of biological processes, including cytokine production, oxidation reduction, and cell surface receptor linked signal transduction on day 1; lipid biosynthesis, regulation of growth, cell cycle, positive and negative gene regulation, transcription and transcription regulation, and anti-apoptosis on day 2; and regulation of cell proliferation, transcription, dephosphorylation, catabolism, proteolysis, and immune responses on day 6. The identified DEGs were associated with the following pathways: neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction on day 1; synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, terpenoid backbone biosynthesis, ether lipid metabolism, JAK-STAT, GnRH signaling pathway, ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, TGF-β signaling, focal adhesion, and Wnt signaling on day 2; and arachidonic acid metabolism, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, JAK-STAT, insulin signaling, and glycolysis on day 6. We validated seven DEGs by qPCR. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate previously unrecognized changes in gene transcription associated with early stage TD. The DEGs we identified by

  14. Effects of saturated and unsaturated fats with vitamin E supplementation on the antioxidant status of broiler chicken tissues.

    PubMed

    Husvéth, F; Manilla, H A; Gaál, T; Vajdovich, P; Balogh, N; Wágner, L; Lóth, I; Németh, K

    2000-01-01

    The influence of fish oil (highly unsaturated) and beef tallow (highly saturated) with vitamin E (100 IU/kg) supplementation on the antioxidant status of broiler chicken cockerels was investigated. Chicks were fed a control diet with no added fat, 40 g/kg each of fish oil and beef tallow diets, respectively, from 11 to 42 days of age. Tocopherol concentration and the rate of lipid peroxidation, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in liver, fatty acid composition of the liver lipids, blood serum total antioxidant status (TAS), and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were determined. Vitamin E supplementation of the diet increased liver alpha-tocopherol content in chicks regardless of the type of dietary fat. Fish oil diet resulted in higher liver TBARS value while beef tallow diet showed lower values compared to the control diet. Vitamin E supplementation reduced liver TBARS as well as serum GSH, and raised serum TAS for all diets. Serum GSH was the same for vitamin E supplemented diets regardless of the fat supplement. Fish oil diets resulted in a significant increase in hepatic lipid n-3 PUFA content. A significant positive correlation was found between liver TBARS and n-3 PUFA content. No relationships were established, however, between liver TBARS and n-6 PUFA or saturated fatty acids. The results suggest that feeding oils rich in n-3 PUFA increases tissue concentration of these fatty acids, consequently increasing tissue lipid peroxidation and reducing the antioxidative status of broiler chickens. Supplementing high levels of vitamin E with such oils may increase tissue oxidative stability. Serum TAS or GSH may be used as a measure of antioxidative status in chickens.

  15. Predicting body and carcass characteristics of 2 broiler chicken strains using support vector regression and neural network models.

    PubMed

    Faridi, A; Sakomura, N K; Golian, A; Marcato, S M

    2012-12-01

    As a new modeling method, support vector regression (SVR) has been regarded as the state-of-the-art technique for regression and approximation. In this study, the SVR models had been introduced and developed to predict body and carcass-related characteristics of 2 strains of broiler chicken. To evaluate the prediction ability of SVR models, we compared their performance with that of neural network (NN) models. Evaluation of the prediction accuracy of models was based on the R(2), MS error, and bias. The variables of interest as model output were BW, empty BW, carcass, breast, drumstick, thigh, and wing weight in 2 strains of Ross and Cobb chickens based on intake dietary nutrients, including ME (kcal/bird per week), CP, TSAA, and Lys, all as grams per bird per week. A data set composed of 64 measurements taken from each strain were used for this analysis, where 44 data lines were used for model training, whereas the remaining 20 lines were used to test the created models. The results of this study revealed that it is possible to satisfactorily estimate the BW and carcass parts of the broiler chickens via their dietary nutrient intake. Through statistical criteria used to evaluate the performance of the SVR and NN models, the overall results demonstrate that the discussed models can be effective for accurate prediction of the body and carcass-related characteristics investigated here. However, the SVR method achieved better accuracy and generalization than the NN method. This indicates that the new data mining technique (SVR model) can be used as an alternative modeling tool for NN models. However, further reevaluation of this algorithm in the future is suggested.

  16. Can Bacteriotherapy Using Commercially Available Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Organic Acids Ameliorate the Symptoms Associated With Runting-Stunting Syndrome in Broiler Chickens?

    PubMed

    Mundt, E; Collett, S R; Berghaus, R; Pedroso, A A; Lee, M D; Maurer, J J

    2015-06-01

    Runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) in poultry has been known for more than 40 years, but the precise etiology remains unknown and a licensed vaccine is consequently not currently available. In order to mitigate the symptoms associated with RSS, a series of experiments was performed to investigate whether a combined bacteriotherapeutic treatment consisting of probiotics, prebiotics, and organic acids could influence the outcome of this disease. Initially two groups of commercial broiler chickens were either left uninoculated or inoculated with filtrate from homogenized intestines of RSS-affected broiler chickens. One group from each of these two challenge groups was treated, with a bacteriotherapeutic regimen. After 12 days chickens were euthanatized, the body weight was measured, and duodenal lesions were enumerated. Five consecutive broiler chicken flocks were then raised either on litter from RSS-affected birds or on fresh wood shavings. Treatment had no beneficial effect on the number and severity of intestinal lesions. There appeared to be a significant build-up of RSS agent(s) in poultry litter, with each consecutive flock placement, independent of bacteriotherapeutic treatment, as more individuals exhibited intestinal lesions on built-up litter in RSS-affected houses (28.9% vs. 44%). While treatment did not appear to consistently reduce intestinal lesions, it did significantly improve the mean body weights (P<0.05) and uniformity of 12-day-old chickens placed on reused litter in houses in which RSS-infected birds were previously raised. A combination of litter management and bacteriotherapy may be needed to ameliorate the adverse effects of RSS on intestinal health and body weight in broiler chickens. PMID:26473669

  17. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Klebsiella species isolated from chicken broilers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Wang, Mingyu; Liu, Yuqing; Wang, Xinhua; Wang, Yunkun; Lu, Jinxing; Xu, Hai

    2016-09-01

    class 1 integrons (p<0.01). Additional conjugation experiments confirmed this relationship (p<0.01) in transconjugants by finding that a high percentage of PMQR genes (74.0%) and class 1 integrons (73.7%) were co-transferred with ESBL genes. Finally, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed, and it revealed that the isolates from chickens are widely distributed in humans, and that antimicrobial resistance is not only disseminated by clonal spreading, but largely by horizontal gene transfer. These results suggest that horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes by mobile genetic elements, such as integrons, plays a major role in the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, elucidating the structures of drug resistance integrons is of great importance to the commercial broiler slaughter plant in Shandong, China. PMID:27289192

  18. Effects of dietary combination of n-3 and n-9 fatty acids on the deposition of linoleic and arachidonic acid in broiler chicken meats.

    PubMed

    Shin, D; Choi, S H; Go, G; Park, J H; Narciso-Gaytán, C; Morgan, C A; Smith, S B; Sánchez-Plata, M X; Ruiz-Feria, C A

    2012-04-01

    To minimize the amount of n-6 fatty acids in broiler chicken meat, 120 Cobb × Ross male broilers were divided into 6 different groups and fed a basal corn-soybean meal diet containing 5% fat from 5 different lipid sources: 1) a commercial mix of animal and vegetable oil, 2) soybean oil and olive oil (2.5% each), 3) flaxseed oil and olive oil (2.5% each), 4) flaxseed oil, eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5; EPA; n-3), and olive oil (2.45, 0.05, and 2.5% respectively; FEO), 5) flaxseed oil, docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6; DHA; n-3), and olive oil (2.45, 0.05, and 2.5% respectively; FDO), and 6) fish oil and olive oil (2.5% each; FHO). At 6 and 9 wk, one bird per pen (4 pens per treatment) was processed, and liver, breast, and thigh samples were collected and used for fatty acid profiles or Δ6- and Δ9-desaturase mRNA gene expression levels. The deposition of linoleic acid (C18:2; n-6) or arachidonic acid (C20:4; n-6) was decreased in breast and thigh muscles of chickens fed n-3 fatty acids for 9 wk compared with chickens fed animal and vegetable oil and soybean oil and olive oil diets (P < 0.05). The addition of EPA to the diet (FEO; P > 0.05) did not reduce the deposition of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid as much as DHA (FDO; P < 0.05), and it suppressed the expression of Δ6- and Δ9-desaturase. When EPA and DHA were blended (FHO) and supplied to broiler chickens for 9 wk, EPA and DHA combination effects were observed on the deposition of LA and arachidonic acid in breast and thigh muscles. Thereby, the addition of a mixed EPA and DHA to a broiler chicken diet may be recommendable to reduce arachidonic acid accumulation in both broiler chicken breast and thigh meats, providing a functional broiler chicken meat to consumers.

  19. Effects of in ovo injection with selenium on immune and antioxidant responses during experimental necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Lillehoj, H S; Jang, S I; Jeong, M S; Xu, S Z; Kim, J B; Park, H J; Kim, H R; Lillehoj, E P; Bravo, D M

    2014-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of in ovo injection of Se on modulating the immune system and antioxidant responses in broiler chickens with experimental necrotic enteritis. Broiler eggs were injected at 18 d of embryo age with either 100 μL of PBS alone or sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) in PBS, providing 0 (SS0), 10 (SS10), or 20 (SS20) μg of Se/egg. At 14 d posthatch, PBS-treated and uninfected chickens were kept as the control group, whereas the remaining chickens were orally infected with 1.0 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima (SS0, SS10, SS20). At 18 d posthatch, E. maxima-infected chickens were orally infected with 1.0 × 10(9) cfu of Clostridium perfringens. Infected control SS0 group showed significantly decreased BW compared with the uninfected control. However, SS20 group showed significantly increased BW compared with the infected control SS0 group, whereas the BW were similar among uninfected control and infected SS10 and SS20 groups. The SS10 group showed significantly lower intestinal lesions compared with the SS0 group, and oocyst production was decreased in both SS10 and SS20 groups. Serum malondialdehyde level and catalase activity were also decreased in both SS10 and SS20 groups, whereas the superoxide dismutase level was significantly lower in the SS10 group compared with the SS0 group. The SS20 group showed significantly higher levels of transcripts for IL-1β and IL-6 in intestine, and SS10 and SS20 groups had higher levels of transcripts for IL-8 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and decreased glutathione peroxidase 7 mRNA levels compared with the SS0 group. The SS10 and SS20 groups also showed increased serum antibody levels to C. perfringens α-toxin and NetB toxin compared with the SS0 group. These collective results suggest that the injection of Se into the amniotic cavity of developing eggs may be beneficial for enhancing immune and antioxidant responses in the hatched chickens exposed to the

  20. The effect of wheat prebiotics on the gut bacterial population and iron status of iron deficient broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently, there is a lot of interest in improving gut health, and consequently increasing Fe absorption, by managing the colonic microbial population. This is traditionally done by the consumption of probiotics, live microbial food supplements. However, an alternative, and often very effective approach, is the consumption of food ingredients known as prebiotics. Fructans and arabinoxylans are naturally occurring non-digestible oligosaccharides in wheat that exhibit prebiotic properties and may enhance intestinal iron (Fe) absorption. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of prebiotics from wheat on Fe bioavailability in vitro (Caco-2 cells) and in vivo (broiler chickens, Gallus gallus). Methods In the current study, the effect of intra-amniotic administration of wheat samples extracts at 17 d of embryonic incubation on the Fe status and possible changes in the bacterial population in intestinal content of broiler hatchlings were investigated. A group of 144 eggs were injected with the specified solution (1 ml per egg) into the amniotic fluid. Immediately after hatch (21 d) and from each treatment group, 10 chicks were euthanized and their small intestine, liver and cecum were removed for relative mRNA abundance of intestinal Fe related transporters, relative liver ferritin amounts and bacterial analysis of cecal content, respectively. Results The in vivo results are in agreement with the in vitro observations, showing no differences in the hatchling Fe status between the treatment groups, as Fe bioavailability was not increased in vitro and no significant differences were measured in the intestinal expression of DMT1, Ferroportin and DcytB in vivo. However, there was significant variation in relative amounts of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the intestinal content between the treatments groups, with generally more bifidobacteria being produced with increased prebiotic content. Conclusions In this study we showed that prebiotics naturally