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Sample records for broiler breeder chickens

  1. Effect of vaccinating breeder chickens with a killed Salmonella vaccine on Salmonella prevalences and loads in breeder and broiler chicken flocks.

    PubMed

    Berghaus, R D; Thayer, S G; Maurer, J J; Hofacre, C L

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vaccination of breeder chickens on Salmonella prevalences and loads in breeder and broiler chicken flocks. Chickens housed on six commercial breeder farms were vaccinated with a killed Salmonella vaccine containing Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Kentucky. Unvaccinated breeders placed on six additional farms served as controls. Eggs from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks were kept separately in the hatchery, and the resulting chicks were used to populate 58 commercial broiler flock houses by using a pair-matched design. Vaccinated breeder flocks had significantly higher Salmonella-specific antibody titers than did the unvaccinated breeder flocks, although they did not differ significantly with respect to environmental Salmonella prevalences or loads. Broiler flocks that were the progeny of vaccinated breeders had significantly lower Salmonella prevalences and loads than broiler flocks that were the progeny of unvaccinated breeders. After adjusting for sample type and clustering at the farm level, the odds of detecting Salmonella in samples collected from broiler flocks originating from vaccinated breeders were 62% lower (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.38 [0.21, 0.68]) than in flocks from unvaccinated breeders. In addition, the mean load of culture-positive samples was lower in broilers from vaccinated breeders by 0.30 log most probable number per sample (95% confidence interval of -0.51, -0.09; P = 0.004), corresponding to a 50% decrease in Salmonella loads. In summary, vaccination of broiler breeder pullets increased humoral immunity in the breeders and reduced Salmonella prevalences and loads in their broiler progeny, but did not significantly decrease Salmonella in the breeder farm environment.

  2. Experimental reproduction of enterococcal spondylitis in male broiler breeder chickens.

    PubMed

    Martin, Leslie T; Martin, Michael P; Barnes, H John

    2011-06-01

    There has been a recent emergence of epidemic spinal infections with necrosis causing lameness and mortality in male broilers and broiler breeders. Mortality in affected flocks may be as high as 15%. The disease has been called enterococcal spondylitis (ES), based on the frequent isolation of Enterococcus cecorum from the lesions and necrosis and inflammation observed in the free thoracic vertebrae (FTV) of affected birds. Male broiler breeders in an experimental setting were challenged with pure E. cecorum isolates obtained from ES-affected commercial flocks. Challenge routes included oral gavage (10(8)), intravenous (i.v.; 10(3)), and air sac (AS; 10(3)). Half the study birds in each group were chemically immunosuppressed with dexamethasone. Spinal lesions were observed grossly in birds challenged intravenously (2.9%) and birds challenged orally (6.1%). Microscopic spinal lesions consistent with ES were more frequently identified compared with gross lesions in the orally challenged group (30.3%). Chemical immunosuppression with dexamethasone was not associated with a greater incidence of ES in this study. By recreating the disease experimentally, the study design reported here may help in the further development of an experimental challenge model for future studies on risk factors, prevention, and therapeutic intervention of ES.

  3. Detection and characterization of chicken anemia virus from commercial broiler breeder chickens

    PubMed Central

    Hailemariam, Zerihun; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Hair-Bejo, Mohd; Giap, Tan Ching

    2008-01-01

    Background Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is the causative agent of chicken infectious anemia (CIA). Study on the type of CAV isolates present and their genetic diversity, transmission to their progeny and level of protection afforded in the breeder farms is lacking in Malaysia. Hence, the present study was aimed to detect CAV from commercial broiler breeder farms and characterize CAV positive samples based on sequence and phylogenetic analysis of partial VP1 gene. Results A total of 12 CAV isolates from different commercial broiler breeder farms were isolated and characterized. Detection of CAV positive embryos by the PCR assay in the range of 40 to 100% for different farms indicated high level of occurrence of vertical transmission of viral DNA to the progeny. CAV antigen was detected in the thymus and in the bone marrow but not in spleen, liver, duodenum, ovary and oviduct by indirect immunoperoxidase staining. The 12 CAV isolates were characterized based on partial sequences of VP1 gene. Six isolates (MF1A, MF3C, M3B5, NF4A, P12B and P24A) were found to have maximum homology with previously characterized Malaysian isolate SMSC-1, four isolates (M1B1, NF3A, PYT4 and PPW4) with isolate BL-5 and the remaining two (NF1D and NF2C) have maximum homology both with isolates 3-1 and BL-5. Meanwhile, seven of the isolates with amino acid profile of 75-I, 97-L, 139-Q and 144-Q were clustered together in cluster I together with other isolates from different geographical places. The remaining five isolates with amino acid profile of 75-V, 97-M, 139-K and 144-E were grouped under cluster II. All the CAV isolates demonstrated omega values (Ka/Ks) of less than one (the values ranging from 0.07 to 0.5) suggesting the occurrence of purifying (negative) selection in all the studied isolates. Conclusion The present study showed that CAV is widespread in the studied commercial broiler breeder farms. The result also indicated the occurrence of genetic variability in local CAV isolates

  4. Effect of Salmonella vaccination of breeder chickens on contamination of broiler chicken carcasses in integrated poultry operations.

    PubMed

    Dórea, Fernanda C; Cole, Dana J; Hofacre, Charles; Zamperini, Katherine; Mathis, Demetrius; Doyle, Michael P; Lee, Margie D; Maurer, John J

    2010-12-01

    While measures to control carcass contamination with Salmonella at the processing plant have been implemented with some success, on-farm interventions that reduce Salmonella prevalence in meat birds entering the processing plant have not translated well on a commercial scale. We determined the impact of Salmonella vaccination on commercial poultry operations by monitoring four vaccinated and four nonvaccinated breeder (parental) chicken flocks and comparing Salmonella prevalences in these flocks and their broiler, meat bird progeny. For one poultry company, their young breeders were vaccinated by using a live-attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine (Megan VAC-1) followed by a killed Salmonella bacterin consisting of S. enterica serovar Berta and S. enterica serovar Kentucky. The other participating poultry company did not vaccinate their breeders or broilers. The analysis revealed that vaccinated hens had a lower prevalence of Salmonella in the ceca (38.3% versus 64.2%; P < 0.001) and the reproductive tracts (14.22% versus 51.7%; P < 0.001). We also observed a lower Salmonella prevalence in broiler chicks (18.1% versus 33.5%; P < 0.001), acquired from vaccinated breeders, when placed at the broiler farms contracted with the poultry company. Broiler chicken farms populated with chicks from vaccinated breeders also tended to have fewer environmental samples containing Salmonella (14.4% versus 30.1%; P < 0.001). There was a lower Salmonella prevalence in broilers entering the processing plants (23.4% versus 33.5%; P < 0.001) for the poultry company that utilized this Salmonella vaccination program for its breeders. Investigation of other company-associated factors did not indicate that the difference between companies could be attributed to measures other than the vaccination program.

  5. Effect of Salmonella Vaccination of Breeder Chickens on Contamination of Broiler Chicken Carcasses in Integrated Poultry Operations ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Dórea, Fernanda C.; Cole, Dana J.; Hofacre, Charles; Zamperini, Katherine; Mathis, Demetrius; Doyle, Michael P.; Lee, Margie D.; Maurer, John J.

    2010-01-01

    While measures to control carcass contamination with Salmonella at the processing plant have been implemented with some success, on-farm interventions that reduce Salmonella prevalence in meat birds entering the processing plant have not translated well on a commercial scale. We determined the impact of Salmonella vaccination on commercial poultry operations by monitoring four vaccinated and four nonvaccinated breeder (parental) chicken flocks and comparing Salmonella prevalences in these flocks and their broiler, meat bird progeny. For one poultry company, their young breeders were vaccinated by using a live-attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine (Megan VAC-1) followed by a killed Salmonella bacterin consisting of S. enterica serovar Berta and S. enterica serovar Kentucky. The other participating poultry company did not vaccinate their breeders or broilers. The analysis revealed that vaccinated hens had a lower prevalence of Salmonella in the ceca (38.3% versus 64.2%; P < 0.001) and the reproductive tracts (14.22% versus 51.7%; P < 0.001). We also observed a lower Salmonella prevalence in broiler chicks (18.1% versus 33.5%; P < 0.001), acquired from vaccinated breeders, when placed at the broiler farms contracted with the poultry company. Broiler chicken farms populated with chicks from vaccinated breeders also tended to have fewer environmental samples containing Salmonella (14.4% versus 30.1%; P < 0.001). There was a lower Salmonella prevalence in broilers entering the processing plants (23.4% versus 33.5%; P < 0.001) for the poultry company that utilized this Salmonella vaccination program for its breeders. Investigation of other company-associated factors did not indicate that the difference between companies could be attributed to measures other than the vaccination program. PMID:20889797

  6. Molecular characterization of chicken infectious anemia viruses detected from breeder and broiler chickens in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, H-R; Kwon, Y-K; Bae, Y-C; Oem, J-K; Lee, O-S

    2010-11-01

    In South Korea, 32 sequences of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) from various flocks of breeder and commercial chickens were genetically characterized for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral protein 1 gene, including a hypervariable region of the CIAV genome, indicated that Korean CIAV strains were separated into groups II, IIIa, and IIIb. Strains were commonly identified in great-grandparent and grandparent breeder farms as well as commercial chicken farms. In the field, CIAV strains from breeder farms had no clinical effects, but commercial farm strains were associated with depression, growth retardation, and anemia regardless of the group from which the strain originated. In addition, we identified 7 CIAV genomes that were similar to vaccine strains from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks. These data suggest that further studies on pathogenicity and vaccine efficacy against the different CIAV group are needed, along with continuous CIAV surveillance and genetic analysis at breeder farms.

  7. Characterization of reticuloendotheliosis virus isolates obtained from broiler breeders, turkeys, and prairie chickens located in various geographical regions in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mays, Jody K; Silva, Robert F; Lee, Lucy F; Fadly, Aly M

    2010-10-01

    Nine reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) isolates obtained from broiler breeders, turkeys, and prairie chickens located in three different geographical regions in the USA, and three isolates obtained from known contaminated live-virus vaccines were characterized using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) assays. All isolates were propagated in chicken embryo fibroblasts obtained from a specific pathogen free breeder flock. PCR analysis of all 12 isolates resulted in the amplification of the 291-bp REV long-terminal repeat region (LTR); none of the isolates exhibited a different pattern or shift from the expected PCR product of REV LTR. The subtype of the REV isolates was determined by IFA using REV-specific monoclonal antibodies, 11B118.22, 11C237.8, and 11D182. Results from sub-typing indicated that all nine isolates from broiler breeders, turkeys, and prairie chickens belonged to subtype 3, and are antigenically related to the chick syncytial virus (CSV) strain of REV, the prototype of subtype 3 REV. In contrast, the three isolates from contaminated vaccines were classified as subtype 2, and were antigenically related to spleen necrosis virus (SNV) strain of REV, the prototype of subtype 2 REV. Three isolates representing REV isolated from broiler breeders, turkeys, and prairie chickens were cloned and further evaluated by DNA sequence analysis of the envelope gene. Results from DNA sequence analysis confirmed those from sub-typing and indicated that the three REV isolates representing those from broiler breeders, turkeys, and prairie chickens are closely related to CSV of REV, with an amino acid homology of 98% or greater as compared with SNV with an amino acid homology of 95% or less. Data from this study clearly indicate that subtype 3 is the most common subtype of REV circulating in three different avian species, namely broiler breeders, turkeys and prairie chickens, located in three different geographical regions in the United

  8. Active immunization of broiler breeder cockerels against chicken inhibin accelerates puberty and prevents age-induced testicular involution.

    PubMed

    Satterlee, D G; Castille, S A; Fioretti, W C

    2006-06-01

    Injection of quail and breeder hens with a recombinant protein antigen (MBP-cINA521)--a fusion of the bacterical maltose-binding protein (MBP) and a fragment of the alpha-subunit of chicken inhibin (cINA521)--accelerates puberty and enhances lay. Herein, the effects of this immunogen on reproductive responses in broiler breeder males were assessed. Cockerels were subcutaneously injected with 0 (vehicular controls), 1, 3, or 5 mg of MBP-cINA521 at 13 wk of age and with one-half of these dosages (boosters) at 18 wk. Bird subsamples were weighed, blood sampled, and killed at 24, 28, and 39 wk of age to assess age and vaccination effects on BW, testes weight (TWT), TWT relative to BW (RTWT), TWT > or = 20 g (TWT20; theoretical threshold TWT for maximum fertility), and plasma testosterone. Breeder males are sexually developing, reach peak sexual activity, and show age-related reproductive decline at these ages. Because vaccine gonadal effects at 24 wk appeared to be dramatic, the size of the left testis was also scored to see if size differences could be detected by mere visual inspection. Male fighting increasingly reduced sample sizes beyond 24 wk. Because mortality was unrelated to the treatments and to insure meaningful statistical comparisons, MBP-cINA521 data were pooled. Body weight (P < 0.04), testis score (P < 0.02), TWT (P < 0.03), RTWT (P = 0.06), and plasma testosterone (P = 0.08) were elevated in immunogen-treated males at 24 wk of age, and more (P < 0.05) MBP-cINA521-treated birds than controls achieved a TWT20 at this time. These variables did not differ by treatment at 28 wk. However, by 39 wk, treatment effects reemerged as follows: TWT (P < 0.04), RTWT (P = 0.06), and TWT20 (P < 0.01) were increased in vaccinated males who also showed nearly 3-fold higher levels of plasma testosterone. We conclude that immunoneutralization of inhibin accelerates puberty and retards age-related sexual senescence that typically occurs in broiler breeder males.

  9. Estimation of the prevalence of Salmonella species on the slatted area compared to the scratch area of broiler breeder chicken houses.

    PubMed

    Behnke, Elena L; Hofacre, Charles L; Berghaus, Roy D

    2013-09-01

    With the objective of detecting Salmonella species in the poultry house environment, sampling broiler breeder houses in the two-thirds slatted area and the one-third scratch area with pine shavings bedding can be difficult. The slatted area is where the females, consisting of approximately 90% of the population, eat, drink, and spend the majority of their time. The scratch area is where the males eat and drink, as well as where mating and mortality occur. Besides the nest boxes, the female feeders and water lines make the slatted areas more difficult to sample. However, it is important to take samples from the area with the greatest likelihood of isolating Salmonella. Therefore, boot swab samples were collected from 21 commercial broiler breeder chicken houses representing three different companies in north Georgia to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on the slat vs. the scratch area in each chicken house. Every house sampled had a central scratch area covered with litter and two elevated slat areas constructed of wood. Four boot swab samples were collected on each side slat area by walking the entire length of the house for each swab. Eight samples were collected in the same manner from the scratch area. Results of 335 total samples were acquired, 167 of which were obtained from the slat area and 168 of which came from the scratch area, yielding 242 total Salmonella isolations. Salmonella was found in 117 of the slat samples, representing 70.1%, compared to 125 of the scratch area samples, representing 74.4%. Both the univariate (P = 0.311) and the multivariable (P = 0.303) analysis showed that sampling location was not associated with Salmonella prevalence.

  10. Longitudinal study of transmission of Escherichia coli from broiler breeders to broilers.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Louise Ladefoged; Thøfner, Ida; Bisgaard, Magne; Christensen, Jens Peter; Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Christensen, Henrik

    2017-08-01

    Escherichia coli is of major importance in industrial broiler production as the main cause of salpingitis and peritonitis in broiler breeders. Furthermore E. coli is the most common cause of first week mortality in broiler chickens. The aim of the present study was to investigate the transmission of E. coli, isolated from broiler breeders with salpingitis, to the progeny and the possibility of subsequent first week mortality. Four parent flocks were followed during the whole production period (20-60 weeks) by post mortem and bacteriological examination of randomly selected dead birds. Newly hatched chickens from each flock were swabbed in the cloaca on four occasions (parent age 30, 40, 50, 60 weeks) and E. coli was isolated. Causes of first week mortality were determined pathologically and bacteriologically. E. coli isolates from parents, newly hatched chickens and first week mortality were selected for Pulsed-Field-Gel-Electrophoresis (PFGE) and Multi-Locus-Sequence-Typing (MLST) to determine their clonal relationships. E. coli was the main cause of both salpingitis in parents and first week mortality in broilers, and E. coli dominated the bacterial flora of the cloaca of newly hatched chickens. PFGE of E. coli showed identical band patterns in isolates from the three different sources indicating a transmission of E. coli from parent birds to chickens. In conclusion, E. coli isolated from salpingitis in broiler parents were found to be transmitted to broilers in which some sequence types contributed to the first week mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of Feeding Systems and Vaccination Programs on Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization and Clearance of E. Coli In Broiler Broiler Breeders Pullets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Broiler breeder pullets from a single grandparent flock were in ovo-vaccinated with Marek's vaccines herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) + chicken herpesvirus (SB1) or a vector HVT + Infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine+SB1. The chicks were placed in an experimental broiler breeder facility at the Univer...

  12. Vertical transmission and clinical signs in broiler breeders and broilers experiencing adenoviral gizzard erosion.

    PubMed

    Grafl, Beatrice; Aigner, Franz; Liebhart, Dieter; Marek, Ana; Prokofieva, Irina; Bachmeier, Josef; Hess, Michael

    2012-12-01

    The present report documents an outbreak of adenoviral gizzard erosion in 22 broiler flocks in Germany. The clinical picture was characterized by uneven growth of affected broilers that resulted in considerably lower than average weight at slaughtering. Fowl adenovirus serotype 1 (FAdV-1) was isolated from gizzard lesions and histological examinations demonstrated FAdV-1-positive intranuclear inclusion bodies in gizzard epithelial cells of affected broilers by in-situ hybridization. Birds from all affected flocks originated from one broiler breeder farm. During production of affected birds, broiler breeders were between 27 and 32 weeks old. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and specific virus neutralization assay of sera from parent birds demonstrated an acute FAdV-1 infection within the first 5 weeks of the production cycle. Clinically, broiler breeders exhibited a moderate fall in the hatchability of their chicks, while egg production remained normal. No further clinical signs could be observed. Genetically identical FAdV-1 strains were isolated from gizzards of embryos at the lowest point of hatchability and from affected broiler flocks raised on independent farms. For the first time, direct detection of viable FAdV-1 from gizzards of embryos and progenies of one FAdV-1-seropositive broiler breeder farm in the course of an outbreak of adenoviral gizzard erosion could be demonstrated, highlighting the importance of vertical transmission of this disease. Additionally, growth retardation and subsequent reduced average weight at the time of slaughter of broiler chickens underline the economic impact of adenoviral gizzard erosion for poultry production.

  13. Evaluation of nutrient specifications for broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Wilson, H R; Harms, R H

    1984-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if previously suggested nutrient requirements of broiler breeders (23 g protein, 850 mg sulfur amino acids, 4.5 g calcium, and 750 mg phosphorus/bird/day) are in excess and could be reduced during the laying period. In Experiment 1, Cobb color-sex broiler breeders were fed daily nutrient allowances that were 100.0, 96.3, 92.5, 89.4, and 86.6% of the suggested requirements. In Experiment 2, Cobb feather-sex breeders were fed daily allowances that were 92.5, 89.4, 86.6, 83.4, and 80.9% of the suggested requirements. Birds on all diets were fed the same energy level; however, energy varied with season to maintain body weight. Egg production, fertility, hatchability, egg weight, and shell quality were not significantly affected by the reductions in nutrient intake in either experiment. The diet with the lowest nutrient level (80.9% of the suggested requirement) was adequate, indicating a considerable margin of safety for the stated requirements. Body weight was quite variable but tended to decrease with nutrient restriction. Weights of broilers hatched from treated breeders were not significantly affected at 49 days of age by the breeder dietary treatments. These results indicate that broiler breeder diets formulated to meet presently suggested requirements have a large margin of safety and a reduction of specifications by approximately 10% is suggested. The revised daily intakes recommended are: 20.6 g protein, 754 mg sulfur amino acids, 400 mg methionine, 938 mg lysine, 1379 mg arginine, 256 mg tryptophan, 4.07 g calcium, 683 mg total phosphorus, and 170 mg sodium.

  14. On the composition of gastroliths from broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Martín-Ramos, P; Carrión-Prieto, P; Sánchez-Báscones, M; Ruiz-Potosme, N M; Martín-Gil, J

    2017-10-06

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the composition and origin of certain gastroliths or gizzard stones from broiler breeders (Gallus gallus domesticus). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray powder diffraction techniques were used as analysis tools. The main components resulted to be organic fibre and minerals referred to a pegmatite rock (quartz, feldspar albite and haematite) used as grit. Although the generally accepted purpose of gastroliths in chicken is the crushing and grinding of foodstuff in the ventriculus, the importance of mineral uptake from grit of iron and other essential elements such as Al, Ca, K, Cl, P, Ti, Mn, Mg, Cu, Zn and Zr (in ppm) as a secondary effect of the abrasion and dissolution of gastroliths should not be disregarded. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Distribution and Genetic Profiles of Campylobacter in Commercial Broiler Production from Breeder to Slaughter in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Prachantasena, Sakaoporn; Charununtakorn, Petcharatt; Muangnoicharoen, Suthida; Hankla, Luck; Techawal, Natthaporn; Chaveerach, Prapansak; Tuitemwong, Pravate; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa; Williams, Nicola; Humphrey, Tom; Luangtongkum, Taradon

    2016-01-01

    Poultry and poultry products are commonly considered as the major vehicle of Campylobacter infection in humans worldwide. To reduce the number of human cases, the epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry must be better understood. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the distribution and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter in the Thai chicken production industry. During June to October 2012, entire broiler production processes (i.e., breeder flock, hatchery, broiler farm and slaughterhouse) of five broiler production chains were investigated chronologically. Representative isolates of C. jejuni from each production stage were characterized by flaA SVR sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Amongst 311 selected isolates, 29 flaA SVR alleles and 17 sequence types (STs) were identified. The common clonal complexes (CCs) found in this study were CC-45, CC-353, CC-354 and CC-574. C. jejuni isolated from breeders were distantly related to those isolated from broilers and chicken carcasses, while C. jejuni isolates from the slaughterhouse environment and meat products were similar to those isolated from broiler flocks. Genotypic identification of C. jejuni in slaughterhouses indicated that broilers were the main source of Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat during processing. To effectively reduce Campylobacter in poultry meat products, control and prevention strategies should be aimed at both farm and slaughterhouse levels.

  16. Distribution and Genetic Profiles of Campylobacter in Commercial Broiler Production from Breeder to Slaughter in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Prachantasena, Sakaoporn; Charununtakorn, Petcharatt; Muangnoicharoen, Suthida; Hankla, Luck; Techawal, Natthaporn; Chaveerach, Prapansak; Tuitemwong, Pravate; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa; Williams, Nicola; Humphrey, Tom; Luangtongkum, Taradon

    2016-01-01

    Poultry and poultry products are commonly considered as the major vehicle of Campylobacter infection in humans worldwide. To reduce the number of human cases, the epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry must be better understood. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the distribution and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter in the Thai chicken production industry. During June to October 2012, entire broiler production processes (i.e., breeder flock, hatchery, broiler farm and slaughterhouse) of five broiler production chains were investigated chronologically. Representative isolates of C. jejuni from each production stage were characterized by flaA SVR sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Amongst 311 selected isolates, 29 flaA SVR alleles and 17 sequence types (STs) were identified. The common clonal complexes (CCs) found in this study were CC-45, CC-353, CC-354 and CC-574. C. jejuni isolated from breeders were distantly related to those isolated from broilers and chicken carcasses, while C. jejuni isolates from the slaughterhouse environment and meat products were similar to those isolated from broiler flocks. Genotypic identification of C. jejuni in slaughterhouses indicated that broilers were the main source of Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat during processing. To effectively reduce Campylobacter in poultry meat products, control and prevention strategies should be aimed at both farm and slaughterhouse levels. PMID:26886590

  17. Keratoglobus lesions in the eyes of rearing broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Landman, W J; Boeve, M H; Dwars, R M; Gruys, E

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the occurrence of keratoglobus lesions in a rearing flock of broiler breeder grandparent stock (female line), and its ophthalmological and ocular pathomorphological features. Keratoglobus is known as a recessive sex-linked (Z chromosome) trait in some lines of chickens. The first cases were encountered at 5 weeks of age. At the end of the rearing period a total of 1.5% of the flock was affected. In the flock and affected birds, no signs of any other disease were detected. Compared to eyes of healthy flock mates, the most prominent symptom was ocular protrusion due to bulging and thinning of the cornea, and increase in anterior chamber depth. In addition, there were mononuclear, granulocytic and plasma cell infiltrates in the iris and corpus ciliare, and mild to minimal exudate in the anterior chamber in all cases examined. Although the corneal epithelium and collagen bundles appeared normal on electron microscopy, the corneal endothelium showed some loss of cells and the keratocytes some degenerative changes. The cornea had not lost its transparency and did not show any signs of inflammation, whereas the conjunctiva contained mononuclear infiltrations. Other eye structures did not show any clinical or pathological changes. The pathogenesis of keratoglobus lesions in chickens is unknown. Although a hereditary origin seems probable, it is not known whether the inflammatory changes found caused the presented pathology or were secondary to the extreme corneal bulging.

  18. Circadian variation in heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature and EEG of immature broiler breeder chickens in restricted-fed and ad libitum-fed states.

    PubMed

    Savory, C J; Kostal, L; Nevison, I M

    2006-10-01

    1. Heart rate, intra-aortic blood pressure, deep body temperature and telencephalic EEG were monitored by radiotelemetry in 6 freely moving immature broiler breeders (three in each of two years), during routine food restriction and then ad libitum feeding, over two 24-h periods in each feeding state.2. Heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature were all higher during ad libitum than restricted feeding, and heart rate and body temperature were higher by day (12 h) than at night (12 h). The decreases in heart rate and body temperature at night were greater during restricted than ad libitum feeding. Blood pressure tended to be higher at night, except in year 2 during restricted feeding. Body temperature and ambient temperature were higher in year 2 than year 1.3. During restricted feeding, marked peaks in heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature in the 15 min after provision of the daily food ration at 09:00 h, when birds were eating, were equivalent to corresponding values seen during ad libitum feeding.4. Relative powers in delta (1 to 4 Hz) and theta (4 to 8 Hz) frequency bands of the EEG power spectrum were higher at night in year 2 only, while power in the alpha (8 to 12 Hz) band was higher at night in both years.5. It is concluded that most of the variation in heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature between feeding states and times of day/night can be accounted for in terms of variation in food intake and energy expenditure. The greater slow wave (delta, theta) EEG activity seen after lights-off in year 2 may reflect non-paradoxical sleep at that time.

  19. THE EFFECT OF EMBRYONIC AGE AND BREEDER FLOCK AGE ON THE GASTROINTESTINAL MICROBIOME OF DEVELOPING BROILER CHICKEN: POTENTIAL IMPLICATIONS FOR FOOD SAFETY

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: There are several food-safety issues related to broiler egg production, including the introduction/proliferation of zoonotic pathogens during embryonic gastrointestinal (GI) tract development. Little is known about the overall GI bacterial communities, how they change over time, or how ...

  20. Protein and sulfur amino acid requirements of broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Harms, R H; Wilson, H R

    1980-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted with Cobb color-sexed broiler breeder hens to determine their protein and sulfur amino acid requirement. A daily intake between 400 and 478 mg of methionine and between 722 and 839 mg of total sulfur amino acids was necessary for maximum egg production, the latter in a diet of 13.07% protein. Slightly lower levels supported maximum body weights. Hens laying at the highest rate consumed 23.4 g of protein per day.

  1. Parameters for quantification of hunger in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Ingrid C; van Voorst, A Sander; Blokhuis, Harry J

    2003-04-01

    The commercial restricted feeding programme of broiler breeders has a major negative effect on welfare, as the birds are continuously hungry. Objective parameters of hunger are needed to evaluate new management or feeding systems that may alleviate hunger and thus improve broiler breeder welfare. The aim of this experiment was to develop such parameters. Female broiler breeders (Hybro G), n=10 per treatment, were subjected to different levels of feed restriction and we assumed that we thus induced different levels of hunger. Treatment groups were fed ad libitum and at 90%, 70%, 50%, 35% and 25% of ad libitum. In addition, female broiler breeders that were less intensively selected on growth and food conversion (JA57, n=10 per treatment) were fed ad libitum and at 70% of ad libitum. At 6-7 weeks of age, home pen behaviour, behaviour in the open field and baseline plasma corticosterone, glucose and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were determined. Thereafter, birds were subjected to the feed intake motivation (FIM) test that measures compensatory feed intake. Linear relationships between the level of restriction and the compensatory feed intake on the first days of the FIM test and the glucose/NEFA ratio were found which indicate that these parameters can be used to quantify the level of hunger. Curvilinear relationships between sitting and standing in the home pen, walking in the open field and level of restriction were found. A third-grade hyperbolic relationship between the level of restriction and the baseline plasma corticosterone concentration was found. Thus, these parameters do not seem to represent a straightforward relation with the level of hunger. Intensive selection on growth and food conversion seems to have affected the behaviour but not the physiological responses to feed restriction, because the JA57 birds responded behaviourally, but not physiologically, different to feed restriction as compared with the Hybro birds.

  2. Reproduction responses of broiler-breeders to anticoccidial agents.

    PubMed

    Jones, J E; Solis, J; Hughes, B L; Castaldo, D J; Toler, J E

    1990-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of anticoccidial agents on production and reproduction of broiler breeders. In Experiment 1, nicarbazin (NCZ) was fed at 20, 50, and 100 ppm. There was no depression in egg production, egg weight, or fertility from feeding these levels. As level of NCZ increased, there was a linear decrease in hatchability. The amount of 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) in the egg yolks increased linearly as the levels of NCZ went up; the degree of egg-shell depigmentation was directly related to the level of NCZ fed starting at 50 ppm. Experiment 2 utilized a different strain of broiler breeders. Halofuginone (3 ppm), maduramicin (5 ppm), monensin (100 ppm), narasin (70 ppm), NCZ (125 ppm), robenidine (33 ppm), and salinomycin (60 ppm) were fed to broiler breeders at the levels listed. Only NCZ reduced egg production. Narasin induced a reduction in egg weight. Both narasin and salinomycin caused a significant drop in hatchability. Feeding NCZ also induced a rapid and more severe decrease in hatchability. Monensin was the only anticoccidial agent that reduced fertility. Halofuginone, maduramicin, and robenidine had no biologically significant effect on henday production, egg weight, hatch of fertile eggs, or shell depigmentation. Feeding NCZ at 125 ppm caused a complete bleaching of brown-shell eggs by the 3rd consecutive day of treatment; but 7 days after NCZ was withdrawn from the feed, pigmentation returned to the pretreatment level.

  3. Spondylitis in broiler breeder farms in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran: Clinical Report

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Alireza; Taifebagherlu, Jafar; Sharifi, Arian; Delkhosh-Kasmaie, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Spondylitis is a reemerging epidemic spinal infection in male broiler chickens (5 to 7 weeks of age) as well as broiler breeder roosters (15 to 18 weeks of age). Among various causative agents, Enterococcus species and in particular E. cecorum, a gram-positive bacterium as a gastrointestinal flora of birds, have mostly been isolated. On late September 2015, a number of 10 weeks old roosters with characteristic clinical signs of lameness and hock-sitting posture were autopsied. During thorough general routine post-mortem examinations, abnormalities like nodular masses correlated well with the hock-sitting posture and posterior paresis/paralysis were observed in joint spaces on the caudal thoracic vertebral column (T6-T7) immediately anterior to the kidneys in all affected birds. At histopathological examinations, osteomyelitis with limited pathological lesions including mononuclear inflammatory cells infiltration and edema in spinal cord were seen and the infection was diagnosed as an acute spondylosis. PMID:28144429

  4. Spondylitis in broiler breeder farms in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran: Clinical Report.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Alireza; Taifebagherlu, Jafar; Sharifi, Arian; Delkhosh-Kasmaie, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Spondylitis is a reemerging epidemic spinal infection in male broiler chickens (5 to 7 weeks of age) as well as broiler breeder roosters (15 to 18 weeks of age). Among various causative agents, Enterococcus species and in particular E. cecorum, a gram-positive bacterium as a gastrointestinal flora of birds, have mostly been isolated. On late September 2015, a number of 10 weeks old roosters with characteristic clinical signs of lameness and hock-sitting posture were autopsied. During thorough general routine post-mortem examinations, abnormalities like nodular masses correlated well with the hock-sitting posture and posterior paresis/paralysis were observed in joint spaces on the caudal thoracic vertebral column (T6-T7) immediately anterior to the kidneys in all affected birds. At histopathological examinations, osteomyelitis with limited pathological lesions including mononuclear inflammatory cells infiltration and edema in spinal cord were seen and the infection was diagnosed as an acute spondylosis.

  5. Selection for early response to photostimulation in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Tyler, N C; Gous, R M

    2011-08-01

    1. To determine if selection for early response to photostimulation could be successful, 150 male broiler breeders were photostimulated at 8 weeks of age. The first 20 to produce a semen sample and have a reddened comb with an area > 10 cm2 were selected as responders (R) and 20 birds that did not show these signs of sexual development were chosen as non-responders (NR). Once sexually mature, 8 birds from each group that consistently produced a semen sample were mated with both egg-type hybrids and broiler breeder females to observe the response to 8-week photostimulation in the as-hatched offspring. 2. The AFE of the F1 females with NR or R paternity and egg-type hybrid layer maternity (F1L) were similar, but AFE was advanced in birds from R relative to NR paternity when they had broiler breeder maternity (F1B). 3. Date following a normal distribution of AFE were extracted from the overall data set. This group included offspring from both NR and R paternity, but AFE in F1L and F1B females with R paternity was advanced compared to those with NR paternity. 4. Mean testis weights, or age at most rapid testis growth predicted using parameters from Tyler and Gous (2009), of F1 males were not significantly different in birds with NR or R paternity. A strong correlation was found between predicted age at most rapid growth and AFE of full sibs and so it is likely that an advance in AFE in female offspring would also result in an advance in age of testis development of males. 5. There was no significant difference in 21-d body weight of F1B females of NR or R paternity, but the 21-d body weights of F1L females were higher from R than from NR sires, suggesting that although fertility and meat-type traits are often negatively correlated, there was no adverse effect of selection for responsiveness to early photostimulation and broiler growth rates to 21 d. 6. These findings showed that the response to early stimulation is heritable, and should be useful to the broiler breeder

  6. Breeder age influences embryogenesis in broiler hatching eggs.

    PubMed

    Peebles, E D; Doyle, S M; Zumwalt, C D; Gerard, P D; Latour, M A; Boyle, C R; Smith, T W

    2001-03-01

    The effects of dietary fat and broiler breeder age on egg and embryo characteristics during incubation were investigated. Breeders were fed diets containing no added fat or 3.0% added poultry fat (PF) for peak energy intakes of 430 and 467 kcal/hen day (pC/d), or 1.5% PF or 3.0% corn oil at 449 pC/d. Feeding of diets was initiated at 22 wk, and eggs were collected for incubation at 27 and 36 wk of age. Percentage incubational egg weight loss was determined between day of set and Days 6, 12, and 18. Percentage wet and dry embryo weights, embryo moisture content, and eggshell weights were determined at 6, 12, and 18 d of incubation. Percentage yolk sac weight and wet and dry liver weights and moisture content were determined on Days 12 and 18. Percentage gall bladder weight was determined on Day 18. There were no observed effects due to breeder diet. However, eggshell weight at Days 6, 12, and 18 was higher in 27-wk-old hens compared with 36-wk-old hens. Conversely, egg weight loss between Day 0 and Days 6, 12, and 18 and yolk sac weight across Days 12 and 18 of incubation were lower in eggs at 27 wk of age compared with 36 wk. At Day 18, dry embryo weight was higher and wet liver weight was lower at 27 wk compared with 36 wk. A slower rate of DM accumulation in embryos at Week 36 compared to Week 27 was associated with increased incubational water loss and decreased embryo moisture content, eggshell percentage, and yolk sac absorption rate. These data demonstrate that changes in eggshell characteristics with broiler breeder age can alone impact yolk uptake, growth, and body composition in subsequent embryos.

  7. Effects of acute and chronic heat stress on plasma metabolites, hormones and oxidant status in restrictedly fed broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jingjing; Tang, Li; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Liyang; Lin, Xi; Liu, Hsiao-Ching; Odle, Jack; Luo, Xugang

    2015-07-01

    Heat tolerance can be improved by feed restriction in broiler chickens. It is unknown whether the same is true for broiler breeders, which are restrictedly fed. Therefore, the current study was conducted to study the effects of heat stress on plasma metabolites, hormones, and oxidative status of restricted fed broiler breeders with special emphases on the temperature and latency of heat exposure. In trial 1, 12 broiler breeders were kept either in a thermoneutral chamber (21°C, control, n = 6) or in a chamber with a step-wise increased environmental temperature from 21 to 33°C (21, 25, 29, 33°C, heat-stressed, n = 6). Changes in plasma total cholesterol, glucose, and triiodothyronine (T3) were closely related to the environmental temperature. When the temperature reached 29°C, plasma T3 (P < 0.05) was significantly decreased in acute heat-stressed birds, whereas plasma glucose (P < 0.001) and cholesterol (P = 0.002) increased only when the temperature reached 33°C. Plasma triglyceride (P = 0.026) and creatine kinase (CK, P = 0.018) were lower in heat-stressed birds than controls regardless of the temperatures applied. In Trial 2, 24 broiler breeders were divided into 2 groups and raised under 21°C and 32°C for 8 weeks, respectively. Total cholesterol was increased in chronic heat-stressed broiler breeders after 4 weeks. Plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, P = 0.047) and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, P = 0.036) was up-regulated after 6 weeks of thermal treatment, whereas plasma CK (P = 0.009) was increased at the end of thermal treatment. Plasma malonaldehyde, protein carbonyl content, activity of total superoxide dismutase (SOD), and corticosterone content were not altered after acute and prolonged heat challenges. Taken together, acute heat stress primarily resulted in disturbance of plasma metabolites, whereas chronic heat stress caused tissue damage reflected by increased plasma LDA, GOT, and CK. During acute heat stress, plasma metabolites were

  8. The Prevalence of Campylobacter amongst a Free-Range Broiler Breeder Flock Was Primarily Affected by Flock Age

    PubMed Central

    Colles, Frances M.; McCarthy, Noel D.; Layton, Ruth; Maiden, Martin C. J.

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter successfully colonizes broiler chickens, but little is known about the longer term natural history of colonization, since most flocks are slaughtered at an immature age. In this study, the prevalence and genetic diversity of Campylobacter colonizing a single free-range broiler breeder flock was investigated over the course of a year. The age of the flock was the most important factor in determining both the prevalence and diversity of Campylobacter over time. There was no correlation with season, temperature, the amount of rain and sunshine, or the dynamics of colonization amongst geographically and temporally matched broiler flocks. The higher prevalence rates coincided with the age at which broiler chickens are typically slaughtered, but then in the absence of bio-security or other intervention methods, and despite changes in flock management, the prevalence fell to significantly lower levels for the remainder of the study. The genetic diversity of Campylobacter increased as the flock aged, implying that genotypes were accumulated within the flock and may persist for a long time. A better understanding of the ecology of Campylobacter within commercial chicken flocks will allow the design of more effective farm-based interventions. PMID:22174732

  9. The prevalence of Campylobacter amongst a free-range broiler breeder flock was primarily affected by flock age.

    PubMed

    Colles, Frances M; McCarthy, Noel D; Layton, Ruth; Maiden, Martin C J

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter successfully colonizes broiler chickens, but little is known about the longer term natural history of colonization, since most flocks are slaughtered at an immature age. In this study, the prevalence and genetic diversity of Campylobacter colonizing a single free-range broiler breeder flock was investigated over the course of a year. The age of the flock was the most important factor in determining both the prevalence and diversity of Campylobacter over time. There was no correlation with season, temperature, the amount of rain and sunshine, or the dynamics of colonization amongst geographically and temporally matched broiler flocks. The higher prevalence rates coincided with the age at which broiler chickens are typically slaughtered, but then in the absence of bio-security or other intervention methods, and despite changes in flock management, the prevalence fell to significantly lower levels for the remainder of the study. The genetic diversity of Campylobacter increased as the flock aged, implying that genotypes were accumulated within the flock and may persist for a long time. A better understanding of the ecology of Campylobacter within commercial chicken flocks will allow the design of more effective farm-based interventions.

  10. Prevalence of salmonellae in broiler, layer and breeder flocks in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sasipreeyajan, J; Jerngklinchan, J; Koowatananukul, C; Saitanu, K

    1996-05-01

    Salmonellae were detected in thirteen broiler flocks, 15 layer flocks and 7 parent breeder flocks in Thailand from October 1991 to August 1992. Salmonellae were isolated from samples of feed, drinking water, cloacal swabs, faeces and litter from all broiler and breeder flocks, and 87% of the layer flocks. From broiler flocks, litter samples were more frequently contaminated than other samples, while feed left over in the layer house and drinking water in the parent breeder house were the most commonly contaminated. Of the total of 1,488 samples examined from all flocks, salmonellae were recovered from samples of litter (42%), water in drinking troughs (36%), feed left over in the feed trays (28%), water in the main tanks (17%), cloacal swabs (13%) and stock feed (8%). The most common serovars associated with the broiler, layer and parent breeder flocks were Salmonella blockley, S. weltevreden and S. amsterdam respectively.

  11. The effect of low-density broiler breeder diets on performance and immune status of their offspring.

    PubMed

    Enting, H; Boersma, W J A; Cornelissen, J B W J; van Winden, S C L; Verstegen, M W A; van der Aar, P J

    2007-02-01

    Effects of low-density broiler breeder diets on offspring performance and mortality were studied using 2,100 female and 210 male Cobb 500 breeders. Breeder treatments involved 4 experimental groups and a control group with normal density diets (ND, 2,600 kcal of AME/kg during rearing and 2,800 kcal of AME/kg during laying). In treatment 2, nutrient densities were decreased by 12% (LD12) and 11% (LD11) during the rearing and laying periods, respectively, whereas in treatment 3, nutrient densities were decreased by 23% (LD23) and 21% (LD21) during the rearing and laying periods, respectively. The nutrient density in these treatments was decreased through inclusion of palm kernel meal, wheat bran, wheat gluten feed, and sunflower seed meal in the diets. Treatment 4 included diets with the same nutrient densities as in treatment 2 but included oats and sugar beet pulp (LD12(OP) and LD11(OP)). In treatment 5, the same low-density diet was given to the breeders as in treatment 2 during the rearing period, but it was followed by a normal density diet during the laying period (LD12-ND). Treatments were applied from 4 to 60 wk of age. On low-density diets, offspring showed an increased 1-d-old weight. As compared with offspring of breeders that received ND, the d 38 live weight of chickens from 29-wk-old breeders fed LD11 was improved. Mortality was reduced in offspring from 60-wk-old parent stock given low-density diets. The IgM titers in 35-d-old offspring from eggs with a lower-than-average weight were reduced when 29-wk-old broiler breeders were fed low-density diets. In offspring from eggs with a higher-than-average weight from 60-wk-old parent stock given LD11 or LD21 diets, IgM titers were higher compared with ND. It was concluded that low-density broiler breeder diets can improve offspring growth rates, reduce mortality, and reduce or increase immune responses, depending on breeder age and egg weight.

  12. Comparative study of the effects of organic selenium on hen performance and productivity of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Rajashree, K; Muthukumar, T; Karthikeyan, N

    2014-01-01

    1. A 10-week experiment was conducted with Ross 308 broiler breeder chickens in cages to evaluate the influence of organic and inorganic sources of selenium (Se) supplementation. A total of 600 birds at 29 weeks of age were divided at random into 4 groups and fed on a maize-soya basal diet supplemented with different forms of Se. 2. The first (control) group was given the basal diet without Se supplementation, whereas the second, third and fourth groups were given, respectively, the basal diet with 0.3 mg/kg of inorganic Se in the form of sodium selenite or 0.3 and 0.5 mg/kg of organic Se in the form of Se enriched yeast (Se-yeast). 3. The experiment was carried out for 10 weeks to compare and evaluate the influence of Se supplementation on breeder performance, egg production, hatchability and the quality of eggs. Samples were collected for analysis at weeks 0, 5 and 10 of the experimental period. 4. At the end of the experiment (39 weeks), there was a reduction in mortality in breeders given diets supplemented with 0.5 mg/kg of Se-yeast. Supplementation of feed with 0.5 mg/kg organic Se increased egg production, percentage of settable eggs and hatchability. 5. Selenium supplementation increased egg weight and specific gravity compared to the control diet. However, no significant variation was found in albumen or yolk protein content at the end of week 10. 6. Selenium accumulation and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activity were lower in the egg albumen and yolk of control compared with Se-supplemented treatments. Se accumulation and GSHPx activity were higher in the group given 0.3 mg/kg organic compared to 0.3 mg/kg of inorganic Se. 7. The results favour the use of Se-yeast at the dose of 0.5 mg/kg in broiler breeder diets for better productivity of eggs, settable eggs, hatchability and higher Se accumulation and antioxidant status in eggs.

  13. Eradication of Mycoplasma synoviae from a multi-age broiler breeder farm using antibiotics therapy.

    PubMed

    Hong, Young-Ho; Kwon, Ji-Seon; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won

    2015-10-01

    Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is a common respiratory pathogen in the poultry industry. Eradication of MS from broiler breeder flocks is important for reducing economic losses caused by MS-associated diseases on broiler farms. An outbreak of MS infection was detected on a multi-age Korean broiler breeder farm that implements a flock replacement program every 3 to 6 months and uses A-type cages. Continuous administration of tilmicosin after 2 rounds of intensive antibiotics treatment with chlortetracycline, doxycycline, and enrofloxacin reduced MS shedding from the MS-positive flocks and eventually eradicated MS from the farm. Flock 3 was the last MS-positive flock by both PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while flocks introduced to the farm after flock 3 were MS-negative by both PCR and ELISA at the time of depletion. This is the first report of successful eradication of MS from a multi-age broiler breeder farm using continuous antibiotic treatments.

  14. Locomotion of broiler chickens in floor pens.

    PubMed

    Lewis, N J; Hurnik, J F

    1990-07-01

    Locomotion has a major effect on production and animal welfare as it relates to feed and water acquisition, feed utilization, carcass quality, health, and physical vigor. The locomotor abilities of the broiler are also important considerations in pen design and placement of feed and water dispensers. To study the locomotion of broiler chickens and the effect stocking density has on locomotion, eight groups of broiler chickens were observed in an experimental floor pen (1.2 by 1.7 m). A Videomex V Image Motion Computer was used to determine the distance traveled and the frame-by-frame (30 frames per s) location of a focal bird. Four densities (660, 790, 990, and 1320 cm2 per bird) were tested, one on each day of the 4-day recording period for each group of birds. Broiler chickens were active throughout the day and traveled an average distance of 8.8 m per h or 212 m per day. Increasing housing density reduced the distance traveled (10, 8.8, 8.5, and 8.1 m per h for 1,320, 990, 790, and 660 cm2 per bird, respectively) but did not affect the average number of visits to the feeders (4 per h) and water cups (2 per h). The focal birds used the total space provided during the day, indicating that they were not consistently socially restricted to certain areas of the pen.

  15. Bacterial orchitis and epididymo-orchitis in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Monleon, Rafael; Martin, Michael P; John Barnes, H

    2008-12-01

    Two cases of orchitis and epididymo-orchitis in broiler breeders are described. The first case occurred in a 62-week-old rooster showing signs of breeding inactivity. Grossly, the left testis was abnormally shaped and had multiple yellow foci, prominent blood vessels, and a gelatinous mass on the surface. The right testis and other tissues appeared normal. A pure, heavy growth of Staphylococcus aureus was obtained on bacterial culture, and intralesional Gram-positive cocci were numerous on histopathology. The second case occurred in a 28-week-old rooster that was found dead. Both testes were abnormally shaped, swollen, firm, and had irregular, dark, depressed areas, prominent vessels, and multiple petechial haemorrhages. Epididymides were enlarged and nodular. Other lesions in this rooster included poor nutritional condition, distended cloaca, and urate scalding of the abdominal skin below the vent. Microscopically, there was extensive, severe heterophilic intratubular orchitis and epididymitis with intralesional Gram-negative bacteria. A heavy, pure growth of Escherichia coli was obtained from the testes and epididymides. In both cases, the findings suggested that the most probable route of infection was ascending via the ductus deferens.

  16. Multivariate epidemiological approach to salmonellosis in broiler breeder flocks.

    PubMed

    Henken, A M; Frankena, K; Goelema, J O; Graat, E A; Noordhuizen, J P

    1992-05-01

    A retrospective, case-control study into risk factors of salmonellosis was undertaken using data from 111 broiler breeder flocks assembled during a 5-yr period. The results of both univariate and multivariate analyses are presented. Many different Salmonella species were detected. Multivariate models were created based on the outcome of univariate analyses. The following variables appeared to be the most relevant: disinfection tubs, hygiene barriers, the interaction of disinfection tubs by hygiene barriers, and feed mills. The final model indicated that flocks housed at farms without a disinfection tub, with poor hygiene barriers, and receiving their feed from a small feed mill had a 46.1 times greater risk of being Salmonella-positive than flocks housed at farms with a disinfection tub, with good hygiene barriers, and receiving their feed from a large feed mill. It is concluded that the application of quantitative epidemiological methods can be valuable not only to identify potential risk factors but also to quantify their contributory effect on the disease outcome. Hence, it may be a useful tool for application in "integrated food chain quality control programs".

  17. Effect of dietary aminoguanidine on tissue pentosidine and reproductive performance in broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M; Probert, L L; Klandorf, H

    1997-11-01

    Factors influencing the age-related decline in production parameters of broiler breeder hens are poorly understood. Elevated blood glucose concentrations measured in broiler breeder hens may contribute to this decline. The nonenzymatic attachment of glucose to proteins generates glycoxidation crosslinks in tissue proteins, which can ultimately impair their function. One such glycoxidation crosslink, pentosidine, has been used as a biomarker for aging studies because of its accumulation on the structural protein collagen. The objectives of these studies were to determine whether pentosidine accumulates with age in hens and whether the crosslinking inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG), could retard this accumulation. An additional objective was to determine whether AG had any effect on production performance. In the first study, broiler breeder hens (n = 318) were randomly assigned to two groups: control and supplemented (400 ppm AG). Pentosidine was measured in the skin of the birds at 20 and 67 wk of age. Egg production was measured daily. In a second study, broiler breeder hens (n = 60) were reared as previously described. Pentosidine was measured in the skin of the birds at 20 and 68 wk of age. Results showed that pentosidine was present in the skin of the hens, and that concentrations increased with age (P < 0.001). Although pentosidine was reduced (P < 0.001) in AG-supplemented birds, production performance was not affected. In conclusion, AG retarded the rate of accumulation of pentosidine during lay in broiler breeder hens, but the reduction in pentosidine did not significantly affect production performance.

  18. The Impact of Yeast Culture Residue on the Suppression of Dietary Aflatoxin on the Performance of Broiler Breeder Hens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was conducted to examine the effect of yeast culture residue (YCR) on the suppression of aflatoxicosis in broiler breeder hens. One hundred twenty, 35-wk-old, Cobb broiler breeder hens of the same cross were fed diets supplemented with aflatoxin (AF) (0 or 3 mg/kg) and YCR (0 or 2 lb/ton) s...

  19. Efficacy of Recombinant HVT-IBD Vaccines Administered to Broiler Chicks from a Single Breeder Flock at 30 and 60 Weeks of Age.

    PubMed

    Gelb, Jack; Jackwood, Daral J; Brannick, Erin M; Ladman, Brian S

    2016-09-01

    The efficacy of commercially available recombinant herpesvirus of turkeys-infectious bursal disease (rHVT-IBD) virus vaccines was studied in broiler chickens derived from an IBDV-vaccinated breeder flock at 30 wk of age (Trial 1) and 60 wk of age (Trial 2). In parallel, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) white leghorn chickens were used to evaluate vaccine efficacy to control for the effects of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) associated with the broiler chickens. Broilers and SPF leghorns were vaccinated subcutaneously in the neck at 1 day of age with Vaxxitek® HVT+IBD or Vectormune® HVT-IBD vaccines and were placed in isolators. On 10, 14, 18, 22, and 26 days postvaccination (DPV), vaccinated and nonvaccinated broilers and SPF leghorns were bled prior to challenge via the oral-nasal route with infectious bursal disease (IBD) reference strains ST-C, Delaware variant E (Del E), or contemporary field isolates DMV/5038/07 or FF6. Microscopic lesion assessment of the bursa was useful for assessing IBDV challenge in both rHVT-IBD-vaccinated broiler and SPF leghorn chickens. In general, rHVT-IBD vaccines induced greater protection as the time between vaccination and challenge increased. Based on incidence of microscopic lesions (IML) of bursa tissue, Vaxxitek HVT+IBD vaccination of SPF leghorns induced protection by 18 DPV and continued to protect 22 DPV and 26 DPV in Trials 1 and 2. Vectormune HVT-IBD vaccine induced protection of SPF leghorns by 18 or 22 DPV in Trial 1, depending upon the IBDV challenge strain. However, the onset of protection was delayed until 22 or 26 DPV in Trial 2. With either commercial vaccine, rHVT-IBD vaccination of broiler chickens was not as effective as was observed in SPF leghorns, based on IML of bursa tissue. However, Vaxxitek HVT+IBD vaccination protected broilers following challenge with ST-C in both Trial 1 (30-wk-old breeder progeny) and Trial 2 (60-wk-old breeder progeny). Partial protection against FF6 (Trial 1) and DMV/5038

  20. Effect of Testosterone Administration and Spiking on Reproductive Success of Broiler Breeder Flocks.

    PubMed

    Ordas, B; Vahedi, S; Seidavi, A; Rahati, M; Laudadio, V; Tufarelli, V

    2015-10-01

    Age negatively affects reproductive success of broiler breeder flocks. One of the main hormones involved in the change of fertility with the age is testosterone (TT). The introduction of young males at later production stages of broiler flocks is known as spiking and is expected to reduce the fertility decline with age. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of injection of different levels of TT and the effect of spiking on reproductive fitness of broiler breeder flocks. Two experiments were conducted on Ross 308 breeder flocks for 10 weeks (41-50 weeks of age). The experiment 1 included a control and three treatments corresponding to three doses of TT (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 cc), while the experiment 2 included a control and one treatment corresponding to spiking. The lower dose of TT (0.1 cc) and the spiking clearly slowed down the decline in hatchability. Therefore, either the external administration of TT to the males when the natural concentration of TT starts to decline or spiking the breeder flock with young roosters could contribute to improve reproductive success in later stages of the production cycle in broiler breeder flocks.

  1. Epidemiological survey on Mycoplasma synoviae infection in Portuguese broiler breeder flocks.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Fernando Alberto; Cardoso, Luís; Coelho, Ana Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    Since modernization and expansion of the poultry industry, infections with Mycoplasma spp. bacteria have been reported as a cause of considerable economic losses. The prevalence of Mycoplasma synoviae infection in 974,000 Portuguese broiler breeders, belonging to 36 flocks, was investigated from December 2008 to March 2012. This study was conducted using a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the analysis of serum antibodies, and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the tracheal tissue. Twenty-four flocks were simultaneously found positive by ELISA and PCR [66.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 43.5-76.9%]. The M. synoviae prevalence among chickens averaged 40.3% (483/1,200), with values ranging from 0.0 to 83.3% per flock. The prevalence of farms where M. synoviae positive birds have been found was determined in different poultry categories such as density, biosecurity, strains, offspring quality, premises'age, and others husbandry factors. Prevalence values were significantly higher among birds housed in new facilities (less than 3 years old) and were also significantly higher in the production period. The high prevalence of M. synoviae infection detected in the present study suggests the need to adopt appropriate control measures.

  2. The long-term dynamics of Campylobacter colonizing a free-range broiler breeder flock: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Colles, Frances M; McCarthy, Noel D; Bliss, Carly M; Layton, Ruth; Maiden, Martin C J

    2015-01-01

    A free-range broiler breeder flock was studied in order to determine the natural patterns of Campylobacter colonization over a period of 63 weeks. Campylobacter sequence types (STs) were not mutually exclusive and on average colonized only 17.7% of the birds tested at any time. Campylobacter STs typically reached a peak in prevalence upon initial detection in the flock before tailing off, although the ST and antigenic flaA short variable region in combination were stable over a number of months. There was evidence that, with a couple of exceptions, the ecology of C. jejuni and C. coli differed, with the latter forming a more stable population. Despite being free range, no newly colonizing STs were detected over a 6-week period in autumn and a 10-week period in winter, towards the end of the study. There was limited evidence that those STs identified among broiler chicken flocks on the same farm site were likely to colonize the breeder flock earlier (R2 0.16, P 0.01). These results suggest that there is natural control of Campylobacter dynamics within a flock which could potentially be exploited in designing new intervention strategies, and that the two different species should perhaps be considered separately. PMID:25588789

  3. The long-term dynamics of Campylobacter colonizing a free-range broiler breeder flock: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Colles, Frances M; McCarthy, Noel D; Bliss, Carly M; Layton, Ruth; Maiden, Martin C J

    2015-04-01

    A free-range broiler breeder flock was studied in order to determine the natural patterns of Campylobacter colonization over a period of 63 weeks. Campylobacter sequence types (STs) were not mutually exclusive and on average colonized only 17.7% of the birds tested at any time. Campylobacter STs typically reached a peak in prevalence upon initial detection in the flock before tailing off, although the ST and antigenic flaA short variable region in combination were stable over a number of months. There was evidence that, with a couple of exceptions, the ecology of C. jejuni and C. coli differed, with the latter forming a more stable population. Despite being free range, no newly colonizing STs were detected over a 6-week period in autumn and a 10-week period in winter, towards the end of the study. There was limited evidence that those STs identified among broiler chicken flocks on the same farm site were likely to colonize the breeder flock earlier (R(2) 0.16, P 0.01). These results suggest that there is natural control of Campylobacter dynamics within a flock which could potentially be exploited in designing new intervention strategies, and that the two different species should perhaps be considered separately.

  4. Inhibition by aminoguanidine of glucose-derived collagen cross-linking in skeletal muscle of broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Klandorf, H; Zhou, Q; Sams, A R

    1996-03-01

    Aminoguanidine (AG) is a nucleophilic compound that inhibits nonenzymatic, glucose-derived collagen cross-linking in animal tissues. Whether AG can attenuate the accumulation of collagen cross-links in the Biceps femoris muscle of 64-wk-old broiler breeder hens as well as improve meat quality, was investigated. Eighty-four broiler breeder hens (30-wk-old) were divided into four equal groups. Each group was assigned randomly to diets supplemented with 0. 200, 400, or 800 ppm AG, respectively. Birds were fed individually, 150 g diet/d. After feeding AG for 34 wk, six birds from each group were killed and samples from the leg muscle were analyzed for changes in collagen content. Aminoguanidine decreased (P < 0.05) glucose-derived collagen cross-links in skeletal muscle as measured by fluorescence and collagen solubility. Insoluble collagen fraction decreased with increasing AG dosage, whereas acid-soluble and pepsin-soluble fractions increased with increasing AG dosage. Aminoguanidine did not affect shear force. In agreement with studies on animals with diabetes, AG is a potent inhibitor of glucose-derived cross-linking in chickens although the results from the measurements of shear force do not support its used for improving carcass quality in spent hens.

  5. Sperm production and testicular development of broiler breeder males reared on shortened growth cycles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Feed restriction is an important tool used in the rearing of broiler breeders to control growth and maintain body weight. Feed restriction during the growing phase typically provides 60-80% less than what birds would consume if provided feed ad libitum, resulting in a perceived animal welfare issu...

  6. Mating behavior and fertility of broiler breeder males reared on shortened growth cycles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of the more difficult tasks when raising broiler breeder cockerels is controlling weight gain in the rearing house without inflicting excess stress. This is a period of time for the young male when many portions of reproductive system are in the formative stages and, if neglected, can have lif...

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica isolates from healthy breeder and broiler flocks in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Lurdes; Correia, Ivone; Themudo, Patrícia; Neto, Isabel; Caniça, Manuela; Bernardo, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    Three hundred and thirty-three isolates representing 40 different serotypes of Salmonella enterica, recovered from environmental and faecal samples of breeder and broiler flocks from 2009 to 2011, were studied. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by measuring the minimal inhibitory concentration of 11 antimicrobials using the agar dilution method. Salmonella Havana, S. Enteritidis and S. Mbandaka were the most common serotypes isolated from broiler flocks, while S. Enteritidis was the common isolate from breeder flocks. The frequency of non-wild-type Salmonella isolates (those with decreased susceptibility to the different antimicrobials) varied according to serotype. S. Mbandaka in broilers and S. Enteritidis in both breeders and broilers showed higher frequencies of reduced susceptibility to quinolones, but clinical resistance towards ciprofloxacin was not observed. Reduced susceptibility to sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, ampicillin and streptomycin were common in Salmonella Typhimurium isolates. Two isolates of S. Havana from broilers were resistant to cefotaxime and phenotypically categorised as extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers. The results presented in this study provide useful data on the antimicrobial susceptibility of different Salmonella serotypes and highlight the high diversity of multi-drug resistance patterns present. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The gait dynamics of the modern broiler chicken: a cautionary tale of selective breeding.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Heather; Daley, Monica A; Corr, Sandra A; Hutchinson, John R

    2013-09-01

    One of the most extraordinary results of selective breeding is the modern broiler chicken, whose phenotypic attributes reflect its genetic success. Unfortunately, leg health issues and poor walking ability are prevalent in the broiler population, with the exact aetiopathogenesis unknown. Here we present a biomechanical analysis of the gait dynamics of the modern broiler and its two pureline commercial broiler breeder lines (A and B) in order to clarify how changes in basic morphology are associated with the way these chickens walk. We collected force plate and kinematic data from 25 chickens (market age), over a range of walking speeds, to quantify the three-dimensional dynamics of the centre of mass (CoM) and determine how these birds modulate the force and mechanical work of locomotion. Common features of their gait include extremely slow walking speeds, a wide base of support and large lateral motions of the CoM, which primarily reflect changes to cope with their apparent instability and large body mass. These features allowed the chickens to keep their peak vertical forces low, but resulted in high mediolateral forces, which exceeded fore-aft forces. Gait differences directly related to morphological characteristics also exist. This was particularly evident in Pureline B birds, which have a more crouched limb posture. Mechanical costs of transport were still similar across all lines and were not exceptional when compared with more wild-type ground-running birds. Broiler chickens seem to have an awkward gait, but some aspects of their dynamics show rather surprising similarities to other avian bipeds.

  9. Effect of dietary antimicrobials on immune status in broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary antimicrobials (anticoccidials plus antibiotic growth promoters) on the development of post-hatch immune systems in commercial broiler chickens. One hundred and five day-old broiler chicks were raised on the used litter and provi...

  10. Echocardiographic study of pulmonary hypertension syndrome in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Lemus, L A; Miller, M W; Jeffrey, J S; Odom, T W

    2000-01-01

    Echocardiography was used to study cardiovascular structure and function during the development of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS) in broiler chickens. Body weight-normalized right and left ventricular diameters at both end-diastole (RVDD, LVDD) and end-systole (RVDS, LVDS) were determined weekly in broilers reared under either normobaric (altitude, 96.7 m) or hypobaric conditions (simulated altitude, 2900 m) until 5 wk of age. Hypobaric-exposed broilers had larger RVDD at 3 and 4 wk of age and larger RVDS at 3, 4, and 5 wk of age. Hypobaric-exposed broilers also had larger LVDD at 2, 3, 4, and 5 wk of age and larger LVDS at 4 wk of age. Right (RVFS) and left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS) were smaller in hypobaric- vs. normobaric-exposed broilers at 3, 4, and 5 wk of age and at 4 wk of age, respectively. Among hypobaric-exposed birds, PHS-positive (+) broilers had larger RVDD and RVDS than PHS-negative (-) broilers on week 3 and on weeks 1 and 3 after hypobaric exposure, respectively. PHS-positive (+) broilers also had smaller RVFS on week 1 after hypobaric exposure. Electrocardiographic and post-mortem data indicated that PHS+ broilers also developed right ventricular hypertrophy when compared with PHS-negative (-) broilers. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that PHS develops as a result of pulmonary hypertension and cardiac overload and suggest that PHS+ broilers have a greater and more persistent reaction to hypoxia than PHS- broilers.

  11. Effects of canthaxanthin on the productive and reproductive performance of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Rosa, A P; Scher, A; Sorbara, J O B; Boemo, L S; Forgiarini, J; Londero, A

    2012-03-01

    The effects of supplementing canthaxanthin on productive and reproductive aspects of broiler breeders were examined in this study. In total, 360 female pullets and 36 roosters were placed in an open-sided house with 12 pens, each pen with an area of 7.0 m(2) (3.5 × 2.0 m). At 42 wk of age, the breeder hens and roosters were distributed into 2 experimental groups with similar BW and uniformity. From 46 to 66 wk of age, one group received 6 mg/kg of canthaxanthin supplemented in the diet and the other group received the diet without the addition of canthaxanthin (control diet). Body weight was measured every 28 d, the laying rate was calculated weekly, and mortality was evaluated at the end of the study. Twenty-one weekly incubations were performed to evaluate fertility and incubation responses. To evaluate the antioxidant effect of canthaxanthin at different storage times and during the incubation process, eggs from each treatment were subject to thiobarbituric reactive substances analysis. Body weight, mortality, and laying rate were not affected by the inclusion of canthaxanthin in the breeder's diets. An increase in hatchability of total and fertile eggs (P ≤ 0.0001 and P ≤ 0.0003, respectively) in breeders fed canthaxanthin during the experimental period was observed. Canthaxanthin also improved breeder fertility and reduced embryo mortality. This can be attributed to reductions in embryo mortality in the first 48 h of incubation and in the last wk of incubation. No differences were observed in BW and quality of the chicks. A reduction of thiobarbituric reactive substances was observed in yolks from stored hatching eggs produced by breeders fed diets plus canthaxanthin. The same effect was observed in yolks of eggs stored for 4 d and incubated for 7 d. The supplementation of broiler breeder diets with canthaxanthin improved the hatchability rate, fertility, and reduced the presence of thiobarbituric reactive substances in eggs.

  12. Trace mineral interactions in broiler chicken diets.

    PubMed

    Bao, Y M; Choct, M; Iji, P A; Bruerton, K

    2010-02-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate trace mineral interactions among organic copper, iron, manganese and zinc (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in broiler chickens. 2. Three experiments were conducted using a control diet which was deficient in Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. 3. In experiment 1, the control diet, supplemental organic Cu, Fe alone and combined diets, were randomly fed to 4 groups of one-day-old Cobb broilers (each group had 6 replicates of 4 birds). 4. In experiment 2, the control diet, supplemental organic Mn and Zn alone or combined with Cu, Fe diets and corresponding inorganic combined diet, were randomly fed to 6 groups (each group had 8 replicates of 6 birds). 5. In experiment 3, the depletion of organic Zn, the depletion of inorganic Zn and normal Zn treatments were carried out in three groups of one-day-old Cobb broilers (each group had 8 replicates of 6 birds). 6. Adding organic Cu, Fe and Mn alone or combined to Zn deficient diets did not significantly improve bird performance and were mostly excreted. Supplemental organic Zn alone or combined with other elements significantly increased feed intake, body weight gain and tibia bone length. However, supplemental organic Fe alone or combined with Cu significantly increased feed intake but had no obvious effect on body weight gain. The organic Fe supplementation resulted in a wider tibia. 7. Depletion of organic and inorganic Zn resulted in decreased feed intake, body weight gain and total tibia bone Zn content. Zinc deficiency did not affect the uptake of organic Fe by tibia bone but reduced its total Fe content. 8. Zinc is the first limiting element among these 4 trace minerals. Adding Mn, Cu and Fe to Zn deficient diets did not stimulate bird performance. Surplus organic Fe and Cu resulted in increased feed intake and increased tibia bone Fe content but did not contribute to bird performance.

  13. Effects of guanidinoacetic acid diet supplementation on semen quality and fertility of broiler breeder roosters.

    PubMed

    Tapeh, Ramin Shahabi; Zhandi, Mahdi; Zaghari, Mojtaba; Akhlaghi, Amir

    2017-02-01

    Decreased semen quality and fertility rate is a common feature in broiler breeder roosters. This decrease is associated with dysfunction of Sertoli cells and defective spermatogenesis. Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA), as a precursor of creatine, plays an important role in the proper functioning of Sertoli cells and energy metabolism in sperm. Twenty, 29-wk-old broiler breeder roosters (Ross 308) were randomly allotted to 4 treatment groups and fed diets supplemented with different levels of GAA, including 0 (GAA-0), 600 (GAA-600), 1200 (GAA-1200), and 1800 (GAA-1800) mg GAA/kg of diet for 26 successive weeks. During a 24-wk period, the seminal characteristics were weekly evaluated. At the end of experiment, sperm penetration and fertility rates were determined, using 68 artificially inseminated age-matched broiler breeder hens of the same strain (for 2 weeks). Semen concentration (P = 0.003), total sperm number (P = 0.005) and sperm forward motility (P = 0.01) were increased by GAA-1200 group. Also, sperm plasma membrane functionality was marginally affected (P = 0.06) in roosters received all levels of GAA. Sperm abnormality and plasma membrane integrity were not affected by dietary GAA. The highest number of sperm penetration holes was recorded for the GAA-1200 group (P = 0.08). Interestingly, fertility rate was increased by the feeding of all levels of GAA (P = 0.01). In conclusion, dietary GAA was associated with improvement in most of the rooster's seminal characteristics and fertility rate, suggesting a potential for using GAA to attenuate the age-related sub-fertility in commercial broiler breeder roosters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Enteric disease in broiler chickens following experimental infection with chicken parvovirus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Day-old broiler chickens were inoculated orally with the chicken parvovirus strain, chicken parvovirus-P1. In four independent experiments, characteristic clinical signs of enteric disease including watery, mustard color diarrhea and growth retardation were observed following infection. The virus wa...

  15. An Unusual Necrotizing cholangiohepatitis in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Janet L.; Julian, Richard J.; Hampson, Robert J.; Trenton, Ron G.; Yo, Ignatius H.

    1988-01-01

    A diagnosis of toxic necrotizing cholangiohepatitis was made in approximately 35% of a flock of 23,000 commercial broiler chickens. Affected chickens were small, and had discrete green foci throughout the liver. Seven to twelve days prior to shipping the flock to slaughter, premixes containing oxytetracycline, monensin, and 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid had been added to the ration because the birds had wet droppings and were growing slowly. The 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid had been inadvertently incorporated at ten times the recommended level. Liver and kidney of affected birds had elevated levels of total arsenic, and special strains demonstrated arsenic in necrotic foci in liver. Histologically there was marked dilation of intrahepatic bile ducts, and patchy necrosis and hyperplasia of the bile duct epithelium. Damage to bile ducts may have been a toxic manifestation of altered metabolism and excretion of the three drugs being fed to birds suffering from intercurrent diarrhea and/or undefined interactions among the drugs. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:17423098

  16. Verification of specific selection SNPs between broiler and layer chicken in Chinese indigenous chicken breeds.

    PubMed

    Lan, D; Hu, Y D; Zhu, Q; Li, D Y; Liu, Y P

    2015-07-28

    The direction of production for indigenous chicken breeds is currently unknown and this knowledge, combined with the development of chicken genome-wide association studies, led us to investigate differences in specific loci between broiler and layer chicken using bioinformatic methods. In addition, we analyzed the distribution of these seven identified loci in four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds, Caoke chicken, Jiuyuan chicken, Sichuan mountain chicken, and Tibetan chicken, using DNA direct sequencing methods, and analyzed the data using bioinformatic methods. Based on the results, we suggest that Caoke chicken could be developed for meat production, while Jiuyuan chicken could be developed for egg production. As Sichuan mountain chicken and Tibetan chicken exhibited large polymorphisms, these breeds could be improved by changing their living environment.

  17. Dietary balanced protein in broiler chickens. 2. An economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Eits, R M; Giesen, G W J; Kwakkel, R P; Verstegen, M W A; Den Hartog, L A

    2005-06-01

    An economic model was developed that calculates economic optimal dietary balanced protein (DBP) contents for broiler chickens, based on performance input and prices of meat and feed. Input on broiler responses to DBP content (growth rate, feed conversion, carcase yield and breast meat yield) was obtained from the model described by Eits et al. (2005). Changes in broiler age, price of protein-rich raw materials and large changes (40%) in meat prices resulted in economic relevant differences in DBP content for maximum profit. Effects of changes in sex or feed price on DBP content for maximum profit were negligible. Formulating diets for maximum profit instead of maximum broiler performance can strongly increase the profitability of a broiler production enterprise. DBP content for maximum profitability depends on how the broilers are marketed; as whole birds, carcase or portions.

  18. Belgian citizens' and broiler producers' perceptions of broiler chicken welfare in Belgium versus Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vanhonacker, F; Tuyttens, F A M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-07-01

    New EU regulations require more stringent country-of-origin labeling, while imports of broiler meat from non-EU countries are increasing. In light of these trends, we have studied citizens' and producers' perceptions of broiler meat originating from Belgium versus Brazil and their perception of broiler production in Belgium versus Brazil. A particular focus was the association between country of origin and perceived level of animal welfare. We also investigated the perception of scaling-up and outdoor access in terms of perceived level of animal welfare. Cross-sectional survey data was collected among Flemish citizens (n = 541) and broiler producers (n = 114). In accordance with literature on general farm animal welfare, both stakeholder types claimed to allocate great importance to broiler welfare and generally agreed with the Welfare Quality model of broiler welfare. Citizens disagreed with the producers that 1) consumers are not willing to pay more for higher welfare products, 2) that broilers suffer little, 3) that broiler welfare in current Belgian production units is generally non-problematic, 4) that scaling-up production units would not have a positive impact on profitability nor a profoundly negative impact on broiler welfare, and 5) that the impact of providing broilers with outdoor access is negative for consumers, farmers, and broilers. Country of origin had a strong influence on the perception of both broiler production and broiler meat. Belgian citizens, and producers (much more than citizens) considered nearly all aspects related to broiler production and broiler meat to be significantly superior for chicken produced in Belgium compared to Brazil. Further research should focus on how these perceptions influence purchase intentions and production decisions. Future avenues for research are to quantify market opportunities for country-of-origin labeling and to investigate to which extent stakeholders' perceptions correspond with reality. © 2016 Poultry

  19. Molecular Characterization of Motile Serovars of Salmonella enterica from Breeder and Commercial Broiler Poultry Farms in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Himel; Biswas, Paritosh K.; Olsen, Katharina E. P.; Shil, Subrata K.; Christensen, Jens P.

    2013-01-01

    Contaminated poultry and poultry products are a major source of motile Salmonellae for human salmonellosis worldwide. Local circulation of any motile Salmonella serovar in poultry has a wider public health impact beyond its source of origin for being dispersed elsewhere through poultry trades or human travels. To investigate the status of motile Salmonella serovars in breeder farms in Bangladesh, multiple flocks of two breeder farms were observed for a period of six months. In addition, a cross-sectional survey was carried out to determine the prevalence and serovar distribution of motile Salmonella by randomly selecting 100 commercial broiler poultry farms. Five pooled faecal samples representing an entire housed flock of breeders or broilers were screened for presence of motile Salmonella following conventional bacteriological procedures. The Salmonella isolates obtained were subsequently serotyped, and characterized by plasmid profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The results revealed that both the breeder farms were positive with three Salmonella serovars: S. Virchow, S. Paratyphi B var Java (S. Java) and S. Enteritidis. Eleven of the 100 broiler farms investigated were positive for motile Salmonella, giving a farm-level prevalence of 11% (95% confidence interval 5–17%). S. Virchow and S. Kentucky were the two predominant serovars isolated from the broiler farms. The PFGE genotyping demonstrated that the isolates belonging to the same serovars were closely related due to variation in only 1–4 bands. All the S. Virchow and S. Java isolates, irrespective of breeder or broiler farm origin, were plasmid-free, except for one S. Virchow isolate from a broiler farm that harboured a 9.7 kb-sized plasmid. The S. Kentucky isolates belonged to three plasmid profiles having plasmids of four different sizes, ranging from 2.7 to 109 kb. This is the first report of any motile Salmonella serovars from breeder and commercial broiler poultry farms in

  20. Molecular characterization of motile serovars of Salmonella enterica from breeder and commercial broiler poultry farms in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Barua, Himel; Biswas, Paritosh K; Olsen, Katharina E P; Shil, Subrata K; Christensen, Jens P

    2013-01-01

    Contaminated poultry and poultry products are a major source of motile Salmonellae for human salmonellosis worldwide. Local circulation of any motile Salmonella serovar in poultry has a wider public health impact beyond its source of origin for being dispersed elsewhere through poultry trades or human travels. To investigate the status of motile Salmonella serovars in breeder farms in Bangladesh, multiple flocks of two breeder farms were observed for a period of six months. In addition, a cross-sectional survey was carried out to determine the prevalence and serovar distribution of motile Salmonella by randomly selecting 100 commercial broiler poultry farms. Five pooled faecal samples representing an entire housed flock of breeders or broilers were screened for presence of motile Salmonella following conventional bacteriological procedures. The Salmonella isolates obtained were subsequently serotyped, and characterized by plasmid profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The results revealed that both the breeder farms were positive with three Salmonella serovars: S. Virchow, S. Paratyphi B var Java (S. Java) and S. Enteritidis. Eleven of the 100 broiler farms investigated were positive for motile Salmonella, giving a farm-level prevalence of 11% (95% confidence interval 5-17%). S. Virchow and S. Kentucky were the two predominant serovars isolated from the broiler farms. The PFGE genotyping demonstrated that the isolates belonging to the same serovars were closely related due to variation in only 1-4 bands. All the S. Virchow and S. Java isolates, irrespective of breeder or broiler farm origin, were plasmid-free, except for one S. Virchow isolate from a broiler farm that harboured a 9.7 kb-sized plasmid. The S. Kentucky isolates belonged to three plasmid profiles having plasmids of four different sizes, ranging from 2.7 to 109 kb. This is the first report of any motile Salmonella serovars from breeder and commercial broiler poultry farms in Bangladesh.

  1. Effect of four levels of added fat on broiler breeder performance.

    PubMed

    Brake, J

    1990-10-01

    Broiler breeders were fed corn-soybean diets and reared under 8 h of incandescent light. Birds were photostimulated with a mixture of incandescent light and daylight at 20 wk of age. Corn-soybean breeder diets with 0, 2, 4, and 6% added poultry fat were fed from 24 to 64 wk of age. Daily feed allocations were adjusted to provide comparable calculated protein intake at peak egg production; calculated ME intake was 413, 437, 461, and 484 kcal per bird per day for the 0, 2, 4, and 6% added fat diets, respectively. Feed was gradually reduced such that ME intake reached 400, 415, 429, and 422 kcal ME per bird per day from 57 to 64 wk of age for the respective diets. When compared with 0%, all levels of added fat significantly increased egg production and feed conversion. Fertility was increased significantly with the 4% added fat when compared with fertility at 2%; fertility with 0 or 6% added fat was intermediate. Female body weight increased in a dose-related manner in response to added fat. Chicks per hen was maximized at 4% added fat. Taken together, the data are interpreted to mean that 4% added fat is near the optimum for broiler breeders.

  2. Lysine requirements of pre-lay broiler breeder pullets: determination by indicator amino acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Russell A; Bertolo, Robert F; Moehn, Soenke; Leslie, Michael A; Ball, Ronald O; Korver, Doug R

    2003-09-01

    The indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method allows the determination of amino acid requirements under conditions of low growth rate as found in pre-laying broiler breeder pullets. Cobb 500 breeder pullets (20 wk old; 2290 +/- 280 g, n = 4) were adapted (6 d) to a pelleted, purified control diet containing all nutrients at >or=110% of NRC recommendations. After recovery from surgery for implantation of a jugular catheter, each bird was fed, in random order, test diets containing one of nine levels of lysine (0.48, 0.96, 1.92, 2.88, 3.84, 4.80, 7.68, 9.60 and 14.40 g/kg of diet). Indicator oxidation was determined during 4-h primed (74 kBq/kg body), constant infusions (44 kBq x h(-1). kg body(-1)) of L-[1-(14)C]phenylalanine. Using the breakpoint of a one-slope broken-line model, the lysine requirement was determined to be 4.88 +/- 0.96 g/kg of diet or 366 +/- 72 mg x hen(-1) x d(-1) with an upper 95% CI of 6.40 g/kg of diet or 480 mg x hen(-1) x d(-1). IAAO allows determination of individual bird amino acid requirements for specific ages and types of birds over short periods of time and enables more accurate broiler breeder pullet diet formulation.

  3. Amino acid requirements of broiler breeders at peak production for egg mass, body weight, and fertility.

    PubMed

    Ekmay, R D; De Beer, M; Mei, S J; Manangi, M; Coon, C N

    2013-04-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine the amino acid and protein requirements of broiler breeders at peak production. In trial 1, 32-wk-old Cobb 500 broiler breeders with similar BW were selected to determine the digestible amino acid requirement for daily product output (g of egg mass + g of BW gain/b/d) and feed conversion (g of feed/g of product) for Met, Phe, Arg, Ile, Lys, and CP in a 42-d production study. In trial 2, 30-wk-old Cobb 500 broiler breeders were selected to determine the digestible requirement for Met, Lys, Ile, Arg, Cys, Val, Trp, and Thr in a 70-d production study. Breeders were given a corn-soy basal diet plus crystalline amino acids with 8 graded levels of amino acids (10 birds per level), representing 40 to 130% of the highest suggested requirements reported in the literature. All other amino acids were maintained at 100% of their suggested requirement level. All breeders were inseminated weekly and fertility was determined. A third trial consisted of 41-wk-old colostomized hens randomly assigned to 1 of 2 diets differing only in the amount of Ile. Urine was collected after a 6-wk feeding period. The average digestible requirements per breeder per day for both product and feed/product ratio from trials 1 and 2 for Met, Cys, TSAA, Phe, Phe + Tyr, Trp, Arg, Ile, Lys, Val, Thr, and CP were 424, 477, 901, 689, 997, 252, 1,026, 830, 916, 799, 613 mg/d, and 20.0 g/d, respectively. The ideal profile for digestible Met, Cys, TSAA, Phe, Phe + Tyr, Trp, Arg, Ile, Lys, Val, and Thr was 46, 52, 98, 76, 108, 28, 112.0, 91, 100.0, 87, and 67%, respectively. A significant decrease in fertility was noted with increasing levels of Ile and Lys. Urine pH was significantly more alkaline in hens fed the higher level of Ile. It is suggested that adequate dietary Lys and Ile should be provided for maximum hatching egg production but an excess may affect fertility.

  4. Clearance of Escherichia coli After Intravenous Inoculation in Broiler Breeder Pullets Fed Skip a day, Every Day in the feeder and Every Day on the Litter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of feeding programs on the time of clearance of Escherichia coli in broiler breeder pullets was investigated. Broiler breeder pullets from a single grandparent flock were in ovo-vaccinated at 19 d of incubation with a vector HVT (vHVT) vector HVT + Infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine....

  5. Impact of Feeding Systems and Hatchery Vaccination Programs on Immune System Development, Salmonella Colonization, Clearance of E. Coli and Reproductive Traits In Broiler Breeder Pullets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Broiler breeder pullets from a single grandparent flock were vaccinated at 19 days of embryonation with Marek's vaccines HVT +SB1 or a Vector HVT + Infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine. The birds were placed in an experimental broiler breeder facility at the University of Georgia and fed ad libit...

  6. Identification of novel candidate genes for follicle selection in the broiler breeder ovary

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Broiler breeders fed ad libitum are characterised by multiple ovulation, which leads to poor shell quality and egg production. Multiple ovulation is controlled by food restriction in commercial flocks. However, the level of food restriction raises welfare concerns, including that of severe hunger. Reducing the rate of multiple ovulation by genetic selection would facilitate progress towards developing a growth profile for optimum animal welfare. Results The study utilised 3 models of ovarian follicle development; laying hens fed ad libitum (experiment 2) and broiler breeders fed ad libitum or a restricted diet (experiments 1 & 3). This allowed us to investigate gene candidates for follicular development by comparing normal, abnormal and “controlled” follicle hierarchies at different stages of development. Several candidate genes for multiple ovulation were identified by combining microarray analysis of restricted vs. ad libitum feeding, literature searches and QPCR expression profiling throughout follicle development. Three candidate genes were confirmed by QPCR as showing significant differential expression between restricted and ad libitum feeding: FSHR, GDF9 and PDGFRL. PDGFRL, a candidate for steroidogenesis, showed significantly up-regulated expression in 6–8 mm follicles of ad libitum fed broiler breeders (P = 0.016), the period at which follicle recruitment occurs. Conclusions Gene candidates have been identified and evidence provided to support a possible role in regulation of ovarian function and follicle number. Further characterisation of these genes will be required to assess their potential for inclusion into breeding programmes to improve the regulation of follicle selection and reduce the need for feed restriction. PMID:22992265

  7. Effects of exposing broiler breeders to nicarbazin contaminated feed.

    PubMed

    Hughes, B L; Jones, J E; Toler, J E; Solis, J; Castaldo, D J

    1991-03-01

    Ten-mo-old broiler feeds were fed nicarbazin (NCZ) at 0, 25, 50 and 100 ppm of their diet for 2, 4, or 6 days to simulate accidental contamination of their feed with the medicant. Reduced egg production was observed in all treatments except 25 and 50 ppm NCZ for 2 days. A consistent reduction in egg weight occurred only at the maximum treatment level of 100 ppm for 6 days. Reduction in hatchability was generally evident by Days 5 and 6 of the experiment except for the lowest treatment of 25 ppm NCZ for 2 days. Due partially to the low number of eggs set, no statistically significant reduction in hatchability was seen for the group receiving 50 ppm NCZ for 4 days, but hatchability had dropped over 17 percentage points (from 93.3 to 75.5%) by Days 5 and 6 of the experiment, and continued to drop to a low of 31% on Days 11 and 12 of the experiment. Shell pigmentation was the most sensitive characteristic measured, with significant depigmentation occurring after only 2 days of feeding 25 ppm NCZ. Generally, the severity and duration of effects were in proportion to medicant concentration and length of treatment time. Fertility was not influenced by the medicant.

  8. Virulence characteristics of Escherichia coli isolates obtained from broiler breeders with salpingitis.

    PubMed

    Monroy, Maria A R; Knöbl, Terezinha; Bottino, José A; Ferreira, Claudete S Astolfi; Ferreira, Antonio J Piantino

    2005-01-01

    Thirty isolates of Escherichia coli from broiler breeders with salpingitis were studied. Using the slide agglutination test, the isolates were found to belong to serogroups O1, O2, O5, O36, O45, O53 and O78. Pathogenicity for day-old chicks was determined by air sac inoculation and isolates were categorized as having high, intermediate or low virulence. Growth on iron starvation medium was observed together with aerobactin production. Based on the results of in vitro adherence tests, attachment to oviduct epithelium from old birds was found to be superior to that observed using corresponding material from young birds. DNA hybridization testing for type 1, P, and S fimbriae revealed predominant expression of type 1, correlating with mannose-sensitive hemagglutination using guinea-pig erythrocytes. In this study, P and S fimbriae were not considered to be important adherence factors. Study findings would suggest that, as far as salpingitis is concerned, type 1 fimbriae can play an important role in E. coli infection in breeders. An interesting result to emerge from the study was the observation that E. coli isolates were completely resistant to serum from young breeders, whereas they were completely sensitive using serum from older breeders. Based on serogroups involved, pathogenicity for day-old chicks and virulence indicators, the salpingitis isolates were similar to those from cases of chronic respiratory disease.

  9. Dietary essential oils improve the hepatic antioxidative status of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Karadas, F; Pirgozliev, V; Rose, S P; Dimitrov, D; Oduguwa, O; Bravo, D

    2014-01-01

    1. A total of 200 male Ross 308 chickens were used to evaluate the effects of a standardised combination of essential oils including 5% carvacrol, 3% cinnamaldehyde and 2% capsicum oleoresin (XT 6930; Pancosma S.A., Geneva, Switzerland) on their performance, hepatic antioxidant concentration and caecal tonsils morphometry. 2. Two diets were offered to broiler chickens from d old to 21 d of age. The control diet (C) was slightly lower in metabolisable energy (12.13 MJ/kg ME) and crude protein (215 g/kg CP) than breeders' recommendation. The second diet, made as XT 6930, was added on the top of the control diet at 100 mg/kg. Each diet was offered ad libitum to birds housed in one of 10 floor pens in a randomised complete block design. The birds were housed in 20 floor pens, 10 birds in each pen, and were allocated to 10 replicates of the two dietary treatments. 3. The concentration of antioxidants in the liver of the birds was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at 21 d of age. Birds fed control diet only had lower weight and converted less efficiently feed to gain compared to birds fed essential oils-supplemented diet. Feed consumption was not affected by dietary treatments. The antioxidant data showed that supplemented essential oils improved the hepatic concentration of carotenoids and coenzyme Q10 when fed to broiler chickens. The morphometry of the caecal tonsils of the birds was not influenced by dietary treatments. 4. It can be concluded that that dietary combination of essential oils, including carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and capsicum oleoresin, improved growth, feed efficiency and the hepatic concentration of carotenoids and coenzyme Q10 when fed to broiler chickens.

  10. Broiler breeder manure phosphorus forms are affected by diet, location, and period of accumulation.

    PubMed

    Casteel, S N; Maguire, R O; Israel, D W; Crozier, C R; Brake, J

    2011-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) modifications of poultry diets have successfully decreased the total P (TP) in manures, but the effects on manure water-soluble P (WSP(M)) remain unclear. Our objectives were to characterize P forms in broiler breeder manures as affected by dietary P modification, location within the pen, and manure accumulation period. Two diets were formulated with and without phytase to attain 0.40% available P (AvP) during the breeder laying phase (22-64 wk of age). Manure was collected after accumulation periods of 48 h, 3 wk, and 39 wk in locations under the feeder and drinker and under the common area (between the feeder and drinker) of the pen. The TP, WSP(M), orthophosphate, and phytate in manure were measured. Broiler breeders that were fed phytase with a simultaneous reduction in nonphytate P (NPP) produced manures with 15% lower TP than those fed a traditional diet, but did not change WSP(M) when averaged over manure accumulation periods and locations within the pen. Regardless of diet, location within the pen, or accumulation period (r(2) = 0.76), the WSP(M) increased linearly as the manure moisture increased. As manure accumulation periods increased (48 h, 3 wk, and 39 wk), TP manure concentrations increased (11.9, 13.2, and 17.3 g/kg, respectively), orthophosphate proportions increased (73.2, 80.1, and 91.0%, respectively), and phytate proportions decreased (23.1, 17.0, and 6.7%, respectively). The mineralization of phytate and other organic complexes, which drive off carbon dioxide, presumably contributed to the increased orthophosphate and TP concentrations. Keeping breeder manures dry helps to avoid the mineralization of phytate to orthophosphate; this mineralization increased WSP(M) in our study, and thus increased the potential for elevated P loss in runoff when surface applied.

  11. Genotype, dietary manipulation and food allocation affect indices of welfare in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Jones, E K M; Zaczek, V; MacLeod, M; Hocking, P M

    2004-12-01

    1. An experiment was performed to compare the welfare of three broiler breeder genotypes (Label Rouge (LA), experimental dwarf (ER) and standard (SR)) fed on a Control or high Fibre diet. The LA birds were fed ad libitum and the other groups were reared to their recommended body weight targets. A group of standard broiler breeders was also fed a restricted amount of food, but to a lesser degree than SR, to achieve the same proportion of body weight (SE) as ER relative to ad libitum-fed dwarfs based on previous research. LA, ER, SR and SE are referred to as 'groups' in the text. 2. Welfare was assessed by comparing time budgets and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios (HL ratios) at 5, 10 and 15 weeks and immune responses at 15 weeks of age. In addition the weight and water content of the gastrointestinal tract at 4-h intervals at the end of the experiment were studied in LA and SR fed on both diets. 3. Body weights of LA, ER and SR fed on the Fibre diets were depressed and LA ate less of the Fibre than the Control diet. The coefficient of variation of body weight at 15 weeks was 7.9% in LA and similar (10.8 to 11.6%) in the other groups. 4. Drinking, litter-directed behaviour, resting and standing were affected by a group x age interaction with restricted birds showing increased drinking over time and less time spent resting compared to LA. The behaviour of ER birds was similar to SE. 5. HL ratios were within the normal biological range although all restricted-fed birds had an elevated HL ratio at 10 weeks of age relative to week 5 whereas LA birds had a reduced HL ratio at 15 weeks relative to 5 and 10 weeks of age. Immune responses were lower in ER and SE and the highest response was in SR. 6. No effects of diet were identified on behaviour, white blood cell counts or HL ratio. 7. With the exception of the crop, the dry weights of digesta in each section of the gut were similar in LA and SR birds. The results suggest that drinker-directed activity might be a substitute

  12. Effect of Dietary Vitamin A on Reproductive Performance and Immune Response of Broiler Breeders

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yuming; Wang, Yongwei; Guo, Shuangshuang

    2014-01-01

    The effects of dietary vitamin A supplementation on reproductive performance, liver function, fat-soluble vitamin retention, and immune response were studied in laying broiler breeders. In the first phase of the experiment, 1,120 Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed a diet of corn and soybean meal supplemented with 5,000 to 35,000 IU/kg vitamin A (retinyl acetate) for 20 weeks. In the second phase, 384 Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed the same diet supplemented with 5,000 to 135,000 IU/kg vitamin A (retinyl acetate) for 24 weeks. The hens' reproductive performance, the concentrations of vitamins A and E in liver and egg yolk, liver function, mRNA expression of vitamin D receptor in duodenal mucosa, antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus vaccine, and T-cell proliferation responses were evaluated. Supplementation of vitamin A at levels up to and including 35,000 IU/kg did not affect reproductive performance and quadratically affected antibody titer to Newcastle disease virus vaccine (p<0.05). Dietary addition of vitamin A linearly increased vitamin A concentration in liver and yolk and linearly decreased α-, γ-, and total tocopherol concentration in yolk (p<0.01) and α-tocopherol in liver (p<0.05). Supplementation of vitamin A at doses of 45,000 IU/kg and above significantly decreased egg weight, yolk color, eggshell thickness and strength, and reproductive performance. Dietary vitamin A significantly increased mRNA expression of vitamin D receptor in duodenal mucosa (p<0.05), increased aspartate amino transferase activity, and decreased total bilirubin concentration in serum. Supplementation of vitamin A at 135,000 IU/kg decreased the proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes (p<0.05). Therefore, the maximum tolerable dose of vitamin A for broiler breeders appears to be 35,000 IU/kg, as excessive supplementation has been shown to impair liver function, reproductive performance, and immune response. PMID:25148198

  13. Consequences of different growth rates in broiler breeder and layer hens on embryogenesis, metabolism and metabolic rate: A review.

    PubMed

    Buzała, M; Janicki, B; Czarnecki, R

    2015-04-01

    Intensive genetic selection of broiler breeders and layer hens for economically important production traits, which has been carried out for almost a century, resulted in considerable differences in the mechanisms of growth and development and, thus, in avian metabolism, both during embryogenesis and after hatching. Selection for meat production (broiler breeders) and eggs (layer hens) led to increased productivity but also brought about metabolic disorders. That intensive genetic selection of broiler breeders and layer hens is effective is seen, for example, in the differences in growth and development, metabolism of the yolk sac, hormones and lipids, gas exchange, and thermogenesis. Due to genetic proximity and different developmental mechanisms in broiler breeders and layer hens, avian embryos and chicks serve as excellent models for fundamental scientific research. This review paper discusses the consequences of different growth rates as a result of long-term genetic selection on embryonic development and metabolic rate of broilers and layers. The evidence presented herein indicates that it would be worth comparing these issues in a meta-analysis. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Pharmacokinetic of sulfaclozine in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sentepe, Ismail; Eraslan, Gökhan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 30-day-old, 14 male broiler chickens were used. Two groups, each comprising 7 animals, were established. While each animal included in the first group was administered sulfaclozine at a dose of 60 mg/kg bw by intravenous route (IV), group 2 was administered sulfaclozine at the same dose but by intracrop route (IC). In group 1, serum sulfaclozine concentrations at 0.083, 0.50, 2, 6, 24 and 72h were determined to be 99.62+/-3.31, 83.50+/-4.22, 72.68+/-5.02, 58.43+/-5.39, 38.66+/-4.04 and 13.14+/-1.64 microg/ml, respectively, via HPLC. In group 2, serum drug concentrations at 0.083, 0.50, 2, 6, 24 and 72h were determined as 4.33+/-0.45, 7.95+/-0.72, 16.46+/-2.68, 22.88+/-3.00, 16.03+/-3.53 and 5.74+/-0.98 microg/ml, respectively. Statistical analyses revealed that, of all the parameters studied, only A(1)( *), A(2)( *), alpha, beta, t(1/2)(alpha), t(1/2)(beta), MRT, Vd(area), k(12), k(21), AUC(0-->72) and AUC(0-->infinity) differed significantly between the groups (p<0.05). Compared to intravenous administration, significant increase in t(1/2)(alpha), t(1/2)(beta), MRT and Vd(area), and significant decrease in A(1)( *), A(2)( *), alpha, beta, k(12), k(21), AUC(0-->72) and AUC(0-->infinity) were observed in the group, which was administered sulfaclozine by intracrop route. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental inoculation of specific pathogen free broiler chickens with a thyroid homogenate, containing chicken astrovirus, which was collected from broiler chickens with runting-stunting syndrome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thyroid glands were collected from field broiler chickens with clinical signs and lesions of Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS), submitted for histopathology and processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing using chicken Astrovirus primers. One-day-old White Rock specific pathogen free (SPF) ...

  16. Effect of vitamins, probiotics and protein on semen traits in post-molt male broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Khan, R U; Rahman, Zia-ur; Javed, I; Muhammad, F

    2012-11-01

    The study aimed to investigate the comparative effect of vitamins E and C, probiotics, lower than normal protein level and the combination of these treatments in male broiler breeders after Zn-induced molting. One hundred and eighty birds at 65 weeks of age were divided into six groups (five replicates per group) in a completely randomized block design. Birds were induced to molt by mixing zinc oxide in feed at the rate of 3000 mg/kg of feed. Upon completion of molting, birds were fed different supplements. One group was kept as a control, while the other groups were fed: vitamin E (100 IU/kg), vitamin C (500 IU/kg), probiotics (50 mg/L of water), lower dietary protein level (14%) or the combination of these treatments. Results revealed that vitamins (E and C) supplementation increased (P<0.05) semen volume, however, sperm motility and egg fertility were significantly higher only in vitamin E supplemented group compared to control. The dead sperm percentage decreased (P<0.05) in vitamin C fed group, whereas, sperm concentration did not differ (P>0.05) between the control and treated groups. The results validate the key role of antioxidant vitamins in male broiler breeders' fertility after Zn-induced molting.

  17. Apparent attachment of Campylobacter and Salmonella to broiler breeder rooster spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Vizzier-Thaxton, Y; Cox, N A; Richardson, L J; Buhr, R J; McDaniel, C D; Cosby, D E; Wilson, J L; Bourassa, D V; Ard, M B

    2006-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that horizontal and vertical transmission of Salmonella and Campylobacter can occur in broiler breeder flocks. The mechanism of this transmission is still unclear. Previously negative broiler breeder flocks have been reported to become positive with Salmonella, Campylobacter, or both after the introduction of "spike" roosters at 45 wk of age. To determine whether the rooster semen is a possible source of transmission to hens for colonization, we evaluated the association of both Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. to segments (head, midpiece, and tail) of individual spermatozoa after artificial inoculation. Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella heidelberg, and Salmonella montevideo, or Campylobacter jejuni (in 0.85% saline) was added to a freshly collected (by abdominal massage) aliquot of pooled semen from roosters housed in individual cages. The semen and bacteria solutions were incubated 1 h at room temperature. Samples were fixed using Karnosvsky and Zamboni fixatives for 24 h prior to centrifuging and rinsing in 0.1 M cacodylate x HCl buffer. Individual aliquot samples were then subjected to both scanning (JSM-5800) and transmission (JEM-1210) electron microscopy. The scanning electron microscopy showed that Salmonella was associated with all 3 segments (head, midpiece, and tail) of the spermatozoa and apparently equally distributed. Campylobacter was mainly associated with the midpiece and tail segments; few isolates were located on the head segment. The transmission electron microscopy showed apparent attachment of Salmonella and Campylobacter to the spermatozoa.

  18. Lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, arginine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, and threonine maintenance requirements of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Sakomura, N K; Ekmay, R D; Mei, S J; Coon, C N

    2015-11-01

    Five hundred and sixty Cobb-Vantress broiler breeders were used to determine the maintenance requirement of dietary Arg, His, Ile, Leu, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, and Val in 10 21-d assays using the comparative slaughter technique. Fifty sexually immature broiler breeder pullets per assay were given crystalline amino acid diets containing graded levels of Arg, His, Ile, Leu, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, or Val, respectively, representing 0, 10, 20, 30, 40% of their suggested requirement level (NRC, 1994) with all other amino acids maintained at 40% of their suggested requirement level. Sixty hens were slaughtered prior to the beginning of the study to assess initial body composition at 3 weight groups. Linear regression lines (protein accretion vs. amino acid intake) were determined and the maintenance requirements were calculated based on zero protein accretion. The maintenance requirements expressed on a metabolic weight basis were determined to be 174, 94, 52, 81, 60, 126, 133, and 155 mg/kg(0.75)/d for Arg, Ile, Leu, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, and Val, respectively. Additionally, the maintenance requirements, expressed on metabolic protein weight basis, were determined to be 651, 329, 172, 295, 223, 523, 478, and 546 mg/kgCP/d for Arg, Ile, Leu, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, and Val, respectively. The requirement for His could not be established as the results obtained were outside of assay range.

  19. Effects of floor eggs on hatchability and later life performance in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, H; Sosef, M P; Lourens, A; van Harn, J

    2016-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted in which effects of floor eggs, washed floor eggs, and clean nest eggs were investigated on incubation characteristics and performance in later life of broiler chickens. In both experiments, a young and an older breeder flock were used in a 3×2 factorial design during incubation. In the second experiment, male and female chickens were reared separately until d 35 of age in floor pens. During this grow out trial, an extra group was created in which chickens obtained from clean nest eggs were mixed with chickens obtained from floor eggs, meaning that grow out period was set up as a 4×2×2 factorial design with 4 egg types, 2 breeder ages, and 2 sexes. In both experiments, fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs were lower in floor and washed eggs than in clean nest eggs (hatchability: experiment 1: 74.4 vs. 70.6 vs. 92.6% for floor eggs, washed floor eggs and clean nest eggs, respectively, P<0.001; experiment 2: 78.3 vs. 81.7 vs. 90.2%, respectively, P<0.001). In experiment 2, BW at d 0 of chickens obtained from clean nest eggs was higher than that of chickens from floor eggs and washed floor eggs (41.5 vs. 40.4 and 40.3 g, respectively; P<0.001). This difference disappeared during the grow out period and was absent at slaughter age at d 35 of age. Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and mortality during the grow out period were not affected by egg type. Incidence and severity of hock burns and footpad dermatitis were not affected by egg type or breeder age. Litter friability at d 35 of age tended to be lower in pens with chickens obtained from washed floor eggs compared to clean nest eggs. We conclude that incubation of floor eggs or washed floor eggs resulted in lower fertility and hatchability compared to clean nest eggs, but that performance during the grow out period was not affected.

  20. Maternal hyperthyroidism is associated with a decreased incidence of cold-induced ascites in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Akhlaghi, A; Zamiri, M J; Zare Shahneh, A; Jafari Ahangari, Y; Nejati Javaremi, A; Rahimi Mianji, G; Mollasalehi, M R; Shojaie, H; Akhlaghi, A A; Deldar, H; Atashi, H; Ansari Pirsaraei, Z; Zhandi, M

    2012-05-01

    A hypothesis was tested that providing the breeder hens with exogenous thyroxine (T(4)) would help their offspring to better survive the ascites-inducing condition during the growing period. In total, 132 broiler breeder hens were randomly assigned to one of 3 treatments: control (CON), hypothyroid [HYPO; 6-N-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU)-treated], and hyperthyroid (HYPER; T(4)-treated). The hens were artificially inseminated, and the hatching eggs (n = 1,320) were incubated. No eggs in the HYPO group hatched. The 1-d-old male chicks (n = 288) from other groups were reared for 42 d under standard or low ambient temperature to induce ascites. Blood samples were drawn from the hens, embryos, and broilers for determination of T(4) and triiodothyronine (T(3)). The hematocrit was also determined in broilers. The PTU-treated hens had an increased BW along with lower plasma T(3) and T(4) concentrations. Plasma T(4) was higher in the HYPER hens compared with CON hens, but T(3) concentration was not different between these groups. The fertility rate was not affected by either hypo- or hyperthyroidism. The embryos in the HYPO group had lower plasma T(3) and T(4) concentrations at d 18 of embryonic development and internal pipping. Higher plasma T(4) was recorded in the HYPER birds at internal pipping, although plasma T(3) concentration was not affected at this stage. Maternal hyperthyroidism decreased the overall incidence of ascites in the cold-exposed chickens (10.0 vs. 33.4% for HYPER and CON groups, respectively). Although the effect of maternal PTU or T(4) treatment on plasma thyroid hormones and on the right ventricle-to-total ventricular weight ratio in the broilers was not significant, the cold-exposed healthy CON chicks showed higher hematocrit values, compared with the HYPER birds. It was concluded that maternal hyperthyroidism could decrease the incidence of cold-induced ascites in broiler chickens; however, probable causal mechanisms remain to be elucidated.

  1. A Systematic Review Characterizing On-Farm Sources of Campylobacter spp. for Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Agunos, Agnes; Waddell, Lisa; Léger, David; Taboada, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter are frequently isolated from broiler chickens worldwide. In Canada, campylobacteriosis is the third leading cause of enteric disease and the regional emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter in broiler chickens has raised a public health concern. This study aimed to identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature on sources of Campylobacter in broilers at the farm level using systematic review methodology. Literature searches were conducted in January 2012 and included electronic searches in four bibliographic databases. Relevant studies in French or English (n = 95) conducted worldwide in any year and all study designs were included. Risk of Bias and GRADE criteria endorsed by the Cochrane collaboration was used to assess the internal validity of the study and overall confidence in the meta-analysis. The categories for on-farm sources were: broiler breeders/vertical transfer (number of studies = 32), animals (n = 57), humans (n = 26), environment (n = 54), and water (n = 63). Only three studies examined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter from these on-farm sources. Subgroups of data by source and outcome were analyzed using random effect meta-analysis. The highest risk for contaminating a new flock appears to be a contaminated barn environment due to insufficient cleaning and disinfection, insufficient downtime, and the presence of an adjacent broiler flock. Effective biosecurity enhancements from physical barriers to restricting human movement on the farm are recommended for consideration to enhance local on-farm food safety programs. Improved sampling procedures and standardized laboratory testing are needed for comparability across studies. Knowledge gaps that should be addressed include farm-level drug use and antimicrobial resistance information, further evaluation of the potential for vertical transfer, and improved genotyping methods to

  2. A systematic review characterizing on-farm sources of Campylobacter spp. for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Agunos, Agnes; Waddell, Lisa; Léger, David; Taboada, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter are frequently isolated from broiler chickens worldwide. In Canada, campylobacteriosis is the third leading cause of enteric disease and the regional emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter in broiler chickens has raised a public health concern. This study aimed to identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature on sources of Campylobacter in broilers at the farm level using systematic review methodology. Literature searches were conducted in January 2012 and included electronic searches in four bibliographic databases. Relevant studies in French or English (n = 95) conducted worldwide in any year and all study designs were included. Risk of Bias and GRADE criteria endorsed by the Cochrane collaboration was used to assess the internal validity of the study and overall confidence in the meta-analysis. The categories for on-farm sources were: broiler breeders/vertical transfer (number of studies = 32), animals (n = 57), humans (n = 26), environment (n = 54), and water (n = 63). Only three studies examined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter from these on-farm sources. Subgroups of data by source and outcome were analyzed using random effect meta-analysis. The highest risk for contaminating a new flock appears to be a contaminated barn environment due to insufficient cleaning and disinfection, insufficient downtime, and the presence of an adjacent broiler flock. Effective biosecurity enhancements from physical barriers to restricting human movement on the farm are recommended for consideration to enhance local on-farm food safety programs. Improved sampling procedures and standardized laboratory testing are needed for comparability across studies. Knowledge gaps that should be addressed include farm-level drug use and antimicrobial resistance information, further evaluation of the potential for vertical transfer, and improved genotyping methods to

  3. Changes in ovarian function and egg production in commercial broiler breeders through 40 weeks of lay.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, R; Hocking, P M

    2012-01-01

    1. Egg production, body weight, feed intake and mortality were recorded in over 78 000 broiler breeder hens in 4 commercial flocks housed in 16 houses from early lay though 40 weeks of lay. A total of 420 hens were sampled at regular intervals throughout the laying period to determine the changes in body weight and the numbers of yellow follicles, paired follicles and hierarchical positions with time in the ovary throughout lay to relate ovarian function to productivity. Average egg weight was recorded weekly from one flock. 2. A quadratic equation fitted the changes in time for the number of yellow follicles, body weight, feed intake and mortality; a linear equation described the decline in the number positions in the hierarchy and there was a linear decline in the logistic scale of the proportions of yellow follicles developing as pairs of similar weight. Egg production was described by a cubic equation and egg weight by a line plus exponential model. 3. The average number of yellow follicles declined from 7·2 to 5·4 and the number of hierarchical positions from 6 to 5 from 4 to 40 weeks after photostimulation. The proportion of follicles developing as pairs of similar weight was over 25% at the onset of lay and declined to less than 10% from 20 weeks after photostimulation, representing a substantial loss of potential productivity. 4. Body weight and egg production were similar to the breeder's targets whereas average egg weight and mortality were higher than expected. 5. The relationship defining ovarian function will facilitate the development of an improved model of egg production in broiler breeder hens.

  4. The meat quality and growth performance in broiler chickens fed diet with cinnamon powder.

    PubMed

    Sang-Oh, Park; Chae-Min, Ryu; Byung-Sung, Park; Jong, Hwangbo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the feeding effect of diets containing 3, 5 and 7% of cinnamon powder on meat quality and growth performance in broiler chickens. The chicken meat quality and growth performance in broiler chickens fed diets containing cinnamon powder increased significantly (P < 0.05) when compared to the control group. However, the TBARS of the meat of chickens fed diets containing cinnamon powder decreased significantly (P < 0.05) when compared to the control group. These findings suggest that the cinnamon powder can improve the shelf life and quality of chicken meat with maximize the productivity of broiler chickens.

  5. Organic trace minerals (Mintrex P) in broiler breeder diets and pre-incubation conditions on bone development and leg health of broilers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leg health issues and bone disorders are developmental problems that may be increased by environmental stress, inadequate nutrition, and improper incubation conditions. Organic trace minerals (OTM) as Mintrex® P were added on top (1 kg/MT) of Ross 708 broiler breeder diets from start of lay. Eggs fr...

  6. Relationships between multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Schwarzengrund and both broiler chickens and retail chicken meats in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asai, Tetsuo; Murakami, Koichi; Ozawa, Manao; Koike, Ryoji; Ishikawa, Hitoshi

    2009-05-01

    We examined 29 isolates of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Schwarzengrund from broiler chickens (n=19) and retail chicken meats (n=10) in Japan for antimicrobial susceptibility and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiling. All isolates exhibited resistance to both bicozamycin and sulfadimethoxine (minimum inhibitory concentration of both antimicrobial agents: >512 microg/ml). Nalidixic acid resistance was found in only one broiler chicken isolate. PFGE analysis showed that there were two genotypes among S. Schwarzengrund isolates. Isolates from 11 of 19 broiler chickens and from 6 of 10 retail chicken meats exhibited resistance to dihydrostreptomycin, kanamycin, oxytetracycline, bicozamycin, trimethoprim, and sulfadimethoxine, and had an identical PFGE pattern classified into a predominant genotype. Thus, our results indicate that genetically identical multidrug-resistant S. Schwarzengrund appeared to be disseminated among broiler chickens and retail chicken meats in Japan.

  7. Effect of litter quality on foot pad dermatitis, hock burns and breast blisters in broiler breeders during the production period.

    PubMed

    Kaukonen, Eija; Norring, Marianna; Valros, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Foot pad dermatitis and hock burn lesions are a form of contact dermatitis, a condition affecting skin areas in contact with unsuitable or irritating material. Contact dermatitis is a common problem, reducing the welfare of broilers, and is believed to also affect broiler breeders. However, there is very little research on contact dermatitis in breeders. This study followed the severity of foot pad lesions in broiler breeders throughout the production period. At slaughter the presence of hock burns and breast blisters was also determined. In addition, changes in litter condition over time and the impact of litter quality on foot pads were evaluated. The study was performed on 10 broiler breeder farms, including altogether 18 flocks. Foot pads of 100 hens per flock were assessed at the end of rearing period, three times during the production period, and at slaughter. Foot pad and hock lesions, as well as litter condition were scored on a 5-point scale. Litter quality was evaluated as pH, moisture and ammonia content. The condition of foot pads deteriorated towards slaughter age, with the occurrence of severe lesions reaching a maximum of 64% on average at slaughter. Hock lesions and breast blisters were rare. The litter layer became drier over time. Although poorer litter condition and wetness influenced foot pad health negatively, the effect on severe lesions was not significant. We also observed a negative effect on foot pad condition of larger slat areas. In conclusion, maintaining good litter quality alone is not enough to ensure healthy foot pads in broiler breeders.

  8. Effects of supplementing broiler breeder diets with organoselenium compounds and polyunsaturated fatty acids on hatchability.

    PubMed

    Pappas, A C; Acamovic, T; Sparks, N H C; Surai, P F; McDevitt, R M

    2006-09-01

    The effects of supplementing broiler breeder diets with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and organoselenium compounds on fertility, hatchability, and the weight of 1-d-old chicks was assessed. Prepeak (23 wk) and peak (27 wk) production breeders were fed 1 of 4 diets: a wheat-based commercial breeder diet with 55 g/kg of either soybean oil (SO) or fish oil (FO), but no added Se (only that originating from feed ingredients), and each diet with added Se as Sel-Plex (SO + Se, FO + Se). The diets were designed to contain <0.1 mg/kg of Se and about 0.5 mg/kg of Se for the nonsupplemented (no added Se) and the supplemented diets, respectively. The Se concentration of the eggshell of the hatching egg was measured. The concentration of Se, PUFA, and total lipid content of the brain and liver of the 1-d-old chick was determined. The number of fertile eggs increased, embryonic mortality decreased, and hatchability increased as hen age increased from 23 to 27 wk. The Se concentration in the eggshell and the brain and liver of 1-d-old chicks was higher in the high-Se treatments com pared with the concentration in the low-Se treatments. Fish oil inclusion in the breeder diet increased embryonic mortality in wk 3 of incubation and reduced both hatchability and 1-d-old chick weight in hens of both ages. The addition of Se to the FO diets ameliorated some of these adverse effects, because chicks hatched from eggs laid by 23-wk-old breeders of the FO + Se treatment were heavier than those receiving the FO treatment. The Se concentration in the brain and liver of chicks from the FO hens was higher than that in chicks from the SO hens. The concentration of docosahexaenoic fatty acid was higher in the liver of chicks from the SO + Se treatment compared with that of chicks from the SO treatment, indicating possible protective effects of Se. Hatchability was decreased by increased PUFA and was higher in 27-wk-old compared with 23-wk-old breeders.

  9. Effect of broiler breeder feeding programme and feeder space change at photostimulation using maize- or wheat-based diets on broiler progeny growth performance and leg health.

    PubMed

    Eusebio-Balcazar, P; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Wineland, M J; Osborne, J; Brake, J

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diet type, maternal feeding programme at 29 weeks of age and breeder feeder space change at photostimulation on broiler progeny performance and leg health at 6 weeks of age. 2. Fast-feathering Cobb 500 broiler breeders were fed on either maize- or wheat-based diets that had been formulated to have similar nutrient composition during growing and layer phases. Two feeding programmes, fast or flow, were used from 14 to 29 weeks of age. At 22 weeks, 69 females from each pen were placed in a layer house where feeder space was either similar to that in rearing (6.3 to 6.5 cm/female) or was increased from 6.3 to 8.4 cm/female. Eggs produced at 32 and 44 weeks of age were collected and incubated for two broiler experiments. A total of 16 male and 16 female one-d-old chicks were placed in floor pens in two experiments, respectively, with 6 and 4 replicate pens. Broiler gait scores and leg problem prevalence were evaluated at 6 weeks of age. 3. Data were analysed as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design with diet type, feeding programme and feeder space change as main factors. 4. The wheat diet increased the probability of observing crooked toes in broiler progeny compared to the use of maize, but only when breeders were fed according to the fast feeding programme and given similar feeder space as during rearing. 5. Breeders given more feeder space in the laying period produced progeny with more locomotion problems compared with those provided similar feeder space, but only when maize was used and the slow feeding programme was applied to the breeders. 6. The maternal feeding programme interacted with other factors to influence progeny leg health, but it did not solely influence walking ability or leg problems of progeny. 7. In conclusion, an increased probability of observing walking impairment of broiler progeny was detected when breeders were given greater feeder space at photostimulation rather than no change and fed

  10. Drinking water contaminants (arsenic, cadmium, lead, benzene, and trichloroethylene). 2. Effects on reproductive performance, egg quality, and embryo toxicity in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Vodela, J K; Lenz, S D; Renden, J A; McElhenney, W H; Kemppainen, B W

    1997-11-01

    Broiler breeder hens were used to determine the effect of drinking water containing a low concentration of a chemical mixture (arsenic, 0.8 ppm; benzene, 1.3 ppm; cadmium, 5.1 ppm; lead, 6.7 ppm; and trichloroethylene, 0.65 ppm) and a high (10 times greater than the low concentration of the chemical mixture) levels of the chemical mixture. These chemicals are present in ground water near hazardous waste sites. Water consumption significantly decreased in chickens provided the high concentration of the chemical mixture, whereas feed consumption was not affected in any treatment. There was a linear relationship between increasing concentration of the chemical mixture in drinking water and decreasing body weight of hens. The low concentration of the chemical mixture significantly decreased egg production and egg weight, and increased percentage embryonic mortality. These results suggest that reproductive function in hens is sensitive to adverse effects of contaminated drinking water.

  11. Severe pododermatitis in broiler breeder hens housed on pressure-treated slats.

    PubMed

    Sander, J E; Wilson, J L; Bush, P B; Rowland, G N

    1994-01-01

    Severe foot-pad dermatitis was diagnosed in a case of broiler hens housed on slats made of lumber pressure-treated with chromated copper arsenate. Studies were conducted in an attempt to determine whether contact with the lumber caused the lesions. Breeder pullets were housed for 17 weeks on slats made from either untreated oak or pressure-treated lumber. Cresylic acid disinfectant was applied to one set of each slat type. Foot-pad lesions were scored and tissue arsenic levels were measured. Foot pads of the hens on pressure-treated slats were the only tissue with detectable arsenic levels. All groups developed foot-pad lesions, although the lesions appeared to be most severe, and to have developed earlier, in birds on pressure-treated disinfected slats.

  12. Postural evaluation in a poultry farm for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Kong, Yong-Ku; Jung, Myung-Chul

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate working postures in 9 operations of poultry farming for broiler chickens for 14 body segments with 4 categories, and for fingers with 14 categories. Overall, the farmers commonly bent almost all their body segments and used power grips. The operations of cleaning with water wand and inspecting chickens seemed light work because the farmers walked around most of their working time. The operations of detaching base from hanging feeder and attaching base to hanging feeder had the farmers continue squatting to handle the feeders close to the floor. The farmers also repeatedly bent their trunks in shoveling feces, unloading a box of chicks, and releasing chicks. A power grip was frequently observed due to using tools with round handles. Workplace design to raise working height would be necessary for a better working environment for broiler farmers.

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Silva, R. O. S.; Salvarani, F.M.; Assis, R.A.; Martins, N.R.S.; Pires, P.S.; Lobato, F.C.F.

    2009-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a normal inhabitant of the intestinal tract of chickens as well as a potential pathogen that causes necrotic enteritis and colangio hepatitis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of seven different compounds used for therapy, growth promotion or prevention of coccidiosis was determined by agar dilution method for 55 C. perfringens strains isolated from the intestines of broiler chickens. All strains showed high susceptibility to penicillin, avilamycin, monensin and narasin. Only 7.3% of the strains showed an intermediated sensitivity to lincomycin, and 49 (89.1%) were considered susceptible. For tetracycline and bacitracin, 41.8% and 47.3% of strains, respectively, were considered resistant. PMID:24031355

  14. Comparison of serum biochemical profiles of male broilers with female broilers and White Leghorn chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Bowes, V A; Julian, R J; Stirtzinger, T

    1989-01-01

    Male broiler chickens were compared to female broiler chickens and male White Leghorns with respect to a 15-parameter serum biochemical profile at 9, 20, 30 and 42 days of age in order to determine which, if any, of the parameters tested might be useful in the identification of birds susceptible to sudden death syndrome. In comparison to female broilers, male broilers had significantly lower (p less than 0.01) total protein levels at 20 days of age and significantly higher (p less than 0.01) cholesterol levels at 30 days of age. Compared to male White Leghorns, in which sudden death syndrome has not been reported, male broilers had significantly lower (p less than 0.01) levels of cholesterol and creatinine at nine days of age, total protein at 9 and 20 days of age and albumin at 20 days of age and significantly higher (p less than 0.01) levels of potassium at nine days, uric acid at 9, 20 and 30 days, lactate dehydrogenase at 20, 30 and 42 days and cholesterol at 30 days of age. PMID:2914228

  15. Isolation and identification of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in broiler breeder flocks of Guilan province, north of Iran.

    PubMed

    Asadpour, Y; Bozorgmehrifard, M H; Pourbakhsh, S A; Banani, M; Charkhkar, S

    2008-06-01

    The aims of the present study were to isolate and serotype, determine the Seroprevalence, Drug susceptibility and diagnosis of infection by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). In this study 460 serum samples and 220 tracheal swabs, 90 ovaries and oviduct swabs, 90 misshapen egg shells swabs were collected from 22 broiler breeder flocks of 5 companies. Serological results showed that all of the 22 flocks (100%) were positive for ORT infection. Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) antibodies were detected in 289 (62/83%) out of the 460 serum samples. ORT was detected from tracheal swabs of seven flocks (31/81% or 3/18% out of 220 tracheal swabs). There was significant correlation between flock different ages and ORT titers (p<0.05), but correlation of flock ages and ORT isolates was not significantly different (p>0.05). Seven flocks infected with ORT were detected positive in PCR but bacteria were Isolated from only five culture. No ovaries and oviducts, misshapen egg shell swabs yielded ORT. A 784 bp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified using ORT specific primers in the PCR. All the isolates were identified as serotype A by Rapid Agglutination Test. Drug sensitivity test using standard disk diffusion technique was performed with 27 antibiotics. Antibiotic susceptibility for Quinolons family was seen more than the others and Cephalosporins family except to Cephalexin. The isolates were 80-100% susceptible to Tetracycline family and the most antibiotic resistant were seen for Aminopenicillins, Polypeptides, Sulfanamides and 80-100% resistant to Aminoglycoside family. Eighty percent of the isolates were resistant to Licomycin and 60% were moderate sensitive to Lincomycin. This study is the first report of prevalence of ORT, bacterial isolation, biochemical characteristics, serotyping and molecular method (PCR) in broiler breeder flocks in Guilan province of Iran.

  16. Effect of climatic variables on production and reproduction traits of colored broiler breeder poultry.

    PubMed

    Nayak, G D; Behura, N C; Sardar, K K; Mishra, P K

    2015-04-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the important climatic variables affecting production and reproduction in a broiler breeder flock. The experiment was conducted for a period of 1 year on colored synthetic female line male and female poultry birds. 630 female progeny and 194 male progenies from 69 sires and 552 dams produced in four consecutive hatches at an interval of 10 days were used for the present study. Each of the seven, body weight and reproduction traits were regressed with nine environmental variables. Initially, the data were subjected to hatch effect and sire effect corrections through best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE) method and, then, multiple linear regressions of environmental variables on each trait were applied. The overall regression was significant (p<0.01) in all traits except 20 week age body weight of females. The R(2) value ranged from 0.12 to 0.90 for the traits. Regression coefficient values (b values) for maximum temperature and minimum temperature were significant (p<0.05) on 5(th) week age body weight of males. Similarly, evaporation and morning relative humidity (RH) was significant (p<0.05) for 5(th) week age body weight of females. Almost all b values were significant (p<0.05) for egg production up to 40 week age. The b values representing rainfall, morning RH, afternoon RH, sunshine hours, and rainy days were significant (p<0.05) on bodyweight at 20 week age. All environmental variables except maximum temperature and minimum temperature were significant (p<0.05) on body weight of females at 20 weeks of age. Age at sexual maturity was regressed significantly (p<0.05) with evaporation, afternoon RH whereas, egg shape index was regressed significantly (p<0.05) with a maximum temperature, evaporation and afternoon RH. The result indicated that various environmental variables play a significant role in production and reproduction of breeder broiler poultry. Controlling these variables in adverse weathers may increase

  17. Effect of vitamins, protein level and probiotics on immune response of moulted male broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Khan, R U; Rahman, Z U; Javed, I; Muhammad, F

    2014-08-01

    This study was planned to investigate the comparative effect of vitamins C (L-ascorbic acid), E (DL-α-tocopherol acetate), probiotics, lower than normal protein level (14%) and combination of these treatments on immune response of male broiler breeders after zinc-induced moulting. One hundred and eighty birds at the age of 65 weeks were induced to moult by mixing zinc oxide (ZnO) in feed at the rate 3000 IU/kg of feed. Upon completion of moulting, birds were divided into six groups (five replicates per group) in a completely randomized design and were fed vitamin C (500 IU/kg), vitamin E (100 IU/kg), lower protein level, probiotics (50 mg/l), and a combination of these components, while one group was kept as control. After completion of moulting phase (5 weeks), the treatment effects were tested as in vitro macrophages engulfment percentage, nitric oxide (NO) production, serum antibody titres against Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bronchitis (IB). The results showed that in vitro macrophage engulfment percentage in unopsonized conditions was significantly higher in vitamin E-supplemented group. In addition, in opsonized condition, the macrophage engulfment percentage was significantly higher in both vitamin E- and C-supplemented groups. The NO (opsonized and unopsonized) production and antibody titre against ND and IB were significantly higher in vitamin E-supplemented group. It was concluded that vitamin E is a better option for enhanced immune response in broiler breeders after zinc-induced moulting.

  18. Effectiveness and efficiency of controlling Campylobacter on broiler chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Havelaar, Arie H; Mangen, Marie-Josee J; de Koeijer, Aline A; Bogaardt, Marc-Jeroen; Evers, Eric G; Jacobs-Reitsma, Wilma F; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Wagenaar, Jaap A; de Wit, G Ardine; van der Zee, Henk; Nauta, Maarten J

    2007-08-01

    Campylobacter bacteria are an important cause of foodborne infections. We estimated the potential costs and benefits of a large number of possible interventions to decrease human exposure to Campylobacter by consumption of chicken meat, which accounts for 20-40% of all cases of human campylobacteriosis in the Netherlands. For this purpose, a farm-to-fork risk assessment model was combined with economic analysis and epidemiological data. Reduction of contamination at broiler farms could be efficient in theory. However, it is unclear which hygienic measures need to be taken and the costs can be very high. The experimental treatment of colonized broiler flocks with bacteriophages has proven to be effective and could also be cost efficient, if confirmed in practice. Since a major decrease of infections at the broiler farm is not expected in the short term, additional measures in the processing plant were also considered. At this moment, guaranteed Campylobacter-free chicken meat at the retail level is not realistic. The most promising interventions in the processing plant are limiting fecal leakage during processing and separation of contaminated and noncontaminated flocks (scheduling), followed by decontamination of the contaminated flock. New (faster and more sensitive) test methods to detect Campylobacter colonization in broilers flocks are a prerequisite for successful scheduling scenarios. Other methods to decrease the contamination of meat of colonized flocks such as freezing and heat treatment are more expensive and/or less effective than chemical decontamination.

  19. Broiler breeders with an efficient innate immune response are more resistant to Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Swaggerty, C L; Genovese, K J; He, H; Duke, S E; Pevzner, I Y; Kogut, M H

    2011-05-01

    In previous studies we characterized the innate immune response of 2 parental broiler lines (A and B) and compared their resistance against Salmonella, Enterococcus, and Campylobacter challenges. In all cases, line A was more responsive and more resistant than line B. In the present study, we sought to determine whether this trend was also observed following challenge with the protozoan parasite Eimeria tenella. In 3 separate experiments, 14-d-old chickens from lines A and B were challenged orally with 15 to 50 × 10(3) E. tenella oocysts. Birds were killed 6 d postchallenge and the ceca was removed and scored for lesions and weight gain compared with noninfected controls. Line A birds were more resistant to intestinal pathology as demonstrated by lower lesion scores compared with line B birds. As might be expected, the lower lesion scores in line A chickens were often accompanied by higher weight gain compared with line B chickens, thus reducing potential revenue loss associated with low carcass weights often observed with coccidia-infected birds. The results from this study showed that in addition to having enhanced resistance against bacterial infections, line A chickens were also more resistant to coccidial infections compared with line B birds. Taken together with all of our earlier studies using these lines of birds, an efficient innate immune response protects against a broad range of foodborne and poultry pathogens, including costly coccidial infections.

  20. Modelling changes in the components of eggs from broiler breeders over time.

    PubMed

    Nonis, M K; Gous, R M

    2013-01-01

    1. Because the components of the egg differ in nutrient content, and the proportions of these components change over time, the daily intake of nutrients required to produce an egg will also change with time. Information on these relationships is essential when attempting to determine the nutrient requirements of a broiler breeder hen at different stages of lay, and in predicting performance when the hen is supplied with a given amount of food with a given nutrient composition. 2. Yolk weight is related to hen age and may be predicted using a linear-by-linear function, the coefficients of which are the same for Cobb and Ross breeders. Allometric functions may be used to predict albumen weight from yolk weight, and shell weight from the weight of the egg contents. Egg weight is given by the sum of the three components. 3. The proportion of yolk increased with advancing age whilst the proportions of albumen and shell decreased. However, at a given age, larger eggs contain proportionally more albumen. Eggs from Cobb hens had proportionately more albumen than Ross eggs towards the end of lay. 4. A stochastic population model verified that these functions accurately reflect the proportional changes in the egg components with advancing hen age and at a given age, over a range of egg weights.

  1. Characterization of infectious bursal disease viruses isolated in 2007 from Delmarva commercial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gelb, J; Jackwood, D J; Mundt, E; Pope, C R; Hein, R; Slacum, G; Harris, J M; Ladman, B S; Lynch, P; Bautista, D A; Ruano, J M; Troeber, M M

    2012-03-01

    A study was performed in 2007 to isolate and characterize infectious bursal disease viruses (IBDVs) in commercial broilers grown in the Delmarva (DMV) Peninsula region of the United States. Bursae of Fabricius were collected weekly from 1 to 4 wk of age from broilers on 10 farms with a history of poor performance. Microscopic pathology was used to determine the infectious bursal disease (IBD) status of the broilers. Bursae from 1- and 2-wk-old broilers did not show IBD microscopic lesions. Moreover, broilers on 1 of the 10 farms were IBD lesion free at 3 and 4 wk of age. However, 3 of 9 and 9 of 9 farms yielded broilers with IBD-affected bursae from 3- and 4-wk-old commercial broilers, respectively. Ten IBDV isolates were recovered from 3 of 3 lesion-positive bursal pools at 3 wk of age and 7 of 9 lesion-positive bursal pools at 4 wk of age. Analysis of the viral protein (VP) 2 genes identified all isolates as serotype 1 Delaware (Del) variant viruses. Five field isolates, each representing different molecular clades of the Delaware variant viruses, were selected for further study. Experimental infection of specific-pathogen-free white leghorn chickens with isolates DMV/4813/07, DMV/4947/07, DMV/4955/07, DMV/5038/07, and DMV/5041/07 produced gross and microscopic pathology of the bursa consistent with Delaware variant infection. Monoclonal antibody testing showed DMV/4813/07, DMV/4947/07, DMV/ 4955/07, and DMV/5041/07 to be similar to previous recognized variant viruses. However, DMV/5038/07 was found to be unreactive with the monoclonal antibodies that typically recognize reference strains STC, Del E, GLS, RS593, and AL2. In a challenge of immunity study, 10-day-old progeny from breeders immunized with a commercially available inactivated IBDV vaccine containing the Del E and classic strains were protected to a lesser degree against isolate DMV/5038/07 compared to Del E challenge based on microscopic lesion scores (P < 0.01) of the bursa. This result suggests the

  2. Feeding broiler breeder males. 1. Effect of feeding program and dietary crude protein during rearing on body weight and fertility of broiler breeder males.

    PubMed

    Romero-Sanchez, H; Plumstead, P W; Brake, J

    2007-01-01

    A 2 x 2 factorial experiment was conducted to compare the effects of 2 male broiler breeder feed allocation programs (Concave or Sigmoid) during the rearing period to 26 wk of age and the interaction with dietary CP (12 or 17%) on BW and fertility. From 0 to 2 wk, all birds received a starter diet, after which, pens were randomly assigned to the 4 treatment combinations that ended at 26 wk of age. All males were weighed individually at 4, 8, 12, 16, 22, 26, 28, 32, 36, 40, 48, 52, 56, and 64 wk of age, and fertility was determined weekly from 27 to 32 wk of age and then every 2 wk to 64 wk of age. At 49 wk of age, the male feed allocation for all treatments was increased by 5 g/d. Even when fed the same as Sigmoid program males during the production period, males reared on the Concave feeding program lost BW from 32 to 40 wk of age and exhibited lower BW from 40 to 48 wk of age, which corresponded to a more rapid decrease in fertility. The 17% CP diet increased BW from 8 to 32 wk of age, but no significant differences were subsequently observed. The 12% CP rearing diet improved both weekly and cumulative fertility. A significant interaction between rearing feeding program and dietary CP during the third quartile period showed that the Concave program-17% CP diet combination was most negatively affected. The increase in male feed allocation at 49 wk restored fertility and caused differences among treatments to diminish. These data suggested that BW during the early rearing period did not affect fertility, but an increased BW due to either providing fast feed increments toward the end of the rearing period (Concave) or feeding a 17% CP diet produced males that were unable to sustain fertility after 40 wk of age without an appropriate allocation of feed.

  3. Apparent eradication of Mycoplasma synoviae in broiler breeders subjected to intensive antibiotic treatment directed to control Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Fiorentin, Laurimar; Soncini, Ricardo A; da Costa, José Luiz A; Mores, Marcos A Z; Trevisol, Iara M; Toda, Márcia; Vieira, Nilson D

    2003-04-01

    A Mycoplasma synoviae (MS)-free flock of broiler breeders was housed for brooding and rearing on an MS endemic farm. PCR revealed that the flock became infected within nine weeks. At 22 weeks the flock was transferred to a clean and disinfected house on a previously depopulated farm. The birds were then subjected to three treatments with fluoroquinolones due to recurrent Escherichia coli peritonitis and from the 32 weeks of age they received 600 ppm of oxytetracycline hydrochloride continuously in the feed. Monitoring by PCR showed a decrease in MS positive birds after 34 weeks of age and MS may have been eradicated as judged by consistent negative results in PCR. We conclude that intensive antibiotic treatments supported by adequate biosecurity could clear MS from infected broiler breeders.

  4. Egg laying characteristics, egg weight, embryo development, hatching weight and post-hatch growth in relation to oviposition time of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Akil, R; Zakaria, A H

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine egg laying characteristics and the effects of oviposition time on egg weight, embryo development and post-hatch growth in broiler breeders. In experiment 1, eggs collected for 3 consecutive days on hourly basis between 06:30 and 17:30h were categorized to early, middle and late oviposition times in the clutch. In experiment 2, eggs were incubated to study embryo development, remaining albumen, liver weight, heart weight and the tibia length of embryos at 12, 14, 16 and 18 days of incubation as well as the body weight of hatchlings and chickens at 7, 21 and 42 days of age in relation to oviposition time. About 76% of nest eggs were laid from 06:30 to 11:30h. A similar pattern was observed in floor eggs. Egg weight decreased (P<0.01) with advanced position in the clutch. Generally, oviposition time had no effect on embryo growth parameters. At hatch, body weight of chicks derived from eggs of late oviposition times was less (P<0.01) than that of chicks from eggs produced earlier in the clutch. From 3-week-old onwards, chickens of early oviposition time sustained heavier (P<0.05) weight than chickens of middle oviposition time whereas chickens of late oviposition time obtained a middle weight. Differences in egg weights, body weight at hatch and post-hatch growth due to time of oviposition suggest that oviposition time together with incubation conditions should be considered for obtaining greater uniformity and growth of chickens.

  5. Effects of maternal energy efficiency on broiler chicken growth, feed conversion, residual feed intake, and residual maintenance metabolizable energy requirements.

    PubMed

    Romero, L F; Zuidhof, M J; Renema, R A; Naeima, A; Robinson, F E

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of maternal energy efficiency on broiler chicken growth and energy efficiency from 7 to 40 d of age. Residual feed intake (RFI) and residual maintenance ME requirement (RME) were used to measure energetic efficiency. Residual feed intake was defined as the difference between observed and predicted ME intake, and RME(m) as the difference between observed and predicted maintenance ME requirements. A total of 144 Ross-708 broiler breeder pullets were placed in individual laying cages at 16 wk of age. Hens with the greatest RFI (n = 32) and lowest RFI (n = 32) values from 20 to 56 wk of age were selected (maternal RFI; RFI(mat)). Selected hens were retrospectively assigned to a high- or low-RME(m) category (maternal RME(m); RME(mmat)). At 59 wk, eggs were collected for 8 d and pedigree hatched. A total of 338 broilers grouped by dam and sex were raised in 128 cages where feed intake, BW, and temperature were recorded from 7 to 40 d to calculate broiler feed conversion ratios, RFI, and RME(m). The design was a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial with 2 levels of RFI(mat), 2 levels of RME(mmat), and 2 sexes. Neither the RFI(mat) nor RME(mmat) category affected broiler offpring BW or total conversion ratio. The high-RFI(mat) × low-RME(mmat) broilers had decreased growth to 40 d. Low-RFI(mat) × low-RME(mmat) broilers had a lower RME(m) (-5.93 kcal of ME/kg(0.60) per day) and RFI (-0.86 kcal of ME/d) than high-RFI(mat) × low-RME(mmat) broilers (RME(m) = 1.70 kcal of ME/kg(0.60) per day; RFI = 0.38 kcal of ME/d). Overall, hens with low maintenance requirements (low RME(m)) produced more efficient broilers when other efficiency related traits, represented in a lower RFI, were present. Exclusion of high-RFI × low-RME(m) hens from selection programs may improve energy efficiency at the broiler level. The RME(m) methodology is a viable alternative to evaluate energy efficiency in broilers because it avoids confounding environmental effects and allows

  6. Effect of climatic variables on production and reproduction traits of colored broiler breeder poultry

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, G. D.; Behura, N. C.; Sardar, K. K.; Mishra, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to investigate the important climatic variables affecting production and reproduction in a broiler breeder flock. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted for a period of 1 year on colored synthetic female line male and female poultry birds. 630 female progeny and 194 male progenies from 69 sires and 552 dams produced in four consecutive hatches at an interval of 10 days were used for the present study. Each of the seven, body weight and reproduction traits were regressed with nine environmental variables. Initially, the data were subjected to hatch effect and sire effect corrections through best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE) method and, then, multiple linear regressions of environmental variables on each trait were applied. Result: The overall regression was significant (p<0.01) in all traits except 20 week age body weight of females. The R2 value ranged from 0.12 to 0.90 for the traits. Regression coefficient values (b values) for maximum temperature and minimum temperature were significant (p<0.05) on 5th week age body weight of males. Similarly, evaporation and morning relative humidity (RH) was significant (p<0.05) for 5th week age body weight of females. Almost all b values were significant (p<0.05) for egg production up to 40 week age. The b values representing rainfall, morning RH, afternoon RH, sunshine hours, and rainy days were significant (p<0.05) on bodyweight at 20 week age. All environmental variables except maximum temperature and minimum temperature were significant (p<0.05) on body weight of females at 20 weeks of age. Age at sexual maturity was regressed significantly (p<0.05) with evaporation, afternoon RH whereas, egg shape index was regressed significantly (p<0.05) with a maximum temperature, evaporation and afternoon RH. Conclusion: The result indicated that various environmental variables play a significant role in production and reproduction of breeder broiler poultry. Controlling these

  7. Effect of supplementary choline on the performance of broiler breeders fed on different energy sources.

    PubMed

    Rama Rao, S V; Sunder, G S; Reddy, M R; Praharaj, N K; Raju, M V; Panda, A K

    2001-07-01

    1. Laying performance, egg quality, fertility and hatchability, and fat deposition in liver and abdomen were recorded in broiler breeders (29 to 48 weeks of age) fed on diets containing perarl millet (Pennisetum typhoides) (PM), broken rice (BR) or yellow maize (YM) (600 g/kg diet). Constant ratios of metabolisable energy (ME) to other nutrients were maintained in all the diets. Food grade choline chloride (50%) was added to the diets at 3 concentrations (0, 760 and 1,520 mg/kg). Each diet was offered to 3 replicate groups of 15 birds (12 hens and 3 cockerels), maintained in deep litter pens, to provide 1.46 MJ ME/bird/d. 2. Neither the source of energy nor dietary choline content had any influence on hen-d egg production, fertility or hatchability. Food efficiency and egg weight were significantly reduced in BR-fed groups compared to those fed on the other energy sources. 3. The efficiency of energy and protein utilisation increased and liver fat content was decreased significantly by dietary choline supplementation. 4. Haugh unit score, egg shell weight, liver weight and intestinal weight were not influenced by either supplementary choline or the source of energy. However, the yolk colour index was significantly reduced in PM- or BR-fed groups compared to those fed on the maize-based diet. 5. Deposition of abdominal fat was significantly greater in BR-fed birds compared to those fed on the YM-based diet, while liver fat content was significantly greater in the birds fed on the PM-or BR-based diets than those based on YM. Although supplementation of the diet with choline had no influence on abdominal fat deposition, liver fat content was significantly reduced in birds given diet containing 760 mg supplemental choline/kg diet. 6. The present study indicates that PM or BR can be used as principal energy sources in place of YM in broiler breeder diets without affecting egg production, fertility or hatchability. Liver fat content can be reduced by adding choline at

  8. Microbial community mapping in intestinal tract of broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yingping; Xiang, Yun; Zhou, Weidong; Chen, Jinggang; Li, Kaifeng; Yang, Hua

    2016-10-06

    Domestic chickens are valuable sources of protein associated with producing meat and eggs for humans. The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) houses a large microbial community, and these microbiota play an important role in growth and health of chickens, contributing to the enhancement of nutrient absorption and improvement of the birds' immune systems. To improve our understanding of the chicken intestinal microbial composition, microbiota inhabiting 5 different intestinal locations (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon) of 42-day-old broiler chickens were detected based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. As a result, 1,502,554 sequences were clustered into 796 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 97% sequence similarity value and identified into 15 phyla and 288 genera. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Cyanobacteria were the major microbial groups and Firmicutes was the dominant phylum in duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon accounting for > 60% of sequences, while Bacteroidetes was the dominant phylum in cecum (>50% of sequences), but little in the other four gut sections. At the genus level, the major microbial genera across all gut sections were Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Bacteroides, and Corynebacterium. Lactobacillus was the predominant genus in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum (>35%), but was rarely present in cecum, and Bacteroides was the most dominant group in cecum (about 40%), but rarely present in the other 4 intestinal sections. Differences of microbial composition between the 5 intestinal locations might be a cause and consequence of gut functional differences and may also reflect host selection mediated by innate or adaptive immune responses. All these results could offer some information for the future study on the relationship between intestinal microbiota and broiler chicken growth performance as well as health.

  9. Avian hepatitis E virus infection and possible associated clinical disease in broiler breeder flocks in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Chris J; Samu, Gyozo; Mátrai, Eszter; Klausz, Akos; Wood, Alasdair M; Richter, Susanne; Jaskulska, Barbara; Hess, Michael

    2008-10-01

    In broiler breeder flocks in one broiler integration in Hungary, a new syndrome appeared in January 2005 with initially four successive post-peak flocks experiencing significant decreases in egg production. Clinically birds became depressed and there was a small increase in the mortality rate. Postmortem examinations revealed enlarged livers in up to 19% of birds dying, and enlarged spleens in some. Also observed were birds with either clotted blood or serosanguineous fluid in the abdomen and subcapsular haemorrhages of the liver. Histopathology and polymerase chain reaction excluded tumours and the presence of common tumour-associated viruses. Chronic bacterial infections (especially causing hepatitis, peritonitis and airsacculitis) were common but many enlarged livers had no obvious bacterial involvement. After a 9-month period during which a majority of flocks became affected, no newly affected flocks occurred. Investigations showed that all tested affected flocks were seropositive in the big liver and spleen (BLS) Agar Gel Immunodiffusion test. Subsequent flocks without post-peak egg-production drops were shown to be seronegative in the BLS AGID test, as were all the parent flocks contributing to the affected flocks. Liver samples and cloacal swabs were positive by polymerase chain reaction (aHEV helicase target), and calicivirus-like particles were demonstrated in bile samples from affected birds. These observations are similar to hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome as described in North America and BLS syndrome as described in Australia. Histopathological features were a non-specific chronic hepatitis similar to those described in BLS and hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome. Immunohistochemistry using a BLS-specific monoclonal antibody confirmed the presence of avian hepatitis E virus antigen in livers and spleen.

  10. Trends in occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter jejuni isolates from broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat, and human domestically acquired cases and travel associated cases in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Skjøt-Rasmussen, Line; Ethelberg, Steen; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Agersø, Yvonne; Larsen, Lars S; Nordentoft, Steen; Olsen, Stefan S; Ejlertsen, Tove; Holt, Hanne; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Hammerum, Anette M

    2009-05-31

    Campylobacter jejuni is a frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. Often it causes self-limiting disease but severe or prolonged cases may require antimicrobial treatment. The agricultural use of antimicrobial agents selects for resistance among C. jejuni which is transmitted to humans via food. In Denmark, the use of fluoroquinolones in animal husbandry has been restricted since 2003. The purpose of the present study was to look at trends in occurrence of resistance among C. jejuni from broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat and human domestically acquired or travel associated cases. From 1997 through 2007, C. jejuni isolates were obtained from The Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme (DANMAP) and susceptibility tested for ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline. Erythromycin resistance was at a low level in all the reservoirs during the study period. Resistance to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and tetracycline was significantly higher in C. jejuni from imported broiler chicken meat compared to Danish broiler chicken meat. In domestically acquired human C. jejuni isolates, resistance to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid was for most years significantly higher compared to the level found in isolates from Danish broiler chicken meat, whereas the resistance level was similar to the level found in isolates from imported broiler chicken meat. Imported broiler chicken meat may therefore contribute to the high level of ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid resistance in C. jejuni isolates from domestically acquired human infections. In 2006 and 2007, the occurrence of resistance to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and tetracycline was significantly higher in travel associated C. jejuni isolates compared to isolates acquired domestically. Even though the use of fluoroquinolones is restricted for animal use in Denmark, Danes are still often infected by fluoroquinolone resistant C. jejuni from imported chicken meat or

  11. The contribution of systemic Escherichia coli infection to the early mortalities of commercial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kemmett, K; Williams, N J; Chaloner, G; Humphrey, S; Wigley, P; Humphrey, T

    2014-01-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are a substantial burden to the global poultry industry. APEC cause a syndromic poultry infection known as colibacillosis, which has been previously associated with broiler chickens over 2 weeks old. We recently reported that the intestinal tract of 1-day-old broilers harbours a rich reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli. Prior infections of the reproductive tract of breeders, egg hygiene and transportation all contribute to early colonization of the neonatal gut. Up to one-half of all flock deaths occur in the first week of production, but few data are available describing the contribution of E. coli. In the present study, all dead birds collected on the first daily welfare walk 48 and 72 h after chick placement underwent post-mortem examination. Diseased tissues were selectively cultured for E. coli and isolates subsequently virulotyped using 10 APEC virulence-associated genes (VAGs): astA, iss, irp2, iucD, papC, tsh, vat, cvi, sitA and ibeA. Approximately 70% of birds displayed signs of colibacillosis. Thirty distinct virulence profiles were identified among 157 E. coli. Isolates carried between zero and seven VAGs; ∼ 30% of E. coli isolates carried five to seven VAGs, with 12.7% sharing the same VAG profile (astA, iss, irp2, iucD, tsh, cvi and sitA). Overall, this study demonstrates the significant contribution of E. coli infections to early broiler mortalities. The identification of a diverse E. coli population is unsurprising based on our previous findings. This work emphasizes the need for an effective vaccination programme and provides preliminary data for vaccine production.

  12. Dietary High Fluorine Alters Intestinal Microbiota in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qin; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Liu, Juan; Deng, Yubing

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary high fluorine on ileal and cecal microbiota in broiler chickens. Two hundred eighty 1-day-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to four groups and raised for 42 days. The control group was fed a corn-soybean basal diet (fluorine 22.6 mg/kg). The other three groups were fed the same basal diet, but supplemented with 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg fluorine (high fluorine groups I, II, and III), administered in the form of sodium fluoride. The microbiota of ileal and cecal digesta was assessed with plate counts and polymerase chain reaction-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). It was found that, compared with those in the control group, the counts of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. were markedly decreased (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), whereas the counts of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. were significantly increased (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) in the high fluorine groups II and III. PCR-DGGE analysis showed that the number of DGGE bands, similarity, and Shannon index of ileal and cecal bacteria were markedly reduced in the high fluorine groups II and III from 21 to 42 days. Sequencing analysis revealed that the composition of the intestinal microbiota was altered in the high fluorine groups. In conclusion, dietary fluorine in the range of 800-1200 mg/kg obviously altered the bacterial counts, and the diversity and composition of intestinal microbiota in broiler chickens, a finding which implies that dietary high fluorine can disrupt the natural balance and structure of the intestinal microbiota.

  13. Necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens. III. Reproduction of the disease.

    PubMed Central

    Long, J R; Truscott, R B

    1976-01-01

    Lesions typical of necrotic enteritis could be produced experimentally in from 11-26% of broiler chickens consuming feed containing approximately 10(7) Clostridium perfringens per gram. Highest mortality was produced using isolates from field cases of necrotic enteritis which were reisolated from experimental cases in the laboratory. Penicillin in the drinking water at 100,000 I.U./litre completely prevented mortality whereas chloramphenicol at 110 mg/litre delayed the onset and reduced the number of deaths compared to controls. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:187291

  14. Construction of an infectious cDNA clone of genotype 1 avian hepatitis E virus: characterization of its pathogenicity in broiler breeders and demonstration of its utility in studying the role of the hypervariable region in virus replication.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Byung-Woo; Moon, Hyun-Woo; Sung, Haan Woo; Yoon, Byung-Il; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Kwon, Hyuk Moo

    2015-05-01

    A full-length infectious cDNA clone of the genotype 1 Korean avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) (pT11-aHEV-K) was constructed and its infectivity and pathogenicity were investigated in leghorn male hepatoma (LMH) chicken cells and broiler breeders. We demonstrated that capped RNA transcripts from the pT11-aHEV-K clone were translation competent when transfected into LMH cells and infectious when injected intrahepatically into the livers of chickens. Gross and microscopic pathological lesions underpinned the avian HEV infection and helped characterize its pathogenicity in broiler breeder chickens. The avian HEV genome contains a hypervariable region (HVR) in ORF1. To demonstrate the utility of the avian HEV infectious clone, several mutants with various deletions in and beyond the known HVR were derived from the pT11-aHEV-K clone. The HVR-deletion mutants were replication competent in LMH cells, although the deletion mutants extending beyond the known HVR were non-viable. By using the pT11-aHEV-K infectious clone as the backbone, an avian HEV luciferase reporter replicon and HVR-deletion mutant replicons were also generated. The luciferase assay results of the reporter replicon and its mutants support the data obtained from the infectious clone and its derived mutants. To further determine the effect of HVR deletion on virus replication, the capped RNA transcripts from the wild-type pT11-aHEV-K clone and its mutants were injected intrahepatically into chickens. The HVR-deletion mutants that were translation competent in LMH cells displayed in chickens an attenuation phenotype of avian HEV infectivity, suggesting that the avian HEV HVR is important in modulating the virus infectivity and pathogenicity. © 2015 The Authors.

  15. Polytetrafluoroethylene gas intoxication in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Boucher, M; Ehmler, T J; Bermudez, A J

    2000-01-01

    A poultry research facility that housed 2400 Peterson x Hubbard cross broilers (48 pens of 50 chicks each) experienced 4% mortality within 24 hr of chick placement. Mortality started within 4 hr of placement, and within 72 hr, cumulative mortality had reached 52%. Mild dyspnea was the only clinical sign noted in some chicks prior to death. The primary gross lesion noted in the chicks submitted was moderate to severe pulmonary congestion. The lungs of four of these chicks sank in formalin, and blood-tinged fluid was noted in the mouth and nares of two chicks. The microscopic lesions noted in the affected chicks were moderate to severe pulmonary edema and congestion. The diagnosis indicated to the submitter was that pulmonary edema caused by exposure to an unidentified noxious gas caused the death of the chicks. The poultry house environment was tested for sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and volatile organic compounds (as produced by combustion engines); all tests were negative for significant levels of these compounds. A second broiler flock was placed in the same facility and the mortality at 6 wk was 11%, which was greater than the 2.5%-4.7% mortality seen in the previous four flocks on the farm. Further investigation revealed that the only change in management practice in this facility prior to the onset of the severe mortality problem was the replacement of 48 heat lamp bulbs (one for each pen). The new heat lamp bulbs were polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coated. PTFE gas intoxication has been reported in several exotic avian species, but this intoxication has not been previously reported in a poultry flock.

  16. Influence of egg shell embryonic incubation temperature and broiler breeder flock age on posthatch growth performance and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hulet, R; Gladys, G; Hill, D; Meijerhof, R; El-Shiekh, T

    2007-02-01

    A study was conducted to examine the posthatch growth performance of high-yielding broilers when eggs were incubated at 3 different embryo temperatures from 2 flocks of breeders at different ages (different egg size). Two thousand, four hundred eggs from 2 broiler breeder flocks (29 and 57 wk of age) of the same high-yielding strain (Cobb x Cobb) were incubated in the same incubator for 16 d at 37.5 degrees C. Following candling, the eggs from the 2 flocks were transferred into 3 hatcher cabinets at starting temperatures of 36.5 degrees C (low, L), 37.6 degrees C (middle, M), and 38.7 degrees C (high, H) and adjusted to achieve a shell temperature of 37.5 degrees C (L), 38.6 degrees C (M), and 39.7 degrees C (H) using an infrared thermometer. All chicks were taken off at 21 d of incubation, randomized into floor pens, and reared for 44 d. Body weights, feed intake, and feed conversion were determined at 21, 35, and 44 d of age. Body weight of birds from the H treatment was significantly less at 21, 35, and 44 d compared with the M birds. Birds in the L group weighed significantly less at 35 and 44 d compared with the M birds. Progeny from the older breeder flock had significantly greater BW at 1, 21, and 35 d of age, but had only numerically greater BW at 44 d when compared with birds from the younger flock. Feed conversion for the H birds was significantly higher from 0 to 21 d of age compared with the M and L birds. Broilers from the 29-wk-old breeder flock had lower cumulative feed conversion values than the birds from the 57-wk-old flock. No significant differences in mortality were observed. Posthatch performance appears to be affected by hatcher environment as determined by embryo shell temperature.

  17. Filling and emptying of the alimentary tract of meal-fed broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Buhr, R J; Dickens, J A; Wilson, J L

    2003-12-01

    For evaluation of the filling and emptying of the alimentary tract, broiler breeder hens were cooped and processed over a 2-d period. Hens were fed at 0600 h on d 1 and after access to feed for 0, 2, 4, and 6 h were placed into coops. Half of the hens from each pen were either immediately processed or were held in coops over-night and processed the following morning, d 2. The alimentary tract was excised from the carcass and then separated and weighed in three segments: the crop, proventriculus and gizzard, and intestines. Hens processed on d 1, after access to feed for only 2 h, had attained maximum intestine weight (176 g), but not until after access to feed for 6 h were peak crop weight (95 g) and peak weight for the proventriculus and gizzard (78 g) attained. Hens processed on d 2 did not differ in crop (12 to 14 g) or intestine (140 to 162 g) weight, but proventriculus and gizzard weights were significantly lower for hens not fed on d 1 prior to cooping (54 g) compared with hens fed on d 1 and cooped after 2, 4, or 6 h (62 to 63 g). However, hens processed on d 2 had proventriculus and gizzard weights that were the same as for those hens processed on d 1 and cooped at 0 h (63 g). Clearance of ingesta from the crop, proventriculus and gizzard, and intestines readily occurred while hens were held overnight without access to water.

  18. Vitamin E and selenium in broiler breeder diets: Effect on live performance, hatching process, and chick quality.

    PubMed

    Urso, U R A; Dahlke, F; Maiorka, A; Bueno, I J M; Schneider, A F; Surek, D; Rocha, C

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different dietary vitamin E levels and different selenium sources on the productive and reproductive performance of broiler breeders. In total 640 females and 64 males between 22 and 52 weeks old were studied. A completely randomized experimental design in factorial arrangement, with 4 treatments of 8 replicates with 20 females and 2 males each, was applied. Treatments consisted of 2 vitamin E levels (30 and 120 mg/kg) and two selenium sources (sodium selenite and zinc-L-selenomethionine). Egg production (rate of lay and eggs per breeder), egg characteristics (egg, yolk, eggshell, and albumen weights), fertility, incubation responses (egg weight loss during incubation, hatchability, and hatching window), and hatchling characteristics (weight and yield) were evaluated. There was no influence of dietary vitamin E levels or selenium sources on egg production (P > 0.05). Mature breeders (47 weeks old) fed zinc-L-selenomethionine and 120 mg vitamin E/kg feed produced heavier eggs and albumen. Hatchability of the eggs of breeders fed 120 mg vitamin E/kg feed was higher than breeders fed 30 mg vitamin at 29 wks. The dietary inclusion of organic selenium also promoted heavier hatchling weight until egg production peak (33 wk), but did not influence hatchling quality or hatching window. It was concluded that the dietary supplementation of zinc-L-selenomethione and vitamin E (120 mg/kg feed) could be used to improve egg characteristics and incubation response.

  19. Effects of dietary L-arginine on laying performance and antioxidant capacity of broiler breeder hens, eggs, and offspring during the late laying period.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaoxue; Li, Feng; Mou, Shaoyang; Feng, Jiawei; Liu, Peifeng; Xu, Liangmei

    2015-12-01

    The effects of maternal L-arginine supplementation on laying performance and the antioxidant capacity of broiler breeder hens, egg yolk, and their one-day-old offspring were investigated. In a 9 wk experiment, 210 60-week-old Arbor Acres healthy female broiler breeders were randomly divided into 5 treatments with 6 replicates of 7 females and fed a corn and soybean meal diet with 5 arginine levels (0.96%, 1.16%, 1.36%, 1.56%, and 1.76% digestible arginine). Laying performance and anti-oxidant capacity of broiler breeder hens, eggs, and offspring were evaluated. Digestible arginine level in the broiler breeder diet had a significant effect on the laying rate (linear and quadratic effect, P<0.0001). The highest laying rate was obtained when the diet with 1.36% digestible arginine was fed. There was a significant effect of digestible arginine level in the broiler breeder diet on the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) levels and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) concentration in the broiler breeder serum, egg yolk and serum, and liver and breast of one-day-old offspring (linear and quadratic effect, P<0.05). The T-AOC level was highest and the MDA concentration lowest in all tissues when a diet with 1.36% digestible arginine was fed. No difference in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity in the broiler breeder serum was observed. There were significant effects of digestible arginine level in the broiler breeder diet on the GSH-PX activity of the egg yolk (linear effect, P<0.01; quadratic effect, P<0.05) and serum, liver, and breast of one-day-old offspring (linear and quadratic effect, P≤0.01). The GSH-PX activity in all tissues measured in this experiment was highest when the dietary digestible arginine was 1.36%. These results indicate that the diet with 1.36% digestible arginine (1,972 mg/d) is optimal to satisfy the nutritional needs of a female broiler breeder during the late laying period.

  20. Preparation and evaluation of chicken embryo-adapted fowl adenovirus serotype 4 vaccine in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Muhammad Khalid; Hussain, Iftikhar; Arshad, Muhammad; Muhammad, Ghulam

    2011-02-01

    The current study was planned to develop an efficient vaccine against hydropericardium syndrome virus (HSV). Currently, formalin-inactivated liver organ vaccines failed to protect the Pakistan broiler industry from this destructive disease of economic importance. A field isolate of the pathogenic hydropericardium syndrome virus was adapted to chicken embryos after four blind passages. The chicken embryo-adapted virus was further serially passaged (12 times) to get complete attenuation. Groups of broiler chickens free from maternal antibodies against HSV at the age of 14 days were immunized either with 16th passage attenuated HSV vaccine or commercially formalized liver organ vaccine. The antibody response, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the group immunized with the 16th passage attenuated HSV vaccine compared to the group immunized with liver organ vaccine at 7, 14, and 21 days post-immunization. At 24 days of age, the broiler chickens in each group were challenged with 10(3.83) embryo infectious dose(50) of pathogenic HSV and were observed for 7 days post-challenge. Vaccination with the 16th passage attenuated HSV gave 94.73% protection as validated on the basis of clinical signs (5.26%), gross lesions in the liver and heart (5.26%), histopathological lesions in the liver (1.5 ± 0.20), and mortality (5.26%). The birds inoculated with liver organ vaccine showed significantly low (p < 0.05; 55%) protection estimated on the basis of clinical signs (40%), gross lesions in the liver and heart (45%), histopathological lesions in the liver (2.7 ± 0.72), and mortality (35%). Birds in the unvaccinated control group showed high morbidity (84%), mortality (70%), gross (85%), and histopathological lesions (3.79 ± 0.14) with only 10% protection. In conclusion, this newly developed HSV vaccine proved to be immunogenic and has potential for controlling HSV infections in chickens.

  1. Effects of Zinc Glycinate on Productive and Reproductive Performance, Zinc Concentration and Antioxidant Status in Broiler Breeders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Wang, Yong-Xia; Xiao, Xue; Wang, Jiang-Shui; Wang, Qian; Li, Kai-Xuan; Guo, Tian-Yu; Zhan, Xiu-An

    2017-01-27

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of zinc glycinate (Zn-Gly) supplementation as an alternative for zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) on productive and reproductive performance, zinc (Zn) concentration and antioxidant status in broiler breeders. Six hundred 39-week-old Lingnan Yellow broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 6 groups consisting of 4 replicates with 25 birds each. Breeders were fed a basal diet (control group, 24 mg Zn/kg diet), basal diet supplemented with 80 mg Zn/kg diet from ZnSO4 or basal diet supplemented with 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg Zn/kg diet from Zn-Gly. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks after a 4-week pre-test with the basal diet, respectively. Results showed that Zn supplementation, regardless of sources, improved (P < 0.05) the feed conversion ratio (kilogram of feed/kilogram of egg) and decreased broken egg rate, and elevated (P < 0.05) the qualified chick rate. Compared with the ZnSO4 group, the 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group significantly increased (P < 0.05) average egg weight, fertility, hatchability and qualified chick rate, whereas it decreased (P < 0.05) broken egg rate. The Zn concentrations in liver and muscle were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group than that in ZnSO4 group. Compared with ZnSO4 group, 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group significantly elevated (P < 0.05) the mRNA abundances of metallothionein (MT) and copper-zinc superoxide (Cu-Zn SOD), as well as the Cu-Zn SOD activity and MT concentration in liver. Moreover, the 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group had higher (P < 0.05) serum T-SOD and Cu-Zn SOD activities than that in the ZnSO4 group. This study indicated that supplementation of Zn in basal diet improved productive and reproductive performance, Zn concentration and antioxidant status in broiler breeders, and the 80 mg Zn/kg from Zn-Gly was the optimum choice for broiler breeders compared with other levels of Zn from Zn-Gly and 80 mg/kg Zn from ZnSO4.

  2. Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens II. Pathology and Proposed Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Long, J. R.; Barnum, D. A.; Pettit, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The intestines from 124 dead, sick and normal broiler chickens from 24 cases of necrotic enteritis were subjected to histological examination. Tissue sections from the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and ceca from each broiler were examined histologically for lesions of necrotic enteritis and the presence of coccidia. Lesions of necrotic enteritis were present in one or more areas of the intestine in all but six of 94 dead or sick birds and they were most common and severe in the jejunum. Coccidia were found in only small numbers in both diseased and normal birds. Brown and Brenn stained sections showed Gram-positive bacilli intimately associated with early necrotic lesions on the tips of villi. Tissue sections from the intestines of sick birds permitted a proposed pathogenesis for this disease with the lesion starting at the tips of villi. The similarity in pathogenesis and pathological lesions in this disease of broilers and Clostridium perfringens type C enteritis in baby pigs is discussed. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:4373152

  3. Optimal dietary inclusion of organically complexed zinc for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bao, Y M; Choct, M; Iji, P A; Bruerton, K

    2009-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal content of organically complexed zinc (Zn) for broiler chickens. 2. Five different Zn and manganese (Mn) dietary contents from organically complexed supplements including a control diet containing 15 mg Mn and 20 mg Zn/kg diet, were randomly fed to one-day-old Cobb broilers (each treatment had 6 replicates of 4 birds) for 35 d. Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly. At the end of the experiment, two birds from each cage were killed and their right tibia were collected to measure bone size, strength and mineral contents. 3. Body weight gain and total tibia copper (Cu), iron (Fe), Mn and Zn contents increased linearly with supplemental Zn and Mn intake. The optimal Zn requirements for broilers at 1-14 and 14-35 d of age were 58 and 68 mg/kg diet, respectively. 4. Supplementation of Mn and Zn had no effect on tibia bone width and strength, but increased tibia length. 5. In commercial practice, organically complexed Zn may need to be supplemented during the entire period of production at a higher content than NRC recommendation but it is not necessary to exceed 70 mg/kg diet.

  4. Survey of skin pigmentation of yellow-skinned broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sirri, F; Petracci, M; Bianchi, M; Meluzzi, A

    2010-07-01

    The appearance of whole carcass and skin-on cut-up products is an important attribute that deeply affects the consumer's choice. Skin pigmentation is affected mainly by genetics, concentration and dietary source of pigments, health status of the birds, and scalding-plucking conditions during slaughtering, although other factors might play an important role. Retailers request batches of broiler chicken carcasses characterized by uniform skin pigmentation to be sold as whole carcass or parts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability of skin color of yellow-skinned broilers reared under intensive conditions. For the study, a total of 2,300 medium size broiler chickens (2,300 to 2,500 g of live weight) from 23 flocks (100 birds/flock; n = 12 flocks of males and n = 11 flocks of females; n = 12 flocks of Ross 508 and n = 11 flocks of Ross 308) were randomly selected in a single slaughterhouse. The color measurements were carried out on both breast and thigh pterylae as well as on shank skin adopting the L* a* b* system and using a Minolta colorimeter CR 300. The overall range in measured yellowness (b*) was fairly large for all skin color measurement positions. For breast, a mean value of 22.77 (SD = 5.12) was observed, with values ranging from 7.45 to 39.12. Average values of thigh and shank were 20.23 (SD = 5.02; range 1.99 to 37.82) and 53.99 (SD = 8.13; range 24.22 to 78.65), respectively. A higher skin yellowness was observed in females in all body parts as well as in Ross 308. Yellowness values of breast and thigh were significantly correlated (r = 0.85; P < 0.01), suggesting that the color evaluation may be carried out only on one measurement position of the skin.

  5. Laboratory evaluation of Newcastle disease vaccination programs for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Giambrone, J J

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the efficacy of various commercial vaccination programs for the prevention of Newcastle disease (ND) in broilers. In all, chicks were from breeders vaccinated against ND via drinking water at 75-day intervals. Vaccination was by company personnel on company premises. In Expt. 1, the initial ND vaccination programs tested were vaccination at 1 day by coarse spray with the Spra-Vac machine or by tracheal instillation with the Beak-o-Vac machine, and vaccination at 7 days via drinking water. In Expts. 2-4, birds initially vaccinated via one of the three previously mentioned methods (Spra-Vac in Expt. 2, Beak-o-Vac in Expt. 3, and drinking water in Expt. 4) were revaccinated against ND by either drinking water or coarse spray with one of two commercial portable machines (ULVA Fan or Spray Master). Serologic and challenge data in Expt. 1 indicated that although broilers vaccinated by any of the three initial routes failed to produce measurable antibody to NDV, all methods resulted in protection against NDV challenge at 35 and 49 days. However, resistance to challenge with virulent ND was greatest in birds initially vaccinated by coarse spray with the Spra-Vac machine. Results in Expts. 2-4 indicated that NDV hemagglutination-inhibition titers were highest and resistance to challenge greatest in birds initially vaccinated at day 1 by coarse spray (Spra-Vac) and then revaccinated at 14 days by coarse spray. There were no differences, however, between the portable coarse spray machines in efficacy in reimmunizing broilers against NDV.

  6. Increased calcium deposits and decreased Ca2+ -ATPase in erythrocytes of ascitic broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Zhao, Lihong; Geng, Guangrui; Ma, Liqin; Dong, Shishan; Xu, Tong; Wang, Jianlin; Wang, Huiyu; Tian, Yong; Qiao, Jian

    2011-06-01

    The decrease of erythrocyte deformability may be one of the predisposing factors for pulmonary hypertension and ascites in broiler chickens. In mammals, the cytoplasmic calcium is a major regulator of erythrocyte deformability. In this study, the erythrocyte deformability was measured, and the precise locations of Ca2+ and Ca2+ -ATPase in the erythrocytes were investigated in chickens with ascites syndrome induced by low ambient temperature. The results showed that ascitic broilers had higher filtration index of erythrocyte compared with control groups, indicating a decrease in erythrocyte deformability in ascitic broilers. The more calcium deposits were observed in the erythrocytes of ascitic broilers compared with those of the age-matched control birds. The Ca2+ -ATPase reactive grains were significantly decreased on the erythrocyte membranes of ascitic broilers. Our data suggest that accumulation of intracellular calcium and inhibition of Ca2+ -ATPase might be important factors for the reduced deformability of the erythrocytes of ascitic broilers.

  7. Comparative evaluation of carcass traits and meat quality in native Aseel chickens and commercial broilers.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, U; Muthukumar, M; Haunshi, S; Niranjan, M; Raju, M V L N; Rama Rao, S V; Chatterjee, R N

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to analyse the meat quality attributes, composition and carcass traits in Aseel chickens and commercial broilers at market age on the basis of physiological age. A total of 20 Aseel (26 and 56 weeks) and 20 broiler (6 weeks) chickens were divided into two groups on a live weight basis, i.e. large (≥2.5 kg) and small (<2.5 kg) with 10 birds in each subgroup. The pH of meat did not show any significant variation between Aseel and broiler chickens. The meat from heavier birds had significantly higher pH. Shear force value and hydroxyproline contents were significantly higher in Aseel chickens. Aseel birds had significantly higher red (a*) colouration and lower lightness (L*) than broiler chickens. The texture and acceptability of Aseel meat were significantly higher. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that muscle fibres in Aseels were arranged in a more coiled pattern making the muscle tough. A larger amount of connective tissue was also observed between the muscle fibres compared with the broiler chickens. The dressing percentage was significantly higher in larger chickens. Commercial broilers recorded significantly higher meat proportion and lower proportion of bone. The meat:bone ratio was 1.07:1.0 in Aseel and 1.31-1.0 in broiler chicken. Breast muscle content was significantly lower in smaller Aseel chickens. Aseel chicken had stronger and heavier backs and shanks. Abdominal fat percentage was significantly lower in Aseel (0.73-0.78%). The study concluded that the firm texture of Aseel meat was due to the high collagen content and interlocking connective tissue between the muscle fibres. The texture and acceptability of Aseel meat was higher. Aseel cocks had strong legs, lean meat and less abdominal fat, making them a high-value meat bird in addition to their aggressive fighting ability.

  8. Dehydration indicators for broiler chickens at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Vanderhasselt, R F; Buijs, S; Sprenger, M; Goethals, K; Willemsen, H; Duchateau, L; Tuyttens, F A M

    2013-03-01

    Freedom of (prolonged) thirst is considered to be of paramount importance for animal welfare. This emotion normally results from dehydration, which can be measured using physiological indicators. Because no reliable physiological indicator for thirst was available for broilers, we aimed to identify such a measure in this study. This indicator would ideally be integrated into quality control systems in commercial slaughter plants. In the first experiment, water deprivation was manipulated systematically by withdrawing water for different durations (total water withdrawal for 0 (control), 24, 36, or 48 h, or a 10-d period with restricted access to water for 2 times 10 min per day). A significant decrease in drained blood content and BW occurred from 36 h of total water deprivation onward (both P = 0.03), whereas long-term restricted access tended to decrease drained blood content (P = 0.05). No effect of water deprivation or restriction on skin turgor was found. In the second experiment, water was withdrawn for 0 (control), 6, 12, 24, or 48 h. Plasma chloride concentration was increased after 6 h of water withdrawal, but did not rise further with longer withdrawal. If assessed at slaughter, chloride will thus mainly reflect the catching-to-slaughter interval. In contrast, plasma creatinine and hematocrit levels showed a numerical decrease after 6 h of water withdrawal, but rose again after prolonged withdrawal. Plasma creatinine values were significantly higher in 24-h-deprived birds than in 6-h-deprived birds (P < 0.01), allowing for discernment between water withdrawal during catching and transport from dehydration that had occurred on the farm. Blood sodium concentrations and plasma osmolality showed a steady increment between 0 and 24 h of water deprivation (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001 for both), and may thus be used to assess the combined effects of water deprivation on farm and during the catching-to-slaughter interval. These findings may form the basis of an on

  9. Effect of propolis supplementations on behavioral activities of heat stressed broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This experiment investigated effects of dietary supplementation of green Brazilian propolis on behavior of heat stressed broiler chickens. Five hundred and four 15-day old male Ross 708 broiler chicks were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments containing 0, 100, 250, 500, 1000 or 3000 mg kg-1 ...

  10. Lysine partitioning in broiler breeders is not affected by energy or protein intake when fed at current industry levels.

    PubMed

    Ekmay, R D; Salas, C; England, J; Cerrate, S; Coon, C N

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary energy and protein intake on the partitioning of lysine in broiler breeder hens. One hundred twenty-six broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 (390, 450 kcal/d) × 3 (22, 24, 26 g of CP/d) fashion. Thirty-six hens were administered a daily oral dose of 15 mg of (15)N-Lys for a period of 2 wk or until first egg. After the 2-wk enrichment period, no isotopes were given for 2 d. After 2 d, a daily oral dose of 15 mg of (2)D4-Lys was administered until the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th egg (saved) after the initial (2)D4-Lys was given, at which point pectoralis muscle was sampled. Weeks 25, 29, and 45 were assessed. Isotopic enrichment of pectoralis muscle, egg yolk, and albumen was determined via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The (15)N-Lys was intended to represent endogenous lysine, whereas the (2)D4-Lys was intended to represent dietary lysine. Greater than 78% of all labeled lysine ((15)N and (2)D4-Lys) was found in breast muscle. Endogenous muscle was the main source of lysine for yolk formation at wk 25 and 45. Diet was the main source of lysine for albumen formation at wk 25 and 29. A consistent decrease in the (15)N-Lys in breast muscle from the 2nd to the 3rd egg was observed, while also seeing an increase in the (15)N-Lys in the egg from the 3rd to the 4th egg. No difference in the partitioning of lysine was determined by energy or protein intake at levels typical for the current poultry industry. Rather, age, and possibly rate of production, appear to be the main drivers of lysine partitioning in the broiler breeder hen.

  11. Broiler breeder semen quality as affected by trace minerals in vitro.

    PubMed

    Barber, S J; Parker, H M; McDaniel, C D

    2005-01-01

    Research has shown that trace elements, such as Se, Mn, and Zn, can alter reproductive functions. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the sperm quality index (SQI) and sperm viability as affected by various levels and sources of Se, Mn, and Zn when added in vitro to broiler breeder semen. In vitro treatments consisted of the following sources and levels of minerals: Control, no minerals added to sperm; seleno L-methionine, 4 levels ranging from 8.78 to 7,896 microg/L; sodium selenite, 4 levels ranging from 8.78 to 7,896 microg/L; MnSO4, 8 levels ranging from 6,500 to 65,000 mg/L; Zn 180 (Zinpro Corporation), 4 levels ranging from 0.65 to 650 mg/L; and ZnSO4, 4 levels ranging from 0.65 to 650 mg/L. The addition of 7,896 microg of sodium selenite/L to semen was detrimental to sperm motility. Also, MnSO4 adversely affected SQI and sperm viability at concentrations of 6,500 mg/L and greater. Sperm viability was decreased when 650 mg/L of Zn 180 was added to semen. Sperm motility was depressed by exposure to Zn 180 at 650 mg/L and ZnSO4 at 65 and 650 mg/L. Our results suggest that these trace minerals must act at the reproductive tissue level during spermatogenesis to improve semen quality. Direct in vitro application of these elements to semen appears to be detrimental to spermatozoa.

  12. Feeding motivation on the incidence of floor eggs and extraneously calcified eggs laid by broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, K C; Duncan, I J H

    2011-02-01

    1. Commercial broiler breeder hens lay many eggs on the floor rather than in nest boxes provided. A study was conducted to determine whether feeding feed-restricted broiler breeder hens during the sitting phase of nesting results in a higher incidence of floor eggs and/or retained eggs. 2. Sixty broiler breeder females (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to 6 deep litter pens containing 10 nest-boxes. At 35 weeks of age and for 9 weeks, feed was distributed to all pens at lights-on every second day (fed normally, FN). On alternate days (feeding delay, FD), feed was distributed when 2-3 hens/pen were sitting in a nest box. Behaviour was sampled at 41 weeks of age, for 26 d. Eggs and egg location data were collected daily, and eggs were scored for extra-cuticular calcium. 3. Of 81 instances in which the hen was sitting firmly in a nest box at the time of feeding, on 80 instances the hen left the nest-box to feed, and on one instance the hen laid her egg then exited to the feeder. Of these 80 instances, on 58 occasions the hen returned to a nest-box to lay her egg; on 12 the hen returned to the nest-box but laid no egg; on 7 the hen did not return to the nest box and laid no egg; and on three the hen laid her egg on the floor. 4. Mean floor egg percentage was 13·3 ± 3·2% on FN and 13·3 ± 4·7% on FD days; these did not differ significantly. 5. The mean extra-cuticular calcium score over all pens was 0·9 ± 0·06 on FN days and 1·2 ± 0·06 on FD days; these differed significantly. 6. In conclusion, feeding broiler breeder hens during nesting results in a conflict between feeding and nesting motivation and higher numbers of extraneously calcified eggs, but does not result in a significant increase in floor eggs even though nesting hens will leave the nest box for food.

  13. Impact of aflatoxin B1 on the pharmacokinetic disposition of enrofloxacin in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, Starling; Srinivasa Rao, G; Malik, Jitendra K

    2015-09-01

    The potential impact of subchronic exposure of aflatoxin B1 was investigated on the pharmacokinetic disposition of enrofloxacin in broiler chickens. Broiler chickens given either normal or aflatoxin B1 (750μg/kg diet) supplemented diet for 6 weeks received a single oral dose of enrofloxacin (10mg/kg body wt). Blood samples were drawn from the brachial vein at predetermined time intervals after drug administration. Enrofloxacin plasma concentrations analyzed by RP-HPLC were significantly lower in aflatoxin B1-exposed broiler chickens at 0.167, 0.5 and 1.0h after drug administration. In aflatoxin B1-exposed broiler chickens, the absorption rate constant (ka) of enrofloxacin (0.20±0.05h(-1)) was significantly decreased as compared to the unexposed birds (0.98±0.31h(-1)). The values of [Formula: see text] , tmax and AUC0-∞ of enrofloxacin were nonsignificantly increased by 17%, 26% and 17% in aflatoxin-exposed broiler chickens, respectively. Subchronic aflatoxin B1 exposure markedly decreased the initial absorption of enrofloxacin without significantly influencing other pharmacokinetic parameters in broiler chickens.

  14. Animal Welfare and Food Safety Aspects of Confining Broiler Chickens to Cages

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Sara; Greger, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In commercial chicken meat production, broiler chickens are usually kept on the floor in ware-house like buildings, but the use of cages is becoming more common. Confining chickens to cages is a welfare problem, as has been thoroughly demonstrated for laying hens used for egg production. Caged broiler chickens may suffer from poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, feather loss, and restriction of natural behavior. There are also potential food safety concerns associated with the use of cages. While cages may provide an economic advantage in some geographical regions of the world, the severe, inherent disadvantages should also be considered before cages are more widely adopted in the global broiler chicken industry. Abstract In most areas of the world, broiler chickens are raised in floor systems, but cage confinement is becoming more common. The welfare of broiler chickens in cages is affected by movement restriction, poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, and prevention of key behavioral patterns such as dustbathing and ground scratching. Cages for broiler chickens also have a long history of causing skin and leg conditions that could further compromise welfare, but a lack of controlled studies makes it difficult to draw conclusions about newer cage designs. Cage environments are usually stocked at a higher density than open floor systems, and the limited studies available suggest that caging may lead to increased levels of fear and stress in the birds. Further, birds reared on the floor appear less likely to harbor and shed Salmonella, as litter may serve as a seeding agent for competitive exclusion by other microorganisms. Cages for laying hens used in egg production have met with substantial opposition due to welfare concerns and caging broiler chickens will likely be subject to the same kinds of social disapproval. PMID:26487409

  15. Effects of breeder age, broiler strain, and eggshell temperature on development and physiological status of embryos and hatchlings.

    PubMed

    Nangsuay, A; Meijerhof, R; van den Anker, I; Heetkamp, M J W; Morita, V De Souza; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2016-07-01

    Breeder age and broiler strain can influence the availability of nutrients and oxygen, particularly through differences in yolk size and shell conductance. We hypothesized that these egg characteristics might affect embryonic responses to changes in eggshell temperature (EST). This study aimed to investigate the effect of breeder age, broiler strain, and EST on development and physiological status of embryos. A study was designed as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement using 4 batches of 1,116 hatching eggs of 2 flock ages at 29 to 30 wk (young) and 54 to 55 wk (old) of Ross 308 and Cobb 500. EST of 37.8 (normal) or 38.9°C (high) was applied from incubation d 7 (E7) until hatching. The results showed that breeder age rather than broiler strain had an influence on yolk size (P = 0.043). The shell conductance was higher in Ross 308 than in Cobb 500 (P < 0.001). A high EST resulted in a higher yolk free body mass (YFBM) compared to the normal EST at E14 and E16, but at 3 h after hatch YFBM was lower when eggs were incubated at high EST compared to normal EST (all P < 0.001). Cobb 500 eggs yielded embryos with a lower YFBM at E14, E18, and 3 h after hatch (all P < 0.05) than Ross 308 eggs. Breeder age had no effect on YFBM, but the RSY weight was higher in embryos from the old flock compared to the young flock embryos at E14 and E16 (both P < 0.05). A 3-way interaction among breeder age, strain, and EST was found, especially for incubation duration, navel quality, and relative heart and stomach weights at 3 h after hatch (all P < 0.05). Based on the results obtained, we conclude that oxygen availability rather than nutrient availability determines embryonic development, and the egg characteristics affected embryonic responses to changes of EST, especially for variables related to chick quality.

  16. Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork, and pigs share phylogroups and antimicrobial resistance with community-dwelling humans and patients with urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Lotte; Kurbasic, Azra; Skjøt-Rasmussen, Line; Ejrnaes, Karen; Porsbo, Lone J; Pedersen, Karl; Jensen, Lars B; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Agersø, Yvonne; Olsen, Katharina E P; Aarestrup, Frank M; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Hammerum, Anette M

    2010-05-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common cause of urinary tract infection (UTI). Phylogroup B2 and D isolates are associated with UTI. It has been proposed that E. coli causing UTI could have an animal origin. The objective of this study was to investigate the phylogroups and antimicrobial resistance, and their possible associations in E. coli isolates from patients with UTI, community-dwelling humans, broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork, and pigs in Denmark. A total of 964 geographically and temporally matched E. coli isolates from UTI patients (n = 102), community-dwelling humans (n = 109), Danish (n = 197) and imported broiler chicken meat (n = 86), Danish broiler chickens (n = 138), Danish (n = 177) and imported pork (n = 10), and Danish pigs (n = 145) were tested for phylogroups (A, B1, B2, D, and nontypeable [NT] isolates) and antimicrobial susceptibility. Phylogroup A, B1, B2, D, and NT isolates were detected among all groups of isolates except for imported pork isolates. Antimicrobial resistance to three (for B2 isolates) or five antimicrobial agents (for A, B1, D, and NT isolates) was shared among isolates regardless of origin. Using cluster analysis to investigate antimicrobial resistance data, we found that UTI isolates always grouped with isolates from meat and/or animals. We detected B2 and D isolates, that are associated to UTI, among isolates from broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork, and pigs. Although B2 isolates were found in low prevalences in animals and meat, these sources could still pose a risk for acquiring uropathogenic E. coli. Further, E. coli from animals and meat were very similar to UTI isolates with respect to their antimicrobial resistance phenotype. Thus, our study provides support for the hypothesis that a food animal and meat reservoir might exist for UTI-causing E. coli.

  17. Effects of dust, formaldehyde and delayed feeding on early postnatal development of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    de Gouw, Pieter; van de Ven, Lotte J F; Lourens, Sander; Kemp, Bas; van den Brand, Henry

    2017-06-01

    We investigated effects of perinatal exposure to dust or formaldehyde and the moment of first feed intake after hatching on broiler chicken development during the first week of life. Four environmental treatments were used from 468 until 512h of incubation: control (CONT), heat treated dust (HTD), untreated dust (UTD) or formaldehyde disinfection (FORM). After hatching, all chickens were assigned to 1 of 2 feeding treatments: early feeding (EF; feed and water available in the hatcher) or delayed feeding (DF). After 512h of incubation (day 0), chickens were reared until day 7 of age. In DF chickens, body weight (BW), yolk free body mass (YFBM) and relative liver weight did not differ among environmental treatments at day 0. However, in EF chickens BW at day 0 was greater in HTD chickens than in UTD and FORM chickens. YFBM in EF chickens at day 0 was greater when chickens were exposed to HTD compared to the other environmental treatments. In EF chickens, relative liver weight was greater in HTD chickens than in FORM. In DF chickens, BW at day 0 was positively related with hatching time (HT). In EF chickens, YFBM was positively related to HT. Residual yolk weight at day 0 was positively related with HT, whereas relative liver weight and microbicidal capacity were negatively related with HT. This study demonstrated that formaldehyde and dust during the hatching phase affect broiler chicken development at pulling from the incubator, but not at day 7. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Exposure of embryos to cyclically cold incubation temperatures durably affects energy metabolism and antioxidant pathways in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Loyau, T; Collin, A; Yenisey, C; Crochet, S; Siegel, P B; Akşit, M; Yalçin, S

    2014-08-01

    Cyclically cold incubation temperatures have been suggested as a means to improve resistance of broiler chickens to ascites; however, the underlying mechanisms are not known. Nine hundred eggs obtained from 48 wk Ross broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 2 incubation treatments: control I eggs were incubated at 37.6°C throughout, whereas for cold I eggs the incubation temperature was reduced by 1°C for 6 h daily from 10 to 18 d of incubation. Thereafter, chickens were reared at standard temperatures or under cold exposure that was associated or not with a postnatal cold acclimation at d 5 posthatch. At hatch, hepatic catalase activity and malondialdehyde content were measured. Serum thyroid hormone and triglyceride concentrations, and muscle expression of several genes involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and oxidative stress were also measured at hatch and 5 and 25 d posthatch. Cold incubation induced modifications in antioxidant pathways with higher catalase activity, but lower expression of avian uncoupling protein 3 at hatch. However, long-term enhancement in the expression of avian uncoupling protein 3 was observed, probably caused by an increase in the expression of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α. These effects were not systematically associated with an increase in serum triiodothyronine concentrations that were observed only in chickens exposed to both cold incubation and later acclimation at 5 d with cold rearing. Our results suggest that these conditions of cyclically cold incubation resulted in the long-term in changes in antioxidant pathways and energy metabolism, which could enhance the health of chickens reared under cold conditions. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Comparison of selenium levels and sources and dietary fat quality in diets for broiler breeders and layer hens.

    PubMed

    Leeson, S; Namkung, H; Caston, L; Durosoy, S; Schlegel, P

    2008-12-01

    Two experiments were carried out with broiler breeders (experiment 1) and laying hens (experiment 2) to study the effects of Se sources, in interaction with dietary level of Se or dietary fats on performance, Se incorporation into tissues (blood, liver, breast muscle, and egg) and eggs, hatchability, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities in tissues and blood. Both experiments involved a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of 3 Se sources (selenite, Se yeast, or B-Traxim Se) and either 2 levels of each source (0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg) or 2 fats (fresh or oxidized). Egg production was not affected by Se source or dietary fat in both experiments. Egg production was greater (P < 0.01) in breeder hens fed 0.3 mg/kg of Se in experiment 1. Hatchability of eggs from hens fed 0.1 mg/kg of Se was lower (P < 0.05) in hens fed Se yeast, whereas from hens fed 0.3 mg/kg of Se, it was comparable across treatments. Selenium in egg, liver, and breast muscle was greater (P < 0.01 or <0.05) in hens fed the greater concentration of Se. Eggs from breeder hens fed organic Se sources had greater (P < 0.01) Se content than those of inorganic source. Egg albumen from breeder fed Se yeast had the greatest Se (P < 0.01), whereas egg yolk from hens fed B-Traxim Se had the greatest Se (P < 0.05). These parameters were affected by interaction between dietary Se level and source (P < 0.01 or < 0.05). Selenium contents in liver and breast muscle were greater (P < 0.01) in hens fed Se yeast compared with hens fed other sources of Se. In experiment 1, liver GPX was greater (P < 0.01) in hens fed selenite or Se yeast, whereas plasma GPX was greater (P < 0.01) in hens fed selenite compared with B-Traxim Se or Se yeast. Supplementation with oxidized fat increased (P < 0.05) GPX in blood and liver. B-Traxim Se decreased (P < 0.05) malondialdehyde content in breast muscle of layers. It is concluded that broiler breeders require supplementation of 0.3 mg/kg of Se, and that there are numerous measurable advantages

  20. Eating behaviour, and preprandial and postprandial correlations in male broiler and layer chickens.

    PubMed

    Bokkers, E A M; Koene, P

    2003-09-01

    1. It has been suggested that broiler chickens have a disturbed satiety and hunger mechanism. The satiety mechanism for eating can be expressed as the positive correlation between meal length and the length of the preceding (preprandial) interval; the hunger mechanism for eating as the positive correlation between meal length and the length of the succeeding (postprandial) interval. An experiment was conducted to investigate eating behaviour of male broiler and layer chickens by measuring meal and interval lengths. 2. Eight male broilers and 8 male layer chickens were housed individually and visually isolated in floor pens (1 m2/pen) on wood shavings. From 4 to 7 weeks of age, eating behaviour of each bird was recorded for 3 h in two conditions each week. In the first condition, the birds were not deprived from feed. In the second condition, they were 24-h food deprived and feed was provided just before the observation started. Preprandial and postprandial correlations were calculated based on data of the non-deprived condition. Before and after each observation bird and feeder were weighed to measure weight gain and feed consumption during observation. 3. Under the non-deprived condition, the broilers spent initially more, but at a later age less time on eating. The broilers had fewer meals per hour, consumed more feed per hour, and had longer meal and interval lengths than the layer chickens. After 24-h feed deprivation, the broilers had a longer first meal, consumed more feed per hour and spent more time on eating than the layer chickens. Significant preprandial correlations but no postprandial correlations were found in the broilers. In the layer chickens, both significant preprandial and postprandial correlations were found. This indicates that for regulating eating behaviour, the satiety mechanism dominates the hunger mechanism in broilers, and satiety and hunger mechanisms are equally involved in layer chickens. 4. The typical eating behaviour of broilers

  1. Gene expression profiling in adipose tissue from growing broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Hausman, Gary J; Barb, C Rick; Fairchild, Brian D; Gamble, John; Lee-Rutherford, Laura

    2014-01-01

    In this study, total RNA was collected from abdominal adipose tissue samples obtained from ten broiler chickens at 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks of age and prepared for gene microarray analysis with Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Arrays (Affymetrix) and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Studies of global gene expression in chicken adipose tissue were initiated since such studies in many animal species show that adipose tissue expresses and secretes many factors that can influence growth and physiology. Microarray results indicated 333 differentially expressed adipose tissue genes between 3 and 6 wk, 265 differentially expressed genes between 4 and 6 wk and 42 differentially expressed genes between 3 and 4 wk. Enrichment scores of Gene Ontology Biological Process categories indicated strong age upregulation of genes involved in the immune system response. In addition to microarray analysis, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was used to confirm the influence of age on the expression of adipose tissue CC chemokine ligands (CCL), toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF factor (LITAF), chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 8 (CCR8), and several other genes. Between 3 and 6 wk of age CCL5, CCL1, and CCR8 expression increased (P = 0.0001) with age. Furthermore, TLR2, CCL19, and LITAF expression increased between 4 and 6 wk of age (P = 0.001). This is the first demonstration of age related changes in CCL, LITAF, and TLR2 gene expression in chicken adipose tissue. Future studies are needed to elucidate the role of these adipose tissue genes in growth and the immune system. PMID:26317054

  2. Colonization of broiler chickens by waterborne Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, A D; Greenwood, M; Healing, T D; Rollins, D; Shahamat, M; Donaldson, J; Colwell, R R

    1993-01-01

    Chickens on a broiler farm in southern England were found to be colonized with Campylobacter jejuni of a single serotype, Lior 1 Penner 4. The farm was the sole supplier of a local slaughterhouse associated with a campylobacter outbreak in 1984 caused by this serotype. The serotype persisted on the farm for at least 18 months after the outbreak; its prevalence in the human population served by the farm remained high until it disappeared from the farm in 1986. The possible sources and routes of transmission of C. jejuni to the broilers on the farm were investigated. The results showed that vertical transmission, feed, litter, small mammals, and environmental or airborne cross-contamination between sheds or successive crops could be excluded as persistent sources of C. jejuni. The predominant source of C. jejuni on the farm was shown to be the water supply. Direct microscopy and fluorescent antibody methods revealed presumptive campylobacters throughout the farm's water system. Campylobacter-free chickens raised in an animal house and given water from the farm supply became colonized with the serotype of C. jejuni endemic on the farm (Lior 1 Penner 4). An intervention program based on water chlorination, shed drinking system cleaning and disinfection, and withdrawal of furazolidone from feed reduced the proportion of birds colonized with campylobacter from 81 to 7% and was associated with a 1,000- to 10,000-fold reduction in campylobacters recoverable from the carcasses. Two months after the end of the intervention program colonization of the birds returned to high levels (84%), indicating that there was a temporal association between intervention and reduced colonization with C. jejuni. Investigations continue to establish the general applicability of these findings. PMID:8476300

  3. Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia fergusonii Isolated from Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Karen; Islam, M Rashedul; Rempel, Heidi; Block, Glenn; Topp, Edward; Diarra, Moussa S

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antibiotic resistance of Escherichia fergusonii isolated from commercial broiler chicken farms. A total of 245 isolates from cloacal and cecal samples of 28- to 36-day-old chickens were collected from 32 farms. Isolates were identified using PCR, and their susceptibility to 16 antibiotics was determined by disk diffusion assay. All isolates were susceptible to meropenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin. The most common resistances were against ampicillin (75.1%), streptomycin (62.9%), and tetracycline (57.1%). Of the 184 ampicillin-resistant isolates, 127 were investigated using a DNA microarray carrying 75 probes for antibiotic resistance genetic determinants. Of these 127 isolates, the β-lactamase blaCMY2, blaTEM, blaACT, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M-15 genes were detected in 120 (94.5%), 31 (24.4%), 8 (6.3%), 6 (4.7%), and 4 (3.2%) isolates, respectively. Other detected genes included those conferring resistance to aminoglycosides (aadA1, strA, strB), trimethoprims (dfrV, dfrA1), tetracyclines (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetE), and sulfonamides (sul1, sul2). Class 1 integron was found in 35 (27.6%) of the ampicillin-resistant isolates. However, our data showed that the tested E. fergusonii did not carry any carbapenemase blaOXA genes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that the selected ampicillin-resistant E. fergusonii isolates were genetically diverse. The present study indicates that the monitoring of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria should include enteric bacteria such as E. fergusonii, which could be a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. The detection of isolates harboring extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes, particularly blaCTX-M-15, in this work suggests that further investigations on the occurrence of such genes in broilers are warranted.

  4. An outbreak of gangrenous dermatitis in commercial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangxing; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Kyung Woo; Jang, Seung I; Marc, Pages; Gay, Cyril G; Ritter, G Donald; Bautista, Daniel A; Phillips, Kathy; Neumann, Anthony P; Rehberger, Thomas G; Siragusa, Gregory R

    2010-08-01

    The present report describes an outbreak of gangrenous dermatitis (GD) infection in a commercial poultry farm in Delaware involving 34-day-old broiler chickens. In addition to obvious clinical signs, some GD-affected broilers also showed severe fibrino-necrotic enteritis and large numbers of Gram-positive rods in the necrotic tissue. Histopathological findings included haemorrhage, degeneration and necrosis of parenchymatous cells, especially of skin, muscle, and intestine. Immunofluorescence staining revealed Clostridium-like bacilli in the skin and the intestine. Both Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium septicum genomic sequences were identified by polymerase chain reaction in bacterial cultures isolated from the skin, muscle, and intestine, and in the frozen tissues from the GD-affected birds. Serological analysis demonstrated that both affected and clinically healthy birds from the same house had high serum antibody titres against C. perfringens, C. septicum, Eimeria, chick anaemia virus, and infectious bursal disease virus. These results are discussed in the context of the relationship between the different Clostridium spp. and the pathogenesis of GD.

  5. Incidence and tracking of Clostridium perfringens through an integrated broiler chicken operation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Clostridium perfringens has been shown to be widespread in the broiler chicken hatchery, grow-out, and processing operations. In a previous study, ribotypes of certain strains of C. perfringens isolated from processed chicken carcasses were shown to match ribotypes isolated from paper pad lining tra...

  6. Paradoxical Effects of Short Term Triiodothyronine administration to hypothyroid broiler chickens.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of these experiments were to determine possible relationships among certain indices of lipid metabolism and specific gene expression in chickens fed methimazole to induce a kind of artificial hypothyroidism. In both experiments, male, broiler chickens growing from 14 to 28 days of age we...

  7. Predicting water-holding capacity of intact chicken broiler breast fillets with Vis/NIR spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ability of using visible and near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy to predict water-holding capacity (WHC) of intact chicken broiler breast fillets (pectoralis major) was assessed in this study. Boneless and skinless chicken fillets (214 in total) were procured from a commercial processing plant ...

  8. Prevalence of Salmonella on retail broiler chicken meat carcasses in Colombia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on retail market chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 1,003 broiler chicken carcasses from 23 departments (one city/department) were collected using a stratified sampling method. Carcass rinses were tested for the ...

  9. Parvovirus associated cerebellar hypoplasia and hydrocephalus in day-old broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cerebellar hypoplasia and hydrocephalus were detected in day-old broiler chickens. Brains of chickens evaluated at necropsy appeared to be abnormal; some were disfigured and cerebellae appeared to be smaller than normal. Histopathologic examination of brains revealed cerebellar folia that were sho...

  10. Effect of dietary antimicrobials on immune status in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, K W; Lillehoj, H S; Lee, S H; Jang, S I; Park, M S; Bautista, D A; Ritter, G D; Hong, Y H; Siragusa, G R; Lillehoj, E P

    2012-03-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary anticoccidial drugs plus antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) on parameters of immunity in commercial broiler chickens. Day-old chicks were raised on used litter from a farm with endemic gangrenous dermatitis to simulate natural pathogen exposure and provided with diets containing decoquinate (DECX) or monensin (COBN) as anticoccidials plus bacitracin methylene disalicylate and roxarsone as AGPs. As a negative control, the chickens were fed with a non-supplemented diet. Immune parameters examined were concanavalin A (ConA)-stimulated spleen cell proliferation, intestine intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) and spleen cell subpopulations, and cytokine/chemokine mRNA levels in IELs and spleen cells. ConA-induced proliferation was decreased at 14 d post-hatch in DECX-treated chickens, and increased at 25 and 43 d in COBN-treated animals, compared with untreated controls. In DECX-treated birds, increased percentages of MHC2(+) and CD4(+) IELS were detected at 14 d, but decreased percentages of these cells were seen at 43 d, compared with untreated controls, while increased TCR2(+) IELs were evident at the latter time. Dietary COBN was associated with decreased fractions of MHC2(+) and CD4(+) IELs and reduced percentages of MHC2(+), BU1(+), and TCR1(+) spleen cells compared with controls. The levels of transcripts for interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, IL-17F, IL-13, CXCLi2, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and transforming growth factorβ4 were elevated in IELs, and those for IL-13, IL-17D, CXCLi2, and IFN-γ were increased in spleen cells, of DECX- and/or COBN-treated chickens compared with untreated controls. By contrast, IL-2 and IL-12 mRNAs in IELs, and IL-4, IL-12, and IL-17F transcripts in spleen cells, were decreased in DECX- and/or COBN-treated chickens compared with controls. These results suggest that DECX or COBN, in combination with bacitracin and roxarsone, modulate the development of the chicken post-hatch immune system.

  11. Effects of different methionine sources on production and reproduction performance, egg quality and serum biochemical indices of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xue; Wang, Yongxia; Liu, Weilong; Ju, Tingting; Zhan, Xiuan

    2016-12-17

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different methionine (Met) sources on production performance, reproduction performance, egg quality and serum biochemical indices in broiler breeders. After receiving a basal diet (containing 0.25% Met) for a 2-wk pretreatment period, a total of 360 39-wk-old Lingnan yellow broiler breeders were randomly allocated to four treatments with six replicates each (15 birds per replicate). Breeders were fed with basal diets (control) or diets supplemented with DL-methionine (DLM), DL-2-hydroxy-4-methylthio butytric calcium (MHA-Ca) and coated DL-Met (CME) respectively (containing 0.1% Met). The results showed that CME supplementation promoted laying rate and decreased feed-to-egg ration (F/E) (P<0.05), DLM and MHA-Ca supplementation decreased F/E (P<0.05) when compared with control group. The rate of fertility, hatchability and birthrate were higher (P<0.05) in DLM, MHA-Ca and CME groups than control group. Compared with control group, CME increased the eggshell thickness (P<0.05); MHA-Ca improved the eggshell thickness, relative eggshell weight and eggshell strength (P<0.05). Results also showed that CME elevated the concentration of total protein in serum (P<0.05); MHA-Ca improved the concentration of Calcium in serum (P<0.05). The concentration of serum uric acid in DLM, MHA-Ca and CME groups was higher than that in control group (P<0.05). Besides, CME had higher concentrations of serum taurine, cysteine and cystanthionine (P<0.05) while MHA-Ca and DLM promoted the serum taurine concentration (P<0.05) compared with control group. Based on the results, it was concluded that Met supplementation could enhance the production and reproduction performance as well as the antioxidant status and egg quality of broiler breeders. In terms of improving the production performance, reproduction performance and antioxidant performance, CME was superior to DLM and MHA-Ca; but in regard to the enhancement of eggshell quality and serum

  12. Apparent metabolizable energy of glycerin for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Dozier, W A; Kerr, B J; Corzo, A; Kidd, M T; Weber, T E; Bregendahl, K; Bregendal, K

    2008-02-01

    Three energy balance experiments were conducted to determine AMEn of glycerin using broiler chickens of diverse ages. In experiment 1, two dietary treatments were fed from 4 to 11 d of age. Dietary treatments consisted of a control diet (no added glycerin) and a diet containing 6% glycerin (94% control diet + 6% glycerin). Four dietary treatments were provided in experiment 2 (from 17 to 24 d of age) and 3 (from 38 to 45 d of age). Diets in experiment 2 and 3 were 1) control diet (no added glycerin); 2) 3% added glycerin (97% control diet + 3% glycerin); 3) 6% added glycerin (94% control diet + 6% glycerin); and 4) 9% added glycerin (91% control diet + 9% glycerin). Diets in experiment 1 and 2 were identical, but the diet used in experiment 3 had reduced nutrient levels based on bird age. In experiments 2 and 3, broilers were fed 91, 94, 97, and 100% of ad libitum intake so that differences in AMEn consumption were only due to glycerin. A single source of glycerin was used in all experiments. Feed intake, BW, energy intake, energy excretion, nitrogen intake, nitrogen excretion, AMEn, and AMEn intake were determined in all experiments. In experiment 1, AMEn determination utilized the difference approach by subtracting AMEn of the control diet from AMEn of the test diet. In experiments 2 and 3, AMEn intake was regressed against feed intake with the slope estimating AMEn of glycerin. Regression equations were Y = 3,331x -72.59 (P < or = 0.0001) and Y = 3,348.62x -140.18 (P < or = 0.0001) for experiments 2 and 3, respectively. The AMEn of glycerin was determined as 3,621, 3,331, and 3,349 kcal/kg in experiments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The average AMEn of glycerin across the 3 experiments was 3,434 kcal/kg, which is similar to its gross energy content. These results indicate that AMEn of glycerin is utilized efficiently by broiler chickens.

  13. The effects of selective breeding on the architectural properties of the pelvic limb in broiler chickens: a comparative study across modern and ancestral populations.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Heather; Anthony, Nicolas B; Corr, Sandra A; Hutchinson, John R

    2010-08-01

    Intensive artificial selection has led to the production of the modern broiler chicken, which over the last few decades has undergone a dramatic increase in growth rate and noticeable changes in body conformation. Unfortunately, this has been associated with musculoskeletal abnormalities which have altered the walking ability of these birds, raising obvious welfare concerns, as well as causing economic losses. Here we present a comparative study of ancestral and derived muscle anatomy in chickens to begin to tease apart how evolutionary alterations of muscle form in chickens have influenced their locomotor function and perhaps contributed to lameness. We measured the muscle architectural properties of the right pelvic limb in 50 birds, including the Giant Junglefowl, a commercial strain broiler and four pureline commercial broiler breeder lines (from which the broiler populations are derived) to identify which features of the broiler's architectural design have diverged the most from the ancestral condition. We report a decline in pelvic limb muscle mass in the commercial line birds that may compromise their locomotor abilities because they carry a larger body mass. This greater demand on the pelvic limb muscles has mostly led to changes in support at the hip joint, revealing significantly larger abductors and additionally much larger medial rotators in the broiler population. Differences were seen within the commercial line bird populations, which are likely attributed to different selection pressures and may reflect differences in the walking ability of these birds. In addition, Junglefowl seem to have both greater force-generating capabilities and longer, presumably faster contracting muscles, indicative of superior musculoskeletal/locomotor function. We have provided baseline data for generating hypotheses to investigate in greater depth the specific biomechanical constraints that compromise the modern broiler's walking ability and propose that these factors

  14. Relationships among egg characteristics, chick measurements, and early growth traits in ten broiler breeder strains.

    PubMed

    Wolanski, N J; Renema, R A; Robinson, F E; Carney, V L; Fancher, B I

    2007-08-01

    This study evaluated egg traits, yolk utilization, chick conformation, and early growth rate in 10 broiler breeder strains. The strains included pure-, specialized- and commercial-line products. The 210 eggs/strain were weighed and randomly designated to 1 of 3 experimental determinations: 8 eggs for measurement of eggshell conductance, 52 eggs for determination of egg characteristics, and 150 eggs for incubation and chick traits. Egg characteristics included egg weight, specific gravity, yolk weight, albumen weight, albumen height, eggshell weight, and eggshell thickness. Chick traits included navel condition, hock color, chick length, shank length, and abdomen score by manual palpation. At hatch, half the birds per strain were dissected to assess the weight of the yolk sac, heart, liver, and breast muscle. The remaining chicks were randomly distributed into 4 rearing pens for a 14-d assessment of growth rate. There was a 3-g range in egg weight among the strains. Eggs from a pure line had the greatest amount of yolk (22.6 g), with yolk weight ranging to a low of 20.9 g in 2 other strains. The male line strain and 2 female line strains had the highest hatching weights (46.3, 46.5, and 45.4 g, respectively), whereas a commercial strain had the lowest hatching weight (43.1 g). Egg size affected chick weight more than did yolk size. The residual yolk mass at hatch ranged from 5.50 g (in the male line) to 3.70 g in the commercial strains. Residual yolk mass accounted for approximately 10 to 14% of chick BW at hatch. The abdominal palpation score correlated with actual hatch residual yolk weight (r = 0.50; P < 0.0001). At hatch, differences in breast muscle and internal organ weight were present. Shank length at hatch correlated more strongly with 14-d BW (r = 0.39; P < 0.0001) than did hatch weight and 14-d BW (r = 0.35; P < 0.0001). The results of this trial demonstrated significant strain variation in internal organ weight, residual yolk sac mass, and chick carcass

  15. Nonlinear mixed models to study metabolizable energy utilization in broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Romero, L F; Zuidhof, M J; Renema, R A; Robinson, F E; Naeima, A

    2009-06-01

    This study developed mathematical models to overcome limitations of linear models of energy partitioning in hens. The fit of 1 linear and 2 nonlinear models of ME intake (MEI) were compared, using empirical data of 288 caged broiler breeder hens from 20 to 60 wk of age. Pullets were individually caged at 16 wk and assigned to 1 of 4 feed allocation groups. Three groups had feed allocated on a group basis with divergent target BW: standard (STD), HIGH (STD x 1.1), and LOW (STD x 0.9). The fourth group had individual-based feed allocation (IND) and followed the STD BW target. The linear model expressed MEI as a function of BW(0.75), ADG, egg mass (EM), and temperature. Nonlinear mixed models employed a normally distributed term associated with hen metabolic BW, and exponential terms of ADG and EM, or Cobb-Douglas form interactions between terms. Fit was evaluated with the Bayesian information criterion and systematic bias was analyzed through linear regressions of observed versus expected values. The linear model estimated energy partitioned to maintenance and retention in the range of reported values in the literature. However, this model had the poorest fit (R(2) = 0.64) and exhibited a slope bias of 0.91 (i.e., MEI was overestimated at low values and underestimated at high values). The first nonlinear mixed model indicated that MEI partitioned to ADG was a factor of ADG(1.15), whereas the ME partitioned to EM was a factor of EM(1.12). This model had improved fit (R(2) = 0.71) relative to the linear model. The second nonlinear mixed model indicated that the energy requirement for ADG increased by 0.60% and the EM energy requirement decreased by 2.07% for each 1% increment in BW. This model further improved fit (R(2) = 0.75). Nonlinear mixed models reduced estimation bias by accounting for individual variation in maintenance energy expenditure. These nonlinear mixed models may be used to analyze energy partitioning in animals, to develop prediction equations of MEI

  16. Fertility of male and female broiler breeders following exposure to elevated ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, C D; Bramwell, R K; Wilson, J L; Howarth, B

    1995-06-01

    Because elevated ambient temperatures decrease fertility, this study was designed to segregate the male and female contribution to heat stress infertility in broiler breeders. Eighty hens and 16 roosters at 21 wk of age were divided equally among two heat stress (S) and two control (C) temperature chambers. For a 10-wk pretreatment period, all birds were maintained at an ambient temperature of 21.1 C and 40% relative humidity. Following the pretreatment period, birds in the S chambers were acclimated for 1 wk at a constant temperature of 29.4 C after which the temperature in the S chambers was increased to 32.2 C for 8 wk. The temperature in the two C chambers was maintained at 21.1 C. Hens in each chamber were artificially inseminated on a weekly basis with 5 x 10(7) sperm per 50 microL from either C or S males. Egg production, semen volume, spermatocrit, and percentage dead sperm were similar during the acclimation period, even though body temperature was significantly elevated in S birds (41.8 vs 41.3 C). Sperm penetration of the perivitelline layer overlying the germinal disc (GD) was decreased in eggs from hens inseminated with semen from S males compared to eggs from hens inseminated with semen from C males (9.5 vs 23.4 sperm per GD). Following the acclimation period, body temperature remained elevated in the S birds compared to the C birds (42.2 vs 41.3 C). Also, egg production was depressed in the S vs C hens (55.8 vs 82.9%). Semen volume, spermatocrit, and percentage dead sperm were not affected by S treatment. However, when hens were inseminated with semen from S males, sperm penetration of the perivitelline layer overlying the GD and egg fertility were decreased compared to hens inseminated with semen from C males (5.4 vs 14.9 sperm per GD, 45.5 vs 73.8% fertility). In conclusion, the male bird appears to contribute more to heat stress infertility than the female.

  17. The effect of dietary alterations during rearing on feather condition in broiler breeder females.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, K L H; Widowski, T; Leeson, S; Sandilands, V; Arnone, A; Torrey, S

    2014-07-01

    In commercial production, broiler breeders are severely feed restricted to maintain healthy BW. This restriction can induce stereotypic behavior, including feather pecking, which has negative welfare implications for both the victim and performer. It has been suggested that the problem may be symptomatic of chronic hunger or the frustration of feeding motivation. In this study, we determined whether feather condition, as an indirect measure of feather pecking, could be improved via dietary manipulation. Six dietary treatments were tested, each with 5 replicate pens of 9 to 12 birds. Control diets (C) were fed on a daily or skip-a-day (SAD) basis. Alternative diets included soybean hulls as a bulking ingredient and calcium propionate (CaP) as an appetite suppressant of either a feed grade (F) or purified (P) quality. Both alternative diets were fed on either a daily or SAD basis. Five or 6 birds were randomly chosen from each pen and feather scored at 10, 14, 20, 26, and 36 wk of age. Six body parts (neck, back, wings, legs, vent area, tail) were given a score from 0 to 5 (0 = no feather damage, and 5 ≥ 50% feather loss with tissue damage). Scores were summed for each bird and averaged for each pen. Data were analyzed with room and feeding frequency as main factors and diet as the subfactor with repeated measures. There was an interaction between diet and time (P < 0.01) with the feather condition of the C birds worsening more quickly in comparison with the F and P birds. There was an interaction between feeding frequency and time (P = 0.015), with SAD-fed birds scoring better than daily-fed birds at 20, 26, and 36 wk. This interaction could indicate that SAD feeding increased satiety after the birds became accustomed to the schedule. Because feather condition was better with the alternative diets, this may indicate a reduction in stereotyped feather pecking with these diets. This suggests that the alternative diets increase satiety compared with the control diets.

  18. Comparison of carcass yields and meat quality between Baicheng-You chickens and Arbor Acres broilers.

    PubMed

    Sarsenbek, A; Wang, T; Zhao, J K; Jiang, W

    2013-10-01

    This study examined carcass yields and meat quality traits between Baicheng-You (BCY) chickens and Arbor Acres (AA) broilers. Thirty birds for each strain were selected and slaughtered at market ages of 49 d for AA broilers and 120 d for BCY. The results showed that BCY chickens had lower dressing (2.99%), semi-evisceration (5.10%), breast muscle (5.80%), and abdominal fat (1.55%) than those for AA broilers (P < 0.05). However, the leg muscle (%) of BCY chickens was greater (3.14%) than that of AA broilers (P < 0.05). The meat pH45min and pH24h value variations of these 2 breeds were within the normal range (5.53-6.70). The meat color density (optical density, OD) of thigh muscle was darker than breast muscles in both strains (P < 0.05). The cooking loss (%) of breast and thigh muscles of BCY chickens (18.81 and 20.20%, respectively) was also significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that of same muscles of AA broilers (26.41 and 27.33%, respectively). The shear force of breast meat in both breeds was lower (P < 0.05) than that of their thigh meat. The moisture of breast muscle of BCY chickens (72.93%) was lower (P < 0.05) than breast muscles of AA broilers (74.43%). The CP content of breast muscles was greater (P < 0.05) than its thigh muscles of same strain, but it had no significant (P > 0.05) difference of CP content in the same muscles of the 2 strains. The intramuscular fat (IMF) content was greater (P < 0.05) in thigh muscles of BCY chickens (6.80%) than those of AA broilers (4.28%), and inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) content was greater (P < 0.05) in breast and thigh muscles of BCY chickens (IMP: 3.79 and 1.47 mg/g) than same muscles in AA broilers (1.42 and 0.47 mg/g). In this study, muscle from 120-d-old BCY chickens was judged to have better quality traits with regard to cooking loss, drip loss, contents of IMF, and IMP compared with meat from 42-d-old AA broilers. At the same time, greater carcass yields, greater thigh pH24, and lower IMF content were

  19. Oral exposure of broiler breeder hens to extra thyroxine modulates early adaptive immune responses in progeny chicks.

    PubMed

    Akhlaghi, A; Zamiri, M J; Jafari Ahangari, Y; Atashi, H; Ansari Pirsaraei, Z; Deldar, H; Eghbalian, A N; Akhlaghi, A A; Navidshad, B; Yussefi Kelarikolaei, K; Hashemi, S R

    2013-04-01

    Based on the findings of a recent study suggesting a decreased cold-induced ascites incidence in broiler progeny from hyperthyroid (HYPER) breeder hens, and a controversy on the effects of hyperthyroidism on immunocompetence, the present study was conducted to determine the probable adverse effect of induced maternal hyperthyroidism on immune function in progeny chicks. Breeder hens (n = 88) were randomly allotted to the control or HYPER groups and received common or thyroxine (T4)-added (1 mg/L) water, respectively. The hens were artificially inseminated, and hatching eggs (n = 924) were incubated. Thereafter, the male hatchlings (n = 288) were reared for 42 d, and several cellular and humoral immune responses were evaluated at standard or low ambient temperature. Prevaccination antibody titers to Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease virus were higher in HYPER chicks during 1 wk of age, although not different in their dams. For primary response to SRBC administered at 7 d of age, HYPER chicks recorded higher total, IgM (d 14), and IgG (d 21) anti-SRBC antibody titers. Higher cutaneous basophilic hypersensitivity response in HYPER chicks (d 10) was not observed at 35 d of age. Carbon clearance assay showed no difference, but in vitro lymphoproliferative response to concanavalin A was higher in 19-d-old HYPER chicks, independent of temperature treatment. An increase in lymphocyte percentage coincided with a decreased heterophil percentage and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (d 14) in the HYPER group. The weight of lymphoid organs in progeny was not influenced by the oral exposure of dams to extra T4. Independent of T4 treatment, cold exposure was generally associated with decreased immune functions at early stages. The data suggested that oral exposure of broiler breeder hens to 1 mg/L of T4 not only had no adverse effect on immune function, but also modulated early adaptive immune responses in progeny chicks for which the causal

  20. Enrofloxacin degradation in broiler chicken manure under various laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Slana, Marko; Sollner-Dolenc, Marija

    2016-03-01

    The rate of degradation of enrofloxacin in broiler chicken manure has been characterized in the laboratory according to the CVMP guideline on determining the fate of veterinary medicinal products in manure. Degradation was followed in a flow-through system under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, in the dark and in the presence of light. The rate of degradation of enrofloxacin and the formation of its degradation products are dependent on laboratory conditions. A rapid degradation of enrofloxacin in the dark was noticed, where a shorter degradation half-life under aerobic (DT50 = 59.1 days), comparing to anaerobic conditions (DT50 = 88.9 days), was determined. The presence of light slowed down the enrofloxacin degradation half-life, which was significantly shorter under aerobic (DT50 = 115.0 days), comparing to anaerobic conditions (DT50 = 190.8 days). Desethylene-enrofoxacin was the only degradation product formed, its concentrations ranged from 2.5 to 14.9 %. The concentration of the degradation product was approximately 2.5-fold higher under aerobic conditions. Enrofloxacin degradation in sterile manure incubated under sterile conditions was marginal comparing to non-sterile conditions; after 120 days of incubation, approximately 80 % of enrofloxacin was still present in manure and only 1 % of desethylene-enrofloxacin was formed. The present work demonstrates that enrofloxacin degradation in chicken manure is relatively fast when incubated in the dark under aerobic conditions which is the recommended incubation system for chicken manure according to CVMP guideline.

  1. RNA sequencing for global gene expression associated with muscle growth in a single male modern broiler line compared to a foundational Barred Plymouth Rock chicken line.

    PubMed

    Kong, Byung-Whi; Hudson, Nicholas; Seo, Dongwon; Lee, Seok; Khatri, Bhuwan; Lassiter, Kentu; Cook, Devin; Piekarski, Alissa; Dridi, Sami; Anthony, Nicholas; Bottje, Walter

    2017-01-13

    Modern broiler chickens exhibit very rapid growth and high feed efficiency compared to unselected chicken breeds. The improved production efficiency in modern broiler chickens was achieved by the intensive genetic selection for meat production. This study was designed to investigate the genetic alterations accumulated in modern broiler breeder lines during selective breeding conducted over several decades. To identify genes important in determining muscle growth and feed efficiency in broilers, RNA sequencing (RNAseq) was conducted with breast muscle in modern pedigree male (PeM) broilers (n = 6 per group), and with an unselected foundation broiler line (Barred Plymouth Rock; BPR). The RNAseq analysis was carried out using Ilumina Hiseq (2 x 100 bp paired end read) and raw reads were assembled with the galgal4 reference chicken genome. With normalized RPM values, genes showing >10 average read counts were chosen and genes showing <0.05 p-value and >1.3 fold change were considered as differentially expressed (DE) between PeM and BPR. DE genes were subjected to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) for bioinformatic functional interpretation. The results indicate that 2,464 DE genes were identified in the comparison between PeM and BPR. Interestingly, the expression of genes encoding mitochondrial proteins in chicken are significantly biased towards the BPR group, suggesting a lowered mitochondrial content in PeM chicken muscles compared to BPR chicken. This result is inconsistent with more slow muscle fibers bearing a lower mitochondrial content in the PeM. The molecular, cellular and physiological functions of DE genes in the comparison between PeM and BPR include organismal injury, carbohydrate metabolism, cell growth/proliferation, and skeletal muscle system development, indicating that cellular mechanisms in modern broiler lines are tightly associated with rapid growth and differential muscle fiber contents compared to the unselected BPR line. Particularly, PDGF

  2. Characterization of pathogenic Enterococcus cecorum from different poultry groups: Broiler chickens, layers, turkeys, and waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Dolka, Beata; Chrobak-Chmiel, Dorota; Czopowicz, Michał; Szeleszczuk, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Enterococcus cecorum (EC) is known as a commensal in the intestines of mammals and birds. However, it has been described as an emerging pathogen in poultry industry worldwide. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare EC isolated from clinical material collected from poultry groups with different production purposes. The genetic diversity among pathogenic EC in relation to each specific poultry type was examined. In total, 148 isolates from independent infection outbreaks (2011-2016) were used: 76 broiler chickens (CB), 37 broiler breeders (BB), 23 layers (CL), 7 waterfowl (W) and 5 turkey (T) flocks (1 isolate/1 flock). We provided age ranges at diagnosis of EC-infection for 5 poultry groups. Isolates obtained from CB were significantly more frequently retrieved from bone marrow, joints, spine, and contrary to BB, CL less frequently retrieved from respiratory system. The study showed differences between EC of various poultry types in relation to 10/32 (31.3%) biochemical parameters. EC isolates from CB were significantly more often positive for βGAL, βNAG, MLZ, and less often positive for PAL and βMAN than isolates from other poultry types. However, BB and W isolates showed higher ability to metabolise mannitol than CB, CL, and T. CB isolates showed lower ability to survive at 60°C. Only chicken EC-isolates harbored virulence genes: CB (8.1%) > BB (3.4%) > CL (2%). No specific pulsotype of EC was associated with a specific poultry. One or several various (up to 6) genetic types of EC may be involved in outbreaks in CB flocks within one year in one region. Outbreaks reported in following years in the same region were usually caused by a distinct set of EC-genetic types. PFGE results indicated at the genetic heterogeneity among pathogenic isolates involved in outbreaks in relation to each poultry type. To our best knowledge, this is the first study which provides a comparison between clinical EC from 5 poultry groups. The study provides a new insight into

  3. Effect of vancomycin, tylosin, and chlortetracycline on vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium colonization of broiler chickens during grow-out

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Broiler chickens may serve as reservoirs for human colonization by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). We examined the effects of vancomycin and two commonly-used antimicrobial feed additives on VRE colonization in broiler chickens during grow-out. Chicks received unsupplemented feed or feed ...

  4. Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of two different dietary cereal types, corn versus rye, on digesta viscosity, gut integrity, and gut microbiota composition in commercial broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, off-sex broiler chickens were randomly assigned ...

  5. The effects of pullet body weight, dietary nonpyhtate phosphorus intake, and breeder feeding regimen on production performance, chick quality, and bone remodeling in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Ekmay, R D; Salas, C; England, J; Cerrate, S; Coon, C N

    2012-04-01

    A 3 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment, consisting of 52 hens per treatment, was conducted to determine the effects of pullet BW, dietary nonphytate phosphorus (NPP), and feeding regimen on performance, progeny quality, and bone remodeling. Cobb 500 broiler breeder pullets were reared to 3 different growth curves: 20% under, Cobb standard, and 20% over. Body weights were recorded weekly and feed adjustments made accordingly. At 21 wk, 624 hens were fed one of 2 breeder diets differing only in the amount of dietary NPP: 0.15 or 0.40%. A normal feeding regimen was appropriate for the particular growth curve; an alternative regimen considered the 3 growth curves together as a flock. At 24, 26, and 29 wk, blood was collected from 5 hens per treatment every 4 h over a 24-h period. Plasma samples were analyzed for total alkaline phosphatase, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, parathyroid hormone-related peptide, Ca, and inorganic P. Eggs per hen housed were diminished in hens fed the low dietary NPP and by low pullet target weight. Hens fed low dietary NPP also had lower egg weights but better eggshell quality. Mortality was significantly higher in hens fed low dietary NPP. Breeder tibia relative strength and ash were also significantly lower in hens fed low dietary NPP, regardless of the quantitative amount. Progeny tibia ash was not affected by any treatment. Total alkaline phosphatase responded to pullet BW, however by wk 29, total alkaline phosphatase also became sensitive to dietary NPP. The NPP by pullet BW interaction for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase levels became significant by 29 wk, and pullet BW was significant at wk 24. The NPP by pullet growth curve interaction was also critical for plasma inorganic P levels throughout the sampling period. In summary, both 0.15% dietary NPP and reared pullets 20% under standard BW negatively affect egg production but do not impair progeny productivity. Body composition appears to be a main contributor in bone remodeling

  6. Effects of Light Color on Energy Expenditure and Behavior in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nara; Lee, Sang-Rak; Lee, Sang-Jin

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted in order to investigate whether the presence of light or different colors of light would influence the energy expenditure and behavior of broiler chickens. Eight 8-week-old broiler chickens were adapted to a respiration chamber (Length, 28.5 cm; Height, 38.5 cm; Width, 44.0 cm) for one week prior to the initiation of the experiment. In experiment 1, energy expenditure and behavior of the chickens were analyzed in the presence or absence of light for four days. Chickens were exposed to 6 cycles of 2 h light/2 h dark period per day. In experiment 2, the broiler chickens that had been used in experiment 1 were used to evaluate the effect of 4 different wavelength light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the energy expenditure and behavior of broiler chickens. The LEDs used in this study had the following wavelength bands; white (control), red (618 to 635 nm), green (515 to 530 nm) and blue (450 to 470 nm). The chickens were randomly exposed to a 2-h LED light in a random and sequential order per day for 3 days. Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production of the chickens were recorded using an open-circuit calorimeter system, and energy expenditure was calculated based on the collected data. The behavior of the chickens was analyzed based on following categories i.e., resting, standing, and pecking, and closed-circuit television was used to record these behavioral postures. The analysis of data from experiment 1 showed that the energy expenditure was higher (p<0.001) in chickens under light condition compared with those under dark condition. The chickens spent more time with pecking during a light period, but they frequently exhibited resting during a dark period. Experiment 2 showed that there was no significant difference in terms of energy expenditure and behavior based on the color of light (white, red, green, and blue) to which the chickens were exposed. In conclusion, the energy expenditure and behavior of broiler chickens were found to be

  7. Effect of feeding guanidinoacetic acid and L-arginine on the fertility rate and sperm penetration in the perivitelline layer of aged broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Sharideh, H; Esmaeile Neia, L; Zaghari, M; Zhandi, M; Akhlaghi, A; Lotfi, L

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) and L-arginine (ARG) on fertility and sperm penetration (SP) rate of broiler breeder hens. In the first experiment, a total of 200 broiler breeder hens (Ross 308) aged 53 weeks were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments (0, 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 g GAA/kg diet) with five replicates of 10 birds each. In the second experiment, 320 broiler breeder hens (Ross 308) were used from 53 to 62 weeks of age in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (0 or 1.2 g GAA/kg diet along with 0, 3, 6 or 9 g ARG/kg diet). The hens received a diet containing 2800 kcal ME/kg and 14% CP. Sixteen sexually mature Ross 308 breeder roosters (34 weeks old) were used to artificially inseminate the hens. Fertility of the hens was determined in 61 and 62 weeks of age. The sperm penetration holes in the inner perivitelline layer (IPL) overlying the germinal disc were enumerated on days 3 and 7 following each insemination. Adding GAA to the breeder diet increased the number of SPs in the IPL and fertility in both experiments (p < 0.01). The interactive effect of ARG and GAA on the SP and fertility was significant. Supplementary ARG increased the SP rate in the IPL (p < 0.01). In conclusion, dietary supplementation of GAA and ARG might be potentially used to improve the fertility of broiler breeder hens at the later phase of the egg production period. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Effects of supplementation with L. plantarum TN8 encapsulated in alginate-chitosan in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Imen; Ktari, Naourez; Ben Slima, Sirine; Bouchaala, Kamel; Ben Salah, Riadh

    2016-08-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of supplementation of probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum TN8 encapsulated in sodium alginate-chitosan or a commercial blend of essential oils on total cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and growth performance of broiler chickens. The results showed that the broiler chickens supplemented with encapsulated L. plantarum TN8 or essential oil has a higher growth than the control group. After 35days, the weight means were 1860 and 1880g respectively in dietary supplementation with probiotic or essential oil, while they are 1800g in the control group. The evolution of the feed consumption and feed conversion per week showed that the supplementation of encapsulated TN8 strain or essential oil in broiler chickens food has a positive influence on their appetite. Similarly, supplementation of the feed with this encapsulated strain significantly reduced the rate of cholesterol (HDL and LDL) as well as the contents of triglycerides in broiler chickens. Through our study, it appears that the use of the probiotic supplementation or essential oil to broilers were found to be better than the control group of chickens, resulting in a significant economic impact and promoting effect on health.

  9. Systemic Metabolic Responses of Broiler Chickens and Piglets to Acute T-2 Toxin Intravenous Exposure.

    PubMed

    Wan, Qianfen; He, Qinghua; Deng, Xianbai; Hao, Fuhua; Tang, Huiru; Wang, Yulan

    2016-01-27

    The aim of this study is to thoroughly investigate the toxicity mechanism of mycotoxin T-2 toxin and to further understand the endogenous metabolic alterations induced by T-2 toxin. To achieve this, a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics approach was used to analyze the metabolic alterations induced by a single intravenous injection of T-2 toxin (0.5 mg/kg of body weight) in piglets and broiler chickens. A range of metabolites in the plasma, liver, kidney, and spleen of broiler chickens and plasma of piglets was changed following T-2 toxin injection. For example, a rapid increase of amino acids together with a significant reduction of glucose and lipid occurred in the plasma of broiler chickens and piglets following T-2 toxin treatment. A significant accumulation of amino acids and modulated nucleotides were detected in the liver, kidney, and spleen of T-2 toxin-treated broiler chickens. These data indicated that T-2 toxin caused endogenous metabolic changes in multiple organs and perturbed various metabolic pathways, including energy, amino acid, and nucleotide metabolism, as well as oxidative stress. We also observed elevated levels of tryptophan in the T-2 toxin-treated broiler chickens, which may explain the reported neurotoxic effects of T-2 toxin. These findings provide important information on the toxicity of T-2 toxin and demonstrate the power of the NMR-based metabonomics approach in exploring the toxicity mechanism of xenobiotics.

  10. Age effect of broiler breeders on fertility and sperm penetration of the perivitelline layer of the ovum.

    PubMed

    Gumułka, Małgorzata; Kapkowska, Ewa

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the age effect of a broiler breeder flock on duration of fertility and number of spermatozoa penetrating the perivitelline layer overlying the germinal disc (SP/mm(2) GDIPVL). Moreover, in the second half of the flock's reproductive life, the effect of using ejaculates of young roosters (CA2) in artificial insemination (AI) on the above parameters of fertility was estimated. The commercial flock of broiler breeder hens (n = 100) was inseminated six times from 31 to 62 weeks of age. Additional inseminations, with ejaculates of roosters aged 31 and 36 weeks (CA2), were performed at 56 and 62 weeks of age. AI was performed during two consecutive days (D0 and D1) with an insemination dose of 125 x 10(6) spermatozoa/0.06 ml containing pooled ejaculates. The following parameters were studied: the effective and maximum duration of fertility (De and Dm), percent of fertility on different days after AI (FD10, FD15 and FD20), indices of duration of sperm penetration (DSP, SP < or = 3/GDIPVL), SP/mm(2) GDIPVL in eggs laid on successive days after insemination of hens at different age, and correlations between some fertility indices. Both for De and Dm, the highest values were noted after AI of the layers at 36 weeks of age (14.8 +/- 0.49 and 17.4 +/- 0.46 days, respectively), which were about 2 days longer than at 56 weeks. All fertility indices decreased gradually with age, starting from AI at peak egg production (31-36 weeks of age), while the use of ejaculates from CA2 did not help to increase them significantly. Correlation coefficients between SP/mm(2) GDIPVL and the other fertility indices were positive and highest for eggs laid on D3. It is concluded that high De values can be obtained from broiler breeders in adequate environmental and technological conditions of AI. It is suggested that the age-related decrease in fertility is more pronounced in females, in which the efficiency of sperm storage tubules decreases. The

  11. The effect of increasing feeding frequency on performance, plasma hormones and metabolites, and hepatic lipid metabolism of broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Moradi, S; Zaghari, M; Shivazad, M; Osfoori, R; Mardi, M

    2013-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of feeding regimens on reproductive performance, plasma hormone and metabolite levels, and hepatic lipid metabolism of Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens from 26 to 38 wk of age. Seventy-two birds were used in a completely randomized design with 3 treatments, each replicated 4 times. Treatments were as follows: 1) once a day feeding, in which birds were fed once a day at 0615 h (control), 2) twice a day feeding, in which daily allocated feed was fed in 2 equal meals at 0615 and 1215 h, and 3) thrice a day feeding in which daily allocated feed was offered in 3 equal meals at 0615, 1215, and 1815 h. Through 38 wk of age, total hen-day egg production in the hens fed twice and thrice a day was greater (67.1 and 67.2 vs. 62.2 eggs/hen, P < 0.01). Similarly, egg weight was higher (P < 0.01) in birds fed more than once a day. Multi-meal-fed birds had significantly lower plasma triiodothyronine and glucose at 32 wk and also lower glucose and cholesterol, and higher 17β-estradiol levels at 38 wk than those fed once a day (P ≤ 0.05). Hepatic expression of malic enzyme, fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and ATP citrate lyase relative to β-actin decreased (P < 0.05) in birds fed twice and thrice a day compared with birds fed once a day at peak egg production (32 wk). In contrast, feeding regimens did not affect the hepatic gene expression of lipogenic enzymes after peak egg production at 38 wk. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) gene expression was constant over dietary regimens. There was no difference in malic enzyme activity in multi-meal-fed birds at 38 wk. In summary, feeding broiler breeder hens 2 or 3 meals per day improved the reproductive performance during the early lay cycle. Implementing twice or thrice a day feeding regimens altered hepatic lipogenic gene expression in broiler breeder hens only at peak egg production, which indicated a short-term effect of increasing feeding frequency on hepatic lipid

  12. Effect of age on hepatic cytochrome P450 of Ross 708 broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hu, S X

    2013-05-01

    Age has significant impact on hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450) systems in animals. Ross 708 broiler chicken is a breed of chicken with fast growth characteristics. Cytochrome P450 in the livers of Ross 708 broiler chicken of different ages has been investigated. The birds were raised under standard husbandry conditions. A certain number of chickens was randomly sampled weekly for liver collection from d 1 to 56 posthatch. The chicken body and liver weights were recorded. The chicken livers were processed for liver microsomes though a multiple-step procedure at low temperature. Total CYP450 content in chicken liver homogenates and liver microsomes was measured using a UV/visible spectroscopic method. The enzymatic activities of CYP450 in the chicken liver microsomes were determined through incubation of CYP450 isoform substrates followed by measurement of formation of their metabolites. The chicken showed an opposite age pattern in hepatic CYP450 content and activities compared with most mammals. The hepatic CYP450 content and activities of chicken at d 1 posthatch were higher than at other ages. The total hepatic CYP450 content in chickens at d 1 posthatch was more than twice the average hepatic value of the chickens at d 7 to 28. This high CYP450 fell quickly in the first week posthatch and slightly rose from d 28 to 56. Hepatic CYP450 activities of CYP1A, 3A, 2C, 2D, and 2H were much higher in the chicken at d 1 posthatch. The differences of these enzymatic activities between d 1 and other ages of chicken were CYP450 isoform dependent. This result suggests that embryonic development of chicken livers has a significant impact on the age profile of hepatic CYP450 content and activities of posthatch chickens.

  13. Effects of salinomycin and Bacillus subtilis on growth performance and immune responses in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Woo; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Jang, Seung I; Lee, Sung-Hyen

    2014-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the effect of salinomycin and Bacillus subtilis on growth performance, serum antibody levels against Clostridium spp. and Eimeria spp., and cytokine mRNA expression levels in broiler chickens raised in the used litter. Broiler chickens fed a diet containing salinomycin showed lower (P < 0.05) body weights compared with the control diet-fed counterparts. Serum nitric oxide levels were significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in chickens fed the B. subtilis-enriched diet compared with those on either the salinomycin-fed or control diet-fed chickens. None of the dietary treatments affected (P > 0.05) serum antibody levels against Clostridium perfringens toxins. Both salinomycin and B.subtilis significantly lowered (P < 0.05) the serum levels of Eimeria-specific antibodies compared with the control group. Salinomycin, but not B. subtilis, significantly modulated (P < 0.05) the expression of cytokines encoding interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor superfamily 15 (TNFSF15) compared with the control group. In conclusion, dietary salinomycin and B. subtilis affected serum anticoccidial antibody and intestinal cytokine expression, but failed to improve growth performance in broiler chickens. Further study is warranted to investigate the mode of action of salinomycin on host immune response and growth performance in broiler chickens.

  14. Breeder age affects small intestine development of broiler chicks with immediate or delayed access to feed.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, K Z; Edens, F W

    2012-01-01

    1. The relationship between breeder age and chick gastrointestinal tract development to 21 days of age, as influenced by immediate or delayed access to feed, was examined in three consecutive trials. 2. Ross 708 chicks, derived from breeder flocks at 31 (young), 40 (middle) and 63 (old) weeks of age were placed randomly into either a control group with immediate access to feed and water, or a 48 h feed delayed (FD) group with free access to water. 3. FD negatively affected body weight (BW) of chicks derived from young and old flocks through the first and second weeks of age, respectively. Chicks from the older flock absorbed more yolk in the first 48 h with no FD effect. When feed was made available, chicks from the FD group showed a large increase in small intestine weight relative to BW, surpassing (P < 0·05) the control groups across all breeder flock ages. 4. Morphological measurements in all intestinal sections had higher values in chicks derived from the middle age breeder flock. FD to newly hatched chicks from the young breeder flock shortened villi (P < 0·01), decreased crypt depth and villus surface area (P < 0·001) in the duodenum through the first week post hatch. 5. Crypt depths were maximised between 7 and 14 d post-hatch in chicks from young and old breeder flocks, but crypt depths in chicks from the middle aged flocks continued to deepen. 6. The increased crypt depth may augment the number of enterocytes available for villus growth, and facilitate longer villi and greater villus surface area, in chicks from the middle age flocks. Intestinal morphological variation was associated with breeder flock age, which accounted for differential growth in chicks derived from young, middle, and old aged breeder flocks.

  15. Histopathological and clinical investigations in Neospora caninum experimentally infected broiler chicken embryonated eggs.

    PubMed

    Mansourian, Maryam; Khodakaram-Tafti, Azizollah; Namavari, Mehdi

    2009-12-23

    To date, despite the limited information about the role of birds in Neospora caninum infection, there are no reports regarding the role of broiler chickens. In the present study, an experimental infection with N. caninum NC-1 isolate was conducted in embryonated eggs from 70 Lohman broiler chickens randomly divided into seven equal groups. At 8 days of incubation, six groups were inoculated via chorioallantoic (CA) liquid with different dilutions (10, 10(2), 10(3), 10(4), 10(5), and 10(6)) of tachyzoites/embryonated egg. The 7th group was considered the control. The mortality rate, gross and histopathologic changes of tissues of the dead embryos and live hatched chickens up to 60 days old were studied and evaluated. There were no hatchings in groups with 10(5) and 10(6) tachyzoites. In groups with 10, 10(2), 10(3) and 10(4) tachyzoites there were 8, 7, 5 and 2 hatchings, respectively. From the surviving chickens only one 10(4) tachyzoites inoculated chicken showed clinical neurologic signs. In all groups the main gross lesions were hemorrhage associated with thickening of the CA membranes. Three chickens (one chicken with 10(4) tachyzoites and two with 10(5) tachyzoites) showed arthritis in the feet joints after two weeks of inoculation. Microscopic examination of the heart, liver and chorioallantoic membrane revealed acute neosporosis and, in some cases, granulomatous inflammation. Our findings implied that broiler chicken embryonated egg is a completely suitable animal model for biological studies of acute neosporosis studies and genetic susceptibility can be propounded in different chicken breeds. It seems 10(3) tachyzoites dilution is equal to LD50 in N. caninum infection in broiler chicken embryonated eggs and can be used in other experimental investigations.

  16. Selection for Growth Performance in Broiler Chickens Associates with Less Diet Flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, Jana; Coopman, Frank; Cools, An; Michiels, Joris; Fremaut, Dirk; De Smet, Stefaan; Janssens, Geert P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Global competition for high standard feed-food resources between man and livestock, such as industrial broilers, is a concerning problem. In addition, the low productivity of scavenger chickens in developing countries leaves much to be desired. Changing the ingredients, and therefore, the nutrient composition of feed intake by commercial fed as well as scavenger chickens seems like an obvious solution. In this study, the ability of four broiler chicken breeds to perform on a commercial versus a scavenger diet was tested. The four broiler breeds differed genetically in growth potential. A significant (P < 0.01) negative effect of the scavenger diet on the bodyweight of the fast growing breeds was found and this effect decreased with decreasing growth rate in the other breeds. These differences in bodyweight gain could not be explained by differences in nutrient digestibility but were caused by the lack of ability of the fast growing breeds to increase their feed intake sufficiently. PMID:26042600

  17. Feed contamination with Fusarium mycotoxins induces a corticosterone stress response in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Antonissen, G; De Baere, S; Devreese, M; Van Immerseel, F; Martel, A; Croubels, S

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FBs) on the stress response in broiler chickens, using corticosterone (CORT) in plasma as a biomarker. Chickens were fed either a control diet, a DON contaminated diet, a FBs contaminated diet, or a DON and FBs contaminated diet for 15 d at concentrations close to the European Union maximum guidance levels for DON and FBs in poultry. Mean plasma CORT levels were significantly higher in broiler chickens fed a DON contaminated and a DON and FBs contaminated diet compared to birds fed a control diet. A similar trend was observed for animals fed a FBs contaminated diet. Consequently, feeding broilers a diet contaminated with DON and/or FBs induced a CORT stress response, which may indicate a negative effect on animal welfare. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Selection for growth performance in broiler chickens associates with less diet flexibility.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Jana; Coopman, Frank; Cools, An; Michiels, Joris; Fremaut, Dirk; De Smet, Stefaan; Janssens, Geert P J

    2015-01-01

    Global competition for high standard feed-food resources between man and livestock, such as industrial broilers, is a concerning problem. In addition, the low productivity of scavenger chickens in developing countries leaves much to be desired. Changing the ingredients, and therefore, the nutrient composition of feed intake by commercial fed as well as scavenger chickens seems like an obvious solution. In this study, the ability of four broiler chicken breeds to perform on a commercial versus a scavenger diet was tested. The four broiler breeds differed genetically in growth potential. A significant (P < 0.01) negative effect of the scavenger diet on the bodyweight of the fast growing breeds was found and this effect decreased with decreasing growth rate in the other breeds. These differences in bodyweight gain could not be explained by differences in nutrient digestibility but were caused by the lack of ability of the fast growing breeds to increase their feed intake sufficiently.

  19. Arginine, soy isoflavone and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose have protective effects against obesity in broiler breeder hens fed on high-energy diets.

    PubMed

    Khalaji, S; Zaghari, M; Ganjkhanloo, M; Ghaziani, F

    2013-01-01

    1. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of arginine, soy isoflavone (ISF) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) on obesity in broiler breeder hens. 2. A total of 320 Cobb 500 hens, 45 weeks of age, were assigned to 64 floor pens. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomised design in a factorial arrangement (2 × 2 × 2 × 2) with 4 replicates of 5 hens in each pen. Factors included two concentrations of HPMC (0 and 1%), two concentrations of arginine (8.4 and 12 g/kg), two concentrations of ISF (zero and three times more than that present in basal diets) and two contents of energy (11.7 and 14.6 MJ/kg). Performance criteria and blood characteristics of hens were measured during the experimental period. Expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism was determined in the liver at 55 weeks of age. 3. Hens given high-energy diets showed increased BW (body weight), ovary weight and abdominal fat pad and enhanced plasma glucose, triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, haemoglobin, haematocrit and low lymphocyte percentages. The expression of malic enzyme, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) increased and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP1c) decreased with increasing energy content of diets. Arginine addition decreased TG, cholesterol and A1-c haemoglobin concentration and increased PPARα, PPARγ and iNOS expression. Inclusion of ISF and HPMC decreased BW, egg weight, plasma TG, cholesterol and increased egg production and also enhanced PPARγ and iNOS expression. Significant interactions were observed between energy concentration and ISF and HPMC on BW. 4. The results of the current study revealed that ISF, HPMC and arginine have beneficial effects on controlling the metabolism of obese broiler breeder hens and using a mix of these products minimises the harmful effects of obesity.

  20. The effect of low-density diets on broiler breeder development and nutrient digestibility during the rearing period.

    PubMed

    Enting, H; Veldman, A; Verstegen, M W A; van der Aar, P J

    2007-04-01

    Low-density diets might help to reduce hunger feeling in restricted-fed broiler breeders. Effects of low-density diets on nutrient digestibility and bird development were studied in Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens from 4 wk of age until the onset of the lay (wk 26). The experiment included 4 treatments. The control treatment was a normal density diet (ND; 2,600 kcal/kg). Treatments 2 and 3 had a 12 and 23% lower nutrient density than ND (LD12 and LD23, respectively) through inclusion of palm kernel meal, wheat bran, wheat gluten feed, and sunflower seed meal. Treatment 4 also had a 12% lower nutrient density than ND but included oats and sugar beet pulp (LD12(OP)). Total daily intake of energy, digestible lysine, calcium, retainable phosphorus, sodium, and linoleic acid was kept constant in the low-density dietary treatments. Animal performance and development of the intestinal tract and reproductive tract were determined in addition to digestibility and feed passage rate. The LD12(OP) provided a lower AME and nutrient digestibility than calculated and was related to lower live weights. Birds given LD23 and LD12(OP) showed a faster ovarian and oviduct development between wk 24 and 26 compared with ND. At 22 wk of age, LD23 and LD12(OP) diets resulted in higher empty jejunum and ileum weights. Low-density diets did not affect intestinal tract contents and decreased mean retention time of the contents. It was concluded that low-density diets can affect live weight and development of digestive and reproductive tracts.

  1. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Broiler Chickens 2: Individual Variation

    PubMed Central

    Groves, Peter J.; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Although the consumption of free-range chicken meat has increased, little is known about the ranging behaviour of meat chickens on commercial farms. Studies suggest range use is low and not all chickens access the range when given the opportunity. Whether ranging behaviour differs between individuals within a flock remains largely unknown and may have consequences for animal welfare and management. We monitored individual chicken ranging behaviour from four mixed sex flocks on a commercial farm across two seasons. Not all chickens accessed the range. We identified groups of chickens that differed in ranging behaviour (classified by frequency of range visits): chickens that accessed the range only once, low frequency ranging chickens and high frequency ranging chickens, the latter accounting for one-third to one half of all range visits. Sex was not predictive of whether a chicken would access the range or the number of range visits, but males spent more time on the range in winter. We found evidence that free-range chicken ranging varies between individuals within the same flock on a commercial farm. Whether such variation in ranging behaviour relates to variation in chicken welfare remains to be investigated. Abstract Little is known about broiler chicken ranging behaviour. Previous studies have monitored ranging behaviour at flock level but whether individual ranging behaviour varies within a flock is unknown. Using Radio Frequency Identification technology, we tracked 1200 individual ROSS 308 broiler chickens across four mixed sex flocks in two seasons on one commercial farm. Ranging behaviour was tracked from first day of range access (21 days of age) until 35 days of age in winter flocks and 44 days of age in summer flocks. We identified groups of chickens that differed in frequency of range visits: chickens that never accessed the range (13 to 67% of tagged chickens), low ranging chickens (15 to 44% of tagged chickens) that accounted for <15

  2. Studies on the Cecal Microflora of Commercial Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Salanitro, J. P.; Blake, I. G.; Muirhead, P. A.

    1974-01-01

    A study was made of the cecal microflora isolated from broilers (5-week-old) reared under typical commercial husbandry conditions. Three hundred and twenty-five bacterial strains (randomly isolated from colonies representing 49 to 81% of the microscopic count) were isolated from cecal digesta of six animals on a rumen fluid roll tube medium (M98-5). Seventy-seven percent of these strains consisted of strict anaerobes: gram-negative, pleomorphic cocci (5.2%), Peptostreptococcus (1.5%), gram-positive rods (36.1% as Propionibacterium acnes and Eubacterium sp.), gram-negative rods (18.6% as Bacteroides clostridiiformis, B. hypermegas and B. fragilis) and sporeforming rods (15.7% as Clostridium sp.). Two types of facultatively anaerobic bacteria (gram-positive cocci and Escherichia coli) were also isolated and constituted 17.5% of the remaining flora. The distribution of the bacterial groups isolated from six cecal samples varied considerably. Data on the growth requirements of anaerobic strains indicated that many could be cultured in a simple medium consisting of an energy source, minerals, reducing agent, Trypticase, and yeast extract (or a vitamin mixture in place of yeast extract). The growth of some of these bacteria was also enhanced by CO2 and rumen fluid. These preliminary data suggest that some of the more numerous anaerobes isolated from the chicken cecum may not require complex nutrients for growth and, in fact, may be nutritionally similar to rumen anaerobes. PMID:4608322

  3. Occurrence and characterization of Salmonella from chicken nuggets, strips, and pelleted broiler feed.

    PubMed

    Bucher, O; Holley, R A; Ahmed, R; Tabor, H; Nadon, C; Ng, L K; D'Aoust, J Y

    2007-10-01

    Raw, frozen chicken nuggets and strips have been identified as a significant risk factor in contracting foodborne salmonellosis. Cases of salmonellosis as a result of consuming partly cooked chicken nuggets may be due in part to Salmonella strains originating in broiler feed. This study was undertaken to determine the occurrence and characterize the strains of Salmonella contaminating chicken nuggets, strips, and pelleted feeds, in an attempt to demonstrate whether the same Salmonella strains present in broiler feed could be isolated from raw, frozen chicken nuggets and strips available for human consumption. Salmonellae were recovered using the Health Canada MFHPB-20 method for the isolation and identification of Salmonella from foods. Strains were characterized by serotyping, phage typing, antimicrobial resistance typing (R-typing), and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Salmonellae were isolated from 25-g samples in 27% (n=92) of nugget and strip samples, 95% (n=20) of chicken nugget meat samples, and from 9% (n=111) of pelleted feed samples. Salmonella Heidelberg, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Orion were the most commonly isolated serovars from chicken nuggets and strips, nugget and strip meat, and pelleted broiler feeds, respectively. Salmonella Enteritidis phage type (PT) 13a with PFGE pattern SENXAI.0006 and R-type sensitive as well as Salmonella Enteritidis PT13a with PFGE pattern SENXAI.0068 and R-type sensitive were isolated from pelleted feed, and chicken nugget and strip meat in two separate instances. Data showed that Salmonella strains isolated from broiler feed were indistinguishable from strains isolated from packaged raw, frozen chicken nuggets and strips. However, results did not rule out the possibility that breeding stock or contamination during processing may have contributed to chicken meat contamination by Salmonella.

  4. The efficacy of Mycoplasma gallisepticum K-strain live vaccine in broiler and layer chickens.

    PubMed

    Ferguson-Noel, N M; Williams, S M

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of a live Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccine candidate (K-strain) was compared to commercially available vaccines in broiler-type chickens (Trial 1) and layer-type chickens (Trial 2). In Trial 1, three-week-old broiler-type chickens were vaccinated via aerosol with K-strain or an F-strain vaccine. The vaccinated chickens and 10 non-vaccinated controls were subsequently challenged with virulent R-strain via aerosol at six weeks post vaccination; both K-strain and F-strain vaccination resulted in significant protection from air sac and tracheal lesions, as well as R-strain colonization (P ≤ 0.05). In Trial 2, commercial layer-type chickens were vaccinated with ts-11 (via eye drop) or K-strain (via aerosol) at 12 weeks of age. At 25 weeks of age these birds were challenged with R-strain via aerosol. The ts-11 and K-strain vaccinated groups both had significantly lower air sac lesion scores and a lower prevalence of ovarian regression after challenge as compared to non-vaccinated chickens (P ≤ 0.05). K-strain vaccination also prevented significant tracheal lesions and R-strain colonization (P ≤ 0.05). K-strain shows great potential as a highly efficacious live MG vaccine in broiler and layer-type chickens for protection of the respiratory and reproductive systems as well as prevention of infection with field strains.

  5. Occurrence of Salmonella spp. in broiler chicken carcasses and their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Dalila Angélica Moliterno; Ribeiro, Aldemir Reginato; Vasconcelos, Ana Mércia Mendes; Santos, Sylnei Barros; Silva, Juliana Vital Domingos; de Andrade, Patrícia Lúcia Arruda; de Arruda Falcão, Lúcia Sadae Pereira da Costa

    2009-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the occurrence of Salmonellae in broiler chicken carcasses and to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolated strains. Twenty-five out of the 260 broiler chicken carcasses samples (9.6%) were positive for Salmonella. S. Enteritidis was the most frequent serovar. Nineteen Salmonella isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance, and the results indicated that 94.7% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Resistance to streptomycin (73.7%), nitrofurantoin (52.3%), tetracycline (31.6%), and nalidixic acid (21%) were the prevalent amongst Salmonella strains tested. PMID:24031401

  6. Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Fecal Escherichia coli Isolates from Penned Broiler and Scavenging Local Chickens in Arusha, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Rugumisa, Bernadether T; Call, Douglas R; Mwanyika, Gaspary O; Mrutu, Rehema I; Luanda, Catherine M; Lyimo, Beatus M; Subbiah, Murugan; Buza, Joram J

    2016-08-01

    We compared the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from household-level producers of broiler (commercial source breeds) and local chickens in the Arusha District of Tanzania. Households were composed of a single dwelling or residence with independent, penned broiler flocks. Free-range, scavenging chickens were mixed breed and loosely associated with individual households. A total of 1,800 E. coli isolates (1,200 from broiler and 600 from scavenging local chickens) from 75 chickens were tested for their susceptibility against 11 antibiotics by using breakpoint assays. Isolates from broiler chickens harbored a higher prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli relative to scavenging local chickens, including sulfamethoxazole (80.3 versus 34%), followed by trimethoprim (69.3 versus 27.7%), tetracycline (56.8 versus 20%), streptomycin (52.7 versus 24.7%), amoxicillin (49.6 versus 17%), ampicillin (49.1 versus 16.8%), ciprofloxacin (21.9 versus 1.7%), and chloramphenicol (1.5 versus 1.2%). Except for resistance to chloramphenicol, scavenging local chickens harbored fewer resistant E. coli isolates (P < 0.05). Broiler chickens harbored more isolates that were resistant to ≥7 antibiotics (P < 0.05). The higher prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli from broiler chickens correlated with the reported therapeutic and prophylactic use of antibiotics in this poultry population. We suggest that improved biosecurity measures and increased vaccination efforts would reduce reliance on antibiotics by these households.

  7. Quantitative Determination of Tenuazonic Acid in Pig and Broiler Chicken Plasma by LC-MS/MS and Its Comparative Toxicokinetics.

    PubMed

    Fraeyman, Sophie; Devreese, Mathias; Broekaert, Nathan; De Mil, Thomas; Antonissen, Gunther; De Baere, Siegrid; De Backer, Patrick; Rychlik, Michael; Croubels, Siska

    2015-09-30

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantitate tenuazonic acid (TeA) in pig and broiler chicken plasma was successfully developed and validated. Linear matrix-matched calibration curves ranged between 5 and 200 ng/mL. Correlation coefficients, goodness-of-fit coefficients, and within-day and between-day precision and accuracy fell well within the acceptance criteria. The limit of quantitation was 5.0 ng/mL in both pig and broiler chicken plasma. The LC-MS/MS method was applied in a comparative toxicokinetic study in both pigs and broiler chickens. TeA was completely bioavailable after oral administration in both animal species. However, absorption was deemed to be slower in broiler chickens (mean tmax 0.32 h in pigs vs 2.60 h in chickens). TeA was more slowly eliminated in broiler chickens (mean t1/2el 0.55 h in pigs vs 2.45 h in chickens after oral administration), mainly due to the significantly lower total body clearance (mean Cl 446.1 mL/h/kg in pigs vs 59.2 mL/h/kg in chickens after oral administration). Tissue residue studies and further research to elucidate the biotransformation and excretion processes of TeA in pigs, broiler chickens, and other animal species are imperative.

  8. Dissemination and tracking of Salmonella spp. in integrated broiler operation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Aeran; Kang, Min Su; Kwag, Sang Ick; Cho, Jae Keun

    2007-01-01

    Controlling Salmonella in integrated broiler operation is complicated because there are numerous potential sources of Salmonella contamination, including chicks, feed, rodents, wild poultry operations, and the processing plant. The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution of Salmonella through all phases of two integrated broiler operations and to determine the key areas related to the control of all known sources of infection. Two different Salmonella serotypes were observed at integrated broiler chicken company A. S. enteritidis, the predominant company A isolate, was consistently found in the breeder farm, hatcheries, broiler farms, and chicken slaughterhouse. At company B, a total of six different serotypes, S. heidelberg, S. senftenberg, S. enteritidis, S. blockley, S. gallinarum, and S. virchow, were detected. Although S. heidelberg was not found in the broiler farms, it was consistently found in the breeder farm, hatcheries, and chicken slaughterhouse. In addition, S. enteritidis was found in the hatcheries, broiler farm, and chicken slaughterhouse. In order to obtain the genetic clonality, 22 S. enteritidis isolates were digested with XbaI and analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrohporesis (PFGE). A difference in the PFGE pattern was found to be related to the origin of the integrated broiler operation. These data support the critical need to control Salmonella in breeder farms and hatcheries, and demonstrate important points related to the control of infection in large-scale poultry operations of Korea. PMID:17519569

  9. Growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens supplemented with Rhodopseudomonas palustris in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Xu, Q Q; Yan, H; Liu, X L; Lv, L; Yin, C H; Wang, P

    2014-01-01

    1. The effect of the bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, on the growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens was investigated. 2. A total of 900-d-old Arbor Acres broilers were allocated to three experimental treatments for 6 weeks. Chicks were administered with R. palustris in drinking water as follows: (i) control group without R. palustris; (ii) treatment 1 (R1) with R. palustris of 8 × 10(9) cells per chick per day in drinking water; (iii) treatment 2 (R2) with R. palustris of 1.6 × 10(10) cells per chick per day in drinking water. 3. The results showed that, compared with that of control, both groups of R. palustris treatment increased daily weight gain and improved feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens significantly during the whole growing period of 6 weeks. 4. Both total and glutamic acid contents of chicken breast fillet in R. palustris treatment R2 were higher, while the fat content was lower, than those of the control group. Furthermore, R. palustris treatments also improved sensory attributes of chicken breast fillet. 5. As a probiotic providing rich nutrients and biological active substances, R. palustris administration in drinking water displayed a growth promoting effect and improved meat quality of broiler chickens.

  10. Effect of refined functional carbohydrates from enzymatically hydrolyzed yeast on the presence of Salmonella spp. in the ceca of broiler breeder females.

    PubMed

    Walker, G K; Jalukar, S; Brake, J

    2017-03-31

    Broiler breeders hatched from Salmo-nella negative grandparents received either zero or 50 g/MT of refined functional carbohydrates (RFC) in their diets from d of placement to end of lay. There were no other treatments used. Pullets and cockerels were reared separately in an enclosed litter-floor house to 21 wk of age when 28 randomly selected pullets from each diet were transferred to individual cages for an additional 14 d before they were killed, and their ceca were excised aseptically and tested for Salmonella spp. The remaining birds were transferred to a two-thirds slat and one-third litter curtain-sided laying house. There were 8 pens of 60 to 65 females and 8 to 18 males, depending upon flock age and housing type, fed each diet, and there was no effort made to isolate pens from typical daily foot traffic between pens. At 51 wk of age, male progeny broiler chicks were hatched and received either zero or 50 g/MT of RFC to complete a 2 × 2 design with 4 replicate pens of 12 males per interaction. All broilers were tested for cecal Salmonella spp. at 34 d of age. Ceca were collected from 30 breeder hens from each treatment at 64 wk of age and tested for Salmonella spp. Of the ceca sampled at 23 wk from the control pullets, 71.4% were found to contain Salmonella spp., while none of the ceca from the RFC pullets tested positive. Of the ceca sampled from the control hens at 64 wk, 40% were found to contain Salmonella spp., while none of the ceca from the RFC hens tested positive. Salmonella spp. was isolated from broilers in one pen of the control broilers that were also progeny of control breeders out of 4 replicates but not from any pens in which the breeders had been fed RFC. These data demonstrated that RFC reduced natural Salmonella spp. colonization of broiler breeder hen and broiler progeny ceca during a complete production cycle.

  11. Effect of broiler breeders fed with corn or sorghum diet and canthaxanthin supplementation on production and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, C E V; Rosa, A P; Londero, A; Giacomini, C B S; Orso, C; Fernandes, M O; Paixão, S J; Bonamigo, D V

    2017-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of corn or sorghum diet and canthaxanthin (CX) supplementation on performance in broiler breeders. A total of 440 females with similar body weight (BW) (3.71 ± 0.14 kg) and 60 roosters were placed in an open-sided house with 20 pens, randomly distributed in a factorial arrangement (2 × 2). There were 4 diets of 2 ingredients; corn (CO) or sorghum (SO) and 2 levels of CX; 6 mg/kg (CX) and 0 mg/kg (NCX) totaling 5 replicate pens of 22 females and 3 males each, from 42 to 65 wk, divided in 2 periods (from wk 42 to 53 and wk 54 to 65). Birds' BW was measured every 28 d and mortality rate was calculated at the end of trial. Egg production (%), egg specific gravity (g/cm3), egg weight (g), yolk weight (%), albumen weight (%), eggshell weight (%) and yolk colorimetric score were measured weekly. Incubation parameters were recorded in 12 incubations to evaluate hatching eggs, hatching (%), hatchability (%), fertility (%), weight of the chicks born and their quality. The BW, mortality, percentage of yolk and albumen weight, fertility and some incubation parameters were not affected (P > 0.05) by diets used. An increase in the egg production, hatching eggs, chicks born and first quality chick by hen at the second period were observed in CX breeder's diets (P = 0.0066; P = 0.0060; P = 0.0368; P = 0.0326). Egg specific gravity and eggshell weight were improved at the first period by SO+CX diet (P = 0.0138; P = 0.0209) and the same effect to egg weight, but at the second period (P = 0.0251). The CX was well absorbed from the diet and effectively transferred to the egg yolk, thereby increasing egg yolk pigmentation in the both periods (P < 0.0001). The CX supplementation in broiler breeder diets improved the productive and reproductive performance (laying% and hatchable eggs) at the second period, also to the both periods improved the egg yolk pigmentation. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Anticoccidial effect of Piper sarmentosum extracts in experimental coccidiosis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dingfa; Zhou, Luli; Li, Wei; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu

    2016-06-01

    To study the anticoccidial effect of Piper sarmentosum extracts (PSE) in experimental broiler coccidiosis, 270 one-day-old Wenchang broiler chickens were randomly assigned to six groups, each with three replicates (n = 15). The six groups were blank control group (BC), negative control group (NC), positive control group (PC), and another three PSE addition groups. Chickens in three control groups were fed a basal diet without PSE supplementation. Chickens in the three PSE addition groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with PSE at 100 (T100), 200 (T200), and 300 (T300) mg/kg of feed, respectively. At 15 days of age, chickens in group NC, PC, and three PSE addition groups were challenged with an oral dose of 1 × 10(5) Eimeria tenella oocysts each chick. Chickens in group PC were fed with diclazuril solution in water for 5 days after 48 h with oocysts inoculation. The results showed that PSE and diclazuril improved growth performance and significantly (P < 0.05) decreased oocysts per gram in inoculated broiler chickens. PSE and diclazuril significantly (P < 0.05) decreased nitric oxide at 6 and 9 days post-inoculation relative to the NC group, respectively. At 6 and 9 days post-inoculation, PSE supplementation at 200 mg/kg in the diet increased concentration of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) (P < 0.05). PSE supplementation at 200 mg/kg in the diet significantly (P < 0.05) increased mRNA expressions of IFN-γ and IL-2 in the cecum of chickens at 9 days post-inoculation relative to the BC and NC group. The current results showed the anticoccidial properties, and beneficial effect on intestinal mucosa damage of PSE in broiler chickens that had been challenged by coccidiosis.

  13. The effects of selective breeding on the architectural properties of the pelvic limb in broiler chickens: a comparative study across modern and ancestral populations

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Heather; Anthony, Nicolas B; Corr, Sandra A; Hutchinson, John R

    2010-01-01

    Intensive artificial selection has led to the production of the modern broiler chicken, which over the last few decades has undergone a dramatic increase in growth rate and noticeable changes in body conformation. Unfortunately, this has been associated with musculoskeletal abnormalities which have altered the walking ability of these birds, raising obvious welfare concerns, as well as causing economic losses. Here we present a comparative study of ancestral and derived muscle anatomy in chickens to begin to tease apart how evolutionary alterations of muscle form in chickens have influenced their locomotor function and perhaps contributed to lameness. We measured the muscle architectural properties of the right pelvic limb in 50 birds, including the Giant Junglefowl, a commercial strain broiler and four pureline commercial broiler breeder lines (from which the broiler populations are derived) to identify which features of the broiler’s architectural design have diverged the most from the ancestral condition. We report a decline in pelvic limb muscle mass in the commercial line birds that may compromise their locomotor abilities because they carry a larger body mass. This greater demand on the pelvic limb muscles has mostly led to changes in support at the hip joint, revealing significantly larger abductors and additionally much larger medial rotators in the broiler population. Differences were seen within the commercial line bird populations, which are likely attributed to different selection pressures and may reflect differences in the walking ability of these birds. In addition, Junglefowl seem to have both greater force-generating capabilities and longer, presumably faster contracting muscles, indicative of superior musculoskeletal/locomotor function. We have provided baseline data for generating hypotheses to investigate in greater depth the specific biomechanical constraints that compromise the modern broiler’s walking ability and propose that these

  14. Feed Intake Regulation for the Female Broiler Breeder: In Theory and in Practice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The modern commercial broiler is the product of intensive genetic selection for rapid and efficient growth. An unintended consequence of this selective breeding has been the loss of the ability for self-regulation of feed intake to closely match the requirements for maintenance, growth and reproduc...

  15. Dietary supplementation with 5-aminolevulinic acid modulates growth performance and inflammatory responses in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Matsushita, K; Takahashi, K; Aoki, M; Fuziwara, J; Miyanari, S; Kamada, T

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) on the immune system, inflammatory response, and growth performance of broiler chickens. The levels of cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3) mRNA in the spleens of chickens gradually increased with dietary 5-ALA concentration, while the expression levels of interleukin (IL)-2 decreased. Mitogen-induced proliferation of splenic mononuclear cells and blood mononuclear cell phagocytosis in chickens fed 0.001 and 0.01% 5-ALA-supplemented diets were significantly greater than in chickens fed a basal diet (control). Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) concentration gradually increased along with 5-ALA supplement concentration. These results provide the first evidence that the use of dietary 0.001 and 0.01% 5-ALA supplementation induces the T-cell immune system via mild oxidative stress in chickens. Three hours after Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide-induced immune stimulation, the levels of mRNA encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-like ligand 1A (TL1A), in chickens fed a 0.001% 5-ALA-supplemented diet were significantly lower than those in chickens exposed to other treatments. The plasma caeruloplasmin concentration in chickens fed a 0.001% 5-ALA-supplemented diet was significantly lower than in controls or in chickens fed diets supplemented with other concentrations of 5-ALA 24 h after injection of LPS. In addition, BW at 21 and 50 d of age was significantly higher in chickens fed a 0.001% 5-ALA-supplemented diet than in control chickens. The findings suggest that supplementation of diets with 0.001% 5-ALA could prevent the catabolic changes induced by immunological stimulation. These results show that 5-ALA might be useful as an immunomodulator to stimulate T-cells via mild oxidative stress in growing broiler chickens, thereby improving the growth performance.

  16. Animal Welfare and Food Safety Aspects of Confining Broiler Chickens to Cages.

    PubMed

    Shields, Sara; Greger, Michael

    2013-05-13

    In most areas of the world, broiler chickens are raised in floor systems, but cage confinement is becoming more common. The welfare of broiler chickens in cages is affected by movement restriction, poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, and prevention of key behavioral patterns such as dustbathing and ground scratching. Cages for broiler chickens also have a long history of causing skin and leg conditions that could further compromise welfare, but a lack of controlled studies makes it difficult to draw conclusions about newer cage designs. Cage environments are usually stocked at a higher density than open floor systems, and the limited studies available suggest that caging may lead to increased levels of fear and stress in the birds. Further, birds reared on the floor appear less likely to harbor and shed Salmonella, as litter may serve as a seeding agent for competitive exclusion by other microorganisms. Cages for laying hens used in egg production have met with substantial opposition due to welfare concerns and caging broiler chickens will likely be subject to the same kinds of social disapproval.

  17. Immune modulation by Bacillus subtilus-based direct-fed microbials in commercial broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Direct-fed microbials (DFMs), also known as probiotics, have been successfully used to improve the balance of gut microbiota. Spores of Bacillus subtilis, have been used as DFMs for food animals and humans and our previous studies showed that dietary supplementation of broiler chickens with a B. su...

  18. Effect of varying light intensity on welfare indices of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of varying light-intensity on ocular, immue, fear, and leg health of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights under environmentally controlled conditions were evaluated. Four identical trials were conducted with two replications per trial. In each trial, 600 Ross 308 chicks were randomly ...

  19. Interactive effects of ammonia and light intensity on hematochemical variables in broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study examined the influence of atmospheric ammonia exposure, light intensity, and their interaction on blood gases, electrolytes, and acid-base balance in broiler chickens under environmentally controlled conditions. The experiment consisted of a 3 × 3 factorial arranged in a randomized comple...

  20. Effect of ambient temperature and light intensity on physiological reactions of heavy broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of ambient temperature, light intensity, and their interaction on blood acid-base balance, metabolites, and electrolytes in broiler chickens under environmentally controlled conditions were examined in 2 trials. The experiment was consisted of a factorial arrangement of treatments in a r...

  1. Applications of Bacteriocins in Broiler Chickens to Reduce Carriage of Campylobacter and Salmonella

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The paper will review studies which have used a variety of bacteriocins to treat Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enteritidis colonized broiler chickens. Antagonistic bacteria were chosen by selecting those isolates which produced zones of inhibition among confluent C. jejuni growth. From the...

  2. Proteomic changes in plasma of broiler chickens with femoral head necrosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Femoral head necrosis (FHN) is a skeletal problem in broiler chickens where the proximal femoral head cartilage shows susceptibility to separation from its growth plate. The FHN selected birds showed higher bodyweights and reduced plasma cholesterol. The proteomic differences in the plasma of health...

  3. External and internal bacterial in broiler chickens before and after defeathering

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Broiler chicken carcasses were removed from the shackle line in a commercial processing plant to determine incidence and counts of coliforms, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, and Salmonella both before and after picking. Five carcasses were taken from each sampling location on 10 different days (n=...

  4. Effects of a Lactobacillus salivarius mixture on performance, intestinal health and serum lipids of broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Shokryazdan, Parisa; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Liang, Juan Boo; Ramasamy, Kalavathy; Sieo, Chin Chin; Ho, Yin Wan

    2017-01-01

    The ban or severe restriction on the use of antibiotics in poultry feeds to promote growth has led to considerable interest to find alternative approaches. Probiotics have been considered as such alternatives. In the present study, the effects of a Lactobacillus mixture composed from three previously isolated Lactobacillus salivarius strains (CI1, CI2 and CI3) from chicken intestines on performance, intestinal health status and serum lipids of broiler chickens has been evaluated. Supplementation of the mixture at a concentration of 0.5 or 1 g kg-1 of diet to broilers for 42 days improved body weight, body weight gain and FCR, reduced total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, increased populations of beneficial bacteria such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, decreased harmful bacteria such as E. coli and total aerobes, reduced harmful cecal bacterial enzymes such as β-glucosidase and β-glucuronidase, and improved intestinal histomorphology of broilers. Because of its remarkable efficacy on broiler chickens, the L. salivarius mixture could be considered as a good potential probiotic for chickens, and its benefits should be further evaluated on a commercial scale. PMID:28459856

  5. Role of water hardness in rinsing bacteria from the skin of processed broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of water hardness on the ability of water to rinse bacteria from the skin of processed broiler chickens was examined. Artificial hard water with a total hardness of 200 ppm (very hard water) was prepared by dissolving calcium chloride (CaCl2) and magnesium chloride hexahydrate (MgCl2 •6H2...

  6. Bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbials augment macrophage function in broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the function of Bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbials (DFMs) on macrophage functions, i.e., nitric oxide (NO) production and phagocytosis in broiler chickens. DFMs used in this study were eight single strains designated as Bs2084, LSSAO1, 3AP4, Bs1...

  7. Valgus-Varus Deformity of the Intertarsal Joint in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Julian, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    A lateral or medial angulation of the shaft of the distal tibiotarsal bone resulting in deviation of the lower part of the leg and frequently with bending of the proximal shaft of the tarsometatarsus is the most common leg deformity in broiler chickens. This lateral or medial deviation of the legs in broiler chickens, which has been described by many workers, deserves a specific name such as angular bone deformity or valgus-varus deformity of intertarsal joint, so that it may be separated from other varieties of lameness in broilers. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2A.Figure 2B.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figures 5A and 5B.Figures 5A and 5B.Figures 6A and 6B.Figures 6A and 6B.Figures 7A and 7B.Figures 7A and 7B.Figure 8. PMID:17422417

  8. Review of antimicrobial therapy of selected bacterial diseases in broiler chickens in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Agunos, Agnes; Léger, Dave; Carson, Carolee

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews common therapeutic applications of antimicrobials in broiler chicken production in relation to Canadian guidelines, surveillance data, and emerging public health concerns about antimicrobial use (AMU). Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and Staphylococcus spp., were reviewed because of their animal health and economic significance. Enterococcus cecorum and Salmonella were included because of their importance in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance. This review identified that i) antimicrobials are available in Canada to treat infections by these agents, but may be through over the counter or extra-label use, ii) prevalence rates for these diseases are unknown, iii) antimicrobial use estimates in broilers are lacking, and iv) AMR has emerged in clinical isolates, though data are very sparse. This review highlights the need for surveillance of AMU and AMR in broiler chickens in Canada. PMID:23729827

  9. Further investigation of a quantitative trait locus for ascites on chromosome 9 in broiler chicken lines.

    PubMed

    Dey, Shatovisha; Krishna, Sriram; Anthony, Nicholas B; Rhoads, Douglas D

    2017-04-01

    Previously, we reported a genome wide association study (GWAS) that had shown association of a region between 11.8 and 13.6 Mbp on chromosome 9 with ascites phenotype in broilers. We had used microsatellite loci to demonstrate an association of particular genotypes for this region with ascites in experimental ascites lines and commercial broiler breeder lines. We identified two potential candidate genes, AGTR1 and UTS2D, within that chromosomal region for mediating the quantitative effect. We have now extended our analysis using SNPs for these genes to assess association with resistance or susceptibility to ascites in these same broiler lines. Surprisingly, in contrast to our previous GWAS and microsatellite data for this region, we find no association of the SNP genotypes or haplotypes in the region suggesting that the two genes might have limited association with the disease phenotype. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Negative Trends in Transport-related Mortality Rates in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Vecerek, Vladimir; Voslarova, Eva; Conte, Francesca; Vecerkova, Lenka; Bedanova, Iveta

    2016-12-01

    The high incidence of deaths during transport for slaughter is associated with poor welfare and represents a considerable loss to the poultry industry. In the period from 2009 to 2014, all shipments of broiler chickens to poultry processing plants were monitored in the Czech Republic and the numbers of chickens transported and those dying as a result of their transport were recorded and analysed. Overall transport-related mortality of broiler chickens transported for slaughter in the Czech Republic was 0.37%. It ranged from 0.31% to 0.72%, the increase approximately corresponding to the increasing transport distance. Statistically highly significant (p<0.001) differences were found when comparing transport-related mortality rates in individual seasons of the year. The greatest mortality (0.55%) was associated with transports carried out in winter months whereas the lowest death losses (0.30%) were found in chickens transported for slaughter in summer months. Our study revealed greater transport-related mortality rates in broiler chickens transported for slaughter in the Czech Republic than expected when considering earlier studies. The most pronounced increases were found in transports for shorter distances and in winter months. However, an increase was found at all transport distances monitored except for distances exceeding 300 km and all seasons except for summer. Furthermore, a general increasing tendency in chicken losses during the monitored period was found. The particularly alarming finding is that the mortality of broiler chickens being transported to processing plants has been showing a long-term increasing tendency over the last two decades. Further research should focus on the identification of specific factors leading to such high and growing mortality rates and developing practical guidelines to improve the welfare of the birds in transit accordingly.

  11. Negative Trends in Transport-related Mortality Rates in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Vecerek, Vladimir; Voslarova, Eva; Conte, Francesca; Vecerkova, Lenka; Bedanova, Iveta

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of deaths during transport for slaughter is associated with poor welfare and represents a considerable loss to the poultry industry. In the period from 2009 to 2014, all shipments of broiler chickens to poultry processing plants were monitored in the Czech Republic and the numbers of chickens transported and those dying as a result of their transport were recorded and analysed. Overall transport-related mortality of broiler chickens transported for slaughter in the Czech Republic was 0.37%. It ranged from 0.31% to 0.72%, the increase approximately corresponding to the increasing transport distance. Statistically highly significant (p<0.001) differences were found when comparing transport-related mortality rates in individual seasons of the year. The greatest mortality (0.55%) was associated with transports carried out in winter months whereas the lowest death losses (0.30%) were found in chickens transported for slaughter in summer months. Our study revealed greater transport-related mortality rates in broiler chickens transported for slaughter in the Czech Republic than expected when considering earlier studies. The most pronounced increases were found in transports for shorter distances and in winter months. However, an increase was found at all transport distances monitored except for distances exceeding 300 km and all seasons except for summer. Furthermore, a general increasing tendency in chicken losses during the monitored period was found. The particularly alarming finding is that the mortality of broiler chickens being transported to processing plants has been showing a long-term increasing tendency over the last two decades. Further research should focus on the identification of specific factors leading to such high and growing mortality rates and developing practical guidelines to improve the welfare of the birds in transit accordingly. PMID:26954219

  12. Effects of age on intestinal phosphate transport and biochemical values of broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianhui; Yuan, Jianmin; Miao, Zhiqiang; Guo, Yuming

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this experiment was to characterize the mRNA expression profile of type IIb sodium-inorganic phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-IIb) and the biochemical values of serum alkaline phosphatase (AKP), calcium, inorganic phosphorus, tibial ash and minerals of broiler chickens with aging. Methods A total of 56 one-day-old Arbor Acres male broiler chickens were used. Broiler chickens were weighed and samples were collected weekly from day 1. Results The result showed that before the growth inflection point, ash, calcium, and phosphorus content in the tibia of broiler chickens increased with growth (before 3 weeks of age), although there were no significant differences in chicks at different ages in the later period of the experiment and weight gain rate was relatively slow at this stage (4 to 6 weeks). NaPi-IIb gene expression in the small intestine in the early growth stage was higher than that in the later growth stage. Expression of calbindin and the vitamin D receptor protein in the intestinal mucosa increased with age in the duodenum and jejunum. Serum AKP activity first increased and subsequently decreased after peaking at 1 week of age, but there was no significant difference after 3 weeks of age. Conclusion These results show that compared with the early growth stage, the weight-gain rate of broiler chickens in the late growth stage gradually decreased with gradual tibia maturation, along with weaker positive transport of phosphorus in the intestine and reinforced re-absorption of phosphorus in the kidney, which might be the reason that phosphorus requirement in the late growth stage was decreased. PMID:27703131

  13. Limited evidence for trans-generational effects of maternal dietary supplementation with ω-3 fatty acids on immunity in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Koppenol, Astrid; Delezie, Evelyne; Parmentier, Henk K; Buyse, Johan; Everaert, Nadia

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the immune response of broiler chickens is modulated by including different omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the maternal diet. Broiler breeder hens (n = 120 birds per group) were fed one of four diets, differing in the ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFAs and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA):docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). At 28 weeks of age, the eggs produced were incubated to obtain 720 chicks (n = 180 per group). All broiler chicks were fed a control diet and were vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Blood samples were taken at different time points after immunisation with human serum albumin (HuSA) in Freund's adjuvant to determine the acute phase response, antibody response and cytokine production. Addition of EPA to the maternal diet was associated with greater ovotransferrin concentrations post-immunisation, compared to other groups. Altering the ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA or EPA:DHA in the maternal diet did not affect the offspring in terms of production of caeruloplasmin, α1-acid glycoprotein, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-12 or tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Dietary manipulation of the maternal diet did not influence the specific antibody response to HuSA or NDV, nor did it alter the levels of natural antibody binding to keyhole limpet haemocyanin in the offspring. Thus, maternal supplementation with n-3 PUFAs played a minor role in perinatal programming of the immune response of broiler chickens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Immunostimulatory and protective effects of Aloe vera against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Masood; Hai, Abdul; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir; ul Haq, Ahsan; Anwar, Muhammad Irfan

    2012-05-25

    This paper reports the immunostimulatory and protective effects of Aloe vera extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens. The study was divided into two experiments. Experiment-I was conducted for the evaluation of immunostimulatory activity of A. vera and experiment-II demonstrated the protective efficacy of A. vera extracts against coccidiosis in chickens. Results of the experiment-I revealed significantly higher (p<0.05) lymphoproliferative responses in chickens administered with ethanolic extract of A. vera as compared to those administered with aqueous extract and control group. Microplate haemagglutination assay for humoral response on day 7th and 14th post primary and secondary injections of sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) revealed significantly higher (p<0.05) anti SRBC antibody (total Igs, IgG and IgM) titers in chickens of experimental groups as compared to the control group. None of the extracts, however, demonstrated significant effects on the development of lymphoid organs. Results of experiment-II revealed maximum protection (60%) in chickens administered with aqueous Aloe extract as compared to the ethanolic extract administered chickens (45%). Mean oocysts per gram of droppings in the control group was significantly higher (p<0.05) as compared to the chickens in both the experimental groups. Chickens administered with aqueous Aloe extract showed a minimal mean lesion score (2.3) followed by those administered with ethanolic Aloe extract (2.6) and control chickens (3.05) for caeca, and a similar pattern was observed for intestinal lesion scoring. Further, significantly higher weight gains and antibody titers (p<0.05) were observed in chickens administered with A. vera extracts as compared to those in the control group. It was concluded that A. vera may be a potential and valuable candidate to stimulate the immune responses and can be used successfully as an immunotherapeutic agent against coccidiosis in

  15. Detection of clonal group A Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat, community-dwelling humans, and urinary tract infection (UTI) patients and their virulence in a mouse UTI model.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Lotte; Hammerum, Anette M; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2010-12-01

    Escherichia coli clonal group A isolates cause infections in people. We investigated 158 phylogroup D E. coli isolates from animals, meat, and humans. Twenty-five of these isolates were of clonal group A, and 15 isolates were shown to cause infection in a mouse urinary tract infection (UTI) model. We conclude that clonal group A isolates are found in both broiler chickens and broiler chicken meat and may cause UTI in humans.

  16. Nanosilver effects on growth parameters in experimental aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gholami-Ahangaran, Majid; Zia-Jahromi, Noosha

    2013-03-01

    Aflatoxicosis is a cause of economic losses in broiler production. In this study, the effect of one commercial nanocompound, Nanocid (Nano Nasb Pars Co., Iran) was evaluated in reduction of aflatoxin effects on the growth and performance indices in broiler chickens suffering from experimental aflatoxicosis. For this, a total of 300 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross strain) were randomly divided into 4 groups with 3 replicates of 15 chicks in each separated pen during the 28-day experiment. Treatment groups including group A: chickens fed basal diet, group B: chickens fed 3 ppm productive aflatoxin in basal diet, group C: chickens fed basal diet plus 2500 ppm Nanocid, and group D: chickens fed 3 ppm productive aflatoxin and 2500 ppm Nanocid, in basal diet. Data on body weight, body weight gain (BWG), feed intake, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were recorded at weekly intervals. Also cumulative data were assessed. Results showed, although supplement of Nanocid to conventional diet had no effect on performance but addition of Nanocid to diet containing 3 ppm aflatoxin increased significantly the cumulative BWG, cumulative feed consumption and decreased FCR in the last 2 weeks of experimental period. The improvement in these performance indices by supplement of Nanocid to diet containing aflatoxin showed the ability of Nanocid to diminish the inhibitory effects of aflatoxin.

  17. Kinematic Analysis Quantifies Gait Abnormalities Associated with Lameness in Broiler Chickens and Identifies Evolutionary Gait Differences

    PubMed Central

    Caplen, Gina; Hothersall, Becky; Murrell, Joanna C.; Nicol, Christine J.; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E.; Weeks, Claire A.; Colborne, G. Robert

    2012-01-01

    This is the first time that gait characteristics of broiler (meat) chickens have been compared with their progenitor, jungle fowl, and the first kinematic study to report a link between broiler gait parameters and defined lameness scores. A commercial motion-capturing system recorded three-dimensional temporospatial information during walking. The hypothesis was that the gait characteristics of non-lame broilers (n = 10) would be intermediate to those of lame broilers (n = 12) and jungle fowl (n = 10, tested at two ages: immature and adult). Data analysed using multi-level models, to define an extensive range of baseline gait parameters, revealed inter-group similarities and differences. Natural selection is likely to have made jungle fowl walking gait highly efficient. Modern broiler chickens possess an unbalanced body conformation due to intense genetic selection for additional breast muscle (pectoral hypertrophy) and whole body mass. Together with rapid growth, this promotes compensatory gait adaptations to minimise energy expenditure and triggers high lameness prevalence within commercial flocks; lameness creating further disruption to the gait cycle and being an important welfare issue. Clear differences were observed between the two lines (short stance phase, little double-support, low leg lift, and little back displacement in adult jungle fowl; much double-support, high leg lift, and substantial vertical back movement in sound broilers) presumably related to mass and body conformation. Similarities included stride length and duration. Additional modifications were also identified in lame broilers (short stride length and duration, substantial lateral back movement, reduced velocity) presumably linked to musculo-skeletal abnormalities. Reduced walking velocity suggests an attempt to minimise skeletal stress and/or discomfort, while a shorter stride length and time, together with longer stance and double-support phases, are associated with

  18. Effect of sodium bentonite on the performance and blood variables of broiler chickens intoxicated with aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Santurio, J M; Mallmann, C A; Rosa, A P; Appel, G; Heer, A; Dageförde, S; Böttcher, M

    1999-03-01

    1. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of natural sodium bentonite (NaB) in the prevention of toxic effects of aflatoxins. Five hundred and twenty-eight 1-d-old Ross male broiler chickens were housed in pens (22 chickens per pen) for 42 d. There were 3 inclusion rates of NaB (0, 2.5, and 5 g/kg) and 2 of aflatoxins (0 and 3 mg/kg food). Each treatment had 4 replicates of 22 chickens. 2. All chickens treated with aflatoxin and without bentonite were adversely affected. NaB treatment at 5.0 g/kg improved body weights at 42 d of age by 31.3%, increased food intake by 23.8% and improved productive efficiency by 40.1%. Weights of liver, heart, pancreas and crop and biochemical variables were not affected by dietary NaB. However, serum phosphorous concentration was reduced by 30% compared with chickens that received aflatoxin. 3. NaB caused no adverse effects on chickens that did not receive aflatoxin. 4. It is concluded that NaB at pH 7.9 partially neutralises the effects of aflatoxins on broiler chickens when included at 5.0 g/kg in the diet.

  19. The effect of photoperiod and food intake on daily changes in plasma calcitonin in broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Klandorf, H; Boyce, C S; Killefer, J; McGowan, J A; Peterson, R A; Valent, M; Deaver, D R

    1997-09-01

    The roles of photoperiod, energy balance, and concentrations of plasma total calcium (CaT) on daily changes in plasma calcitonin (CT) were investigated in broiler breeder hens (84-100 weeks old). In the first study, broiler breeder hens (n = 24), reared on 14L:10D, were divided into two groups. One group was transferred from a restricted diet (DR) of 150 g/day to ad libitum (AL) for 14 days, while the other group remained on DR. After 2 weeks of ad libitum feeding, birds from each group (AL and DR) were bled every 2 hr for 24 hr for measurement of plasma CaT and CT. In a second study, the hens (n = 20) were transferred to continuous light (LL) for 30 days. After the 30 days, food was removed from one group for 48 hr prior to blood sampling for 24 hr at 3-hr intervals. In a third study, birds were transferred to an ahemeral light cycle (11L:10D) for 28 days. Food was removed from the birds (n = 11) for 48 hr prior to blood sampling every 3 hr for 24 hr. Four weeks later the same birds were bled again for 24 hr, but this time the birds were maintained on a restricted feeding schedule. Plasma CT was measured by a specific heterologous electrochemiluminescent (ECL) assay while plasma CaT was measured by atomic absorption. The results showed that plasma CT concentrations did not correlate with plasma CaT concentrations. Comparisons made between initial and final CaT and CT concentrations indicated an effect of stress due to repeated handling of the birds. Concentrations of plasma CT were significantly reduced in the fasted animals (P < 0.05) compared to diet-restricted controls. There was a significant increase in plasma CT during the dark period of fed animals which was abolished in animals maintained on LL or fasted. In conclusion, a surge in plasma CT requires that the hens be provided food and that they be exposed to a dark cycle.

  20. Virulence Genes Content and Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli from Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Moemen A; Shehata, Mostafa A; Rafeek, Elshimaa

    2014-01-01

    A total of 121 E. coli strains were isolated from broiler chickens (96 extraintestinal pathogenic (ExPEC) strains from diseased broiler chickens and 25 avian fecal E. coli (AFEC) from healthy ones). Ten of the isolates (6 from diseased chickens and 4 from healthy birds) were serogrouped and 25 were examined for 4 virulence markers (tsh, papC, colV, and iss genes) as well as for their antimicrobial resistance. Five strains were nontypable and the rest were serotyped as follows: O86:K61 (2/5), O78:K80 (1/5), and O128:K67 (1/5) were recovered from diseased chickens, while O111:K58 strain (1/4) was isolated from healthy ones. The iss gene was found in 72.2% of the examined ExPEC strains in contrast to zero percentages (0%) in the AFEC strains, which may serve as a good marker for distinguishing APEC and its knocking out may help in creation of candidate vaccine that may prove sucess in elimination of infections in broiler chickens. Antimicrobial resistance patterns revealed a complete resistance to gentamicin, pefloxacin, amoxicillin, and enrofloxacin among examined strains followed by varying degrees of resistance for the rest of tested agents. The highest resistance was recorded against norfloxacin, in 24 isolates (96%), in contrast to the lowest resistance was recorded against colistin sulphate, in 14 strains (56%). These findings suggest the need for the prudent use of antimicrobials with broiler chickens and act as a warrant for the possibility of avian sources to transmit these resistant isolates to humans.

  1. Effect of dietary manganese on antioxidant status and expressions of heat shock proteins and factors in tissues of laying broiler breeders under normal and high environmental temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong-Wen; Lu, Lin; Li, Wen-Xiang; Zhang, Li-Yang; Ji, Cheng; Lin, Xi; Liu, Hsiao-Ching; Odle, Jack; Luo, Xu-Gang

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effect of Mn on antioxidant status and on the expressions of heat shock proteins/factors in tissues of laying broiler breeders subjected to heat challenge, we used a completely randomised design (n 6) with a factorial arrangement of 2 environmental temperatures (normal, 21±1°C, and high, 32±1°C)×3 dietary Mn treatments (a Mn-unsupplemented basal diet (CON), or a basal diet supplemented with 120 mg Mn/kg diet, either as inorganic Mn sulphate (iMn) or as organic Mn proteinate (oMn)). There were no interactions (P>0·10) between environmental temperature and dietary Mn in any of the measured indices. High temperature decreased (P<0·003) Mn content, and also tended (P=0·07) to decrease Cu Zn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) activity in the liver and heart. However, an increased Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity (P<0·05) and a slight increase in malondialdehyde level (P=0·06) were detected in breast muscle. Up-regulated (P<0·05) expressions of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and HSF3 mRNA and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA and protein were found in all three tissues. Broiler breeders fed either iMn or oMn had higher tissue Mn content (P<0·0001), heart MnSOD and CuZnSOD activities (P<0·01) and breast muscle MnSOD protein levels (P<0·05), and lower (P<0·05) breast muscle HSP70 mRNA and protein levels compared with those fed CON. Broiler breeders fed oMn had higher (P<0·03) bone Mn content than those fed iMn. These results indicate that high temperature decreases Mn retention and increases HSP70, HSF1 and HSF3 expressions in the tissues of laying broiler breeders. Furthermore, dietary supplementation with Mn in either source may enhance the heart's antioxidant ability and inhibit the expression of HSP70 in breast muscle. Finally, the organic Mn appears to be more available than inorganic Mn for bone in laying broiler breeders regardless of environmental temperatures.

  2. Effects of environmental temperature and dietary manganese on egg production performance, egg quality, and some plasma biochemical traits of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y W; Xie, J J; Li, W X; Lu, L; Zhang, L Y; Ji, C; Lin, X; Liu, H C; Odle, J; Luo, X G

    2015-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of environmental temperature and dietary Mn on egg production performance, egg quality, and some plasma biochemical traits of broiler breeders. A completely randomized factorial design involved 2 environmental temperatures (a normal temperature, 21 ± 1°C, and a high temperature, 32 ± 1°C) × 3 dietary Mn treatments (a Mn-unsupplemented corn–soybean meal basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 120 mg of Mn/kg of diet as either MnSO4·H2O or manganese proteinate). There were 6 treatments with 6 replicates (4 birds per replicate). High temperature decreased egg weight (P < 0.0001), laying rate (P < 0.0001), egg yield (P < 0.0001), feed intake (P < 0.0001), egg:feed ratio (P < 0.0001), eggshell strength (P < 0.05) and thickness (P < 0.0001), plasma triiodothyronine level (P < 0.05), and alkaline phosphatase activity (P < 0.04) whereas it increased rectal temperature (P < 0.0001); plasma malondialdehyde level (P < 0.02); and activities (P < 0.002) of lactic dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase. Broiler breeders fed the diets supplemented with Mn regardless of source had greater (P < 0.05) eggshell strength and lower (P ≤ 0.05) plasma triiodothyronine level and protein carbonyl content than those fed the control diet. The broiler breeders fed the diet supplemented with the organic Mn had greater (P < 0.01) eggshell thickness than those fed the control diet. There were interactions (P < 0.05) between environmental temperature and dietary Mn in laying rate, egg yield, feed intake, and egg:feed ratio. Under normal temperature, dietary Mn did not affect the above 4 parameters; however, under high temperature, broiler breeders fed the diet supplemented with the organic Mn showed greater (P < 0.03) improvements in these 4 parameters than those fed the control diet. The results from this study indicated that high temperature significantly impaired egg production performance and

  3. Neopterin and biopterin as biomarkers of immune system activity associated with crating in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bedanova, I; Voslarova, E; Zelinska, G; Blahova, J; Marsalek, P; Chloupek, J

    2014-10-01

    Neopterin and biopterin belong to a group of unconjugated pterin derivates. These biomolecules are present in many animal species and perform several functions. Pterin concentrations may provide additional information on the effect of stress on immune system activity. This study focused on an investigation of the effect of crating on plasma concentrations of neopterin and biopterin in broilers. The effects of 2 crating periods (2 and 4 h) were monitored in Hubbard broilers (n = 90) aged 42 d. After a given crating period, randomly selected chickens from each group were sampled immediately and the remaining chickens were sampled after 24 h. Plasma corticosterone increased (P < 0.001) immediately after 2 and 4 h crating, but no difference between the crated and the control noncrated broilers was found 24 h later. Immediately after crating, neopterin in 2- and 4-h broilers did not differ from the control, but 24 h later a decrease (P = 0.011) in plasma neopterin was found in 4-h broilers compared with the control. Simultaneously, 24 h after crating, neopterin levels in 2- and 4-h broilers decreased (P < 0.001) in comparison with the levels immediately after crating. Plasma biopterin was higher (P < 0.001) in 4-h broilers than in the control immediately after the crating. A time of sampling effect (P = 0.016) was found for the heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, with heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio higher 24 h after crating in comparison with its level immediately after the crating. This study shows that crating may significantly affect the immune system of broiler chickens. This is corroborated by the increase in plasma biopterin concentrations in broilers immediately after crating and the decrease in plasma neopterin concentrations in broilers 24 h after crating. The correlations were found for widely used indicators of acute and chronic stress in birds [i.e., plasma corticosterone concentrations (biopterin) and the heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (neopterin

  4. Behavioral changes and feathering score in heat stressed broiler chickens fed diets containing different levels of propolis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of green Brazilian propolis on behavioral patterns and feather condition of heat stressed broiler chickens. Five hundred and four (504) male Ross 708 broiler chicks at 15-day old were randomly allotted to six dietary tr...

  5. Effects of polymannuronate on performance, antioxidant capacity, immune status, cecal microflora, and volatile fatty acids in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenhui; Li, Defa; Wang, Jianhong; Wu, Hui; Xia, Xuan; Bi, Wanghua; Guan, Huashi; Zhang, Liying

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of purified polymannuronate (PM) obtained from marine brown algae on the performance, antioxidant capacity, immune status, and cecal fermentation profile of broiler chickens. In a 42 d experiment, 540 (average BW 43.77±1.29 g) 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly divided into 5 treatments with 6 replicates of 18 chicks and fed a corn and soybean meal (SBM)-based diet supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 g/kg polymannuronate. Adding polymannuronate to the broiler chickens' diets resulted in a significantly increased ADG and improved feed conversion compared with the control treatment. From d 1 to 42, the ADG of broilers fed 1, 2, 3, or 4 g/kg of polymannuronate was increased by 2.58, 4.33, 4.20, and 3.47%, respectively. Furthermore, parameters related to immune status, antioxidant capacity, and composition of the cecal microflora in broiler chickens fed the polymannuronate-containing diets were altered compared with broiler chickens fed a diet without polymannuronate. Supplementation with polymannuronate significantly increased the concentrations of lactic acid and acetic acid in the cecum compared with the control group. The results indicate that polymannuronate has the potential to improve broiler chicken immune status, antioxidant capacity, and performance.

  6. Pharmacokinetic studies of the recombinant chicken interferon-α in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, Jun; YU, Hai-Yang; ZHANG, Jun-Ling; WANG, Xing-Man; LI, Jin-Pei; HU, Tao; HU, Yong; WANG, Ming-Li; SHEN, Yong-Zhou; XU, Jing-Dong; HAN, Guo-Xiang; CHEN, Jason

    2016-01-01

    In this study, 24 male and female broiler chickens at 30-day-old were divided into three groups with 8 animals in each group. The animals were administered with recombinant chicken interferon-α (rChIFN-α) at a dose of 1.0 × 106 IU/kg intravenously, intramuscularly or subcutaneously, respectively. Serum samples were collected at different time points post administration, and the titers of rChIFN-α in the blood were determined by cytopathic effect inhibition assay. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic characteristics of rChIFN-α by intramuscular injection and subcutaneous injection were fitted to one compartment open model, and the Tmax was 3.21 ± 0.79 hr and 3.95 ± 0.85 hr, respectively, and the elimination half-life (T1/2) was 6.20 ± 2.77 hr and 5.03 ± 3.70 hr, respectively. In contrast, the pharmacokinetics of rChIFN-α via intravenous injection was in line with the open model of two-compartment and was eliminated in the first order, and the elimination half-life (T1/2) was 4.61 ± 0.84 hr. In addition, compared with those in the intravenous group and the subcutaneous group, the bioavailability of rChIFN-α in the intramuscular group was 82.80%. In conclusion, rChIFN-α was rapidly absorbed and slowly eliminated after intramuscular administration of single dose of rChIFN-α aqueous formulations. Thus, rChIFN-α can be used as a commonly-used therapeutic agent. PMID:27890904

  7. Meat quality traits of four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds and one commercial broiler stock*

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Rong-fa; Lyu, Fei; Chen, Xiao-qiang; Ma, Jie-qing; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Chao-geng

    2013-01-01

    Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5′-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P<0.05). In the indigenous genotypes, NC and FC had significantly shorter fiber diameters and lower shear forces than XC and LC (P<0.05), and NC and XC had a higher IMP content than FC and LC (P<0.05). Moreover, the indigenous genotype of LC significantly displayed the highest protein content (P<0.05) in the five genotypes of birds, and no significant differences of protein content were found between the other genotypes of NC, FC, XC, and AAB (P>0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (P<0.05). Significant differences of pH, color values of L* and a*, and drip loss for the five genotypes of birds were also observed. In conclusion, there were significant differences in the meat quality traits of the bird breeds selected in this study, and the indigenous chickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned. PMID:24101206

  8. Meat quality traits of four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds and one commercial broiler stock.

    PubMed

    Guan, Rong-fa; Lyu, Fei; Chen, Xiao-qiang; Ma, Jie-qing; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Chao-geng

    2013-10-01

    Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P<0.05). In the indigenous genotypes, NC and FC had significantly shorter fiber diameters and lower shear forces than XC and LC (P<0.05), and NC and XC had a higher IMP content than FC and LC (P<0.05). Moreover, the indigenous genotype of LC significantly displayed the highest protein content (P<0.05) in the five genotypes of birds, and no significant differences of protein content were found between the other genotypes of NC, FC, XC, and AAB (P>0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (P<0.05). Significant differences of pH, color values of L* and a*, and drip loss for the five genotypes of birds were also observed. In conclusion, there were significant differences in the meat quality traits of the bird breeds selected in this study, and the indigenous chickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned.

  9. Ambient temperature: a factor affecting performance and physiological response of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Donkoh, A

    1989-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to elucidate the influence of four constant ambient temperatures (20 degrees, 25 degrees, 30 degrees and 35 degrees C) on the performance and physiological reactions of male commercial broiler chicks from 3 to 7 weeks of age. A 12 h light-dark cycle was operated, while relative humidity and air circulation were not controlled. Exposure of broiler chickens to the 20 degrees, 25 degrees, 30 degrees and 35 degrees C treatments showed highly significant (P less than 0.0001) depression in growth rate, food intake and efficiency of food utilization, and a significant increase in water consumption for the 30 degrees and 35 degrees C groups. Mortality was, however, not affected by the temperature treatments. Changes in physiological status, such as increased rectal temperatures, decreased concentration of red blood cells, haemoglobin, haematocrit, and total plasma protein were observed in birds housed in the higher temperature (30 degrees and 35 degrees C) environments. Moreover, in these broiler chickens, there was an increased blood glucose concentration and a decreased thyroid gland weight. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to high ambient temperatures markedly affects their performance and physiological response.

  10. Ambient temperature: a factor affecting performance and physiological response of broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkoh, A.

    1989-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to elucidate the influence of four constant ambient temperatures (20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C) on the performance and physiological reactions of male commercial broiler chicks from 3 to 7 weeks of age. A 12 h light-dark cycle was operated, while relative humidity and air circulation were not controlled. Exposure of broiler chickens to the 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C treatments showed highly significant ( P<0.0001) depression in growth rate, food intake and efficiency of food utilization, and a significant increase in water consumption for the 30° and 35°C groups. Mortality was, however, not affected by the temperature treatments. Changes in physiological status, such as increased rectal temperatures, decreased concentration of red blood cells, haemoglobin, haematocrit, and total plasma protein were observed in birds housed in the higher temperature (30° and 35°C) environments. Moreover, in these broiler chickens, there was an increased blood glucose concentration and a decreased thyroid gland weight. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to high ambient temperatures markedly affects their performance and physiological response.

  11. Allele-specific polymerase chain reaction typing and sequencing of mitochondrial D-loop region in broiler chickens in Japan.

    PubMed

    Harumi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Naito, Mitsuru

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to comprehend a feature of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mainly of general broiler chickens in Japan. We typed two SNP sites (199C/T and 792A/G) of the D-loop region in mtDNA by allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) in 359 broiler (182 chunky and 177 cobb) and 506 layer (233 White Leghorn, 140 Barred Plymouth Rock and 133 Rhode Island Red) chickens. The SNP of 199C or 792A by AS-PCR was observed in the chunky and cobb chickens, and not in the layers. The haplotype 199T/792G was observed in a part of cobb and all layers. By the result of AS-PCR haplotyping and the broiler brands, the D-loop region was sequenced in 44 broiler chickens (20 chunky and 24 cobb) and compared with the layers' sequence data. Among the broiler and layer chickens, 21 SNP sites (including one insertion) and 11 sequence haplotypes were observed. Haplotype variation or correspondence was observed in and between the broiler brands. This study provides important information to establish a chicken meat traceability system by SNP haplotyping of mtDNA in Japan.

  12. Effects of lighting program during the growing period and dietary fat during the laying period on broiler breeder performance.

    PubMed

    Brake, J; Garlich, J D; Baughman, G R

    1989-09-01

    In two experiments, broiler breeders were grown in either of two lighting regimens, fed diets without added fat, and then fed diets with or without 5% added poultry fat during the subsequent laying period. In Experiment 1 half the birds were subjected to decreasing daylength using daylight (800 lx) and half were subjected to 9 h of incandescent light (20 lx) to 20 wk of age. In Experiment 2 the lighting regimen was either an 8-h photoperiod supplied by daylight (800 lx) or an 8-h photoperiod supplied by incandescent light (20 lx) to 20 wk of age. Added dietary fat produced significantly higher egg weight (Experiments 1 and 2), egg production (Experiment 2), and significantly lower fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs (Experiments 1 and 2). Short photoperiods (8 or 9 h) provided by incandescent light produced significantly higher fertility (Experiments 1 and 2) and hatchability of fertile eggs (Experiment 2), and significantly lower egg specific gravity, shell percentage (Experiment 1), egg weight, and eggshell weight (Experiment 2). Effects on fertility may be related to higher female body weight during lay due to daylight rearing or added fat, or relative changes in light intensity at photostimulation.

  13. Tissue Residues, Hematological and Biochemical Effects of Tilmicosin in Broiler Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Elsayed, Mossad; Elkomy, Ashraf; Morad, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the blood and tissue concentrations profile and effect of tilmicosin on some hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken. Fifty clinically healthy Hubbard chickens were orally administered 25 mg/kg BW of tilmicosin once daily for 5 consecutive days. Tissue residues of tilmicosin in slaughtered healthy chicken could not be detected by microbiological assay in all tested tissues except in lung (at 96 hours) and liver and kidneys (at 72 hours) after last administration. Tilmicosin caused temporary decrease in the RBCs and WBCs counts and has no effect on hemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume concentration (PCV). Also, the effect of tilmicosin on some biochemical parameters was as follows: the concentrations of creatinine, uric acid, electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and calcium), glucose, AST, ALT, ALP, and HDL-cholesterol in the serum of treated chicken did not change in response to the repeated oral administration of tilmicosin. There were only a temporary significant decrease in total protein and albumin concentrations and a significant increase in cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations. Chicken must not be slaughtered before 4 days from the stopping of tilmicosin administration. Tilmicosin makes temporary changes on hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken. PMID:24808972

  14. Effects of probiotic-supplemented diets on growth performance and intestinal immune characteristics of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bai, S P; Wu, A M; Ding, X M; Lei, Y; Bai, J; Zhang, K Y; Chio, J S

    2013-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of a probiotic product incorporating Lactobacillus fermentum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the growth performance and intestinal immune status in broiler chickens. A total of six hundred ninety-six 1-d-old male Cobb broilers were randomly allotted by BW in 1 of 4 treatments for 6-wk trial. The dietary treatments included the basal diet (NC), and the basal diets supplemented with an antibiotic (100 mg of chlortetracycline/kg of diet; PC), 0.1%, or 0.2% probiotic product (containing 1 × 10(7) cfu/g of Lactobacillus fermentum JS and 2 × 10(6) cfu/g of Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Each treatment had 6 replicates with 29 broilers each. The ADG and feed efficiency were improved (P < 0.05) in broilers fed the probiotic diet compared with NC, and were similar to the PC group during 1 to 21 d. However, there were no significant differences in growth performance of broilers during 22 to 42 d among different dietary treatments. Chicks fed probiotics had higher proportions of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, whereas the antibiotic diet decreased the proportion of CD8+ T-lymphocytes in the foregut of broilers at 21 and 42 d compared with the NC group. No significant difference was observed in the mRNA expression level of chicken B-cell marker chB6 (Bu-1) in the foregut of chickens among different treatments. Probiotic-supplemented diets increased (P < 0.05) the mRNA expression levels of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR 4 at 21 d, and only the TLR2 mRNA level at 42 d in the foregut of chickens, but did not change (P > 0.05) TLR7 mRNA expression compared with NC or PC. There was no significant difference in the above TLR mRNA levels in the intestine of broilers between PC and NC. These results indicated that the probiotic product incorporating Lactobacillus fermentum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae could stimulate intestinal T-cell immune system without decreasing growth performance in broilers during 1 to 21 d.

  15. Jerusalem artichokes stimulate growth of broiler chickens and protect them against endotoxins and potential cecal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kleessen, Brigitta; Elsayed, N A A E; Loehren, U; Schroedl, W; Krueger, Monika

    2003-11-01

    Control of intestinal pathogens during the earliest phases of broiler production may be the best strategy for the reduction of human pathogens on processed broiler carcasses. The recent ban on antibiotics in poultry feed has served to focus much attention on alternative methods of controlling the gastrointestinal microflora. A field trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of the fructan-rich Jerusalem artichoke, or topinambur (administered as 0.5% topinambur syrup in drinking water), on cultural numbers of selected cecal bacteria (total aerobes, Enterobacteriaceae, Bdellovibrio spp., and Clostridium perfringens) and levels of bacterial endotoxins as well as on body weights and relative weights of organs (the pancreas and the bursa of Fabricius) of chickens in the first 35 days of life (with weekly investigations being conducted). One-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to experimental (with topinambur) and control (without topinambur) groups. They were allowed free access to a standard broiler diet without growth-promoting antibiotics. Topinambur treatment resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.01) in cecal counts of B. bacteriovorus, which parasitizes susceptible gram-negative pathogens. Topinambur led to significantly smaller numbers of total aerobes, Enterobacteriaceae, and C. perfringens as well as to reduced levels of endotoxins in the blood compared with those for control birds. Increased body weights resulting from topinambur consumption were observed on day 35 of the trial period (P < 0.05). The relative weights of the pancreas and the bursa of Fabricius, however, were higher (P < 0.05) for topinambur-treated broilers than for control birds at the ages of 14, 21, 28, and 35 days. These results indicate that a small amount of topinambur in broilers' drinking water has a beneficial effect on growth performance, reduces bacterial endotoxin levels, and suppresses potential pathogens in broilers' ceca.

  16. Genome Analysis of Staphylococcus agnetis, an Agent of Lameness in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ojha, Sohita; Pummill, Jeff F.; Koon, Joseph A.; Wideman, Robert F.; Rhoads, Douglas D.

    2015-01-01

    Lameness in broiler chickens is a significant animal welfare and financial issue. Lameness can be enhanced by rearing young broilers on wire flooring. We have identified Staphylococcus agnetis as significantly involved in bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) in proximal tibia and femorae, leading to lameness in broiler chickens in the wire floor system. Administration of S. agnetis in water induces lameness. Previously reported in some cases of cattle mastitis, this is the first report of this poorly described pathogen in chickens. We used long and short read next generation sequencing to assemble single finished contigs for the genome and a large plasmid from the chicken pathogen. Comparison of the S. agnetis genome to those of other pathogenic Staphylococci shows that S.agnetis contains a distinct repertoire of virulence determinants. Additionally, the S. agnetis genome has several regions that differ substantially from the genomes of other pathogenic Staphylococci. Comparison of our finished genome to a recent draft genome for a cattle mastitis isolate suggests that future investigations focus on the evolutionary epidemiology of this emerging pathogen of domestic animals. PMID:26606420

  17. Effects of Xylo-Oligosaccharides on Broiler Chicken Performance and Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    De Maesschalck, C.; Eeckhaut, V.; Maertens, L.; De Lange, L.; Marchal, L.; Nezer, C.; De Baere, S.; Croubels, S.; Daube, G.; Dewulf, J.; Haesebrouck, F.; Ducatelle, R.; Taminau, B.

    2015-01-01

    In broiler chickens, feed additives, including prebiotics, are widely used to improve gut health and to stimulate performance. Xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) are hydrolytic degradation products of arabinoxylans that can be fermented by the gut microbiota. In the current study, we aimed to analyze the prebiotic properties of XOS when added to the broiler diet. Administration of XOS to chickens, in addition to a wheat-rye-based diet, significantly improved the feed conversion ratio. XOS significantly increased villus length in the ileum. It also significantly increased numbers of lactobacilli in the colon and Clostridium cluster XIVa in the ceca. Moreover, the number of gene copies encoding the key bacterial enzyme for butyrate production, butyryl-coenzyme A (butyryl-CoA):acetate CoA transferase, was significantly increased in the ceca of chickens administered XOS. In this group of chickens, at the species level, Lactobacillus crispatus and Anaerostipes butyraticus were significantly increased in abundance in the colon and cecum, respectively. In vitro fermentation of XOS revealed cross-feeding between L. crispatus and A. butyraticus. Lactate, produced by L. crispatus during XOS fermentation, was utilized by the butyrate-producing Anaerostipes species. These data show the beneficial effects of XOS on broiler performance when added to the feed, which potentially can be explained by stimulation of butyrate-producing bacteria through cross-feeding of lactate and subsequent effects of butyrate on gastrointestinal function. PMID:26092452

  18. Effects of oxygenated or hydrogenated water on growth performance, blood parameters, and antioxidant enzyme activity of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shin, D; Cho, E S R; Bang, H-T; Shim, K S

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of providing oxygenated and hydrogenated water on the growth performance, blood biochemical parameters, and immunoglobulin concentrations and antioxidant enzyme activity of broiler chickens. In our investigation, 144 Ross × Ross broiler chicks were randomly allotted to three different treatment groups with four replicates (treatment × replicate × bird = 3 × 4 × 12). All chicks were given one of the following types of water for five weeks: tap water (CON), hydrogenated water (HNW), and oxygenated water (ONW). ONW supplementation increased the final body weight and weight gain and also improved both feed intake and feed conversion of broiler chickens as compared to those of CON broiler chickens (P < 0.05). The abdominal fat and its ratio to the final body weight showed that fat accumulation in the broiler chicken abdomen was reduced when broiler chickens drank only ONW for five weeks (P < 0.05). ONW supplementation improved blood parameters, including triacylglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Additionally, in accordance with a globulin increase in broiler chickens, both IgG and IgM generation were significantly enhanced when ONW was supplied to broiler chickens (P < 0.05) but only a numerical advance was observed in the HNW group (P > 0.05). Both oxygenated and hydrogenated water supplementation significantly improved the antioxidant effects (P < 0.05), and it seems that superoxide dismutase refinement was completed due to oxygen and/or hydrogen enhancement of drinking water. These results indicate that oxygen enhancement of drinking water may be recommended to improve growth performance by increasing immunoglobulins mainly IgG and IgM. © Crown copyright 2016.

  19. Effects of selenium sources and levels on reproductive performance and selenium retention in broiler breeder, egg, developing embryo, and 1-day-old chick.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dong; Zhan, XiuAn; Wang, YongXia

    2011-12-01

    An 8-week experiment was conducted using 540 48-week-old Lingnan Yellow broiler breeders to evaluate the effect of the sources and levels of selenium (Se) on reproduction and Se retention. After receiving basal diet for 8 weeks, breeders were randomly assigned to six dietary treatments and fed corn-soy-based diets supplemented with 0.15 or 0.30 mg/kg of Se from sodium selenite (SS) or from Se-enriched yeast (SY) or from selenomethionine (SM). The Se concentration of basal diet was 0.04 mg/kg of Se. With the increase of dietary Se level, hatchability decreased (P < 0.05), but the Se concentrations were elevated in liver, kidney, pancreas, and breast muscle of breeders, yolk and albumen, liver and breast muscle of developing embryos, and tissues (liver, kidney, pancreas, and breast muscle) of 1-day-old chicks (P < 0.01). Irrespective of the Se level, the Se concentrations in liver, kidney, pancreas, and breast muscle were greater (P < 0.01) in breeders fed SY or SM compared with breeders fed SS, and kidney from breeders fed SM had greater Se concentration than that from breeders fed SY (P < 0.01). Yolk and albumen from SM treatments also had the greatest Se concentrations (P < 0.01). The embryonic liver and breast muscle from SM treatments had higher (P < 0.01) Se concentrations than those of SS treatments. The Se concentrations in liver, kidney, and breast muscle of 1-day-old chicks were greater (P < 0.01) in SY or SM treatments compared with SS treatments, and there was a more significant increase in Se concentrations in kidney and breast muscle of 1-day-old chicks from SM treatments than those from SY treatments (P < 0.01). The results suggest that the Se retention efficiency of SM is higher than that of SY, which, in turn, is higher than that of SS for broiler breeders and their offspring.

  20. The behaviour of broiler chickens and its modification by lameness.

    PubMed

    Weeks; Danbury; Davies; Hunt; Kestin

    2000-03-22

    The behaviour of six replicates of broilers obtained from commercial farms, fed ad-libitum and housed on 23-h light:1-h dark schedule at 20 lx was observed using scan sampling. Comparisons were made between sound birds and those of varying degrees of lameness between 39 and 49 days of age. Sound broilers averaged 76% of their time lying and this increased significantly to 86% in lame birds (gait score 3). Lying also increased with age. Although sound broilers spent only a minor part of the day on their feet, they spent significantly more time standing idle (7%), standing preening (3.5%) and standing eating (4.7%) than lame birds. Walking declined with age, but occupied an average 3.3% of the time of a slaughter-weight broiler. Again, lameness significantly reduced this to a minimal 1.5% in the worst affected birds. Sound birds predominantly chose the usual standing posture for eating, whereas, lame birds lay down to eat for almost half their feeding time. Detailed observations using video records revealed that lameness altered the feeding strategy of broilers. Whereas sound birds fed over 50 times in 24 h, the number of visits to the feeder was reduced with increasing lameness to an average of around 30 in the lamest broilers. However, meal duration was adjusted to give no overall differences in time spent feeding per day. Time spent drinking was also the same for all birds, averaging 3% of the day. The alterations of the time budget, in particular the reductions in activities performed whilst standing, and the different feeding strategies adopted, are consistent with lameness imposing a cost on the affected broilers to the detriment of their welfare.

  1. Expression of interleukins, neuropeptides, and growth hormone receptor and leptin receptor genes in adipose tissue from growing broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, total RNA was collected from abdominal adipose tissue samples obtained from ten broiler chickens at 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks of age and prepared for quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Studies of the gene expression of cytokines and associated genes in chicken adipose tissue were initia...

  2. Effect of Zinc on Appetite Regulatory Peptides in the Hypothalamus of Salmonella-Challenged Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiyi; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Li, Xianlei; Wang, Yufeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Zhang, Bingkun; Song, Zhigang

    2016-07-01

    The effects of dietary Zinc (Zn) supplementation on the gene expression of appetite regulatory peptides were investigated in Salmonella-infected broiler chickens. Broiler chickens (Arbor Acres, 1 day old) were allocated randomly into 24 pens of 10 birds. The chickens from 12 pens were fed with basal diet and the other with basal diet supplemented with Zn (ZnSO4·H2O, 120 mg/kg). At 5 days of age, the chickens were divided into 4 treatments with 6 pens: basal diet; basal diet and Salmonella challenge; Zn-supplemented diet; Zn-supplemented diet and Salmonella challenge. At 42 days of age, the hypothalamus from 6 chickens per treatment (1 chicken per pen) was individually collected for gene expression determination. Results showed that dietary supplementation of Zn reduced the gene expression of hypothalamic ghrelin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (P < 0.05). Salmonella infection upregulated the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and TNF-α. Zn supplementation and Salmonella inoculation were significantly correlated with the mRNA levels of toll-like receptor 2-1 (P < 0.05). However, neither dietary Zn supplementation nor Salmonella inoculation had significant effect on hypothalamic agouti-related protein, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, and pro-opiomelanocortin. This study shows that dietary Zn supplementation promoted orexigenic appetite regulatory peptides and reduced the expression of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in the hypothalamus of Salmonella-challenged broilers.

  3. Imidapril inhibits right ventricular remodeling induced by low ambient temperature in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xue-Qin; Zhang, Shou-Yan; Cheng, Xiang-Chao; Li, Meng; Sun, Tong-Wen; Zhang, Ji-Liang; Guo, Wen; Li, Li

    2013-06-01

    This study explored the effect of imidapril on the right ventricular remodeling induced by low ambient temperature in broiler chickens. Twenty-four broiler chickens were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 8), including the control group, low temperature group, and imidapril group. Chickens in the control group were raised at normal temperature, whereas chickens in the low temperature group and imidapril group were exposed to low ambient temperature (12 to 18°C) from 14 d of age until 45 d of age. At the same time, chickens in the imidapril group were gavaged with imidapril at 3 mg/kg once daily for 30 d. The thickness of the right ventricular wall was observed with echocardiography. The BW and wet lung weight as well as weight of right and left ventricles and ventricular septum were measured. Both wet lung weight index and right ventricular hypertrophy index were calculated. Pulmonary arterial systolic pressure was assessed according to echocardiography. The expression of ACE and ACE2 mRNA in the right ventricular myocardial tissue was quantified by real-time PCR. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells were detected by immunohistostaining. The concentration of angiotensin (Ang) II and Ang (1-7) in the right ventricular myocardial tissue was measured with ELISA. The results showed that right ventricular hypertrophy index, wet lung weight index, pulmonary arterial systolic pressure, expression of ACE mRNA in the right ventricular tissue, Ang II concentration, and the thickness of the right ventricular wall in the low temperature group increased significantly compared with those in the control group and imidapril group. The ACE2 mRNA expression increased 36%, whereas Ang (1-7) concentration decreased significantly in the low temperature group compared with that in the control group and imidapril group. In conclusion, imidapril inhibits right ventricular remodeling induced by low ambient temperature in broiler chickens.

  4. Performance of broiler chickens supplemented with Bacillus coagulans as probiotic.

    PubMed

    Cavazzoni, V; Adami, A; Castrovilli, C

    1998-09-01

    1. A newly isolated Bacillus coagulans strain as probiotic was assayed as the only dietary additive for chickens. 2. Chickens receiving no additive at all or only virginiamycin were used for comparison. 3. Two trials each carried out on 75 chickens showed that, in terms of efficacy in growth and food conversion ratio, the B. coagulans biomass as a probiotic had a growth-promoting, prophylactic effect comparable to that of virginiamycin.

  5. A novel Lactobacillus plantarum strain P-8 activates beneficial immune response of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifeng; Liu, Caihong; Chen, Ma; Ya, Tuo; Huang, Weiqiang; Gao, Pengfei; Zhang, Heping

    2015-12-01

    To investigate whether Lactobacillus plantarum P-8 may be used as an alternative to antibiotics in the broiler chicken diet, we compared P-8 and antibiotics for their immunobiotic properties and their effect on growth performance of broiler chickens in a 42-day trial. The results showed that P-8 provided similar benefits in weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency as antibiotics did. Importantly, P-8 activated protective immune responses of the broilers while antibiotics lacked this effect. P-8 induced higher fecal secretory IgA (sIgA) levels on day 42 (P≤0.027) and IgA(+) lymphocytes in the jejunum and Peyer's patches (PP) (P<0.001) compared to antibiotic treatment. Antibiotics reduced the IgA(+) lymphocytes in jejunum and PP on day 42 compared to the control. P-8 increased CD3(+) T cells in the small intestinal tissues in most test situations whereas antibiotics had fewer CD3(+) cells in PP and cecal tonsil compared with the control broilers at the end of the trial. In addition, P-8 increased CD4(+) T cells significantly in the intestinal tissues compared to both antibiotics and the control (P<0.0052). Both Th1 and Th2 cytokine expression were enhanced by P-8 on day 14, consistent with the clinical trial results showing probiotic benefits in diseases. Antibiotics up- and down-regulated interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4 and IL-10 transcripts in an age-dependent manner, and showed anti-inflammatory potential. These data indicate that P-8 may provide protective immune response to broilers while maintaining similar growth performance and may be a potential alternative to antibiotics supplemented in chicken feeds.

  6. Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and zinc bacitracin as dietary additives for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Abdulrahim, S M; Haddadin, M S; Odetallah, N H; Robinson, R K

    1999-03-01

    The influence of Lactobacillus acidophilus and zinc bacitracin alone, or in combination, on the growth of broiler chickens was monitored over a period of 8 weeks. 2. The maximum improvement in body weight over the controls was 10.8% with both additives in the diet but the use of bacitracin alone induced a 9.1% improvement. 3. Food conversion was reduced by zinc bacitracin alone but was improved by the use of L. acidophilus and bacitracin in combination. 4. The combination treatment increased abdominal fat deposition in the female chickens by 31%.

  7. Imidapril provides a protective effect on pulmonary hypertension induced by low ambient temperature in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xue-Qin; Zhang, Shou-Yan; Li, Meng; Yang, Zhen; Niu, Ming-Fu; Sun, Tong-Wen; Yang, Dan-Li; Kong, Tao; Li, Jian

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this article is to explore the role of imidapril on pulmonary hypertension induced by low ambient temperature in broiler chickens. Ninety chickens were randomly divided into three groups (n = 30): a control group, a low-temperature group and an imidapril group. Chickens in the low-temperature group and imidapril group were exposed to low ambient temperature from 14 days of age until 45 days of age; chickens in the imidapril group were gavaged with imidapril 3 mg/kg once daily for 30 days. The pulmonary arterial pressure, main pulmonary arterial diameter and pulmonary arterial wall thickness were measured, and lung tissue ACE, ACE2 mRNA expression, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells and Ang II, Ang (1-7) concentration were evaluated. The pulmonary arterial pressure was higher, the main pulmonary arterial diameter was wider and the pulmonary arterial wall was thicker in the low-temperature group than those in the control group and the imidapril group. ACE mRNA and PCNA-positive cells increased significantly in the low-temperature group compared with the control group and imidapril group; lung tissue Ang II concentration in the low-temperature group was higher, but Ang (1-7) content was lower than that in the control group and imidapril group. Imidapril provides a protective effect on pulmonary hypertension induced by low ambient temperature in broiler chickens. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Broiler Chickens 1: Factors Related to Flock Variability

    PubMed Central

    Hemsworth, Paul H.; Groves, Peter J.; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Free-range chicken meat consumption has increased. However, little is known about how meat chickens use the outdoor range. Understanding ranging behaviour could help improve management and shed and range design to ensure optimal ranging opportunities. We tracked 1200 individual broiler chickens in four mixed sex flocks on one commercial farm across two seasons. More chickens accessed the range in summer than winter. Chickens that accessed the range in winter did so less frequently and for a shorter period of time daily than chickens ranging in summer. The number of chickens ranging and the frequency and duration of range visits increased over the first two weeks of range access and stabilised thereafter. More chickens entered and exited the range through particular doors in the shed. More chickens ranged in the morning and evening compared to the middle of the day. Ranging behaviour decreased with increased rainfall and shed dew point. This study provides knowledge regarding ranging behaviour in commercial conditions that may guide improvements on farm to provide chickens with optimal ranging opportunities. Abstract Little is known about the ranging behaviour of chickens. Understanding ranging behaviour is required to improve management and shed and range design to ensure optimal ranging opportunities. Using Radio Frequency Identification technology, we tracked 300 individual broiler chickens in each of four mixed sex ROSS 308 flocks on one commercial farm across two seasons. Ranging behaviour was tracked from the first day of range access (21 days of age) until 35 days of age in winter and 44 days of age in summer. Range use was higher than previously reported from scan sampling studies. More chickens accessed the range in summer (81%) than winter (32%; p < 0.05). On average, daily frequency and duration of range use was greater in summer flocks (4.4 ± 0.1 visits for a total of 26.3 ± 0.8 min/day) than winter flocks (3.2 ± 0.2 visits for a total

  9. Growth curve and diet density affect eating motivation, behavior, and body composition of broiler breeders during rearing.

    PubMed

    de Los Mozos, J; García-Ruiz, A I; den Hartog, L A; Villamide, M J

    2017-03-23

    The aim of this work has been to assess the effect of diet density [control (CON) or 15% diluted (DIL)] and growth curve [recommended by the genetic line (RBW) or 15% heavier (HBW)] and their interaction on BW uniformity, feeding motivation, behavior, and body composition of broiler breeder pullets. A total of 3,000 one-day-old female breeders Ross 308, distributed in 20 pens, was randomly assigned to each treatment. Feed allowance was weekly adjusted to reach the desired BW. Feed was provided as pelleted (zero to 3 wk) and crumble (4 to 19 wk). Time eating was measured at 7, 11, and 19 weeks. A feeding rate test was performed after 11 weeks. Behavior was observed at 9 and 15 wk, by visual scan. At 6, 13, and 19 wk of age, one bird/pen was slaughtered for weighing different organs and analyzing the composition of empty whole bodies. Treatments did not affect BW uniformity; relative weights of the ovary, oviduct, or gizzard; or protein content of empty BW. Time eating varied with the growth curve at 19 wk (P < 0.05), HBW pullets spent 19 more min eating than RBW pullets. DIL led to 4 and 8 more min eating at 19 wk for pullets of RBW and HBW (P < 0.05), respectively. Pullets fed DIL consumed 30% (P < 0.05) less during the feeding rate test when kept on a restricted regimen, and they had lower compensatory energy intake after ad libitum feeding than those fed CON, indicating lower feeding motivation. Behavior was affected by the age and by the time of the d measured, but it did not change with the treatments. Birds spent most time pecking objects (50%), feeding (28%), and drinking (17%). Pullets fed DIL had 8% lower breast yield at different ages and higher empty digestive tracts at 6 weeks. Body composition varied with age; fat content increased from 12.7 to 15.9 to 19.8% for 6, 13, and 19 wk, respectively. The lowest body fat was observed for RBW pullets fed DIL (P = 0.003) at 19 weeks. Feeding DIL diets to HBW pullets could be done to increase the

  10. Comparative amino acid digestibility for broiler chickens and White Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Kong, C; Adeola, O

    2013-09-01

    A total of 608 three-week-old male broiler chickens and White Pekin ducks were used in a 5-d trial to compare ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility of soybean meal (SBM) and canola meal (CM) using the regression method. A corn-casein-cornstarch-based diet was mixed to contain 15% CP. Cornstarch was replaced with test ingredient (SBM or CM) to contain 18 or 21% of CP in 4 other diets. A nitrogen-free diet (NFD) was used for standardization of apparent digestibility. Birds received a standard starter diet (23% CP) from d 0 to 14 posthatch and then 6 experimental diets for 5 d. On d 19 posthatch, birds were asphyxiated with CO(2), and digesta from the distal section of ileum was collected. The ileal digestibility of AA from the test ingredients was assessed by multiple linear regression analysis using data on daily apparent ileal digestible AA and total AA intakes. The basal endogenous losses of N and all AA for ducks were significantly higher than those for broilers. For ileal AA digestibility by regression of apparent digestible AA intake against AA intake, there was a higher (P < 0.05) digestibility for Cys and Pro in ducks compared with broilers (P < 0.05). Within species, digestibility was not different between SBM and CM except for Lys of ducks, and Lys and Pro of broilers (P < 0.05). The results of this study showed that ducks have higher basal endogenous AA losses compared with broiler chickens as well as higher ileal Cys and Pro digestibility estimates derived from regression approach, indicating that data obtained from broilers should not be used to formulate diets for ducks.

  11. Effect of intermittent feeding, structural components and phytase on performance and behaviour of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Svihus, B; Lund, V B; Borjgen, B; Bedford, M R; Bakken, M

    2013-01-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of intermittent feeding on performance and the efficacy of an exogenous phytase, and to assess whether intermittent feeding changed the activity pattern of broiler chickens. 2. Broiler chickens were given, either ad libitum or intermittently, a phosphorus deficient pelleted diet containing either coarsely or finely ground oat hulls and either no enzyme or a phytase added from 10 d of age, in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Ad libitum feeding consisted of continuous access to feed in a room with 18 h of light and 6 h of complete darkness, whereas birds on intermittent feeding had restricted access to feed from 7 d of age, with 4 1-h feeding bouts/d and one 2-h feeding bout/d from d 14. 3. Performance, characteristics of the anterior digestive tract and phosphorus retention were assessed in experiment 1, while in experiment 2, birds were observed during 4-h periods to quantify different behaviours. 4. Intermittent feeding and phytase improved performance, but intermittent feeding did not improve the efficacy of the enzyme added. Ad libitum fed broiler chickens ate and drank on average twice per hour, and spent close to three-quarters of their time resting. Apart from an increased standing and feed searching activity for intermittently fed birds compared to ad libitum fed birds during the last hour before feed was presented, no differences in activity was detected. 5. It was concluded that broiler chickens quickly adapt to intermittent feeding without reduction in final body weight and with improvements in feed efficiency, but without improving the efficacy of dietary phytase. Only small changes occur in the behaviour of intermittently fed birds compared to ad libitum fed birds.

  12. Evaluation of Relative Bioavailability of 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol to Cholecalciferol for Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Han, J. C.; Chen, G. H.; Wang, J. G.; Zhang, J. L.; Qu, H. X.; Zhang, C. M.; Yan, Y. F.; Cheng, Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the relative bioavailability (RBV) of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) to cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) in 1- to 21-d-old broiler chickens fed with calcium (Ca)- and phosphorus (P)-deficient diets. On the day of hatch, 450 female Ross 308 broiler chickens were assigned to nine treatments, with five replicates of ten birds each. The basal diet contained 0.50% Ca and 0.25% non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) and was not supplemented with vitamin D. Vitamin D3 was fed at 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 μg/kg, and 25-OH-D3 was fed at 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 μg/kg. The RBV of 25-OH-D3 was determined using vitamin D3 as the standard source by the slope ratio method. Vitamin D3 and 25-OH-D3 intake was used as the independent variable for regression analysis. The linear relationships between the level of vitamin D3 or 25-OH-D3 and body weight gain (BWG) and the weight, length, ash weight, and the percentage of ash, Ca, and P in femur, tibia, and metatarsus of broiler chickens were observed. Using BWG as the criterion, the RBV value of 25-OH-D3 to vitamin D3 was 1.85. Using the mineralization of the femur, tibia, and metatarsus as criteria, the RBV of 25-OH-D3 to vitamin D3 ranged from 1.82 to 2.45, 1.86 to 2.52, and 1.65 to 2.05, respectively. These data indicate that 25-OH-D3 is approximately 2.03 times as active as vitamin D3 in promoting growth performance and bone mineralization in broiler chicken diets. PMID:26954155

  13. Effects of feed additives on ileal mucosa-associated microbiota composition of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, R; Peinado, M J; Aranda-Olmedo, I; Abecia, L; Suárez-Pereira, E; Ortiz Mellet, C; García Fernández, J M; Rubio, L A

    2015-07-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation with 2 recently developed feed additives on the composition of the mucosa-associated microbiota of the ileum were studied in growing broiler chickens. A total of 48 male 1-d-old broiler chickens of the Cobb 500 strain were distributed in 4 treatments with 2 replicates of 6 birds each. The 2 additives tested were a di-d-fructose dianhydride–enriched caramel (FC) and the garlic derivative propyl propane thiosulfonate (PTS-O). Dietary treatments were a control (commercial diet with no additive), INU (20 g inulin/kg diet), CAR (20 g FC/kg diet), and GAR (90 mgPTS-O/kg diet). As a result of this study, inulin supplementation resulted in lower (P < 0.05) and FC feeding resulted in higher (P < 0.05) Blautia coccoides/Eubacterium rectale log10 number of copies respect to controls. Higher (P < 0.05) bifidobacteria log10 number of copies with respect to the controls was determined in the ileal mucosa of birds fed the PTS-O–supplemented diet. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and PCR analysis on Bifidobacterium spp. revealed the presence of Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum in samples from chickens fed the control and the PTS-O–supplemented diet. Bifidobacterium longum was exclusively found in poultry fed the control diet, whereas B. pseudocatenulatum was found only in poultry fed the PTS-O–supplemented diet. This study showed that both PTS-O and FC were able to modulate the composition of the ileal mucosa-associated microbiota of growing broiler chickens. Finally, in addition to B. pseudolongum, the presence of B. longum and B. pseudocatenulatum, species not previously described in intestinal samples of broilers, was also demonstrated.

  14. Plantago ovata in broiler chicken nutrition: Performance, carcass criteria, intestinal morphology, immunity, and intestinal bacterial population.

    PubMed

    Divani, A; Bagherzadeh-Kasmani, F; Mehri, M

    2017-06-13

    In this experiment, the effect of dietary Plantago ovata (PO) on performance, carcass criteria, intestinal morphology, immunity, and intestinal bacterial population of broiler chickens was evaluated. A total of 250 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to five treatments containing 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20 g/kg of PO with five replicate pens and 10 birds in each replicate. Dietary PO increased body weight gain and decreased feed conversion ratio in the finisher period, improving the performance index (p < .05). Dietary treatments had no effects on carcass criteria, but breast meat percentage showed an increasing trend with incremental levels of PO in the diet (p = .069). The length of small intestine, especially jejunum section, as well as the villus height, villus width, villus area, and goblet cell numbers were significantly increased with supplemental PO (p < .05). Humoral and cellular immunity parameters, and oxidation stability of meat were improved due to use of dietary PO (p < .05). Dietary PO decreased the CFU of Escherichia coli, whereas the Lactobacilli population was increased (p = .001). Broken-line regression revealed that dietary PO at the rate of 10 g/kg may results in the best performance in broiler chickens. This study showed that PO at the level of 10 g/kg could be considered as a beneficial feed additive in broiler diet. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Chicken parvovirus viral loads in cloacal swabs from malabsorption syndrome-affected and healthy broilers.

    PubMed

    Finkler, Fabrine; de Lima, Diane Alves; Cerva, Cristine; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Teixeira, Thais Fumaco; Dos Santos, Helton Fernandes; de Almeida, Laura Lopes; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Cláudia

    2016-12-01

    Chicken parvovirus (ChPV) has been associated with malabsorption syndrome (MAS) in broilers. However, the participation of this virus in such syndrome is unclear, since it may be detected in diseased and healthy chickens. In the course of these studies, it was argued whether ChPV genome loads might be correlated to the occurrence of MAS. To check such a hypothesis, a SYBR green-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction was developed to detect and quantify ChPV genomes. Cloacal swabs from 68 broilers with MAS and 59 from healthy animals were collected from different poultry farms. Genomes of ChPV were detected in all samples, regardless of their health status. However, viral genome loads in MAS-affected broilers were significantly higher (1 × 10(5) genome copies per 100 ng DNA) than in healthy animals (1.3 × 10(3) GC/100 ng DNA). These findings indicate that there is an association between high ChPV genome loads and the occurrence of MAS in broilers.

  16. Absorption and tissue distribution of dietary quercetin and quercetin glycosides of apple skin in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha; Ronalds, Clinton M; Rathgeber, Bruce; Robinson, Robin A

    2010-05-01

    Apple skins are a rich source of flavonols, in particular quercetin (Q) glycosides. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence of Q metabolites in plasma, various tissues, and excreta when the commercial broiler chicken's diet was supplemented with Q (0, 50, 150, 300, or 600 mg kg(-1) body weight per day), an apple skin extract (ASE; 50, 150 mg total phenolics kg(-1) body weight per day), or a dried apple skin powder (ASP; 50 mg total phenolics kg(-1) body weight per day). When Q was supplemented for 3 days, Q sulfate, Q glucuronide, Q glucoside glucuronide, Q glucoside sulfate, and isorhamnetin glucoside were detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in the liver and duodenum. Deconjugated Q was also detected in the breast and thigh tissues of ASE- and ASP-supplemented broilers. Regardless of the source or concentration of Q, the antioxidant capacity measured by ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay in the plasma and tissues of the broilers did not change significantly. As far as is known, this is the first report to demonstrate that Q and its glycosides can be absorbed and metabolized by broiler chickens.

  17. Progress and problems in vaccination against necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mot, Dorien; Timbermont, Leen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2014-01-01

    Necrotic enteritis in broilers is caused by Clostridium perfringens type A strains that produce the NetB toxin. Necrotic enteritis is one of the gastrointestinal diseases in poultry that has gained worldwide importance during the last decade due to efforts to improve broiler performance. Prevention strategies include avoiding predisposing factors, such as coccidiosis, and in-feed supplementation with a variety of feed additives. However, vaccination with modified toxin or other secreted immunogenic proteins seems a logical preventive tool for protection against a toxin-producing bacterium. Formalin-inactivated crude supernatant has been used initially for vaccination. Several studies have been carried out recently to identify the most important immunogenic and protective proteins that can be used for vaccination. These include the NetB toxin, as well as a number of other proteins. There is evidence that immunization with single proteins is not protective against severe challenge and that combinations of different antigens are needed. Most published studies have used multiple dosage vaccination regimens that are not relevant for practical use in the broiler industry. Single vaccination regimens for 1-day-old chicks appear to be non-protective. This review describes the history of vaccination strategies against necrotic enteritis in broilers and gives an update on future vaccination strategies that are applicable in the field. These may include breeder hen vaccination, in ovo vaccination and live attenuated vectors to be used in feed or in drinking water.

  18. Detection of genomic signatures of recent selection in commercial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Fu, Weixuan; Lee, William R; Abasht, Behnam

    2016-08-26

    Identification of the genomic signatures of recent selection may help uncover causal polymorphisms controlling traits relevant to recent decades of selective breeding in livestock. In this study, we aimed at detecting signatures of recent selection in commercial broiler chickens using genotype information from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A total of 565 chickens from five commercial purebred lines, including three broiler sire (male) lines and two broiler dam (female) lines, were genotyped using the 60K SNP Illumina iSelect chicken array. To detect genomic signatures of recent selection, we applied two methods based on population comparison, cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH) and cross-population composite likelihood ratio (XP-CLR), and further analyzed the results to find genomic regions under recent selection in multiple purebred lines. A total of 321 candidate selection regions spanning approximately 1.45 % of the chicken genome in each line were detected by consensus of results of both XP-EHH and XP-CLR methods. To minimize false discovery due to genetic drift, only 42 of the candidate selection regions that were shared by 2 or more purebred lines were considered as high-confidence selection regions in the study. Of these 42 regions, 20 were 50 kb or less while 4 regions were larger than 0.5 Mb. In total, 91 genes could be found in the 42 regions, among which 19 regions contained only 1 or 2 genes, and 9 regions were located at gene deserts. Our results provide a genome-wide scan of recent selection signatures in five purebred lines of commercial broiler chickens. We found several candidate genes for recent selection in multiple lines, such as SOX6 (Sex Determining Region Y-Box 6) and cTR (Thyroid hormone receptor beta). These genes may have been under recent selection due to their essential roles in growth, development and reproduction in chickens. Furthermore, our results suggest that in some candidate regions, the same or

  19. Protection of broiler breeders by an inactivated combined water-in-oil-in-water viral vaccine.

    PubMed

    Bidin, Z; Cajavec, S; Sladić, D; Ergotić, N; Cizelj, A; Pokrić, B

    1998-01-01

    A four-component vaccine, prepared by combining the single vaccines, contains subunits of Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis viruses, as well as whole inactivated infectious bursal disease and egg drop syndrome viruses. The vaccine is prepared in the form of a low-viscosity water-in-oil-in-water emulsion with low mineral oil content. Heavy breeders were vaccinated at the age of 20 weeks by intramuscular administration of 0.5 ml vaccine/bird in an experiment carried out under field conditions, involving 5000 female and 450 male parents. The birds had previously been vaccinated with live vaccines according to an obligatory field vaccination programme. Vaccination with the WOWE vaccine near the point of lay elicited serological responses protecting both the parents and their progeny. Each of the antigens administered in the four-component vaccine was as effective as the respective single component vaccine. The mortality, recorded during the 31-week experimental period, was 6.2%. Mortality and morbidity were not triggered by viruses against which vaccination was carried out. Egg production was not affected by the vaccination and was 170.2 eggs per hen during the 28-week production period.

  20. Effect of dietary phosphorus levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Ke; Wang, Jin-Zhi; Wang, Chun-Qing; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Li, Xia; Tang, Chun-Hong; Wei, Xiu-Li

    2016-08-15

    To analyze the influence of dietary phosphorus (P) levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism, a 42-day feeding experiment (P deficient group; normal group; high P level groups of H1 and H2, respectively) using 100 one-day-old broilers was conducted. Results demonstrated that the quality of broiler chicken meat in deficient or high P groups decreased relative to the normal group. High P diets resulted in increased lightness, redness values, shear forces and decreased fatty acid contents and intramuscular fat content in breast meat (p<0.01). Compared with normal group, lower malic enzyme activity, higher fatty acid synthase and AMP-activated protein kinase activities were observed in the treatment groups (p<0.05). Chickens fed with normal diets had the lowest serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels which differed from that of other treatments (p<0.05). High-P diets significantly decreased the lipid accumulation in the liver (p<0.01), whereas phosphorus levels in breast meat increased significantly (p<0.01). It can be concluded that deficient or higher P levels could affect meat quality and expression of indicators on lipid metabolism of broiler chickens.

  1. Antibiotic resistance of Clostridium perfringens isolates from broiler chickens in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Osman, K M; Elhariri, M

    2013-12-01

    The use of antibiotic feed additives in broiler chickens results in a high prevalence of resistance among their enteric bacteria, with a consequent emergence of antibiotic resistance in zoonotic enteropathogens. Despite growing concerns about the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains, which show varying prevalences in different geographic regions, little work has been done to investigate this issue in the Middle East. This study provides insight into one of the world's most common and financially crippling poultry diseases, necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens. The study was designed to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in C. perfringens isolates from clinical cases of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens in Egypt. A total of 125 isolates were obtained from broiler flocks in 35 chicken coops on 17 farms and were tested using the disc diffusion method. All 125 isolates were resistant to gentamicin, streptomycin, oxolinic acid, lincomycin, erythromycin and spiramycin. The prevalence of resistance to other antibiotics was also high: rifampicin (34%), chloramphenicol (46%), spectinomycin (50%), tylosin-fosfomycin (52%), ciprofloxacin (58%), norfloxacin (67%), oxytetracycline (71%), flumequine (78%), enrofloxacin (82%), neomycin (93%), colistin (94%), pefloxacin (94%), doxycycline (98%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (98%). It is recommended that C. perfringens infections in Egypt should be treated with antibiotics for which resistant isolates are rare at present; namely, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephradine, fosfomycin and florfenicol.

  2. Modification of fatty acid composition in broiler chickens fed canola oil.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, María A; Pérez, Druso D; Leighton, Federico M

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the possibility of modifying the composition of fat tissue in broiler chickens fed canola oil, which is high in monounsaturated fatty acids. 128 one-day old broiler chickens, randomly assigned into 4 groups of 32 chicks each, received one of four diets containing 15% oil with different percentages of canola oil (diet 1: 0% canola oil, diet 2: 5% canola oil, diet 3: 10% canola oil and diet 4: 15% canola oil), for 31 days. Each group was divided into 4 subgroups of 8 chicks. The birds were sacrificed at day 45 to obtain tissue samples. The fatty acid composition was measured in meat (legs and breasts), fat (abdominal and subcutaneous) and plasma. An increase in oleic acid (p<0.01) was detected, as well as a decrease in linoleic acid (p<0.01), together with a slight increase in α-linolenic acid (p<0.05) with a higher percentage of canola oil. The composition of fat tissue was more representative of the dietary fatty acids than muscle tissue. In conclusion, canola oil increased the content of omega 9 and omega 3 fatty acids and decreased the content of omega 6 fatty acids in meat, fat and plasma in broiler chickens.

  3. Effect of indomethacin on hyperthermia induced by heat stress in broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlan, R. L.; Macari, M.; Malheiros, E. B.; Secato, E. R.; Guerreiro, J. R.

    An investigation was carried out to verify whether the heat stress hyperthermia response of broilers is prostaglandin-dependent. Male broiler chickens of the Hubbard-Petterson strain, aged 35-49 days, were used. Chickens were injected with indomethacin (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally ) 15 min before or 2 h after heat exposure (at 35°C for 4 h), and rectal temperature was measured before injection and up to 4 h thereafter. Birds were separated into two groups with and without access to water during heat stress. The increase in rectal temperature was lower (P<0.05) in birds with access to drinking water during heat exposure. All birds injected with indomethacin exhibited an increase in rectal temperature, irrespective of whether indomethacin was administered before or in the course of the rise in temperature. The results revealed that the increase in rectal temperature during heat exposure is not prostaglandin-dependent, and that the use of cyclooxigenase inhibitors is not recommended to attenuate heat stress hyperthermia in broiler chickens.

  4. Chicken parvovirus-induced runting-stunting syndrome in young broilers.

    PubMed

    Zsak, Laszlo; Cha, Ra Mi; Day, J Michael

    2013-03-01

    Previously we identified a novel parvovirus from enteric contents of chickens that were affected by enteric diseases. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the chicken parvovirus (ChPV) represented a new member in the Parvoviridae family. Here, we describe some of the pathogenic characteristics of ChPV in young broilers. Following experimental infection, 2-day-old broiler chickens showed characteristic signs of enteric disease. Runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) was observed in four of five experimental groups with significant growth retardation between 7 and 28 days postinoculation (DPI). Viral growth in small intestine and shedding was detected at early times postinoculation, which was followed by viremia and generalization of infection. ChPV could be detected in most of the major tissues for 3 to 4 wk postinoculation. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed parvovirus-positive cells in the duodenum of inoculated birds at 7 and 14 DPI. Our data indicate that ChPV alone induces RSS in broilers and is important determinant in the complex etiology of enteric diseases of poultry.

  5. Day-of-hatch vaccination is not protective against necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mot, Dorien; Timbermont, Leen; Delezie, Evelyne; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2013-04-01

    Necrotic enteritis, caused by netB toxin-producing Clostridium perfringens type A, is an important disease in broiler chickens worldwide. Earlier attempts to prevent necrotic enteritis by vaccination have not sufficiently taken into account the practical limitations of broiler vaccination. In most published studies on vaccination against necrotic enteritis, multiple doses at different ages are administered, which is not practical for broilers. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of subcutaneous single vaccination at day 1 or day 3 and double vaccination at day 3 and day 12, using crude supernatant containing active toxin or formaldehyde-inactivated supernatant (toxoid) of a netB-positive C. perfringens strain in a subclinical necrotic enteritis model. Double vaccination with crude supernatant resulted in a significant decrease in the number of chickens with necrotic enteritis lesions. The efficacy of vaccination using toxoid was lower compared with crude supernatant. Single vaccination with crude supernatant at day 3 resulted in significant protection, while vaccination of 1-day-old chickens with crude supernatant or toxoid, as envisaged for practical field application, did not induce protection.

  6. Evaluation of homeopathy in broiler chickens exposed to live viral vaccines and administered Calendula officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Elie K; Sagherian, Vatché; Talhouk, Salma; Talhouk, Rabih; Farran, Mohamad T; Sleiman, Fawwak T; Harakeh, Steve

    2004-08-01

    In this study it was determined that a Calendula officinalis water extract can reduce the immune response to three different viruses in broiler chickens, associated with improvement in body weights. The experiment was conducted on broiler chickens divided into two groups of 105 birds each. The first group received a Calendula officinalis water extract orally, while the second group received drinking water only. All birds in the two groups were similarly exposed to three different live vaccine viruses. Quantitative assessment of humoral immunity to each of the 3 viruses and records of bursal and thymus weight indices were taken. Performance, as observed in weight records at 21 and 41 days of age, feed conversion, and% mortality up to market age, was also evaluated. There was a reduction in immune response to IB virus at 42 days of age, to ND virus at 29 and 42 days of age, and to IBD virus at 14, 29, and 42 days of age in the Calendula officinals-treated birds in comparison with controls. This immune reduction in Calendula officinalis-treated birds was associated with insignificant reduction in the bursal weight index at 42 days of age and an improvement in mean weights at 21 and 41 days of age; the feed conversion and mortality rates were similar in the two groups (P>0.05). Calendula officinalis had an immunomodulation effect against three different live viruses in broiler chickens.

  7. Effect of dietary astaxanthin rich yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma, on meat quality of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Perenlei, Ganzaya; Tojo, Hitomi; Okada, Toru; Kubota, Masatoshi; Kadowaki, Motoni; Fujimura, Shinobu

    2014-10-01

    We evaluated effects of dietary supplementation with astaxanthin (Ax)-rich yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous), on broiler chicken meat quality. Fourteen-day-old female Ross broilers were divided into three groups: control group, Ax-free diet; Ax 10 group, 10 mg/kg Ax diet; and Ax 20 group, 20 mg/kg Ax diet for 28 days. At 42 days old, chickens were slaughtered, and then growth performance, meat quality and sensory attributes were analyzed. Compared with the control, a* values increased significantly after slaughter and 48 h postmortem for Ax 20 samples (P<0.05) and for b* values in Ax 20 and Ax 10 groups (P<0.05). Cooking loss decreased in the Ax 20 group (P<0.05). After 120 h aging, contents of several free amino acids and total free amino acid content of Ax 20 group were significantly higher than the control (P<0.05). In sensory evaluation, meat texture attributes improved significantly in the Ax 20 group (P<0.01). No significant changes occurred in flavor attribute scores of meat soup from the Ax 20 group compared with the control even though most assessors preferred meat soup from the Ax 20 group. Overall, Ax-rich yeast in the diet improves broiler chicken meat quality.

  8. High-fibre pelleted rations decrease water intake but do not improve physiological indexes of welfare in food-restricted female broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Hocking, P M

    2006-02-01

    1. A 3x2 factorial experiment was conducted with three diets and two lines of broiler breeder females to evaluate the contribution of low-energy rations for improving the welfare of feed-restricted birds during rearing. Experimental diets were fed from 6 to 16 weeks of age and were created by diluting a conventional grower (Control) ration containing 11.0 MJ ME/kg with 200 (8.8 MJ ME/kg) or 400 (6.6 MJ ME/kg) g oat hulls/kg using Optimoist to facilitate the pelleting process. Welfare was assessed by changes in behaviour and physiological variables at 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age. Birds were fed restricted quantities of feed to meet recommended body weight targets. 2. There was a decrease in the proportion of observations of drinking and an increase of preening in birds fed on the two experimental diets compared with the control. There was a linear decrease in litter moisture and the number of litter changes with increasing diet dilution, and water intake at 12 weeks was higher in the control than in the two experimental diets. There were no changes in physiological indexes of welfare (heterophil-lymphocyte ratio, plasma corticosterone and antibody responses) associated with the dietary treatments. 3. There were no important differences in the growth, behaviour or physiological responses to dietary treatment between the two lines of broiler breeders. Changes with age were similar to those reported in other experiments. 4. It was concluded that low-energy pelleted diets would improve litter conditions but not improve indexes of welfare in feed-restricted broiler breeders.

  9. A data envelope analysis to assess factors affecting technical and economic efficiency of individual broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Romero, L F; Zuidhof, M J; Jeffrey, S R; Naeima, A; Renema, R A; Robinson, F E

    2010-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of feed allocation and energetic efficiency on technical and economic efficiency of broiler breeder hens using the data envelope analysis methodology and quantified the effect of variables affecting technical efficiency. A total of 288 Ross 708 pullets were placed in individual cages at 16 wk of age and assigned to 1 of 4 feed allocation groups. Three of them had feed allocated on a group basis with divergent BW targets: standard, high (standard x 1.1), and low (standard x 0.9). The fourth group had feed allocated on an individual bird basis following the standard BW target. Birds were classified in 3 energetic efficiency categories: low, average, and high, based on estimated maintenance requirements. Technical efficiency considered saleable chicks as output and cumulative ME intake and time as inputs. Economic efficiency of feed allocation treatments was analyzed under different cost scenarios. Birds with low feed allocation exhibited a lower technical efficiency (69.4%) than standard (72.1%), which reflected a reduced egg production rate. Feed allocation of the high treatment could have been reduced by 10% with the same chick production as the standard treatment. The low treatment exhibited reduced economic efficiency at greater capital costs, whereas high had reduced economic efficiency at greater feed costs. The average energetic efficiency hens had a lower technical efficiency in the low compared with the standard feed allocation. A 1% increment in estimated maintenance requirement changed technical efficiency by -0.23%, whereas a 1% increment in ME intake had a -0.47% effect. The negative relationship between technical efficiency and ME intake was counterbalanced by a positive correlation of ME intake and egg production. The negative relationship of technical efficiency and maintenance requirements was synergized by a negative correlation of hen maintenance and egg production. Economic efficiency methodologies are effective

  10. Age-related changes in meat tenderness and tissue pentosidine: effect of diet restriction and aminoguanidine in broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M; Kenney, P B; Klandorf, H

    1999-09-01

    The nonenzymatic glycosylation of tissue protein contributes to the formation of crosslinks that leads to structural and functional deterioration in the long-lived tissue protein, collagen. The accumulation of these crosslinks thus contributes to the objectionable toughness of meat from aged animals, decreases its economic value, and limits its use in whole muscle foods. The objectives of this study were to determine the effectiveness of diet restriction and the crosslinking inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG), on reducing the accumulation of crosslinks, thereby improving meat tenderness in broiler breeder hens. The glycoxidation product, pentosidine, was also measured in skin (Ps) to determine whether changes in its concentrations correlated with the changes in shear value (SV). Chicks (n = 450) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups from 8 to 125 wk after hatch: ad libitum (AL), diet restricted (DR), AL and DR groups supplemented with 400 ppm AG each (AL+AG and DR+AG, respectively). Shear value was measured with an Instron Universal Mechanical Machine. Skin pentosidine was isolated by reverse phase HPLC. There was an age-related, linear increase in SV (P<0.0001, r = 0.96), which correlated (r = 0.86) with the age-related increase in Ps in AL hens. Diet restriction retarded SV (P<0.0001) over the sampling period. In general, SV values for AL+AG were similar to those measured in DR, whereas no additive effect was observed for AG in DR birds. It was concluded that there was a linear increase in meat toughness (SV) with age that correlates with the accumulation of Ps, and that the decline in meat tenderness can be retarded by DR or AG. Secondly, the effect of DR on accumulation of Ps was so pronounced that AG supplementation did not further enhance this effect.

  11. Effect of dietary boron supplementation on egg production, shell quality, and calcium metabolism in aged broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Qin, X; Klandorf, H

    1991-10-01

    Three experiments were conducted using aged broiler breeder hens (greater than 60 wk) to investigate the effects of supplemental B on egg production (EP), shell quality, and Ca metabolism. Experiment 1 had a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) high Ca (3.5%); 2) high Ca plus B; 3) low Ca (1.5%); and 4) low Ca plus B; using 32 60-wk-old hens. The B levels were basal and 100 ppm supplemental for the first 2 wk of the experiment and reduced to 60 ppm for the remaining 3 wk. Egg production, shell thickness (ST), and egg specific gravity (SG) were recorded weekly. In Experiment 2, 40 60-wk-old hens were divided into two groups: high and low shell quality. Each group was further divided into two subgroups and fed a low-Ca basal diet with or without supplemental B. The level of B supplementation and the experimental period was the same as in Experiment 1. In Experiment 3, 52 75-wk-old hens were force-molted. After molting, 36 hens were fed a commercial layer diet with the remaining 16 hens fed the control diet supplemented with 100 ppm B. Blood samples were taken during the nonlaying and laying periods, respectively. The results showed that B significantly (P less than .05) depressed EP in Experiment 1 but not in Experiments 2 and 3. Supplemental B decreased plasma Ca when hens were fed a diet containing high Ca levels (3.5%). Supplemental B did not affect SG, ST, or Ca retention, but did significantly increase tibial bone ash percentage (P less than .05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Relationship between mechanical properties and pentosidine in tendon: effects of age, diet restriction, and aminoguanidine in broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M; Kenney, P B; Al-Humadi, N H; Klandorf, H

    2000-09-01

    Nonenzymatic glycosylation contributes to the formation of crosslinks, which leads to the structural and functional deterioration of tissue protein. The accumulation of these crosslinks in tissue proteins has been implicated in the alteration of biomechanical properties of connective tissues. The objective of this study was to determine whether tendon breaking time (TBT) and tendon breaking strength (TBS) of the flexor perforans et perforatus digiti iii tendon were related to concentrations of pentosidine in tendons (Pt) of broiler breeder hens from 8 to 125 wk of age. In addition, effects of diet restriction (DR) and a crosslinking inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG) on Pt, TBS, and TBT were determined. Female chicks (n = 450) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups immediately after hatch: ad libitum-fed (AL); diet-restricted (DR; 60% of AL); and AL and DR groups supplemented with 1.35 mg/kg BW per day AG in the feed (AL+AG and DR+AG, respectively). In AL hens, Pt increased with increasing age (P < or = 0.0001). Concurrently, an age-related parallel increase was found for TBS (P < or = 0.0001) and TBT (P < or = 0.0001). Rate of Pt accumulation was lower in DR (P < or = 0.001), TBS (P < or = 0.01), and TBT (P < or = 0.02) hens compared with AL hens. Concentration of Pt in the AL + AG group was lower (P < or = 0.0002) than in the AL group; TBS and TBT (P < or = 0.01) followed a similar pattern. Supplementation of DR with AG did not affect Pt, TBS, or TBT. The age-related increase in Pt and loss of elasticity in the tendon was retarded by diet restriction and AG.

  13. Apple peel waste as a natural antioxidant for heat-stressed broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Heidarisafar, Zahra; Sadeghi, Ghorbanali; Karimi, Ahmad; Azizi, Osman

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of processed apple peel waste (APW), alone or in combination with an enzyme, as a natural antioxidant on broiler chickens under heat stress. A total of 360 unsexed, 28-day-old broilers were assigned to 6 dietary treatments with four replicates (15 broilers per pen). The experiment consisted of a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement with three levels of apple peel waste (0, 50 or 100 g/kg of diet) and two levels of enzyme (0 or 500 mg/kg, ZY Multi(®)). Inclusion of 100-g APW/kg of diet decreased broiler weight gain at 42 days of age. Inclusion of 50 and 100-g APW/kg of diet increased gizzard and small intestine weights. Feeding 50 and 100-g APW/kg increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and decreased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and malondialdehyde in blood serum at 49 days of age. At 49 days of age, apparent ileal protein digestibility was reduced when 50 and 100-g APW/kg were used in the diet. This study showed that feeding APW up to 50 g/kg from 28 to 49 days of age increased HDL cholesterol and decreased LDL cholesterol in serum and had no adverse effect on broiler performance.

  14. Preslaughter mortality in broiler chickens, turkeys, and spent hens under commercial slaughtering.

    PubMed

    Petracci, M; Bianchi, M; Cavani, C; Gaspari, P; Lavazza, A

    2006-09-01

    The incidence of dead on arrival (DOA) birds was surveyed over 33 broiler, 11 turkey, and 19 spent hen abattoirs representing the majority (around 70%) of the Italian poultry slaughter plants. Data were recorded monthly during a 4-yr period (August 2001 to July 2005), considering a total of 1266 million chicken broilers, 118 million turkeys, and 54 million spent hens, which represent 67.7, 84.0, and 28.4% of the national production, respectively. The overall average incidence of DOA was found to be 0.35, 0.38, and 1.22% in broilers, turkeys, and spent hens, respectively. The season significantly (P < or = 0.01) influenced the mortality of all considered poultry categories, with higher incidence being observed during the summer (0.47, 0.52, and 1.62% for broilers, turkeys, and spent layers, respectively). The incidence of DOA broilers was found to be lower in small slaughter plants compared with medium and large slaughter plants (0.28 vs. 0.38 and 0.35%, P < or = 0.01). The data obtained in this study might be used for establishing limit values of DOA as a welfare indicator during the preslaughter time of birds, including catching, loading, transportation, and lairage.

  15. Molecular Differences in Hepatic Metabolism between AA Broiler and Big Bone Chickens: A Proteomic Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guohua; Yue, Ying; Li, Jianke; Zhang, Shu; Cai, Huiyi; Yang, Aijun; Chen, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the metabolic differences in the livers of modern broilers and local chicken breeds is important for understanding their biological characteristics, and many proteomic changes in their livers are not well characterized. We therefore analyzed the hepatic protein profiles of a commercial breed, Arbor Acres (AA) broilers, and a local dual purpose breed, Big Bone chickens, using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with liquid chromatography-chip/electrospray ionization-quadruple time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 145 proteins were identified as having differential abundance in the two breeds at three growth stages. Among them, 49, 63 and 54 belonged to 2, 4, and 6 weeks of age, respectively. The higher abundance proteins in AA broilers were related to the energy production pathways suggesting enhanced energy metabolism and lipid biosynthesis. In contrast, the higher abundance proteins in Big Bone chickens showed enhanced lipid degradation, resulting in a reduction in the abdominal fat percentage. Along with the decrease in fat deposition, flavor substance synthesis in the meat of the Big Bone chickens may be improved by enhanced abundance of proteins involved in glycine metabolism. In addition, the identified proteins in nucleotide metabolism, antioxidants, cell structure, protein folding and transporters may be critically important for immune defense, gene transcription and other biological processes in the two breeds. These results indicate that selection pressure may have shaped the two lines differently resulting in different hepatic metabolic capacities and extensive metabolic differences in the liver. The results from this study may help provide the theoretical basis for chicken breeding. PMID:27760160

  16. Molecular Differences in Hepatic Metabolism between AA Broiler and Big Bone Chickens: A Proteomic Study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Aijuan; Chang, Wenhuan; Liu, Guohua; Yue, Ying; Li, Jianke; Zhang, Shu; Cai, Huiyi; Yang, Aijun; Chen, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the metabolic differences in the livers of modern broilers and local chicken breeds is important for understanding their biological characteristics, and many proteomic changes in their livers are not well characterized. We therefore analyzed the hepatic protein profiles of a commercial breed, Arbor Acres (AA) broilers, and a local dual purpose breed, Big Bone chickens, using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with liquid chromatography-chip/electrospray ionization-quadruple time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 145 proteins were identified as having differential abundance in the two breeds at three growth stages. Among them, 49, 63 and 54 belonged to 2, 4, and 6 weeks of age, respectively. The higher abundance proteins in AA broilers were related to the energy production pathways suggesting enhanced energy metabolism and lipid biosynthesis. In contrast, the higher abundance proteins in Big Bone chickens showed enhanced lipid degradation, resulting in a reduction in the abdominal fat percentage. Along with the decrease in fat deposition, flavor substance synthesis in the meat of the Big Bone chickens may be improved by enhanced abundance of proteins involved in glycine metabolism. In addition, the identified proteins in nucleotide metabolism, antioxidants, cell structure, protein folding and transporters may be critically important for immune defense, gene transcription and other biological processes in the two breeds. These results indicate that selection pressure may have shaped the two lines differently resulting in different hepatic metabolic capacities and extensive metabolic differences in the liver. The results from this study may help provide the theoretical basis for chicken breeding.

  17. Prevalence of Salmonella on retail broiler chicken meat carcasses in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Clavijo, Viviana; León, Maribel; Tafur, Mc Allister; Gonzales, Sebastian; Hume, Michael; Alali, Walid; Walls, Isabel; Lo Fo Wong, Danilo M A; Doyle, M P

    2012-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on retail market chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 1,003 broiler chicken carcasses from 23 departments (one city per department) were collected via a stratified sampling method. Carcass rinses were tested for the presence of Salmonella by conventional culture methods. Salmonella strains were isolated from 27 % of the carcasses sampled. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine potential risk factors for Salmonella contamination associated with the chicken production system (conventional versus free-range), storage condition (chilled versus frozen), retail store type (supermarket, independent, and wet market), poultry company (integrated company versus nonintegrated company), and socioeconomic stratum. Chickens from a nonintegrated poultry company were associated with a significantly (P < 0.05) greater risk of Salmonella contamination (odds ratio, 2.0) than were chickens from an integrated company. Chilled chickens had a significantly (P < 0.05) higher risk of Salmonella contamination (odds ratio, 4.3) than did frozen chicken carcasses.

  18. Antimicrobial use surveillance in broiler chicken flocks in Canada, 2013-2015

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Rebecca J.; Reid-Smith, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    There is a paucity of data on the reason for and the quantity of antimicrobials used in broiler chickens in Canada. To address this, the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) implemented surveillance of antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in broiler chicken flocks in 2013. Shortly after this (2014), the poultry industry banned the preventive use of ceftiofur in broiler chickens. The objectives of this analysis were to describe antimicrobial use (AMU) in Canadian broiler chickens between 2013 and 2015 (n = 378 flocks), compare these results to other animal species in Canada, to highlight the utility of farm surveillance data to evaluate the impact of a policy change, and to explore how different antimicrobial use metrics might affect data interpretation and communication. The surveillance data indicated that the poultry industry policy resulted in lower antimicrobial use and resistance, and they successfully captured information on when, where, why, and how much antimicrobials were being used. The majority of antimicrobials were administered via the feed (95%). The relative frequency of antimicrobial classes used in broiler chickens differed from those used in swine or in food animal production in general. Coccidiostats were the most frequently used antimicrobial classes (53% of total kg). Excluding coccidiostats, the top three most frequently used antimicrobial classes were bacitracin (53% of flocks), virginiamycin (25%) and avilamycin (21%), mainly used for the prevention of necrotic enteritis. Depending on the AMU metric utilized, the relative rankings of the top antimicrobials changed; hence the choice of the AMU metric is an important consideration for any AMU reporting. When using milligrams/Population Correction Unit (mg/PCU) the top three antimicrobial classes used were bacitracins (76 mg/PCU), trimethoprim-sulfonamides (24 mg/PCU), and penicillins (15 mg/PCU), whereas when using a number of

  19. Effect of Chitosan on Salmonella Typhimurium in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Menconi, Anita; Pumford, Neil R.; Morgan, Marion J.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Kallapura, Gopala; Latorre, Juan D.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Public concern with the incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly among foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, has been challenging the poultry industry to find alternative means of control. The purposes of the present study were to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effects of chitosan on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) infection in broiler chicks. For in vitro crop assay experiments, tubes containing feed, water, and ST were treated with either saline as a control or 0.2% chitosan. The entire assay was repeated in three trials. In two independent in vivo trials, 40 broiler chicks were assigned to an untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 7 days (20 broiler chicks/treatment). At day 4, chicks were challenged with 2×105 colony-forming units (CFU) ST/bird. In a third in vivo trial, 100 broiler chicks were assigned to untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 10 days (50 broiler chicks/treatment) to evaluate ST horizontal transmission. At day 3, 10 birds were challenged with 105 CFU ST/bird, and the remaining nonchallenged birds (n=40) were kept in the same floor pen. In all three in vitro trials, 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of ST at 0.5 and 6 h postinoculation compared with control (p<0.05). In two in vivo trials, at 7 days, dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of recovered ST in the ceca in both experiments. Dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total ST CFU recovered in the ceca of horizontally challenged birds in the third in vivo trial. Chitosan at 0.2% significantly reduced the CFU of recovered ST in vitro and in vivo, proving to be an alternative tool to reduce crop, ceca, and consequently carcass ST contamination as well as decreasing the amount of ST shed to the environment. PMID:24237042

  20. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and

  1. Early feeding affects resistance against cold exposure in young broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, H; Molenaar, R; van der Star, I; Meijerhof, R

    2010-04-01

    In field conditions, a fasting period of 24 to 72 h after hatch is common, which is associated with delayed gastrointestinal development and yolk utilization and retarded subsequent performance. Hardly any information is available about the influence of diet composition in the first days on later life and additionally, effects of early feeding on thermoregulatory development are also not known. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of diet composition in early fed broiler chickens on their (thermoregulatory) development. Shortly after hatch, 200 Hybro chickens (initial BW of 43.6 g) were assigned to 1 of 5 feed treatments: control, dextrose, albumen, prestarter, or prestarter plus fat. Water was available ad libitum. Measurements were done in 10 replicates of 4 chickens per treatment. At d 2 or 3, half of the chickens were exposed to 20 degrees C for 30 min to determine resistance against cold exposure and rectal temperature was determined just before, immediately after, and 30 min after the end of this cold exposure. Thereafter, all chickens were killed to investigate body development. Chickens in both prestarter groups developed faster than in the other 3 groups, expressed by a higher BW, yolk-free body mass, heart and liver weight, and higher chick and intestine length. Between d 2 and 3, differences in these variables among chickens from both prestarter groups and other groups increased. Rectal temperature before cold exposure was higher in chickens from both prestarter groups (40.6 and 40.7 degrees C, respectively) and decreased less (0.6 and 0.7 degrees C, respectively) during cold exposure than in chickens from the control (39.5 and 1.2 degrees C, respectively) and albumen group (39.8 and 2.1 degrees C, respectively), whereas chickens from the dextrose group were in between (40.4 and 1.2 degrees C, respectively). We conclude that early fed diet composition in broiler chickens is (besides general development) important for development of both body

  2. Broiler chickens exposed to melamine and cyanuric acid-contaminated diets.

    PubMed

    Zapletal, D; Straková, E; Novák, P; Suchý, P

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether melamine (MEL) is biotransformed into cyanuric acid (CYA) in male broiler chickens. The effects of the dietary addition of MEL and CYA alone and in combination on the growth performance and mortality of the chickens were also investigated. The chickens were divided into six experimental groups and were fed diets with an addition of 50 or 100 mg/kg MEL or 50 or 100 mg/kg CYA of diet, with the contaminants added separately or in combination. The control group was fed a diet without MEL or CYA. At the end of the experiment (day 40), samples of liver, kidney and breast and thigh muscles were collected from 12 birds per treatment group and were analysed for the presence of MEL and CYA. This study showed that MEL is biotransformed into CYA in broilers. Higher concentrations of MEL or CYA in the diet increased the presence of their residues in tissues, and the CYA residue concentration was several times higher in the respective tissues than the MEL residue concentration. The dietary addition of MEL and CYA did not affect the mortality rate, feed conversion ratio or body weight of the chickens.

  3. Combined effects of muscular dystrophy, ecological stress, and selenium on blood antioxidant status in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, Nedyalka V; Stoyanchev, Krasimir; Bozakova, Nadia; Jotova, Ivanka

    2011-09-01

    The results obtained in this study demonstrated that experimentally induced alimentary muscular dystrophy (MD) in Cobb 500 broiler chickens resulted in increased plasma concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), deviations in activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes Cu,Zn-SOD (decrease), and CAT (increase) as well as reduction in plasma concentrations of trace elements Cu, Zn, and Se in affected birds. These data evidenced the presence of oxidative stress in birds with MD, reared both under conditions of ecological comfort and ecological stress. The increased MDA and САТ levels and the reduced Cu,Zn-SOD, Cu, Zn, and Se concentrations in healthy chickens reared under unfavorable microclimatic conditions such as higher air temperature and humidity, higher ammonia concentrations, and lower light intensity were indicative about an induced ecological stress. After the 10-day oral treatment with a selenium-containing preparation, the levels of MDA, Cu,Zn-SOD, CAT, Cu, Zn, and Se attained their normal values in chickens with MD, reared under ecologically comfortable conditions. According to our results, ecological stress was shown to exert independently a significant adverse effect upon the levels of the studied parameters and possibly to be a cause for their slower and not complete normalization despite the selenium therapy in experimental broiler chickens.

  4. Effect of silver nanoparticles on growth performance, metabolism and microbial profile of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Lane; Chwalibog, Andrè; Sawosz, Ewa; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Engberg, Ricarda; Elnif, Jan; Hotowy, Anna; Sawosz, Filip; Gao, Yuhong; Ali, Abdalla; Moghaddam, Heshmat Sepehri

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated the potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNano) as an antimicrobial growth-promoting supplement for broiler chickens. One hundred forty-four seven-day-old broiler chicks were distributed randomly to AgNano treatments at 0, 10 and 20 mg/kg (Control, Group AgNano10, and Group AgNano20, respectively) provided via the drinking water from day 7 to 36 post-hatching. Body weight and feed consumption were measured weekly. In addition, balance and respiration experiments were carried out to determine nitrogen (N) utilisation and energy retention. At days 22 and 36, blood samples and intestinal content were collected to evaluate the effects of AgNano on plasma concentration of immunoglobulins and the intestinal microflora, respectively. The provision of water solutions containing different concentrations of AgNano had no effect on postnatal growth performance and the energy metabolism of broiler chickens. However, in Group AgNano10 N intake (p = 0.05) and retention (p = 0.03) was increased, but N excretion and efficiency of utilisation was not affected. The populations of bacteria in the intestinal samples were not affected by AgNano supplementation. The concentration of immunoglobulin (IgG) in the blood plasma of broilers supplemented with AgNano decreased at day 36 (p = 0.012). The results demonstrated that AgNano affects N utilisation and plasma IgG concentration; however, it does not influence the microbial populations in the digestive tract, the energy metabolism and growth performance of chickens.

  5. Evaluation of transgenic hybrid corn (VIP3A) in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Brake, J; Faust, M; Stein, J

    2005-03-01

    A 49-d feeding study evaluated whether standard broiler diets prepared with Syngenta Seeds VIP3A transgenic derived corn grain had any unanticipated adverse effects on male or female broiler chickens as compared with diets prepared with nontransgenic (isoline) control corn grain. Two commercial lots of grain grown in North Carolina during the 1999 (NC 1999) and 2000 (NC 2000) seasons were included for reference purposes. Broiler growth was excellent with males reaching 3466 g and females reaching 2882 g at 49 d of age. Final BW of the VIP3A, isoline, and NC 1999 corn groups were within 21.1 g, whereas the NC 2000 group was 42.4 g lower than the lowest of this group. There was no overall corn source effect on adjusted feed conversion ratio (FCR) or mortality to 49 d of age. Carcass analysis demonstrated no differences in percentage yield due to corn source among males and females other than percentage wings in females. Comprehensive clinical chemical analyses of blood taken from representative birds at 49 d of age showed no differences due to corn sources. The transgenic VIP3A hybrid diets numerically supported the most rapid broiler chicken growth, the second lowest mortality rate and best FCR, without practical differences in carcass yield. The few differences found in this study were not unique to a given corn source but instead appeared to be distributed equally across the diet groups evaluated in the study. Although it was not clear whether small differences in performance were attributable to the transgenic corn per se or were due to possible slight differences in overall composition of the formulated diets, it was clear that the transgenic corn had no deleterious effects on broiler performance and carcass yield in this study.

  6. Effects of epigallocatechin gallate on lipid metabolism and its underlying molecular mechanism in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Huang, J B; Zhang, Y; Zhou, Y B; Wan, X C; Zhang, J S

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on fat metabolism and to establish the molecular mechanism of these effects in broilers. Seventy-two 28-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chickens were divided into three groups with different levels of EGCG supplementation for 4 weeks: normal control (NC) group, L-EGCG (a low-level supplement of EGCG, 40 mg/kg body weight daily) and H-EGCG (a high-level supplement of EGCG, 80 mg/kg body weight daily). After 4 weeks of oral administration, EGCG significantly reduced the level of abdominal fat deposition in broilers. The serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of chickens in H-EGCG group were also significantly decreased compared with the NC group, and the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was notably increased at the same time. Moreover, the vital role of the liver and abdominal adipose tissue in lipid metabolism of poultry animals was examined through gene expression and enzyme activities related to fat anabolism and catabolism in these organs. Our data show that EGCG supplementation for 2 weeks significantly downregulated the expression of fatty acid synthesis and fat deposition-related genes, and upregulated the expression of genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and lipolysis genes. Simultaneously, the activities of hepatic fatty acid synthesis enzymes (fatty acid synthase and acetyl CoA carboxylase) were significantly decreased, and the activity of carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 was notably elevated. The results suggest that EGCG could alleviate fat deposition in broilers through inhibiting fat anabolism and stimulating lipid catabolism in broilers. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Estimating danofloxacin withdrawal time in broiler chickens based on physiologically based pharmacokinetics modeling.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Sun, N; Liu, Y M; Zeng, Z L

    2015-04-01

    In this study, a physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) model was firstly developed for danofloxacin in healthy broiler chickens after a single oral administration at 5 mg/kg bw. Then, the model extrapolation from healthy chickens to those infected with Pasteurella multocidaones was performed. The healthy model was validated through a comparison of predicted and previously published concentrations, which indicated that the healthy PBPK model had good predictive ability in plasma, lung, muscle, liver, and kidney, especially at the later sampling time points. Multiple dosing of administration was incorporated into the healthy and infected models. In addition, a Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) included 1000 iterations was further incorporated into both models to predict the withdrawal times of danofloxacin in healthy and infected chickens, which were estimated to be 3 and 2 days, respectively.

  8. Reduction of Salmonella typhimurium concentration in broiler chickens by milk or whey.

    PubMed

    DeLoach, J R; Oyofo, B A; Corrier, D E; Kubena, L F; Ziprin, R L; Norman, J O

    1990-01-01

    Whey (5%) in the feed of chicks for the first 10 days of life reduced the mean log10 number of viable S. typhimurium from 5.68 in control chickens to 3.38 in whey-fed chickens. Lactose in drinking water or reconstituted dry milk (5% wt: vol) in drinking water reduced the mean log10 number of S. typhimurium to 2.60 and 2.11, respectively. Milk (5% wt: wt) in feed was not effective in reducing S. typhimurium colonization. The lack of effect of milk in the feed is believed to be because not enough lactose was provided at the 5% (wt: wt) concentration. Lactose in whey or nonfat dried milk offers alternatives to the use of pure lactose in preventing or lowering S. typhimurium numbers in young broiler chickens.

  9. Laboratory study of methane production from broiler-chicken litter

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, J.C.H.; Huang, J.J.H.

    1980-01-01

    North Carolina is one of the largest poultry-production states in the United States. Although a considerable amount of work has been done on methane production from livestock, brewery, and municipal wastes, little is known concerning poultry waste. Consequently, a laboratory study was conducted to delineate the potential for thermophilic (60/sup 0/C) methane generation from broiler litter. Broiler litter was chosen as the substrate for the following reasons: first, it is the most abundant waste of poultry production in North Carolina; second, wood chips which are used as the bedding material could be a potential source of carbon for methane biosynthesis; and third, it has a desirable nitrogen content of 3 to 4%, a level similar to that of the cattle waste..

  10. Silicon in broiler drinking water promotes bone development in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sgavioli, S; de Faria Domingues, C H; Castiblanco, D M C; Praes, M F F M; Andrade-Garcia, Giuliana M; Santos, E T; Baraldi-Artoni, S M; Garcia, R G; Junqueira, O M

    2016-10-01

    Skeletal abnormalities, bone deformities and fractures cause significant losses in broiler production during both rearing and processing. Silicon is an essential mineral for bone and connective tissue synthesis and for calcium absorption during the early stages of bone formation. Performance was not affected by the addition of silicon. However, broilers receiving silicon showed a significant increase of phosphorus, zinc, copper, manganese and ash in the tibia. In conclusion, broiler performance was not impaired by adding the tested silicon product to the drinking water. In addition, bone development improved, as demonstrated by higher mineral and ash content. Further studies are required to determine the optimal concentration of silicon, including heat stress simulations, to better understand the effects of silicon on bone development.

  11. Prevalence of Coccidiosis in Broiler Chicken Farms in Western Iran.

    PubMed

    Gharekhani, Jamal; Sadeghi-Dehkordi, Zivar; Bahrami, Mohammadali

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of current study was to investigate the prevalence of coccidiosis in broiler farms in Hamedan province, western Iran. Chicks and fecal samples were collected in all of the 220 broiler farms in this region. All viscera were examined for gross pathological changes. The mucosa of small intestine and the caeca were examined for the presence and identification of parasitic forms using parasitology methods. The overall rate of coccidiosis was 31.8%; E. acervulina (75.7%), E. tenella (54.3%), E. necatrix (28.6%), and E. maxima (20%) were determined. Mixed infections were observed in all of the positive farms. There was a statistical significant difference (P < 0.05) among infection rate and age groups, dysentery, history of colibacilosis and clostridiosis in farm, and history of coccidiostats consumption, unlike to breed (P > 0.05). This is the first report of coccidiosis rate in broiler farms in this region. Further additional researches and design control strategies for improving management in farms are necessary.

  12. Campylobacter jejuni Is Not Merely a Commensal in Commercial Broiler Chickens and Affects Bird Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, Suzanne; Chaloner, Gemma; Kemmett, Kirsty; Davidson, Nicola; Williams, Nicola; Kipar, Anja; Humphrey, Tom

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial food-borne infection; chicken meat is its main source. C. jejuni is considered commensal in chickens based on experimental models unrepresentative of commercial production. Here we show that the paradigm of Campylobacter commensalism in the chicken is flawed. Through experimental infection of four commercial breeds of broiler chickens, we show that breed has a significant effect on C. jejuni infection and the immune response of the animals, although these factors have limited impact on the number of bacteria in chicken ceca. All breeds mounted an innate immune response. In some breeds, this response declined when interleukin-10 was expressed, consistent with regulation of the intestinal inflammatory response, and these birds remained healthy. In another breed, there was a prolonged inflammatory response, evidence of damage to gut mucosa, and diarrhea. We show that bird type has a major impact on infection biology of C. jejuni. In some breeds, infection leads to disease, and the bacterium cannot be considered a harmless commensal. These findings have implications for the welfare of chickens in commercial production where C. jejuni infection is a persistent problem. PMID:24987092

  13. Changes of biochemical parameters and enzyme activities in broiler chickens with cold-induced ascites.

    PubMed

    Daneshyar, M; Kermanshahi, H; Golian, A

    2009-01-01

    An experiment with 250 one-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) was conducted to investigate the differences of some blood parameters of cold-induced ascitic and healthy broiler chicks in a 6-wk period. The chickens were divided into 2 groups of 5 replicates each. One group of these chickens was raised in normal temperature (NT) treatment and the other in cold temperature (CT) treatment to induce ascites. Mortality was necropsied daily to determine cause of death. At the end of the experiment (wk 6), 5 chickens from each replicate were randomly selected and slaughtered. The heart was removed; the right ventricle was dissected away from the left ventricle and septum. Weights of right and left ventricles were determined separately. Average BW gain and average feed intake were measured weekly, and weekly average feed conversion ratio was calculated. Serum glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, activity of lactate dehydrogenase, as-partate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were determined. Throughout the study, the right ventricle-to-total ventricle ratio and total mortality percentage due to ascites of CT-treated birds at the end of experiment was greater (P < or = 0.05) than those of NT-treated ones. Fasting blood sugar of CT-treated birds in wk 4 and 6 was greater (P < or = 0.05) than NT-treated birds. Total blood protein of CT treatment was lower than NT-treated birds in every week and whole period, but this difference was only significant (P < or = 0.05) in wk 6. There was not a significant difference between 2 treatments for triglyceride and cholesterol, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. It was concluded that cold-induced ascites could affect serum protein and fasting blood sugar of broiler chickens.

  14. Histopathology in diagnosis of broiler chicken and layer diseases--review of cases 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Dolka, I; Sapierzyński, R; Bielecki, W; Malicka, E; Zbikowski, A; Szeleszczuk, P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of histopathological lesions in the different organs in relation to the commercial-type and the age of birds (i.e. broiler chickens and layers). During the period 1999-2010 a total of 189 cases was submitted to the Division of Animal Pathomorphology, Department of Pathology and Veterinary Diagnostics at WULS. Most cases were found in broiler chickens (66.7%). The majority of the histopathological lesions were detected in the liver and lymphoid organs. In of 29% cases of hepatic injury pathognomonic lesions associated with inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) were found. The mean age of birds was 23 days. Among IBH cases proventriculitis (58%) was more often found than gizzard lesions (25.8%). Interestingly, we noted some intranuclear inclusions in the epithelial cells within the proventriculus. A low percentage of histopathological evidence of infectious bursal disease (IBD) was reported in chickens. The gastrointestinal tract was the second most frequent predilection site for histopathological lesions. Histopathological findings within the heart and lungs were less common and were more often seen in the upper respiratory tract. Cases of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) were registered in broiler chickens (3.2%, mean age 37 days) and in layers (4.8%; mean age 196 days). Lesions associated with Marek's disease, avian leukosis and fowl pox were recognized only in layers, respectively in 3.2% (mean age 176 days), 1.6% (mean age 205 days) and 1.1% (mean age 196 days) of all cases. Avian encephalomyelitis (AE) was noted only in 0.5% of all cases.

  15. Effects of dietary copper supplementation on production performance and plasma biochemical parameters in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Samanta, B; Biswas, A; Ghosh, P R

    2011-10-01

    A study was conducted to estimate the effect of copper (Cu) supplementation on growth performance and biochemical profiles of blood and meat in broiler chickens. A total of 240 d-old broiler chicks (Vencobb-100) were randomly divided into 12 groups, each of 20 chicks (4 treatments x 3 replicates). The basal diet (T₁) contained 215 g kg⁻¹ crude protein (CP), 12·76 MJ kg⁻¹ ME, 32 g kg⁻¹ total calcium and 5 g kg⁻¹ total phosphorus. T₂, T₃ and T₄ were formulated to contain an additional 75, 150 and 250 mg Cu kg⁻¹ diet, respectively. Copper sulphate pentahydrate (CuSO₄, 5H₂O) was used as the source of Cu. Significant reductions in plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride, and an elevated concentration of HDL-cholesterol, were observed in the chickens fed with 250 mg Cu kg⁻¹ (T₄) of feed at the 3rd and 6th week of the experiment. Total cholesterol in meat decreased significantly in the birds fed with dietary Cu at 250 mg kg⁻¹ (T₄) of feed. Growth performance was measured in terms of live weight gain, cumulative feed intake and feed conversion ratio at the end of d 21 and d 42 of the experiment, and the result was found to be commercially beneficial for the chickens receiving 150 mg Cu kg⁻¹ (T₃) of diet. The concentration of Cu in breast muscle and liver increased significantly at the end of experiment. From this study it can be concluded that supplementation with dietary Cu may be beneficial for production performance and plasma biochemical characteristics of broiler chickens.

  16. Effect of chitosan on Salmonella Typhimurium in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Menconi, Anita; Pumford, Neil R; Morgan, Marion J; Bielke, Lisa R; Kallapura, Gopala; Latorre, Juan D; Wolfenden, Amanda D; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M; Tellez, Guillermo

    2014-02-01

    Public concern with the incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly among foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, has been challenging the poultry industry to find alternative means of control. The purposes of the present study were to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effects of chitosan on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) infection in broiler chicks. For in vitro crop assay experiments, tubes containing feed, water, and ST were treated with either saline as a control or 0.2% chitosan. The entire assay was repeated in three trials. In two independent in vivo trials, 40 broiler chicks were assigned to an untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 7 days (20 broiler chicks/treatment). At day 4, chicks were challenged with 2×10⁵ colony-forming units (CFU) ST/bird. In a third in vivo trial, 100 broiler chicks were assigned to untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 10 days (50 broiler chicks/treatment) to evaluate ST horizontal transmission. At day 3, 10 birds were challenged with 10⁵ CFU ST/bird, and the remaining nonchallenged birds (n=40) were kept in the same floor pen. In all three in vitro trials, 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of ST at 0.5 and 6 h postinoculation compared with control (p<0.05). In two in vivo trials, at 7 days, dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of recovered ST in the ceca in both experiments. Dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total ST CFU recovered in the ceca of horizontally challenged birds in the third in vivo trial. Chitosan at 0.2% significantly reduced the CFU of recovered ST in vitro and in vivo, proving to be an alternative tool to reduce crop, ceca, and consequently carcass ST contamination as well as decreasing the amount of ST shed to the environment.

  17. The effects of age, energy and protein intake on protein turnover and the expression of proteolysis-related genes in the broiler breeder hen.

    PubMed

    Ekmay, Ricardo D; Salas, Catalina; England, Judy; Cerrate, Sandro; Coon, Craig N

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the changes that occur to proteolysis and related genes due to age, protein, and energy intake in high-yield broiler breeder hens (Gallus gallus). Cobb 700 broiler breeders were randomly assigned to one of six diets in a 2×3 factorial fashion. Two levels of energy (390 and 450 kcal/day) and three levels of protein (22, 24, and 26 g CP/day) were utilized. Protein turnover was determined in the left pectoralis at 22, 26, 31 and 44 weeks. Relative mRNA expression of calpain 2 (CAPN2), proteasome C2 subunit (PSMA1), and F box protein 32 (FBXO32) were determined via RT-PCR at 20, 25, and 44 weeks. Contrasts indicate fractional synthesis rate (FSR) and FBXO32 increase to a maximum at 25-26 weeks and a decrease thereafter. A significant drop in PSMA1 and FBXO32 was observed between 25 and 44 weeks and matched the decrease observed in FBR. No differences were detected in the levels of fractional synthesis and degradation, or the expression of CAPN2, PSMA1, and FBXO32, due to protein or energy intake. In summary, protein turnover was upregulated during the transition into sexual maturity and decreased thereafter. The observed changes in degradation appeared to be mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

  18. Effect of sand and wood-shavings bedding on the behavior of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shields, S J; Garner, J P; Mench, J A

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 2 different bedding types, sand and wood shavings, on the behavior of broiler chickens. In experiment 1, 6 pens were divided down the center and bedded half with sand and half with wood shavings. Male broilers (10/pen) were observed by scan sampling at 5- or 12-min intervals throughout the 6-wk growth period during the morning (between 0800 to 0900 h), afternoon (1200 to 1500 h), and night (2300 to 0600 h). There was a significant behavior x substrate x week interaction during the day (P < 0.0001) and at night (P < 0.0002). Drinking, dustbathing, preening, and sitting increased in frequency on the sand side but decreased on the wood shavings side during the day, as did resting at night. In general, broilers performed a greater proportion of their total behavioral time budget on the sand (P < 0.0001) as they aged. Broilers used the divider between the 2 bedding types to perch; perching behavior peaked during wk 4. In experiment 2, male broilers were housed in 8 pens (50 birds/pen) bedded only in sand or wood shavings. Bedding type had no effect on behavioral time budgets (P = 0.8946), although there were age-related changes in behavior on both bedding types. These results indicate that when given a choice, broilers increasingly performed many of their behaviors on sand, but if only one bedding type was provided they performed those behaviors with similar frequency on sand or wood shavings.

  19. Influence of in ovo prebiotic and synbiotic administration on meat quality of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Maiorano, G; Sobolewska, A; Cianciullo, D; Walasik, K; Elminowska-Wenda, G; Slawinska, A; Tavaniello, S; Zylinska, J; Bardowski, J; Bednarczyk, M

    2012-11-01

    A trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of in ovo injection of prebiotic and synbiotics on growth performance, meat quality traits (cholesterol content, intramuscular collagen properties, fiber measurements), and the presence of histopathological changes in the pectoral muscle (PS) of broiler chickens. On d 12 of incubation, 480 eggs were randomly divided into 5 experimental groups treated with different bioactives, in ovo injected: C, control with physiological saline; T1 with 1.9 mg of raffinose family oligosaccharides; T2 and T3 with 1.9 mg of raffinose family oligosaccharides enriched with different probiotic bacteria, specifically 1,000 cfu of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis SL1 and Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris IBB SC1, respectively; T4 with commercially available synbiotic Duolac, containing 500 cfu of both Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus faecium with the addition of lactose (0.001 mg/embryo). Among the hatched chickens, 60 males were randomly chosen (12 birds for each group) and were grown to 42 d in collective cages (n = 3 birds in each 4 cages: replications for experimental groups). Broilers were fed ad libitum commercial diets according to age. In ovo prebiotic and synbiotic administration had a low effect on investigated traits, but depend on the kind of bioactives administered. Commercial synbiotic treatment (T4) reduced carcass yield percentage, and the feed conversion ratio was higher in T3 and T4 groups compared with other groups. The abdominal fat, the ultimate pH, and cholesterol of the PS were not affected by treatment. Broiler chickens of the treated groups with both slightly greater PS and fiber diameter had a significantly lower amount of collagen. The greater thickness of muscle fibers (not significant) and the lower fiber density (statistically significant), observed in treated birds in comparison with those of the C group, are not associated with histopathological changes in the PS of broilers. The incidence of

  20. Yeast β-d-glucans induced antimicrobial peptide expressions against Salmonella infection in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yujing; Wang, Zhong; Tian, Xiangyu; Guo, Yuming; Zhang, Haibo

    2016-04-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of yeast β-d-glucans (YG) on gene expression of endogenous β-defensins (AvBDs), cathelicidins (Cath) and liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide-2 (LEAP-2) in broilers challenged with Salmonella enteritidis (SE). 240 day-old Cobb male broilers were randomly assigned to 2×2 factorial arrangements of treatments with two levels of dietary YG (0 or 200mg/kg in diet) and two levels of SE challenge (0 or 1×10(9) SE at 7-9 days of age). The results showed SE infection reduced growth performance,and increased salmonella cecal colonization and internal organs invasion, increased concentration of intestinal specific IgA and serum specific IgG antibody, as compared to uninfected birds. SE challenge differentially regulated AvBDs, Caths and LEAP-2 gene expression in the jejunum and spleen of broiler chickens during the infection period. However, YG supplementation inhibited the growth depression by SE challenge, and further increased level of serum specific IgG and intestinal specific IgA antibody. Higher level of salmonella colonization and internal organs invasion in the SE-infected birds were reduced by YG. SE-induced differentially expression patterns of AMPs genes was inhibited or changed by YG. Results indicated YG enhance chicken's resistance to salmonella infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A note on the effects of perches and litter substrate on leg weakness in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Su, G; Sørensen, P; Kestin, S C

    2000-09-01

    Two trials were conducted to investigate the effect of availability of perches on indices of leg weakness in broiler chickens. A third trial investigated the effect of litter substrate on similar indices of leg weakness in broiler chickens. Leg weakness traits examined were walking ability and tibial dyschondroplasia, tibial curvature, foot burn, and hock burn. Body weight was also measured in all trials. The presence of perches in the rearing pens had no effect on any of the indices of leg weakness examined in either trial. There were no consistent effects of perches on BW. Litter substrate significantly affected some indices of leg weakness; birds reared on wheat straw had poorer walking ability and more foot burn than birds reared on wood shavings, and birds reared on hemp waste were intermediate between them. There was no effect of litter substrate on tibial dyschondroplasia or tibial curvature. Turning the straw litter regularly and adding fresh supplies when necessary did not significantly improve indices of leg weakness. It was concluded that wood shavings provide a better litter substrate than straw, but that perches have no beneficial effect on reducing leg weakness in broilers.

  2. Adenovirus-like inclusion body hepatitis in a flock of broiler chickens in Kermanshah province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Morad; Minoosh Siavosh Haghighi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) has been reported in many countries in the world. The IBH or similar cases characterized by hepatitis and presence of intra-nuclear inclusion bodies in hepatocytes have not been reported in broiler chickens in Iran. This is the first report on outbreak of adenovirus-like inclusion body hepatitis in Iran. On October 2012, an onset of high acute mortality in a flock of 2 day-old broiler chickens was reported to the Veterinary Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. The birds showed lethargy, huddling, ruffled feathers, and inappetence. At necropsy the livers were the primary organ affected which were enlarged, pale yellow with necrotic foci and multiple petechial hemorrhages. Tissue samples of liver, kidneys and heart were fixed in 10% buffered formalin. They were processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathological studies. Significant microscopic lesions were seen in the livers. Large eosinophilic intra-nuclear inclusion bodies were seen in hepatocytes. Based on the acute high mortality, age of the broilers, gross lesions and histopathological findings (especially intra-nuclear inclusion bodies), the condition was diagnosed as adenovirus-like inclusion body hepatitis. PMID:25992259

  3. Evaluation of Emblica officinalis fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Patel, A. P.; Bhagwat, S. R.; Pawar, M. M.; Prajapati, K. B.; Chauhan, H. D.; Makwana, R. B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the dietary addition of Emblica officinalis (Amla) fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: An experiment was conducted on 135 commercial broiler chicks (Ven-Cobb 400 strain) divided into three groups with three replicates of 15 chicks each. Three treatment groups were as follows – T1: Basal diet as per BIS standards; T2: Basal diet supplemented with 0.4% of E. officinalis fruit powder; and T3: Basal diet supplemented with 0.8% of E. officinalis fruit powder. Results: The average body weights at the end of the 6th week were significantly higher (p<0.05) in groups T2 and T3 compared to group T1. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio and feed cost per kg live weight production were similar among the treatment groups. The net profit per bird was the highest in group T2 (Rs. 19.22/bird) followed by group T3 (Rs. 17.86/bird) and the lowest in group T1 (Rs. 14.61/bird). Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, it was concluded that dietary addition of E. officinalis (Amla) fruit powder had a positive effect on growth performance and net profit per bird in commercial broiler chickens. PMID:27051210

  4. Physiological stress and welfare of broiler chickens in transit: solutions not problems!

    PubMed

    Mitchell, M A; Kettlewell, P J

    1998-12-01

    The rearing of large numbers of broiler chickens at geographically dispersed sites means that they have to be transported by road, over various distances, to centralized processing plants for slaughter. The birds may be exposed to a variety of stressors during transit, including the thermal demands of the transport microenvironment. The thermal environments experienced by broiler chickens during routine transport in the U.K. on a large number of commercial vehicles under a wide range of external climatic conditions have been characterized using three-dimensional thermal mapping (temperature and water vapor density). Inadequate ventilation results in heterogeneous distributions of temperature and humidity and, thus, thermal loads within the vehicle, and, therefore, the existence of a "thermal core" in which the risk of heat stress is increased. Relationships between specific physiological indices of stress and quantified thermal loads have been determined in accurate transport simulations in the laboratory. The findings have been employed to establish a predictive model of the induction of heat stress during commercial transportation, as well as to define the acceptable ranges and limits for temperature and humidity within the transport containers. These principles have been utilized in developing a monitoring system to warn of impending heat stress and in improving vehicle design to facilitate the prevention of heat stress during broiler transportation.

  5. Different sources of maternal selenium affect selenium retention, antioxidant status, and meat quality of 56-day-old offspring of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Wang, Y X; Zhou, Y; Zheng, L; Zhan, X A; Pu, Q H

    2014-09-01

    The maternal effect of different Se source in offspring of young broiler breeders has been reported, but the lasting maternal effect of different sources of Se on offspring of breeders has received limited attention, so this study was conducted to investigate the effects of different maternal Se sources on Se retention, antioxidant status, and meat quality of 56-d-old offspring of broiler breeders. A total of two hundred forty 39-wk-old Lingnan Yellow broiler breeders were randomly distributed into 2 treatments, each of which was replicated 3 times with 40 birds per replicate, with a 14-d pretreatment and 56-d trial period. The treatments were fed a basal corn-soybean diet (0.04 mg∙kg⁻¹ Se) supplemented with 0.3 mg∙kg⁻¹ sodium selenite (SS) or selenomethionine (Se-Met). Fertile eggs were collected for incubation, after which 180 healthy chicks from each treatment were selected and randomly allocated into 3 replicates, with 60 birds per replicate. All the chicks were fed the same basal diet (0.04 mg∙kg⁻¹ Se) for 56 d. The Se concentrations in serum and tissues (liver, kidney, and breast muscle) of the 56-d-old offspring were significantly (P < 0.01) increased by maternal Se-Met intake compared with maternal SS intake. The antioxidant status of the 56-d-old offspring was greatly improved by maternal Se-Met supplementation in contrast with maternal SS supplementation, which was shown by increased glutathione peroxidase activity in serum and breast muscle (P < 0.01), glutathione concentration in serum (P < 0.05), and total antioxidant capability in pancreas (P < 0.01), as well as cytosolic glutathione peroxidase mRNA abundance in breast muscle, liver (P < 0.01), and pancreas (P < 0.05). The maternal Se-Met treatment was more effective in maintaining the shape of liver and pancreas cells, cell nuclei, chromatin, as well as cell membrane structure, and more organelles were observed in liver cells. The maternal Se-Met treatment had significant (P < 0

  6. Color and fatty acid profile of abdominal fat pads from broiler chickens fed lobster meal.

    PubMed

    Rathgeber, B M; Anderson, D M; Thompson, K L; Macisaac, J L; Budge, S

    2011-06-01

    Consumer demands for food products enriched with healthful n-3 fatty acids are steadily increasing. Feeding marine byproducts may provide an economical means of increasing the long-chain n-3 content of broiler tissues. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary lobster meal (LM) on the color and fatty acid profile of broiler chicken fatty tissue. Broilers were fed increasing levels (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10%) of LM for 35 d. Fat pad samples were collected at slaughter and color and fatty acid concentrations were determined. A linear effect was found of LM on red coloration (P < 0.05) as dietary LM increased. Fat pad eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels also increased (P < 0.0001) in a linear fashion. The essential long-chain fatty acids were lower for the 10% LM diet (0.37 mg of EPA/g; 0.16 mg of DHA/g) compared with the 8% LM diet (0.51 mg of EPA/g; 0.27 mg of DHA/g). Using lobster meal as a feed ingredient resulted in broiler abdominal fat pads with a favorable increase in n-3 fatty acids.

  7. Immune responses following experimental infection with Ascaridia galli and necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ruhnke, Isabelle; Andronicos, Nicholas Matthew; Swick, Robert A; Hine, Brad; Sharma, Nisha; Kheravii, Sarbast K; Wu, Shu-Biao; Hunt, Peter

    2017-06-20

    Broilers commonly suffer from necrotic enteritis (NE). Other gastrointestinal infectious diseases affect poultry, including nematode infections which are considered a re-emerging disease in barn and free-range systems. The aim of this study was to characterize the immune response of broilers after artificial infection with NE and contrast these with responses to the nematode Ascaridia galli and determine whether immune parameters measured during the course of infection can be used to distinguish infected from uninfected birds. A total of 96 one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chickens were used in this study. At 10 days of age, broilers were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups: control birds (n = 32), A. galli infected birds (n = 32), or NE infected birds (n = 32) and inoculated with the appropriate infective agents. The immune response of birds was monitored through evaluation of haematology parameters, acute phase protein production, and intraepithelial intestinal lymphocyte population changes at 11, 16, 20, and 32 days of age. T-helper cells (CD4(+)CD8(-)) increased significantly over time, and were significantly higher in A. galli and NE compared to day 10 controls. In conclusion, α-1 glycoprotein levels can distinguish birds with NE from other birds, including those infected with A. galli; also T-helper cell numbers can distinguish both NE and A. galli from uninfected birds and thirdly, 10 days post infection is the best time point to evaluate the bird's immune response for A. galli infections.

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for Campylobacter spp. in chicken broiler flocks in Reunion Island (Indian Ocean).

    PubMed

    Henry, Isabelle; Reichardt, Jef; Denis, Martine; Cardinale, Eric

    2011-06-01

    Our objectives were to determine Campylobacter prevalence in broiler chicken flocks in Reunion Island and to define specific practices associated with the presence of Campylobacter spp. Infection in Reunionese broiler flocks. Fifty broiler flocks were studied in Reunion Island from May 2007 to February 2009. A questionnaire was submitted to the farmers and samples of fresh droppings were collected to assess the flock's Campylobacter status. Fifty four percent of the flocks were infected by Campylobacter spp.: 30% (95% CI: 28.71-31.29) were infected with Campylobacter coli and 17% (95% CI: 15.95-18.05) with Campylobacter jejuni; only 7% (95% CI: 6.28-7.72) were infected by both species at the same time. Several poultry houses in the farm (OR=11.2; [1.05-92]) and cleaning without any detergent (OR=13.1; [2.1-78.3]) increased the risk of Campylobacter infection. A distance higher than 500 m between broiler farms (OR=0.27; [0.1-0.8]) and use of disinfectant during the rearing period decreased this risk of infection (OR=0.15; [0.1-0.75]).

  9. Selected blood chemistry values in mobility-impaired broiler breeder hens with suspected calcium tetany using the i-STAT handheld clinical analyzer.

    PubMed

    Martin, Michael P; Wineland, Michael; Fletcher, Oscar J; Barnes, H John

    2011-09-01

    Calcium tetany is a poorly defined disease of broiler breeder hens that results from acute hypocalcemia. It is characterized by impaired mobility, increased mortality, and absence of gross lesions that would explain the impaired mobility. To evaluate if hens with impaired mobility had calcium tetany or other abnormalities, blood values from normal and affected hens were determined using the i-STAT handheld clinical analyzer. Three flocks were evaluated weekly prior to peak production (range 25-30 wk of age) comparing normal hens to hens with clinically apparent calcium tetany. Calcium tetany suspect (CaTS) hens from four additional flocks were also evaluated. Significant hypocalcemia (P < 0.001) was observed in CaTS hens (average = 1.14 mmol/L ionized calcium [iCa]) compared to normal hens (average = 1.53 mmol/L iCa) in only one of three flocks sampled weekly. Clinically affected hens from one of the other four flocks also had hypocalcemia. Blood value abnormalities in mobility-impaired hens without hypocalcemia included hypernatremia. Findings in this study indicate calcium tetany is one cause of impaired mobility in breeder hens, but mobility impairment without hypocalcemia can also occur. Calcium tetany should be confirmed by finding significantly decreased levels of iCa in the blood, as diagnosis based on clinical presentation and necropsy results can be inaccurate. The i-STAT handheld clinical analyzer is an efficient, relatively low-cost method to determine iCa and other blood chemistry values that may be associated with impaired mobility in broiler breeder hens.

  10. Use of Caprylic Acid in Broiler Chickens: Effect on Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Hovorková, Petra; Skřivanová, Eva

    2015-08-01

    The effect of caprylic acid (CA) on Campylobacter jejuni in chickens was evaluated using two approaches: dietary supplementation or surface treatment of chilled chicken carcasses. To analyze the dietary effect of CA, individually housed broiler chickens (n = 48) were artificially infected with C. jejuni VFU612 (10(6) colony-forming units [CFU]/bird) on the 21st and 35th days of life. Dietary CA (2.5 and 5 g/kg of feed, fed throughout the entire experiment) significantly decreased C. jejuni shedding (p<0.05). However, the effect only lasted for 3-7 days after infection. The numbers of Campylobacter shed by the positive control birds reached its maximum on the 37th day of life, while on that same day, both Treatment I and Treatment II groups shed significantly lower (p<0.05) numbers of Campylobacter (by 0.8 and 1.8 log10 CFU/g, respectively). Also, peak shedding was delayed by 1 day in both treated groups. After euthanasia of each chicken on the 42nd day of life, no differences in Campylobacter counts in the crop, gizzard, ileum, and cecum were found between the positive control and the treated groups (p>0.05). Surface contamination of the chilled chicken halves was performed with C. jejuni VFU612 (clinical isolate) and CCM6214 (collection strain). Surface treatment with CA at 1.25 and 2.5 mg/mL for 1 min significantly reduced C. jejuni VFU612 contamination of chicken skin (p<0.05) by 0.29-0.53 and 1.14-1.58 log10 CFU/g of skin, respectively. Counts of C. jejuni CCM6214 were reduced by 0.68-1.65 log10 CFU/g of skin). In conclusion, dietary CA affected numbers of C. jejuni in the gastrointestinal contents of chickens, whereas surface treatment reduced C. jejuni contamination in processed chicken carcasses.

  11. Potential use of caprylic acid in broiler chickens: effect on Salmonella enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Skřivanová, Eva; Hovorková, Petra; Čermák, Ladislav; Marounek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of dietary caprylic acid (CA) on Salmonella Enteritidis, as well as the surface treatment of chicken skin contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis was evaluated. To evaluate the dietary effect of CA on Salmonella Enteritidis, the individually housed broiler chickens (n=48) were divided into 4 groups (positive control, negative control, 2.5 g/kg of CA in the feed, and 5 g/kg of CA in the feed). The feed of all groups, except the negative control, was artificially contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 13076 (10(7) colony-forming units/100 g of feed). Both concentrations of dietary CA significantly decreased counts of Salmonella Enteritidis in the crop and cecum of experimental chickens (p<0.05). The effect of CA in the crop contents was more pronounced than in the cecum. Surface treatment of chilled chicken halves with CA at 1.25 and 2.5 mg/mL significantly decreased Salmonella Enteritidis contamination of chicken skin (p<0.05). The sensory evaluation of the skin and meat showed that treatment of the skin with 1.25 mg/mL of CA worsened odor and appearance of the chicken skin, while sensory traits of chicken meat were not significantly affected. Taste and overall acceptability was not influenced by CA in both meat and skin. Treatment of the skin with 2.5 mg/mL of CA resulted in more pronounced changes of the skin odor and appearance. In conclusion, dietary CA reduced carriage of Salmonella Enteritidis in chickens, whereas surface-treatment reduced or eliminated Salmonella Enteritidis contamination in the processed bird.

  12. Thermal resistance of Salmonella serovars isolated from raw, frozen chicken nuggets/strips, nugget meat and pelleted broiler feed.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Oliver; D'Aoust, J-Y; Holley, Richard A

    2008-05-31

    Raw, frozen chicken nuggets/strips available at retail and prepared at home before consumption have been identified as a significant risk factor in contracting food-borne salmonellosis. Cases of salmonellosis from consumption of these products may be due, in part, to Salmonella strains originating in broiler feed. In this study the thermal resistances of Salmonella strains isolated from chicken nuggets and strips, chicken nugget/strip meat and broiler feed were determined to assess whether they exhibited enhanced thermal resistance. Thermal resistances (D- and z- values) of 7 cocktails (25 isolates, 4 serovars) were determined in commercially prepared irradiation-treated chicken nugget/strip meat blend, and heated in a constant temperature waterbath. The thermal resistances found were lower than those reported for similar strains in the literature. D-values ranged from 6.93 to 0.12 min at 55 and 62 degrees C respectively, with z-values from 4.10 to 5.17 degrees C. Two strains of S. Enteritidis separately isolated from pelleted feed and chicken nugget meat blend, with indistinguishable geno- and phenotypes, had lower (and probably identical) thermal resistances than the other isolates. Results indicated that the strains of Salmonella isolated from raw, frozen chicken nuggets/strips and pelleted broiler feed did not exhibit unusually high thermal resistance, and that normal heating (71 degrees C) prior to consumption should eliminate these organisms from chicken nuggets/strips.

  13. Persistence and tissue distribution of infectious bursal disease virus in experimentally infected SPF and commercial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Abdul, Rauf; Murgia, Maria V; Rodriguez-Palacios, Alex; Lee, Chang-Won; Saif, Yehia M

    2013-12-01

    This study was initiated to determine the persistence, distribution, and quantification of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) and commercial broiler chickens. Two serotype 1 strains, STC classic and IN variant, were independently used in the experiments. Five separate experiments were conducted using 2- and 4-wk-old SPF chickens, 2- and 4-wk-old in ovo-vaccinated commercial broilers, and 2-wk-old commercial broilers having maternally derived anti-IBDV antibodies. Pooled data from five experiments revealed that SPF chickens had a significantly higher incidence of IBDV-positive reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) results than commercial chickens (multivariable logistic regression, adjusted odds ratio = 15.28; 95% confidence limits [CL] = 9.53, 24.51, P < 0.0001). In many cases, the viral RNA (vRNA) persisted longer in in ovo-vaccinated commercial broilers bearing maternally derived antibodies compared with similar broilers not vaccinated in ovo. The STC strain was more frequently detected in tissues than the IN strain (chi-square P < 0.0001). In lymphoid tissues, STC and IN strains were detected for the longest duration in bursal tissues followed by spleen, thymus, and bone marrow. In nonlymphoid tissues, STC and IN strains were detected the longest in cecum followed by liver, kidney, pancreas, lungs, thigh, and breast muscles. Compared with bursal tissues, muscle and bone marrow tissues were significantly less likely to yield an IBDV-positive RT-PCR result (P < 0.0001). Although STC vRNA was detected up to 42 days postinoculation (DPI) in bursal homogenates of SPF chickens, virus isolation from bursal homogenates using embryonated chicken eggs was only possible up to 28 DPI. Similarly, STC vRNA was detected up to 42 DPI in bursal tissues of commercial broilers, but infectious virus could be isolated only up to 21 DPI. The IN strain was isolated up to 10 DPI from bursal homogenates of SPF chickens

  14. Effect of melatonin and lighting schedule on energy metabolism in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Apeldoorn, E J; Schrama, J W; Mashaly, M M; Parmentier, H K

    1999-02-01

    The effect of melatonin and lighting schedule on energy metabolism in broiler chickens was studied. Eight groups of six female broiler chickens each were assigned to a continuous lighting schedule [23 h light (L):1 h darkness (D)] or an intermittent lighting schedule (1L:3D), and were fed a diet with or without melatonin (40 ppm). At 21 d of age, the chickens were placed in respiration chambers for 20 d. Energy and nitrogen balances, heat production, and physical activity were measured per group. The only effect of melatonin on energy metabolism, was a decreasing effect on activity-related heat production. The intermittent lighting schedule induced improved feed conversion, higher metabolizability of the diet, and lower physical activity compared to continuous lighting. No interactions between melatonin and lighting schedule were found on energy metabolism traits. Lighting schedule strongly affected daily heat production pattern (total, activity-related, and nonactivity-related heat production). Melatonin had a reducing effect on activity-related heat production during the day, especially during light periods. The present study demonstrated that reduced energy expenditure for physical activity, caused by the supplementation of melatonin to the diet, might be a reason for the often observed improvement of feed conversion. Furthermore, this study showed that feed conversion was improved with an intermittent lighting schedule, which was related to higher metabolizability and lower energy expenditure on physical activity, compared to continuous lighting.

  15. Enrofloxacin degradation in broiler chicken manure under field conditions and its residuals effects to the environment.

    PubMed

    Slana, M; Žigon, D; Sollner-Dolenc, M

    2017-05-01

    The rate of degradation of enrofloxacin in broiler chicken manure has been characterised. Its degradation was investigated in manure excreted by broiler chickens in an intensively reared chicken facility; further, the degradation also followed after transfer of the excreta into the natural environment occurred. The effect of enrofloxacin and its degradation products on cucumber and tomato was also investigated. Enrofloxacin degradation was shown to take place within the rearing facility and also continuing after the manure was transferred into the environment. The rates of enrofloxacin degradation and the degree of degradation product formation in the manure heap incubated in the environment were condition specific, both variables depending on the manure sampling depth. The degradation half-lives ranged from 12.7 to 38.1 days for enrofloxacin and from 1.2 to 8.2 days for the main metabolite ciprofloxacin. Only the cucumber showed signs of toxicity when incubated with the composted manure immediately after transfer into field occurred (t = 0). No toxic effects to plants were observed when manure from the last incubation day (60th) of the field study and manure from the last incubation day of the laboratory degradation study were applied. The degradation study under field conditions showed that enrofloxacin and its degradation products degrade fast in the environment. Additionally, the toxic effects to plants decrease with the incubation time of manure containing enrofloxacin residuals.

  16. Functional assessment of encapsulated citral for controlling necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuexi; Wang, Qi; Diarra, Moussa S; Yu, Hai; Hua, Yufei; Gong, Joshua

    2016-04-01

    Development of viable alternatives to antibiotics to control necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by Clostridium perfringensis becoming urgent for chicken production due to pessures on poultry producers to limit or stop the use of antibiotics in feed. We have previously identified citral as a potential alternative to antibiotics. Citral has strong antimicrobial activity and can be encasupsulated in a powder form for protection from loss during feed processing, storage, and intestinal delivery. In the present study, encapsulated citral was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo for its antimicrobial activity against C. perfringens Encapsulation did not adversely affect the antimicrobial activity of citral. In addition, encapsulated citral was superior to the unencapsulated form in retaining its antimicrobial activity after treatment with simulated gastrointestinal fluids and in the presence of chicken intestinal digesta. In addition, the higher antimicrobial activity of encapsulated citral was confirmed in digesta samples from broilers that had been gavaged with encapsulated or unencapsulated citral. In broilers infected with C. perfringens, the diets supplemented with encapsualted citral at both 250 and 650 μg/g significantly reduced intestinal NE lesions, which was comparable to the effect of bacitracin- and salinomycin-containing diets. However, supplementation with the encapsulated citral appeared to have no significant impact on the intestinal burden of Lactobacillus These data indicate that citral can be used to control NE in chickens after proper protection by encapsulation. © Crown copyright 2016.

  17. Protective potential of Lactobacillus species in lead toxicity model in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Jahromi, M F; Liang, J B; Ebrahimi, R; Soleimani, A F; Rezaeizadeh, A; Abdullah, N; Shokryazdan, P

    2016-11-02

    To alleviate adverse effects of heavy metal toxicity, diverse range of removing methods have been suggested, that is usage of algae, agricultural by-products and microorganisms. Here, we investigated lead (Pb) biosorption efficacy by two lactic acid bacteria species (LABs) in broiler chickens. In an in vitro study, Pb was added to culture medium of LABs (Lactobacillus pentosus ITA23 and Lactobacillus acidipiscis ITA44) in the form of lead acetate. Results showed that these LABs were able to absorb more than 90% of Pb from the culture medium. In follow-up in vivo study, LABs mixture was added to diet of broiler chickens contained lead acetate (200 mg/kg). Pb exposure significantly increased lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant activity in liver. The changes were recovered back to normal level upon LABs supplementation. Moreover, addition of LABs eliminated the liver tissue lesion and the suppressed performance in Pb-exposed chicks. Analysis of liver and serum samples indicated 48% and 28% reduction in Pb accumulation, respectively. In conclusion, results of this study showed that L. pentosus ITA23 and L. acidipiscis ITA44 effectively biosorb and expel dietary Pb from gastrointestinal tract of chickens.

  18. Sensor-based monitoring of the prevalence and severity of foot pad dermatitis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, G; Ammon, C; Volkamer, L; Sürie, C; Radko, D

    2013-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of a dielectric measurement to evaluate the prevalence and severity of foot pad dermatitis (FPD) in broiler chickens. 2. The study focussed on surveying the occurrence of FPD during the growing period of one broiler chicken flock. A scoring system consisting of 5 categories was used to assess the prevalence and severity of FPD macroscopically. Additionally, the dielectric constant (DC) of both foot pads of 50 chickens was measured in a triple iteration with the MoistureMeter D (Delfin Technologies, Kuopio, Finland) on three different dates. 3. On all measurement days, DC and FPD score were negatively correlated. The severity of FPD increased during the growing period, and severe lesions occurred at an early stage. 4. Further research is necessary to develop an effective early warning system for FPD in poultry houses. However, the non-invasive measurement of DC provides a reliable method for the objective assessment of occurrence and severity of FPD.

  19. Antibiotic sensitivity and resistance in Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale strains from Belgian broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Devriese, L A; De Herdt, P; Haesebrouck, F

    2001-06-01

    Establishing the antibiotic sensitivity of the avian respiratory pathogen Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is difficult because of the organism's complex growth requirements and the unusually frequent occurrence of resistance. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of 10 antibiotics were determined for 45 strains of O. rhinotracheale from Belgian broiler chickens collected from 45 farms between 1995 and 1998. They were compared with the type strain, which was isolated from a turkey, and a strain isolated from a rook. All the broiler strains were resistant to lincomycin and to the beta-lactams ampicillin and ceftiofur. Less than 10% of the strains were sensitive to the macrolides tylosin and spiramycin, tilmicosin and flumequine. A few strains were sensitive to enrofloxacin and doxycycline. All strains were sensitive to tiamulin.

  20. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-01-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat’s unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods. PMID:26104409

  1. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat.

    PubMed

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-07-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat's unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods.

  2. Deboning broiler chicken legs and wings by dislocation of articular cartilage followed by stripping periosteum.

    PubMed

    Nakano, T; Ozimek, L; Betti, M

    2012-11-01

    The yield of deboned meat is an important economic factor affecting the profit of the meat industry. This study was undertaken to determine whether the yield of boneless meat from broiler chicken leg (thigh and drumstick) and wing (drumette and winglet) is improved by introducing a new deboning method consisting of articular cartilage dislocation followed by stripping periosteum. A total of 44 broiler chicken carcasses were used in the deboning experiment. Right and left legs or wings from the first 22 carcasses were assigned to the new and ordinary hand deboning methods, respectively. For the remaining 22 carcasses, right and left legs or wings were assigned to the ordinary and new methods, respectively. The weight of residue, composed of bone and small amounts of cartilage and noncartilaginous tissues obtained after deboning, was then compared between the right and left legs or wings to see the difference between the 2 methods. The removal of tibia, fibula, humerus, radius, or ulna resulted in formation of a hollow in boneless meat obtained. There was no difference (P > 0.05) between the right and left legs or wings in the weight of residue obtained after deboning as expected. The weight of residue was less (P < 0.05) with the new method compared with the ordinary method in all chicken parts examined. The difference of residue weight between the 2 methods accounted for 10, 12, 14, and 21% of the weight of residue obtained by the ordinary method in thigh, drumstick, drumette, and winglet, respectively. The new method may be useful to deboners at home kitchens as well as the poultry meat industry. The present study also showed the development of a secondary ossification center at the proximal end of the carpometacarpus of chickens. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of development of secondary ossification center in chicken wings.

  3. Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Guillermo; Latorre, Juan D.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Kogut, Michael H.; Wolfenden, Amanda; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.; Bottje, Walter G.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Faulkner, Olivia B.

    2014-01-01

    Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the utilization of rye as energy source on bacterial translocation (BT), intestinal viscosity, gut integrity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with a traditional cereal (corn) in broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, broiler chickens were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 20 chickens/group). At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 chickens/group were randomly selected, and given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood samples were collected to determine the passage of FITC-d. The liver was collected from each bird to evaluate BT. Duodenum, ileum, and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with rye showed increased (p < 0.05) intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that chickens fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to chickens fed with corn. Chickens fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in chickens fed with rye when compared with corn fed chickens. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in chickens that alter the intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition as well as bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected DFM candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed chickens are currently being evaluated. PMID:25309584

  4. Residue depletion of sulfachlorpyrazine in edible tissues of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Łebkowska-Wieruszewska, B; Kowalski, C J

    2013-01-01

    The residue depletion profile of sulfachlorpyrazine was studied in healthy broilers after oral administration of Sulfatyf®, given at a dose of 50 mg sulfachlorpyrazine (SCP) per kg body weight once daily for 3 consecutive days. Twenty-five medicated broilers were slaughtered on the 5th, 10th, 14th and 16th day of post-medication, and muscle, fat with skin, liver and kidney tissues were sampled and analysed using an high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with satisfactory recovery (74.5% ± 2.9%) and specificity. The estimated values of LOD and LOQ were 18.40 and 55.70 ng ml(-1), respectively. On the 5th and 10th day of post-medication, the concentrations of SCP residue in all samples examined were higher than the corresponding MRLs established by the European Union and the highest SCP concentrations were measured in muscle. A maximum withdrawal time of 14 days was calculated to ensure consumer safety.

  5. Performance of broiler chickens fed diets containing DAS-68416-4 soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Herman, Rod A; Dunville, Christina M; Juberg, Daland R; Fletcher, Dale W; Cromwell, Gary L

    2011-01-01

    Broiler chickens are a fast growing monogastric animal commonly used to evaluate the equivalence between transgenic and non-transgenic grains as part of the human safety assessment process. While commonly viewed like other livestock feeding trials, such studies are performed with transgenic crops with input traits (that are not designed to improve nutrition) to aid regulatory authorities in evaluating safety. Studies of this type are actually more similar to toxicology studies in purpose, with sensitive endpoints like growth used to detect metabolic perturbations. DAS-68416-4 soybean expresses the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-12 (AAD-12) enzyme which inactivates 2,4-diclorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and provides DAS-68416-4 soybeans tolerance to this herbicide. DAS-68416-4 also expresses the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) enzyme from Streptomyces viridochromogenes which confers tolerance to glufosinate-ammonium herbicides. A 6-week broiler study was conducted with diets containing toasted DAS-68416-4 soybean meal (40, 36, and 32% in starter, grower and finisher diets, respectively) to evaluate nutritional wholesomeness and safety compared with conventional comparators. Toasting soybean meal is required to inactivate endogenous antinutrients making soybean suitable for consumption by monogastric animals like broiler chickens. Toasting was found to denature both the AAD-12 and PAT proteins rendering them non-detectable by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Broiler growth and performance parameters were measured over a 6-week period of exposure to diets containing different sources of toasted soybean meal, and results indicate that DAS-68416-4 soybean is nutritionally equivalent to non-transgenic soybean.

  6. Cool perch availability improves the performance and welfare status of broiler chickens in hot weather.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J P; Jiao, H C; Jiang, Y B; Song, Z G; Wang, X J; Lin, H

    2012-08-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether water-cooled perches would be preferred by commercial broilers exposed to a hot ambient environment, and subsequently, whether utilization of these perches would improve performance and the well-being of birds, beyond those provided by normal perches. Four hundred and thirty-two 14-d-old male chickens from a commercial fast-growing strain (Arbor Acres) were housed in the following conditions: 1) cool perches, 2) normal perches, and 3) control pens with no perches. The results showed that there was greater use of cool perches than normal perches for broiler chickens during summer (F1, 4=125, P=0.0004). Cool perches increased BW gain (F2, 6=5.44, P=0.0449) and breast (F2, 24=3.31, P=0.0539) and thigh muscle yields (F2, 24=6.29, P=0.0063), while decreasing abdominal fat deposition (F2, 24=7.57, P=0.0028), cooking loss (pectoralis major, F2, 24=3.30, P=0.0542; biceps femoris, F2, 24=3.42, P=0.0493), percentage of panting birds (F2, 6=102, P<0.0001), and scores of footpad (F2, 6=122, P<0.0001) and hock (F2, 6=68.2, P<0.0001) burn, and abdominal plumage condition (F2, 6=52.0, P=0.0002), particularly toward the end of the rearing period. In contrast, normal perches hardly affected growth performance, carcass composition, meat quality and behavioral patterns, and appeared to worsen the welfare status, including footpad and hock burns and abdominal plumage condition, due to a lower occupancy rate. Cool perches offer a thermoregulatory and performance advantage to broilers exposed to a hot environment and appear to be a management strategy for improving the production and well-being of commercial broilers.

  7. Growth performance, meat quality, and gut microflora of broiler chickens fed with cranberry extract.

    PubMed

    Leusink, G; Rempel, H; Skura, B; Berkyto, M; White, W; Yang, Y; Rhee, J Y; Xuan, S Y; Chiu, S; Silversides, F; Fitzpatrick, S; Diarra, M S

    2010-07-01

    Cranberry fruit components have been reported to have antimicrobial activities against a variety of pathogenic bacteria and to be beneficial for human health. Studies on their effects are very limited in animals and especially in chickens. This study investigated the effect of feed supplementation with a commercial cranberry fruit extract (CFE) on the performance, breast meat quality, and intestinal integrity of broiler chickens. Twelve hundred male 1-d-old broiler chicks were allocated randomly to CFE treatments at 0, 40, 80, or 160 mg/kg of feed from d 0 to 35. Cloacal and cecal samples were collected weekly to evaluate the influence of treatments on the intestinal population of generic Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Enterococcus spp., and Lactobacillus spp. At d 35, BW were 1.62, 1.60, 1.61, and 1.64 kg for the control birds and birds fed 40, 80, and 160 mg of CFE/kg of feed, respectively. Feed intake ranged from 2.7 to 2.8 kg and feed efficiency from 1.8 to 1.9 g of feed/g of BW. However, the treatment effects on bird performance were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The mortality rate tended to be lower (P = 0.09) in birds fed 40 mg of CFE/kg of feed. Feed supplementation with CFE did not significantly alter any broiler meat properties evaluated when compared with the control diet (P > 0.05). At d 28, the populations of Enterococcus spp. in cecal and cloacal samples were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in birds receiving CFE at 160 mg/kg of feed than the other groups. No significant differences were noted between the control and the treatment groups for general health and intestinal integrity (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that more studies are needed to investigate potential beneficial effects of CFE or its derivatives in broiler production.

  8. Performance of broiler chickens given whey in the food and/or drinking water.

    PubMed

    Shariatmadari, F; Forbes, J M

    2005-08-01

    1. The effects on food intake and weight gain of offering broiler chickens (2 to 7 weeks of age) dry food, wet food, wet food containing whey, whey as drinking liquid and combinations of two of these were studied in 5 experiments. 2. Wet feed generally improved both weight gain and feed efficiencies significantly. Feeding whey also improved weight gain and feed conversion efficiency, but whey offered as a drinking fluid had an adverse effect on broiler performance. 3. When whey was offered both as drinking liquid and added to the food it had a deleterious effect. 4. When whey was offered from 4 or 6 weeks of age, it had a better effect than when offered from 2 weeks of age. 5. There was better performance when whey in the drinking water was diluted and/or offered on alternate days or half-days. 6. Broilers allowed to choose between wet and dry feed when water was freely available chose mostly dry feed; in the absence of drinking water they chose mostly wet food. Birds offered water and liquid whey avoided whey completely. 7. It is concluded that whey can be used in diets for broiler chickens by incorporating it in the food as long as drinking water is offered ad libitum. Whey may be offered as a drink if the food is mixed with 1.8 times its weight of water but it is better to dilute the whey with an equal volume of water whether it is added to food or given as drink. Good results can also be obtained when undiluted whey is offered alternately with water, either in half-day or full-day periods.

  9. Leaky Gut and Mycotoxins: Aflatoxin B1 Does Not Increase Gut Permeability in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Galarza-Seeber, Rosario; Latorre, Juan D.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Vicente, Jose L.; Donoghue, Annie; Cross, David; Hargis, Billy M.; Tellez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by diet ingredients or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Two experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect of three concentrations of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1; 2, 1.5, or 1 ppm) on gastrointestinal leakage and liver bacterial translocation (BT). In experiment 1, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in two groups, each group had six replicates of 20 chickens (n = 120/group): Control feed or feed + 2 ppm AFB1. In experiment 2, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in three groups, each group had five replicates of 16 chickens (n = 80/group): Control feed; feed + 1 ppm AFB1; or feed + 1.5 ppm AFB1. In both experiments, chickens were fed starter (days 1–7) and grower diets (days 8–21) ad libitum and performance parameters were evaluated every week. At day 21, all chicks received an oral gavage dose of FITC-d (4.16 mg/kg) 2.5 h before collecting blood samples to evaluate gastrointestinal leakage of FITC-d. In experiment 2, a hematologic analysis was also performed. Liver sections were aseptically collected and cultured using TSA plates to determine BT. Cecal contents were collected to determine total colony-forming units per gram of Gram-negative bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), or anaerobes by plating on selective media. In experiment 2, liver, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius were removed to determine organ weight ratio, and also intestinal samples were obtained for morphometric analysis. Performance parameters, organ weight ratio, and morphometric measurements were significantly different between Control and AFB1 groups in both experiments. Gut leakage of FITC-d was not affected by the three concentrations of AFB1 evaluated (P > 0.05). Interestingly, a significant reduction in BT was observed in chickens that received 2 and

  10. Effects of corticosterone and dietary energy on immune function of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiachang; Liu, Lei; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Li, Congcong; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary energy level on the performance and immune function of stressed broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). A total of 96 three-day-old male broiler chickens (Ross × Ross) were divided into two groups. One group received a high energy (HE) diet and the other group received a low energy (LE) diet for 7 days. At 5 days of age, the chickens from each group were further divided into two sub-groups and received one of the following two treatments for 3 days: (1) subcutaneous injection of corticosterone, twice per day (CORT group; 2 mg of CORT/kg BW in corn oil) and (2) subcutaneous injection of corn oil, twice per day (Control/Sham treatment group). At 10 days of age, samples of blood, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were obtained. Compared with the other three groups, the LE group treated with CORT had the lowest average daily gain (ADG) and the poorest feed conversion ratio (FCR, P < 0.05). Furthermore, CORT treatment decreased the relative weight (RW) of the bursa independent of the dietary energy level, but it decreased the RW of the thymus only in the chickens fed the LE diet. By contrast, CORT administration decreased the RW of the spleen only in the chickens fed the HE diet (P < 0.05). The plasma total protein, albumin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 2 and immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels were affected by the CORT treatment (P < 0.05); however, these factors were not significantly affected by the dietary energy level. Toll-like receptor-5 mRNA level was down-regulated by CORT injection in the duodenum and ileum (P < 0.05) and showed a trend of down-regulation in the jejunum (P=0.0846). The present study showed that CORT treatment induced immunosuppressive effects on the innate immune system of broiler chickens, which were ameliorated by consumption of higher dietary energy.

  11. Leaky Gut and Mycotoxins: Aflatoxin B1 Does Not Increase Gut Permeability in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Galarza-Seeber, Rosario; Latorre, Juan D; Bielke, Lisa R; Kuttappan, Vivek A; Wolfenden, Amanda D; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Vicente, Jose L; Donoghue, Annie; Cross, David; Hargis, Billy M; Tellez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by diet ingredients or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Two experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect of three concentrations of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1; 2, 1.5, or 1 ppm) on gastrointestinal leakage and liver bacterial translocation (BT). In experiment 1, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in two groups, each group had six replicates of 20 chickens (n = 120/group): Control feed or feed + 2 ppm AFB1. In experiment 2, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in three groups, each group had five replicates of 16 chickens (n = 80/group): Control feed; feed + 1 ppm AFB1; or feed + 1.5 ppm AFB1. In both experiments, chickens were fed starter (days 1-7) and grower diets (days 8-21) ad libitum and performance parameters were evaluated every week. At day 21, all chicks received an oral gavage dose of FITC-d (4.16 mg/kg) 2.5 h before collecting blood samples to evaluate gastrointestinal leakage of FITC-d. In experiment 2, a hematologic analysis was also performed. Liver sections were aseptically collected and cultured using TSA plates to determine BT. Cecal contents were collected to determine total colony-forming units per gram of Gram-negative bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), or anaerobes by plating on selective media. In experiment 2, liver, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius were removed to determine organ weight ratio, and also intestinal samples were obtained for morphometric analysis. Performance parameters, organ weight ratio, and morphometric measurements were significantly different between Control and AFB1 groups in both experiments. Gut leakage of FITC-d was not affected by the three concentrations of AFB1 evaluated (P > 0.05). Interestingly, a significant reduction in BT was observed in chickens that received 2 and 1

  12. Effects of Corticosterone and Dietary Energy on Immune Function of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Li, Congcong; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary energy level on the performance and immune function of stressed broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). A total of 96 three-day-old male broiler chickens (Ross × Ross) were divided into two groups. One group received a high energy (HE) diet and the other group received a low energy (LE) diet for 7 days. At 5 days of age, the chickens from each group were further divided into two sub-groups and received one of the following two treatments for 3 days: (1) subcutaneous injection of corticosterone, twice per day (CORT group; 2 mg of CORT/kg BW in corn oil) and (2) subcutaneous injection of corn oil, twice per day (Control/Sham treatment group). At 10 days of age, samples of blood, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were obtained. Compared with the other three groups, the LE group treated with CORT had the lowest average daily gain (ADG) and the poorest feed conversion ratio (FCR, P < 0.05). Furthermore, CORT treatment decreased the relative weight (RW) of the bursa independent of the dietary energy level, but it decreased the RW of the thymus only in the chickens fed the LE diet. By contrast, CORT administration decreased the RW of the spleen only in the chickens fed the HE diet (P < 0.05). The plasma total protein, albumin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 2 and immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels were affected by the CORT treatment (P < 0.05); however, these factors were not significantly affected by the dietary energy level. Toll-like receptor-5 mRNA level was down-regulated by CORT injection in the duodenum and ileum (P < 0.05) and showed a trend of down-regulation in the jejunum (P=0.0846). The present study showed that CORT treatment induced immunosuppressive effects on the innate immune system of broiler chickens, which were ameliorated by consumption of higher dietary energy. PMID:25803644

  13. Dietary Inulin Supplementation Modifies Significantly the Liver Transcriptomic Profile of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sevane, Natalia; Bialade, Federica; Velasco, Susana; Rebolé, Almudena; Rodríguez, Maria Luisa; Ortiz, Luís T.; Cañón, Javier; Dunner, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Inclusion of prebiotics in the diet is known to be advantageous, with positive influences both on health and growth. The current study investigated the differences in the hepatic transcriptome profiles between chickens supplemented with inulin (a storage carbohydrate found in many plants) and controls. Liver is a major metabolic organ and has been previously reported to be involved in the modification of the lipid metabolism in chickens fed with inulin. A nutrigenomic approach through the analysis of liver RNA hybridized to the Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Array identified 148 differentially expressed genes among both groups: 104 up-regulated (≥1.4-fold) and 44 down-regulated (≤0.6-fold). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for five out of seven genes tested. The functional annotation analyses revealed a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in chicken growth and performance, while reinforcing the immune status of animals, and fostering the production of long chain fatty acids in broilers supplemented with 5 g of inulin kg−1 diet. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study on the effect of dietary inulin supplementation, supporting further research on the use of this prebiotic on chicken diets as a useful alternative to antibiotics for improving performance and general immunity in poultry farming, along with a healthier meat lipid profile. PMID:24915441

  14. Passage of Salmonella through the crop and gizzard of broiler chickens fed with fermented liquid feed.

    PubMed

    Heres, Lourens; Wagenaar, Jaap A; van Knapen, Frans; Urlings, Bert A P

    2003-04-01

    In vivo experiments were conducted in order to investigate the passage and bacterial reduction of Salmonella in the crop and gizzard of chickens when fed two different feeds. The chickens were fed dry conventional feed and fermented liquid feed. The fermented feed contains a relatively high concentration of lactic and acetic acid and lactobacilli. One and three week old broiler chickens were necropsied at short intervals after inoculation with Salmonella Enteritidis. Counts of Salmonella from the crop, gizzard, duodenum, caecum and colon/rectum were obtained. This revealed a sharper decrease of Salmonella in the anterior parts of the gastro-intestinal tract in chickens fed with fermented feed than in chickens fed dry feed. It is therefore concluded that fermented feed improves the barrier formed by the crop and gizzard. The reduction of Salmonella is fully realised in the crop and gizzard. The lower intestinal compartment did not show a substantial effect on the reduction of Salmonella. The performed in vivo method appeared to be an appropriate way to study intervention strategies that aim to control Salmonella by improving the barrier function of the upper gastro-intestinal tract.

  15. Immunotherapeutic effects of some sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) extracts against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Awais, Mian Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Muhammad, Faqir; ul Haq, Ahsan; Anwar, M Irfan

    2011-06-01

    Present paper reports the effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) juice and bagasse, respectively on protective immune responses in industrial broiler chickens against coccidiosis. Immunotherapeutic efficacies of the extracts were measured by evaluating their effect on body weight gain, oocyst shedding, lesion score, anti-coccidial indices, per cent protection and elicited serum antibody responses against coccidiosis. Results revealed a significantly lower (P<0.05) oocyst shedding and mortality in chickens administered with sugar cane extracts as compared to control. Further, significantly higher (P<0.05) body weight gains and antibody responses were detected in chickens administered with sugar cane extracts as compared to chickens of control group. Moreover, ethanolic extract showed higher anti-coccidia index (227.61) as compared to aqueous extract (192.32). The organ body weight ratio of the lymphoid organs of experimental and control groups were statistically non-significant (P>0.01). These results demonstrated that both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of sugar cane possess immune enhancing properties and their administration in chickens augments the protective immunity against coccidiosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary inulin supplementation modifies significantly the liver transcriptomic profile of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sevane, Natalia; Bialade, Federica; Velasco, Susana; Rebolé, Almudena; Rodríguez, Maria Luisa; Ortiz, Luís T; Cañón, Javier; Dunner, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Inclusion of prebiotics in the diet is known to be advantageous, with positive influences both on health and growth. The current study investigated the differences in the hepatic transcriptome profiles between chickens supplemented with inulin (a storage carbohydrate found in many plants) and controls. Liver is a major metabolic organ and has been previously reported to be involved in the modification of the lipid metabolism in chickens fed with inulin. A nutrigenomic approach through the analysis of liver RNA hybridized to the Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Array identified 148 differentially expressed genes among both groups: 104 up-regulated (≥ 1.4-fold) and 44 down-regulated (≤ 0.6-fold). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for five out of seven genes tested. The functional annotation analyses revealed a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in chicken growth and performance, while reinforcing the immune status of animals, and fostering the production of long chain fatty acids in broilers supplemented with 5 g of inulin kg(-1) diet. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study on the effect of dietary inulin supplementation, supporting further research on the use of this prebiotic on chicken diets as a useful alternative to antibiotics for improving performance and general immunity in poultry farming, along with a healthier meat lipid profile.

  17. Effect of daily lithium chloride administration on bone mass and strength in growing broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Harvey, B M; Eschbach, M; Glynn, E A; Kotha, S; Darre, M; Adams, D J; Ramanathan, R; Mancini, R; Govoni, K E

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of oral lithium chloride supplementation on bone strength and mass in broiler chickens. Ninety-six broilers were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups (lithium chloride or control; n=48/treatment). Beginning at 1 or 3 wk of age, chickens were administered lithium chloride (20 mg/kg body weight) or water daily by oral gavage. At 6 wk of age, chickens were euthanized and bone and muscle samples were collected. A 24 h lithium chloride (20 mg/kg body weight) challenge determined that serum lithium chloride increased within 2 h and cleared the system within 24 h, demonstrating the effective delivery of lithium chloride. Treatment did not influence body weight (P≥0.20) or feed intake (P≥0.81), demonstrating that lithium chloride did not negatively affect broiler growth. To determine bone strength, 3-point bending was performed on the femora and tibiae obtained from control and lithium chloride-treated birds in the 1 wk group. Lithium chloride-treated birds had a 22% reduction in stiffness compared with control in the femora (P=0.02) without a corresponding reduction in elastic modulus. No differences were observed in yield or ultimate load and in the corresponding calculations of stresses (P≥0.26). The toughness of tibiae was not altered in lithium chloride compared with control (P=0.11). Bone length and micro-CT imaging were performed on the tibiae of control and lithium chloride groups. No differences (P≥0.52) in bone length, cortical or trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, number, or spacing were observed. Lithium chloride treatment did not affect pectoralis muscle color or lipid oxidation (P>0.05). In conclusion, lithium chloride treatment in broilers did not negatively affect growth or meat quality. A reduction in bone stiffness of the femur with lithium chloride treatment was observed, however unlike the mouse model, the dosages of lithium chloride used in the current study did not result in anabolic effects

  18. Splitting the scotoperiod: effects on feeding behaviour, intestinal fill and digestive transit time in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Duve, L R; Steenfeldt, S; Thodberg, K; Nielsen, B L

    2011-02-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate how splitting the dark period (scotoperiod) affects feeding behaviour and associated intestinal measures in broilers. 2. Ross 308 broilers were reared to 37 d in groups given either a daily 8-h continuous scotoperiod (DARK 8) or an intermittent light schedule with two equally spaced 4-h scotoperiods (DARK 4 + 4), which yielded the same total duration of darkness per 24 h. 3. Feeding behaviour was recorded weekly from 24-h video recordings of 24 groups each of 64 birds. Empty intestinal weights as well as their contents were measured weekly at 4 time points (n = 192). Digestive transit time was estimated on d 29 using a chromic oxide marker; production variables and the extent of foot pad dermatitis were also recorded. 4. In the 3 h prior to a scotoperiod, feeding activity increased in chickens from DARK 8 but not DARK 4 + 4. This increase was reflected in a higher relative content of the crop in DARK 8 at this time. 5. Immediately following the scotoperiod, feeding activity peaked and, although the chickens in DARK 4 + 4 expressed more feeding behaviour in the first 20 min after the scotoperiod, the chickens in DARK 8 had overall higher feeding activity across the day. However, DARK 4 + 4 had a higher feed intake and weight gain. The occurrence and severity of foot pad dermatitis was similar between treatments. 6. In conclusion, broilers modify their feeding behaviour according to the prevailing light schedule. Eight consecutive hours of darkness reduced growth, but did not affect overall feed conversion efficiency, and did not appear to exacerbate hunger or foot pad dermatitis to any great extent.

  19. Effects of feeding diets contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on blood biochemical parameters of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Faixová, Zita; Faix, Stefan; Borutová, Radka; Leng, Lubomír

    2010-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) on some biochemical indices of broiler chickens. Twenty-four Ross 308 hybrid broiler chickens of both sexes were fed diets containing maize contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins. The diets included a control diet (DON 0.60 mg/kg feed; ZEA 0.07 mg/kg feed), an experimental 1 diet (DON 3.4 mg kg⁻¹ feed; ZEA 3.4 mg kg⁻¹ feed), and an experimental 2 diet (DON 8.2 mg kg⁻¹ feed; ZEA 8.3 mg kg⁻¹ feed). Contaminated diets were fed from 14 days of age for 14 days. Blood samples were collected from 4-week-old birds. Chicks fed a diet containing a low level of contaminated maize (experimental 1) had decreased plasma potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, total protein, albumin, triglycerides, free glycerol concentrations and increased cholesterol and calcium levels as well as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzyme activities as compared to the control. Feeding a diet contaminated with high levels of mycotoxins (experimental 2) resulted in decreased plasma potassium, magnesium, total protein, albumin, triglycerides, free glycerol concentrations and increased plasma ALP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and AST enzyme activities. The effect of mycotoxin-contaminated diets on ALP activity was dose dependent. Chloride concentration was not affected by the diets. It can be concluded that feeding diets contaminated with both levels of Fusarium mycotoxins significantly affected protein, lipid and mineral metabolism as well as AST and ALP enzyme activities in broiler chickens.

  20. Exploring the in vivo digestion of plant proteins in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sabboh-Jourdan, H.; Narcy, A.; Lessire, M.; Harichaux, G.; Labas, V.; Duclos, M.J.; Réhault-Godbert, S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The use of various protein sources (industry by-products, proteaginous) in poultry diets requires a greater understanding of protein digestion mechanisms. The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular actors required for protein digestion in broilers fed 4 different diets containing soybean meal, rapeseed meal, pea, or corn distiller's dried grain with solubles as the only protein source. The digesta of the digestive tract segments were collected and soluble proteins were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. SDS-PAGE analyses revealed 5 ubiquitous bands in digesta of all digestive tract segments regardless of the diet, whereas 3 bands were diet-specific. The digesta of the jejunum were further submitted to proteomic analysis. Forty-two proteins of chicken origin and 17 plant proteins were identified in digesta samples by mass spectrometry. Fifteen proteins of chicken origin were specific to one diet and 18 were common to all diets. By homology with mammals, these proteins are thought to be involved in protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and nucleic acid metabolism and also in intestinal homeostasis. Some of the 17 plant proteins were found to be not fully digested (soybean meal, rapeseed meal, and pea diets) and others were identified as protease inhibitors (soybean meal and pea diets). This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the physiological proteins involved in the digestion of 4 protein sources used in broiler diets. Such an approach, combined with the analysis of insoluble components of these different protein sources, would contribute to define whether these protein sources could be more largely used in poultry nutrition. It also would allow identifying ways to improve their digestibility in broiler chickens (feed additives such as exogenous proteases or processing to inactivate anti-nutritional factors, for instance). PMID:28339732

  1. Effects of high dietary fluorine on erythrocytes and erythrocyte immune adherence function in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yubing; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Luo, Qin

    2013-11-01

    Fluoride can exert toxic effects on soft tissues, giving rise to a broad array of symptoms and pathological changes. The aim of this study was to investigate on erythrocytes and erythrocyte immune adherence function in broiler chickens fed with high fluorine (F) diets by measuring the total erythrocyte count (TEC), the contents of hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volumn (PCV), erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF), erythrocyte C3b receptor rosette rate (E-C3bRR), and erythrocyte immune complex rosette rate (E-ICRR). A total of 280 1-day-old healthy avian broiler chickens were randomly allotted into four equal groups of 70 birds each and fed with a corn-soybean basal diet containing 22.6 mg F/kg (control group) or same basal diets supplemented with 400, 800, and 1,200 mg F/kg (high F groups I, II, and III) in the form of sodium fluoride for 42 days. Blood samples were collected for the abovementioned parameters analysis at 14, 28, and 42 days of age during the experiment. The experimental results indicated that TEC, Hb, and PCV were significantly lower (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01), and EOF was higher (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in the high F groups II and III than that in the control group from 14 to 42 days of age. The E-C3bRR was significantly decreased (p < 0.01) in the three high F groups, whereas the E-ICRR was markedly increased (p < 0.01) in the high F groups II and III from 14 to 42 days of age. It was concluded that dietary F in the range of 800 to 1, 200 mg/kg could significantly cause anemia and impair the integrity of erythrocyte membrane, the transport capacity of oxygen and carbon dioxide, and erythrocyte immune adherence function in broiler chickens.

  2. Effects of glyceryl polyethylene glycol ricinoleate on nutrient utilisation and performance of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Sebastian Andrzej; Bochenek, Maciej; Samuelsson, Anne-Cathrine; Rutkowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    A completely randomised design study with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement was conducted to observe effects of an emulsifier (glyceryl polyethylene glycol ricinoleate (GPR)) on nutrient utilisation and performance of broiler chickens. A total of 384 male broiler chickens were used to determine the influence of GPR (without addition or added at 0.04% of diet) and two levels of apparent metabolisable energy (AMEN) (according to standard requirements (Diets SE) or energy reduced by 0.4 MJ/kg diet (Diets LE)) on birds' performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD). ATTD of ether extract (EE) and AMEN were measured on d 14 and 35, and ATTD of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) was measured on d 35. All diets were based on wheat-maize-soybean meal with rapeseed oil and lard (blend of 50:50) as fat sources. During the grower period and the whole trial, birds fed Diets supplemented with GPR were characterised by higher body weight gain (BWG) and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to chicken receiving diets without GPR (p < 0.05). At the end of experiment, birds fed Diet LE without GPR were characterised by lower BWG and higher FCR (p < 0.05). Supplementation with GPR caused a higher ATTD of EE for diets SE and LE at d 14 and 35 (p < 0.05). Moreover, the GPR addition to Diet LE improved ATTD of NDF at d 35 (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the findings suggest that GPR effects the digestion of a blend of animal fat/rapeseed oil positively, even in a practical maize-wheat-based broiler diet with decreased AMEN level.

  3. In vitro and in vivo susceptibility of Salmonella spp. isolated from broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar Malidareh, Naser; Firouzi, Sobhan; Ranjbar Malidareh, Neda; Habibi, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Salmonellosis is the most important zoonotic disease, causing diarrhea and systemic infections. Due to poor management in antibiotic consumption, microbial resistance has increased in the treatment of zoonotic diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella spp. isolated from day-old broiler chickens which were referred to a private laboratory in Mazandaran-a province in the north of Iran-from 2008 to 2010. After harvesting the samples from the yolk sac, liver, and intestine of chickens, intestinal samples were transferred to selenite F and then incubated at 43 °C for 12-16 h. A loopful from selenite F and samples of liver and yolk sac were streaked on XLD and S.S agars. After incubation, the suspected colonies were inoculated into TSI agar for biochemical confirmation. The disk diffusion method on Muller Hinton agar was used to determine the susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Because of the predominant use of enrofloxacin, sulfadiazine + trimethoprim, and flumequine for controlling Salmonella and Escherichia coli infections in the first week of broilers brooding in Iran, these three antibiotics were used in the in vivo study. From day 2 and continuing for 4 days, antibiotics were administrated in water, and after 10 days, samples from the liver, heart, and intestine were taken for isolation of Salmonella. In antimicrobial resistant tests, the most susceptible antibiotics were chloramphenicol, cefotaxime, and sulfadiazine + trimethoprim. The antimicrobial resistance to enrofloxacin, flumequine, colistin, and neomycin were 6.6, 11.6, 21.6, and 33.3 %, respectively. The results showed that 12 parties of broiler chickens were infected with paratyphoid salmonellae and the in vivo study showed that enrofloxacin and sulfadiazine + trimethoprim had the best and the weakest performance, respectively.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chickens and humans

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Tricia D; McLaughlin, Wayne; Brown, Paul D

    2006-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial usage is considered the most important factor promoting the emergence, selection and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms in both veterinary and human medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic basis of tetracycline resistance in faecal Escherichia coli isolates from healthy broiler chickens and compare these data with isolates obtained from hospitalized patients in Jamaica. Results Eighty-two E. coli strains isolated from faecal samples of broiler chickens and urine and wound specimens of hospitalized patients were analyzed by agar disc diffusion to determine their susceptibility patterns to 11 antimicrobial agents. Tetracycline resistance determinants were investigated by plasmid profiling, transformations, and amplification of plasmid-borne resistance genes. Tetracycline resistance occurred at a frequency of 82.4% in avian isolates compared to 43.8% in human isolates. In addition, among avian isolates there was a trend towards higher resistance frequencies to kanamycin and nalidixic acid (p < 0.05), while a greater percentage of human isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol and gentamicin (p < 0.05). Multiple drug resistance was found in isolates from both sources and was usually associated with tetracycline resistance. Tetracycline-resistant isolates from both avian and human sources contained one or several plasmids, which were transmissible by transformation of chemically-competent E. coli. Tetracycline resistance was mediated by efflux genes tetB and/or tetD. Conclusion The present study highlights the prevalence of multiple drug resistant E. coli among healthy broiler chickens in Jamaica, possibly associated with expression of tetracycline resistance. While there did not appear to be a common source for multiple drug resistance in the strains from avian or human origin, the genes encoding resistance are similar. These results suggest that genes are disseminated in the

  5. Chicken embryo origin-like strains are responsible for Infectious laryngotracheitis virus outbreaks in Egyptian cross-bred broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Awad A; Halami, Mohammad Y; Sultan, Hesham H; Abd El-Razik, Alaa G; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W

    2013-06-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) continues to cause respiratory disease in Egypt in spite of vaccination. The currently available modified live ILTV vaccines provide good protection but may also induce latent infections and even clinical disease if they spread extensively from bird-to-bird in the field. Four field ILTV isolates, designated ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Giza2007, ILT-Behera2009, and ILT-Behera2010 were isolated from cross-bred broiler chickens. The pathogenicity based on intratracheal pathogenicity index, tracheal lesion score, and mortality index for chicken embryos revealed that ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Behera2009 and ILT-Behera2010 isolates were highly pathogenic whereas ILT-Giza2007 was non-pathogenic. To study the molecular epidemiology of these field isolates, the infected cell protein 4 gene was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Behera2009, and ILT-Behera2010 are chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccine-related isolates while ILT-Giza2007 is a tissue culture origin vaccine-related isolate. These results suggest that CEO laryngotracheitis vaccine viruses could increase in virulence after bird-to-bird passages causing severe outbreaks in susceptible birds.

  6. Forsythia suspensa Extract Has the Potential to Substitute Antibiotic in Broiler Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Han, X.; Piao, X. S.; Zhang, H. Y.; Li, P. F.; Yi, J. Q.; Zhang, Q.; Li, P.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the potential for Forsythia suspensa extract (FSE) to substitute for antibiotic in broiler chicken. First, a well-diffusion assay procedure and a 2-fold dilution method were used to determine the bacteriostatic activity of FSE on Escherichia coli K88, staphylococcus aureus, and salmonella was assayed. An inhibitory effect of FSE was observed on the growth of these bacteria. This effect seems to be dose depended, which disappeared after 25.00, 12.50, 1.56 mg/ml. Second, a 42-d trial with 252 broiler chickens (d 1, 38.7±1.1 g BW) was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of FSE in broiler chicken. The feeding program consisted of a starter diet from d 1 to 21 and a finisher diet from d 22 to 42. Dietary treatments included were: i) NC: negative control fed a corn-soybean meal based diet; ii) PC: positive control group fed based diet with chlortetracycline; and iii) FC: a test group fed with 100 mg FSE/kg diet. In this study growth performance did not differ among treatments during the starter period. However, dietary supplemental chlortetracycline and FSE increased (p<0.05) average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) compared with NC during the finisher and overall phase. Apparent digestibility of calcium on d 21, digestibility of energy and calcium on d 42 of FC was greater (p<0.05) than NC. Moreover, cecal Escherichia coli counts for birds from FC were lower (p<0.05) than NC. Dietary FSE supplementation also improved (p<0.05) villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratios in both duodenum and ileum and decreased (p<0.05) crypt depth in the duodenum. Duodenum villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio in both duodenum and ileum from the FC group were also greater (p<0.05). Serum growth hormone and IGF-1 were not influenced by different treatments. Apparently, FSE has the potential to substitute for antibiotic in broiler chicken. PMID:25049598

  7. Alternatives to Antibiotics to Prevent Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens: A Microbiologist's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Caly, Delphine L.; D'Inca, Romain; Auclair, Eric; Drider, Djamel

    2015-01-01

    Since the 2006 European ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed, numerous studies have been published describing alternative strategies to prevent diseases in animals. A particular focus has been on prevention of necrotic enteritis in poultry caused by Clostridium perfringens by the use of microbes or microbe-derived products. Microbes produce a plethora of molecules with antimicrobial properties and they can also have beneficial effects through interactions with their host. Here we review recent developments in novel preventive treatments against C. perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens that employ yeasts, bacteria and bacteriophages or secondary metabolites and other microbial products in disease control. PMID:26648920

  8. [Avian Escherichia coli virulence factors associated with coli septicemia in broiler chickens].

    PubMed

    Ramirez Santoyo, R M; Moreno Sala, A; Almanza Marquez, Y

    2001-01-01

    In order to detect phenotypic characteristics associated with pathogenicity, 25 strains of Escherichia coli, isolated from clinical cases of colisepticemia in broiler chickens, were examined to determine the following properties: colicinogenicity, colicin V production, type 1 fimbriae, hemolysin expression and motility. Colicinogenicity occurred in 72% of the strains, 56% of all strains produced colicin V, 84% were positive for type 1 fimbriae and 80% were positive for motility. None of the strains had hemolytic activity; however, all of them, expressed at least one of the other characteristics studied. These results suggest that the diversity of phenotypes detected partially explain the multifactorial nature of avian colisepticemia.

  9. Effect of poultry by-product meal on pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular failure and ascites in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Richard J.; Caston, Linda J.; Mirsalimi, S. Medhi; Leeson, Steve

    1992-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that poultry by-product meal would produce a thermogenic response (an increased requirement for oxygen) resulting in an increased incidence of pulmonary hypertension with right ventricular failure and ascites in commercial broiler chickens. Four treatment groups, each with three replicates of 40 chicks, were fed a commercial broiler starter to day 21, grower to day 35, and the following experimental diets after day 35: group 1, commercial chicken broiler finisher; group 2, commercial chicken broiler finisher with poultry by-product meal added to replace part of the soyabean meal; group 3, commercial chicken broiler finisher with poultry fat added to replace the animal-vegetable (AV) fat; group 4, commercial chicken broiler finisher with both poultry by-product meal and poultry fat added to replace soyabean meal and AV fat. On day 35, pen temperature was reduced to 15°C, and on day 42 to 12°C. Mortality from ascites between days 35 and 56 was 11(9%) in group 2, 5(4%) in group 4 and 3(2.5%) in groups 1 and 3 The incidence of pulmonary hypertension, as measured by an increased right ventricle: total ventricle (RV:TV) ratio (RV:TV > 0.249) at processing on day 57, was higher in the groups receiving poultry by-product and poultry fat: 27(22.5%) in group 2, 26(21.7%) in group 3, and 20(16.7%) in group 4 compared to that of the controls 12(10%). PMID:17424018

  10. Individual and combined effects of aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Huff, W E; Kubena, L F; Harvey, R B; Hagler, W M; Swanson, S P; Phillips, T D; Creger, C R

    1986-07-01

    The individual and combined effects of aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol (DON) were evaluated in young broiler chickens (Hubbard X Hubbard). The experimental design was a 2 X 2 factorial with treatments of 0 and 2.5 micrograms of aflatoxin/g of feed (ppm) and 0 and 16 micrograms of DON/g of feed. The broilers were maintained on these dietary treatments from hatching to 3 weeks of age in electrically heated batteries with feed and water available ad libitum. The aflatoxin treatment significantly (P less than .05) decreased body weight; weight gain; increased the relative weight of the spleen, liver, and kidney; induced hepatic hyperlipemia; decreased activity of lactic dehydrogenase; and decreased serum levels of protein, albumin, and phosphorus. The toxicity of DON was expressed through reduced growth rate, increased feed conversion; increased relative weight of the gizzard, anemia, decreased activity of lactic dehydrogenase, and decreased serum triglycerides. The interaction between aflatoxin and DON was characterized by reduced growth rates; increased feed conversion, increased relative weight of the proventriculus, gizzard, spleen, liver, and kidney, anemia, hepatic hyperlipemia, decreased activity of alkaline phosphatase, glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, and lactic dehydrogenase, and decreased serum levels of protein, albumin, uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides, and calcium. These data demonstrate that both aflatoxin and DON can limit broiler performance and adversely effect broiler health. The effects of the combination of aflatoxin and DON on broiler performance and health was more severe than the individual effects of these mycotoxins; however, the interaction was not severe enough to represent toxic synergy and can best be characterized as additive toxicity.

  11. The influence of the season and market class of broiler chickens on breast meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, M; Petracci, M; Sirri, F; Folegatti, E; Franchini, A; Meluzzi, A

    2007-05-01

    The influence of the season and market class of broiler chickens on breast meat quality traits was determined on a total of 18 flocks reared and processed under commercial conditions. According to the Italian poultry production system the following classes of birds were considered: light size (1.2 kg of carcass weight; n = 90) and medium size (1.8 kg of carcass weight; n = 90), represented by females slaughtered at 40 and 52 d old, respectively, whereas heavy size were 57-d-old male broilers (2.4 kg of carcass weight; n = 90). After slaughter, 15 carcasses per flock (n = 270) were randomly collected during winter (n = 135) and summer (n = 135) seasons and used at 24 h postmortem to determine breast (pectoralis major) meat color (lightness, redness, and yellowness), pH, drip and cook loss, as well as Allo-Kramer (AK) shear values. Furthermore, pectoralis minor muscles were used to determine lipid, protein, moisture, and ash content. Finally, because the flocks included white- and yellow-skinned broilers, the color of the carcass skin was measured to assess the relationship between skin and raw breast meat color. With regard to the season, breast meat from birds slaughtered during summer exhibited a paler and less red color, lower pH, higher drip and cook losses, lower AK-shear, and a higher content of moisture and a lower content of protein and ash. In respect to medium and heavy birds, light broilers produced breast meat with higher values of redness, lower pH and cook loss, higher AK-shear values, and a higher content of moisture and ash. Finally, a positive correlation (r = +0.92; P < or = 0.001) between skin and breast meat yellowness was found. These results indicate that during summer, broiler breast meat undergoes a depression of its functionality and quality. Moreover, the market class of birds also determined some differences in breast meat quality attributes.

  12. Effect of heating system using a geothermal heat pump on the production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Choi, H C; Salim, H M; Akter, N; Na, J C; Kang, H K; Kim, M J; Kim, D W; Bang, H T; Chae, H S; Suh, O S

    2012-02-01

    A geothermal heat pump (GHP) is a potential heat source for the economic heating of broiler houses with optimum production performance. An investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of a heating system using a GHP on production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens. A comparative analysis was also performed between the GHP system and a conventional heating system that used diesel for fuel. In total, 34,000 one-day-old straight run broiler chicks were assigned to 2 broiler houses with 5 replicates in each (3,400 birds/replicate pen) for 35 d. Oxygen(,) CO(2), and NH(3) concentrations in the broiler house, energy consumption and cost of heating, and production performance of broilers were evaluated. Results showed that the final BW gain significantly (P < 0.05) increased when chicks were reared in the GHP broiler house compared with that of chicks reared in the conventional broiler house (1.73 vs. 1.62 kg/bird). The heating system did not affect the mortality of chicks during the first 4 wk of the experimental period, but the mortality markedly increased in the conventional broiler house during the last wk of the experiment. Oxygen content in the broiler house during the experimental period was not affected by the heating system, but the CO(2) and NH(3) contents significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the conventional broiler house compared with those in the GHP house. Fuel consumption was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) and electricity consumption significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the GHP house compared with the consumption in the conventional house during the experiment. The total energy cost of heating the GHP house was significantly lower (P < 0.05) compared with that of the conventional house. It is concluded that a GHP system could increase the production performance of broiler chicks due to increased inside air quality of the broiler house. The GHP system had lower CO(2) and NH(3) emissions with lower energy cost than the

  13. Histopathology and serum clinical chemistry evaluation of broilers with femoral head separation disorder

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Femoral head disarticulation (FHD) and necrosis is a sporadic leg problem of unknown etiology in broiler breeders. To determine the underlying physiology of FHD, the blood chemistry and the histopathology of the femoral heads of the affected chickens were compared with their age matched controls. Ch...

  14. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Zhu; Lamont, Susan J; Lee, William R; Abasht, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE) are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE) chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE) commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample) in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE) at q (False Discover Rate) < 0.05 and fold change > 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01) enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences.

  15. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Zhu; Lamont, Susan J.; Lee, William R.; Abasht, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE) are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE) chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE) commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample) in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE) at q (False Discover Rate) < 0.05 and fold change > 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01) enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences. PMID:26295149

  16. Effect of vitamins, probiotics and protein level on semen traits and seminal plasma biochemical parameters of post-moult male broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Khan, R U; Rahman, Z U; Javed, I; Muhammad, F

    2013-01-01

    1. A study was designed to investigate the comparative effect of supplementary vitamin E, vitamin C, probiotics and dietary crude protein concentration on semen traits and seminal plasma biochemical parameters in male broiler breeders after Zn-induced moulting. 2. A total of 180 male broiler breeders were induced to moult at 65 weeks of age by mixing ZnO in diet at the rate 3000 mg/kg of feed. After moulting, the males were divided into six groups that were given feed supplemented with: vitamin C (500 IU/kg), vitamin E (100 IU/kg), protein (140 g CP/kg), probiotics (50 mg/kg) and the combination of these components, while one group was kept as a control. Semen samples were collected weekly and semen volume, spermatozoa concentration, motility and dead spermatozoa percentage were determined. Seminal plasma was separated to determine the concentration of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), homocysteine, paraoxonase (PON1), arylesterase, ceruloplasmin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities. 3. Semen volume was significantly higher in the vitamin E and C groups compared to the control. Spermatozoa motility was higher in the vitamin E group and dead spermatozoa percentage was significantly lower in the vitamin C group compared with the control group. 4. Seminal plasma TAC was higher in the vitamin E group, homocysteine was lower in the vitamin C and E groups. PON1 was higher in the combination group. Arylesterase increased significantly in the vitamin C and combination groups over time. Seminal plasma AST was significantly lower in the vitamin C and E supplemented groups whereas ALT decreased significantly only in the vitamin E group compared with the control. Higher concentrations of ceruloplasmin were observed in the combination group compared with the other treatments. 5. It was concluded that additional vitamin E and C or their combination was the most potent nutrient treatment for improving the semen traits and

  17. Body composition and reproductive performance at entry into lay of anno 1980 versus anno 2000 broiler breeder females under fast and slow release from feed restriction.

    PubMed

    Eitan, Y; Lipkin, Ehud; Soller, M

    2014-05-01

    During the 1990s, various disturbances arose affecting broiler breeder females at entry into lay. These disturbances were associated with even slight overfeeding during release of feed restriction in this critical maturation period. The present experiment was carried out to gain some insight into the causes of these disturbances by comparing the effect of fast (FF) and slow (SF) release from feed restriction at entry into lay in 2 broiler breeder populations: B1980, representing the genetic level of 1980, and B2000, the genetic level of 2000. Under the FF treatment, B1980 entered lay 19.2 d earlier than B2000; this increased to 37.4 d earlier under SF. The B1980 population entered lay at virtually the same mean age for SF and FF, whereas B2000 entered lay 15.7 d earlier under the FF. Body weight at first egg were 2,621 g for the B1980 and 3,591 g for B2000. Differences in BW at first egg between feeding treatments within lines were minor. As a percentage of BW, ovary, oviduct, and follicle weights were the same for B1980 and B2000; breast weight was 14.9% for B1980 and 21.2% for B2000; abdominal fat pad weight was 5.37% for B1980 and 2.67% for B2000. Follicle weight and absolute difference in weight between successive follicles was greater in B2000 than in B1980. It is concluded that body fat content does not limit entry into lay, and that threshold BW for onset of sexual maturity of broiler breeder hens increased by about 1,000 g between 1980 and 2000, indicating a tight association between juvenile growth rate and threshold BW for onset of sexual maturity. It is also concluded that disturbances at entry into lay due to overfeeding are not due to smaller differences between successive follicles in B2000 compared with B1980. There are hints, however, that overfeeding may contribute to these disturbances by decreasing differences between successive follicles.

  18. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Alters Oxidative Stability and Alleviates Plasma Cholesterol Content in Meat of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kumari Ramiah, Suriya; Meng, Goh Yong

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on fatty acid composition, lipoprotein content, lipid peroxidation, and meat colour of broiler chickens. A total of 180 broiler chickens were allocated to 3 dietary treatments (0, 2.5, and 5% Lutrell) and given a standard broiler starter diet and finisher diet. Body weight of chickens and feed intake were recorded weekly. After slaughter, the breast meat was aged at 4°C for 0, 3, and 6 days. The fatty acid composition was measured in the breast meat. Body weight (BW) and feed efficiency were decreased by dietary CLA level (P < 0.05). Chicken fed with 2.5% Lutrell had the highest feed intake compared to the control (CON) group. The total CLA increased significantly (P < 0.05) in breast meat from birds supplemented with CLA. Propensity for lipid peroxidation was significantly higher after 6 days of meat storage (P < 0.05) and the redness in chicken breast meat was lower in CLA-fed birds (P < 0.05). It is also notable that a 5% Lutrell supplementation decreased the plasma total cholesterol (TC), low density protein (LDL), and HDL (high-density lipoprotein)/LDL ratio in chickens (P < 0.05). PMID:25386625

  19. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid alters oxidative stability and alleviates plasma cholesterol content in meat of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kumari Ramiah, Suriya; Meng, Goh Yong; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on fatty acid composition, lipoprotein content, lipid peroxidation, and meat colour of broiler chickens. A total of 180 broiler chickens were allocated to 3 dietary treatments (0, 2.5, and 5% Lutrell) and given a standard broiler starter diet and finisher diet. Body weight of chickens and feed intake were recorded weekly. After slaughter, the breast meat was aged at 4 °C for 0, 3, and 6 days. The fatty acid composition was measured in the breast meat. Body weight (BW) and feed efficiency were decreased by dietary CLA level (P < 0.05). Chicken fed with 2.5% Lutrell had the highest feed intake compared to the control (CON) group. The total CLA increased significantly (P < 0.05) in breast meat from birds supplemented with CLA. Propensity for lipid peroxidation was significantly higher after 6 days of meat storage (P < 0.05) and the redness in chicken breast meat was lower in CLA-fed birds (P < 0.05). It is also notable that a 5% Lutrell supplementation decreased the plasma total cholesterol (TC), low density protein (LDL), and HDL (high-density lipoprotein)/LDL ratio in chickens (P < 0.05).

  20. Oyster Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Higher Basidiomycetes), Growth in Grain-Based Diet Improves Broiler Chicken Production.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mateus P; Marcante, Rafael C; Santana, Thiago T; Tanaka, Henrique S; Funari, Pascoal; Alberton, Luiz R; Faria, Eliete V; Valle, Juliana S; Colauto, Nelson B; Linde, Giani A

    2015-01-01

    Many alternative compounds have been tested to improve poultry performance but few of them have previously used mycelial-colonized substrate to partially replace standard diet in broiler chickens. The objective of this study was to evaluate broiler chicken production, health, and meat sensory characteristics, with partial replacement of the standard diet by Pleurotus ostreatus-colonized substrate. One hundred fifty 1-day-old male Cobb chicks were given standard diet partially replaced by 0, 5, 10, 100, or 200 g·kg⁻¹ of P. ostreatus-colonized substrate and randomly distributed into five treatments. Each treatment had three replicates, with 10 birds per replicate, totaling 30 birds. The replacement of the standard diet by 10 g·kg⁻¹ of colonized substrate increased (P≤0.05) chicken body mass up to 57% at 21 days, and up to 28% at 42 days. In general, partial replacement of standard diet by colonized substrate increased hematocrits and typical lymphocytes, and reduced low density lipoproteins. Also, it reduced chicken production period up to 21% and there is no meat taste alteration. The use of P. ostreatus-colonized substrate in chicken feeding is an alternative method to improve broiler chicken production.

  1. Comparison of Quality Traits of Meat from Korean Native Chickens and Broilers Used in Two Different Traditional Korean Cuisines

    PubMed Central

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Bae, Young Sik; Yong, Hae In; Lee, Jun Heon; Kim, Jong Geun; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    With the aim of investigating the differences in the quality traits between Korean native chicken (Hanhyup, KNC) and broilers commonly used in two different traditional Korean cuisines, the chemical composition and sensory properties of breast and thigh meat from the two chicken strains were assessed. KNC for baeksuk (chicken meat braised in soup with various Oriental medicinal plants; KNL), KNC for samgyetang (similar to baeksuk but young chickens and ginseng are used; KNS), broiler for baeksuk (BL), and broiler for samgyetang (BS) were used as treatments in this study. KNL and KNS contained higher protein but lower fat content than BL and BS. The L* values of breast and thigh meat, but not the a* values, were significantly different between KNS and BS, whereas significant differences in both values were observed between KNL and BL. Compared to the other three types of chickens, KNS contained the highest total and insoluble collagen content, and KNL and BL showed higher inosine-5’-monophosphate content in their meat. Overall, KNL and KNS contributed darker, less tender meat with higher protein and less fat content together with more n-3 fatty acids, as opposed to their counterparts used for the same cuisines. Based on the results of the sensory analysis, even though there are some differences in physiochemical traits, different chicken sources do not differ in overall sensory quality. This information can help consumers to understand better the meat available for their preferred traditional cuisines. PMID:25049883

  2. Bone response of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) induced by corticosterone.

    PubMed

    Luo, J W; Zhou, Z L; Zhang, H; Ma, R S; Hou, J F

    2013-02-01

    Experiments were conducted with chickens exposed to corticosterone (CORT), with the aim of determining its effects on bone characteristics. At 7 d of age, the experimental birds were injected daily with CORT (4 mg/kg of body mass) for 1 week. CORT administration significantly decreased the body weight while increasing relative liver weight of the chickens and the bone parameters were also decreased. Histology and immunohistochemistry of type X collagen revealed that CORT reduced the lengths of proliferative and prehypertrophic zone in growth plate and the number of positive chondrocytes in the prehypertrophic zone. In conclusion exposure to CORT depressed the growth performance and retarded the longitudinal growth of the long bones by inhibiting the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes in growth plate in broilers.

  3. Feasibility of screening broiler chicken flocks for risk markers as an aid for meat inspection.

    PubMed

    Lupo, C; Le Bouquin, S; Balaine, L; Michel, V; Peraste, J; Petetin, I; Colin, P; Chauvin, C

    2009-08-01

    The feasibility of using risk markers to screen broiler chicken flocks and anticipate their risk of condemnation at meat inspection was examined in 404 randomly selected flocks in 15 French slaughterhouses in 2005. Condemnation rate and information about rearing conditions, health history, catching and loading, transport and slaughtering were collected. The Poisson regression model of the condemnation rate consisted of six simple and biologically relevant predictors: production type, frequency of farmer's visits during the starting period, health disorders during rearing, on-farm mortality, mortality during transport, and slaughter-line speed. Although accurate prediction of the condemnation rate for a given flock was not feasible, flocks with low or high risk of condemnation could be distinguished. These findings could be useful at various stages of chicken production, to monitor and improve farm husbandry practices, minimize the impact of transport conditions, and optimize meat inspection procedures.

  4. Transcriptome analysis of the pectoral muscles of local chickens and commercial broilers using Ribo-Zero ribonucleic acid sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanhua; Li, Donghua; Han, Ruili; Wang, Yanbin; Li, Guoxi; Liu, Xiaojun; Tian, Yadong; Kang, Xiangtao; Li, Zhuanjian

    2017-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying meat quality and muscle growth are not clear. The meat quality and growth rates of local chickens and commercial broilers are very different. The Ribo-Zero RNA-Seq technology is an effective means of analyzing transcript groups to clarify molecular mechanisms. The aim of this study was to provide a reference for studies of the differences in the meat quality and growth of different breeds of chickens. Ribo-Zero RNA-Seq technology was used to analyze the pectoral muscle transcriptomes of Gushi chickens and AA broilers. Compared with AA broilers, 1649 genes with annotated information were significantly differentially expressed (736 upregulated and 913 downregulated) in Gushi chickens with Q≤0.05 (Q is the P-value corrected by multiple assumptions test) at a fold change ≥2 or ≤0.5. In addition, 2540 novel significantly differentially expressed (SDE) genes (1405 upregulated and 1135 downregulated) were discovered. The results showed that the main signal transduction pathways that differed between Gushi chickens and AA broilers were related to amino acid metabolism. Amino acids are important for protein synthesis, and they regulate key metabolic pathways to improve the growth, development and reproduction of organisms. This study showed that differentially expressed genes in the pectoral tissues of Gushi chickens and AA broilers were related to fat metabolism, which affects meat. Additionally, a large number of novel genes were found that may be involved in fat metabolism and thus may affect the formation of meat, which requires further study. The results of this study provide a reference for further studies of the molecular mechanisms of meat formation.

  5. A quantitative trait locus for ascites on chromosome 9 in broiler chicken lines

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Smith, Candace D.; Al-Rubaye, Adnan A.; Erf, Gisela F.; Wideman, Robert F.; Anthony, Nicholas B.; Rhoads, Douglas D.

    2014-01-01

    A genome-wide SNP survey was used to identify chromosomal regions that showed linkage disequilibrium with respect to ascites susceptibility and ventricular hypertrophy in an F2 cross between previously described ascites-resistant and -susceptible lines. Variable number tandem repeats were used to obtain genotype data to further characterize these regions. A region on chromosome 9 (12 to 13 Mbp in 2011 assembly) shows association with ascites in the ascites lines and in several commercial broiler breeder lines with a significant sex effect. There are 2 candidate genes, AGTR1 (an angiotensin II type 1 receptor) and UTS2D (urotensin 2 domain containing), in this region that have been associated with hypertension and hypoxic response in mammals. PMID:24570451

  6. Environmental impacts of French and Brazilian broiler chicken production scenarios: an LCA approach.

    PubMed

    Prudêncio da Silva, Vamilson; van der Werf, Hayo M G; Soares, Sebastião Roberto; Corson, Michael S

    2014-01-15

    This study compared the environmental burdens of two broiler chicken production systems in Brazil and two in France. One Brazilian system represents large-scale production in the Center-West region of the country; the other is a small-scale production in the South. One of the French systems represents an extensive broiler chicken production system, known as "Label Rouge"; the other is a standard system. Life-cycle impact assessments were performed using the CML-IA characterization method. The main functional unit adopted was 1 tonne of cooled and packaged chicken, ready for distribution. For the systems and impacts studied, production scale did not affect the environmental impact, but production intensity did. The extensive Label Rouge system had the largest impact among the impact categories studied. This resulted principally from the high feed-conversion ratio of this production system (3.1 kg of feed per kg of live weight) in conjunction with the fact that the feed-production stage contributed most to the overall impact. The contribution of deforestation to the crop-production stage was significant, particularly for climate change, equaling 19% of total emissions of CO2eq per tonne of cooled and packaged chicken, in the system of the Center-West of Brazil. The French systems were also affected, since they import crops from Brazil. The system of southern Brazil had less climate change impact because there is no longer deforestation in southern Brazil for crop production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exogenous administration of chronic corticosterone affects hepatic cholesterol metabolism in broiler chickens showing long or short tonic immobility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Duan, Yujing; Hu, Yun; Sun, Lili; Wang, Song; Fu, Wenyan; Ni, Yingdong; Zhao, Ruqian

    2016-01-01

    Tonic immobility (TI) is an innate characteristic of animals related to fear or stress response. Animals can be classified into long TI (LTI) and short TI (STI) phenotypes based on TI test duration. In this study, effect of TI phenotype, chronic corticosterone administration (CORT), and their interaction on cholesterol metabolism in liver was evaluated in broilers. LTI broilers showed higher level of cholesterol in liver compared to STI chickens (p<0.05), and CORT significantly increased hepatic cholesterol content (p<0.01). Real-time PCR results showed that both TI and CORT potentially altered ABCA1 and CYP7A1 gene expressions (0.05broilers showed higher level of HMGCR protein expression in liver than STI (p<0.05). These results indicate that chronic CORT administration causes hepatic cholesterol accumulation in broiler chickens mainly by enhancing cholesterol synthesis and uptake into liver. LTI chickens had higher amount of total cholesterol in liver, which might be associated with an increase of hepatic HMGCR protein expression. However, there is no interaction between TI and CORT on cholesterol metabolism in liver of broilers.

  8. Quality characteristics of broiler chicken meat from free-range and industrial poultry system for the consumers.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Débora Cristina Fernandes; de Arruda, Alex Martins Varela; Gonçalves, Alex Augusto

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare the quality parameters of broiler chicken meat from free-range and industrial poultry system. Proximate composition, color, pH, shear force, microbial quality and sensory characteristics were evaluated. Both free-range and industrial chicken meat presented PSE (pale, soft and exudative) anomaly (L* > 53). An inverse correlation between lightness, pH and shear force was observed. The free range broiler meat had higher yellow color (b* 11.56) and shear force (2.75 kgf) and lower red color (a* 1.65) and pH (5.75) in comparison to the industrial broiler meat, due intensive physical activity on growing phase and influence of the pre-slaughter stress on the rigor mortis. The thigh cut from free range broiler meat showed higher protein levels (18.00%), while to the thigh and drumstick cuts of industrial broiler meat showed higher total fat levels (3.4 and 5.0%, respectively). In general, each strain and chickens producing methods gave the peculiar characteristics to meat (chemical, physical, microbiological and sensorial).

  9. Use of high-density SNP data to identify patterns of diversity and signatures of selection in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Stainton, J J; Charlesworth, B; Haley, C S; Kranis, A; Watson, K; Wiener, P

    2017-04-01

    The development of broiler chickens over the last 70 years has been accompanied by large phenotypic changes, so that the resulting genomic signatures of selection should be detectable by current statistical techniques with sufficiently dense genetic markers. Using two approaches, this study analysed high-density SNP data from a broiler chicken line to detect low-diversity genomic regions characteristic of past selection. Seven regions with zero diversity were identified across the genome. Most of these were very small and did not contain many genes. In addition, fifteen regions were identified with diversity increasing asymptotically from a low level. These regions were larger and thus generally included more genes. Several candidate genes for broiler traits were found within these 'regression regions', including IGF1, GPD2 and MTNR1AI. The results suggest that the identification of zero-diversity regions is too restrictive for characterizing regions under selection, but that regions showing patterns of diversity along the chromosome that are consistent with selective sweeps contain a number of genes that are functional candidates for involvement in broiler development. Many regions identified in this study overlap or are close to regions identified in layer chicken populations, possibly due to their shared precommercialization history or to shared selection pressures between broilers and layers. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Campylobacter jejuni is not merely a commensal in commercial broiler chickens and affects bird welfare.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Suzanne; Chaloner, Gemma; Kemmett, Kirsty; Davidson, Nicola; Williams, Nicola; Kipar, Anja; Humphrey, Tom; Wigley, Paul

    2014-07-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial food-borne infection; chicken meat is its main source. C. jejuni is considered commensal in chickens based on experimental models unrepresentative of commercial production. Here we show that the paradigm of Campylobacter commensalism in the chicken is flawed. Through experimental infection of four commercial breeds of broiler chickens, we show that breed has a significant effect on C. jejuni infection and the immune response of the animals, although these factors have limited impact on the number of bacteria in chicken ceca. All breeds mounted an innate immune response. In some breeds, this response declined when interleukin-10 was expressed, consistent with regulation of the intestinal inflammatory response, and these birds remained healthy. In another breed, there was a prolonged inflammatory response, evidence of damage to gut mucosa, and diarrhea. We show that bird type has a major impact on infection biology of C. jejuni. In some breeds, infection leads to disease, and the bacterium cannot be considered a harmless commensal. These findings have implications for the welfare of chickens in commercial production where C. jejuni infection is a persistent problem. Importance: Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of food-borne bacterial diarrheal disease in the developed world. Chicken is the most common source of infection. C. jejuni infection of chickens had previously not been considered to cause disease, and it was thought that C. jejuni was part of the normal microbiota of birds. In this work, we show that modern rapidly growing chicken breeds used in intensive production systems have a strong inflammatory response to C. jejuni infection that can lead to diarrhea, which, in turn, leads to damage to the feet and legs on the birds due to standing on wet litter. The response and level of disease varied between breeds and is related to regulation of the inflammatory immune response. These findings

  11. Detection of Campylobacter on the outer surface of retail broiler chicken meat packages and on product within

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to compare prevalence of Campylobacter on the outside of broiler meat packages to the product inside the same packages. Chicken meat products were purchased at retail. Samples comprised whole carcasses and six different cut-up part products. Fifteen packages of eac...

  12. Growth performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition and blood serum metabolites of broiler chicken fed on diets containing flaxseed oil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, D C N; Xavier, E G; Santos, V L; Gonçalves, F M; Anciuti, M A; Roll, V F B; Del Pino, F A B; Feijó, J O; Catalan, A A S

    2013-01-01

    1. This study evaluated the effects of diets with partial and total substitution of soya bean oil (SO) with flaxseed (linseed) oil (FO) on broiler chicken performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition and blood serum metabolites. 2. A total of 448 one-d-old Cobb 500 broiler chicken were used. They were allotted among 4 treatments with 8 replications, using a completely randomised design, for 35 d. Four diets were compared: T1 = 100% SO (3%, 1-7 d; 4%, 8-21 d; and 5%, 22-35 d); T2 = 50% SO + 50% FO; T3 = 25% SO + 75% FO and T4 = 100% FO. 3. No significant differences were observed in body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and blood serum metabolites (total triglycerides, TRI; total cholesterol, CHO; high-density lipoprotein, HDL; low-density lipoprotein, LDL; glucose, GLU; albumin, ALB; globulin, GLO; and total proteins, TPs). Significant effects were observed for TRI, CHO, HDL, GLU, HDL, LDL, ALB and GLO with regard to the day of collection. 4. Carcass traits did not show significant differences for the treatments. No significant differences were observed for breast and drumstick chemical compositions, with the exception of drumstick fat concentration (quadratic effect). 5. In conclusion, the partial or total substitution of SO with FO did not affect growth performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition or blood serum profile in broiler chicken. Therefore, FO can be an alternative to SO in the diet formulation for broiler chicken.

  13. Supplemental dietary L-arginine attenuates intestinal mucosal disruption during a coccidial vaccine challenge in broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary arginine (Arg) supplementation on intestinal barrier integrity in broiler chickens undergoing coccidial challenge. The design of this study was a randomized complete block employing a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement (n = 8) with 3 level of Arg (1.11,...

  14. Comparison of live Eimeria vaccination with in-feed Salinomycin on growth and immune status in broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Coccidiosis vaccines and coccidiostat drugs are commonly used to control Eimeria infection during commercial poultry production. The present study was conducted to compare the relative effectiveness of these two disease control strategies in broiler chickens in an experimental research facility. B...

  15. Effect of varying light intensity on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study investigated effects of varying levels of light intensities (25, 10, 5, 2.5, and 0.2 lx) on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights. Four identical trials were conducted with two replications per trial. In each trial, 600 1-d-old Ross 308 ...

  16. Induction of Passive Immunity in Broiler Chickens Against Eimeria acervulina by Hyperimmune Egg Yolk IgY

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The protective effect of hyperimmune IgY fraction of egg yolk (SC) prepared from hens hyperimmunized with multiple species of Eimeria oocysts, on experimental coccidiosis was evaluated in young broilers. Chickens were continuously fed from hatch with a standard diet containing SC or a non-suppleme...

  17. Effects of various field coccidiosis control programs on host innate and adaptive immunity in commercial broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Coccidiosis control programs such as vaccines or in-feed anticoccidials are commonly practiced in poultry industry to improve growth performance and health of commercial broiler chickens. In this study, we assessed the effects of various coccidiosis control programs (e.g., in ovo vaccination, synth...

  18. Immune-modulatory effects of dietary Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall in broiler chickens inoculated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Morales-Lopez, R; Brufau, J

    2013-01-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to study the effect of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cell wall (YCW) supplemented in diets of broiler chickens challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). 2. One-day-old broiler chicks were randomly distributed into 24 cages (6 replicate cages; 8 birds/cage) and were inoculated with 0 or 1 mg/kg body weight E. coli-LPS (d 4 and 9) and 0 or 500 mg YCW/kg feed, resulting in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Experimental diets did not include coccidiostats, in-feed antibiotics or enzymes. 3. On d 21, the inoculation of E. coli-LPS reduced weight gain and feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) of birds, an effect maintained until 28 d. In contrast, chickens given diets with YCW improved the FCR at both 21 and 28 d of age. 4. E. coli-LPS challenge reduced the relative weight of bursa of Fabricius, except when chickens were given YCW, which resulted in an interaction. Supplementation of broiler diets with YCW exacerbated the cellular immune response as measured by the delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity response test. 5. The results of this study suggested a benefit on feed efficiency when YCW was added to diets fed to broiler chickens challenged with E. coli-LPS. Part of the mode of action of YCW might be related to better maintenance of immune status in response to microbial challenge.

  19. Effect of heat stress and drinking water salt supplements on plasma electrolytes and aldosterone concentration in broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deyhim, F.; Teeter, R. G.

    1995-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing drinking water with isomolar (0.067 mol/l) KCl or NaCl on mass gain, food and water consumption, rectal temperature, and plasma concentrations of aldosterone, Na+, and K+ in broiler chickens reared in thermoneutral and cycling heat stressing environments. Heat stress decreased ( P≤0.05) mass gain, food consumption, and plasma concentrations of Na+ and K+, while increases ( P≤0.05) in plasma concentrations of aldosterone, rectal temperature, and water consumption were observed. Drinking water supplemented with either KCl or NaCl increased ( P≤0.05) broiler mass gain and water consumption, but had no effect ( P>0.1) on the other variables evaluated. The results of this study indicate that broiler chickens in a heat stress environment are under osmotic stress and supplementing drinking water with 0.067 mol/1 KCl or NaCl does not lessen this stress.

  20. Intestinal Microbiota of Broiler Chickens As Affected by Litter Management Regimens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingling; Lilburn, Mike; Yu, Zhongtang

    2016-01-01

    Poultry litter is a mixture of bedding materials and enteric bacteria excreted by chickens, and it is typically reused for multiple growth cycles in commercial broiler production. Thus, bacteria can be transmitted from one growth cycle to the next via litter. However, it remains poorly understood how litter reuse affects development and composition of chicken gut microbiota. In this study, the effect of litter reuse on the microbiota in litter and in chicken gut was investigated using 2 litter management regimens: fresh vs. reused litter. Samples of ileal mucosa and cecal digesta were collected from young chicks (10 days of age) and mature birds (35 days of age). Based on analysis using DGGE and pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons, the microbiota of both the ileal mucosa and the cecal contents was affected by both litter management regimen and age of birds. Faecalibacterium, Oscillospira, Butyricicoccus, and one unclassified candidate genus closely related to Ruminococcus were most predominant in the cecal samples, while Lactobacillus was predominant in the ileal samples at both ages and in the cecal samples collected at day 10. At days 10 and 35, 8 and 3 genera, respectively, in the cecal luminal microbiota differed significantly in relative abundance between the 2 litter management regimens. Compared to the fresh litter, reused litter increased predominance of halotolerant/alkaliphilic bacteria and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a butyrate-producing gut bacterium. This study suggests that litter management regimens affect the chicken GI microbiota, which may impact the host nutritional status and intestinal health.

  1. Composition of diet modifies colonization dynamics of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Molnár, A; Hess, C; Pál, L; Wágner, L; Awad, W A; Husvéth, F; Hess, M; Dublecz, K

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of diet composition on colonization dynamics of Camp. jejuni and on related physiological parameters in the chicken intestine. A total of 54 1-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly divided into three isocaloric and isonitrogenous dietary groups: maize-based (MB), wheat-based (WB) diet and wheat-based diet with NSP-degrading enzyme supplementation (WBES). Chickens were orally infected with 10(8)  CFU Camp. jejuni on day 14, and samples (n = 6) were collected on 7, 14 and 21 days postinfection (DPI), respectively. Colony forming units of Camp. jejuni of caecum and jejunum, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations, pH values of the caecum, jejunal histomorphology and viscosity of jejunal chymus were measured. In case of WBES diet, lower Camp. jejuni colonization 14 DPI, higher jejunal viscosity, higher total SCFA concentrations in the caecum and enhanced jejunal histomorphology were observed compared to those measured in chickens fed MB diet. The WBES diet altered Camp. jejuni colonization dynamics in the chicken intestine which resulted by higher SCFA concentrations in the caecum and by the change of gut morphology. Our study proves that diet composition can modify Camp. jejuni colonization depending on sampling time point postinfection. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Incidence of Salmonella Contamination in Broiler Chickens in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, K.K.; O'Neil, J.B.; Prior, M.G.; Dunkelgod, K.E.

    1983-01-01

    The incidence of Salmonella contamination in ten Saskatchewan broiler flocks varying in size from 6 200 to 14 000 was investigated from February, 1977 to April, 1979. Prior to the initial chick placement, brooding equipment, feed, water and fresh litter samples were found to be free of Salmonellae. Samples obtained from the clean and disinfected processing plant equipment before the commencement of daily operation were negative except the isolation for Salmonella anatum from the fingers of the defeathering machine in flock 4. There was no evidence of Salmonella contamination in flocks 5, 6, 8 and 10. The incidence of Salmonella was lower when cloacal swabs were taken from day old chicks fasted for 48 hours than for the same groups of chicks when carcasses were blended in nutrient broth (flocks 7 and 9). The blending of such chicks appears to be a more critical test. The serotypes isolated from eviscerated birds were the same as those isolated from used litter samples. Salmonella saintpaul was isolated from a water sample at 53 days in flock 1 and the same serotype was recovered from the intestinal contents and skin of eviscerated birds. Salmonella typhimurium was recovered from the eviscerated birds and neck samples in flock 3. In flock 4, S. saintpaul and S. anatum were isolated from 13% of the eviscerated birds sampled. Salmonella thompson, Salmonella agona and Salmonella heidelberg were recovered from 61%, 5% and 1%, respectively, of the processed carcasses sampled in flock 7. PMID:6831304

  3. Mycotoxins Deoxynivalenol and Fumonisins Alter the Extrinsic Component of Intestinal Barrier in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Antonissen, Gunther; Van Immerseel, Filip; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Janssens, Geert P J; De Baere, Siegrid; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Su, Shengchen; Wong, Eric A; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Verlinden, Marc; Devreese, Mathias; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Novak, Barbara; Dohnal, Ilse; Martel, An; Croubels, Siska

    2015-12-23

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FBs) are secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium fungi that frequently contaminate broiler feed. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of DON and/or FBs on the intestinal barrier in broiler chickens, more specifically on the mucus layer and antioxidative response to oxidative stress. One-day-old broiler chicks were divided into four groups, each consisting of eight pens of seven birds each, and were fed for 15 days either a control diet, a DON-contaminated diet (4.6 mg DON/kg feed), a FBs-contaminated diet (25.4 mg FB1 + FB2/kg feed), or a DON+FBs-contaminated diet (4.3 mg DON and 22.9 mg FB1 + FB2/kg feed). DON and FBs affected the duodenal mucus layer by suppressing intestinal mucin (MUC) 2 gene expression and altering the mucin monosaccharide composition. Both mycotoxins decreased gene expression of the intestinal zinc transporter (ZnT)-1 and regulated intracellular methionine homeostasis, which are both important for preserving the cell's critical antioxidant activity. Feeding a DON- and/or FBs-contaminated diet, at concentrations close to the European Union maximum guidance levels (5 mg DON and 20 mg FB1 + FB2/kg feed) changes the intestinal mucus layer and several intestinal epithelial antioxidative mechanisms.

  4. Identification of genes involved in regulatory mechanism of pigments in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tarique, T M; Yang, S; Mohsina, Z; Qiu, J; Yan, Z; Chen, G; Chen, A

    2014-09-05

    Chicken is an important model organism that unites the evolutionary gap between mammals and other vertebrates and provide major source of protein from meat and eggs for all over the world population. However, specific genes underlying the regulatory mechanism of broiler pigmentation have not yet been determined. In order to better understand the genes involved in the mechanism of pigmentation in the muscle tissues of broilers, the Affymetrix microarray hybridization experiment platform was used to identify gene expression profiles at 7 weeks of age. Broilers fed canthaxanthin, natural lutein, and orangeII pigments (100 mg/kg) were used to explore gene expression profiles). Our data showed that the 7th week of age was a very important phase with regard to gene expression profiles. We identified a number of differentially expressed genes; in canthaxanthin, natural lutein, and orangeII, there were 54 (32 upregulated and 22 downregulated), 23 (15 upregulated and 8 downregulated), and 7 (5 upregulated and 2 downregulated) known genes, respectively. Our data indicate that the numbers of differentially expressed genes were more upregulated than downregulated, and several genes showed conserved signaling to previously known functions. Thus, functional characterization of differentially expressed genes revealed several categories that are involved in important biological processes, including pigmentation, growth, molecular mechanisms, fat metabolism, cell proliferation, immune response, lipid metabolism, and protein synthesis and degradation. The results of the present study demonstrate that the genes associated with canthaxanthin, natural lutein, and orangeII are key regulatory genes that control the regulatory mechanisms of pigmentation.

  5. Safety profile of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 of herbal origin in broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Mathis, G; Boland, R; Bachmann, H; Toggenburger, A; Rambeck, W

    2016-12-01

    The safety of supplementing broiler feed with a standardised herbal extract, Solanum Glaucophyllum Standardised Leaves (SGSL) containing glycosylated 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and standardised to contain 10 µg/g 1,25(OH)2D3 equivalent, was examined in two studies. In a first study, we examined the potential of SGSL to substitute vitamin D3 (VD3) and the tolerated dose range of SGSL when applied without concomitant VD3 by analyzing performance and blood chemical parameters after 14, 25 and 38 days on diets containing two doses of SGSL (1 and 10 g/kg feed) as source of 1,25(OH)2D3. In the second study, the no adverse effect level of SGSL was determined by analyzing the same parameters after 35 days on diets containing basic VD3 supply and in addition 0.2, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 g of SGSL/kg feed. We showed that SGSL was able to substitute VD3 in broilers as far as the performance parameters were concerned. Also, we found that the no adverse effect level is at least 4 g SGSL/kg feed when used with moderate doses of VD3. This is 20 times higher than the upper limit of the commercially recommended dose. We concluded that SGSL is a safe feed additive to use in broiler chicken.

  6. Effects of copper source and level on intestinal physiology and growth of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Arias, V J; Koutsos, E A

    2006-06-01

    Dietary copper sulfate (CuSO4) and tribasic copper chloride (TBCC) were examined for their effects on intestinal physiology and growth of broiler chickens. In 2 experiments (Experiments 1 and 2), day-old broiler chicks were fed 1 of 4 diets: a basal diet with no supplemental copper (Cu; negative control), a basal diet + 188 mg of Cu/kg of diet from TBCC or CuSO4, or a basal diet + subtherapeutic antibiotics (bacitracin and roxarsone; positive control). In Experiment 1 (recycled litter), CuSO4 and TBCC increased carcass weight (d 45 posthatch) compared with the negative control (P < 0.05 for each). In Experiment 2 (fresh litter), negative control and TBCC increased carcass weight (d 42 posthatch) compared with the positive control (P < 0.05 for each). At d 30 to 31 posthatch, intestinal histology was measured. In Experiment 1 (recycled litter), dietary TBCC, CuSO4, and positive control decreased the number of lamina propia lymphocytes or intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), or both, compared with the negative control (P < 0.05). However, in Experiment 2 (fresh litter), TBCC and positive control increased the number of duodenum IEL compared with the negative control (P < 0.05), and negative control and TBCC increased the number of ileum IEL. These data demonstrate that broiler performance and intestinal physiology can be influenced by dietary Cu source and level as well as microbial environment (fresh vs. recycled litter).

  7. Non-reducible collagen cross-linking in cartilage from broiler chickens with tibial dyschondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Orth, M W; Leach, R M; Vailas, A C; Cook, M E

    1994-01-01

    Recent work has shown that hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), a non-reducible cross-link that stabilizes the collagen fibril network, is significantly greater (over 10-fold) in dyschondroplastic cartilage than in normal growth-plate cartilage in the tibiotarsi of chickens with homocysteine-induced tibial dyschondroplasia (TD). In the present study, broiler chicks with a genetic disposition to TD, as well as normal broiler chicks on a copper-deficient diet alone or supplemented with copper and thiram, were raised for 3 to 4 weeks (Expts. 1 and 2). Their dyschondroplastic cartilage from the proximal tibiotarsus was collected and analyzed for HP as well as lysylpyridinoline (LP) cross-links. Normal growth plate cartilage was obtained from chicks on the copper-deficient diet supplemented with copper. In a third experiment, another set of broiler chicks was raised on a corn/soybean meal-based diet with or without homocysteine, and their articular and sternal cartilage were isolated for cross-link analysis. In the first two experiments, dyschondroplastic cartilage from all birds with induced TD had higher HP and LP concentrations than growth-plate cartilage from birds without TD, although the ratios of HP to LP varied. In the third experiment, the sternal and articular cartilage from birds with homocysteine-induced TD appeared normal, having similar HP concentrations in the same types of cartilage in birds without TD.

  8. Campylobacter Antimicrobial Drug Resistance among Humans, Broiler Chickens, and Pigs, France

    PubMed Central

    Prouzet-Mauléon, Valérie; Kempf, Isabelle; Lehours, Philippe; Labadi, Leila; Camou, Christine; Denis, Martine; de Valk, Henriette; Desenclos, Jean-Claude; Mégraud, Francis

    2007-01-01

    We describe isolates from human Campylobacter infection in the French population and the isolates' antimicrobial drug resistance patterns since 1986 and compare the trends with those of isolates from broiler chickens and pigs from 1999 to 2004. Among 5,685 human Campylobacter isolates, 76.2% were C. jejuni, 17.2% C. coli, and 5.0% C. fetus. Resistance to nalidixic acid increased from 8.2% in 1990 to 26.3% in 2004 (p<10-3), and resistance to ampicillin was high over time. Nalidixic acid resistance was greater for C. coli (21.3%) than for C. jejuni (14.9%, p<10-3). C. jejuni resistance to ciprofloxacin in broilers decreased from 31.7% in 2002 to 9.0% in 2004 (p = 0.02). The patterns of resistance to quinolones and fluoroquinolones were similar between 1999 and 2004 in human and broiler isolates for C. jejuni. These results suggest a potential benefit of a regulation policy limiting use of antimicrobial drugs in food animals. PMID:17479889

  9. Effect of copper on antioxidant ability and nutrient metabolism in broiler chickens stimulated by lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhigang; Zhao, Tong; Liu, Lei; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the experiment was to investigate the interaction between Cu intake, inflammatory challenge and oxidative stress in broiler chickens. Furthermore, it was tested whether plasma ceruloplasmin (Cp) could be a sensible parameter for dietary Cu. One hundred forty-four day old chickens were raised on a basal control diet without added copper (Group Cu-6.5, basal Cu content 6.5 mg/kg diet) or a diet supplemented with Cu at 8 or 50 mg/kg (Groups Cu-14.5 and Cu-56.5, respectively) with four replicates of 12 animals for each treatment. Starting on day 21, chickens were injected intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) once a day for 3 days. Before this challenge, Group Cu-14.5 had the lowest gain and the feed to gain ratio was the highest. After injection of LPS, however, chickens of Group Cu-14.5 had the best zoo-technical performance. For chickens of Group Cu-6.5, LPS injection resulted in elevated rectal temperature, and lower erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) activity, compared with the other groups. LPS injection increased plasma uric acid in Group Cu-6.5 significantly, but was without influence in Group Cu-56.5. At all Cu-levels, LPS injection increased erythrocyte CuZn-SOD activity and decreased thiobarbituric acid reacting substances. No significant difference in plasma Cp was found in chickens fed different dietary Cu. LPS injection significantly increased plasma Cp in Group Cu-56.5. The results suggest that varying dietary Cu levels seem to modulate the parameters involved in immunological responses and oxidant stress and that plasma Cp is not a reliable parameter for dietary Cu.

  10. Influence of pre-incubation treatment on hatching results of broiler breeder eggs produced at 37 and 59 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Meijerhof, R; Noordhuizen, J P; Leenstra, F R

    1994-05-01

    1. The influence of temperature in the nest box, temperature during storage, storage time and pre-setting temperature on the hatchability of broiler breeder eggs produced by birds of 37 and 59 weeks of age was examined. 2. All treatments that can be characterised as being less optimal for embryo survival than the control treatment affected the hatchability of fertile eggs more in the case of eggs produced by older birds. 3. A higher temperature in the nest box, longer storage periods, higher storage temperature, especially at longer storage periods, and higher pre-setting temperature significantly reduced the hatchability of fertile eggs from the older birds. 4. For the younger birds, a significant reduction of hatchability was found only for the longest storage period.

  11. Estimating marbofloxacin withdrawal time in broiler chickens using a population physiologically based pharmacokinetics model.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Yang, Y R; Wang, L; Huang, X H; Qiao, G; Zeng, Z L

    2014-12-01

    Residue depletion of marbofloxacin in broiler chicken after oral administration at 5 mg/kg/day for three consecutive days was studied in this study. The areas under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to ∞ (AUC0-∞ s) of marbofloxacin in tissues and plasma were used to calculate tissue/plasma partition coefficients (PX s). Based on PX s and the other parameters derived from published studies, a flow-limited physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) model was developed to predict marbofloxacin concentrations, which were then compared with those derived from the residue depletion study so as to validate this model. Considering individual difference in drug disposition, a Monte Carlo simulation included 1000 iterations was further incorporated into the validated model to generate a population PBPK model and to estimate the marbofloxacin residue withdrawal times in edible tissues. The withdrawal periods were compared to those derived from linear regression analysis. The PBPK model presented here successfully predicted the measured concentrations in all tissues. The withdrawal times in all edible tissues derived from the population PBPK model were longer than those from linear regression analysis, and based on the residues in kidney, a withdrawal time of 4 days was estimated for marbofloxacin after oral administration at 5 mg/kg/day for three consecutive days. It was shown that population PBPK model could be used to accurately predict marbofloxacin residue withdrawal time in edible tissues in broiler chickens.

  12. Suppression of fat deposition in broiler chickens by (-)-hydroxycitric acid supplementation: A proteomics perspective

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Mengling; Han, Jing; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated. Biological network analysis showed that the identified proteins were involved in glycometabolism and lipid metabolism, whereas PDHA1, PDHB, ECHS1, and ME1 were identified in the canonical pathway by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA inhibited fatty acid synthesis by reducing the acetyl-CoA supply, via promotion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (upregulation of PDHA1, PDHB, ACO2, and DLST expression) and inhibition of ME1 expression. Moreover, (-)-HCA promoted fatty acid beta-oxidation by upregulating ECHS1 expression. These results reflect a biochemically relevant mechanism of fat reduction by (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. PMID:27586962

  13. The effects of the dark house system on growth, performance and meat quality of broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Rafael Humberto; Soares, Adriana Lourenço; Grespan, Moisés; Spurio, Rafael Sanches; Coró, Fábio Augusto Garcia; Oba, Alexandre; Shimokomaki, Massami

    2015-02-01

    Meat production with minimum animal suffering is a humanitarian concern. Thus, the objective of this work was to observe the performance of Cobb broiler chickens from 7 to 46 days of age when raised under different installations: dark house system (DHS), conventional yellow system (CYC) and conventional blue system (CBC). The feed conversion ratio for the birds raised on the DHS was 3.8% and 2.7% lower than those for the CYC and CBC systems, respectively. Compared with the CYC and CBC systems, average daily gain under the DHS was 11.4% and 9.3% higher, respectively, and body weight at 46 days was 11.4% and 9.3% higher, respectively (P ≤ 0.05). The birds' welfare was assessed based on their stress by determining the amount of pale, soft and exudative (PSE) meat in the breast fillets. The CYC and CBC birds had 24.3% and 25.3% PSE meat, respectively, whereas the DHS birds had 37.0%. We concluded that the DHS has a greater potential to produce broiler chickens, with superior performance to conventional systems, despite the higher stress faced by the birds during the maneuvers just before slaughter. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Thermoregulation responses of broiler chickens to humidity at different ambient temperatures. I. One week of age.

    PubMed

    Lin, H; Zhang, H F; Jiao, H C; Zhao, T; Sui, S J; Gu, X H; Zhang, Z Y; Buyse, J; Decuypere, E

    2005-08-01

    Three trials were conducted to investigate the effect of RH (35, 60, and 85%) on thermoregulation of 1-wk-old broiler chickens at different temperatures (35, 30, and 25 degrees C). The response to humidity in rectal temperature and plumage temperature at the back and breast within 24 h after exposure were recorded at 5 time points (1,4,8,16, and 24 h). Humidity affected the thermoregulation of 1-wk-old broiler chickens by redistributing heat within the body at high, low, and thermoneutral temperatures. The redistribution of heat resulted in decreased rectal temperature and increased peripheral temperature, which were, respectively, beneficial and unfavorable at high and low temperatures. These results suggested that feedback effects of surface temperature on core temperature also exist in poultry, as already observed in mammals, and could be induced not only by changed ambient temperature but also by the changes in humidity at high temperature. The disturbance of thermal equilibrium could not be established solely by changes in RT, but rather core and surface temperatures had to be considered. The daily rhythms in rectal and surface temperatures were affected by humidity.

  15. Developmental study of rectum in broiler chicken: A stereological and morphometrical study

    PubMed Central

    Fatahian Dehkordi, Rahmat-Allah; Ghahremani, Poria

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate development of the weight and the morphological development of the rectum in broiler chickens. Twenty broiler chickens (Ross 308) were used in this experiment and they were 12, 20, 35 and 44 days of age. Samples from the rectum of chicks were sectioned in an unbiased manner and examined quantitatively using stereology. In addition, the weight of both body (BW) and rectum and also rectum weight as a proportion of BW, height and width of the villi and thickness of rectum wall were measured. The results revealed that the body and rectum weight were increased with age. The greatest rectum weight as a proportion of BW was observed on day 20. An increase in height and width of the villi during the study period were obtained. The increase was more significant on days 35 and 44 than on days 12 and 20 (p < 0.05). There were significant difference in thickness of tunica mucosa, submucosa and muscular layer of the rectum on day 20 compared to day 35 (p < 0.05). The increase in the volume density of the wall, tunica mucosa and tunica muscular was greater on day 20 than on day 35. However, significant differences were observed in volume density of this layers between days 35 and 44 compared to days 12 and 20 (p < 0.05). PMID:27226886

  16. Effects of pig antibacterial peptides on growth performance and intestine mucosal immune of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bao, H; She, R; Liu, T; Zhang, Y; Peng, K S; Luo, D; Yue, Z; Ding, Y; Hu, Y; Liu, W; Zhai, L

    2009-02-01

    Currently, substitutions for antibiotic growth promoters in animals are attracting interest. This study investigated the effects of pig antibacterial peptides (PABP) on growth performance and small intestine mucosal immune responses in broilers. Three hundred 1-d-old Arbor Acre male broiler chickens were randomly allocated to 5 groups with 60 birds per group. The groups were control group; PABP administered in drinking water at 20 and 30 mg/L of water; or PABP supplemented in feed at 150 and 200 mg/kg of diet. The birds were fed a corn-soybean based diet for 6 wk. Chickens were weighed weekly and killed after 42 d of feeding, and growth performance was measured. Samples of the duodenum and jejunum were collected. The villus height, mucosa thickness, alkaline phosphatase activity, and numbers of secreting IgA and goblet cells were evaluated. The PABP-treated groups had greater BW and average daily gain, greater height of villus and thickness of gut mucosa, greater activity of alkaline phosphatase, higher ratio of secreting IgA, and a greater number of goblet cells compared with the control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, PABP can improve the growth performance, increase the intestinal ability to absorb nutrients, and improve the mucosal immunity of the intestine.

  17. L-canavanine inhibits L-arginine uptake by broiler chicken intestinal brush border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Rueda, E; Michelangeli, C; Gonzalez-Mujica, F

    2003-09-01

    1. Intestinal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were prepared from 3-week-old broiler chickens. 2. Electron microscopy of the BBMV fraction showed single membrane vesicles of different sizes with no electron dense material inside. No other organelles were observed. The sucrase and maltase activities were enriched by factors of 16 and 18, respectively, in the BBMV fraction in comparison with the homogenate. On the other hand, the Na+/K+-ATPase sensitivity to ouabain was increased by a factor of 0.8. 3. The BBMV showed a maximum L-[14C]-arginine uptake (944.9 +/- 22.9 pmoles/mg protein) at 45 s and thereafter it declined slowly. In the presence of 0.5 mM L-canavanine, the L-[14C]-arginine uptake by BBMV was reduced by 43.6% at 45 s. 4. It is concluded that L-canavanine inhibits L-arginine Na+-dependent transport across the enterocyte apical membrane in a highly purified intestinal BBMV from broiler chickens.

  18. Effects of dietary supplementation with carnosine on meat quality and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Cong, J; Zhang, L; Li, J; Wang, S; Gao, F; Zhou, G

    2017-02-01

    1. This study aimed to investigate the effects of carnosine supplementation on meat quality, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation status in broiler chickens. 2. A total of 256 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 treatments consisting of 8 replicates of 8 chickens each. The birds were supplied with 4 different diets: a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg carnosine, respectively. The whole experiment lasted 42 d. 3. The results showed that dietary supplementation with carnosine linearly increased the values of pH45 min and redness and reduced drip loss of breast meat. Dietary carnosine increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes in liver, serum and breast meat and decreased the contents of lipid peroxides at 21 and 42 d of age. 4. These findings indicated that dietary supplementation with carnosine was beneficial to enhance meat quality, antioxidant capacity and decrease lipid peroxidation status of breast meat.

  19. Effects of inulin on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and metabolisable energy in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Alzueta, C; Rodríguez, M L; Ortiz, L T; Rebolé, A; Treviño, J

    2010-06-01

    1. A 35 d feeding trial with 480 d-old male broiler chickens (Cobb) was conducted to evaluate the effects of graded levels of inulin (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 g/kg diet) in a maize-soybean meal based diet on growth performance, AME(N) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of crude protein, amino acids, starch, crude fat and fatty acids. A commercial product (Inulina 95) containing 9140 g/kg of inulin and a degree of polymerisation (DP) ranging from DP 1-10 to DP 51-60 was used. 2. The performance of birds (feed intake, BW gain and feed to gain ratio) was not affected by the different dietary inclusions of inulin. 3. Dietary inulin significantly improved the AID coefficient of crude protein and crude fat. Also, there was a significant effect of inulin on the digestibility of most amino acids (10 out of 15) and major fatty acids (oleic and linoleic acids). The AID coefficient of starch and the AME(N) content of diets were not affected by inulin inclusion. 4. In conclusion, the current study showed that inulin supplementation improved the digestibility of protein and fat in a maize-soybean meal based diet, but had no effect on the performance of broiler chickens.

  20. Isolation, identification and antimicrobial sensitivity of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in broilers chicken flocks of Khuzestan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mayahi, Mansour; Gharibi, Darioush; Ghadimipour, Rahim; Talazadeh, Forough

    2016-01-01

    Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) is a bacterium associated with respiratory disease, growth retardation, decreased egg production and mortality in chickens and turkeys. The objective of this study was isolation, identification and evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility of ORT bacterium in slaughtered broilers chicken flocks based on cultural and molecular tests in Khuzestan province, south-west of Iran. A total of 210 tracheal swab samples were collected from 21 broiler flocks slaughtered in abattoirs of the province. The results of cultural and biochemical tests showed that 23 (10.95%) isolates from tracheal swabs of 4 flocks (19.04%) were identified as ORT, but according to molecular characterization, 18 (8.57%) ORT isolates were positive in PCR assay and produced the predicted 784 bp amplification product. Finally, using the disk diffusion method, the drug resistance patterns of ORT isolates were determined against a panel of commonly used antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed that all isolates (100%) were sensitive to tetracycline, florfenicol and cephalexin. The highest antimicrobial resistance (89.00%) was seen for fosfomycin, sultrim and gentamicin. The results of present research showed that there was significant difference between the isolation rates of ORT from various areas of the province. As well, our findings indicated that the simultaneous use of both cultural and molecular techniques results in more comprehensive outcomes in the isolation and identification of the organismfrom understudy hosts. PMID:28144427

  1. Dietary and ontogenic regulation of fatty acid desaturase and elongase expression in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Jing, M; Gakhar, N; Gibson, R A; House, J D

    2013-08-01

    Effects of diet and ontogeny on the expression of fatty acid desaturases and elongases were examined in broiler chickens. In Study 1, 120 day-old male chicks received one of six diets with LA:ALA ranging from 46:4 to 16:34, for 33 days. Total n-6 PUFA decreased, and n-3 PUFA increased in response to a decrease in the dietary LA:ALA. FADS1, FADS2, ELOVL2 and ELOVL5 mRNAs were highest (P<0.05) in birds fed lower LA:ALA diets. In Study 2, 60 day-old male chicks were fed a basal diet, and liver samples were collected on day of hatch, and on days 2, 7, 14, 21 and 35 post-hatch. Total n-6 and n-3 PUFA increased (P<0.01) from days 7 to days 21. FADS1, FADS2 and ELOVL2 mRNAs generally increased (P<0.01) with age. These findings provide evidence for the dietary and developmental regulation of PUFA metabolism in broiler chickens.

  2. Higher inclusion rate of canola meal under high ambient temperature for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Aljuobori, A; Zulkifli, I; Soleimani, A F; Abdullah, N; Liang, J B; Mujahid, A

    2016-06-01

    Extruded canola meal (ECM) was included in diet of broiler chickens at 0, 10, 20, and 30% (wt/wt) from 1 to 35 days of age. A total of 240 day-old male chicks were assigned in groups of 5 to 48 battery cages in environmentally controlled chambers and diets were replicated with 12 cages/treatment. From d 29 to 35, birds from each dietary group were exposed to either thermoneutral (23 ± 1°C; unheated) or high (36 ± 1°C; heated) temperature conditions. High ambient temperature, irrespective of ECM inclusion, depressed the growth performance of birds. Inclusion of ECM increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) linearly in unheated birds during d 1 to 28 (P < 0.001) and d 29 to 35 (P = 0.001). However, no adverse effects of ECM inclusion were observed on the growth performance of heated birds. The absence of these detrimental effects could be associated with the lack of triiodothyronine (T3) elevation by ECM inclusion in heated birds. In conclusion, ECM can be fed, at least, up to 30%, without any adverse effect on growth performance of broiler chickens raised under chronic high ambient temperature. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Effect of dietary lead on intestinal nutrient transporters mRNA expression in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Roohollah; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Liang, Juan Boo; Soleimani Farjam, Abdoreza; Shokryazdan, Parisa; Idrus, Zulkifli

    2015-01-01

    Lead- (Pb-) induced oxidative stress is known to suppress growth performance and feed efficiency in broiler chickens. In an attempt to describe the specific underlying mechanisms of such phenomenon we carried out the current study. Ninety-six one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatment groups of 6 pen replicates, namely, (i) basal diet containing no lead supplement (control) and (ii) basal diet containing 200 mg lead acetate/kg of diet. Following 3 weeks of experimental period, jejunum samples were collected to examine the changes in gene expression of several nutrient transporters, antioxidant enzymes, and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) using quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that addition of lead significantly decreased feed intake, body weight gain, and feed efficiency. Moreover, with the exception of GLUT5, the expression of all sugar, peptide, and amino acid transporters was significantly downregulated in the birds under Pb induced oxidative stress. Exposure to Pb also upregulated the antioxidant enzymes gene expression together with the downregulation of glutathione S-transferase and Hsp70. In conclusion, it appears that Pb-induced oxidative stress adversely suppresses feed efficiency and growth performance in chicken and the possible underlying mechanism for such phenomenon is downregulation of major nutrient transporter genes in small intestine.

  4. Characterization and reactivity of broiler chicken sera to selected recombinant Campylobacter jejuni chemotactic proteins.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Hung-Yueh; Hiett, Kelli L; Line, John E; Seal, Bruce S

    2014-05-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative rod bacterium, is the leading causative agent of human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Consumption and handling of raw or undercooked poultry are regarded as a major source for human infection. Because bacterial chemotaxis guides microorganisms to colonization and invasion in the host cells, proteins involved in chemotactic processes can be novel targets for vaccine development. In this communication, we report amplification, cloning and expression of the C. jejuni chemotactic proteins in an Escherichia coli expression system. A total of 15 chemotactic protein genes were successfully expressed. These recombinant proteins were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing, SDS-PAGE analysis and immunoblot analysis of six-His and hemagglutinin tags. Twelve recombinant chemotactic proteins were further tested whether they were antigenic using sera from broiler chickens older than 4 weeks. The immunoblot results show that each chicken serum reacted to a variety of the recombinant proteins, but all sera reacted to the Cjj0473 gene product (annotated as a methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein), suggesting that anti-Campylobacter antibodies may be prevalent in the poultry population. These antibody screening results provide a rationale for further evaluation of the Cjj0473 protein as a potential vaccine for broilers to improve human food safety.

  5. Lighting schedule and dimming period in early life: consequences for broiler chicken leg bone development.

    PubMed

    van der Pol, Carla W; Molenaar, Roos; Buitink, Christiaan J; van Roovert-Reijrink, Inge A M; Maatjens, Conny M; van den Brand, Henry; Kemp, Bas

    2015-12-01

    Prolonged (>20 h) light periods during grow-out of broiler chickens have been shown to increase the occurrence of skeletal abnormalities, but the effects of early life light-dark schedules are not well known. The present experiment investigated the effect of lighting schedule and light-dark transition during the first days of a broiler chicken's life on leg bone development. In 2 experiments, Ross-308 broiler chicks (n = 2,500 per experiment) were subjected to 1 of 5 treatments for 4 d: 24L; 2L:1D lighting schedule with either an abrupt or gradual light-dark transition ("dimming"); and a 2L:6D lighting schedule with an abrupt transition or dimming. At d 4, tibia and femur weight, length, and diameter, yolk free body mass, organ weights, realized weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and mortality were determined. In Experiment 2, chick length and relative asymmetry of the femur and tibia were determined additionally. Data were analyzed using orthogonal contrasts. 24L resulted in higher femur diameter (P<0.028; both experiments), tibia diameter (P<0.001; Experiment 1), relative asymmetry of tibia length (P=0.002; Experiment 2), and relative asymmetry of femur length (P=0.003) than applying a light-dark schedule. A 2L:1D lighting schedule resulted in higher femur length (P=0.039; Experiment 1) and relative asymmetry of tibia length (P=0.032; Experiment 2) and lower relative asymmetry of tibia diameter (P=0.016) than a 2L:6D lighting schedule. An abrupt light-dark transition resulted in higher relative asymmetry of tibia length (P=0.004; Experiment 2) and relative asymmetry of tibia diameter (P=0.018) than dimming. To conclude, leg bone development in the first 4 d of a broiler chicken's life was higher for 24L than when a lighting schedule was applied, but relative asymmetry was higher as well, suggesting developmental instability. The effect of dimming on leg bone development was less pronounced, but the decreased relative asymmetry levels in the dimming

  6. Transmission of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli from broiler chicken farms to surrounding areas.

    PubMed

    Laube, H; Friese, A; von Salviati, C; Guerra, B; Rösler, U

    2014-08-27

    Although previous studies have demonstrated high carriage of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in livestock, especially in broiler chickens, data on emission sources of these bacteria into the environment are still rare. Therefore, this study was designed to systematically investigate the occurrence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in slurry, air (inside animal houses), ambient air (outside animal houses) and on soil surfaces in the areas surrounding of seven ESBL/AmpC-positive broiler chicken fattening farms, including investigation of the possible spread of these bacteria via the faecal route and/or exhaust air into the environment. Seven German broiler fattening farms were each investigated at three points in time (3-36 h after restocking, 14-18 and 26-35 days after housing) during one fattening period. The occurrence of ESBL/AmpC genes in the investigated samples was confirmed by PCR, detecting blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCMY-genes, and, if necessary, by sequencing and/or the disc diffusion method. The results showed a wide spread of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in broiler farms, as well as emissions into the surroundings. 12 out of 14 (86%) slurry samples were positive for ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli. Additionally, 28.8% (n=23/80) of boot swabs taken from various surfaces in the areas surrounding of the farms as well as 7.5% (n=3/40) of the exhaust air samples turned out to be positive for these microorganisms. Moreover, a small proportion of air samples from inside the barns were ESBL/AmpC-positive. By comparing selected isolates using pulsed field gel electrophoresis, we proved that faecal and airborne transfer of ESBL/AmpC-producing microorganisms from broiler fattening farms to the surrounding areas is possible. Two isolates from farm G2 (slurry and boot swab 50 m downwind), two isolates from farm G3 (slurry and individual animal swab) as well as two isolates from farm G6 (air sample in the barn and air sample 50 m downwind) showed 100% similarity in

  7. Identification of risk factors for the prevalence and persistence of Salmonella in Belgian broiler chicken flocks.

    PubMed

    Namata, Harriet; Welby, Sarah; Aerts, Marc; Faes, Christel; Abrahantes, José Cortiñas; Imberechts, Hein; Vermeersch, Katie; Hooyberghs, Jozef; Méroc, Estelle; Mintiens, Koen

    2009-08-01

    According to the European Food Safety Authority, salmonellosis is still one of the main causes of infectious foodborne gastroenteritis in humans. Broilers are an important source of salmonellosis after eggs and pork. Between 1987 and 1999 the trend of human salmonellosis incidence in Belgium increased constantly. However, from 2000 until 2005 a decrease in human cases was observed, probably following the sanitary measures implemented in the poultry breeder and laying sector. In order to decrease human infections it is essential to tackle the problem at the farm level to minimize cross-contamination from farm to fork. This paper seeks to answer two questions: (i) given the Salmonella status of the farm at a certain occasion (equal to the sampling time of the flock), what are the risk factors that the farm will be Salmonella positive at a following occasion? And (ii) what are the risk factors for a farm to be persistently positive for two consecutive flocks? We used surveillance data on 6824 broiler flocks studied for Salmonella infectivity from 2005 to 2006 in Belgium. The farms were tested regularly (3 weeks before slaughter of each broiler flock) for the presence of Salmonella based on multiple faecal samples per flock on a farm yielding clustered data. Generalized estimating equations, alternating logistic regression models, and random-intercept logistic regression models were employed to analyse these correlated binary data. Our results indicated that there are many factors that influence Salmonella risk in broiler flocks, and that they interact. Accounting for interactions between risk factors leads to an improved determination of those risk factors that increase infection with Salmonella. For the conditional analysis, the risk factors found to increase the risk of Salmonella infection on a farm at a current occasion given the previous Salmonella status included: Salmonella infection of day-old chicks (of the current flock); a previously infected flock even

  8. Effects of inorganic and organic manganese supplementation on gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I and follicle-stimulating hormone expression and reproductive performance of broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jingjing; Tian, Chuanhuan; Zhu, Yongwen; Zhang, Liyang; Lu, Lin; Luo, Xugang

    2014-04-01

    Manganese is an essential microelement. Manganese deficiency affects reproduction performance and reproductive hormones in layers. However, little is known about its effects and the possible mechanism in regulating reproduction in broiler breeder hens. In the current study, broiler breeder hens at peak production were fed with diets supplemented with 0, 120, or 240 mg of Mn/kg as MnSO4 or Mn proteinate for 13 wk. Manganese supplementation did not alter egg laying rate, egg weight, fertility, hatchability, or hatchling weight over a 13-wk trial period. However, 240 mg of Mn/kg supplementation significantly increased serum Mn (P < 0.05). Manganese supplements increased the eggshell breaking strength (P < 0.05) without affecting the eggshell thickness. There was no difference in serum cholesterol and estradiol. Expression of follicle-stimulating hormone) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I) genes was significantly elevated by 240 mg of Mn/kg (P < 0.05). Furthermore, inorganic Mn supplementation doubled GnRH-I expression compared with supplementation with the organic form (P < 0.05), although serum Mn was comparable between these 2 supplements. No obvious difference was shown in gene expression of luteinizing hormone, prolactin, GnRH-I receptor, inducible NO synthase, and dopamine receptor D1 in the pituitary as well as tyrosine hydroxylase and inducible NO synthase in the hypothalamus. This suggests that dietary Mn supplementation could improve eggshell quality in the long term. The central mechanism of nontoxic high doses of Mn suggested the transcriptional activation of GnRH-I and follicle-stimulating hormone genes. The central effect of inorganic Mn activating GnRH-I genes compared with the reduced effect by organic Mn could possibly be due to a decreased capacity of the latter passing through the blood-brain barrier.

  9. Constant and changing photoperiods in the laying period for broiler breeders allowed [corrected] normal or accelerated growth during the rearing period.

    PubMed

    Lewis, P D; Gous, R M

    2006-02-01

    Broiler breeder pullets were grown on 8-h photoperiods to 2.23 or 2.42 kg of BW at 20 wk, and then transferred abruptly to 11- or 16-h photoperiods. Subsequently, some of the 11-h photoperiod birds were given 15-min increases in day length weekly or a 1-h increase every 4 wk to reach 16 h of light at 54 wk. The birds transferred abruptly to a 16-h photoperiod at 20 wk matured 4 d earlier than 11-h photoperiod birds, required 500 g less feed to reach 50% lay, but, because of a 3% lower rate of lay after peak, produced 5 fewer eggs to 60 wk. However, the number of settable eggs was similar for the 2 groups because the 11-h photoperiod birds laid more eggs on the floor, resulting in more cracked and dirty eggs. The 11-h photoperiod birds converted feed into egg more efficiently, and were 100 g heavier at end of lay. Increasing the photoperiod in 15-min or 1-h increments from 11 to 16 h during the laying cycle depressed egg production. Mean egg weight and mortality were similar for all lighting groups. The heavier BW birds at 20 wk reached maturity 1 d earlier, but used 1 kg more feed to reach maturity, laid 5 fewer total eggs (because of a 3% lower rate of lay after peak), produced 7 more unsettable eggs (because more eggs were laid on the floor), and converted feed into egg less efficiently than did the lighter BW birds. Mean egg weight, BW at 57 wk, and mortality were similar for both groups. There was no significant light x growth interaction for any performance parameter. It is concluded that there is no benefit to egg production from extending the photoperiod to 16 h when broiler breeders are kept in light-proofed housing, especially if they have access to illuminated nest boxes.

  10. Subclinical circulation of avian hepatitis E virus within a multiple-age rearing and broiler breeder farm indicates persistence and vertical transmission of the virus.

    PubMed

    Troxler, Salome; Pać, Krzysztof; Prokofieva, Irina; Liebhart, Dieter; Chodakowska, Beata; Furmanek, Danuta; Hess, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In a prospective longitudinal study, a broiler breeder flock and its progeny were monitored for the presence of avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA and antibodies. The flock was part of a multiple-age farm where the presence of avian HEV with clinical signs (increased mortality and decreased egg production) was demonstrated in several previous production cycles. Samples were taken twice at the rearing site and several times at the production site from broiler breeders including cockerels and day-old chicks. The samples were investigated by conventional and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and histological methods. At all time points, samples from the hens were positive for avian HEV RNA. The birds did not show any clinical signs, even though histopathological lesions of non-specific aetiology in the liver and spleen could be demonstrated. A significant increase in the number of positive birds and viral load was seen in week 45, in accordance with an increase in antibody titres. In comparison, cockerels investigated in week 62 tested negative by RT-PCR and ELISA. Avian HEV RNA was also detected in day-old chicks hatched from eggs laid in week 25, indicating vertical transmission. All partial helicase and capsid sequences retrieved within this study clustered together and were identical to previous sequences obtained from the same multiple-age farm. In conclusion, avian HEV persisted on the farm over years and circulated between the rearing and the production sites without causing any clinical signs although high viral loads in the adult hens were observed.

  11. Supplementation of dietary vitamins, protein and probiotics on semen traits and immunohistochemical study of pituitary hormones in zinc-induced molted broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Khan, Rifat Ullah; Rahman, Zia-ur-; Javed, Ijaz; Muhammad, Faqir

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary vitamin E and vitamin C, probiotics mixture and protein level and their combination on semen quality and immunohistochemical study of some pituitary hormones in male broiler breeders. One hundred and eighty male broiler breeders 65 weeks old were divided into six groups by completely randomized design. The birds were subjected to zinc-induced molt by mixing zinc oxide at the rate of 3000mg/kg in the feed. After molting, one group was fed control diet (CP16%). The other groups were fed vitamin E (100IU/kg), vitamin C (500IU/kg), probiotics (50mg/L of drinking water), protein (CP14%) and combination of these components. These treatments were given for five weeks. After the feeding period, semen samples were taken and analyzed for semen volume, sperm concentration, motility and dead sperm percentage. Pituitary samples were collected from three birds per replicate and were processed for immunohistochemical study. The results of semen quality parameters revealed that semen volume and sperm motility were significantly high in the vitamin E fed group, while the dead sperm percentage decreased significantly in the vitamin C group. The morphometric analysis revealed that compared to other groups, vitamin E caused a significant increase in the size and area of FSH, LH gonadotropes and lactotropes. These results showed that vitamin E alone may play some role in the enhancement of semen quality and growth of gonadotropes and lactotropes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk factors for Campylobacter spp. contamination in French broiler-chicken flocks at the end of the rearing period.

    PubMed

    Refrégier-Petton, J; Rose, N; Denis, M; Salvat, G

    2001-07-19

    Our objectives were to identify risk factors for contamination of French broiler flocks by Campylobacter. We used 75 broiler farms in western France. A questionnaire was administered to the farmers and samples of fresh droppings were taken to assess the Campylobacter status of the broiler flocks. 42.7% of the flocks were positive for Campylobacter spp. The risk of contamination of the broiler flocks by Campylobacter was increased in summer/autumn, in houses with static air distribution, when two or more people took care of the flock, in poultry farms with three or more houses and when the drinking water for the chickens was acidified. The presence of litter-beetles in the change room also increased the risk of contamination. The administration of an antibiotic treatment following a disease decreased the risk of a flock being contaminated by Campylobacter.

  13. Effect of ambient temperature and light intensity on physiological reactions of heavy broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Olanrewaju, H A; Purswell, J L; Collier, S D; Branton, S L

    2010-12-01

    The effects of ambient temperature, light intensity, and their interaction on blood acid-base balance, metabolites, and electrolytes in broiler chickens under environmentally controlled conditions were examined in 2 trials. The experiment consisted of a factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design. The 9 treatments consisted of 3 levels of temperatures (low = 15.6°C; moderate = 21.1°C; high = 26.7°C) from 21 to 56 d of age and 3 levels of light intensities (0.5, 3.0, 20 lx) from 8 to 56 d of age at 50% RH. A total of 540 Ross 708 chicks were randomly distributed into 9 environmentally controlled chambers (30 male and 30 female chicks/chamber) at 1 d of age. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Venous blood samples were collected on d 21 (baseline), 28, 42, and 56. High ambient temperature significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced BW, partial pressure of CO(2), bicarbonate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, K(+), and Na(+) along with significantly (P ≤ 0.05) elevated pH level, Cl(-), glucose, osmolality, and anion gap concentrations. Partial pressure of O(2) was slightly increased in response to increased ambient temperature. There was no effect of light intensity on most of the blood variables examined. Acid-base regulation during high ambient temperature and light intensity exposure did not deteriorate despite a lower partial pressure of CO(2), which consequently increased blood pH because of a compensatory decrease in HCO(3)(-) concentration. Plasma corticosterone was not affected by temperature, light intensity, or their interaction. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to varying light intensities had a minor effect on physiological blood variables, whereas high ambient temperature markedly affected various blood variables without inducing stress in broilers.

  14. Molecular analysis of intestinal bacterial microbiota of broiler chickens fed diets containing fermented cottonseed meal.

    PubMed

    Sun, H; Tang, J W; Fang, C L; Yao, X H; Wu, Y F; Wang, X; Feng, J

    2013-02-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary inclusion of fermented cottonseed meal (FCM) on the ileal and cecal bacterial microbiota of broiler chickens. A total of 300 newborn yellow-feathered broiler chickens were randomly divided into 2 treatments with 3 replicates each (50 birds per replicate): control and 80 g/kg of FCM group. The feeding trial lasted for 42 d. Ileal and cecal digesta samples were collected from 8 chicks per replicate at 21 and 42 d of age to determine the composition of bacterial microbiota using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, cloning, sequencing, and real-time quantitative PCR analysis. The results demonstrated that the microbial composition in the ileum and cecum were considerably affected by the diet. The similarity dendrogram of banding profiles showed a more rapid stabilization of intestinal bacterial microbiota in broilers fed diets supplemented with FCM, compared with that of the birds fed the control diet. No significant difference was observed in total number of bands and Shannon-Weaver index, indicating that FCM had no effects on bacterial diversity. However, enumeration of bacteria in the ileal and cecal contents by quantitative PCR showed an increased (P < 0.05) population of lactobacilli, as well as a decreased (P < 0.05) Escherichia coli number by the dietary inclusion of FCM. In summary, dietary inclusion of FCM did not affect the intestinal microbial diversity but shifted intestinal microbiota, with a more homogenous population and an increased colonization of lactobacilli. The results also support the concept that dietary FCM inclusion could promote the beneficial bacteria in the intestinal tract.

  15. Comparative evaluation of probiotic and salinomycin effects on performance and coccidiosis control in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Wael; Mohnl, Michaela; Teichmann, Klaus; Doupovec, Barbara; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Lumpkins, Brett; Mathis, Greg

    2014-12-01

    The annual financial loss to the poultry industry as a result of coccidiosis has been estimated at about US $3 billion. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of probiotics and salinomycin as feed additives on performance and coccidiosis control in male broilers raised to 42 d of age. The study consisted of 360 Cobb male broiler chickens randomly allocated to 4 groups each with 3 replicates. Group 1: untreated, unchallenged negative control group (NC); group 2: untreated, challenged positive control group (PC); group 3: negative control supplemented with salinomycin 66 mg/kg, challenged group (Sal); and group 4: negative control supplemented with probiotics, challenged (Prob mix). On d 15, all birds (except group 1) were challenged with approximately 75,000, 25,000, and 75,000 of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella oocytes, respectively, that were mixed into the feed. Feed conversion ratio and mortality were recorded throughout the experiment. On d 21 and 42, intestinal lesions and litter conditions were scored. On d 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42, oocyst counts were determined from 10 freshly collected fecal samples per pen. The results showed that mortality, litter, and lesion scores at d 21 and 42, and oocyst shedding at d 21 did not differ significantly between the Prob mix and the Sal groups. However on d 28, oocyst shedding was significantly lower in the Sal group than in the PC group but insignificantly lower than the Prob mix group. Body weights of the Prob mix group at d 42 were significantly lower than the Sal group; however, the feed conversion ratio values were similar between the 2 groups. The results of this study showed that probiotics supplementation could be considered as a potential strategy to control coccidiosis in broiler chickens.

  16. Antigenotoxic Effect of Piperine in Broiler Chickens Intoxicated with Aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Cardoso, Verônica; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; Ribeiro de Lima, Cristina Amorim; Mendes de Oliveira, Jéssica; Freire de Lima, Marco Edilson; Pinto da Silva, Lúcia Helena; Direito, Glória Maria; Miranda Danelli, Maria das Graças

    2016-01-01

    Piperine is an abundant amide extracted from black pepper seeds which has been shown to have protective effects against cytotoxic and genotoxic carcinogenesis induced by certain chemical carcinogens and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in vitro. The aim of this work was to study, in vivo, the antigenotoxic potential of feed-added piperine on broiler chickens experimentally intoxicated with AFB1, using micronucleus and comet assays. The antigenotoxicity assessment of 9-day-old chicks was performed on a total of 60 chickens divided into four groups of 15 broilers each: (C) control, (P) 60 mg·piperine kg−1 feed, (A) 0.5 mg·AFB1·kg−1 body weight, (daily by oral route), and (P + A) co-treatment with piperine and AFB1. The experiment was conducted for 26 days. Chicks intoxicated with AFB1 showed significant genotoxic effects in the first 24 h post intoxication, and the effects remained in the other periods analyzed (48, 72, and 96 h and 26 days of treatment). The DNA damage in peripheral blood cells, the number of erythrocytes with micronuclei, and polychromatic-to-normochromatic erythrocyte ratio were significantly reduced or absent in the piperine/AFB1 group. No significant differences were observed between the group piperine/AFB1 and the control and piperine-alone groups. The addition 60 mg·kg−1 of piperine to the diet of the broiler chicks was safe, promoting beneficial effects in poultry health with respect to the toxic effects 0.5 mg·AFB1·kg−1 body weight. PMID:27809242

  17. Dietary Nisin Modulates the Gastrointestinal Microbial Ecology and Enhances Growth Performance of the Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Józefiak, Damian; Kierończyk, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Rawski, Mateusz; Długosz, Jakub; Sip, Anna; Højberg, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Due to antimicrobial properties, nisin is one of the most commonly used and investigated bacteriocins for food preservation. Surprisingly, nisin has had limited use in animal feed as well as there are only few reports on its influence on microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The present study therefore aimed at investigating effects of dietary nisin on broiler chicken GIT microbial ecology and performance in comparison to salinomycin, the widely used ionophore coccidiostat. In total, 720 one-day-old male Ross 308 chicks were randomly distributed to six experimental groups. The positive control (PC) diet was supplemented with salinomycin (60 mg/kg). The nisin (NI) diets were supplemented with increasing levels (100, 300, 900 and 2700 IU nisin/g, respectively) of the bacteriocin. The negative control (NC) diet contained no additives. At slaughter (35 days of age), activity of specific bacterial enzymes (α- and β-glucosidases, α-galactosidases and β-glucuronidase) in crop, ileum and caeca were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the NC group, and nisin supplementation decreased the enzyme activities to levels observed for the PC group. A similar inhibitory influence on bacterial activity was reflected in the levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and putrefactive SCFA (PSCFA) in digesta from crop and ileum; no effect was observed in caeca. Counts of Bacteroides and Enterobacteriacae in ileum digesta were significantly (P<0.001) decreased by nisin and salinomycin, but no effects were observed on the counts of Clostridium perfringens, Lactobacillus/Enterococcus and total bacteria. Like salinomycin, nisin supplementation improved broiler growth performance in a dose-dependent manner; compared to the NC group, the body weight gain of the NI900 and NI2700 groups was improved by 4.7 and 8.7%, respectively. Our findings suggest that dietary nisin exerts a mode of action similar to salinomycin and could be considered as a dietary supplement for broiler

  18. Thermal nociceptive threshold testing detects altered sensory processing in broiler chickens with spontaneous lameness.

    PubMed

    Hothersall, Becky; Caplen, Gina; Parker, Richard M A; Nicol, Christine J; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E; Weeks, Claire A; Murrell, Joanna C

    2014-01-01

    Lameness is common in commercially reared broiler chickens but relationships between lameness and pain (and thus bird welfare) have proved complex, partly because lameness is often partially confounded with factors such as bodyweight, sex and pathology. Thermal nociceptive threshold (TNT) testing explores the neural processing of noxious stimuli, and so can contribute to our understanding of pain. Using an acute model of experimentally induced articular pain, we recently demonstrated that TNT was reduced in lame broiler chickens, and was subsequently attenuated by administration of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). This study extended these findings to a large sample of commercial broilers. It examined factors affecting thermal threshold (Part 1) and the effect of an NSAID drug (meloxicam, 5 mg/kg) and of an opioid (butorphanol; 4 mg/kg) (Part 2). Spontaneously lame and matched non-lame birds (n=167) from commercial farms were exposed to ramped thermal stimulations via a probe attached to the lateral aspect of the tarsometatarsus. Baseline skin temperature and temperature at which a behavioural avoidance response occurred (threshold) were recorded. In Part 1 bird characteristics influencing threshold were modelled; In Part 2 the effect of subcutaneous administration of meloxicam or butorphanol was investigated. Unexpectedly, after accounting for other influences, lameness increased threshold significantly (Part 1). In Part 2, meloxicam affected threshold differentially: it increased further in lame birds and decreased in non-lame birds. No effect of butorphanol was detected. Baseline skin temperature was also consistently a significant predictor of threshold. Overall, lameness significantly influenced threshold after other bird characteristics were taken into account. This, and a differential effect of meloxicam on lame birds, suggests that nociceptive processing may be altered in lame birds, though mechanisms for this require further investigation.

  19. Genetic and phenotypic parameters of carcass and organ traits of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Venturini, G C; Cruz, V A R; Rosa, J O; Baldi, F; El Faro, L; Ledur, M C; Peixoto, J O; Munari, D P

    2014-12-04

    The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic and environmental parameters for carcass, carcass part, and organ weights in a paternal strain of broiler chickens that was selected mainly for body weight at 42 days of age (BW42) to provide support for poultry genetic improvement programs. A total of 1448 chickens were used that resulted from the expansion of a pure paternal strain named TT, which was developed by Embrapa Suínos e Aves. The following weights were evaluated: BW42, chilled carcass, wing, drumstick meat, thigh meat, breast meat, breast fillet, back, liver, heart (HRT), and gizzard (GIZ). The variance component was estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using a multi-trait animal model. The general model included the additive genetic and residual random effects and the fixed effect of the sex-hatch group (10 levels). The heritability estimates ranged from 0.27 ± 0.06 for HRT to 0.44 ± 0.08 for GIZ. These results indicated that all the traits have enough additive genetic variability to respond to selection. The genetic correlation estimates between BW42 and the carcass and carcass part weights were high and positive. However, the genetic correlation estimates between BW42 and organ weights were low. In this population, the carcass traits might respond indirectly to selection applied to BW42. It can be concluded that selection to increase BW42 is not effective in improving broiler organ weight. Therefore, to obtain suitable genetic improvement for these traits, the selection indexes for broilers should include organ weight-based criteria.

  20. Dietary nisin modulates the gastrointestinal microbial ecology and enhances growth performance of the broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Józefiak, Damian; Kierończyk, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Rawski, Mateusz; Długosz, Jakub; Sip, Anna; Højberg, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Due to antimicrobial properties, nisin is one of the most commonly used and investigated bacteriocins for food preservation. Surprisingly, nisin has had limited use in animal feed as well as there are only few reports on its influence on microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The present study therefore aimed at investigating effects of dietary nisin on broiler chicken GIT microbial ecology and performance in comparison to salinomycin, the widely used ionophore coccidiostat. In total, 720 one-day-old male Ross 308 chicks were randomly distributed to six experimental groups. The positive control (PC) diet was supplemented with salinomycin (60 mg/kg). The nisin (NI) diets were supplemented with increasing levels (100, 300, 900 and 2700 IU nisin/g, respectively) of the bacteriocin. The negative control (NC) diet contained no additives. At slaughter (35 days of age), activity of specific bacterial enzymes (α- and β-glucosidases, α-galactosidases and β-glucuronidase) in crop, ileum and caeca were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the NC group, and nisin supplementation decreased the enzyme activities to levels observed for the PC group. A similar inhibitory influence on bacterial activity was reflected in the levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and putrefactive SCFA (PSCFA) in digesta from crop and ileum; no effect was observed in caeca. Counts of Bacteroides and Enterobacteriacae in ileum digesta were significantly (P<0.001) decreased by nisin and salinomycin, but no effects were observed on the counts of Clostridium perfringens, Lactobacillus/Enterococcus and total bacteria. Like salinomycin, nisin supplementation improved broiler growth performance in a dose-dependent manner; compared to the NC group, the body weight gain of the NI₉₀₀ and NI₂₇₀₀ groups was improved by 4.7 and 8.7%, respectively. Our findings suggest that dietary nisin exerts a mode of action similar to salinomycin and could be considered as a dietary supplement

  1. The genetic basis of pectoralis major myopathies in modern broiler chicken lines

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Richard A.; Watson, Kellie A.; Bilgili, S. F.; Avendano, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    This is the first report providing estimates of the genetic basis of breast muscle myopathies (BMM) and their relationship with growth and yield in broiler chickens. In addition, this paper addresses the hypothesis that genetic selection for increase breast yield has contributed to the onset of BMM. Data were analyzed from ongoing recording of BMM within the Aviagen breeding program. This study focused on three BMM: deep pectoral myopathy (DPM; binary trait), white striping (WS; 4 categories) and wooden breast (WB; 3 categories). Data from two purebred commercial broiler lines (A and B) were utilized providing greater than 40,000 meat quality records per line. The difference in selection history between these two lines has resulted in contrasting breast yield (BY): 29% for Line A and 21% for Line B. Data were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters using a multivariate animal model including six traits: body weight (BW), processing body weight (PW), BY, DPM, WB, and WS, in addition to the appropriate fixed effects and permanent environmental effect of the dam. Results indicate similar patterns of heritability and genetic correlations for the two lines. Heritabilities (h2) of BW, PW and BY ranged from 0.271–0.418; for DPM and WB h2 <0.1; and for WS h2 ≤0.338. Genetic correlations between the BMM and BW, PW, or BY were ≤0.132 in Line A and ≤0.248 in Line B. This paper demonstrates the polygenic nature of these traits and the low genetic relationships with BW, PW, and BY, which facilitates genetic improvement across all traits in a balanced breeding program. It also highlights the importance of understanding the environmental and/or management factors that contribute greater than 65% of the variance in the incidence of white striping of breast muscle and more than 90% of the variance of the incidence of wooden breast and deep pectoral myopathy in broiler chickens. PMID:26476091

  2. The genetic basis of pectoralis major myopathies in modern broiler chicken lines.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Richard A; Watson, Kellie A; Bilgili, S F; Avendano, Santiago

    2015-12-01

    This is the first report providing estimates of the genetic basis of breast muscle myopathies (BMM) and their relationship with growth and yield in broiler chickens. In addition, this paper addresses the hypothesis that genetic selection for increase breast yield has contributed to the onset of BMM. Data were analyzed from ongoing recording of BMM within the Aviagen breeding program. This study focused on three BMM: deep pectoral myopathy (DPM; binary trait), white striping (WS; 4 categories) and wooden breast (WB; 3 categories). Data from two purebred commercial broiler lines (A and B) were utilized providing greater than 40,000 meat quality records per line. The difference in selection history between these two lines has resulted in contrasting breast yield (BY): 29% for Line A and 21% for Line B. Data were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters using a multivariate animal model including six traits: body weight (BW), processing body weight (PW), BY, DPM, WB, and WS, in addition to the appropriate fixed effects and permanent environmental effect of the dam. Results indicate similar patterns of heritability and genetic correlations for the two lines. Heritabilities (h2) of BW, PW and BY ranged from 0.271-0.418; for DPM and WB h2<0.1; and for WS h2≤0.338. Genetic correlations between the BMM and BW, PW, or BY were ≤0.132 in Line A and ≤0.248 in Line B. This paper demonstrates the polygenic nature of these traits and the low genetic relationships with BW, PW, and BY, which facilitates genetic improvement across all traits in a balanced breeding program. It also highlights the importance of understanding the environmental and/or management factors that contribute greater than 65% of the variance in the incidence of white striping of breast muscle and more than 90% of the variance of the incidence of wooden breast and deep pectoral myopathy in broiler chickens.

  3. Supplemental zinc and vitamin A can alleviate negative effects of heat stress in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kucuk, Osman; Sahin, Nurhan; Sahin, Kazim

    2003-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of zinc (ZnSO4.H2O) and vitamin A (retinol) supplementation on performance, carcass characteristics, and serum concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, total protein, and malondialdehyde (MDA) as an indicator of lipid peroxidation in broiler chickens (Ross) reared at a high temperature (34 degrees C). One hundred twenty 10-d-old male broilers were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups, 3 replicates of 10 birds each. The birds were fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with either 30 mg Zn/kg diet, 4.5 mg (15,000 IU) retinol/kg diet, or 30 mg Zn + 4.5 mg retinol/kg diet. Supplemental zinc and vitamin A significantly increased live weight gain and improved feed efficiency (p<0.05). However, a combination of zinc and vitamin A, rather than each separately, provided a greater performance. Hot and chilled carcass weights and yields and the weights of internal organs with the exception of abdominal fat were greater for each supplement (p<0.05) compared to the control group. Abdominal fat decreased (p<0.05) upon dietary zinc and vitamin A supplementation. Supplemental treatments resulted in an increased total serum protein but decreased glucose, cholesterol, and MDA concentrations. The results of the study show that, separately or as a combination, zinc and vitamin A supplementation resulted in an improved live weight gain, feed efficiency, and carcass traits, as well as a decrease in serum MDA concentrations. The results of the present study also suggest that zinc and vitamin A have similar effects and that a combination of zinc and vitamin A may offer a potential protective management practice in preventing heat-stress-related depression in performance of broiler chickens.

  4. Morphometric Documentation of a High Prevalence of Left Ventricular Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Both Clinically Normal and Cyanotic Mature Commercial Broiler Breeder Roosters with Comparisons to Market-Age Broilers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Floyd D; Magee, Danny L; Jones, Kelli H; Baravik-Munsell, Erica; Cummings, Timothy S; Wills, Robert W; Pace, Lanny W

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies documented the common occurrence of transitory cyanosis and echocardiographic aortic insufficiency in mature commercial broiler breeder roosters. During further investigations, we observed a high prevalence of hearts exhibiting extensive dilation of the left ventricle chamber compatible with dilated left ventricular cardiomyopathy present in both cyanotic and normal subpopulations. We conducted quantitative studies focused on documentation of cardiac ventricle parameters by using simple gross morphometric methods performed on formalin-fixed hearts obtained from both clinically normal roosters and those exhibiting variable transitory cyanosis, echocardiographic aortic insufficiency, or both. A high prevalence of often dramatic left ventricular dilation reflected in enlarged left ventricular chamber areas and elevated left ventricle-to-total ventricle area ratios was morphometrically documented. However, no statistically significant differences in the occurrence of ventricular abnormalities were observed between normal and cyanotic roosters. Age-associated changes were also demonstrated by comparative morphometric studies on hearts from normal market-age broilers (average age of 7 wk) and those of mature roosters (average age of 42 wk). Elevation in both left and right ventricular weight-to-total heart weight ratios dramatically increased with aging. In addition, values (average ± SD) for the left ventricle chamber area-to-total ventricle area ratios increased from 3.2 ± 2.0% in broilers up to 10.0 ± 8.8% in roosters. None of the normal broilers studied demonstrated left ventricular volume ratios above 10%, whereas 33% of the roosters had left ventricular volume ratios above 10%, including 13% with ratios of 20% or higher. However, the left ventricle wall area-to-body weight ratios were much closer for the two age groups (0.85 ± 0.18 cm(2)/kg in broilers and 0.79 ± 0.13 cm(2)/kg in roosters). Also, the standard right ventricle-to-total ventricle

  5. Cardiovascular tolerance of intravenous lidocaine in broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) anesthetized with isoflurane.

    PubMed

    Brandão, João; da Cunha, Anderson F; Pypendop, Bruno; Stout, Rhett; Nevarez, Javier; Tully, Thomas N

    2015-07-01

    To determine the cardiovascular effects of lidocaine infused intravenously (IV) in broiler chickens. Two phase study: Phase 1, randomized up-and-down study to determine effective dose 50 (ED50) for lidocaine; Phase 2, prospective randomized study to determine the cardiovascular effects of lidocaine. Seventeen Ross-708 broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) [11 chickens (Phase 1) and 6 chickens (Phase 2)], weighing 2.6-4.3 kg. After induction of anesthesia with isoflurane and placement of monitoring equipment including invasive blood pressure, chickens were administered lidocaine IV. During Phase 1, using an up-and-down design, each animal received a variable dose selected based on the response of the previous animal. During Phase 2, each animal was administered 6 mg kg(-1) of lidocaine IV over 2 minutes. Clinically irrelevant cardiovascular effects were defined as a relative decrease of heart rate (HR) and mean blood pressure (MAP) <30% subsequent to IV lidocaine administration. The ED50 was defined as the dose rate that would cause clinically irrelevant cardiovascular depression in 50% of the population. During Phase 1, using an up-and-down study design (n = 11), the ED50 of lidocaine was determined to be 6.30 mg kg(-1) and 6.22 mg kg(-1) (95% confidence interval, 5.30-7.13 mg kg(-1)), when calculated by Dixon's up-and-down method, and logistic regression, respectively. During Phase 2, following infusion of lidocaine (6 mg kg(-1)), no clinically relevant effects on HR or MAP were detected in any animal. Previous reports state that the dose of lidocaine used in birds should be ≤4 mg kg(-1). In this study, 6 mg kg(-1) of lidocaine injected IV was not associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. These results suggest that the dose of 4 mg kg(-1) can be exceeded, at least in chickens, and opens the possibility of other therapeutic uses for lidocaine in birds. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia

  6. Evaluation of associations between feed withdrawal and other management factors with Salmonella contamination of broiler chickens at slaughter in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Mainali, C; Gensler, G; McFall, M; King, R; Irwin, R; Senthilselvan, A

    2009-10-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the most common bacterial foodborne diseases of public health concern in industrialized countries. Poultry products are considered an important source of Salmonella-related foodborne disease in humans. This study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between various management factors including feed withdrawal and transportation time with Salmonella contamination in crops, ceca, and carcasses of broiler chickens at slaughter in Alberta. Using a two-stage sampling procedure, 30 matched crop and cecal samples before evisceration and an additional 30 neck skin samples after final wash of broiler chickens were collected at slaughter. A questionnaire was administered at the time of sampling to collect information on flock management risk factors. Cecal contents were individually screened with Salmonella-specific real-time PCR to detect positive flocks, and all cecal, crop, and neck skin samples from positive flocks were processed further for Salmonella isolation and characterization. The flock prevalence of Salmonella was 57.1% and within-flock prevalence of Salmonella for positive flocks was 17.2, 8.1, and 53.9% for ceca, crops, and neck skins, respectively. Salmonella Hadar was the most common serovar identified from crops, ceca, and neck skins of broiler chickens tested. Longer transport (P = 0.04 for neck skins) and waiting time in-plant (P = 0.04 for crops, P = 0.03 for ceca) were identified as important risk factors for Salmonella contamination of broiler chickens at slaughter. Salmonella contamination of broiler chickens could potentially be minimized by reducing waiting time in-plant for flocks with longer transport time.

  7. Higher bioavailability of doxycycline in broiler chickens with a novel in-feed pharmaceutical formulation.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Lilia; Zermeño, Juan; Alcalá, Yazmín; Sumano, Héctor

    2017-02-23

    Bioavailability of a new, long-acting (LA) pharmaceutical preparation for administering doxycycline as in-feed medication to broiler chickens was compared to the standard in-feed administration of doxycycline. A commercial poultry house harboring Ross-308 broiler chickens, weighing 450 g, was divided into 7 sections as follows: doxy-FOLA group (n = 6,000 chickens divided into 3 replicates) medicated with 10% doxycyline, long-acting pellets at a dose of 400 g of doxycycline HCl/ton of food, resulting in a calculated dose of 48 mg/kg for 5 d; doxy-ref group (n = 6,000, divided into 3 replicates) medicated as for doxy-FOLA, but using a 20% commercial preparation of doxycycline. A third group of 300 broiler chickens (divided into 3 replicates), received a single IV dose of 48 mg/kg from a 2.4% solution of doxycycline HCl under ketamine anesthesia. Blood samples were obtained at designated times, serum was harvested, and doxycycline concentrations determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Bioavailability values were 156% and 227% on d 1 and 5 for doxy-FOLA and 13% and 23% for doxy-ref, on the same days. Mean residence time (MRT) and elimination half-life (T½β) were statistically different (P < 0.05) in doxy-FOLA group as compared to doxy-ref group (MRT: 26 h and 5.2 h; and T½β: 18 h vs 3 h, on the first day for doxy-FOLA and doxy-ref, respectively). Based on 3 levels of bacterial sensitivity of E. coli derived from a small survey carried out (i.e., 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 μg/mL) and considering pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) ratios required for this time-dependent antibacterial drug, it is possible to postulate that doxy-FOLA outstrips the reference preparation maintaining higher and more prolonged serum concentrations of doxycycline and consequently complying better with PK/PD ratios regarded as optimal for this drug. The advantages of using doxy-FOLA in poultry medicine include a more comprehensive use of the active principle

  8. Influence of different prebiotics and mode of their administration on broiler chicken performance.

    PubMed

    Bednarczyk, M; Stadnicka, K; Kozłowska, I; Abiuso, C; Tavaniello, S; Dankowiakowska, A; Sławińska, A; Maiorano, G

    2016-08-01

    In the post-antibiotics era, prebiotics are proposed as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in poultry production. The goal of this study was to compare in ovo method of prebiotic delivery with in-water supplementation and with both methods combined (in ovo+in-water) in broiler chickens. Two trials were conducted. Trial 1 was carried out to optimize the doses of two prebiotics, DN (DiNovo®, extract of beta-glucans) and BI (Bi2tos, trans-galactooligosaccharides), for in ovo delivery. The estimated parameters were hatchability and bacteriological status of the newly hatched chicks. Prebiotics were dissolved in 0.2 ml of physiological saline, at the doses: 0.18, 0.88, 3.5 and 7.0 mg/embryo; control group (C) was injected in ovo with 0.2 ml of physiological saline. Trial 2 was conducted to evaluate effects of different prebiotics (DN, BI and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO)) delivered in ovo, in-water and in a combined way (in ovo+in-water) on broiler chickens performance. The results of the Trial 1 indicated that the optimal dose of DN and BI prebiotics delivered in ovo, that did not reduce chicks' hatchability, was 0.88 mg/embryo (DN) and 3.5 mg/embryo (BI). Both prebiotics numerically increased number of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in chicken feces (P>0.05). In Trial 2, all prebiotics (DN, BI and RFO) significantly increased BW gain compared with the C group (P<0.05), especially during the first 21 days of life. However, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were increased upon prebiotics delivery irrespective of method used. Injection of prebiotics in ovo combined with in-water supplementation did not express synergistic effects on broilers performance compared with in ovo injection only. Taken together, those results confirm that single in ovo prebiotics injection into the chicken embryo can successfully replace prolonged in-water supplementation post hatching.

  9. Interrelations between the Microbiotas in the Litter and in the Intestines of Commercial Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Cressman, Michael D.; Yu, Zhongtang; Nelson, Michael C.; Moeller, Steven J.; Lilburn, Michael S.; Zerby, Henry N.

    2010-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota of broiler chickens and the microbiota in the litter have been well studied, but the interactions between these two microbiotas remain to be determined. Therefore, we examined their reciprocal effects by analyzing the intestinal microbiotas of broilers reared on fresh pine shavings versus reused litter, as well as the litter microbiota over a 6-week cycle. Composite ileal mucosal and cecal luminal samples from birds (n = 10) reared with both litter conditions (fresh versus reused) were collected at 7, 14, 21, and 42 days of age. Litter samples were also collected at days 7, 14, 21, and 42. The microbiotas were profiled and compared within sample types based on litter condition using PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The microbiotas were further analyzed using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from microbiota DNA extracted from both chick intestinal and litter samples collected at day 7. Results showed significant reciprocal effects between the microbiotas present in the litter and those in the intestines of broilers. Fresh litter had more environmental bacteria, while reused litter contained more bacteria of intestin