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Sample records for broiler breeder chickens

  1. Seroprevalence of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale infection in broiler and broiler breeder chickens in West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Allymehr, M

    2006-02-01

    Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is a pleomorphic Gram-negative rod shaped bacterium of the rRNA superfamily V that is associated with respiratory disease in poultry. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of O. rhinotracheale infection in broiler and broiler breeder chickens in West Azerbaijan (Urmia lake region) by using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In this study, 463 serum samples were obtained from 50 broiler flocks and 472 blood sera from 42 broiler breeder flocks. Results showed that 41 broiler flocks (82%) and 39 broiler breeder flocks (92.8%) were positive. Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale antibodies were detected in 205 (44.2%) of the 463 broiler serum samples. Of the 472 blood sera examined from broiler breeder, 340 (72%) were positive. The results of this study indicated that the prevalence of O. rhinotracheale antibodies is high in the broiler and broiler breeder flocks in West Azerbaijan.

  2. Effect of vaccinating breeder chickens with a killed Salmonella vaccine on Salmonella prevalences and loads in breeder and broiler chicken flocks.

    PubMed

    Berghaus, R D; Thayer, S G; Maurer, J J; Hofacre, C L

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vaccination of breeder chickens on Salmonella prevalences and loads in breeder and broiler chicken flocks. Chickens housed on six commercial breeder farms were vaccinated with a killed Salmonella vaccine containing Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Kentucky. Unvaccinated breeders placed on six additional farms served as controls. Eggs from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks were kept separately in the hatchery, and the resulting chicks were used to populate 58 commercial broiler flock houses by using a pair-matched design. Vaccinated breeder flocks had significantly higher Salmonella-specific antibody titers than did the unvaccinated breeder flocks, although they did not differ significantly with respect to environmental Salmonella prevalences or loads. Broiler flocks that were the progeny of vaccinated breeders had significantly lower Salmonella prevalences and loads than broiler flocks that were the progeny of unvaccinated breeders. After adjusting for sample type and clustering at the farm level, the odds of detecting Salmonella in samples collected from broiler flocks originating from vaccinated breeders were 62% lower (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.38 [0.21, 0.68]) than in flocks from unvaccinated breeders. In addition, the mean load of culture-positive samples was lower in broilers from vaccinated breeders by 0.30 log most probable number per sample (95% confidence interval of -0.51, -0.09; P = 0.004), corresponding to a 50% decrease in Salmonella loads. In summary, vaccination of broiler breeder pullets increased humoral immunity in the breeders and reduced Salmonella prevalences and loads in their broiler progeny, but did not significantly decrease Salmonella in the breeder farm environment.

  3. Molecular characterization of chicken infectious anemia viruses detected from breeder and broiler chickens in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, H-R; Kwon, Y-K; Bae, Y-C; Oem, J-K; Lee, O-S

    2010-11-01

    In South Korea, 32 sequences of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) from various flocks of breeder and commercial chickens were genetically characterized for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral protein 1 gene, including a hypervariable region of the CIAV genome, indicated that Korean CIAV strains were separated into groups II, IIIa, and IIIb. Strains were commonly identified in great-grandparent and grandparent breeder farms as well as commercial chicken farms. In the field, CIAV strains from breeder farms had no clinical effects, but commercial farm strains were associated with depression, growth retardation, and anemia regardless of the group from which the strain originated. In addition, we identified 7 CIAV genomes that were similar to vaccine strains from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks. These data suggest that further studies on pathogenicity and vaccine efficacy against the different CIAV group are needed, along with continuous CIAV surveillance and genetic analysis at breeder farms.

  4. Characterization of reticuloendotheliosis virus isolates obtained from broiler breeders, turkeys, and prairie chickens located in various geographical regions in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mays, Jody K; Silva, Robert F; Lee, Lucy F; Fadly, Aly M

    2010-10-01

    Nine reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) isolates obtained from broiler breeders, turkeys, and prairie chickens located in three different geographical regions in the USA, and three isolates obtained from known contaminated live-virus vaccines were characterized using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) assays. All isolates were propagated in chicken embryo fibroblasts obtained from a specific pathogen free breeder flock. PCR analysis of all 12 isolates resulted in the amplification of the 291-bp REV long-terminal repeat region (LTR); none of the isolates exhibited a different pattern or shift from the expected PCR product of REV LTR. The subtype of the REV isolates was determined by IFA using REV-specific monoclonal antibodies, 11B118.22, 11C237.8, and 11D182. Results from sub-typing indicated that all nine isolates from broiler breeders, turkeys, and prairie chickens belonged to subtype 3, and are antigenically related to the chick syncytial virus (CSV) strain of REV, the prototype of subtype 3 REV. In contrast, the three isolates from contaminated vaccines were classified as subtype 2, and were antigenically related to spleen necrosis virus (SNV) strain of REV, the prototype of subtype 2 REV. Three isolates representing REV isolated from broiler breeders, turkeys, and prairie chickens were cloned and further evaluated by DNA sequence analysis of the envelope gene. Results from DNA sequence analysis confirmed those from sub-typing and indicated that the three REV isolates representing those from broiler breeders, turkeys, and prairie chickens are closely related to CSV of REV, with an amino acid homology of 98% or greater as compared with SNV with an amino acid homology of 95% or less. Data from this study clearly indicate that subtype 3 is the most common subtype of REV circulating in three different avian species, namely broiler breeders, turkeys and prairie chickens, located in three different geographical regions in the United

  5. Active immunization of broiler breeder cockerels against chicken inhibin accelerates puberty and prevents age-induced testicular involution.

    PubMed

    Satterlee, D G; Castille, S A; Fioretti, W C

    2006-06-01

    Injection of quail and breeder hens with a recombinant protein antigen (MBP-cINA521)--a fusion of the bacterical maltose-binding protein (MBP) and a fragment of the alpha-subunit of chicken inhibin (cINA521)--accelerates puberty and enhances lay. Herein, the effects of this immunogen on reproductive responses in broiler breeder males were assessed. Cockerels were subcutaneously injected with 0 (vehicular controls), 1, 3, or 5 mg of MBP-cINA521 at 13 wk of age and with one-half of these dosages (boosters) at 18 wk. Bird subsamples were weighed, blood sampled, and killed at 24, 28, and 39 wk of age to assess age and vaccination effects on BW, testes weight (TWT), TWT relative to BW (RTWT), TWT > or = 20 g (TWT20; theoretical threshold TWT for maximum fertility), and plasma testosterone. Breeder males are sexually developing, reach peak sexual activity, and show age-related reproductive decline at these ages. Because vaccine gonadal effects at 24 wk appeared to be dramatic, the size of the left testis was also scored to see if size differences could be detected by mere visual inspection. Male fighting increasingly reduced sample sizes beyond 24 wk. Because mortality was unrelated to the treatments and to insure meaningful statistical comparisons, MBP-cINA521 data were pooled. Body weight (P < 0.04), testis score (P < 0.02), TWT (P < 0.03), RTWT (P = 0.06), and plasma testosterone (P = 0.08) were elevated in immunogen-treated males at 24 wk of age, and more (P < 0.05) MBP-cINA521-treated birds than controls achieved a TWT20 at this time. These variables did not differ by treatment at 28 wk. However, by 39 wk, treatment effects reemerged as follows: TWT (P < 0.04), RTWT (P = 0.06), and TWT20 (P < 0.01) were increased in vaccinated males who also showed nearly 3-fold higher levels of plasma testosterone. We conclude that immunoneutralization of inhibin accelerates puberty and retards age-related sexual senescence that typically occurs in broiler breeder males.

  6. Impact of Feeding Systems and Vaccination Programs on Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization and Clearance of E. Coli In Broiler Broiler Breeders Pullets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler breeder pullets from a single grandparent flock were in ovo-vaccinated with Marek's vaccines herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) + chicken herpesvirus (SB1) or a vector HVT + Infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine+SB1. The chicks were placed in an experimental broiler breeder facility at the Univer...

  7. Evaluation of nutrient specifications for broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Wilson, H R; Harms, R H

    1984-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if previously suggested nutrient requirements of broiler breeders (23 g protein, 850 mg sulfur amino acids, 4.5 g calcium, and 750 mg phosphorus/bird/day) are in excess and could be reduced during the laying period. In Experiment 1, Cobb color-sex broiler breeders were fed daily nutrient allowances that were 100.0, 96.3, 92.5, 89.4, and 86.6% of the suggested requirements. In Experiment 2, Cobb feather-sex breeders were fed daily allowances that were 92.5, 89.4, 86.6, 83.4, and 80.9% of the suggested requirements. Birds on all diets were fed the same energy level; however, energy varied with season to maintain body weight. Egg production, fertility, hatchability, egg weight, and shell quality were not significantly affected by the reductions in nutrient intake in either experiment. The diet with the lowest nutrient level (80.9% of the suggested requirement) was adequate, indicating a considerable margin of safety for the stated requirements. Body weight was quite variable but tended to decrease with nutrient restriction. Weights of broilers hatched from treated breeders were not significantly affected at 49 days of age by the breeder dietary treatments. These results indicate that broiler breeder diets formulated to meet presently suggested requirements have a large margin of safety and a reduction of specifications by approximately 10% is suggested. The revised daily intakes recommended are: 20.6 g protein, 754 mg sulfur amino acids, 400 mg methionine, 938 mg lysine, 1379 mg arginine, 256 mg tryptophan, 4.07 g calcium, 683 mg total phosphorus, and 170 mg sodium.

  8. Distribution and Genetic Profiles of Campylobacter in Commercial Broiler Production from Breeder to Slaughter in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Prachantasena, Sakaoporn; Charununtakorn, Petcharatt; Muangnoicharoen, Suthida; Hankla, Luck; Techawal, Natthaporn; Chaveerach, Prapansak; Tuitemwong, Pravate; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa; Williams, Nicola; Humphrey, Tom; Luangtongkum, Taradon

    2016-01-01

    Poultry and poultry products are commonly considered as the major vehicle of Campylobacter infection in humans worldwide. To reduce the number of human cases, the epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry must be better understood. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the distribution and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter in the Thai chicken production industry. During June to October 2012, entire broiler production processes (i.e., breeder flock, hatchery, broiler farm and slaughterhouse) of five broiler production chains were investigated chronologically. Representative isolates of C. jejuni from each production stage were characterized by flaA SVR sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Amongst 311 selected isolates, 29 flaA SVR alleles and 17 sequence types (STs) were identified. The common clonal complexes (CCs) found in this study were CC-45, CC-353, CC-354 and CC-574. C. jejuni isolated from breeders were distantly related to those isolated from broilers and chicken carcasses, while C. jejuni isolates from the slaughterhouse environment and meat products were similar to those isolated from broiler flocks. Genotypic identification of C. jejuni in slaughterhouses indicated that broilers were the main source of Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat during processing. To effectively reduce Campylobacter in poultry meat products, control and prevention strategies should be aimed at both farm and slaughterhouse levels. PMID:26886590

  9. Distribution and Genetic Profiles of Campylobacter in Commercial Broiler Production from Breeder to Slaughter in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Prachantasena, Sakaoporn; Charununtakorn, Petcharatt; Muangnoicharoen, Suthida; Hankla, Luck; Techawal, Natthaporn; Chaveerach, Prapansak; Tuitemwong, Pravate; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa; Williams, Nicola; Humphrey, Tom; Luangtongkum, Taradon

    2016-01-01

    Poultry and poultry products are commonly considered as the major vehicle of Campylobacter infection in humans worldwide. To reduce the number of human cases, the epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry must be better understood. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the distribution and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter in the Thai chicken production industry. During June to October 2012, entire broiler production processes (i.e., breeder flock, hatchery, broiler farm and slaughterhouse) of five broiler production chains were investigated chronologically. Representative isolates of C. jejuni from each production stage were characterized by flaA SVR sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Amongst 311 selected isolates, 29 flaA SVR alleles and 17 sequence types (STs) were identified. The common clonal complexes (CCs) found in this study were CC-45, CC-353, CC-354 and CC-574. C. jejuni isolated from breeders were distantly related to those isolated from broilers and chicken carcasses, while C. jejuni isolates from the slaughterhouse environment and meat products were similar to those isolated from broiler flocks. Genotypic identification of C. jejuni in slaughterhouses indicated that broilers were the main source of Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat during processing. To effectively reduce Campylobacter in poultry meat products, control and prevention strategies should be aimed at both farm and slaughterhouse levels.

  10. Keratoglobus lesions in the eyes of rearing broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Landman, W J; Boeve, M H; Dwars, R M; Gruys, E

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the occurrence of keratoglobus lesions in a rearing flock of broiler breeder grandparent stock (female line), and its ophthalmological and ocular pathomorphological features. Keratoglobus is known as a recessive sex-linked (Z chromosome) trait in some lines of chickens. The first cases were encountered at 5 weeks of age. At the end of the rearing period a total of 1.5% of the flock was affected. In the flock and affected birds, no signs of any other disease were detected. Compared to eyes of healthy flock mates, the most prominent symptom was ocular protrusion due to bulging and thinning of the cornea, and increase in anterior chamber depth. In addition, there were mononuclear, granulocytic and plasma cell infiltrates in the iris and corpus ciliare, and mild to minimal exudate in the anterior chamber in all cases examined. Although the corneal epithelium and collagen bundles appeared normal on electron microscopy, the corneal endothelium showed some loss of cells and the keratocytes some degenerative changes. The cornea had not lost its transparency and did not show any signs of inflammation, whereas the conjunctiva contained mononuclear infiltrations. Other eye structures did not show any clinical or pathological changes. The pathogenesis of keratoglobus lesions in chickens is unknown. Although a hereditary origin seems probable, it is not known whether the inflammatory changes found caused the presented pathology or were secondary to the extreme corneal bulging.

  11. THE EFFECT OF EMBRYONIC AGE AND BREEDER FLOCK AGE ON THE GASTROINTESTINAL MICROBIOME OF DEVELOPING BROILER CHICKEN: POTENTIAL IMPLICATIONS FOR FOOD SAFETY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: There are several food-safety issues related to broiler egg production, including the introduction/proliferation of zoonotic pathogens during embryonic gastrointestinal (GI) tract development. Little is known about the overall GI bacterial communities, how they change over time, or how ...

  12. Protein and sulfur amino acid requirements of broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Harms, R H; Wilson, H R

    1980-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted with Cobb color-sexed broiler breeder hens to determine their protein and sulfur amino acid requirement. A daily intake between 400 and 478 mg of methionine and between 722 and 839 mg of total sulfur amino acids was necessary for maximum egg production, the latter in a diet of 13.07% protein. Slightly lower levels supported maximum body weights. Hens laying at the highest rate consumed 23.4 g of protein per day.

  13. Parameters for quantification of hunger in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Ingrid C; van Voorst, A Sander; Blokhuis, Harry J

    2003-04-01

    The commercial restricted feeding programme of broiler breeders has a major negative effect on welfare, as the birds are continuously hungry. Objective parameters of hunger are needed to evaluate new management or feeding systems that may alleviate hunger and thus improve broiler breeder welfare. The aim of this experiment was to develop such parameters. Female broiler breeders (Hybro G), n=10 per treatment, were subjected to different levels of feed restriction and we assumed that we thus induced different levels of hunger. Treatment groups were fed ad libitum and at 90%, 70%, 50%, 35% and 25% of ad libitum. In addition, female broiler breeders that were less intensively selected on growth and food conversion (JA57, n=10 per treatment) were fed ad libitum and at 70% of ad libitum. At 6-7 weeks of age, home pen behaviour, behaviour in the open field and baseline plasma corticosterone, glucose and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were determined. Thereafter, birds were subjected to the feed intake motivation (FIM) test that measures compensatory feed intake. Linear relationships between the level of restriction and the compensatory feed intake on the first days of the FIM test and the glucose/NEFA ratio were found which indicate that these parameters can be used to quantify the level of hunger. Curvilinear relationships between sitting and standing in the home pen, walking in the open field and level of restriction were found. A third-grade hyperbolic relationship between the level of restriction and the baseline plasma corticosterone concentration was found. Thus, these parameters do not seem to represent a straightforward relation with the level of hunger. Intensive selection on growth and food conversion seems to have affected the behaviour but not the physiological responses to feed restriction, because the JA57 birds responded behaviourally, but not physiologically, different to feed restriction as compared with the Hybro birds.

  14. Spondylitis in broiler breeder farms in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran: Clinical Report.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Alireza; Taifebagherlu, Jafar; Sharifi, Arian; Delkhosh-Kasmaie, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Spondylitis is a reemerging epidemic spinal infection in male broiler chickens (5 to 7 weeks of age) as well as broiler breeder roosters (15 to 18 weeks of age). Among various causative agents, Enterococcus species and in particular E. cecorum, a gram-positive bacterium as a gastrointestinal flora of birds, have mostly been isolated. On late September 2015, a number of 10 weeks old roosters with characteristic clinical signs of lameness and hock-sitting posture were autopsied. During thorough general routine post-mortem examinations, abnormalities like nodular masses correlated well with the hock-sitting posture and posterior paresis/paralysis were observed in joint spaces on the caudal thoracic vertebral column (T6-T7) immediately anterior to the kidneys in all affected birds. At histopathological examinations, osteomyelitis with limited pathological lesions including mononuclear inflammatory cells infiltration and edema in spinal cord were seen and the infection was diagnosed as an acute spondylosis.

  15. Spondylitis in broiler breeder farms in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran: Clinical Report

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Alireza; Taifebagherlu, Jafar; Sharifi, Arian; Delkhosh-Kasmaie, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Spondylitis is a reemerging epidemic spinal infection in male broiler chickens (5 to 7 weeks of age) as well as broiler breeder roosters (15 to 18 weeks of age). Among various causative agents, Enterococcus species and in particular E. cecorum, a gram-positive bacterium as a gastrointestinal flora of birds, have mostly been isolated. On late September 2015, a number of 10 weeks old roosters with characteristic clinical signs of lameness and hock-sitting posture were autopsied. During thorough general routine post-mortem examinations, abnormalities like nodular masses correlated well with the hock-sitting posture and posterior paresis/paralysis were observed in joint spaces on the caudal thoracic vertebral column (T6-T7) immediately anterior to the kidneys in all affected birds. At histopathological examinations, osteomyelitis with limited pathological lesions including mononuclear inflammatory cells infiltration and edema in spinal cord were seen and the infection was diagnosed as an acute spondylosis. PMID:28144429

  16. Selection for early response to photostimulation in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Tyler, N C; Gous, R M

    2011-08-01

    1. To determine if selection for early response to photostimulation could be successful, 150 male broiler breeders were photostimulated at 8 weeks of age. The first 20 to produce a semen sample and have a reddened comb with an area > 10 cm2 were selected as responders (R) and 20 birds that did not show these signs of sexual development were chosen as non-responders (NR). Once sexually mature, 8 birds from each group that consistently produced a semen sample were mated with both egg-type hybrids and broiler breeder females to observe the response to 8-week photostimulation in the as-hatched offspring. 2. The AFE of the F1 females with NR or R paternity and egg-type hybrid layer maternity (F1L) were similar, but AFE was advanced in birds from R relative to NR paternity when they had broiler breeder maternity (F1B). 3. Date following a normal distribution of AFE were extracted from the overall data set. This group included offspring from both NR and R paternity, but AFE in F1L and F1B females with R paternity was advanced compared to those with NR paternity. 4. Mean testis weights, or age at most rapid testis growth predicted using parameters from Tyler and Gous (2009), of F1 males were not significantly different in birds with NR or R paternity. A strong correlation was found between predicted age at most rapid growth and AFE of full sibs and so it is likely that an advance in AFE in female offspring would also result in an advance in age of testis development of males. 5. There was no significant difference in 21-d body weight of F1B females of NR or R paternity, but the 21-d body weights of F1L females were higher from R than from NR sires, suggesting that although fertility and meat-type traits are often negatively correlated, there was no adverse effect of selection for responsiveness to early photostimulation and broiler growth rates to 21 d. 6. These findings showed that the response to early stimulation is heritable, and should be useful to the broiler breeder

  17. Effects of acute and chronic heat stress on plasma metabolites, hormones and oxidant status in restrictedly fed broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jingjing; Tang, Li; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Liyang; Lin, Xi; Liu, Hsiao-Ching; Odle, Jack; Luo, Xugang

    2015-07-01

    Heat tolerance can be improved by feed restriction in broiler chickens. It is unknown whether the same is true for broiler breeders, which are restrictedly fed. Therefore, the current study was conducted to study the effects of heat stress on plasma metabolites, hormones, and oxidative status of restricted fed broiler breeders with special emphases on the temperature and latency of heat exposure. In trial 1, 12 broiler breeders were kept either in a thermoneutral chamber (21°C, control, n = 6) or in a chamber with a step-wise increased environmental temperature from 21 to 33°C (21, 25, 29, 33°C, heat-stressed, n = 6). Changes in plasma total cholesterol, glucose, and triiodothyronine (T3) were closely related to the environmental temperature. When the temperature reached 29°C, plasma T3 (P < 0.05) was significantly decreased in acute heat-stressed birds, whereas plasma glucose (P < 0.001) and cholesterol (P = 0.002) increased only when the temperature reached 33°C. Plasma triglyceride (P = 0.026) and creatine kinase (CK, P = 0.018) were lower in heat-stressed birds than controls regardless of the temperatures applied. In Trial 2, 24 broiler breeders were divided into 2 groups and raised under 21°C and 32°C for 8 weeks, respectively. Total cholesterol was increased in chronic heat-stressed broiler breeders after 4 weeks. Plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, P = 0.047) and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, P = 0.036) was up-regulated after 6 weeks of thermal treatment, whereas plasma CK (P = 0.009) was increased at the end of thermal treatment. Plasma malonaldehyde, protein carbonyl content, activity of total superoxide dismutase (SOD), and corticosterone content were not altered after acute and prolonged heat challenges. Taken together, acute heat stress primarily resulted in disturbance of plasma metabolites, whereas chronic heat stress caused tissue damage reflected by increased plasma LDA, GOT, and CK. During acute heat stress, plasma metabolites were

  18. The prevalence of Campylobacter amongst a free-range broiler breeder flock was primarily affected by flock age.

    PubMed

    Colles, Frances M; McCarthy, Noel D; Layton, Ruth; Maiden, Martin C J

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter successfully colonizes broiler chickens, but little is known about the longer term natural history of colonization, since most flocks are slaughtered at an immature age. In this study, the prevalence and genetic diversity of Campylobacter colonizing a single free-range broiler breeder flock was investigated over the course of a year. The age of the flock was the most important factor in determining both the prevalence and diversity of Campylobacter over time. There was no correlation with season, temperature, the amount of rain and sunshine, or the dynamics of colonization amongst geographically and temporally matched broiler flocks. The higher prevalence rates coincided with the age at which broiler chickens are typically slaughtered, but then in the absence of bio-security or other intervention methods, and despite changes in flock management, the prevalence fell to significantly lower levels for the remainder of the study. The genetic diversity of Campylobacter increased as the flock aged, implying that genotypes were accumulated within the flock and may persist for a long time. A better understanding of the ecology of Campylobacter within commercial chicken flocks will allow the design of more effective farm-based interventions.

  19. Prevalence of salmonellae in broiler, layer and breeder flocks in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sasipreeyajan, J; Jerngklinchan, J; Koowatananukul, C; Saitanu, K

    1996-05-01

    Salmonellae were detected in thirteen broiler flocks, 15 layer flocks and 7 parent breeder flocks in Thailand from October 1991 to August 1992. Salmonellae were isolated from samples of feed, drinking water, cloacal swabs, faeces and litter from all broiler and breeder flocks, and 87% of the layer flocks. From broiler flocks, litter samples were more frequently contaminated than other samples, while feed left over in the layer house and drinking water in the parent breeder house were the most commonly contaminated. Of the total of 1,488 samples examined from all flocks, salmonellae were recovered from samples of litter (42%), water in drinking troughs (36%), feed left over in the feed trays (28%), water in the main tanks (17%), cloacal swabs (13%) and stock feed (8%). The most common serovars associated with the broiler, layer and parent breeder flocks were Salmonella blockley, S. weltevreden and S. amsterdam respectively.

  20. The effect of low-density broiler breeder diets on performance and immune status of their offspring.

    PubMed

    Enting, H; Boersma, W J A; Cornelissen, J B W J; van Winden, S C L; Verstegen, M W A; van der Aar, P J

    2007-02-01

    Effects of low-density broiler breeder diets on offspring performance and mortality were studied using 2,100 female and 210 male Cobb 500 breeders. Breeder treatments involved 4 experimental groups and a control group with normal density diets (ND, 2,600 kcal of AME/kg during rearing and 2,800 kcal of AME/kg during laying). In treatment 2, nutrient densities were decreased by 12% (LD12) and 11% (LD11) during the rearing and laying periods, respectively, whereas in treatment 3, nutrient densities were decreased by 23% (LD23) and 21% (LD21) during the rearing and laying periods, respectively. The nutrient density in these treatments was decreased through inclusion of palm kernel meal, wheat bran, wheat gluten feed, and sunflower seed meal in the diets. Treatment 4 included diets with the same nutrient densities as in treatment 2 but included oats and sugar beet pulp (LD12(OP) and LD11(OP)). In treatment 5, the same low-density diet was given to the breeders as in treatment 2 during the rearing period, but it was followed by a normal density diet during the laying period (LD12-ND). Treatments were applied from 4 to 60 wk of age. On low-density diets, offspring showed an increased 1-d-old weight. As compared with offspring of breeders that received ND, the d 38 live weight of chickens from 29-wk-old breeders fed LD11 was improved. Mortality was reduced in offspring from 60-wk-old parent stock given low-density diets. The IgM titers in 35-d-old offspring from eggs with a lower-than-average weight were reduced when 29-wk-old broiler breeders were fed low-density diets. In offspring from eggs with a higher-than-average weight from 60-wk-old parent stock given LD11 or LD21 diets, IgM titers were higher compared with ND. It was concluded that low-density broiler breeder diets can improve offspring growth rates, reduce mortality, and reduce or increase immune responses, depending on breeder age and egg weight.

  1. Comparative study of the effects of organic selenium on hen performance and productivity of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Rajashree, K; Muthukumar, T; Karthikeyan, N

    2014-01-01

    1. A 10-week experiment was conducted with Ross 308 broiler breeder chickens in cages to evaluate the influence of organic and inorganic sources of selenium (Se) supplementation. A total of 600 birds at 29 weeks of age were divided at random into 4 groups and fed on a maize-soya basal diet supplemented with different forms of Se. 2. The first (control) group was given the basal diet without Se supplementation, whereas the second, third and fourth groups were given, respectively, the basal diet with 0.3 mg/kg of inorganic Se in the form of sodium selenite or 0.3 and 0.5 mg/kg of organic Se in the form of Se enriched yeast (Se-yeast). 3. The experiment was carried out for 10 weeks to compare and evaluate the influence of Se supplementation on breeder performance, egg production, hatchability and the quality of eggs. Samples were collected for analysis at weeks 0, 5 and 10 of the experimental period. 4. At the end of the experiment (39 weeks), there was a reduction in mortality in breeders given diets supplemented with 0.5 mg/kg of Se-yeast. Supplementation of feed with 0.5 mg/kg organic Se increased egg production, percentage of settable eggs and hatchability. 5. Selenium supplementation increased egg weight and specific gravity compared to the control diet. However, no significant variation was found in albumen or yolk protein content at the end of week 10. 6. Selenium accumulation and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activity were lower in the egg albumen and yolk of control compared with Se-supplemented treatments. Se accumulation and GSHPx activity were higher in the group given 0.3 mg/kg organic compared to 0.3 mg/kg of inorganic Se. 7. The results favour the use of Se-yeast at the dose of 0.5 mg/kg in broiler breeder diets for better productivity of eggs, settable eggs, hatchability and higher Se accumulation and antioxidant status in eggs.

  2. Eradication of Mycoplasma synoviae from a multi-age broiler breeder farm using antibiotics therapy.

    PubMed

    Hong, Young-Ho; Kwon, Ji-Seon; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won

    2015-10-01

    Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is a common respiratory pathogen in the poultry industry. Eradication of MS from broiler breeder flocks is important for reducing economic losses caused by MS-associated diseases on broiler farms. An outbreak of MS infection was detected on a multi-age Korean broiler breeder farm that implements a flock replacement program every 3 to 6 months and uses A-type cages. Continuous administration of tilmicosin after 2 rounds of intensive antibiotics treatment with chlortetracycline, doxycycline, and enrofloxacin reduced MS shedding from the MS-positive flocks and eventually eradicated MS from the farm. Flock 3 was the last MS-positive flock by both PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while flocks introduced to the farm after flock 3 were MS-negative by both PCR and ELISA at the time of depletion. This is the first report of successful eradication of MS from a multi-age broiler breeder farm using continuous antibiotic treatments.

  3. Bacterial orchitis and epididymo-orchitis in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Monleon, Rafael; Martin, Michael P; John Barnes, H

    2008-12-01

    Two cases of orchitis and epididymo-orchitis in broiler breeders are described. The first case occurred in a 62-week-old rooster showing signs of breeding inactivity. Grossly, the left testis was abnormally shaped and had multiple yellow foci, prominent blood vessels, and a gelatinous mass on the surface. The right testis and other tissues appeared normal. A pure, heavy growth of Staphylococcus aureus was obtained on bacterial culture, and intralesional Gram-positive cocci were numerous on histopathology. The second case occurred in a 28-week-old rooster that was found dead. Both testes were abnormally shaped, swollen, firm, and had irregular, dark, depressed areas, prominent vessels, and multiple petechial haemorrhages. Epididymides were enlarged and nodular. Other lesions in this rooster included poor nutritional condition, distended cloaca, and urate scalding of the abdominal skin below the vent. Microscopically, there was extensive, severe heterophilic intratubular orchitis and epididymitis with intralesional Gram-negative bacteria. A heavy, pure growth of Escherichia coli was obtained from the testes and epididymides. In both cases, the findings suggested that the most probable route of infection was ascending via the ductus deferens.

  4. Multivariate epidemiological approach to salmonellosis in broiler breeder flocks.

    PubMed

    Henken, A M; Frankena, K; Goelema, J O; Graat, E A; Noordhuizen, J P

    1992-05-01

    A retrospective, case-control study into risk factors of salmonellosis was undertaken using data from 111 broiler breeder flocks assembled during a 5-yr period. The results of both univariate and multivariate analyses are presented. Many different Salmonella species were detected. Multivariate models were created based on the outcome of univariate analyses. The following variables appeared to be the most relevant: disinfection tubs, hygiene barriers, the interaction of disinfection tubs by hygiene barriers, and feed mills. The final model indicated that flocks housed at farms without a disinfection tub, with poor hygiene barriers, and receiving their feed from a small feed mill had a 46.1 times greater risk of being Salmonella-positive than flocks housed at farms with a disinfection tub, with good hygiene barriers, and receiving their feed from a large feed mill. It is concluded that the application of quantitative epidemiological methods can be valuable not only to identify potential risk factors but also to quantify their contributory effect on the disease outcome. Hence, it may be a useful tool for application in "integrated food chain quality control programs".

  5. Effect of dietary aminoguanidine on tissue pentosidine and reproductive performance in broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M; Probert, L L; Klandorf, H

    1997-11-01

    Factors influencing the age-related decline in production parameters of broiler breeder hens are poorly understood. Elevated blood glucose concentrations measured in broiler breeder hens may contribute to this decline. The nonenzymatic attachment of glucose to proteins generates glycoxidation crosslinks in tissue proteins, which can ultimately impair their function. One such glycoxidation crosslink, pentosidine, has been used as a biomarker for aging studies because of its accumulation on the structural protein collagen. The objectives of these studies were to determine whether pentosidine accumulates with age in hens and whether the crosslinking inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG), could retard this accumulation. An additional objective was to determine whether AG had any effect on production performance. In the first study, broiler breeder hens (n = 318) were randomly assigned to two groups: control and supplemented (400 ppm AG). Pentosidine was measured in the skin of the birds at 20 and 67 wk of age. Egg production was measured daily. In a second study, broiler breeder hens (n = 60) were reared as previously described. Pentosidine was measured in the skin of the birds at 20 and 68 wk of age. Results showed that pentosidine was present in the skin of the hens, and that concentrations increased with age (P < 0.001). Although pentosidine was reduced (P < 0.001) in AG-supplemented birds, production performance was not affected. In conclusion, AG retarded the rate of accumulation of pentosidine during lay in broiler breeder hens, but the reduction in pentosidine did not significantly affect production performance.

  6. The Impact of Yeast Culture Residue on the Suppression of Dietary Aflatoxin on the Performance of Broiler Breeder Hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to examine the effect of yeast culture residue (YCR) on the suppression of aflatoxicosis in broiler breeder hens. One hundred twenty, 35-wk-old, Cobb broiler breeder hens of the same cross were fed diets supplemented with aflatoxin (AF) (0 or 3 mg/kg) and YCR (0 or 2 lb/ton) s...

  7. Efficacy of Recombinant HVT-IBD Vaccines Administered to Broiler Chicks from a Single Breeder Flock at 30 and 60 Weeks of Age.

    PubMed

    Gelb, Jack; Jackwood, Daral J; Brannick, Erin M; Ladman, Brian S

    2016-09-01

    The efficacy of commercially available recombinant herpesvirus of turkeys-infectious bursal disease (rHVT-IBD) virus vaccines was studied in broiler chickens derived from an IBDV-vaccinated breeder flock at 30 wk of age (Trial 1) and 60 wk of age (Trial 2). In parallel, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) white leghorn chickens were used to evaluate vaccine efficacy to control for the effects of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) associated with the broiler chickens. Broilers and SPF leghorns were vaccinated subcutaneously in the neck at 1 day of age with Vaxxitek® HVT+IBD or Vectormune® HVT-IBD vaccines and were placed in isolators. On 10, 14, 18, 22, and 26 days postvaccination (DPV), vaccinated and nonvaccinated broilers and SPF leghorns were bled prior to challenge via the oral-nasal route with infectious bursal disease (IBD) reference strains ST-C, Delaware variant E (Del E), or contemporary field isolates DMV/5038/07 or FF6. Microscopic lesion assessment of the bursa was useful for assessing IBDV challenge in both rHVT-IBD-vaccinated broiler and SPF leghorn chickens. In general, rHVT-IBD vaccines induced greater protection as the time between vaccination and challenge increased. Based on incidence of microscopic lesions (IML) of bursa tissue, Vaxxitek HVT+IBD vaccination of SPF leghorns induced protection by 18 DPV and continued to protect 22 DPV and 26 DPV in Trials 1 and 2. Vectormune HVT-IBD vaccine induced protection of SPF leghorns by 18 or 22 DPV in Trial 1, depending upon the IBDV challenge strain. However, the onset of protection was delayed until 22 or 26 DPV in Trial 2. With either commercial vaccine, rHVT-IBD vaccination of broiler chickens was not as effective as was observed in SPF leghorns, based on IML of bursa tissue. However, Vaxxitek HVT+IBD vaccination protected broilers following challenge with ST-C in both Trial 1 (30-wk-old breeder progeny) and Trial 2 (60-wk-old breeder progeny). Partial protection against FF6 (Trial 1) and DMV/5038

  8. Effect of Testosterone Administration and Spiking on Reproductive Success of Broiler Breeder Flocks.

    PubMed

    Ordas, B; Vahedi, S; Seidavi, A; Rahati, M; Laudadio, V; Tufarelli, V

    2015-10-01

    Age negatively affects reproductive success of broiler breeder flocks. One of the main hormones involved in the change of fertility with the age is testosterone (TT). The introduction of young males at later production stages of broiler flocks is known as spiking and is expected to reduce the fertility decline with age. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of injection of different levels of TT and the effect of spiking on reproductive fitness of broiler breeder flocks. Two experiments were conducted on Ross 308 breeder flocks for 10 weeks (41-50 weeks of age). The experiment 1 included a control and three treatments corresponding to three doses of TT (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 cc), while the experiment 2 included a control and one treatment corresponding to spiking. The lower dose of TT (0.1 cc) and the spiking clearly slowed down the decline in hatchability. Therefore, either the external administration of TT to the males when the natural concentration of TT starts to decline or spiking the breeder flock with young roosters could contribute to improve reproductive success in later stages of the production cycle in broiler breeder flocks.

  9. Epidemiological survey on Mycoplasma synoviae infection in Portuguese broiler breeder flocks.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Fernando Alberto; Cardoso, Luís; Coelho, Ana Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    Since modernization and expansion of the poultry industry, infections with Mycoplasma spp. bacteria have been reported as a cause of considerable economic losses. The prevalence of Mycoplasma synoviae infection in 974,000 Portuguese broiler breeders, belonging to 36 flocks, was investigated from December 2008 to March 2012. This study was conducted using a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the analysis of serum antibodies, and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the tracheal tissue. Twenty-four flocks were simultaneously found positive by ELISA and PCR [66.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 43.5-76.9%]. The M. synoviae prevalence among chickens averaged 40.3% (483/1,200), with values ranging from 0.0 to 83.3% per flock. The prevalence of farms where M. synoviae positive birds have been found was determined in different poultry categories such as density, biosecurity, strains, offspring quality, premises'age, and others husbandry factors. Prevalence values were significantly higher among birds housed in new facilities (less than 3 years old) and were also significantly higher in the production period. The high prevalence of M. synoviae infection detected in the present study suggests the need to adopt appropriate control measures.

  10. The long-term dynamics of Campylobacter colonizing a free-range broiler breeder flock: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Colles, Frances M; McCarthy, Noel D; Bliss, Carly M; Layton, Ruth; Maiden, Martin C J

    2015-04-01

    A free-range broiler breeder flock was studied in order to determine the natural patterns of Campylobacter colonization over a period of 63 weeks. Campylobacter sequence types (STs) were not mutually exclusive and on average colonized only 17.7% of the birds tested at any time. Campylobacter STs typically reached a peak in prevalence upon initial detection in the flock before tailing off, although the ST and antigenic flaA short variable region in combination were stable over a number of months. There was evidence that, with a couple of exceptions, the ecology of C. jejuni and C. coli differed, with the latter forming a more stable population. Despite being free range, no newly colonizing STs were detected over a 6-week period in autumn and a 10-week period in winter, towards the end of the study. There was limited evidence that those STs identified among broiler chicken flocks on the same farm site were likely to colonize the breeder flock earlier (R(2) 0.16, P 0.01). These results suggest that there is natural control of Campylobacter dynamics within a flock which could potentially be exploited in designing new intervention strategies, and that the two different species should perhaps be considered separately.

  11. Inhibition by aminoguanidine of glucose-derived collagen cross-linking in skeletal muscle of broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Klandorf, H; Zhou, Q; Sams, A R

    1996-03-01

    Aminoguanidine (AG) is a nucleophilic compound that inhibits nonenzymatic, glucose-derived collagen cross-linking in animal tissues. Whether AG can attenuate the accumulation of collagen cross-links in the Biceps femoris muscle of 64-wk-old broiler breeder hens as well as improve meat quality, was investigated. Eighty-four broiler breeder hens (30-wk-old) were divided into four equal groups. Each group was assigned randomly to diets supplemented with 0. 200, 400, or 800 ppm AG, respectively. Birds were fed individually, 150 g diet/d. After feeding AG for 34 wk, six birds from each group were killed and samples from the leg muscle were analyzed for changes in collagen content. Aminoguanidine decreased (P < 0.05) glucose-derived collagen cross-links in skeletal muscle as measured by fluorescence and collagen solubility. Insoluble collagen fraction decreased with increasing AG dosage, whereas acid-soluble and pepsin-soluble fractions increased with increasing AG dosage. Aminoguanidine did not affect shear force. In agreement with studies on animals with diabetes, AG is a potent inhibitor of glucose-derived cross-linking in chickens although the results from the measurements of shear force do not support its used for improving carcass quality in spent hens.

  12. Mating behavior and fertility of broiler breeder males reared on shortened growth cycles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the more difficult tasks when raising broiler breeder cockerels is controlling weight gain in the rearing house without inflicting excess stress. This is a period of time for the young male when many portions of reproductive system are in the formative stages and, if neglected, can have lif...

  13. Effect of dietary antimicrobials on immune status in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary antimicrobials (anticoccidials plus antibiotic growth promoters) on the development of post-hatch immune systems in commercial broiler chickens. One hundred and five day-old broiler chicks were raised on the used litter and provi...

  14. Echocardiographic study of pulmonary hypertension syndrome in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Lemus, L A; Miller, M W; Jeffrey, J S; Odom, T W

    2000-01-01

    Echocardiography was used to study cardiovascular structure and function during the development of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS) in broiler chickens. Body weight-normalized right and left ventricular diameters at both end-diastole (RVDD, LVDD) and end-systole (RVDS, LVDS) were determined weekly in broilers reared under either normobaric (altitude, 96.7 m) or hypobaric conditions (simulated altitude, 2900 m) until 5 wk of age. Hypobaric-exposed broilers had larger RVDD at 3 and 4 wk of age and larger RVDS at 3, 4, and 5 wk of age. Hypobaric-exposed broilers also had larger LVDD at 2, 3, 4, and 5 wk of age and larger LVDS at 4 wk of age. Right (RVFS) and left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS) were smaller in hypobaric- vs. normobaric-exposed broilers at 3, 4, and 5 wk of age and at 4 wk of age, respectively. Among hypobaric-exposed birds, PHS-positive (+) broilers had larger RVDD and RVDS than PHS-negative (-) broilers on week 3 and on weeks 1 and 3 after hypobaric exposure, respectively. PHS-positive (+) broilers also had smaller RVFS on week 1 after hypobaric exposure. Electrocardiographic and post-mortem data indicated that PHS+ broilers also developed right ventricular hypertrophy when compared with PHS-negative (-) broilers. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that PHS develops as a result of pulmonary hypertension and cardiac overload and suggest that PHS+ broilers have a greater and more persistent reaction to hypoxia than PHS- broilers.

  15. Enteric disease in broiler chickens following experimental infection with chicken parvovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Day-old broiler chickens were inoculated orally with the chicken parvovirus strain, chicken parvovirus-P1. In four independent experiments, characteristic clinical signs of enteric disease including watery, mustard color diarrhea and growth retardation were observed following infection. The virus wa...

  16. Trace mineral interactions in broiler chicken diets.

    PubMed

    Bao, Y M; Choct, M; Iji, P A; Bruerton, K

    2010-02-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate trace mineral interactions among organic copper, iron, manganese and zinc (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in broiler chickens. 2. Three experiments were conducted using a control diet which was deficient in Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. 3. In experiment 1, the control diet, supplemental organic Cu, Fe alone and combined diets, were randomly fed to 4 groups of one-day-old Cobb broilers (each group had 6 replicates of 4 birds). 4. In experiment 2, the control diet, supplemental organic Mn and Zn alone or combined with Cu, Fe diets and corresponding inorganic combined diet, were randomly fed to 6 groups (each group had 8 replicates of 6 birds). 5. In experiment 3, the depletion of organic Zn, the depletion of inorganic Zn and normal Zn treatments were carried out in three groups of one-day-old Cobb broilers (each group had 8 replicates of 6 birds). 6. Adding organic Cu, Fe and Mn alone or combined to Zn deficient diets did not significantly improve bird performance and were mostly excreted. Supplemental organic Zn alone or combined with other elements significantly increased feed intake, body weight gain and tibia bone length. However, supplemental organic Fe alone or combined with Cu significantly increased feed intake but had no obvious effect on body weight gain. The organic Fe supplementation resulted in a wider tibia. 7. Depletion of organic and inorganic Zn resulted in decreased feed intake, body weight gain and total tibia bone Zn content. Zinc deficiency did not affect the uptake of organic Fe by tibia bone but reduced its total Fe content. 8. Zinc is the first limiting element among these 4 trace minerals. Adding Mn, Cu and Fe to Zn deficient diets did not stimulate bird performance. Surplus organic Fe and Cu resulted in increased feed intake and increased tibia bone Fe content but did not contribute to bird performance.

  17. Effects of canthaxanthin on the productive and reproductive performance of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Rosa, A P; Scher, A; Sorbara, J O B; Boemo, L S; Forgiarini, J; Londero, A

    2012-03-01

    The effects of supplementing canthaxanthin on productive and reproductive aspects of broiler breeders were examined in this study. In total, 360 female pullets and 36 roosters were placed in an open-sided house with 12 pens, each pen with an area of 7.0 m(2) (3.5 × 2.0 m). At 42 wk of age, the breeder hens and roosters were distributed into 2 experimental groups with similar BW and uniformity. From 46 to 66 wk of age, one group received 6 mg/kg of canthaxanthin supplemented in the diet and the other group received the diet without the addition of canthaxanthin (control diet). Body weight was measured every 28 d, the laying rate was calculated weekly, and mortality was evaluated at the end of the study. Twenty-one weekly incubations were performed to evaluate fertility and incubation responses. To evaluate the antioxidant effect of canthaxanthin at different storage times and during the incubation process, eggs from each treatment were subject to thiobarbituric reactive substances analysis. Body weight, mortality, and laying rate were not affected by the inclusion of canthaxanthin in the breeder's diets. An increase in hatchability of total and fertile eggs (P ≤ 0.0001 and P ≤ 0.0003, respectively) in breeders fed canthaxanthin during the experimental period was observed. Canthaxanthin also improved breeder fertility and reduced embryo mortality. This can be attributed to reductions in embryo mortality in the first 48 h of incubation and in the last wk of incubation. No differences were observed in BW and quality of the chicks. A reduction of thiobarbituric reactive substances was observed in yolks from stored hatching eggs produced by breeders fed diets plus canthaxanthin. The same effect was observed in yolks of eggs stored for 4 d and incubated for 7 d. The supplementation of broiler breeder diets with canthaxanthin improved the hatchability rate, fertility, and reduced the presence of thiobarbituric reactive substances in eggs.

  18. Dietary balanced protein in broiler chickens. 2. An economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Eits, R M; Giesen, G W J; Kwakkel, R P; Verstegen, M W A; Den Hartog, L A

    2005-06-01

    An economic model was developed that calculates economic optimal dietary balanced protein (DBP) contents for broiler chickens, based on performance input and prices of meat and feed. Input on broiler responses to DBP content (growth rate, feed conversion, carcase yield and breast meat yield) was obtained from the model described by Eits et al. (2005). Changes in broiler age, price of protein-rich raw materials and large changes (40%) in meat prices resulted in economic relevant differences in DBP content for maximum profit. Effects of changes in sex or feed price on DBP content for maximum profit were negligible. Formulating diets for maximum profit instead of maximum broiler performance can strongly increase the profitability of a broiler production enterprise. DBP content for maximum profitability depends on how the broilers are marketed; as whole birds, carcase or portions.

  19. Effect of four levels of added fat on broiler breeder performance.

    PubMed

    Brake, J

    1990-10-01

    Broiler breeders were fed corn-soybean diets and reared under 8 h of incandescent light. Birds were photostimulated with a mixture of incandescent light and daylight at 20 wk of age. Corn-soybean breeder diets with 0, 2, 4, and 6% added poultry fat were fed from 24 to 64 wk of age. Daily feed allocations were adjusted to provide comparable calculated protein intake at peak egg production; calculated ME intake was 413, 437, 461, and 484 kcal per bird per day for the 0, 2, 4, and 6% added fat diets, respectively. Feed was gradually reduced such that ME intake reached 400, 415, 429, and 422 kcal ME per bird per day from 57 to 64 wk of age for the respective diets. When compared with 0%, all levels of added fat significantly increased egg production and feed conversion. Fertility was increased significantly with the 4% added fat when compared with fertility at 2%; fertility with 0 or 6% added fat was intermediate. Female body weight increased in a dose-related manner in response to added fat. Chicks per hen was maximized at 4% added fat. Taken together, the data are interpreted to mean that 4% added fat is near the optimum for broiler breeders.

  20. Lysine requirements of pre-lay broiler breeder pullets: determination by indicator amino acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Russell A; Bertolo, Robert F; Moehn, Soenke; Leslie, Michael A; Ball, Ronald O; Korver, Doug R

    2003-09-01

    The indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method allows the determination of amino acid requirements under conditions of low growth rate as found in pre-laying broiler breeder pullets. Cobb 500 breeder pullets (20 wk old; 2290 +/- 280 g, n = 4) were adapted (6 d) to a pelleted, purified control diet containing all nutrients at >or=110% of NRC recommendations. After recovery from surgery for implantation of a jugular catheter, each bird was fed, in random order, test diets containing one of nine levels of lysine (0.48, 0.96, 1.92, 2.88, 3.84, 4.80, 7.68, 9.60 and 14.40 g/kg of diet). Indicator oxidation was determined during 4-h primed (74 kBq/kg body), constant infusions (44 kBq x h(-1). kg body(-1)) of L-[1-(14)C]phenylalanine. Using the breakpoint of a one-slope broken-line model, the lysine requirement was determined to be 4.88 +/- 0.96 g/kg of diet or 366 +/- 72 mg x hen(-1) x d(-1) with an upper 95% CI of 6.40 g/kg of diet or 480 mg x hen(-1) x d(-1). IAAO allows determination of individual bird amino acid requirements for specific ages and types of birds over short periods of time and enables more accurate broiler breeder pullet diet formulation.

  1. Amino acid requirements of broiler breeders at peak production for egg mass, body weight, and fertility.

    PubMed

    Ekmay, R D; De Beer, M; Mei, S J; Manangi, M; Coon, C N

    2013-04-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine the amino acid and protein requirements of broiler breeders at peak production. In trial 1, 32-wk-old Cobb 500 broiler breeders with similar BW were selected to determine the digestible amino acid requirement for daily product output (g of egg mass + g of BW gain/b/d) and feed conversion (g of feed/g of product) for Met, Phe, Arg, Ile, Lys, and CP in a 42-d production study. In trial 2, 30-wk-old Cobb 500 broiler breeders were selected to determine the digestible requirement for Met, Lys, Ile, Arg, Cys, Val, Trp, and Thr in a 70-d production study. Breeders were given a corn-soy basal diet plus crystalline amino acids with 8 graded levels of amino acids (10 birds per level), representing 40 to 130% of the highest suggested requirements reported in the literature. All other amino acids were maintained at 100% of their suggested requirement level. All breeders were inseminated weekly and fertility was determined. A third trial consisted of 41-wk-old colostomized hens randomly assigned to 1 of 2 diets differing only in the amount of Ile. Urine was collected after a 6-wk feeding period. The average digestible requirements per breeder per day for both product and feed/product ratio from trials 1 and 2 for Met, Cys, TSAA, Phe, Phe + Tyr, Trp, Arg, Ile, Lys, Val, Thr, and CP were 424, 477, 901, 689, 997, 252, 1,026, 830, 916, 799, 613 mg/d, and 20.0 g/d, respectively. The ideal profile for digestible Met, Cys, TSAA, Phe, Phe + Tyr, Trp, Arg, Ile, Lys, Val, and Thr was 46, 52, 98, 76, 108, 28, 112.0, 91, 100.0, 87, and 67%, respectively. A significant decrease in fertility was noted with increasing levels of Ile and Lys. Urine pH was significantly more alkaline in hens fed the higher level of Ile. It is suggested that adequate dietary Lys and Ile should be provided for maximum hatching egg production but an excess may affect fertility.

  2. Dietary essential oils improve the hepatic antioxidative status of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Karadas, F; Pirgozliev, V; Rose, S P; Dimitrov, D; Oduguwa, O; Bravo, D

    2014-01-01

    1. A total of 200 male Ross 308 chickens were used to evaluate the effects of a standardised combination of essential oils including 5% carvacrol, 3% cinnamaldehyde and 2% capsicum oleoresin (XT 6930; Pancosma S.A., Geneva, Switzerland) on their performance, hepatic antioxidant concentration and caecal tonsils morphometry. 2. Two diets were offered to broiler chickens from d old to 21 d of age. The control diet (C) was slightly lower in metabolisable energy (12.13 MJ/kg ME) and crude protein (215 g/kg CP) than breeders' recommendation. The second diet, made as XT 6930, was added on the top of the control diet at 100 mg/kg. Each diet was offered ad libitum to birds housed in one of 10 floor pens in a randomised complete block design. The birds were housed in 20 floor pens, 10 birds in each pen, and were allocated to 10 replicates of the two dietary treatments. 3. The concentration of antioxidants in the liver of the birds was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at 21 d of age. Birds fed control diet only had lower weight and converted less efficiently feed to gain compared to birds fed essential oils-supplemented diet. Feed consumption was not affected by dietary treatments. The antioxidant data showed that supplemented essential oils improved the hepatic concentration of carotenoids and coenzyme Q10 when fed to broiler chickens. The morphometry of the caecal tonsils of the birds was not influenced by dietary treatments. 4. It can be concluded that that dietary combination of essential oils, including carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and capsicum oleoresin, improved growth, feed efficiency and the hepatic concentration of carotenoids and coenzyme Q10 when fed to broiler chickens.

  3. Clearance of Escherichia coli After Intravenous Inoculation in Broiler Breeder Pullets Fed Skip a day, Every Day in the feeder and Every Day on the Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of feeding programs on the time of clearance of Escherichia coli in broiler breeder pullets was investigated. Broiler breeder pullets from a single grandparent flock were in ovo-vaccinated at 19 d of incubation with a vector HVT (vHVT) vector HVT + Infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine....

  4. Impact of Feeding Systems and Hatchery Vaccination Programs on Immune System Development, Salmonella Colonization, Clearance of E. Coli and Reproductive Traits In Broiler Breeder Pullets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler breeder pullets from a single grandparent flock were vaccinated at 19 days of embryonation with Marek's vaccines HVT +SB1 or a Vector HVT + Infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine. The birds were placed in an experimental broiler breeder facility at the University of Georgia and fed ad libit...

  5. Identification of novel candidate genes for follicle selection in the broiler breeder ovary

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Broiler breeders fed ad libitum are characterised by multiple ovulation, which leads to poor shell quality and egg production. Multiple ovulation is controlled by food restriction in commercial flocks. However, the level of food restriction raises welfare concerns, including that of severe hunger. Reducing the rate of multiple ovulation by genetic selection would facilitate progress towards developing a growth profile for optimum animal welfare. Results The study utilised 3 models of ovarian follicle development; laying hens fed ad libitum (experiment 2) and broiler breeders fed ad libitum or a restricted diet (experiments 1 & 3). This allowed us to investigate gene candidates for follicular development by comparing normal, abnormal and “controlled” follicle hierarchies at different stages of development. Several candidate genes for multiple ovulation were identified by combining microarray analysis of restricted vs. ad libitum feeding, literature searches and QPCR expression profiling throughout follicle development. Three candidate genes were confirmed by QPCR as showing significant differential expression between restricted and ad libitum feeding: FSHR, GDF9 and PDGFRL. PDGFRL, a candidate for steroidogenesis, showed significantly up-regulated expression in 6–8 mm follicles of ad libitum fed broiler breeders (P = 0.016), the period at which follicle recruitment occurs. Conclusions Gene candidates have been identified and evidence provided to support a possible role in regulation of ovarian function and follicle number. Further characterisation of these genes will be required to assess their potential for inclusion into breeding programmes to improve the regulation of follicle selection and reduce the need for feed restriction. PMID:22992265

  6. Virulence characteristics of Escherichia coli isolates obtained from broiler breeders with salpingitis.

    PubMed

    Monroy, Maria A R; Knöbl, Terezinha; Bottino, José A; Ferreira, Claudete S Astolfi; Ferreira, Antonio J Piantino

    2005-01-01

    Thirty isolates of Escherichia coli from broiler breeders with salpingitis were studied. Using the slide agglutination test, the isolates were found to belong to serogroups O1, O2, O5, O36, O45, O53 and O78. Pathogenicity for day-old chicks was determined by air sac inoculation and isolates were categorized as having high, intermediate or low virulence. Growth on iron starvation medium was observed together with aerobactin production. Based on the results of in vitro adherence tests, attachment to oviduct epithelium from old birds was found to be superior to that observed using corresponding material from young birds. DNA hybridization testing for type 1, P, and S fimbriae revealed predominant expression of type 1, correlating with mannose-sensitive hemagglutination using guinea-pig erythrocytes. In this study, P and S fimbriae were not considered to be important adherence factors. Study findings would suggest that, as far as salpingitis is concerned, type 1 fimbriae can play an important role in E. coli infection in breeders. An interesting result to emerge from the study was the observation that E. coli isolates were completely resistant to serum from young breeders, whereas they were completely sensitive using serum from older breeders. Based on serogroups involved, pathogenicity for day-old chicks and virulence indicators, the salpingitis isolates were similar to those from cases of chronic respiratory disease.

  7. Broiler breeder manure phosphorus forms are affected by diet, location, and period of accumulation.

    PubMed

    Casteel, S N; Maguire, R O; Israel, D W; Crozier, C R; Brake, J

    2011-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) modifications of poultry diets have successfully decreased the total P (TP) in manures, but the effects on manure water-soluble P (WSP(M)) remain unclear. Our objectives were to characterize P forms in broiler breeder manures as affected by dietary P modification, location within the pen, and manure accumulation period. Two diets were formulated with and without phytase to attain 0.40% available P (AvP) during the breeder laying phase (22-64 wk of age). Manure was collected after accumulation periods of 48 h, 3 wk, and 39 wk in locations under the feeder and drinker and under the common area (between the feeder and drinker) of the pen. The TP, WSP(M), orthophosphate, and phytate in manure were measured. Broiler breeders that were fed phytase with a simultaneous reduction in nonphytate P (NPP) produced manures with 15% lower TP than those fed a traditional diet, but did not change WSP(M) when averaged over manure accumulation periods and locations within the pen. Regardless of diet, location within the pen, or accumulation period (r(2) = 0.76), the WSP(M) increased linearly as the manure moisture increased. As manure accumulation periods increased (48 h, 3 wk, and 39 wk), TP manure concentrations increased (11.9, 13.2, and 17.3 g/kg, respectively), orthophosphate proportions increased (73.2, 80.1, and 91.0%, respectively), and phytate proportions decreased (23.1, 17.0, and 6.7%, respectively). The mineralization of phytate and other organic complexes, which drive off carbon dioxide, presumably contributed to the increased orthophosphate and TP concentrations. Keeping breeder manures dry helps to avoid the mineralization of phytate to orthophosphate; this mineralization increased WSP(M) in our study, and thus increased the potential for elevated P loss in runoff when surface applied.

  8. Experimental inoculation of specific pathogen free broiler chickens with a thyroid homogenate, containing chicken astrovirus, which was collected from broiler chickens with runting-stunting syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thyroid glands were collected from field broiler chickens with clinical signs and lesions of Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS), submitted for histopathology and processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing using chicken Astrovirus primers. One-day-old White Rock specific pathogen free (SPF) ...

  9. Effects of floor eggs on hatchability and later life performance in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, H; Sosef, M P; Lourens, A; van Harn, J

    2016-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted in which effects of floor eggs, washed floor eggs, and clean nest eggs were investigated on incubation characteristics and performance in later life of broiler chickens. In both experiments, a young and an older breeder flock were used in a 3×2 factorial design during incubation. In the second experiment, male and female chickens were reared separately until d 35 of age in floor pens. During this grow out trial, an extra group was created in which chickens obtained from clean nest eggs were mixed with chickens obtained from floor eggs, meaning that grow out period was set up as a 4×2×2 factorial design with 4 egg types, 2 breeder ages, and 2 sexes. In both experiments, fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs were lower in floor and washed eggs than in clean nest eggs (hatchability: experiment 1: 74.4 vs. 70.6 vs. 92.6% for floor eggs, washed floor eggs and clean nest eggs, respectively, P<0.001; experiment 2: 78.3 vs. 81.7 vs. 90.2%, respectively, P<0.001). In experiment 2, BW at d 0 of chickens obtained from clean nest eggs was higher than that of chickens from floor eggs and washed floor eggs (41.5 vs. 40.4 and 40.3 g, respectively; P<0.001). This difference disappeared during the grow out period and was absent at slaughter age at d 35 of age. Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and mortality during the grow out period were not affected by egg type. Incidence and severity of hock burns and footpad dermatitis were not affected by egg type or breeder age. Litter friability at d 35 of age tended to be lower in pens with chickens obtained from washed floor eggs compared to clean nest eggs. We conclude that incubation of floor eggs or washed floor eggs resulted in lower fertility and hatchability compared to clean nest eggs, but that performance during the grow out period was not affected.

  10. Maternal hyperthyroidism is associated with a decreased incidence of cold-induced ascites in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Akhlaghi, A; Zamiri, M J; Zare Shahneh, A; Jafari Ahangari, Y; Nejati Javaremi, A; Rahimi Mianji, G; Mollasalehi, M R; Shojaie, H; Akhlaghi, A A; Deldar, H; Atashi, H; Ansari Pirsaraei, Z; Zhandi, M

    2012-05-01

    A hypothesis was tested that providing the breeder hens with exogenous thyroxine (T(4)) would help their offspring to better survive the ascites-inducing condition during the growing period. In total, 132 broiler breeder hens were randomly assigned to one of 3 treatments: control (CON), hypothyroid [HYPO; 6-N-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU)-treated], and hyperthyroid (HYPER; T(4)-treated). The hens were artificially inseminated, and the hatching eggs (n = 1,320) were incubated. No eggs in the HYPO group hatched. The 1-d-old male chicks (n = 288) from other groups were reared for 42 d under standard or low ambient temperature to induce ascites. Blood samples were drawn from the hens, embryos, and broilers for determination of T(4) and triiodothyronine (T(3)). The hematocrit was also determined in broilers. The PTU-treated hens had an increased BW along with lower plasma T(3) and T(4) concentrations. Plasma T(4) was higher in the HYPER hens compared with CON hens, but T(3) concentration was not different between these groups. The fertility rate was not affected by either hypo- or hyperthyroidism. The embryos in the HYPO group had lower plasma T(3) and T(4) concentrations at d 18 of embryonic development and internal pipping. Higher plasma T(4) was recorded in the HYPER birds at internal pipping, although plasma T(3) concentration was not affected at this stage. Maternal hyperthyroidism decreased the overall incidence of ascites in the cold-exposed chickens (10.0 vs. 33.4% for HYPER and CON groups, respectively). Although the effect of maternal PTU or T(4) treatment on plasma thyroid hormones and on the right ventricle-to-total ventricular weight ratio in the broilers was not significant, the cold-exposed healthy CON chicks showed higher hematocrit values, compared with the HYPER birds. It was concluded that maternal hyperthyroidism could decrease the incidence of cold-induced ascites in broiler chickens; however, probable causal mechanisms remain to be elucidated.

  11. A Systematic Review Characterizing On-Farm Sources of Campylobacter spp. for Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Agunos, Agnes; Waddell, Lisa; Léger, David; Taboada, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter are frequently isolated from broiler chickens worldwide. In Canada, campylobacteriosis is the third leading cause of enteric disease and the regional emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter in broiler chickens has raised a public health concern. This study aimed to identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature on sources of Campylobacter in broilers at the farm level using systematic review methodology. Literature searches were conducted in January 2012 and included electronic searches in four bibliographic databases. Relevant studies in French or English (n = 95) conducted worldwide in any year and all study designs were included. Risk of Bias and GRADE criteria endorsed by the Cochrane collaboration was used to assess the internal validity of the study and overall confidence in the meta-analysis. The categories for on-farm sources were: broiler breeders/vertical transfer (number of studies = 32), animals (n = 57), humans (n = 26), environment (n = 54), and water (n = 63). Only three studies examined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter from these on-farm sources. Subgroups of data by source and outcome were analyzed using random effect meta-analysis. The highest risk for contaminating a new flock appears to be a contaminated barn environment due to insufficient cleaning and disinfection, insufficient downtime, and the presence of an adjacent broiler flock. Effective biosecurity enhancements from physical barriers to restricting human movement on the farm are recommended for consideration to enhance local on-farm food safety programs. Improved sampling procedures and standardized laboratory testing are needed for comparability across studies. Knowledge gaps that should be addressed include farm-level drug use and antimicrobial resistance information, further evaluation of the potential for vertical transfer, and improved genotyping methods to

  12. Relationships between multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Schwarzengrund and both broiler chickens and retail chicken meats in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asai, Tetsuo; Murakami, Koichi; Ozawa, Manao; Koike, Ryoji; Ishikawa, Hitoshi

    2009-05-01

    We examined 29 isolates of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Schwarzengrund from broiler chickens (n=19) and retail chicken meats (n=10) in Japan for antimicrobial susceptibility and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiling. All isolates exhibited resistance to both bicozamycin and sulfadimethoxine (minimum inhibitory concentration of both antimicrobial agents: >512 microg/ml). Nalidixic acid resistance was found in only one broiler chicken isolate. PFGE analysis showed that there were two genotypes among S. Schwarzengrund isolates. Isolates from 11 of 19 broiler chickens and from 6 of 10 retail chicken meats exhibited resistance to dihydrostreptomycin, kanamycin, oxytetracycline, bicozamycin, trimethoprim, and sulfadimethoxine, and had an identical PFGE pattern classified into a predominant genotype. Thus, our results indicate that genetically identical multidrug-resistant S. Schwarzengrund appeared to be disseminated among broiler chickens and retail chicken meats in Japan.

  13. Lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, arginine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, and threonine maintenance requirements of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Sakomura, N K; Ekmay, R D; Mei, S J; Coon, C N

    2015-11-01

    Five hundred and sixty Cobb-Vantress broiler breeders were used to determine the maintenance requirement of dietary Arg, His, Ile, Leu, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, and Val in 10 21-d assays using the comparative slaughter technique. Fifty sexually immature broiler breeder pullets per assay were given crystalline amino acid diets containing graded levels of Arg, His, Ile, Leu, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, or Val, respectively, representing 0, 10, 20, 30, 40% of their suggested requirement level (NRC, 1994) with all other amino acids maintained at 40% of their suggested requirement level. Sixty hens were slaughtered prior to the beginning of the study to assess initial body composition at 3 weight groups. Linear regression lines (protein accretion vs. amino acid intake) were determined and the maintenance requirements were calculated based on zero protein accretion. The maintenance requirements expressed on a metabolic weight basis were determined to be 174, 94, 52, 81, 60, 126, 133, and 155 mg/kg(0.75)/d for Arg, Ile, Leu, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, and Val, respectively. Additionally, the maintenance requirements, expressed on metabolic protein weight basis, were determined to be 651, 329, 172, 295, 223, 523, 478, and 546 mg/kgCP/d for Arg, Ile, Leu, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, and Val, respectively. The requirement for His could not be established as the results obtained were outside of assay range.

  14. Effect of vitamins, probiotics and protein on semen traits in post-molt male broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Khan, R U; Rahman, Zia-ur; Javed, I; Muhammad, F

    2012-11-01

    The study aimed to investigate the comparative effect of vitamins E and C, probiotics, lower than normal protein level and the combination of these treatments in male broiler breeders after Zn-induced molting. One hundred and eighty birds at 65 weeks of age were divided into six groups (five replicates per group) in a completely randomized block design. Birds were induced to molt by mixing zinc oxide in feed at the rate of 3000 mg/kg of feed. Upon completion of molting, birds were fed different supplements. One group was kept as a control, while the other groups were fed: vitamin E (100 IU/kg), vitamin C (500 IU/kg), probiotics (50 mg/L of water), lower dietary protein level (14%) or the combination of these treatments. Results revealed that vitamins (E and C) supplementation increased (P<0.05) semen volume, however, sperm motility and egg fertility were significantly higher only in vitamin E supplemented group compared to control. The dead sperm percentage decreased (P<0.05) in vitamin C fed group, whereas, sperm concentration did not differ (P>0.05) between the control and treated groups. The results validate the key role of antioxidant vitamins in male broiler breeders' fertility after Zn-induced molting.

  15. Organic trace minerals (Mintrex P) in broiler breeder diets and pre-incubation conditions on bone development and leg health of broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leg health issues and bone disorders are developmental problems that may be increased by environmental stress, inadequate nutrition, and improper incubation conditions. Organic trace minerals (OTM) as Mintrex® P were added on top (1 kg/MT) of Ross 708 broiler breeder diets from start of lay. Eggs fr...

  16. Effect of litter quality on foot pad dermatitis, hock burns and breast blisters in broiler breeders during the production period.

    PubMed

    Kaukonen, Eija; Norring, Marianna; Valros, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Foot pad dermatitis and hock burn lesions are a form of contact dermatitis, a condition affecting skin areas in contact with unsuitable or irritating material. Contact dermatitis is a common problem, reducing the welfare of broilers, and is believed to also affect broiler breeders. However, there is very little research on contact dermatitis in breeders. This study followed the severity of foot pad lesions in broiler breeders throughout the production period. At slaughter the presence of hock burns and breast blisters was also determined. In addition, changes in litter condition over time and the impact of litter quality on foot pads were evaluated. The study was performed on 10 broiler breeder farms, including altogether 18 flocks. Foot pads of 100 hens per flock were assessed at the end of rearing period, three times during the production period, and at slaughter. Foot pad and hock lesions, as well as litter condition were scored on a 5-point scale. Litter quality was evaluated as pH, moisture and ammonia content. The condition of foot pads deteriorated towards slaughter age, with the occurrence of severe lesions reaching a maximum of 64% on average at slaughter. Hock lesions and breast blisters were rare. The litter layer became drier over time. Although poorer litter condition and wetness influenced foot pad health negatively, the effect on severe lesions was not significant. We also observed a negative effect on foot pad condition of larger slat areas. In conclusion, maintaining good litter quality alone is not enough to ensure healthy foot pads in broiler breeders.

  17. Effects of supplementing broiler breeder diets with organoselenium compounds and polyunsaturated fatty acids on hatchability.

    PubMed

    Pappas, A C; Acamovic, T; Sparks, N H C; Surai, P F; McDevitt, R M

    2006-09-01

    The effects of supplementing broiler breeder diets with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and organoselenium compounds on fertility, hatchability, and the weight of 1-d-old chicks was assessed. Prepeak (23 wk) and peak (27 wk) production breeders were fed 1 of 4 diets: a wheat-based commercial breeder diet with 55 g/kg of either soybean oil (SO) or fish oil (FO), but no added Se (only that originating from feed ingredients), and each diet with added Se as Sel-Plex (SO + Se, FO + Se). The diets were designed to contain <0.1 mg/kg of Se and about 0.5 mg/kg of Se for the nonsupplemented (no added Se) and the supplemented diets, respectively. The Se concentration of the eggshell of the hatching egg was measured. The concentration of Se, PUFA, and total lipid content of the brain and liver of the 1-d-old chick was determined. The number of fertile eggs increased, embryonic mortality decreased, and hatchability increased as hen age increased from 23 to 27 wk. The Se concentration in the eggshell and the brain and liver of 1-d-old chicks was higher in the high-Se treatments com pared with the concentration in the low-Se treatments. Fish oil inclusion in the breeder diet increased embryonic mortality in wk 3 of incubation and reduced both hatchability and 1-d-old chick weight in hens of both ages. The addition of Se to the FO diets ameliorated some of these adverse effects, because chicks hatched from eggs laid by 23-wk-old breeders of the FO + Se treatment were heavier than those receiving the FO treatment. The Se concentration in the brain and liver of chicks from the FO hens was higher than that in chicks from the SO hens. The concentration of docosahexaenoic fatty acid was higher in the liver of chicks from the SO + Se treatment compared with that of chicks from the SO treatment, indicating possible protective effects of Se. Hatchability was decreased by increased PUFA and was higher in 27-wk-old compared with 23-wk-old breeders.

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Silva, R. O. S.; Salvarani, F.M.; Assis, R.A.; Martins, N.R.S.; Pires, P.S.; Lobato, F.C.F.

    2009-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a normal inhabitant of the intestinal tract of chickens as well as a potential pathogen that causes necrotic enteritis and colangio hepatitis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of seven different compounds used for therapy, growth promotion or prevention of coccidiosis was determined by agar dilution method for 55 C. perfringens strains isolated from the intestines of broiler chickens. All strains showed high susceptibility to penicillin, avilamycin, monensin and narasin. Only 7.3% of the strains showed an intermediated sensitivity to lincomycin, and 49 (89.1%) were considered susceptible. For tetracycline and bacitracin, 41.8% and 47.3% of strains, respectively, were considered resistant. PMID:24031355

  19. Effect of broiler breeder feeding programme and feeder space change at photostimulation using maize- or wheat-based diets on broiler progeny growth performance and leg health.

    PubMed

    Eusebio-Balcazar, P; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Wineland, M J; Osborne, J; Brake, J

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diet type, maternal feeding programme at 29 weeks of age and breeder feeder space change at photostimulation on broiler progeny performance and leg health at 6 weeks of age. 2. Fast-feathering Cobb 500 broiler breeders were fed on either maize- or wheat-based diets that had been formulated to have similar nutrient composition during growing and layer phases. Two feeding programmes, fast or flow, were used from 14 to 29 weeks of age. At 22 weeks, 69 females from each pen were placed in a layer house where feeder space was either similar to that in rearing (6.3 to 6.5 cm/female) or was increased from 6.3 to 8.4 cm/female. Eggs produced at 32 and 44 weeks of age were collected and incubated for two broiler experiments. A total of 16 male and 16 female one-d-old chicks were placed in floor pens in two experiments, respectively, with 6 and 4 replicate pens. Broiler gait scores and leg problem prevalence were evaluated at 6 weeks of age. 3. Data were analysed as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design with diet type, feeding programme and feeder space change as main factors. 4. The wheat diet increased the probability of observing crooked toes in broiler progeny compared to the use of maize, but only when breeders were fed according to the fast feeding programme and given similar feeder space as during rearing. 5. Breeders given more feeder space in the laying period produced progeny with more locomotion problems compared with those provided similar feeder space, but only when maize was used and the slow feeding programme was applied to the breeders. 6. The maternal feeding programme interacted with other factors to influence progeny leg health, but it did not solely influence walking ability or leg problems of progeny. 7. In conclusion, an increased probability of observing walking impairment of broiler progeny was detected when breeders were given greater feeder space at photostimulation rather than no change and fed

  20. Effectiveness and efficiency of controlling Campylobacter on broiler chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Havelaar, Arie H; Mangen, Marie-Josee J; de Koeijer, Aline A; Bogaardt, Marc-Jeroen; Evers, Eric G; Jacobs-Reitsma, Wilma F; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Wagenaar, Jaap A; de Wit, G Ardine; van der Zee, Henk; Nauta, Maarten J

    2007-08-01

    Campylobacter bacteria are an important cause of foodborne infections. We estimated the potential costs and benefits of a large number of possible interventions to decrease human exposure to Campylobacter by consumption of chicken meat, which accounts for 20-40% of all cases of human campylobacteriosis in the Netherlands. For this purpose, a farm-to-fork risk assessment model was combined with economic analysis and epidemiological data. Reduction of contamination at broiler farms could be efficient in theory. However, it is unclear which hygienic measures need to be taken and the costs can be very high. The experimental treatment of colonized broiler flocks with bacteriophages has proven to be effective and could also be cost efficient, if confirmed in practice. Since a major decrease of infections at the broiler farm is not expected in the short term, additional measures in the processing plant were also considered. At this moment, guaranteed Campylobacter-free chicken meat at the retail level is not realistic. The most promising interventions in the processing plant are limiting fecal leakage during processing and separation of contaminated and noncontaminated flocks (scheduling), followed by decontamination of the contaminated flock. New (faster and more sensitive) test methods to detect Campylobacter colonization in broilers flocks are a prerequisite for successful scheduling scenarios. Other methods to decrease the contamination of meat of colonized flocks such as freezing and heat treatment are more expensive and/or less effective than chemical decontamination.

  1. Severe pododermatitis in broiler breeder hens housed on pressure-treated slats.

    PubMed

    Sander, J E; Wilson, J L; Bush, P B; Rowland, G N

    1994-01-01

    Severe foot-pad dermatitis was diagnosed in a case of broiler hens housed on slats made of lumber pressure-treated with chromated copper arsenate. Studies were conducted in an attempt to determine whether contact with the lumber caused the lesions. Breeder pullets were housed for 17 weeks on slats made from either untreated oak or pressure-treated lumber. Cresylic acid disinfectant was applied to one set of each slat type. Foot-pad lesions were scored and tissue arsenic levels were measured. Foot pads of the hens on pressure-treated slats were the only tissue with detectable arsenic levels. All groups developed foot-pad lesions, although the lesions appeared to be most severe, and to have developed earlier, in birds on pressure-treated disinfected slats.

  2. Effect of vitamins, protein level and probiotics on immune response of moulted male broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Khan, R U; Rahman, Z U; Javed, I; Muhammad, F

    2014-08-01

    This study was planned to investigate the comparative effect of vitamins C (L-ascorbic acid), E (DL-α-tocopherol acetate), probiotics, lower than normal protein level (14%) and combination of these treatments on immune response of male broiler breeders after zinc-induced moulting. One hundred and eighty birds at the age of 65 weeks were induced to moult by mixing zinc oxide (ZnO) in feed at the rate 3000 IU/kg of feed. Upon completion of moulting, birds were divided into six groups (five replicates per group) in a completely randomized design and were fed vitamin C (500 IU/kg), vitamin E (100 IU/kg), lower protein level, probiotics (50 mg/l), and a combination of these components, while one group was kept as control. After completion of moulting phase (5 weeks), the treatment effects were tested as in vitro macrophages engulfment percentage, nitric oxide (NO) production, serum antibody titres against Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bronchitis (IB). The results showed that in vitro macrophage engulfment percentage in unopsonized conditions was significantly higher in vitamin E-supplemented group. In addition, in opsonized condition, the macrophage engulfment percentage was significantly higher in both vitamin E- and C-supplemented groups. The NO (opsonized and unopsonized) production and antibody titre against ND and IB were significantly higher in vitamin E-supplemented group. It was concluded that vitamin E is a better option for enhanced immune response in broiler breeders after zinc-induced moulting.

  3. Broiler breeders with an efficient innate immune response are more resistant to Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Swaggerty, C L; Genovese, K J; He, H; Duke, S E; Pevzner, I Y; Kogut, M H

    2011-05-01

    In previous studies we characterized the innate immune response of 2 parental broiler lines (A and B) and compared their resistance against Salmonella, Enterococcus, and Campylobacter challenges. In all cases, line A was more responsive and more resistant than line B. In the present study, we sought to determine whether this trend was also observed following challenge with the protozoan parasite Eimeria tenella. In 3 separate experiments, 14-d-old chickens from lines A and B were challenged orally with 15 to 50 × 10(3) E. tenella oocysts. Birds were killed 6 d postchallenge and the ceca was removed and scored for lesions and weight gain compared with noninfected controls. Line A birds were more resistant to intestinal pathology as demonstrated by lower lesion scores compared with line B birds. As might be expected, the lower lesion scores in line A chickens were often accompanied by higher weight gain compared with line B chickens, thus reducing potential revenue loss associated with low carcass weights often observed with coccidia-infected birds. The results from this study showed that in addition to having enhanced resistance against bacterial infections, line A chickens were also more resistant to coccidial infections compared with line B birds. Taken together with all of our earlier studies using these lines of birds, an efficient innate immune response protects against a broad range of foodborne and poultry pathogens, including costly coccidial infections.

  4. Feeding broiler breeder males. 1. Effect of feeding program and dietary crude protein during rearing on body weight and fertility of broiler breeder males.

    PubMed

    Romero-Sanchez, H; Plumstead, P W; Brake, J

    2007-01-01

    A 2 x 2 factorial experiment was conducted to compare the effects of 2 male broiler breeder feed allocation programs (Concave or Sigmoid) during the rearing period to 26 wk of age and the interaction with dietary CP (12 or 17%) on BW and fertility. From 0 to 2 wk, all birds received a starter diet, after which, pens were randomly assigned to the 4 treatment combinations that ended at 26 wk of age. All males were weighed individually at 4, 8, 12, 16, 22, 26, 28, 32, 36, 40, 48, 52, 56, and 64 wk of age, and fertility was determined weekly from 27 to 32 wk of age and then every 2 wk to 64 wk of age. At 49 wk of age, the male feed allocation for all treatments was increased by 5 g/d. Even when fed the same as Sigmoid program males during the production period, males reared on the Concave feeding program lost BW from 32 to 40 wk of age and exhibited lower BW from 40 to 48 wk of age, which corresponded to a more rapid decrease in fertility. The 17% CP diet increased BW from 8 to 32 wk of age, but no significant differences were subsequently observed. The 12% CP rearing diet improved both weekly and cumulative fertility. A significant interaction between rearing feeding program and dietary CP during the third quartile period showed that the Concave program-17% CP diet combination was most negatively affected. The increase in male feed allocation at 49 wk restored fertility and caused differences among treatments to diminish. These data suggested that BW during the early rearing period did not affect fertility, but an increased BW due to either providing fast feed increments toward the end of the rearing period (Concave) or feeding a 17% CP diet produced males that were unable to sustain fertility after 40 wk of age without an appropriate allocation of feed.

  5. Effects of maternal energy efficiency on broiler chicken growth, feed conversion, residual feed intake, and residual maintenance metabolizable energy requirements.

    PubMed

    Romero, L F; Zuidhof, M J; Renema, R A; Naeima, A; Robinson, F E

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of maternal energy efficiency on broiler chicken growth and energy efficiency from 7 to 40 d of age. Residual feed intake (RFI) and residual maintenance ME requirement (RME) were used to measure energetic efficiency. Residual feed intake was defined as the difference between observed and predicted ME intake, and RME(m) as the difference between observed and predicted maintenance ME requirements. A total of 144 Ross-708 broiler breeder pullets were placed in individual laying cages at 16 wk of age. Hens with the greatest RFI (n = 32) and lowest RFI (n = 32) values from 20 to 56 wk of age were selected (maternal RFI; RFI(mat)). Selected hens were retrospectively assigned to a high- or low-RME(m) category (maternal RME(m); RME(mmat)). At 59 wk, eggs were collected for 8 d and pedigree hatched. A total of 338 broilers grouped by dam and sex were raised in 128 cages where feed intake, BW, and temperature were recorded from 7 to 40 d to calculate broiler feed conversion ratios, RFI, and RME(m). The design was a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial with 2 levels of RFI(mat), 2 levels of RME(mmat), and 2 sexes. Neither the RFI(mat) nor RME(mmat) category affected broiler offpring BW or total conversion ratio. The high-RFI(mat) × low-RME(mmat) broilers had decreased growth to 40 d. Low-RFI(mat) × low-RME(mmat) broilers had a lower RME(m) (-5.93 kcal of ME/kg(0.60) per day) and RFI (-0.86 kcal of ME/d) than high-RFI(mat) × low-RME(mmat) broilers (RME(m) = 1.70 kcal of ME/kg(0.60) per day; RFI = 0.38 kcal of ME/d). Overall, hens with low maintenance requirements (low RME(m)) produced more efficient broilers when other efficiency related traits, represented in a lower RFI, were present. Exclusion of high-RFI × low-RME(m) hens from selection programs may improve energy efficiency at the broiler level. The RME(m) methodology is a viable alternative to evaluate energy efficiency in broilers because it avoids confounding environmental effects and allows

  6. Egg laying characteristics, egg weight, embryo development, hatching weight and post-hatch growth in relation to oviposition time of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Akil, R; Zakaria, A H

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine egg laying characteristics and the effects of oviposition time on egg weight, embryo development and post-hatch growth in broiler breeders. In experiment 1, eggs collected for 3 consecutive days on hourly basis between 06:30 and 17:30h were categorized to early, middle and late oviposition times in the clutch. In experiment 2, eggs were incubated to study embryo development, remaining albumen, liver weight, heart weight and the tibia length of embryos at 12, 14, 16 and 18 days of incubation as well as the body weight of hatchlings and chickens at 7, 21 and 42 days of age in relation to oviposition time. About 76% of nest eggs were laid from 06:30 to 11:30h. A similar pattern was observed in floor eggs. Egg weight decreased (P<0.01) with advanced position in the clutch. Generally, oviposition time had no effect on embryo growth parameters. At hatch, body weight of chicks derived from eggs of late oviposition times was less (P<0.01) than that of chicks from eggs produced earlier in the clutch. From 3-week-old onwards, chickens of early oviposition time sustained heavier (P<0.05) weight than chickens of middle oviposition time whereas chickens of late oviposition time obtained a middle weight. Differences in egg weights, body weight at hatch and post-hatch growth due to time of oviposition suggest that oviposition time together with incubation conditions should be considered for obtaining greater uniformity and growth of chickens.

  7. Trends in occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter jejuni isolates from broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat, and human domestically acquired cases and travel associated cases in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Skjøt-Rasmussen, Line; Ethelberg, Steen; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Agersø, Yvonne; Larsen, Lars S; Nordentoft, Steen; Olsen, Stefan S; Ejlertsen, Tove; Holt, Hanne; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Hammerum, Anette M

    2009-05-31

    Campylobacter jejuni is a frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. Often it causes self-limiting disease but severe or prolonged cases may require antimicrobial treatment. The agricultural use of antimicrobial agents selects for resistance among C. jejuni which is transmitted to humans via food. In Denmark, the use of fluoroquinolones in animal husbandry has been restricted since 2003. The purpose of the present study was to look at trends in occurrence of resistance among C. jejuni from broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat and human domestically acquired or travel associated cases. From 1997 through 2007, C. jejuni isolates were obtained from The Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme (DANMAP) and susceptibility tested for ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline. Erythromycin resistance was at a low level in all the reservoirs during the study period. Resistance to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and tetracycline was significantly higher in C. jejuni from imported broiler chicken meat compared to Danish broiler chicken meat. In domestically acquired human C. jejuni isolates, resistance to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid was for most years significantly higher compared to the level found in isolates from Danish broiler chicken meat, whereas the resistance level was similar to the level found in isolates from imported broiler chicken meat. Imported broiler chicken meat may therefore contribute to the high level of ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid resistance in C. jejuni isolates from domestically acquired human infections. In 2006 and 2007, the occurrence of resistance to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and tetracycline was significantly higher in travel associated C. jejuni isolates compared to isolates acquired domestically. Even though the use of fluoroquinolones is restricted for animal use in Denmark, Danes are still often infected by fluoroquinolone resistant C. jejuni from imported chicken meat or

  8. Dietary High Fluorine Alters Intestinal Microbiota in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qin; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Liu, Juan; Deng, Yubing

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary high fluorine on ileal and cecal microbiota in broiler chickens. Two hundred eighty 1-day-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to four groups and raised for 42 days. The control group was fed a corn-soybean basal diet (fluorine 22.6 mg/kg). The other three groups were fed the same basal diet, but supplemented with 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg fluorine (high fluorine groups I, II, and III), administered in the form of sodium fluoride. The microbiota of ileal and cecal digesta was assessed with plate counts and polymerase chain reaction-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). It was found that, compared with those in the control group, the counts of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. were markedly decreased (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), whereas the counts of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. were significantly increased (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) in the high fluorine groups II and III. PCR-DGGE analysis showed that the number of DGGE bands, similarity, and Shannon index of ileal and cecal bacteria were markedly reduced in the high fluorine groups II and III from 21 to 42 days. Sequencing analysis revealed that the composition of the intestinal microbiota was altered in the high fluorine groups. In conclusion, dietary fluorine in the range of 800-1200 mg/kg obviously altered the bacterial counts, and the diversity and composition of intestinal microbiota in broiler chickens, a finding which implies that dietary high fluorine can disrupt the natural balance and structure of the intestinal microbiota.

  9. Effect of supplementary choline on the performance of broiler breeders fed on different energy sources.

    PubMed

    Rama Rao, S V; Sunder, G S; Reddy, M R; Praharaj, N K; Raju, M V; Panda, A K

    2001-07-01

    1. Laying performance, egg quality, fertility and hatchability, and fat deposition in liver and abdomen were recorded in broiler breeders (29 to 48 weeks of age) fed on diets containing perarl millet (Pennisetum typhoides) (PM), broken rice (BR) or yellow maize (YM) (600 g/kg diet). Constant ratios of metabolisable energy (ME) to other nutrients were maintained in all the diets. Food grade choline chloride (50%) was added to the diets at 3 concentrations (0, 760 and 1,520 mg/kg). Each diet was offered to 3 replicate groups of 15 birds (12 hens and 3 cockerels), maintained in deep litter pens, to provide 1.46 MJ ME/bird/d. 2. Neither the source of energy nor dietary choline content had any influence on hen-d egg production, fertility or hatchability. Food efficiency and egg weight were significantly reduced in BR-fed groups compared to those fed on the other energy sources. 3. The efficiency of energy and protein utilisation increased and liver fat content was decreased significantly by dietary choline supplementation. 4. Haugh unit score, egg shell weight, liver weight and intestinal weight were not influenced by either supplementary choline or the source of energy. However, the yolk colour index was significantly reduced in PM- or BR-fed groups compared to those fed on the maize-based diet. 5. Deposition of abdominal fat was significantly greater in BR-fed birds compared to those fed on the YM-based diet, while liver fat content was significantly greater in the birds fed on the PM-or BR-based diets than those based on YM. Although supplementation of the diet with choline had no influence on abdominal fat deposition, liver fat content was significantly reduced in birds given diet containing 760 mg supplemental choline/kg diet. 6. The present study indicates that PM or BR can be used as principal energy sources in place of YM in broiler breeder diets without affecting egg production, fertility or hatchability. Liver fat content can be reduced by adding choline at

  10. Peanut hulls as a litter source for broiler breeder replacement pullets.

    PubMed

    Lien, R J; Hess, J B; Conner, D E; Wood, C W; Shelby, R A

    1998-01-01

    Broiler breeder pullets were reared on either peanut hulls or pine shavings to determine effects of litter type on growth performance and litter characteristics. Pullets were reared to 20 wk of age in rooms initially bedded with 8 cm of clean shavings or hulls. Heating and ventilation were standardized in all rooms. Restricted skip-a-day feeding was used to attain recommended growth curves. Water was continuously provided for ad libitum consumption. Litter and environmental variables were measured throughout rearing and 2 wk after pullets were removed from the litter materials. Feed consumption, BW, mortality, and uniformity at 20 wk were not affected by litter type; however, gizzard weights were decreased in pullets reared on hulls. Litter bulk density increased with use and was greater for shavings through 11 wk, but not thereafter. Particle size decreased with use in both litter types. Through 11 wk, there were more particles in the > 4 mm range and less in the < 1.7 mm range with hulls. Litter moisture increased with use but was not affected by litter type. Litter pH was greater in unused shavings, but during and after use was generally greater in hulls. With both litter types, litter and environmental ammonia levels increased to 11 wk then decreased; however, this effect was more pronounced for hulls. Bacteria populations were not affected by litter type; however, greater fungal populations were observed in shavings at 7 and 15 wk. Aflatoxins were detected in unused hulls but not shavings. Because aflatoxin levels decreased during use and Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus populations were not detected in samples collected during use, aflatoxins observed were presumed to have been formed prior to use. Peanut hulls performed similarly to pine shavings as a litter source for breeder pullets; however, the specific influence of the aflatoxins contained in this litter source on bird performance deserves further study.

  11. Polytetrafluoroethylene gas intoxication in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Boucher, M; Ehmler, T J; Bermudez, A J

    2000-01-01

    A poultry research facility that housed 2400 Peterson x Hubbard cross broilers (48 pens of 50 chicks each) experienced 4% mortality within 24 hr of chick placement. Mortality started within 4 hr of placement, and within 72 hr, cumulative mortality had reached 52%. Mild dyspnea was the only clinical sign noted in some chicks prior to death. The primary gross lesion noted in the chicks submitted was moderate to severe pulmonary congestion. The lungs of four of these chicks sank in formalin, and blood-tinged fluid was noted in the mouth and nares of two chicks. The microscopic lesions noted in the affected chicks were moderate to severe pulmonary edema and congestion. The diagnosis indicated to the submitter was that pulmonary edema caused by exposure to an unidentified noxious gas caused the death of the chicks. The poultry house environment was tested for sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and volatile organic compounds (as produced by combustion engines); all tests were negative for significant levels of these compounds. A second broiler flock was placed in the same facility and the mortality at 6 wk was 11%, which was greater than the 2.5%-4.7% mortality seen in the previous four flocks on the farm. Further investigation revealed that the only change in management practice in this facility prior to the onset of the severe mortality problem was the replacement of 48 heat lamp bulbs (one for each pen). The new heat lamp bulbs were polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coated. PTFE gas intoxication has been reported in several exotic avian species, but this intoxication has not been previously reported in a poultry flock.

  12. Avian hepatitis E virus infection and possible associated clinical disease in broiler breeder flocks in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Chris J; Samu, Gyozo; Mátrai, Eszter; Klausz, Akos; Wood, Alasdair M; Richter, Susanne; Jaskulska, Barbara; Hess, Michael

    2008-10-01

    In broiler breeder flocks in one broiler integration in Hungary, a new syndrome appeared in January 2005 with initially four successive post-peak flocks experiencing significant decreases in egg production. Clinically birds became depressed and there was a small increase in the mortality rate. Postmortem examinations revealed enlarged livers in up to 19% of birds dying, and enlarged spleens in some. Also observed were birds with either clotted blood or serosanguineous fluid in the abdomen and subcapsular haemorrhages of the liver. Histopathology and polymerase chain reaction excluded tumours and the presence of common tumour-associated viruses. Chronic bacterial infections (especially causing hepatitis, peritonitis and airsacculitis) were common but many enlarged livers had no obvious bacterial involvement. After a 9-month period during which a majority of flocks became affected, no newly affected flocks occurred. Investigations showed that all tested affected flocks were seropositive in the big liver and spleen (BLS) Agar Gel Immunodiffusion test. Subsequent flocks without post-peak egg-production drops were shown to be seronegative in the BLS AGID test, as were all the parent flocks contributing to the affected flocks. Liver samples and cloacal swabs were positive by polymerase chain reaction (aHEV helicase target), and calicivirus-like particles were demonstrated in bile samples from affected birds. These observations are similar to hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome as described in North America and BLS syndrome as described in Australia. Histopathological features were a non-specific chronic hepatitis similar to those described in BLS and hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome. Immunohistochemistry using a BLS-specific monoclonal antibody confirmed the presence of avian hepatitis E virus antigen in livers and spleen.

  13. Construction of an infectious cDNA clone of genotype 1 avian hepatitis E virus: characterization of its pathogenicity in broiler breeders and demonstration of its utility in studying the role of the hypervariable region in virus replication.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Byung-Woo; Moon, Hyun-Woo; Sung, Haan Woo; Yoon, Byung-Il; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Kwon, Hyuk Moo

    2015-05-01

    A full-length infectious cDNA clone of the genotype 1 Korean avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) (pT11-aHEV-K) was constructed and its infectivity and pathogenicity were investigated in leghorn male hepatoma (LMH) chicken cells and broiler breeders. We demonstrated that capped RNA transcripts from the pT11-aHEV-K clone were translation competent when transfected into LMH cells and infectious when injected intrahepatically into the livers of chickens. Gross and microscopic pathological lesions underpinned the avian HEV infection and helped characterize its pathogenicity in broiler breeder chickens. The avian HEV genome contains a hypervariable region (HVR) in ORF1. To demonstrate the utility of the avian HEV infectious clone, several mutants with various deletions in and beyond the known HVR were derived from the pT11-aHEV-K clone. The HVR-deletion mutants were replication competent in LMH cells, although the deletion mutants extending beyond the known HVR were non-viable. By using the pT11-aHEV-K infectious clone as the backbone, an avian HEV luciferase reporter replicon and HVR-deletion mutant replicons were also generated. The luciferase assay results of the reporter replicon and its mutants support the data obtained from the infectious clone and its derived mutants. To further determine the effect of HVR deletion on virus replication, the capped RNA transcripts from the wild-type pT11-aHEV-K clone and its mutants were injected intrahepatically into chickens. The HVR-deletion mutants that were translation competent in LMH cells displayed in chickens an attenuation phenotype of avian HEV infectivity, suggesting that the avian HEV HVR is important in modulating the virus infectivity and pathogenicity.

  14. Preparation and evaluation of chicken embryo-adapted fowl adenovirus serotype 4 vaccine in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Muhammad Khalid; Hussain, Iftikhar; Arshad, Muhammad; Muhammad, Ghulam

    2011-02-01

    The current study was planned to develop an efficient vaccine against hydropericardium syndrome virus (HSV). Currently, formalin-inactivated liver organ vaccines failed to protect the Pakistan broiler industry from this destructive disease of economic importance. A field isolate of the pathogenic hydropericardium syndrome virus was adapted to chicken embryos after four blind passages. The chicken embryo-adapted virus was further serially passaged (12 times) to get complete attenuation. Groups of broiler chickens free from maternal antibodies against HSV at the age of 14 days were immunized either with 16th passage attenuated HSV vaccine or commercially formalized liver organ vaccine. The antibody response, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the group immunized with the 16th passage attenuated HSV vaccine compared to the group immunized with liver organ vaccine at 7, 14, and 21 days post-immunization. At 24 days of age, the broiler chickens in each group were challenged with 10(3.83) embryo infectious dose(50) of pathogenic HSV and were observed for 7 days post-challenge. Vaccination with the 16th passage attenuated HSV gave 94.73% protection as validated on the basis of clinical signs (5.26%), gross lesions in the liver and heart (5.26%), histopathological lesions in the liver (1.5 ± 0.20), and mortality (5.26%). The birds inoculated with liver organ vaccine showed significantly low (p < 0.05; 55%) protection estimated on the basis of clinical signs (40%), gross lesions in the liver and heart (45%), histopathological lesions in the liver (2.7 ± 0.72), and mortality (35%). Birds in the unvaccinated control group showed high morbidity (84%), mortality (70%), gross (85%), and histopathological lesions (3.79 ± 0.14) with only 10% protection. In conclusion, this newly developed HSV vaccine proved to be immunogenic and has potential for controlling HSV infections in chickens.

  15. Detecting reproductive system abnormalities of broiler breeder roosters at different ages.

    PubMed

    Lagares, M A; Ecco, R; Martins, Nrs; Lara, Ljc; Rocha, Jsr; Vilela, Dar; Barbosa, V M; Mantovani, P F; Braga, Jfv; Preis, I S; Gheller, V A; Cardeal, P C; Baião, N C

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to detect the reasons of rooster's fertility decrease at 50 weeks of age. Therefore, the reproductive system of broiler breeder roosters was laparoscopic, macroscopic and histopathology evaluated, and a comparison of the anatomical aspect with the sperm analysis and birds' age was realized. Cobb roosters (n = 59) were distributed into two groups (30 and 50 weeks). Evaluations were performed with laparoscopy, macroscopy and histopathology, and seminal quality, blood serum testosterone concentration and weight were also determined. The old roosters presented smaller testicle size, higher intensity epididymal lithiasis and lower testicle sperm production, compared to the young roosters. The use of the endoscope could easily distinguish a normal-sized testicle than an atrophic one. Four old roosters with severe testicular atrophy did not show spermatogenesis, although three still had sperm in the ejaculate. This would falsely indicate a wrong diagnosis of normal fertility before the testicular atrophy took place. In conclusion, in addition to the weight increase with age, the testicular atrophy and impairment of sperm production seemed to be the main reason to the decrease in the rooster's fertility at 50 weeks of age. Therefore, the use of the laparoscopy as a way to detect the roosters with testicular atrophy before 50 weeks of age and their removal from them flock could be useful as a diagnostic tool to prevent the birds' fertility loss.

  16. Vitamin E and selenium in broiler breeder diets: Effect on live performance, hatching process, and chick quality.

    PubMed

    Urso, U R A; Dahlke, F; Maiorka, A; Bueno, I J M; Schneider, A F; Surek, D; Rocha, C

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different dietary vitamin E levels and different selenium sources on the productive and reproductive performance of broiler breeders. In total 640 females and 64 males between 22 and 52 weeks old were studied. A completely randomized experimental design in factorial arrangement, with 4 treatments of 8 replicates with 20 females and 2 males each, was applied. Treatments consisted of 2 vitamin E levels (30 and 120 mg/kg) and two selenium sources (sodium selenite and zinc-L-selenomethionine). Egg production (rate of lay and eggs per breeder), egg characteristics (egg, yolk, eggshell, and albumen weights), fertility, incubation responses (egg weight loss during incubation, hatchability, and hatching window), and hatchling characteristics (weight and yield) were evaluated. There was no influence of dietary vitamin E levels or selenium sources on egg production (P > 0.05). Mature breeders (47 weeks old) fed zinc-L-selenomethionine and 120 mg vitamin E/kg feed produced heavier eggs and albumen. Hatchability of the eggs of breeders fed 120 mg vitamin E/kg feed was higher than breeders fed 30 mg vitamin at 29 wks. The dietary inclusion of organic selenium also promoted heavier hatchling weight until egg production peak (33 wk), but did not influence hatchling quality or hatching window. It was concluded that the dietary supplementation of zinc-L-selenomethione and vitamin E (120 mg/kg feed) could be used to improve egg characteristics and incubation response.

  17. Optimal dietary inclusion of organically complexed zinc for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bao, Y M; Choct, M; Iji, P A; Bruerton, K

    2009-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal content of organically complexed zinc (Zn) for broiler chickens. 2. Five different Zn and manganese (Mn) dietary contents from organically complexed supplements including a control diet containing 15 mg Mn and 20 mg Zn/kg diet, were randomly fed to one-day-old Cobb broilers (each treatment had 6 replicates of 4 birds) for 35 d. Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly. At the end of the experiment, two birds from each cage were killed and their right tibia were collected to measure bone size, strength and mineral contents. 3. Body weight gain and total tibia copper (Cu), iron (Fe), Mn and Zn contents increased linearly with supplemental Zn and Mn intake. The optimal Zn requirements for broilers at 1-14 and 14-35 d of age were 58 and 68 mg/kg diet, respectively. 4. Supplementation of Mn and Zn had no effect on tibia bone width and strength, but increased tibia length. 5. In commercial practice, organically complexed Zn may need to be supplemented during the entire period of production at a higher content than NRC recommendation but it is not necessary to exceed 70 mg/kg diet.

  18. Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens II. Pathology and Proposed Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Long, J. R.; Barnum, D. A.; Pettit, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The intestines from 124 dead, sick and normal broiler chickens from 24 cases of necrotic enteritis were subjected to histological examination. Tissue sections from the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and ceca from each broiler were examined histologically for lesions of necrotic enteritis and the presence of coccidia. Lesions of necrotic enteritis were present in one or more areas of the intestine in all but six of 94 dead or sick birds and they were most common and severe in the jejunum. Coccidia were found in only small numbers in both diseased and normal birds. Brown and Brenn stained sections showed Gram-positive bacilli intimately associated with early necrotic lesions on the tips of villi. Tissue sections from the intestines of sick birds permitted a proposed pathogenesis for this disease with the lesion starting at the tips of villi. The similarity in pathogenesis and pathological lesions in this disease of broilers and Clostridium perfringens type C enteritis in baby pigs is discussed. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:4373152

  19. Effects of dietary L-arginine on laying performance and antioxidant capacity of broiler breeder hens, eggs, and offspring during the late laying period.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaoxue; Li, Feng; Mou, Shaoyang; Feng, Jiawei; Liu, Peifeng; Xu, Liangmei

    2015-12-01

    The effects of maternal L-arginine supplementation on laying performance and the antioxidant capacity of broiler breeder hens, egg yolk, and their one-day-old offspring were investigated. In a 9 wk experiment, 210 60-week-old Arbor Acres healthy female broiler breeders were randomly divided into 5 treatments with 6 replicates of 7 females and fed a corn and soybean meal diet with 5 arginine levels (0.96%, 1.16%, 1.36%, 1.56%, and 1.76% digestible arginine). Laying performance and anti-oxidant capacity of broiler breeder hens, eggs, and offspring were evaluated. Digestible arginine level in the broiler breeder diet had a significant effect on the laying rate (linear and quadratic effect, P<0.0001). The highest laying rate was obtained when the diet with 1.36% digestible arginine was fed. There was a significant effect of digestible arginine level in the broiler breeder diet on the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) levels and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) concentration in the broiler breeder serum, egg yolk and serum, and liver and breast of one-day-old offspring (linear and quadratic effect, P<0.05). The T-AOC level was highest and the MDA concentration lowest in all tissues when a diet with 1.36% digestible arginine was fed. No difference in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity in the broiler breeder serum was observed. There were significant effects of digestible arginine level in the broiler breeder diet on the GSH-PX activity of the egg yolk (linear effect, P<0.01; quadratic effect, P<0.05) and serum, liver, and breast of one-day-old offspring (linear and quadratic effect, P≤0.01). The GSH-PX activity in all tissues measured in this experiment was highest when the dietary digestible arginine was 1.36%. These results indicate that the diet with 1.36% digestible arginine (1,972 mg/d) is optimal to satisfy the nutritional needs of a female broiler breeder during the late laying period.

  20. Laboratory evaluation of Newcastle disease vaccination programs for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Giambrone, J J

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the efficacy of various commercial vaccination programs for the prevention of Newcastle disease (ND) in broilers. In all, chicks were from breeders vaccinated against ND via drinking water at 75-day intervals. Vaccination was by company personnel on company premises. In Expt. 1, the initial ND vaccination programs tested were vaccination at 1 day by coarse spray with the Spra-Vac machine or by tracheal instillation with the Beak-o-Vac machine, and vaccination at 7 days via drinking water. In Expts. 2-4, birds initially vaccinated via one of the three previously mentioned methods (Spra-Vac in Expt. 2, Beak-o-Vac in Expt. 3, and drinking water in Expt. 4) were revaccinated against ND by either drinking water or coarse spray with one of two commercial portable machines (ULVA Fan or Spray Master). Serologic and challenge data in Expt. 1 indicated that although broilers vaccinated by any of the three initial routes failed to produce measurable antibody to NDV, all methods resulted in protection against NDV challenge at 35 and 49 days. However, resistance to challenge with virulent ND was greatest in birds initially vaccinated by coarse spray with the Spra-Vac machine. Results in Expts. 2-4 indicated that NDV hemagglutination-inhibition titers were highest and resistance to challenge greatest in birds initially vaccinated at day 1 by coarse spray (Spra-Vac) and then revaccinated at 14 days by coarse spray. There were no differences, however, between the portable coarse spray machines in efficacy in reimmunizing broilers against NDV.

  1. Comparative evaluation of carcass traits and meat quality in native Aseel chickens and commercial broilers.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, U; Muthukumar, M; Haunshi, S; Niranjan, M; Raju, M V L N; Rama Rao, S V; Chatterjee, R N

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to analyse the meat quality attributes, composition and carcass traits in Aseel chickens and commercial broilers at market age on the basis of physiological age. A total of 20 Aseel (26 and 56 weeks) and 20 broiler (6 weeks) chickens were divided into two groups on a live weight basis, i.e. large (≥2.5 kg) and small (<2.5 kg) with 10 birds in each subgroup. The pH of meat did not show any significant variation between Aseel and broiler chickens. The meat from heavier birds had significantly higher pH. Shear force value and hydroxyproline contents were significantly higher in Aseel chickens. Aseel birds had significantly higher red (a*) colouration and lower lightness (L*) than broiler chickens. The texture and acceptability of Aseel meat were significantly higher. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that muscle fibres in Aseels were arranged in a more coiled pattern making the muscle tough. A larger amount of connective tissue was also observed between the muscle fibres compared with the broiler chickens. The dressing percentage was significantly higher in larger chickens. Commercial broilers recorded significantly higher meat proportion and lower proportion of bone. The meat:bone ratio was 1.07:1.0 in Aseel and 1.31-1.0 in broiler chicken. Breast muscle content was significantly lower in smaller Aseel chickens. Aseel chicken had stronger and heavier backs and shanks. Abdominal fat percentage was significantly lower in Aseel (0.73-0.78%). The study concluded that the firm texture of Aseel meat was due to the high collagen content and interlocking connective tissue between the muscle fibres. The texture and acceptability of Aseel meat was higher. Aseel cocks had strong legs, lean meat and less abdominal fat, making them a high-value meat bird in addition to their aggressive fighting ability.

  2. Increased calcium deposits and decreased Ca2+ -ATPase in erythrocytes of ascitic broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Zhao, Lihong; Geng, Guangrui; Ma, Liqin; Dong, Shishan; Xu, Tong; Wang, Jianlin; Wang, Huiyu; Tian, Yong; Qiao, Jian

    2011-06-01

    The decrease of erythrocyte deformability may be one of the predisposing factors for pulmonary hypertension and ascites in broiler chickens. In mammals, the cytoplasmic calcium is a major regulator of erythrocyte deformability. In this study, the erythrocyte deformability was measured, and the precise locations of Ca2+ and Ca2+ -ATPase in the erythrocytes were investigated in chickens with ascites syndrome induced by low ambient temperature. The results showed that ascitic broilers had higher filtration index of erythrocyte compared with control groups, indicating a decrease in erythrocyte deformability in ascitic broilers. The more calcium deposits were observed in the erythrocytes of ascitic broilers compared with those of the age-matched control birds. The Ca2+ -ATPase reactive grains were significantly decreased on the erythrocyte membranes of ascitic broilers. Our data suggest that accumulation of intracellular calcium and inhibition of Ca2+ -ATPase might be important factors for the reduced deformability of the erythrocytes of ascitic broilers.

  3. Effects of Zinc Glycinate on Productive and Reproductive Performance, Zinc Concentration and Antioxidant Status in Broiler Breeders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Wang, Yong-Xia; Xiao, Xue; Wang, Jiang-Shui; Wang, Qian; Li, Kai-Xuan; Guo, Tian-Yu; Zhan, Xiu-An

    2017-01-27

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of zinc glycinate (Zn-Gly) supplementation as an alternative for zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) on productive and reproductive performance, zinc (Zn) concentration and antioxidant status in broiler breeders. Six hundred 39-week-old Lingnan Yellow broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 6 groups consisting of 4 replicates with 25 birds each. Breeders were fed a basal diet (control group, 24 mg Zn/kg diet), basal diet supplemented with 80 mg Zn/kg diet from ZnSO4 or basal diet supplemented with 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg Zn/kg diet from Zn-Gly. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks after a 4-week pre-test with the basal diet, respectively. Results showed that Zn supplementation, regardless of sources, improved (P < 0.05) the feed conversion ratio (kilogram of feed/kilogram of egg) and decreased broken egg rate, and elevated (P < 0.05) the qualified chick rate. Compared with the ZnSO4 group, the 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group significantly increased (P < 0.05) average egg weight, fertility, hatchability and qualified chick rate, whereas it decreased (P < 0.05) broken egg rate. The Zn concentrations in liver and muscle were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group than that in ZnSO4 group. Compared with ZnSO4 group, 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group significantly elevated (P < 0.05) the mRNA abundances of metallothionein (MT) and copper-zinc superoxide (Cu-Zn SOD), as well as the Cu-Zn SOD activity and MT concentration in liver. Moreover, the 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group had higher (P < 0.05) serum T-SOD and Cu-Zn SOD activities than that in the ZnSO4 group. This study indicated that supplementation of Zn in basal diet improved productive and reproductive performance, Zn concentration and antioxidant status in broiler breeders, and the 80 mg Zn/kg from Zn-Gly was the optimum choice for broiler breeders compared with other levels of Zn from Zn-Gly and 80 mg/kg Zn from ZnSO4.

  4. Dehydration indicators for broiler chickens at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Vanderhasselt, R F; Buijs, S; Sprenger, M; Goethals, K; Willemsen, H; Duchateau, L; Tuyttens, F A M

    2013-03-01

    Freedom of (prolonged) thirst is considered to be of paramount importance for animal welfare. This emotion normally results from dehydration, which can be measured using physiological indicators. Because no reliable physiological indicator for thirst was available for broilers, we aimed to identify such a measure in this study. This indicator would ideally be integrated into quality control systems in commercial slaughter plants. In the first experiment, water deprivation was manipulated systematically by withdrawing water for different durations (total water withdrawal for 0 (control), 24, 36, or 48 h, or a 10-d period with restricted access to water for 2 times 10 min per day). A significant decrease in drained blood content and BW occurred from 36 h of total water deprivation onward (both P = 0.03), whereas long-term restricted access tended to decrease drained blood content (P = 0.05). No effect of water deprivation or restriction on skin turgor was found. In the second experiment, water was withdrawn for 0 (control), 6, 12, 24, or 48 h. Plasma chloride concentration was increased after 6 h of water withdrawal, but did not rise further with longer withdrawal. If assessed at slaughter, chloride will thus mainly reflect the catching-to-slaughter interval. In contrast, plasma creatinine and hematocrit levels showed a numerical decrease after 6 h of water withdrawal, but rose again after prolonged withdrawal. Plasma creatinine values were significantly higher in 24-h-deprived birds than in 6-h-deprived birds (P < 0.01), allowing for discernment between water withdrawal during catching and transport from dehydration that had occurred on the farm. Blood sodium concentrations and plasma osmolality showed a steady increment between 0 and 24 h of water deprivation (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001 for both), and may thus be used to assess the combined effects of water deprivation on farm and during the catching-to-slaughter interval. These findings may form the basis of an on

  5. Effect of propolis supplementations on behavioral activities of heat stressed broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment investigated effects of dietary supplementation of green Brazilian propolis on behavior of heat stressed broiler chickens. Five hundred and four 15-day old male Ross 708 broiler chicks were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments containing 0, 100, 250, 500, 1000 or 3000 mg kg-1 ...

  6. Impact of aflatoxin B1 on the pharmacokinetic disposition of enrofloxacin in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, Starling; Srinivasa Rao, G; Malik, Jitendra K

    2015-09-01

    The potential impact of subchronic exposure of aflatoxin B1 was investigated on the pharmacokinetic disposition of enrofloxacin in broiler chickens. Broiler chickens given either normal or aflatoxin B1 (750μg/kg diet) supplemented diet for 6 weeks received a single oral dose of enrofloxacin (10mg/kg body wt). Blood samples were drawn from the brachial vein at predetermined time intervals after drug administration. Enrofloxacin plasma concentrations analyzed by RP-HPLC were significantly lower in aflatoxin B1-exposed broiler chickens at 0.167, 0.5 and 1.0h after drug administration. In aflatoxin B1-exposed broiler chickens, the absorption rate constant (ka) of enrofloxacin (0.20±0.05h(-1)) was significantly decreased as compared to the unexposed birds (0.98±0.31h(-1)). The values of [Formula: see text] , tmax and AUC0-∞ of enrofloxacin were nonsignificantly increased by 17%, 26% and 17% in aflatoxin-exposed broiler chickens, respectively. Subchronic aflatoxin B1 exposure markedly decreased the initial absorption of enrofloxacin without significantly influencing other pharmacokinetic parameters in broiler chickens.

  7. Animal Welfare and Food Safety Aspects of Confining Broiler Chickens to Cages

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Sara; Greger, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In commercial chicken meat production, broiler chickens are usually kept on the floor in ware-house like buildings, but the use of cages is becoming more common. Confining chickens to cages is a welfare problem, as has been thoroughly demonstrated for laying hens used for egg production. Caged broiler chickens may suffer from poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, feather loss, and restriction of natural behavior. There are also potential food safety concerns associated with the use of cages. While cages may provide an economic advantage in some geographical regions of the world, the severe, inherent disadvantages should also be considered before cages are more widely adopted in the global broiler chicken industry. Abstract In most areas of the world, broiler chickens are raised in floor systems, but cage confinement is becoming more common. The welfare of broiler chickens in cages is affected by movement restriction, poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, and prevention of key behavioral patterns such as dustbathing and ground scratching. Cages for broiler chickens also have a long history of causing skin and leg conditions that could further compromise welfare, but a lack of controlled studies makes it difficult to draw conclusions about newer cage designs. Cage environments are usually stocked at a higher density than open floor systems, and the limited studies available suggest that caging may lead to increased levels of fear and stress in the birds. Further, birds reared on the floor appear less likely to harbor and shed Salmonella, as litter may serve as a seeding agent for competitive exclusion by other microorganisms. Cages for laying hens used in egg production have met with substantial opposition due to welfare concerns and caging broiler chickens will likely be subject to the same kinds of social disapproval. PMID:26487409

  8. Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork, and pigs share phylogroups and antimicrobial resistance with community-dwelling humans and patients with urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Lotte; Kurbasic, Azra; Skjøt-Rasmussen, Line; Ejrnaes, Karen; Porsbo, Lone J; Pedersen, Karl; Jensen, Lars B; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Agersø, Yvonne; Olsen, Katharina E P; Aarestrup, Frank M; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Hammerum, Anette M

    2010-05-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common cause of urinary tract infection (UTI). Phylogroup B2 and D isolates are associated with UTI. It has been proposed that E. coli causing UTI could have an animal origin. The objective of this study was to investigate the phylogroups and antimicrobial resistance, and their possible associations in E. coli isolates from patients with UTI, community-dwelling humans, broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork, and pigs in Denmark. A total of 964 geographically and temporally matched E. coli isolates from UTI patients (n = 102), community-dwelling humans (n = 109), Danish (n = 197) and imported broiler chicken meat (n = 86), Danish broiler chickens (n = 138), Danish (n = 177) and imported pork (n = 10), and Danish pigs (n = 145) were tested for phylogroups (A, B1, B2, D, and nontypeable [NT] isolates) and antimicrobial susceptibility. Phylogroup A, B1, B2, D, and NT isolates were detected among all groups of isolates except for imported pork isolates. Antimicrobial resistance to three (for B2 isolates) or five antimicrobial agents (for A, B1, D, and NT isolates) was shared among isolates regardless of origin. Using cluster analysis to investigate antimicrobial resistance data, we found that UTI isolates always grouped with isolates from meat and/or animals. We detected B2 and D isolates, that are associated to UTI, among isolates from broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork, and pigs. Although B2 isolates were found in low prevalences in animals and meat, these sources could still pose a risk for acquiring uropathogenic E. coli. Further, E. coli from animals and meat were very similar to UTI isolates with respect to their antimicrobial resistance phenotype. Thus, our study provides support for the hypothesis that a food animal and meat reservoir might exist for UTI-causing E. coli.

  9. Lysine partitioning in broiler breeders is not affected by energy or protein intake when fed at current industry levels.

    PubMed

    Ekmay, R D; Salas, C; England, J; Cerrate, S; Coon, C N

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary energy and protein intake on the partitioning of lysine in broiler breeder hens. One hundred twenty-six broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 (390, 450 kcal/d) × 3 (22, 24, 26 g of CP/d) fashion. Thirty-six hens were administered a daily oral dose of 15 mg of (15)N-Lys for a period of 2 wk or until first egg. After the 2-wk enrichment period, no isotopes were given for 2 d. After 2 d, a daily oral dose of 15 mg of (2)D4-Lys was administered until the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th egg (saved) after the initial (2)D4-Lys was given, at which point pectoralis muscle was sampled. Weeks 25, 29, and 45 were assessed. Isotopic enrichment of pectoralis muscle, egg yolk, and albumen was determined via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The (15)N-Lys was intended to represent endogenous lysine, whereas the (2)D4-Lys was intended to represent dietary lysine. Greater than 78% of all labeled lysine ((15)N and (2)D4-Lys) was found in breast muscle. Endogenous muscle was the main source of lysine for yolk formation at wk 25 and 45. Diet was the main source of lysine for albumen formation at wk 25 and 29. A consistent decrease in the (15)N-Lys in breast muscle from the 2nd to the 3rd egg was observed, while also seeing an increase in the (15)N-Lys in the egg from the 3rd to the 4th egg. No difference in the partitioning of lysine was determined by energy or protein intake at levels typical for the current poultry industry. Rather, age, and possibly rate of production, appear to be the main drivers of lysine partitioning in the broiler breeder hen.

  10. Broiler breeder semen quality as affected by trace minerals in vitro.

    PubMed

    Barber, S J; Parker, H M; McDaniel, C D

    2005-01-01

    Research has shown that trace elements, such as Se, Mn, and Zn, can alter reproductive functions. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the sperm quality index (SQI) and sperm viability as affected by various levels and sources of Se, Mn, and Zn when added in vitro to broiler breeder semen. In vitro treatments consisted of the following sources and levels of minerals: Control, no minerals added to sperm; seleno L-methionine, 4 levels ranging from 8.78 to 7,896 microg/L; sodium selenite, 4 levels ranging from 8.78 to 7,896 microg/L; MnSO4, 8 levels ranging from 6,500 to 65,000 mg/L; Zn 180 (Zinpro Corporation), 4 levels ranging from 0.65 to 650 mg/L; and ZnSO4, 4 levels ranging from 0.65 to 650 mg/L. The addition of 7,896 microg of sodium selenite/L to semen was detrimental to sperm motility. Also, MnSO4 adversely affected SQI and sperm viability at concentrations of 6,500 mg/L and greater. Sperm viability was decreased when 650 mg/L of Zn 180 was added to semen. Sperm motility was depressed by exposure to Zn 180 at 650 mg/L and ZnSO4 at 65 and 650 mg/L. Our results suggest that these trace minerals must act at the reproductive tissue level during spermatogenesis to improve semen quality. Direct in vitro application of these elements to semen appears to be detrimental to spermatozoa.

  11. Eating behaviour, and preprandial and postprandial correlations in male broiler and layer chickens.

    PubMed

    Bokkers, E A M; Koene, P

    2003-09-01

    1. It has been suggested that broiler chickens have a disturbed satiety and hunger mechanism. The satiety mechanism for eating can be expressed as the positive correlation between meal length and the length of the preceding (preprandial) interval; the hunger mechanism for eating as the positive correlation between meal length and the length of the succeeding (postprandial) interval. An experiment was conducted to investigate eating behaviour of male broiler and layer chickens by measuring meal and interval lengths. 2. Eight male broilers and 8 male layer chickens were housed individually and visually isolated in floor pens (1 m2/pen) on wood shavings. From 4 to 7 weeks of age, eating behaviour of each bird was recorded for 3 h in two conditions each week. In the first condition, the birds were not deprived from feed. In the second condition, they were 24-h food deprived and feed was provided just before the observation started. Preprandial and postprandial correlations were calculated based on data of the non-deprived condition. Before and after each observation bird and feeder were weighed to measure weight gain and feed consumption during observation. 3. Under the non-deprived condition, the broilers spent initially more, but at a later age less time on eating. The broilers had fewer meals per hour, consumed more feed per hour, and had longer meal and interval lengths than the layer chickens. After 24-h feed deprivation, the broilers had a longer first meal, consumed more feed per hour and spent more time on eating than the layer chickens. Significant preprandial correlations but no postprandial correlations were found in the broilers. In the layer chickens, both significant preprandial and postprandial correlations were found. This indicates that for regulating eating behaviour, the satiety mechanism dominates the hunger mechanism in broilers, and satiety and hunger mechanisms are equally involved in layer chickens. 4. The typical eating behaviour of broilers

  12. Effects of breeder age, broiler strain, and eggshell temperature on development and physiological status of embryos and hatchlings.

    PubMed

    Nangsuay, A; Meijerhof, R; van den Anker, I; Heetkamp, M J W; Morita, V De Souza; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2016-07-01

    Breeder age and broiler strain can influence the availability of nutrients and oxygen, particularly through differences in yolk size and shell conductance. We hypothesized that these egg characteristics might affect embryonic responses to changes in eggshell temperature (EST). This study aimed to investigate the effect of breeder age, broiler strain, and EST on development and physiological status of embryos. A study was designed as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement using 4 batches of 1,116 hatching eggs of 2 flock ages at 29 to 30 wk (young) and 54 to 55 wk (old) of Ross 308 and Cobb 500. EST of 37.8 (normal) or 38.9°C (high) was applied from incubation d 7 (E7) until hatching. The results showed that breeder age rather than broiler strain had an influence on yolk size (P = 0.043). The shell conductance was higher in Ross 308 than in Cobb 500 (P < 0.001). A high EST resulted in a higher yolk free body mass (YFBM) compared to the normal EST at E14 and E16, but at 3 h after hatch YFBM was lower when eggs were incubated at high EST compared to normal EST (all P < 0.001). Cobb 500 eggs yielded embryos with a lower YFBM at E14, E18, and 3 h after hatch (all P < 0.05) than Ross 308 eggs. Breeder age had no effect on YFBM, but the RSY weight was higher in embryos from the old flock compared to the young flock embryos at E14 and E16 (both P < 0.05). A 3-way interaction among breeder age, strain, and EST was found, especially for incubation duration, navel quality, and relative heart and stomach weights at 3 h after hatch (all P < 0.05). Based on the results obtained, we conclude that oxygen availability rather than nutrient availability determines embryonic development, and the egg characteristics affected embryonic responses to changes of EST, especially for variables related to chick quality.

  13. Colonization of broiler chickens by waterborne Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, A D; Greenwood, M; Healing, T D; Rollins, D; Shahamat, M; Donaldson, J; Colwell, R R

    1993-01-01

    Chickens on a broiler farm in southern England were found to be colonized with Campylobacter jejuni of a single serotype, Lior 1 Penner 4. The farm was the sole supplier of a local slaughterhouse associated with a campylobacter outbreak in 1984 caused by this serotype. The serotype persisted on the farm for at least 18 months after the outbreak; its prevalence in the human population served by the farm remained high until it disappeared from the farm in 1986. The possible sources and routes of transmission of C. jejuni to the broilers on the farm were investigated. The results showed that vertical transmission, feed, litter, small mammals, and environmental or airborne cross-contamination between sheds or successive crops could be excluded as persistent sources of C. jejuni. The predominant source of C. jejuni on the farm was shown to be the water supply. Direct microscopy and fluorescent antibody methods revealed presumptive campylobacters throughout the farm's water system. Campylobacter-free chickens raised in an animal house and given water from the farm supply became colonized with the serotype of C. jejuni endemic on the farm (Lior 1 Penner 4). An intervention program based on water chlorination, shed drinking system cleaning and disinfection, and withdrawal of furazolidone from feed reduced the proportion of birds colonized with campylobacter from 81 to 7% and was associated with a 1,000- to 10,000-fold reduction in campylobacters recoverable from the carcasses. Two months after the end of the intervention program colonization of the birds returned to high levels (84%), indicating that there was a temporal association between intervention and reduced colonization with C. jejuni. Investigations continue to establish the general applicability of these findings. PMID:8476300

  14. An outbreak of gangrenous dermatitis in commercial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangxing; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Kyung Woo; Jang, Seung I; Marc, Pages; Gay, Cyril G; Ritter, G Donald; Bautista, Daniel A; Phillips, Kathy; Neumann, Anthony P; Rehberger, Thomas G; Siragusa, Gregory R

    2010-08-01

    The present report describes an outbreak of gangrenous dermatitis (GD) infection in a commercial poultry farm in Delaware involving 34-day-old broiler chickens. In addition to obvious clinical signs, some GD-affected broilers also showed severe fibrino-necrotic enteritis and large numbers of Gram-positive rods in the necrotic tissue. Histopathological findings included haemorrhage, degeneration and necrosis of parenchymatous cells, especially of skin, muscle, and intestine. Immunofluorescence staining revealed Clostridium-like bacilli in the skin and the intestine. Both Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium septicum genomic sequences were identified by polymerase chain reaction in bacterial cultures isolated from the skin, muscle, and intestine, and in the frozen tissues from the GD-affected birds. Serological analysis demonstrated that both affected and clinically healthy birds from the same house had high serum antibody titres against C. perfringens, C. septicum, Eimeria, chick anaemia virus, and infectious bursal disease virus. These results are discussed in the context of the relationship between the different Clostridium spp. and the pathogenesis of GD.

  15. Prevalence of Salmonella on retail broiler chicken meat carcasses in Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on retail market chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 1,003 broiler chicken carcasses from 23 departments (one city/department) were collected using a stratified sampling method. Carcass rinses were tested for the ...

  16. Paradoxical Effects of Short Term Triiodothyronine administration to hypothyroid broiler chickens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of these experiments were to determine possible relationships among certain indices of lipid metabolism and specific gene expression in chickens fed methimazole to induce a kind of artificial hypothyroidism. In both experiments, male, broiler chickens growing from 14 to 28 days of age we...

  17. Parvovirus associated cerebellar hypoplasia and hydrocephalus in day-old broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cerebellar hypoplasia and hydrocephalus were detected in day-old broiler chickens. Brains of chickens evaluated at necropsy appeared to be abnormal; some were disfigured and cerebellae appeared to be smaller than normal. Histopathologic examination of brains revealed cerebellar folia that were sho...

  18. Effect of dietary antimicrobials on immune status in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, K W; Lillehoj, H S; Lee, S H; Jang, S I; Park, M S; Bautista, D A; Ritter, G D; Hong, Y H; Siragusa, G R; Lillehoj, E P

    2012-03-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary anticoccidial drugs plus antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) on parameters of immunity in commercial broiler chickens. Day-old chicks were raised on used litter from a farm with endemic gangrenous dermatitis to simulate natural pathogen exposure and provided with diets containing decoquinate (DECX) or monensin (COBN) as anticoccidials plus bacitracin methylene disalicylate and roxarsone as AGPs. As a negative control, the chickens were fed with a non-supplemented diet. Immune parameters examined were concanavalin A (ConA)-stimulated spleen cell proliferation, intestine intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) and spleen cell subpopulations, and cytokine/chemokine mRNA levels in IELs and spleen cells. ConA-induced proliferation was decreased at 14 d post-hatch in DECX-treated chickens, and increased at 25 and 43 d in COBN-treated animals, compared with untreated controls. In DECX-treated birds, increased percentages of MHC2(+) and CD4(+) IELS were detected at 14 d, but decreased percentages of these cells were seen at 43 d, compared with untreated controls, while increased TCR2(+) IELs were evident at the latter time. Dietary COBN was associated with decreased fractions of MHC2(+) and CD4(+) IELs and reduced percentages of MHC2(+), BU1(+), and TCR1(+) spleen cells compared with controls. The levels of transcripts for interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, IL-17F, IL-13, CXCLi2, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and transforming growth factorβ4 were elevated in IELs, and those for IL-13, IL-17D, CXCLi2, and IFN-γ were increased in spleen cells, of DECX- and/or COBN-treated chickens compared with untreated controls. By contrast, IL-2 and IL-12 mRNAs in IELs, and IL-4, IL-12, and IL-17F transcripts in spleen cells, were decreased in DECX- and/or COBN-treated chickens compared with controls. These results suggest that DECX or COBN, in combination with bacitracin and roxarsone, modulate the development of the chicken post-hatch immune system.

  19. Comparison of selenium levels and sources and dietary fat quality in diets for broiler breeders and layer hens.

    PubMed

    Leeson, S; Namkung, H; Caston, L; Durosoy, S; Schlegel, P

    2008-12-01

    Two experiments were carried out with broiler breeders (experiment 1) and laying hens (experiment 2) to study the effects of Se sources, in interaction with dietary level of Se or dietary fats on performance, Se incorporation into tissues (blood, liver, breast muscle, and egg) and eggs, hatchability, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities in tissues and blood. Both experiments involved a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of 3 Se sources (selenite, Se yeast, or B-Traxim Se) and either 2 levels of each source (0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg) or 2 fats (fresh or oxidized). Egg production was not affected by Se source or dietary fat in both experiments. Egg production was greater (P < 0.01) in breeder hens fed 0.3 mg/kg of Se in experiment 1. Hatchability of eggs from hens fed 0.1 mg/kg of Se was lower (P < 0.05) in hens fed Se yeast, whereas from hens fed 0.3 mg/kg of Se, it was comparable across treatments. Selenium in egg, liver, and breast muscle was greater (P < 0.01 or <0.05) in hens fed the greater concentration of Se. Eggs from breeder hens fed organic Se sources had greater (P < 0.01) Se content than those of inorganic source. Egg albumen from breeder fed Se yeast had the greatest Se (P < 0.01), whereas egg yolk from hens fed B-Traxim Se had the greatest Se (P < 0.05). These parameters were affected by interaction between dietary Se level and source (P < 0.01 or < 0.05). Selenium contents in liver and breast muscle were greater (P < 0.01) in hens fed Se yeast compared with hens fed other sources of Se. In experiment 1, liver GPX was greater (P < 0.01) in hens fed selenite or Se yeast, whereas plasma GPX was greater (P < 0.01) in hens fed selenite compared with B-Traxim Se or Se yeast. Supplementation with oxidized fat increased (P < 0.05) GPX in blood and liver. B-Traxim Se decreased (P < 0.05) malondialdehyde content in breast muscle of layers. It is concluded that broiler breeders require supplementation of 0.3 mg/kg of Se, and that there are numerous measurable advantages

  20. Apparent metabolizable energy of glycerin for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Dozier, W A; Kerr, B J; Corzo, A; Kidd, M T; Weber, T E; Bregendahl, K; Bregendal, K

    2008-02-01

    Three energy balance experiments were conducted to determine AMEn of glycerin using broiler chickens of diverse ages. In experiment 1, two dietary treatments were fed from 4 to 11 d of age. Dietary treatments consisted of a control diet (no added glycerin) and a diet containing 6% glycerin (94% control diet + 6% glycerin). Four dietary treatments were provided in experiment 2 (from 17 to 24 d of age) and 3 (from 38 to 45 d of age). Diets in experiment 2 and 3 were 1) control diet (no added glycerin); 2) 3% added glycerin (97% control diet + 3% glycerin); 3) 6% added glycerin (94% control diet + 6% glycerin); and 4) 9% added glycerin (91% control diet + 9% glycerin). Diets in experiment 1 and 2 were identical, but the diet used in experiment 3 had reduced nutrient levels based on bird age. In experiments 2 and 3, broilers were fed 91, 94, 97, and 100% of ad libitum intake so that differences in AMEn consumption were only due to glycerin. A single source of glycerin was used in all experiments. Feed intake, BW, energy intake, energy excretion, nitrogen intake, nitrogen excretion, AMEn, and AMEn intake were determined in all experiments. In experiment 1, AMEn determination utilized the difference approach by subtracting AMEn of the control diet from AMEn of the test diet. In experiments 2 and 3, AMEn intake was regressed against feed intake with the slope estimating AMEn of glycerin. Regression equations were Y = 3,331x -72.59 (P < or = 0.0001) and Y = 3,348.62x -140.18 (P < or = 0.0001) for experiments 2 and 3, respectively. The AMEn of glycerin was determined as 3,621, 3,331, and 3,349 kcal/kg in experiments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The average AMEn of glycerin across the 3 experiments was 3,434 kcal/kg, which is similar to its gross energy content. These results indicate that AMEn of glycerin is utilized efficiently by broiler chickens.

  1. Comparison of carcass yields and meat quality between Baicheng-You chickens and Arbor Acres broilers.

    PubMed

    Sarsenbek, A; Wang, T; Zhao, J K; Jiang, W

    2013-10-01

    This study examined carcass yields and meat quality traits between Baicheng-You (BCY) chickens and Arbor Acres (AA) broilers. Thirty birds for each strain were selected and slaughtered at market ages of 49 d for AA broilers and 120 d for BCY. The results showed that BCY chickens had lower dressing (2.99%), semi-evisceration (5.10%), breast muscle (5.80%), and abdominal fat (1.55%) than those for AA broilers (P < 0.05). However, the leg muscle (%) of BCY chickens was greater (3.14%) than that of AA broilers (P < 0.05). The meat pH45min and pH24h value variations of these 2 breeds were within the normal range (5.53-6.70). The meat color density (optical density, OD) of thigh muscle was darker than breast muscles in both strains (P < 0.05). The cooking loss (%) of breast and thigh muscles of BCY chickens (18.81 and 20.20%, respectively) was also significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that of same muscles of AA broilers (26.41 and 27.33%, respectively). The shear force of breast meat in both breeds was lower (P < 0.05) than that of their thigh meat. The moisture of breast muscle of BCY chickens (72.93%) was lower (P < 0.05) than breast muscles of AA broilers (74.43%). The CP content of breast muscles was greater (P < 0.05) than its thigh muscles of same strain, but it had no significant (P > 0.05) difference of CP content in the same muscles of the 2 strains. The intramuscular fat (IMF) content was greater (P < 0.05) in thigh muscles of BCY chickens (6.80%) than those of AA broilers (4.28%), and inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) content was greater (P < 0.05) in breast and thigh muscles of BCY chickens (IMP: 3.79 and 1.47 mg/g) than same muscles in AA broilers (1.42 and 0.47 mg/g). In this study, muscle from 120-d-old BCY chickens was judged to have better quality traits with regard to cooking loss, drip loss, contents of IMF, and IMP compared with meat from 42-d-old AA broilers. At the same time, greater carcass yields, greater thigh pH24, and lower IMF content were

  2. Effects of different methionine sources on production and reproduction performance, egg quality and serum biochemical indices of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xue; Wang, Yongxia; Liu, Weilong; Ju, Tingting; Zhan, Xiuan

    2016-12-17

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different methionine (Met) sources on production performance, reproduction performance, egg quality and serum biochemical indices in broiler breeders. After receiving a basal diet (containing 0.25% Met) for a 2-wk pretreatment period, a total of 360 39-wk-old Lingnan yellow broiler breeders were randomly allocated to four treatments with six replicates each (15 birds per replicate). Breeders were fed with basal diets (control) or diets supplemented with DL-methionine (DLM), DL-2-hydroxy-4-methylthio butytric calcium (MHA-Ca) and coated DL-Met (CME) respectively (containing 0.1% Met). The results showed that CME supplementation promoted laying rate and decreased feed-to-egg ration (F/E) (P<0.05), DLM and MHA-Ca supplementation decreased F/E (P<0.05) when compared with control group. The rate of fertility, hatchability and birthrate were higher (P<0.05) in DLM, MHA-Ca and CME groups than control group. Compared with control group, CME increased the eggshell thickness (P<0.05); MHA-Ca improved the eggshell thickness, relative eggshell weight and eggshell strength (P<0.05). Results also showed that CME elevated the concentration of total protein in serum (P<0.05); MHA-Ca improved the concentration of Calcium in serum (P<0.05). The concentration of serum uric acid in DLM, MHA-Ca and CME groups was higher than that in control group (P<0.05). Besides, CME had higher concentrations of serum taurine, cysteine and cystanthionine (P<0.05) while MHA-Ca and DLM promoted the serum taurine concentration (P<0.05) compared with control group. Based on the results, it was concluded that Met supplementation could enhance the production and reproduction performance as well as the antioxidant status and egg quality of broiler breeders. In terms of improving the production performance, reproduction performance and antioxidant performance, CME was superior to DLM and MHA-Ca; but in regard to the enhancement of eggshell quality and serum

  3. Effect of vancomycin, tylosin, and chlortetracycline on vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium colonization of broiler chickens during grow-out

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler chickens may serve as reservoirs for human colonization by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). We examined the effects of vancomycin and two commonly-used antimicrobial feed additives on VRE colonization in broiler chickens during grow-out. Chicks received unsupplemented feed or feed ...

  4. Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of two different dietary cereal types, corn versus rye, on digesta viscosity, gut integrity, and gut microbiota composition in commercial broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, off-sex broiler chickens were randomly assigned ...

  5. Fertility of male and female broiler breeders following exposure to elevated ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, C D; Bramwell, R K; Wilson, J L; Howarth, B

    1995-06-01

    Because elevated ambient temperatures decrease fertility, this study was designed to segregate the male and female contribution to heat stress infertility in broiler breeders. Eighty hens and 16 roosters at 21 wk of age were divided equally among two heat stress (S) and two control (C) temperature chambers. For a 10-wk pretreatment period, all birds were maintained at an ambient temperature of 21.1 C and 40% relative humidity. Following the pretreatment period, birds in the S chambers were acclimated for 1 wk at a constant temperature of 29.4 C after which the temperature in the S chambers was increased to 32.2 C for 8 wk. The temperature in the two C chambers was maintained at 21.1 C. Hens in each chamber were artificially inseminated on a weekly basis with 5 x 10(7) sperm per 50 microL from either C or S males. Egg production, semen volume, spermatocrit, and percentage dead sperm were similar during the acclimation period, even though body temperature was significantly elevated in S birds (41.8 vs 41.3 C). Sperm penetration of the perivitelline layer overlying the germinal disc (GD) was decreased in eggs from hens inseminated with semen from S males compared to eggs from hens inseminated with semen from C males (9.5 vs 23.4 sperm per GD). Following the acclimation period, body temperature remained elevated in the S birds compared to the C birds (42.2 vs 41.3 C). Also, egg production was depressed in the S vs C hens (55.8 vs 82.9%). Semen volume, spermatocrit, and percentage dead sperm were not affected by S treatment. However, when hens were inseminated with semen from S males, sperm penetration of the perivitelline layer overlying the GD and egg fertility were decreased compared to hens inseminated with semen from C males (5.4 vs 14.9 sperm per GD, 45.5 vs 73.8% fertility). In conclusion, the male bird appears to contribute more to heat stress infertility than the female.

  6. Nonlinear mixed models to study metabolizable energy utilization in broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Romero, L F; Zuidhof, M J; Renema, R A; Robinson, F E; Naeima, A

    2009-06-01

    This study developed mathematical models to overcome limitations of linear models of energy partitioning in hens. The fit of 1 linear and 2 nonlinear models of ME intake (MEI) were compared, using empirical data of 288 caged broiler breeder hens from 20 to 60 wk of age. Pullets were individually caged at 16 wk and assigned to 1 of 4 feed allocation groups. Three groups had feed allocated on a group basis with divergent target BW: standard (STD), HIGH (STD x 1.1), and LOW (STD x 0.9). The fourth group had individual-based feed allocation (IND) and followed the STD BW target. The linear model expressed MEI as a function of BW(0.75), ADG, egg mass (EM), and temperature. Nonlinear mixed models employed a normally distributed term associated with hen metabolic BW, and exponential terms of ADG and EM, or Cobb-Douglas form interactions between terms. Fit was evaluated with the Bayesian information criterion and systematic bias was analyzed through linear regressions of observed versus expected values. The linear model estimated energy partitioned to maintenance and retention in the range of reported values in the literature. However, this model had the poorest fit (R(2) = 0.64) and exhibited a slope bias of 0.91 (i.e., MEI was overestimated at low values and underestimated at high values). The first nonlinear mixed model indicated that MEI partitioned to ADG was a factor of ADG(1.15), whereas the ME partitioned to EM was a factor of EM(1.12). This model had improved fit (R(2) = 0.71) relative to the linear model. The second nonlinear mixed model indicated that the energy requirement for ADG increased by 0.60% and the EM energy requirement decreased by 2.07% for each 1% increment in BW. This model further improved fit (R(2) = 0.75). Nonlinear mixed models reduced estimation bias by accounting for individual variation in maintenance energy expenditure. These nonlinear mixed models may be used to analyze energy partitioning in animals, to develop prediction equations of MEI

  7. The effect of dietary alterations during rearing on feather condition in broiler breeder females.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, K L H; Widowski, T; Leeson, S; Sandilands, V; Arnone, A; Torrey, S

    2014-07-01

    In commercial production, broiler breeders are severely feed restricted to maintain healthy BW. This restriction can induce stereotypic behavior, including feather pecking, which has negative welfare implications for both the victim and performer. It has been suggested that the problem may be symptomatic of chronic hunger or the frustration of feeding motivation. In this study, we determined whether feather condition, as an indirect measure of feather pecking, could be improved via dietary manipulation. Six dietary treatments were tested, each with 5 replicate pens of 9 to 12 birds. Control diets (C) were fed on a daily or skip-a-day (SAD) basis. Alternative diets included soybean hulls as a bulking ingredient and calcium propionate (CaP) as an appetite suppressant of either a feed grade (F) or purified (P) quality. Both alternative diets were fed on either a daily or SAD basis. Five or 6 birds were randomly chosen from each pen and feather scored at 10, 14, 20, 26, and 36 wk of age. Six body parts (neck, back, wings, legs, vent area, tail) were given a score from 0 to 5 (0 = no feather damage, and 5 ≥ 50% feather loss with tissue damage). Scores were summed for each bird and averaged for each pen. Data were analyzed with room and feeding frequency as main factors and diet as the subfactor with repeated measures. There was an interaction between diet and time (P < 0.01) with the feather condition of the C birds worsening more quickly in comparison with the F and P birds. There was an interaction between feeding frequency and time (P = 0.015), with SAD-fed birds scoring better than daily-fed birds at 20, 26, and 36 wk. This interaction could indicate that SAD feeding increased satiety after the birds became accustomed to the schedule. Because feather condition was better with the alternative diets, this may indicate a reduction in stereotyped feather pecking with these diets. This suggests that the alternative diets increase satiety compared with the control diets.

  8. Oral exposure of broiler breeder hens to extra thyroxine modulates early adaptive immune responses in progeny chicks.

    PubMed

    Akhlaghi, A; Zamiri, M J; Jafari Ahangari, Y; Atashi, H; Ansari Pirsaraei, Z; Deldar, H; Eghbalian, A N; Akhlaghi, A A; Navidshad, B; Yussefi Kelarikolaei, K; Hashemi, S R

    2013-04-01

    Based on the findings of a recent study suggesting a decreased cold-induced ascites incidence in broiler progeny from hyperthyroid (HYPER) breeder hens, and a controversy on the effects of hyperthyroidism on immunocompetence, the present study was conducted to determine the probable adverse effect of induced maternal hyperthyroidism on immune function in progeny chicks. Breeder hens (n = 88) were randomly allotted to the control or HYPER groups and received common or thyroxine (T4)-added (1 mg/L) water, respectively. The hens were artificially inseminated, and hatching eggs (n = 924) were incubated. Thereafter, the male hatchlings (n = 288) were reared for 42 d, and several cellular and humoral immune responses were evaluated at standard or low ambient temperature. Prevaccination antibody titers to Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease virus were higher in HYPER chicks during 1 wk of age, although not different in their dams. For primary response to SRBC administered at 7 d of age, HYPER chicks recorded higher total, IgM (d 14), and IgG (d 21) anti-SRBC antibody titers. Higher cutaneous basophilic hypersensitivity response in HYPER chicks (d 10) was not observed at 35 d of age. Carbon clearance assay showed no difference, but in vitro lymphoproliferative response to concanavalin A was higher in 19-d-old HYPER chicks, independent of temperature treatment. An increase in lymphocyte percentage coincided with a decreased heterophil percentage and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (d 14) in the HYPER group. The weight of lymphoid organs in progeny was not influenced by the oral exposure of dams to extra T4. Independent of T4 treatment, cold exposure was generally associated with decreased immune functions at early stages. The data suggested that oral exposure of broiler breeder hens to 1 mg/L of T4 not only had no adverse effect on immune function, but also modulated early adaptive immune responses in progeny chicks for which the causal

  9. Systemic Metabolic Responses of Broiler Chickens and Piglets to Acute T-2 Toxin Intravenous Exposure.

    PubMed

    Wan, Qianfen; He, Qinghua; Deng, Xianbai; Hao, Fuhua; Tang, Huiru; Wang, Yulan

    2016-01-27

    The aim of this study is to thoroughly investigate the toxicity mechanism of mycotoxin T-2 toxin and to further understand the endogenous metabolic alterations induced by T-2 toxin. To achieve this, a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics approach was used to analyze the metabolic alterations induced by a single intravenous injection of T-2 toxin (0.5 mg/kg of body weight) in piglets and broiler chickens. A range of metabolites in the plasma, liver, kidney, and spleen of broiler chickens and plasma of piglets was changed following T-2 toxin injection. For example, a rapid increase of amino acids together with a significant reduction of glucose and lipid occurred in the plasma of broiler chickens and piglets following T-2 toxin treatment. A significant accumulation of amino acids and modulated nucleotides were detected in the liver, kidney, and spleen of T-2 toxin-treated broiler chickens. These data indicated that T-2 toxin caused endogenous metabolic changes in multiple organs and perturbed various metabolic pathways, including energy, amino acid, and nucleotide metabolism, as well as oxidative stress. We also observed elevated levels of tryptophan in the T-2 toxin-treated broiler chickens, which may explain the reported neurotoxic effects of T-2 toxin. These findings provide important information on the toxicity of T-2 toxin and demonstrate the power of the NMR-based metabonomics approach in exploring the toxicity mechanism of xenobiotics.

  10. Effects of supplementation with L. plantarum TN8 encapsulated in alginate-chitosan in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Imen; Ktari, Naourez; Ben Slima, Sirine; Bouchaala, Kamel; Ben Salah, Riadh

    2016-08-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of supplementation of probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum TN8 encapsulated in sodium alginate-chitosan or a commercial blend of essential oils on total cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and growth performance of broiler chickens. The results showed that the broiler chickens supplemented with encapsulated L. plantarum TN8 or essential oil has a higher growth than the control group. After 35days, the weight means were 1860 and 1880g respectively in dietary supplementation with probiotic or essential oil, while they are 1800g in the control group. The evolution of the feed consumption and feed conversion per week showed that the supplementation of encapsulated TN8 strain or essential oil in broiler chickens food has a positive influence on their appetite. Similarly, supplementation of the feed with this encapsulated strain significantly reduced the rate of cholesterol (HDL and LDL) as well as the contents of triglycerides in broiler chickens. Through our study, it appears that the use of the probiotic supplementation or essential oil to broilers were found to be better than the control group of chickens, resulting in a significant economic impact and promoting effect on health.

  11. Neopterin and biopterin as biomarkers of immune system activity associated with crating in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bedanova, I; Voslarova, E; Zelinska, G; Blahova, J; Marsalek, P; Chloupek, J

    2014-10-01

    Neopterin and biopterin belong to a group of unconjugated pterin derivates. These biomolecules are present in many animal species and perform several functions. Pterin concentrations may provide additional information on the effect of stress on immune system activity. This study focused on an investigation of the effect of crating on plasma concentrations of neopterin and biopterin in broilers. The effects of 2 crating periods (2 and 4 h) were monitored in Hubbard broilers (n = 90) aged 42 d. After a given crating period, randomly selected chickens from each group were sampled immediately and the remaining chickens were sampled after 24 h. Plasma corticosterone increased (P < 0.001) immediately after 2 and 4 h crating, but no difference between the crated and the control noncrated broilers was found 24 h later. Immediately after crating, neopterin in 2- and 4-h broilers did not differ from the control, but 24 h later a decrease (P = 0.011) in plasma neopterin was found in 4-h broilers compared with the control. Simultaneously, 24 h after crating, neopterin levels in 2- and 4-h broilers decreased (P < 0.001) in comparison with the levels immediately after crating. Plasma biopterin was higher (P < 0.001) in 4-h broilers than in the control immediately after the crating. A time of sampling effect (P = 0.016) was found for the heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, with heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio higher 24 h after crating in comparison with its level immediately after the crating. This study shows that crating may significantly affect the immune system of broiler chickens. This is corroborated by the increase in plasma biopterin concentrations in broilers immediately after crating and the decrease in plasma neopterin concentrations in broilers 24 h after crating. The correlations were found for widely used indicators of acute and chronic stress in birds [i.e., plasma corticosterone concentrations (biopterin) and the heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (neopterin

  12. Effect of age on hepatic cytochrome P450 of Ross 708 broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hu, S X

    2013-05-01

    Age has significant impact on hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450) systems in animals. Ross 708 broiler chicken is a breed of chicken with fast growth characteristics. Cytochrome P450 in the livers of Ross 708 broiler chicken of different ages has been investigated. The birds were raised under standard husbandry conditions. A certain number of chickens was randomly sampled weekly for liver collection from d 1 to 56 posthatch. The chicken body and liver weights were recorded. The chicken livers were processed for liver microsomes though a multiple-step procedure at low temperature. Total CYP450 content in chicken liver homogenates and liver microsomes was measured using a UV/visible spectroscopic method. The enzymatic activities of CYP450 in the chicken liver microsomes were determined through incubation of CYP450 isoform substrates followed by measurement of formation of their metabolites. The chicken showed an opposite age pattern in hepatic CYP450 content and activities compared with most mammals. The hepatic CYP450 content and activities of chicken at d 1 posthatch were higher than at other ages. The total hepatic CYP450 content in chickens at d 1 posthatch was more than twice the average hepatic value of the chickens at d 7 to 28. This high CYP450 fell quickly in the first week posthatch and slightly rose from d 28 to 56. Hepatic CYP450 activities of CYP1A, 3A, 2C, 2D, and 2H were much higher in the chicken at d 1 posthatch. The differences of these enzymatic activities between d 1 and other ages of chicken were CYP450 isoform dependent. This result suggests that embryonic development of chicken livers has a significant impact on the age profile of hepatic CYP450 content and activities of posthatch chickens.

  13. The effects of pullet body weight, dietary nonpyhtate phosphorus intake, and breeder feeding regimen on production performance, chick quality, and bone remodeling in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Ekmay, R D; Salas, C; England, J; Cerrate, S; Coon, C N

    2012-04-01

    A 3 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment, consisting of 52 hens per treatment, was conducted to determine the effects of pullet BW, dietary nonphytate phosphorus (NPP), and feeding regimen on performance, progeny quality, and bone remodeling. Cobb 500 broiler breeder pullets were reared to 3 different growth curves: 20% under, Cobb standard, and 20% over. Body weights were recorded weekly and feed adjustments made accordingly. At 21 wk, 624 hens were fed one of 2 breeder diets differing only in the amount of dietary NPP: 0.15 or 0.40%. A normal feeding regimen was appropriate for the particular growth curve; an alternative regimen considered the 3 growth curves together as a flock. At 24, 26, and 29 wk, blood was collected from 5 hens per treatment every 4 h over a 24-h period. Plasma samples were analyzed for total alkaline phosphatase, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, parathyroid hormone-related peptide, Ca, and inorganic P. Eggs per hen housed were diminished in hens fed the low dietary NPP and by low pullet target weight. Hens fed low dietary NPP also had lower egg weights but better eggshell quality. Mortality was significantly higher in hens fed low dietary NPP. Breeder tibia relative strength and ash were also significantly lower in hens fed low dietary NPP, regardless of the quantitative amount. Progeny tibia ash was not affected by any treatment. Total alkaline phosphatase responded to pullet BW, however by wk 29, total alkaline phosphatase also became sensitive to dietary NPP. The NPP by pullet BW interaction for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase levels became significant by 29 wk, and pullet BW was significant at wk 24. The NPP by pullet growth curve interaction was also critical for plasma inorganic P levels throughout the sampling period. In summary, both 0.15% dietary NPP and reared pullets 20% under standard BW negatively affect egg production but do not impair progeny productivity. Body composition appears to be a main contributor in bone remodeling

  14. Effects of salinomycin and Bacillus subtilis on growth performance and immune responses in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Woo; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Jang, Seung I; Lee, Sung-Hyen

    2014-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the effect of salinomycin and Bacillus subtilis on growth performance, serum antibody levels against Clostridium spp. and Eimeria spp., and cytokine mRNA expression levels in broiler chickens raised in the used litter. Broiler chickens fed a diet containing salinomycin showed lower (P < 0.05) body weights compared with the control diet-fed counterparts. Serum nitric oxide levels were significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in chickens fed the B. subtilis-enriched diet compared with those on either the salinomycin-fed or control diet-fed chickens. None of the dietary treatments affected (P > 0.05) serum antibody levels against Clostridium perfringens toxins. Both salinomycin and B.subtilis significantly lowered (P < 0.05) the serum levels of Eimeria-specific antibodies compared with the control group. Salinomycin, but not B. subtilis, significantly modulated (P < 0.05) the expression of cytokines encoding interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor superfamily 15 (TNFSF15) compared with the control group. In conclusion, dietary salinomycin and B. subtilis affected serum anticoccidial antibody and intestinal cytokine expression, but failed to improve growth performance in broiler chickens. Further study is warranted to investigate the mode of action of salinomycin on host immune response and growth performance in broiler chickens.

  15. Selection for Growth Performance in Broiler Chickens Associates with Less Diet Flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, Jana; Coopman, Frank; Cools, An; Michiels, Joris; Fremaut, Dirk; De Smet, Stefaan; Janssens, Geert P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Global competition for high standard feed-food resources between man and livestock, such as industrial broilers, is a concerning problem. In addition, the low productivity of scavenger chickens in developing countries leaves much to be desired. Changing the ingredients, and therefore, the nutrient composition of feed intake by commercial fed as well as scavenger chickens seems like an obvious solution. In this study, the ability of four broiler chicken breeds to perform on a commercial versus a scavenger diet was tested. The four broiler breeds differed genetically in growth potential. A significant (P < 0.01) negative effect of the scavenger diet on the bodyweight of the fast growing breeds was found and this effect decreased with decreasing growth rate in the other breeds. These differences in bodyweight gain could not be explained by differences in nutrient digestibility but were caused by the lack of ability of the fast growing breeds to increase their feed intake sufficiently. PMID:26042600

  16. Age effect of broiler breeders on fertility and sperm penetration of the perivitelline layer of the ovum.

    PubMed

    Gumułka, Małgorzata; Kapkowska, Ewa

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the age effect of a broiler breeder flock on duration of fertility and number of spermatozoa penetrating the perivitelline layer overlying the germinal disc (SP/mm(2) GDIPVL). Moreover, in the second half of the flock's reproductive life, the effect of using ejaculates of young roosters (CA2) in artificial insemination (AI) on the above parameters of fertility was estimated. The commercial flock of broiler breeder hens (n = 100) was inseminated six times from 31 to 62 weeks of age. Additional inseminations, with ejaculates of roosters aged 31 and 36 weeks (CA2), were performed at 56 and 62 weeks of age. AI was performed during two consecutive days (D0 and D1) with an insemination dose of 125 x 10(6) spermatozoa/0.06 ml containing pooled ejaculates. The following parameters were studied: the effective and maximum duration of fertility (De and Dm), percent of fertility on different days after AI (FD10, FD15 and FD20), indices of duration of sperm penetration (DSP, SP < or = 3/GDIPVL), SP/mm(2) GDIPVL in eggs laid on successive days after insemination of hens at different age, and correlations between some fertility indices. Both for De and Dm, the highest values were noted after AI of the layers at 36 weeks of age (14.8 +/- 0.49 and 17.4 +/- 0.46 days, respectively), which were about 2 days longer than at 56 weeks. All fertility indices decreased gradually with age, starting from AI at peak egg production (31-36 weeks of age), while the use of ejaculates from CA2 did not help to increase them significantly. Correlation coefficients between SP/mm(2) GDIPVL and the other fertility indices were positive and highest for eggs laid on D3. It is concluded that high De values can be obtained from broiler breeders in adequate environmental and technological conditions of AI. It is suggested that the age-related decrease in fertility is more pronounced in females, in which the efficiency of sperm storage tubules decreases. The

  17. Studies on the Cecal Microflora of Commercial Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Salanitro, J. P.; Blake, I. G.; Muirhead, P. A.

    1974-01-01

    A study was made of the cecal microflora isolated from broilers (5-week-old) reared under typical commercial husbandry conditions. Three hundred and twenty-five bacterial strains (randomly isolated from colonies representing 49 to 81% of the microscopic count) were isolated from cecal digesta of six animals on a rumen fluid roll tube medium (M98-5). Seventy-seven percent of these strains consisted of strict anaerobes: gram-negative, pleomorphic cocci (5.2%), Peptostreptococcus (1.5%), gram-positive rods (36.1% as Propionibacterium acnes and Eubacterium sp.), gram-negative rods (18.6% as Bacteroides clostridiiformis, B. hypermegas and B. fragilis) and sporeforming rods (15.7% as Clostridium sp.). Two types of facultatively anaerobic bacteria (gram-positive cocci and Escherichia coli) were also isolated and constituted 17.5% of the remaining flora. The distribution of the bacterial groups isolated from six cecal samples varied considerably. Data on the growth requirements of anaerobic strains indicated that many could be cultured in a simple medium consisting of an energy source, minerals, reducing agent, Trypticase, and yeast extract (or a vitamin mixture in place of yeast extract). The growth of some of these bacteria was also enhanced by CO2 and rumen fluid. These preliminary data suggest that some of the more numerous anaerobes isolated from the chicken cecum may not require complex nutrients for growth and, in fact, may be nutritionally similar to rumen anaerobes. PMID:4608322

  18. The efficacy of Mycoplasma gallisepticum K-strain live vaccine in broiler and layer chickens.

    PubMed

    Ferguson-Noel, N M; Williams, S M

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of a live Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccine candidate (K-strain) was compared to commercially available vaccines in broiler-type chickens (Trial 1) and layer-type chickens (Trial 2). In Trial 1, three-week-old broiler-type chickens were vaccinated via aerosol with K-strain or an F-strain vaccine. The vaccinated chickens and 10 non-vaccinated controls were subsequently challenged with virulent R-strain via aerosol at six weeks post vaccination; both K-strain and F-strain vaccination resulted in significant protection from air sac and tracheal lesions, as well as R-strain colonization (P ≤ 0.05). In Trial 2, commercial layer-type chickens were vaccinated with ts-11 (via eye drop) or K-strain (via aerosol) at 12 weeks of age. At 25 weeks of age these birds were challenged with R-strain via aerosol. The ts-11 and K-strain vaccinated groups both had significantly lower air sac lesion scores and a lower prevalence of ovarian regression after challenge as compared to non-vaccinated chickens (P ≤ 0.05). K-strain vaccination also prevented significant tracheal lesions and R-strain colonization (P ≤ 0.05). K-strain shows great potential as a highly efficacious live MG vaccine in broiler and layer-type chickens for protection of the respiratory and reproductive systems as well as prevention of infection with field strains.

  19. Occurrence of Salmonella spp. in broiler chicken carcasses and their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Dalila Angélica Moliterno; Ribeiro, Aldemir Reginato; Vasconcelos, Ana Mércia Mendes; Santos, Sylnei Barros; Silva, Juliana Vital Domingos; de Andrade, Patrícia Lúcia Arruda; de Arruda Falcão, Lúcia Sadae Pereira da Costa

    2009-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the occurrence of Salmonellae in broiler chicken carcasses and to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolated strains. Twenty-five out of the 260 broiler chicken carcasses samples (9.6%) were positive for Salmonella. S. Enteritidis was the most frequent serovar. Nineteen Salmonella isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance, and the results indicated that 94.7% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Resistance to streptomycin (73.7%), nitrofurantoin (52.3%), tetracycline (31.6%), and nalidixic acid (21%) were the prevalent amongst Salmonella strains tested. PMID:24031401

  20. Breeder age affects small intestine development of broiler chicks with immediate or delayed access to feed.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, K Z; Edens, F W

    2012-01-01

    1. The relationship between breeder age and chick gastrointestinal tract development to 21 days of age, as influenced by immediate or delayed access to feed, was examined in three consecutive trials. 2. Ross 708 chicks, derived from breeder flocks at 31 (young), 40 (middle) and 63 (old) weeks of age were placed randomly into either a control group with immediate access to feed and water, or a 48 h feed delayed (FD) group with free access to water. 3. FD negatively affected body weight (BW) of chicks derived from young and old flocks through the first and second weeks of age, respectively. Chicks from the older flock absorbed more yolk in the first 48 h with no FD effect. When feed was made available, chicks from the FD group showed a large increase in small intestine weight relative to BW, surpassing (P < 0·05) the control groups across all breeder flock ages. 4. Morphological measurements in all intestinal sections had higher values in chicks derived from the middle age breeder flock. FD to newly hatched chicks from the young breeder flock shortened villi (P < 0·01), decreased crypt depth and villus surface area (P < 0·001) in the duodenum through the first week post hatch. 5. Crypt depths were maximised between 7 and 14 d post-hatch in chicks from young and old breeder flocks, but crypt depths in chicks from the middle aged flocks continued to deepen. 6. The increased crypt depth may augment the number of enterocytes available for villus growth, and facilitate longer villi and greater villus surface area, in chicks from the middle age flocks. Intestinal morphological variation was associated with breeder flock age, which accounted for differential growth in chicks derived from young, middle, and old aged breeder flocks.

  1. Quantitative Determination of Tenuazonic Acid in Pig and Broiler Chicken Plasma by LC-MS/MS and Its Comparative Toxicokinetics.

    PubMed

    Fraeyman, Sophie; Devreese, Mathias; Broekaert, Nathan; De Mil, Thomas; Antonissen, Gunther; De Baere, Siegrid; De Backer, Patrick; Rychlik, Michael; Croubels, Siska

    2015-09-30

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantitate tenuazonic acid (TeA) in pig and broiler chicken plasma was successfully developed and validated. Linear matrix-matched calibration curves ranged between 5 and 200 ng/mL. Correlation coefficients, goodness-of-fit coefficients, and within-day and between-day precision and accuracy fell well within the acceptance criteria. The limit of quantitation was 5.0 ng/mL in both pig and broiler chicken plasma. The LC-MS/MS method was applied in a comparative toxicokinetic study in both pigs and broiler chickens. TeA was completely bioavailable after oral administration in both animal species. However, absorption was deemed to be slower in broiler chickens (mean tmax 0.32 h in pigs vs 2.60 h in chickens). TeA was more slowly eliminated in broiler chickens (mean t1/2el 0.55 h in pigs vs 2.45 h in chickens after oral administration), mainly due to the significantly lower total body clearance (mean Cl 446.1 mL/h/kg in pigs vs 59.2 mL/h/kg in chickens after oral administration). Tissue residue studies and further research to elucidate the biotransformation and excretion processes of TeA in pigs, broiler chickens, and other animal species are imperative.

  2. Growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens supplemented with Rhodopseudomonas palustris in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Xu, Q Q; Yan, H; Liu, X L; Lv, L; Yin, C H; Wang, P

    2014-01-01

    1. The effect of the bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, on the growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens was investigated. 2. A total of 900-d-old Arbor Acres broilers were allocated to three experimental treatments for 6 weeks. Chicks were administered with R. palustris in drinking water as follows: (i) control group without R. palustris; (ii) treatment 1 (R1) with R. palustris of 8 × 10(9) cells per chick per day in drinking water; (iii) treatment 2 (R2) with R. palustris of 1.6 × 10(10) cells per chick per day in drinking water. 3. The results showed that, compared with that of control, both groups of R. palustris treatment increased daily weight gain and improved feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens significantly during the whole growing period of 6 weeks. 4. Both total and glutamic acid contents of chicken breast fillet in R. palustris treatment R2 were higher, while the fat content was lower, than those of the control group. Furthermore, R. palustris treatments also improved sensory attributes of chicken breast fillet. 5. As a probiotic providing rich nutrients and biological active substances, R. palustris administration in drinking water displayed a growth promoting effect and improved meat quality of broiler chickens.

  3. Arginine, soy isoflavone and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose have protective effects against obesity in broiler breeder hens fed on high-energy diets.

    PubMed

    Khalaji, S; Zaghari, M; Ganjkhanloo, M; Ghaziani, F

    2013-01-01

    1. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of arginine, soy isoflavone (ISF) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) on obesity in broiler breeder hens. 2. A total of 320 Cobb 500 hens, 45 weeks of age, were assigned to 64 floor pens. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomised design in a factorial arrangement (2 × 2 × 2 × 2) with 4 replicates of 5 hens in each pen. Factors included two concentrations of HPMC (0 and 1%), two concentrations of arginine (8.4 and 12 g/kg), two concentrations of ISF (zero and three times more than that present in basal diets) and two contents of energy (11.7 and 14.6 MJ/kg). Performance criteria and blood characteristics of hens were measured during the experimental period. Expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism was determined in the liver at 55 weeks of age. 3. Hens given high-energy diets showed increased BW (body weight), ovary weight and abdominal fat pad and enhanced plasma glucose, triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, haemoglobin, haematocrit and low lymphocyte percentages. The expression of malic enzyme, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) increased and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP1c) decreased with increasing energy content of diets. Arginine addition decreased TG, cholesterol and A1-c haemoglobin concentration and increased PPARα, PPARγ and iNOS expression. Inclusion of ISF and HPMC decreased BW, egg weight, plasma TG, cholesterol and increased egg production and also enhanced PPARγ and iNOS expression. Significant interactions were observed between energy concentration and ISF and HPMC on BW. 4. The results of the current study revealed that ISF, HPMC and arginine have beneficial effects on controlling the metabolism of obese broiler breeder hens and using a mix of these products minimises the harmful effects of obesity.

  4. The effect of low-density diets on broiler breeder development and nutrient digestibility during the rearing period.

    PubMed

    Enting, H; Veldman, A; Verstegen, M W A; van der Aar, P J

    2007-04-01

    Low-density diets might help to reduce hunger feeling in restricted-fed broiler breeders. Effects of low-density diets on nutrient digestibility and bird development were studied in Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens from 4 wk of age until the onset of the lay (wk 26). The experiment included 4 treatments. The control treatment was a normal density diet (ND; 2,600 kcal/kg). Treatments 2 and 3 had a 12 and 23% lower nutrient density than ND (LD12 and LD23, respectively) through inclusion of palm kernel meal, wheat bran, wheat gluten feed, and sunflower seed meal. Treatment 4 also had a 12% lower nutrient density than ND but included oats and sugar beet pulp (LD12(OP)). Total daily intake of energy, digestible lysine, calcium, retainable phosphorus, sodium, and linoleic acid was kept constant in the low-density dietary treatments. Animal performance and development of the intestinal tract and reproductive tract were determined in addition to digestibility and feed passage rate. The LD12(OP) provided a lower AME and nutrient digestibility than calculated and was related to lower live weights. Birds given LD23 and LD12(OP) showed a faster ovarian and oviduct development between wk 24 and 26 compared with ND. At 22 wk of age, LD23 and LD12(OP) diets resulted in higher empty jejunum and ileum weights. Low-density diets did not affect intestinal tract contents and decreased mean retention time of the contents. It was concluded that low-density diets can affect live weight and development of digestive and reproductive tracts.

  5. Dissemination and tracking of Salmonella spp. in integrated broiler operation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Aeran; Kang, Min Su; Kwag, Sang Ick; Cho, Jae Keun

    2007-01-01

    Controlling Salmonella in integrated broiler operation is complicated because there are numerous potential sources of Salmonella contamination, including chicks, feed, rodents, wild poultry operations, and the processing plant. The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution of Salmonella through all phases of two integrated broiler operations and to determine the key areas related to the control of all known sources of infection. Two different Salmonella serotypes were observed at integrated broiler chicken company A. S. enteritidis, the predominant company A isolate, was consistently found in the breeder farm, hatcheries, broiler farms, and chicken slaughterhouse. At company B, a total of six different serotypes, S. heidelberg, S. senftenberg, S. enteritidis, S. blockley, S. gallinarum, and S. virchow, were detected. Although S. heidelberg was not found in the broiler farms, it was consistently found in the breeder farm, hatcheries, and chicken slaughterhouse. In addition, S. enteritidis was found in the hatcheries, broiler farm, and chicken slaughterhouse. In order to obtain the genetic clonality, 22 S. enteritidis isolates were digested with XbaI and analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrohporesis (PFGE). A difference in the PFGE pattern was found to be related to the origin of the integrated broiler operation. These data support the critical need to control Salmonella in breeder farms and hatcheries, and demonstrate important points related to the control of infection in large-scale poultry operations of Korea. PMID:17519569

  6. Anticoccidial effect of Piper sarmentosum extracts in experimental coccidiosis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dingfa; Zhou, Luli; Li, Wei; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu

    2016-06-01

    To study the anticoccidial effect of Piper sarmentosum extracts (PSE) in experimental broiler coccidiosis, 270 one-day-old Wenchang broiler chickens were randomly assigned to six groups, each with three replicates (n = 15). The six groups were blank control group (BC), negative control group (NC), positive control group (PC), and another three PSE addition groups. Chickens in three control groups were fed a basal diet without PSE supplementation. Chickens in the three PSE addition groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with PSE at 100 (T100), 200 (T200), and 300 (T300) mg/kg of feed, respectively. At 15 days of age, chickens in group NC, PC, and three PSE addition groups were challenged with an oral dose of 1 × 10(5) Eimeria tenella oocysts each chick. Chickens in group PC were fed with diclazuril solution in water for 5 days after 48 h with oocysts inoculation. The results showed that PSE and diclazuril improved growth performance and significantly (P < 0.05) decreased oocysts per gram in inoculated broiler chickens. PSE and diclazuril significantly (P < 0.05) decreased nitric oxide at 6 and 9 days post-inoculation relative to the NC group, respectively. At 6 and 9 days post-inoculation, PSE supplementation at 200 mg/kg in the diet increased concentration of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) (P < 0.05). PSE supplementation at 200 mg/kg in the diet significantly (P < 0.05) increased mRNA expressions of IFN-γ and IL-2 in the cecum of chickens at 9 days post-inoculation relative to the BC and NC group. The current results showed the anticoccidial properties, and beneficial effect on intestinal mucosa damage of PSE in broiler chickens that had been challenged by coccidiosis.

  7. The effects of selective breeding on the architectural properties of the pelvic limb in broiler chickens: a comparative study across modern and ancestral populations

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Heather; Anthony, Nicolas B; Corr, Sandra A; Hutchinson, John R

    2010-01-01

    Intensive artificial selection has led to the production of the modern broiler chicken, which over the last few decades has undergone a dramatic increase in growth rate and noticeable changes in body conformation. Unfortunately, this has been associated with musculoskeletal abnormalities which have altered the walking ability of these birds, raising obvious welfare concerns, as well as causing economic losses. Here we present a comparative study of ancestral and derived muscle anatomy in chickens to begin to tease apart how evolutionary alterations of muscle form in chickens have influenced their locomotor function and perhaps contributed to lameness. We measured the muscle architectural properties of the right pelvic limb in 50 birds, including the Giant Junglefowl, a commercial strain broiler and four pureline commercial broiler breeder lines (from which the broiler populations are derived) to identify which features of the broiler’s architectural design have diverged the most from the ancestral condition. We report a decline in pelvic limb muscle mass in the commercial line birds that may compromise their locomotor abilities because they carry a larger body mass. This greater demand on the pelvic limb muscles has mostly led to changes in support at the hip joint, revealing significantly larger abductors and additionally much larger medial rotators in the broiler population. Differences were seen within the commercial line bird populations, which are likely attributed to different selection pressures and may reflect differences in the walking ability of these birds. In addition, Junglefowl seem to have both greater force-generating capabilities and longer, presumably faster contracting muscles, indicative of superior musculoskeletal/locomotor function. We have provided baseline data for generating hypotheses to investigate in greater depth the specific biomechanical constraints that compromise the modern broiler’s walking ability and propose that these

  8. Effect of refined functional carbohydrates from enzymatically hydrolyzed yeast on the presence of Salmonella spp. in the ceca of broiler breeder females.

    PubMed

    Walker, G K; Jalukar, S; Brake, J

    2017-03-31

    Broiler breeders hatched from Salmo-nella negative grandparents received either zero or 50 g/MT of refined functional carbohydrates (RFC) in their diets from d of placement to end of lay. There were no other treatments used. Pullets and cockerels were reared separately in an enclosed litter-floor house to 21 wk of age when 28 randomly selected pullets from each diet were transferred to individual cages for an additional 14 d before they were killed, and their ceca were excised aseptically and tested for Salmonella spp. The remaining birds were transferred to a two-thirds slat and one-third litter curtain-sided laying house. There were 8 pens of 60 to 65 females and 8 to 18 males, depending upon flock age and housing type, fed each diet, and there was no effort made to isolate pens from typical daily foot traffic between pens. At 51 wk of age, male progeny broiler chicks were hatched and received either zero or 50 g/MT of RFC to complete a 2 × 2 design with 4 replicate pens of 12 males per interaction. All broilers were tested for cecal Salmonella spp. at 34 d of age. Ceca were collected from 30 breeder hens from each treatment at 64 wk of age and tested for Salmonella spp. Of the ceca sampled at 23 wk from the control pullets, 71.4% were found to contain Salmonella spp., while none of the ceca from the RFC pullets tested positive. Of the ceca sampled from the control hens at 64 wk, 40% were found to contain Salmonella spp., while none of the ceca from the RFC hens tested positive. Salmonella spp. was isolated from broilers in one pen of the control broilers that were also progeny of control breeders out of 4 replicates but not from any pens in which the breeders had been fed RFC. These data demonstrated that RFC reduced natural Salmonella spp. colonization of broiler breeder hen and broiler progeny ceca during a complete production cycle.

  9. Effect of broiler breeders fed with corn or sorghum diet and canthaxanthin supplementation on production and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, C E V; Rosa, A P; Londero, A; Giacomini, C B S; Orso, C; Fernandes, M O; Paixão, S J; Bonamigo, D V

    2017-03-04

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of corn or sorghum diet and canthaxanthin (CX) supplementation on performance in broiler breeders. A total of 440 females with similar body weight (BW) (3.71 ± 0.14 kg) and 60 roosters were placed in an open-sided house with 20 pens, randomly distributed in a factorial arrangement (2 × 2). There were 4 diets of 2 ingredients; corn (CO) or sorghum (SO) and 2 levels of CX; 6 mg/kg (CX) and 0 mg/kg (NCX) totaling 5 replicate pens of 22 females and 3 males each, from 42 to 65 wk, divided in 2 periods (from wk 42 to 53 and wk 54 to 65). Birds' BW was measured every 28 d and mortality rate was calculated at the end of trial. Egg production (%), egg specific gravity (g/cm3), egg weight (g), yolk weight (%), albumen weight (%), eggshell weight (%) and yolk colorimetric score were measured weekly. Incubation parameters were recorded in 12 incubations to evaluate hatching eggs, hatching (%), hatchability (%), fertility (%), weight of the chicks born and their quality. The BW, mortality, percentage of yolk and albumen weight, fertility and some incubation parameters were not affected (P > 0.05) by diets used. An increase in the egg production, hatching eggs, chicks born and first quality chick by hen at the second period were observed in CX breeder's diets (P = 0.0066; P = 0.0060; P = 0.0368; P = 0.0326). Egg specific gravity and eggshell weight were improved at the first period by SO+CX diet (P = 0.0138; P = 0.0209) and the same effect to egg weight, but at the second period (P = 0.0251). The CX was well absorbed from the diet and effectively transferred to the egg yolk, thereby increasing egg yolk pigmentation in the both periods (P < 0.0001). The CX supplementation in broiler breeder diets improved the productive and reproductive performance (laying% and hatchable eggs) at the second period, also to the both periods improved the egg yolk pigmentation.

  10. Comparison of embryo physiological parameters during incubation, chick quality, and growth performance of three lines of broiler breeders differing in genetic composition and growth rate.

    PubMed

    Tona, K; Onagbesan, O M; Jego, Y; Kamers, B; Decuypere, E; Bruggeman, V

    2004-03-01

    In broiler breeder management, stringent feed restriction is practiced to reduce body size in order to improve egg production and meet broiler production demand, but this practice has raised welfare issues. The potential for the dwarfing (dw) gene to reduce feed intake and body size of breeders under ad libitum feeding or less stringent restriction while maintaining improved egg production has been reported. In this study, we compared embryo physiology, quality of chicks, and performance of broilers from eggs of dwarf breeders with those from a standard broiler breeder. Hatching eggs from 3 commercial lines of broiler breeders were compared for incubation parameters, 1-d-old chick weight, chick quality, and broiler growth to 41 d of age. The lines included a standard heavy (S) line, an experimental (E) line, and a label-type (L) line. The E and L line breeders carry the sex-linked dw gene and are being used to assess the potential for dw to reduce feed intake or lower feed restriction and improve reproductive performance in heavy female broiler parent stock. Two separate experiments were conducted. All female parent stocks were mated to Cornish males, and fertile eggs were collected. In the first experiment, eggs were incubated for 21 d under standard conditions to determine, during final stages of incubation, corticosterone and thyroid hormone levels (triiodothyronine, T3; thyroxine, T4) in embryos and hatchlings, CO2 partial pressure (pCO2), and O2 partial pressure (pO2) in air cells, heat production by eggs and 1-d-old weights. In the second experiment, eggs were incubated for 21 d to compare chick quality, chick weights at 1 d of age, and broiler growth to 7 and 41 d. Average egg weights were higher for the S and L lines than the E line, but weight loss during incubation was lowest for the E line. Plasma T3 and T3/T4 ratio was similar between lines at IP, but corticosterone was higher in the S line. At hatch, T3/T4 ratio was higher in the S line compared with

  11. Proteomic changes in plasma of broiler chickens with femoral head necrosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Femoral head necrosis (FHN) is a skeletal problem in broiler chickens where the proximal femoral head cartilage shows susceptibility to separation from its growth plate. The FHN selected birds showed higher bodyweights and reduced plasma cholesterol. The proteomic differences in the plasma of health...

  12. Immune modulation by Bacillus subtilus-based direct-fed microbials in commercial broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Direct-fed microbials (DFMs), also known as probiotics, have been successfully used to improve the balance of gut microbiota. Spores of Bacillus subtilis, have been used as DFMs for food animals and humans and our previous studies showed that dietary supplementation of broiler chickens with a B. su...

  13. Interactive effects of ammonia and light intensity on hematochemical variables in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the influence of atmospheric ammonia exposure, light intensity, and their interaction on blood gases, electrolytes, and acid-base balance in broiler chickens under environmentally controlled conditions. The experiment consisted of a 3 × 3 factorial arranged in a randomized comple...

  14. Effect of ambient temperature and light intensity on physiological reactions of heavy broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of ambient temperature, light intensity, and their interaction on blood acid-base balance, metabolites, and electrolytes in broiler chickens under environmentally controlled conditions were examined in 2 trials. The experiment was consisted of a factorial arrangement of treatments in a r...

  15. Effect of varying light intensity on welfare indices of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of varying light-intensity on ocular, immue, fear, and leg health of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights under environmentally controlled conditions were evaluated. Four identical trials were conducted with two replications per trial. In each trial, 600 Ross 308 chicks were randomly ...

  16. Bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbials augment macrophage function in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the function of Bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbials (DFMs) on macrophage functions, i.e., nitric oxide (NO) production and phagocytosis in broiler chickens. DFMs used in this study were eight single strains designated as Bs2084, LSSAO1, 3AP4, Bs1...

  17. Role of water hardness in rinsing bacteria from the skin of processed broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of water hardness on the ability of water to rinse bacteria from the skin of processed broiler chickens was examined. Artificial hard water with a total hardness of 200 ppm (very hard water) was prepared by dissolving calcium chloride (CaCl2) and magnesium chloride hexahydrate (MgCl2 •6H2...

  18. Applications of Bacteriocins in Broiler Chickens to Reduce Carriage of Campylobacter and Salmonella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The paper will review studies which have used a variety of bacteriocins to treat Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enteritidis colonized broiler chickens. Antagonistic bacteria were chosen by selecting those isolates which produced zones of inhibition among confluent C. jejuni growth. From the...

  19. Review of antimicrobial therapy of selected bacterial diseases in broiler chickens in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Agunos, Agnes; Léger, Dave; Carson, Carolee

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews common therapeutic applications of antimicrobials in broiler chicken production in relation to Canadian guidelines, surveillance data, and emerging public health concerns about antimicrobial use (AMU). Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and Staphylococcus spp., were reviewed because of their animal health and economic significance. Enterococcus cecorum and Salmonella were included because of their importance in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance. This review identified that i) antimicrobials are available in Canada to treat infections by these agents, but may be through over the counter or extra-label use, ii) prevalence rates for these diseases are unknown, iii) antimicrobial use estimates in broilers are lacking, and iv) AMR has emerged in clinical isolates, though data are very sparse. This review highlights the need for surveillance of AMU and AMR in broiler chickens in Canada. PMID:23729827

  20. Valgus-Varus Deformity of the Intertarsal Joint in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Julian, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    A lateral or medial angulation of the shaft of the distal tibiotarsal bone resulting in deviation of the lower part of the leg and frequently with bending of the proximal shaft of the tarsometatarsus is the most common leg deformity in broiler chickens. This lateral or medial deviation of the legs in broiler chickens, which has been described by many workers, deserves a specific name such as angular bone deformity or valgus-varus deformity of intertarsal joint, so that it may be separated from other varieties of lameness in broilers. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2A.Figure 2B.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figures 5A and 5B.Figures 5A and 5B.Figures 6A and 6B.Figures 6A and 6B.Figures 7A and 7B.Figures 7A and 7B.Figure 8. PMID:17422417

  1. Negative Trends in Transport-related Mortality Rates in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Vecerek, Vladimir; Voslarova, Eva; Conte, Francesca; Vecerkova, Lenka; Bedanova, Iveta

    2016-12-01

    The high incidence of deaths during transport for slaughter is associated with poor welfare and represents a considerable loss to the poultry industry. In the period from 2009 to 2014, all shipments of broiler chickens to poultry processing plants were monitored in the Czech Republic and the numbers of chickens transported and those dying as a result of their transport were recorded and analysed. Overall transport-related mortality of broiler chickens transported for slaughter in the Czech Republic was 0.37%. It ranged from 0.31% to 0.72%, the increase approximately corresponding to the increasing transport distance. Statistically highly significant (p<0.001) differences were found when comparing transport-related mortality rates in individual seasons of the year. The greatest mortality (0.55%) was associated with transports carried out in winter months whereas the lowest death losses (0.30%) were found in chickens transported for slaughter in summer months. Our study revealed greater transport-related mortality rates in broiler chickens transported for slaughter in the Czech Republic than expected when considering earlier studies. The most pronounced increases were found in transports for shorter distances and in winter months. However, an increase was found at all transport distances monitored except for distances exceeding 300 km and all seasons except for summer. Furthermore, a general increasing tendency in chicken losses during the monitored period was found. The particularly alarming finding is that the mortality of broiler chickens being transported to processing plants has been showing a long-term increasing tendency over the last two decades. Further research should focus on the identification of specific factors leading to such high and growing mortality rates and developing practical guidelines to improve the welfare of the birds in transit accordingly.

  2. Negative Trends in Transport-related Mortality Rates in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Vecerek, Vladimir; Voslarova, Eva; Conte, Francesca; Vecerkova, Lenka; Bedanova, Iveta

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of deaths during transport for slaughter is associated with poor welfare and represents a considerable loss to the poultry industry. In the period from 2009 to 2014, all shipments of broiler chickens to poultry processing plants were monitored in the Czech Republic and the numbers of chickens transported and those dying as a result of their transport were recorded and analysed. Overall transport-related mortality of broiler chickens transported for slaughter in the Czech Republic was 0.37%. It ranged from 0.31% to 0.72%, the increase approximately corresponding to the increasing transport distance. Statistically highly significant (p<0.001) differences were found when comparing transport-related mortality rates in individual seasons of the year. The greatest mortality (0.55%) was associated with transports carried out in winter months whereas the lowest death losses (0.30%) were found in chickens transported for slaughter in summer months. Our study revealed greater transport-related mortality rates in broiler chickens transported for slaughter in the Czech Republic than expected when considering earlier studies. The most pronounced increases were found in transports for shorter distances and in winter months. However, an increase was found at all transport distances monitored except for distances exceeding 300 km and all seasons except for summer. Furthermore, a general increasing tendency in chicken losses during the monitored period was found. The particularly alarming finding is that the mortality of broiler chickens being transported to processing plants has been showing a long-term increasing tendency over the last two decades. Further research should focus on the identification of specific factors leading to such high and growing mortality rates and developing practical guidelines to improve the welfare of the birds in transit accordingly. PMID:26954219

  3. Further investigation of a quantitative trait locus for ascites on chromosome 9 in broiler chicken lines.

    PubMed

    Dey, Shatovisha; Krishna, Sriram; Anthony, Nicholas B; Rhoads, Douglas D

    2016-10-10

    Previously, we reported a genome wide association study (GWAS) that had shown association of a region between 11.8 and 13.6 Mbp on chromosome 9 with ascites phenotype in broilers. We had used microsatellite loci to demonstrate an association of particular genotypes for this region with ascites in experimental ascites lines and commercial broiler breeder lines. We identified two potential candidate genes, AGTR1 and UTS2D, within that chromosomal region for mediating the quantitative effect. We have now extended our analysis using SNPs for these genes to assess association with resistance or susceptibility to ascites in these same broiler lines. Surprisingly, in contrast to our previous GWAS and microsatellite data for this region, we find no association of the SNP genotypes or haplotypes in the region suggesting that the two genes might have limited association with the disease phenotype.

  4. Effects of age on intestinal phosphate transport and biochemical values of broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianhui; Yuan, Jianmin; Miao, Zhiqiang; Guo, Yuming

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this experiment was to characterize the mRNA expression profile of type IIb sodium-inorganic phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-IIb) and the biochemical values of serum alkaline phosphatase (AKP), calcium, inorganic phosphorus, tibial ash and minerals of broiler chickens with aging. Methods A total of 56 one-day-old Arbor Acres male broiler chickens were used. Broiler chickens were weighed and samples were collected weekly from day 1. Results The result showed that before the growth inflection point, ash, calcium, and phosphorus content in the tibia of broiler chickens increased with growth (before 3 weeks of age), although there were no significant differences in chicks at different ages in the later period of the experiment and weight gain rate was relatively slow at this stage (4 to 6 weeks). NaPi-IIb gene expression in the small intestine in the early growth stage was higher than that in the later growth stage. Expression of calbindin and the vitamin D receptor protein in the intestinal mucosa increased with age in the duodenum and jejunum. Serum AKP activity first increased and subsequently decreased after peaking at 1 week of age, but there was no significant difference after 3 weeks of age. Conclusion These results show that compared with the early growth stage, the weight-gain rate of broiler chickens in the late growth stage gradually decreased with gradual tibia maturation, along with weaker positive transport of phosphorus in the intestine and reinforced re-absorption of phosphorus in the kidney, which might be the reason that phosphorus requirement in the late growth stage was decreased. PMID:27703131

  5. Feed Intake Regulation for the Female Broiler Breeder: In Theory and in Practice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The modern commercial broiler is the product of intensive genetic selection for rapid and efficient growth. An unintended consequence of this selective breeding has been the loss of the ability for self-regulation of feed intake to closely match the requirements for maintenance, growth and reproduc...

  6. Immunostimulatory and protective effects of Aloe vera against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Masood; Hai, Abdul; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir; ul Haq, Ahsan; Anwar, Muhammad Irfan

    2012-05-25

    This paper reports the immunostimulatory and protective effects of Aloe vera extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens. The study was divided into two experiments. Experiment-I was conducted for the evaluation of immunostimulatory activity of A. vera and experiment-II demonstrated the protective efficacy of A. vera extracts against coccidiosis in chickens. Results of the experiment-I revealed significantly higher (p<0.05) lymphoproliferative responses in chickens administered with ethanolic extract of A. vera as compared to those administered with aqueous extract and control group. Microplate haemagglutination assay for humoral response on day 7th and 14th post primary and secondary injections of sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) revealed significantly higher (p<0.05) anti SRBC antibody (total Igs, IgG and IgM) titers in chickens of experimental groups as compared to the control group. None of the extracts, however, demonstrated significant effects on the development of lymphoid organs. Results of experiment-II revealed maximum protection (60%) in chickens administered with aqueous Aloe extract as compared to the ethanolic extract administered chickens (45%). Mean oocysts per gram of droppings in the control group was significantly higher (p<0.05) as compared to the chickens in both the experimental groups. Chickens administered with aqueous Aloe extract showed a minimal mean lesion score (2.3) followed by those administered with ethanolic Aloe extract (2.6) and control chickens (3.05) for caeca, and a similar pattern was observed for intestinal lesion scoring. Further, significantly higher weight gains and antibody titers (p<0.05) were observed in chickens administered with A. vera extracts as compared to those in the control group. It was concluded that A. vera may be a potential and valuable candidate to stimulate the immune responses and can be used successfully as an immunotherapeutic agent against coccidiosis in

  7. Effect of sodium bentonite on the performance and blood variables of broiler chickens intoxicated with aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Santurio, J M; Mallmann, C A; Rosa, A P; Appel, G; Heer, A; Dageförde, S; Böttcher, M

    1999-03-01

    1. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of natural sodium bentonite (NaB) in the prevention of toxic effects of aflatoxins. Five hundred and twenty-eight 1-d-old Ross male broiler chickens were housed in pens (22 chickens per pen) for 42 d. There were 3 inclusion rates of NaB (0, 2.5, and 5 g/kg) and 2 of aflatoxins (0 and 3 mg/kg food). Each treatment had 4 replicates of 22 chickens. 2. All chickens treated with aflatoxin and without bentonite were adversely affected. NaB treatment at 5.0 g/kg improved body weights at 42 d of age by 31.3%, increased food intake by 23.8% and improved productive efficiency by 40.1%. Weights of liver, heart, pancreas and crop and biochemical variables were not affected by dietary NaB. However, serum phosphorous concentration was reduced by 30% compared with chickens that received aflatoxin. 3. NaB caused no adverse effects on chickens that did not receive aflatoxin. 4. It is concluded that NaB at pH 7.9 partially neutralises the effects of aflatoxins on broiler chickens when included at 5.0 g/kg in the diet.

  8. Kinematic Analysis Quantifies Gait Abnormalities Associated with Lameness in Broiler Chickens and Identifies Evolutionary Gait Differences

    PubMed Central

    Caplen, Gina; Hothersall, Becky; Murrell, Joanna C.; Nicol, Christine J.; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E.; Weeks, Claire A.; Colborne, G. Robert

    2012-01-01

    This is the first time that gait characteristics of broiler (meat) chickens have been compared with their progenitor, jungle fowl, and the first kinematic study to report a link between broiler gait parameters and defined lameness scores. A commercial motion-capturing system recorded three-dimensional temporospatial information during walking. The hypothesis was that the gait characteristics of non-lame broilers (n = 10) would be intermediate to those of lame broilers (n = 12) and jungle fowl (n = 10, tested at two ages: immature and adult). Data analysed using multi-level models, to define an extensive range of baseline gait parameters, revealed inter-group similarities and differences. Natural selection is likely to have made jungle fowl walking gait highly efficient. Modern broiler chickens possess an unbalanced body conformation due to intense genetic selection for additional breast muscle (pectoral hypertrophy) and whole body mass. Together with rapid growth, this promotes compensatory gait adaptations to minimise energy expenditure and triggers high lameness prevalence within commercial flocks; lameness creating further disruption to the gait cycle and being an important welfare issue. Clear differences were observed between the two lines (short stance phase, little double-support, low leg lift, and little back displacement in adult jungle fowl; much double-support, high leg lift, and substantial vertical back movement in sound broilers) presumably related to mass and body conformation. Similarities included stride length and duration. Additional modifications were also identified in lame broilers (short stride length and duration, substantial lateral back movement, reduced velocity) presumably linked to musculo-skeletal abnormalities. Reduced walking velocity suggests an attempt to minimise skeletal stress and/or discomfort, while a shorter stride length and time, together with longer stance and double-support phases, are associated with

  9. Virulence Genes Content and Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli from Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Moemen A; Shehata, Mostafa A; Rafeek, Elshimaa

    2014-01-01

    A total of 121 E. coli strains were isolated from broiler chickens (96 extraintestinal pathogenic (ExPEC) strains from diseased broiler chickens and 25 avian fecal E. coli (AFEC) from healthy ones). Ten of the isolates (6 from diseased chickens and 4 from healthy birds) were serogrouped and 25 were examined for 4 virulence markers (tsh, papC, colV, and iss genes) as well as for their antimicrobial resistance. Five strains were nontypable and the rest were serotyped as follows: O86:K61 (2/5), O78:K80 (1/5), and O128:K67 (1/5) were recovered from diseased chickens, while O111:K58 strain (1/4) was isolated from healthy ones. The iss gene was found in 72.2% of the examined ExPEC strains in contrast to zero percentages (0%) in the AFEC strains, which may serve as a good marker for distinguishing APEC and its knocking out may help in creation of candidate vaccine that may prove sucess in elimination of infections in broiler chickens. Antimicrobial resistance patterns revealed a complete resistance to gentamicin, pefloxacin, amoxicillin, and enrofloxacin among examined strains followed by varying degrees of resistance for the rest of tested agents. The highest resistance was recorded against norfloxacin, in 24 isolates (96%), in contrast to the lowest resistance was recorded against colistin sulphate, in 14 strains (56%). These findings suggest the need for the prudent use of antimicrobials with broiler chickens and act as a warrant for the possibility of avian sources to transmit these resistant isolates to humans.

  10. Behavioral changes and feathering score in heat stressed broiler chickens fed diets containing different levels of propolis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of green Brazilian propolis on behavioral patterns and feather condition of heat stressed broiler chickens. Five hundred and four (504) male Ross 708 broiler chicks at 15-day old were randomly allotted to six dietary tr...

  11. Effects of polymannuronate on performance, antioxidant capacity, immune status, cecal microflora, and volatile fatty acids in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenhui; Li, Defa; Wang, Jianhong; Wu, Hui; Xia, Xuan; Bi, Wanghua; Guan, Huashi; Zhang, Liying

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of purified polymannuronate (PM) obtained from marine brown algae on the performance, antioxidant capacity, immune status, and cecal fermentation profile of broiler chickens. In a 42 d experiment, 540 (average BW 43.77±1.29 g) 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly divided into 5 treatments with 6 replicates of 18 chicks and fed a corn and soybean meal (SBM)-based diet supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 g/kg polymannuronate. Adding polymannuronate to the broiler chickens' diets resulted in a significantly increased ADG and improved feed conversion compared with the control treatment. From d 1 to 42, the ADG of broilers fed 1, 2, 3, or 4 g/kg of polymannuronate was increased by 2.58, 4.33, 4.20, and 3.47%, respectively. Furthermore, parameters related to immune status, antioxidant capacity, and composition of the cecal microflora in broiler chickens fed the polymannuronate-containing diets were altered compared with broiler chickens fed a diet without polymannuronate. Supplementation with polymannuronate significantly increased the concentrations of lactic acid and acetic acid in the cecum compared with the control group. The results indicate that polymannuronate has the potential to improve broiler chicken immune status, antioxidant capacity, and performance.

  12. Pharmacokinetic studies of the recombinant chicken interferon-α in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, Jun; YU, Hai-Yang; ZHANG, Jun-Ling; WANG, Xing-Man; LI, Jin-Pei; HU, Tao; HU, Yong; WANG, Ming-Li; SHEN, Yong-Zhou; XU, Jing-Dong; HAN, Guo-Xiang; CHEN, Jason

    2016-01-01

    In this study, 24 male and female broiler chickens at 30-day-old were divided into three groups with 8 animals in each group. The animals were administered with recombinant chicken interferon-α (rChIFN-α) at a dose of 1.0 × 106 IU/kg intravenously, intramuscularly or subcutaneously, respectively. Serum samples were collected at different time points post administration, and the titers of rChIFN-α in the blood were determined by cytopathic effect inhibition assay. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic characteristics of rChIFN-α by intramuscular injection and subcutaneous injection were fitted to one compartment open model, and the Tmax was 3.21 ± 0.79 hr and 3.95 ± 0.85 hr, respectively, and the elimination half-life (T1/2) was 6.20 ± 2.77 hr and 5.03 ± 3.70 hr, respectively. In contrast, the pharmacokinetics of rChIFN-α via intravenous injection was in line with the open model of two-compartment and was eliminated in the first order, and the elimination half-life (T1/2) was 4.61 ± 0.84 hr. In addition, compared with those in the intravenous group and the subcutaneous group, the bioavailability of rChIFN-α in the intramuscular group was 82.80%. In conclusion, rChIFN-α was rapidly absorbed and slowly eliminated after intramuscular administration of single dose of rChIFN-α aqueous formulations. Thus, rChIFN-α can be used as a commonly-used therapeutic agent. PMID:27890904

  13. Meat quality traits of four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds and one commercial broiler stock*

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Rong-fa; Lyu, Fei; Chen, Xiao-qiang; Ma, Jie-qing; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Chao-geng

    2013-01-01

    Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5′-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P<0.05). In the indigenous genotypes, NC and FC had significantly shorter fiber diameters and lower shear forces than XC and LC (P<0.05), and NC and XC had a higher IMP content than FC and LC (P<0.05). Moreover, the indigenous genotype of LC significantly displayed the highest protein content (P<0.05) in the five genotypes of birds, and no significant differences of protein content were found between the other genotypes of NC, FC, XC, and AAB (P>0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (P<0.05). Significant differences of pH, color values of L* and a*, and drip loss for the five genotypes of birds were also observed. In conclusion, there were significant differences in the meat quality traits of the bird breeds selected in this study, and the indigenous chickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned. PMID:24101206

  14. Ambient temperature: a factor affecting performance and physiological response of broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkoh, A.

    1989-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to elucidate the influence of four constant ambient temperatures (20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C) on the performance and physiological reactions of male commercial broiler chicks from 3 to 7 weeks of age. A 12 h light-dark cycle was operated, while relative humidity and air circulation were not controlled. Exposure of broiler chickens to the 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C treatments showed highly significant ( P<0.0001) depression in growth rate, food intake and efficiency of food utilization, and a significant increase in water consumption for the 30° and 35°C groups. Mortality was, however, not affected by the temperature treatments. Changes in physiological status, such as increased rectal temperatures, decreased concentration of red blood cells, haemoglobin, haematocrit, and total plasma protein were observed in birds housed in the higher temperature (30° and 35°C) environments. Moreover, in these broiler chickens, there was an increased blood glucose concentration and a decreased thyroid gland weight. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to high ambient temperatures markedly affects their performance and physiological response.

  15. Allele-specific polymerase chain reaction typing and sequencing of mitochondrial D-loop region in broiler chickens in Japan.

    PubMed

    Harumi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Naito, Mitsuru

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to comprehend a feature of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mainly of general broiler chickens in Japan. We typed two SNP sites (199C/T and 792A/G) of the D-loop region in mtDNA by allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) in 359 broiler (182 chunky and 177 cobb) and 506 layer (233 White Leghorn, 140 Barred Plymouth Rock and 133 Rhode Island Red) chickens. The SNP of 199C or 792A by AS-PCR was observed in the chunky and cobb chickens, and not in the layers. The haplotype 199T/792G was observed in a part of cobb and all layers. By the result of AS-PCR haplotyping and the broiler brands, the D-loop region was sequenced in 44 broiler chickens (20 chunky and 24 cobb) and compared with the layers' sequence data. Among the broiler and layer chickens, 21 SNP sites (including one insertion) and 11 sequence haplotypes were observed. Haplotype variation or correspondence was observed in and between the broiler brands. This study provides important information to establish a chicken meat traceability system by SNP haplotyping of mtDNA in Japan.

  16. The effect of photoperiod and food intake on daily changes in plasma calcitonin in broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Klandorf, H; Boyce, C S; Killefer, J; McGowan, J A; Peterson, R A; Valent, M; Deaver, D R

    1997-09-01

    The roles of photoperiod, energy balance, and concentrations of plasma total calcium (CaT) on daily changes in plasma calcitonin (CT) were investigated in broiler breeder hens (84-100 weeks old). In the first study, broiler breeder hens (n = 24), reared on 14L:10D, were divided into two groups. One group was transferred from a restricted diet (DR) of 150 g/day to ad libitum (AL) for 14 days, while the other group remained on DR. After 2 weeks of ad libitum feeding, birds from each group (AL and DR) were bled every 2 hr for 24 hr for measurement of plasma CaT and CT. In a second study, the hens (n = 20) were transferred to continuous light (LL) for 30 days. After the 30 days, food was removed from one group for 48 hr prior to blood sampling for 24 hr at 3-hr intervals. In a third study, birds were transferred to an ahemeral light cycle (11L:10D) for 28 days. Food was removed from the birds (n = 11) for 48 hr prior to blood sampling every 3 hr for 24 hr. Four weeks later the same birds were bled again for 24 hr, but this time the birds were maintained on a restricted feeding schedule. Plasma CT was measured by a specific heterologous electrochemiluminescent (ECL) assay while plasma CaT was measured by atomic absorption. The results showed that plasma CT concentrations did not correlate with plasma CaT concentrations. Comparisons made between initial and final CaT and CT concentrations indicated an effect of stress due to repeated handling of the birds. Concentrations of plasma CT were significantly reduced in the fasted animals (P < 0.05) compared to diet-restricted controls. There was a significant increase in plasma CT during the dark period of fed animals which was abolished in animals maintained on LL or fasted. In conclusion, a surge in plasma CT requires that the hens be provided food and that they be exposed to a dark cycle.

  17. Effects of environmental temperature and dietary manganese on egg production performance, egg quality, and some plasma biochemical traits of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y W; Xie, J J; Li, W X; Lu, L; Zhang, L Y; Ji, C; Lin, X; Liu, H C; Odle, J; Luo, X G

    2015-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of environmental temperature and dietary Mn on egg production performance, egg quality, and some plasma biochemical traits of broiler breeders. A completely randomized factorial design involved 2 environmental temperatures (a normal temperature, 21 ± 1°C, and a high temperature, 32 ± 1°C) × 3 dietary Mn treatments (a Mn-unsupplemented corn–soybean meal basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 120 mg of Mn/kg of diet as either MnSO4·H2O or manganese proteinate). There were 6 treatments with 6 replicates (4 birds per replicate). High temperature decreased egg weight (P < 0.0001), laying rate (P < 0.0001), egg yield (P < 0.0001), feed intake (P < 0.0001), egg:feed ratio (P < 0.0001), eggshell strength (P < 0.05) and thickness (P < 0.0001), plasma triiodothyronine level (P < 0.05), and alkaline phosphatase activity (P < 0.04) whereas it increased rectal temperature (P < 0.0001); plasma malondialdehyde level (P < 0.02); and activities (P < 0.002) of lactic dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase. Broiler breeders fed the diets supplemented with Mn regardless of source had greater (P < 0.05) eggshell strength and lower (P ≤ 0.05) plasma triiodothyronine level and protein carbonyl content than those fed the control diet. The broiler breeders fed the diet supplemented with the organic Mn had greater (P < 0.01) eggshell thickness than those fed the control diet. There were interactions (P < 0.05) between environmental temperature and dietary Mn in laying rate, egg yield, feed intake, and egg:feed ratio. Under normal temperature, dietary Mn did not affect the above 4 parameters; however, under high temperature, broiler breeders fed the diet supplemented with the organic Mn showed greater (P < 0.03) improvements in these 4 parameters than those fed the control diet. The results from this study indicated that high temperature significantly impaired egg production performance and

  18. Tissue Residues, Hematological and Biochemical Effects of Tilmicosin in Broiler Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Elsayed, Mossad; Elkomy, Ashraf; Morad, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the blood and tissue concentrations profile and effect of tilmicosin on some hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken. Fifty clinically healthy Hubbard chickens were orally administered 25 mg/kg BW of tilmicosin once daily for 5 consecutive days. Tissue residues of tilmicosin in slaughtered healthy chicken could not be detected by microbiological assay in all tested tissues except in lung (at 96 hours) and liver and kidneys (at 72 hours) after last administration. Tilmicosin caused temporary decrease in the RBCs and WBCs counts and has no effect on hemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume concentration (PCV). Also, the effect of tilmicosin on some biochemical parameters was as follows: the concentrations of creatinine, uric acid, electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and calcium), glucose, AST, ALT, ALP, and HDL-cholesterol in the serum of treated chicken did not change in response to the repeated oral administration of tilmicosin. There were only a temporary significant decrease in total protein and albumin concentrations and a significant increase in cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations. Chicken must not be slaughtered before 4 days from the stopping of tilmicosin administration. Tilmicosin makes temporary changes on hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken. PMID:24808972

  19. Effects of probiotic-supplemented diets on growth performance and intestinal immune characteristics of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bai, S P; Wu, A M; Ding, X M; Lei, Y; Bai, J; Zhang, K Y; Chio, J S

    2013-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of a probiotic product incorporating Lactobacillus fermentum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the growth performance and intestinal immune status in broiler chickens. A total of six hundred ninety-six 1-d-old male Cobb broilers were randomly allotted by BW in 1 of 4 treatments for 6-wk trial. The dietary treatments included the basal diet (NC), and the basal diets supplemented with an antibiotic (100 mg of chlortetracycline/kg of diet; PC), 0.1%, or 0.2% probiotic product (containing 1 × 10(7) cfu/g of Lactobacillus fermentum JS and 2 × 10(6) cfu/g of Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Each treatment had 6 replicates with 29 broilers each. The ADG and feed efficiency were improved (P < 0.05) in broilers fed the probiotic diet compared with NC, and were similar to the PC group during 1 to 21 d. However, there were no significant differences in growth performance of broilers during 22 to 42 d among different dietary treatments. Chicks fed probiotics had higher proportions of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, whereas the antibiotic diet decreased the proportion of CD8+ T-lymphocytes in the foregut of broilers at 21 and 42 d compared with the NC group. No significant difference was observed in the mRNA expression level of chicken B-cell marker chB6 (Bu-1) in the foregut of chickens among different treatments. Probiotic-supplemented diets increased (P < 0.05) the mRNA expression levels of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR 4 at 21 d, and only the TLR2 mRNA level at 42 d in the foregut of chickens, but did not change (P > 0.05) TLR7 mRNA expression compared with NC or PC. There was no significant difference in the above TLR mRNA levels in the intestine of broilers between PC and NC. These results indicated that the probiotic product incorporating Lactobacillus fermentum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae could stimulate intestinal T-cell immune system without decreasing growth performance in broilers during 1 to 21 d.

  20. Jerusalem artichokes stimulate growth of broiler chickens and protect them against endotoxins and potential cecal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kleessen, Brigitta; Elsayed, N A A E; Loehren, U; Schroedl, W; Krueger, Monika

    2003-11-01

    Control of intestinal pathogens during the earliest phases of broiler production may be the best strategy for the reduction of human pathogens on processed broiler carcasses. The recent ban on antibiotics in poultry feed has served to focus much attention on alternative methods of controlling the gastrointestinal microflora. A field trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of the fructan-rich Jerusalem artichoke, or topinambur (administered as 0.5% topinambur syrup in drinking water), on cultural numbers of selected cecal bacteria (total aerobes, Enterobacteriaceae, Bdellovibrio spp., and Clostridium perfringens) and levels of bacterial endotoxins as well as on body weights and relative weights of organs (the pancreas and the bursa of Fabricius) of chickens in the first 35 days of life (with weekly investigations being conducted). One-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to experimental (with topinambur) and control (without topinambur) groups. They were allowed free access to a standard broiler diet without growth-promoting antibiotics. Topinambur treatment resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.01) in cecal counts of B. bacteriovorus, which parasitizes susceptible gram-negative pathogens. Topinambur led to significantly smaller numbers of total aerobes, Enterobacteriaceae, and C. perfringens as well as to reduced levels of endotoxins in the blood compared with those for control birds. Increased body weights resulting from topinambur consumption were observed on day 35 of the trial period (P < 0.05). The relative weights of the pancreas and the bursa of Fabricius, however, were higher (P < 0.05) for topinambur-treated broilers than for control birds at the ages of 14, 21, 28, and 35 days. These results indicate that a small amount of topinambur in broilers' drinking water has a beneficial effect on growth performance, reduces bacterial endotoxin levels, and suppresses potential pathogens in broilers' ceca.

  1. Genome Analysis of Staphylococcus agnetis, an Agent of Lameness in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ojha, Sohita; Pummill, Jeff F.; Koon, Joseph A.; Wideman, Robert F.; Rhoads, Douglas D.

    2015-01-01

    Lameness in broiler chickens is a significant animal welfare and financial issue. Lameness can be enhanced by rearing young broilers on wire flooring. We have identified Staphylococcus agnetis as significantly involved in bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) in proximal tibia and femorae, leading to lameness in broiler chickens in the wire floor system. Administration of S. agnetis in water induces lameness. Previously reported in some cases of cattle mastitis, this is the first report of this poorly described pathogen in chickens. We used long and short read next generation sequencing to assemble single finished contigs for the genome and a large plasmid from the chicken pathogen. Comparison of the S. agnetis genome to those of other pathogenic Staphylococci shows that S.agnetis contains a distinct repertoire of virulence determinants. Additionally, the S. agnetis genome has several regions that differ substantially from the genomes of other pathogenic Staphylococci. Comparison of our finished genome to a recent draft genome for a cattle mastitis isolate suggests that future investigations focus on the evolutionary epidemiology of this emerging pathogen of domestic animals. PMID:26606420

  2. Effects of Xylo-Oligosaccharides on Broiler Chicken Performance and Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    De Maesschalck, C.; Eeckhaut, V.; Maertens, L.; De Lange, L.; Marchal, L.; Nezer, C.; De Baere, S.; Croubels, S.; Daube, G.; Dewulf, J.; Haesebrouck, F.; Ducatelle, R.; Taminau, B.

    2015-01-01

    In broiler chickens, feed additives, including prebiotics, are widely used to improve gut health and to stimulate performance. Xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) are hydrolytic degradation products of arabinoxylans that can be fermented by the gut microbiota. In the current study, we aimed to analyze the prebiotic properties of XOS when added to the broiler diet. Administration of XOS to chickens, in addition to a wheat-rye-based diet, significantly improved the feed conversion ratio. XOS significantly increased villus length in the ileum. It also significantly increased numbers of lactobacilli in the colon and Clostridium cluster XIVa in the ceca. Moreover, the number of gene copies encoding the key bacterial enzyme for butyrate production, butyryl-coenzyme A (butyryl-CoA):acetate CoA transferase, was significantly increased in the ceca of chickens administered XOS. In this group of chickens, at the species level, Lactobacillus crispatus and Anaerostipes butyraticus were significantly increased in abundance in the colon and cecum, respectively. In vitro fermentation of XOS revealed cross-feeding between L. crispatus and A. butyraticus. Lactate, produced by L. crispatus during XOS fermentation, was utilized by the butyrate-producing Anaerostipes species. These data show the beneficial effects of XOS on broiler performance when added to the feed, which potentially can be explained by stimulation of butyrate-producing bacteria through cross-feeding of lactate and subsequent effects of butyrate on gastrointestinal function. PMID:26092452

  3. Effects of oxygenated or hydrogenated water on growth performance, blood parameters, and antioxidant enzyme activity of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shin, D; Cho, E S R; Bang, H-T; Shim, K S

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of providing oxygenated and hydrogenated water on the growth performance, blood biochemical parameters, and immunoglobulin concentrations and antioxidant enzyme activity of broiler chickens. In our investigation, 144 Ross × Ross broiler chicks were randomly allotted to three different treatment groups with four replicates (treatment × replicate × bird = 3 × 4 × 12). All chicks were given one of the following types of water for five weeks: tap water (CON), hydrogenated water (HNW), and oxygenated water (ONW). ONW supplementation increased the final body weight and weight gain and also improved both feed intake and feed conversion of broiler chickens as compared to those of CON broiler chickens (P < 0.05). The abdominal fat and its ratio to the final body weight showed that fat accumulation in the broiler chicken abdomen was reduced when broiler chickens drank only ONW for five weeks (P < 0.05). ONW supplementation improved blood parameters, including triacylglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Additionally, in accordance with a globulin increase in broiler chickens, both IgG and IgM generation were significantly enhanced when ONW was supplied to broiler chickens (P < 0.05) but only a numerical advance was observed in the HNW group (P > 0.05). Both oxygenated and hydrogenated water supplementation significantly improved the antioxidant effects (P < 0.05), and it seems that superoxide dismutase refinement was completed due to oxygen and/or hydrogen enhancement of drinking water. These results indicate that oxygen enhancement of drinking water may be recommended to improve growth performance by increasing immunoglobulins mainly IgG and IgM.

  4. Effects of lighting program during the growing period and dietary fat during the laying period on broiler breeder performance.

    PubMed

    Brake, J; Garlich, J D; Baughman, G R

    1989-09-01

    In two experiments, broiler breeders were grown in either of two lighting regimens, fed diets without added fat, and then fed diets with or without 5% added poultry fat during the subsequent laying period. In Experiment 1 half the birds were subjected to decreasing daylength using daylight (800 lx) and half were subjected to 9 h of incandescent light (20 lx) to 20 wk of age. In Experiment 2 the lighting regimen was either an 8-h photoperiod supplied by daylight (800 lx) or an 8-h photoperiod supplied by incandescent light (20 lx) to 20 wk of age. Added dietary fat produced significantly higher egg weight (Experiments 1 and 2), egg production (Experiment 2), and significantly lower fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs (Experiments 1 and 2). Short photoperiods (8 or 9 h) provided by incandescent light produced significantly higher fertility (Experiments 1 and 2) and hatchability of fertile eggs (Experiment 2), and significantly lower egg specific gravity, shell percentage (Experiment 1), egg weight, and eggshell weight (Experiment 2). Effects on fertility may be related to higher female body weight during lay due to daylight rearing or added fat, or relative changes in light intensity at photostimulation.

  5. Expression of interleukins, neuropeptides, and growth hormone receptor and leptin receptor genes in adipose tissue from growing broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, total RNA was collected from abdominal adipose tissue samples obtained from ten broiler chickens at 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks of age and prepared for quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Studies of the gene expression of cytokines and associated genes in chicken adipose tissue were initia...

  6. Imidapril inhibits right ventricular remodeling induced by low ambient temperature in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xue-Qin; Zhang, Shou-Yan; Cheng, Xiang-Chao; Li, Meng; Sun, Tong-Wen; Zhang, Ji-Liang; Guo, Wen; Li, Li

    2013-06-01

    This study explored the effect of imidapril on the right ventricular remodeling induced by low ambient temperature in broiler chickens. Twenty-four broiler chickens were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 8), including the control group, low temperature group, and imidapril group. Chickens in the control group were raised at normal temperature, whereas chickens in the low temperature group and imidapril group were exposed to low ambient temperature (12 to 18°C) from 14 d of age until 45 d of age. At the same time, chickens in the imidapril group were gavaged with imidapril at 3 mg/kg once daily for 30 d. The thickness of the right ventricular wall was observed with echocardiography. The BW and wet lung weight as well as weight of right and left ventricles and ventricular septum were measured. Both wet lung weight index and right ventricular hypertrophy index were calculated. Pulmonary arterial systolic pressure was assessed according to echocardiography. The expression of ACE and ACE2 mRNA in the right ventricular myocardial tissue was quantified by real-time PCR. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells were detected by immunohistostaining. The concentration of angiotensin (Ang) II and Ang (1-7) in the right ventricular myocardial tissue was measured with ELISA. The results showed that right ventricular hypertrophy index, wet lung weight index, pulmonary arterial systolic pressure, expression of ACE mRNA in the right ventricular tissue, Ang II concentration, and the thickness of the right ventricular wall in the low temperature group increased significantly compared with those in the control group and imidapril group. The ACE2 mRNA expression increased 36%, whereas Ang (1-7) concentration decreased significantly in the low temperature group compared with that in the control group and imidapril group. In conclusion, imidapril inhibits right ventricular remodeling induced by low ambient temperature in broiler chickens.

  7. Effect of Zinc on Appetite Regulatory Peptides in the Hypothalamus of Salmonella-Challenged Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiyi; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Li, Xianlei; Wang, Yufeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Zhang, Bingkun; Song, Zhigang

    2016-07-01

    The effects of dietary Zinc (Zn) supplementation on the gene expression of appetite regulatory peptides were investigated in Salmonella-infected broiler chickens. Broiler chickens (Arbor Acres, 1 day old) were allocated randomly into 24 pens of 10 birds. The chickens from 12 pens were fed with basal diet and the other with basal diet supplemented with Zn (ZnSO4·H2O, 120 mg/kg). At 5 days of age, the chickens were divided into 4 treatments with 6 pens: basal diet; basal diet and Salmonella challenge; Zn-supplemented diet; Zn-supplemented diet and Salmonella challenge. At 42 days of age, the hypothalamus from 6 chickens per treatment (1 chicken per pen) was individually collected for gene expression determination. Results showed that dietary supplementation of Zn reduced the gene expression of hypothalamic ghrelin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (P < 0.05). Salmonella infection upregulated the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and TNF-α. Zn supplementation and Salmonella inoculation were significantly correlated with the mRNA levels of toll-like receptor 2-1 (P < 0.05). However, neither dietary Zn supplementation nor Salmonella inoculation had significant effect on hypothalamic agouti-related protein, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, and pro-opiomelanocortin. This study shows that dietary Zn supplementation promoted orexigenic appetite regulatory peptides and reduced the expression of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in the hypothalamus of Salmonella-challenged broilers.

  8. Performance of broiler chickens supplemented with Bacillus coagulans as probiotic.

    PubMed

    Cavazzoni, V; Adami, A; Castrovilli, C

    1998-09-01

    1. A newly isolated Bacillus coagulans strain as probiotic was assayed as the only dietary additive for chickens. 2. Chickens receiving no additive at all or only virginiamycin were used for comparison. 3. Two trials each carried out on 75 chickens showed that, in terms of efficacy in growth and food conversion ratio, the B. coagulans biomass as a probiotic had a growth-promoting, prophylactic effect comparable to that of virginiamycin.

  9. Effects of selenium sources and levels on reproductive performance and selenium retention in broiler breeder, egg, developing embryo, and 1-day-old chick.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dong; Zhan, XiuAn; Wang, YongXia

    2011-12-01

    An 8-week experiment was conducted using 540 48-week-old Lingnan Yellow broiler breeders to evaluate the effect of the sources and levels of selenium (Se) on reproduction and Se retention. After receiving basal diet for 8 weeks, breeders were randomly assigned to six dietary treatments and fed corn-soy-based diets supplemented with 0.15 or 0.30 mg/kg of Se from sodium selenite (SS) or from Se-enriched yeast (SY) or from selenomethionine (SM). The Se concentration of basal diet was 0.04 mg/kg of Se. With the increase of dietary Se level, hatchability decreased (P < 0.05), but the Se concentrations were elevated in liver, kidney, pancreas, and breast muscle of breeders, yolk and albumen, liver and breast muscle of developing embryos, and tissues (liver, kidney, pancreas, and breast muscle) of 1-day-old chicks (P < 0.01). Irrespective of the Se level, the Se concentrations in liver, kidney, pancreas, and breast muscle were greater (P < 0.01) in breeders fed SY or SM compared with breeders fed SS, and kidney from breeders fed SM had greater Se concentration than that from breeders fed SY (P < 0.01). Yolk and albumen from SM treatments also had the greatest Se concentrations (P < 0.01). The embryonic liver and breast muscle from SM treatments had higher (P < 0.01) Se concentrations than those of SS treatments. The Se concentrations in liver, kidney, and breast muscle of 1-day-old chicks were greater (P < 0.01) in SY or SM treatments compared with SS treatments, and there was a more significant increase in Se concentrations in kidney and breast muscle of 1-day-old chicks from SM treatments than those from SY treatments (P < 0.01). The results suggest that the Se retention efficiency of SM is higher than that of SY, which, in turn, is higher than that of SS for broiler breeders and their offspring.

  10. A novel Lactobacillus plantarum strain P-8 activates beneficial immune response of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifeng; Liu, Caihong; Chen, Ma; Ya, Tuo; Huang, Weiqiang; Gao, Pengfei; Zhang, Heping

    2015-12-01

    To investigate whether Lactobacillus plantarum P-8 may be used as an alternative to antibiotics in the broiler chicken diet, we compared P-8 and antibiotics for their immunobiotic properties and their effect on growth performance of broiler chickens in a 42-day trial. The results showed that P-8 provided similar benefits in weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency as antibiotics did. Importantly, P-8 activated protective immune responses of the broilers while antibiotics lacked this effect. P-8 induced higher fecal secretory IgA (sIgA) levels on day 42 (P≤0.027) and IgA(+) lymphocytes in the jejunum and Peyer's patches (PP) (P<0.001) compared to antibiotic treatment. Antibiotics reduced the IgA(+) lymphocytes in jejunum and PP on day 42 compared to the control. P-8 increased CD3(+) T cells in the small intestinal tissues in most test situations whereas antibiotics had fewer CD3(+) cells in PP and cecal tonsil compared with the control broilers at the end of the trial. In addition, P-8 increased CD4(+) T cells significantly in the intestinal tissues compared to both antibiotics and the control (P<0.0052). Both Th1 and Th2 cytokine expression were enhanced by P-8 on day 14, consistent with the clinical trial results showing probiotic benefits in diseases. Antibiotics up- and down-regulated interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4 and IL-10 transcripts in an age-dependent manner, and showed anti-inflammatory potential. These data indicate that P-8 may provide protective immune response to broilers while maintaining similar growth performance and may be a potential alternative to antibiotics supplemented in chicken feeds.

  11. Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and zinc bacitracin as dietary additives for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Abdulrahim, S M; Haddadin, M S; Odetallah, N H; Robinson, R K

    1999-03-01

    The influence of Lactobacillus acidophilus and zinc bacitracin alone, or in combination, on the growth of broiler chickens was monitored over a period of 8 weeks. 2. The maximum improvement in body weight over the controls was 10.8% with both additives in the diet but the use of bacitracin alone induced a 9.1% improvement. 3. Food conversion was reduced by zinc bacitracin alone but was improved by the use of L. acidophilus and bacitracin in combination. 4. The combination treatment increased abdominal fat deposition in the female chickens by 31%.

  12. Effect of intermittent feeding, structural components and phytase on performance and behaviour of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Svihus, B; Lund, V B; Borjgen, B; Bedford, M R; Bakken, M

    2013-01-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of intermittent feeding on performance and the efficacy of an exogenous phytase, and to assess whether intermittent feeding changed the activity pattern of broiler chickens. 2. Broiler chickens were given, either ad libitum or intermittently, a phosphorus deficient pelleted diet containing either coarsely or finely ground oat hulls and either no enzyme or a phytase added from 10 d of age, in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Ad libitum feeding consisted of continuous access to feed in a room with 18 h of light and 6 h of complete darkness, whereas birds on intermittent feeding had restricted access to feed from 7 d of age, with 4 1-h feeding bouts/d and one 2-h feeding bout/d from d 14. 3. Performance, characteristics of the anterior digestive tract and phosphorus retention were assessed in experiment 1, while in experiment 2, birds were observed during 4-h periods to quantify different behaviours. 4. Intermittent feeding and phytase improved performance, but intermittent feeding did not improve the efficacy of the enzyme added. Ad libitum fed broiler chickens ate and drank on average twice per hour, and spent close to three-quarters of their time resting. Apart from an increased standing and feed searching activity for intermittently fed birds compared to ad libitum fed birds during the last hour before feed was presented, no differences in activity was detected. 5. It was concluded that broiler chickens quickly adapt to intermittent feeding without reduction in final body weight and with improvements in feed efficiency, but without improving the efficacy of dietary phytase. Only small changes occur in the behaviour of intermittently fed birds compared to ad libitum fed birds.

  13. Evaluation of Relative Bioavailability of 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol to Cholecalciferol for Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Han, J. C.; Chen, G. H.; Wang, J. G.; Zhang, J. L.; Qu, H. X.; Zhang, C. M.; Yan, Y. F.; Cheng, Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the relative bioavailability (RBV) of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) to cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) in 1- to 21-d-old broiler chickens fed with calcium (Ca)- and phosphorus (P)-deficient diets. On the day of hatch, 450 female Ross 308 broiler chickens were assigned to nine treatments, with five replicates of ten birds each. The basal diet contained 0.50% Ca and 0.25% non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) and was not supplemented with vitamin D. Vitamin D3 was fed at 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 μg/kg, and 25-OH-D3 was fed at 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 μg/kg. The RBV of 25-OH-D3 was determined using vitamin D3 as the standard source by the slope ratio method. Vitamin D3 and 25-OH-D3 intake was used as the independent variable for regression analysis. The linear relationships between the level of vitamin D3 or 25-OH-D3 and body weight gain (BWG) and the weight, length, ash weight, and the percentage of ash, Ca, and P in femur, tibia, and metatarsus of broiler chickens were observed. Using BWG as the criterion, the RBV value of 25-OH-D3 to vitamin D3 was 1.85. Using the mineralization of the femur, tibia, and metatarsus as criteria, the RBV of 25-OH-D3 to vitamin D3 ranged from 1.82 to 2.45, 1.86 to 2.52, and 1.65 to 2.05, respectively. These data indicate that 25-OH-D3 is approximately 2.03 times as active as vitamin D3 in promoting growth performance and bone mineralization in broiler chicken diets. PMID:26954155

  14. Progress and problems in vaccination against necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mot, Dorien; Timbermont, Leen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2014-01-01

    Necrotic enteritis in broilers is caused by Clostridium perfringens type A strains that produce the NetB toxin. Necrotic enteritis is one of the gastrointestinal diseases in poultry that has gained worldwide importance during the last decade due to efforts to improve broiler performance. Prevention strategies include avoiding predisposing factors, such as coccidiosis, and in-feed supplementation with a variety of feed additives. However, vaccination with modified toxin or other secreted immunogenic proteins seems a logical preventive tool for protection against a toxin-producing bacterium. Formalin-inactivated crude supernatant has been used initially for vaccination. Several studies have been carried out recently to identify the most important immunogenic and protective proteins that can be used for vaccination. These include the NetB toxin, as well as a number of other proteins. There is evidence that immunization with single proteins is not protective against severe challenge and that combinations of different antigens are needed. Most published studies have used multiple dosage vaccination regimens that are not relevant for practical use in the broiler industry. Single vaccination regimens for 1-day-old chicks appear to be non-protective. This review describes the history of vaccination strategies against necrotic enteritis in broilers and gives an update on future vaccination strategies that are applicable in the field. These may include breeder hen vaccination, in ovo vaccination and live attenuated vectors to be used in feed or in drinking water.

  15. Effect of dietary astaxanthin rich yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma, on meat quality of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Perenlei, Ganzaya; Tojo, Hitomi; Okada, Toru; Kubota, Masatoshi; Kadowaki, Motoni; Fujimura, Shinobu

    2014-10-01

    We evaluated effects of dietary supplementation with astaxanthin (Ax)-rich yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous), on broiler chicken meat quality. Fourteen-day-old female Ross broilers were divided into three groups: control group, Ax-free diet; Ax 10 group, 10 mg/kg Ax diet; and Ax 20 group, 20 mg/kg Ax diet for 28 days. At 42 days old, chickens were slaughtered, and then growth performance, meat quality and sensory attributes were analyzed. Compared with the control, a* values increased significantly after slaughter and 48 h postmortem for Ax 20 samples (P<0.05) and for b* values in Ax 20 and Ax 10 groups (P<0.05). Cooking loss decreased in the Ax 20 group (P<0.05). After 120 h aging, contents of several free amino acids and total free amino acid content of Ax 20 group were significantly higher than the control (P<0.05). In sensory evaluation, meat texture attributes improved significantly in the Ax 20 group (P<0.01). No significant changes occurred in flavor attribute scores of meat soup from the Ax 20 group compared with the control even though most assessors preferred meat soup from the Ax 20 group. Overall, Ax-rich yeast in the diet improves broiler chicken meat quality.

  16. Chicken parvovirus-induced runting-stunting syndrome in young broilers.

    PubMed

    Zsak, Laszlo; Cha, Ra Mi; Day, J Michael

    2013-03-01

    Previously we identified a novel parvovirus from enteric contents of chickens that were affected by enteric diseases. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the chicken parvovirus (ChPV) represented a new member in the Parvoviridae family. Here, we describe some of the pathogenic characteristics of ChPV in young broilers. Following experimental infection, 2-day-old broiler chickens showed characteristic signs of enteric disease. Runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) was observed in four of five experimental groups with significant growth retardation between 7 and 28 days postinoculation (DPI). Viral growth in small intestine and shedding was detected at early times postinoculation, which was followed by viremia and generalization of infection. ChPV could be detected in most of the major tissues for 3 to 4 wk postinoculation. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed parvovirus-positive cells in the duodenum of inoculated birds at 7 and 14 DPI. Our data indicate that ChPV alone induces RSS in broilers and is important determinant in the complex etiology of enteric diseases of poultry.

  17. Effect of indomethacin on hyperthermia induced by heat stress in broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlan, R. L.; Macari, M.; Malheiros, E. B.; Secato, E. R.; Guerreiro, J. R.

    An investigation was carried out to verify whether the heat stress hyperthermia response of broilers is prostaglandin-dependent. Male broiler chickens of the Hubbard-Petterson strain, aged 35-49 days, were used. Chickens were injected with indomethacin (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally ) 15 min before or 2 h after heat exposure (at 35°C for 4 h), and rectal temperature was measured before injection and up to 4 h thereafter. Birds were separated into two groups with and without access to water during heat stress. The increase in rectal temperature was lower (P<0.05) in birds with access to drinking water during heat exposure. All birds injected with indomethacin exhibited an increase in rectal temperature, irrespective of whether indomethacin was administered before or in the course of the rise in temperature. The results revealed that the increase in rectal temperature during heat exposure is not prostaglandin-dependent, and that the use of cyclooxigenase inhibitors is not recommended to attenuate heat stress hyperthermia in broiler chickens.

  18. Effect of dietary phosphorus levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Ke; Wang, Jin-Zhi; Wang, Chun-Qing; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Li, Xia; Tang, Chun-Hong; Wei, Xiu-Li

    2016-08-15

    To analyze the influence of dietary phosphorus (P) levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism, a 42-day feeding experiment (P deficient group; normal group; high P level groups of H1 and H2, respectively) using 100 one-day-old broilers was conducted. Results demonstrated that the quality of broiler chicken meat in deficient or high P groups decreased relative to the normal group. High P diets resulted in increased lightness, redness values, shear forces and decreased fatty acid contents and intramuscular fat content in breast meat (p<0.01). Compared with normal group, lower malic enzyme activity, higher fatty acid synthase and AMP-activated protein kinase activities were observed in the treatment groups (p<0.05). Chickens fed with normal diets had the lowest serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels which differed from that of other treatments (p<0.05). High-P diets significantly decreased the lipid accumulation in the liver (p<0.01), whereas phosphorus levels in breast meat increased significantly (p<0.01). It can be concluded that deficient or higher P levels could affect meat quality and expression of indicators on lipid metabolism of broiler chickens.

  19. Antibiotic resistance of Clostridium perfringens isolates from broiler chickens in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Osman, K M; Elhariri, M

    2013-12-01

    The use of antibiotic feed additives in broiler chickens results in a high prevalence of resistance among their enteric bacteria, with a consequent emergence of antibiotic resistance in zoonotic enteropathogens. Despite growing concerns about the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains, which show varying prevalences in different geographic regions, little work has been done to investigate this issue in the Middle East. This study provides insight into one of the world's most common and financially crippling poultry diseases, necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens. The study was designed to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in C. perfringens isolates from clinical cases of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens in Egypt. A total of 125 isolates were obtained from broiler flocks in 35 chicken coops on 17 farms and were tested using the disc diffusion method. All 125 isolates were resistant to gentamicin, streptomycin, oxolinic acid, lincomycin, erythromycin and spiramycin. The prevalence of resistance to other antibiotics was also high: rifampicin (34%), chloramphenicol (46%), spectinomycin (50%), tylosin-fosfomycin (52%), ciprofloxacin (58%), norfloxacin (67%), oxytetracycline (71%), flumequine (78%), enrofloxacin (82%), neomycin (93%), colistin (94%), pefloxacin (94%), doxycycline (98%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (98%). It is recommended that C. perfringens infections in Egypt should be treated with antibiotics for which resistant isolates are rare at present; namely, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephradine, fosfomycin and florfenicol.

  20. Day-of-hatch vaccination is not protective against necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mot, Dorien; Timbermont, Leen; Delezie, Evelyne; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2013-04-01

    Necrotic enteritis, caused by netB toxin-producing Clostridium perfringens type A, is an important disease in broiler chickens worldwide. Earlier attempts to prevent necrotic enteritis by vaccination have not sufficiently taken into account the practical limitations of broiler vaccination. In most published studies on vaccination against necrotic enteritis, multiple doses at different ages are administered, which is not practical for broilers. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of subcutaneous single vaccination at day 1 or day 3 and double vaccination at day 3 and day 12, using crude supernatant containing active toxin or formaldehyde-inactivated supernatant (toxoid) of a netB-positive C. perfringens strain in a subclinical necrotic enteritis model. Double vaccination with crude supernatant resulted in a significant decrease in the number of chickens with necrotic enteritis lesions. The efficacy of vaccination using toxoid was lower compared with crude supernatant. Single vaccination with crude supernatant at day 3 resulted in significant protection, while vaccination of 1-day-old chickens with crude supernatant or toxoid, as envisaged for practical field application, did not induce protection.

  1. Molecular Differences in Hepatic Metabolism between AA Broiler and Big Bone Chickens: A Proteomic Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guohua; Yue, Ying; Li, Jianke; Zhang, Shu; Cai, Huiyi; Yang, Aijun; Chen, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the metabolic differences in the livers of modern broilers and local chicken breeds is important for understanding their biological characteristics, and many proteomic changes in their livers are not well characterized. We therefore analyzed the hepatic protein profiles of a commercial breed, Arbor Acres (AA) broilers, and a local dual purpose breed, Big Bone chickens, using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with liquid chromatography-chip/electrospray ionization-quadruple time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 145 proteins were identified as having differential abundance in the two breeds at three growth stages. Among them, 49, 63 and 54 belonged to 2, 4, and 6 weeks of age, respectively. The higher abundance proteins in AA broilers were related to the energy production pathways suggesting enhanced energy metabolism and lipid biosynthesis. In contrast, the higher abundance proteins in Big Bone chickens showed enhanced lipid degradation, resulting in a reduction in the abdominal fat percentage. Along with the decrease in fat deposition, flavor substance synthesis in the meat of the Big Bone chickens may be improved by enhanced abundance of proteins involved in glycine metabolism. In addition, the identified proteins in nucleotide metabolism, antioxidants, cell structure, protein folding and transporters may be critically important for immune defense, gene transcription and other biological processes in the two breeds. These results indicate that selection pressure may have shaped the two lines differently resulting in different hepatic metabolic capacities and extensive metabolic differences in the liver. The results from this study may help provide the theoretical basis for chicken breeding. PMID:27760160

  2. Molecular Differences in Hepatic Metabolism between AA Broiler and Big Bone Chickens: A Proteomic Study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Aijuan; Chang, Wenhuan; Liu, Guohua; Yue, Ying; Li, Jianke; Zhang, Shu; Cai, Huiyi; Yang, Aijun; Chen, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the metabolic differences in the livers of modern broilers and local chicken breeds is important for understanding their biological characteristics, and many proteomic changes in their livers are not well characterized. We therefore analyzed the hepatic protein profiles of a commercial breed, Arbor Acres (AA) broilers, and a local dual purpose breed, Big Bone chickens, using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with liquid chromatography-chip/electrospray ionization-quadruple time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 145 proteins were identified as having differential abundance in the two breeds at three growth stages. Among them, 49, 63 and 54 belonged to 2, 4, and 6 weeks of age, respectively. The higher abundance proteins in AA broilers were related to the energy production pathways suggesting enhanced energy metabolism and lipid biosynthesis. In contrast, the higher abundance proteins in Big Bone chickens showed enhanced lipid degradation, resulting in a reduction in the abdominal fat percentage. Along with the decrease in fat deposition, flavor substance synthesis in the meat of the Big Bone chickens may be improved by enhanced abundance of proteins involved in glycine metabolism. In addition, the identified proteins in nucleotide metabolism, antioxidants, cell structure, protein folding and transporters may be critically important for immune defense, gene transcription and other biological processes in the two breeds. These results indicate that selection pressure may have shaped the two lines differently resulting in different hepatic metabolic capacities and extensive metabolic differences in the liver. The results from this study may help provide the theoretical basis for chicken breeding.

  3. Effect of Chitosan on Salmonella Typhimurium in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Menconi, Anita; Pumford, Neil R.; Morgan, Marion J.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Kallapura, Gopala; Latorre, Juan D.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Public concern with the incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly among foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, has been challenging the poultry industry to find alternative means of control. The purposes of the present study were to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effects of chitosan on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) infection in broiler chicks. For in vitro crop assay experiments, tubes containing feed, water, and ST were treated with either saline as a control or 0.2% chitosan. The entire assay was repeated in three trials. In two independent in vivo trials, 40 broiler chicks were assigned to an untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 7 days (20 broiler chicks/treatment). At day 4, chicks were challenged with 2×105 colony-forming units (CFU) ST/bird. In a third in vivo trial, 100 broiler chicks were assigned to untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 10 days (50 broiler chicks/treatment) to evaluate ST horizontal transmission. At day 3, 10 birds were challenged with 105 CFU ST/bird, and the remaining nonchallenged birds (n=40) were kept in the same floor pen. In all three in vitro trials, 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of ST at 0.5 and 6 h postinoculation compared with control (p<0.05). In two in vivo trials, at 7 days, dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of recovered ST in the ceca in both experiments. Dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total ST CFU recovered in the ceca of horizontally challenged birds in the third in vivo trial. Chitosan at 0.2% significantly reduced the CFU of recovered ST in vitro and in vivo, proving to be an alternative tool to reduce crop, ceca, and consequently carcass ST contamination as well as decreasing the amount of ST shed to the environment. PMID:24237042

  4. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and

  5. High-fibre pelleted rations decrease water intake but do not improve physiological indexes of welfare in food-restricted female broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Hocking, P M

    2006-02-01

    1. A 3x2 factorial experiment was conducted with three diets and two lines of broiler breeder females to evaluate the contribution of low-energy rations for improving the welfare of feed-restricted birds during rearing. Experimental diets were fed from 6 to 16 weeks of age and were created by diluting a conventional grower (Control) ration containing 11.0 MJ ME/kg with 200 (8.8 MJ ME/kg) or 400 (6.6 MJ ME/kg) g oat hulls/kg using Optimoist to facilitate the pelleting process. Welfare was assessed by changes in behaviour and physiological variables at 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age. Birds were fed restricted quantities of feed to meet recommended body weight targets. 2. There was a decrease in the proportion of observations of drinking and an increase of preening in birds fed on the two experimental diets compared with the control. There was a linear decrease in litter moisture and the number of litter changes with increasing diet dilution, and water intake at 12 weeks was higher in the control than in the two experimental diets. There were no changes in physiological indexes of welfare (heterophil-lymphocyte ratio, plasma corticosterone and antibody responses) associated with the dietary treatments. 3. There were no important differences in the growth, behaviour or physiological responses to dietary treatment between the two lines of broiler breeders. Changes with age were similar to those reported in other experiments. 4. It was concluded that low-energy pelleted diets would improve litter conditions but not improve indexes of welfare in feed-restricted broiler breeders.

  6. Early feeding affects resistance against cold exposure in young broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, H; Molenaar, R; van der Star, I; Meijerhof, R

    2010-04-01

    In field conditions, a fasting period of 24 to 72 h after hatch is common, which is associated with delayed gastrointestinal development and yolk utilization and retarded subsequent performance. Hardly any information is available about the influence of diet composition in the first days on later life and additionally, effects of early feeding on thermoregulatory development are also not known. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of diet composition in early fed broiler chickens on their (thermoregulatory) development. Shortly after hatch, 200 Hybro chickens (initial BW of 43.6 g) were assigned to 1 of 5 feed treatments: control, dextrose, albumen, prestarter, or prestarter plus fat. Water was available ad libitum. Measurements were done in 10 replicates of 4 chickens per treatment. At d 2 or 3, half of the chickens were exposed to 20 degrees C for 30 min to determine resistance against cold exposure and rectal temperature was determined just before, immediately after, and 30 min after the end of this cold exposure. Thereafter, all chickens were killed to investigate body development. Chickens in both prestarter groups developed faster than in the other 3 groups, expressed by a higher BW, yolk-free body mass, heart and liver weight, and higher chick and intestine length. Between d 2 and 3, differences in these variables among chickens from both prestarter groups and other groups increased. Rectal temperature before cold exposure was higher in chickens from both prestarter groups (40.6 and 40.7 degrees C, respectively) and decreased less (0.6 and 0.7 degrees C, respectively) during cold exposure than in chickens from the control (39.5 and 1.2 degrees C, respectively) and albumen group (39.8 and 2.1 degrees C, respectively), whereas chickens from the dextrose group were in between (40.4 and 1.2 degrees C, respectively). We conclude that early fed diet composition in broiler chickens is (besides general development) important for development of both body

  7. Age-related changes in meat tenderness and tissue pentosidine: effect of diet restriction and aminoguanidine in broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M; Kenney, P B; Klandorf, H

    1999-09-01

    The nonenzymatic glycosylation of tissue protein contributes to the formation of crosslinks that leads to structural and functional deterioration in the long-lived tissue protein, collagen. The accumulation of these crosslinks thus contributes to the objectionable toughness of meat from aged animals, decreases its economic value, and limits its use in whole muscle foods. The objectives of this study were to determine the effectiveness of diet restriction and the crosslinking inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG), on reducing the accumulation of crosslinks, thereby improving meat tenderness in broiler breeder hens. The glycoxidation product, pentosidine, was also measured in skin (Ps) to determine whether changes in its concentrations correlated with the changes in shear value (SV). Chicks (n = 450) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups from 8 to 125 wk after hatch: ad libitum (AL), diet restricted (DR), AL and DR groups supplemented with 400 ppm AG each (AL+AG and DR+AG, respectively). Shear value was measured with an Instron Universal Mechanical Machine. Skin pentosidine was isolated by reverse phase HPLC. There was an age-related, linear increase in SV (P<0.0001, r = 0.96), which correlated (r = 0.86) with the age-related increase in Ps in AL hens. Diet restriction retarded SV (P<0.0001) over the sampling period. In general, SV values for AL+AG were similar to those measured in DR, whereas no additive effect was observed for AG in DR birds. It was concluded that there was a linear increase in meat toughness (SV) with age that correlates with the accumulation of Ps, and that the decline in meat tenderness can be retarded by DR or AG. Secondly, the effect of DR on accumulation of Ps was so pronounced that AG supplementation did not further enhance this effect.

  8. Effect of dietary boron supplementation on egg production, shell quality, and calcium metabolism in aged broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Qin, X; Klandorf, H

    1991-10-01

    Three experiments were conducted using aged broiler breeder hens (greater than 60 wk) to investigate the effects of supplemental B on egg production (EP), shell quality, and Ca metabolism. Experiment 1 had a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) high Ca (3.5%); 2) high Ca plus B; 3) low Ca (1.5%); and 4) low Ca plus B; using 32 60-wk-old hens. The B levels were basal and 100 ppm supplemental for the first 2 wk of the experiment and reduced to 60 ppm for the remaining 3 wk. Egg production, shell thickness (ST), and egg specific gravity (SG) were recorded weekly. In Experiment 2, 40 60-wk-old hens were divided into two groups: high and low shell quality. Each group was further divided into two subgroups and fed a low-Ca basal diet with or without supplemental B. The level of B supplementation and the experimental period was the same as in Experiment 1. In Experiment 3, 52 75-wk-old hens were force-molted. After molting, 36 hens were fed a commercial layer diet with the remaining 16 hens fed the control diet supplemented with 100 ppm B. Blood samples were taken during the nonlaying and laying periods, respectively. The results showed that B significantly (P less than .05) depressed EP in Experiment 1 but not in Experiments 2 and 3. Supplemental B decreased plasma Ca when hens were fed a diet containing high Ca levels (3.5%). Supplemental B did not affect SG, ST, or Ca retention, but did significantly increase tibial bone ash percentage (P less than .05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Relationship between mechanical properties and pentosidine in tendon: effects of age, diet restriction, and aminoguanidine in broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M; Kenney, P B; Al-Humadi, N H; Klandorf, H

    2000-09-01

    Nonenzymatic glycosylation contributes to the formation of crosslinks, which leads to the structural and functional deterioration of tissue protein. The accumulation of these crosslinks in tissue proteins has been implicated in the alteration of biomechanical properties of connective tissues. The objective of this study was to determine whether tendon breaking time (TBT) and tendon breaking strength (TBS) of the flexor perforans et perforatus digiti iii tendon were related to concentrations of pentosidine in tendons (Pt) of broiler breeder hens from 8 to 125 wk of age. In addition, effects of diet restriction (DR) and a crosslinking inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG) on Pt, TBS, and TBT were determined. Female chicks (n = 450) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups immediately after hatch: ad libitum-fed (AL); diet-restricted (DR; 60% of AL); and AL and DR groups supplemented with 1.35 mg/kg BW per day AG in the feed (AL+AG and DR+AG, respectively). In AL hens, Pt increased with increasing age (P < or = 0.0001). Concurrently, an age-related parallel increase was found for TBS (P < or = 0.0001) and TBT (P < or = 0.0001). Rate of Pt accumulation was lower in DR (P < or = 0.001), TBS (P < or = 0.01), and TBT (P < or = 0.02) hens compared with AL hens. Concentration of Pt in the AL + AG group was lower (P < or = 0.0002) than in the AL group; TBS and TBT (P < or = 0.01) followed a similar pattern. Supplementation of DR with AG did not affect Pt, TBS, or TBT. The age-related increase in Pt and loss of elasticity in the tendon was retarded by diet restriction and AG.

  10. Combined effects of muscular dystrophy, ecological stress, and selenium on blood antioxidant status in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, Nedyalka V; Stoyanchev, Krasimir; Bozakova, Nadia; Jotova, Ivanka

    2011-09-01

    The results obtained in this study demonstrated that experimentally induced alimentary muscular dystrophy (MD) in Cobb 500 broiler chickens resulted in increased plasma concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), deviations in activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes Cu,Zn-SOD (decrease), and CAT (increase) as well as reduction in plasma concentrations of trace elements Cu, Zn, and Se in affected birds. These data evidenced the presence of oxidative stress in birds with MD, reared both under conditions of ecological comfort and ecological stress. The increased MDA and САТ levels and the reduced Cu,Zn-SOD, Cu, Zn, and Se concentrations in healthy chickens reared under unfavorable microclimatic conditions such as higher air temperature and humidity, higher ammonia concentrations, and lower light intensity were indicative about an induced ecological stress. After the 10-day oral treatment with a selenium-containing preparation, the levels of MDA, Cu,Zn-SOD, CAT, Cu, Zn, and Se attained their normal values in chickens with MD, reared under ecologically comfortable conditions. According to our results, ecological stress was shown to exert independently a significant adverse effect upon the levels of the studied parameters and possibly to be a cause for their slower and not complete normalization despite the selenium therapy in experimental broiler chickens.

  11. Broiler chickens exposed to melamine and cyanuric acid-contaminated diets.

    PubMed

    Zapletal, D; Straková, E; Novák, P; Suchý, P

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether melamine (MEL) is biotransformed into cyanuric acid (CYA) in male broiler chickens. The effects of the dietary addition of MEL and CYA alone and in combination on the growth performance and mortality of the chickens were also investigated. The chickens were divided into six experimental groups and were fed diets with an addition of 50 or 100 mg/kg MEL or 50 or 100 mg/kg CYA of diet, with the contaminants added separately or in combination. The control group was fed a diet without MEL or CYA. At the end of the experiment (day 40), samples of liver, kidney and breast and thigh muscles were collected from 12 birds per treatment group and were analysed for the presence of MEL and CYA. This study showed that MEL is biotransformed into CYA in broilers. Higher concentrations of MEL or CYA in the diet increased the presence of their residues in tissues, and the CYA residue concentration was several times higher in the respective tissues than the MEL residue concentration. The dietary addition of MEL and CYA did not affect the mortality rate, feed conversion ratio or body weight of the chickens.

  12. Effect of silver nanoparticles on growth performance, metabolism and microbial profile of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Lane; Chwalibog, Andrè; Sawosz, Ewa; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Engberg, Ricarda; Elnif, Jan; Hotowy, Anna; Sawosz, Filip; Gao, Yuhong; Ali, Abdalla; Moghaddam, Heshmat Sepehri

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated the potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNano) as an antimicrobial growth-promoting supplement for broiler chickens. One hundred forty-four seven-day-old broiler chicks were distributed randomly to AgNano treatments at 0, 10 and 20 mg/kg (Control, Group AgNano10, and Group AgNano20, respectively) provided via the drinking water from day 7 to 36 post-hatching. Body weight and feed consumption were measured weekly. In addition, balance and respiration experiments were carried out to determine nitrogen (N) utilisation and energy retention. At days 22 and 36, blood samples and intestinal content were collected to evaluate the effects of AgNano on plasma concentration of immunoglobulins and the intestinal microflora, respectively. The provision of water solutions containing different concentrations of AgNano had no effect on postnatal growth performance and the energy metabolism of broiler chickens. However, in Group AgNano10 N intake (p = 0.05) and retention (p = 0.03) was increased, but N excretion and efficiency of utilisation was not affected. The populations of bacteria in the intestinal samples were not affected by AgNano supplementation. The concentration of immunoglobulin (IgG) in the blood plasma of broilers supplemented with AgNano decreased at day 36 (p = 0.012). The results demonstrated that AgNano affects N utilisation and plasma IgG concentration; however, it does not influence the microbial populations in the digestive tract, the energy metabolism and growth performance of chickens.

  13. Evaluation of transgenic hybrid corn (VIP3A) in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Brake, J; Faust, M; Stein, J

    2005-03-01

    A 49-d feeding study evaluated whether standard broiler diets prepared with Syngenta Seeds VIP3A transgenic derived corn grain had any unanticipated adverse effects on male or female broiler chickens as compared with diets prepared with nontransgenic (isoline) control corn grain. Two commercial lots of grain grown in North Carolina during the 1999 (NC 1999) and 2000 (NC 2000) seasons were included for reference purposes. Broiler growth was excellent with males reaching 3466 g and females reaching 2882 g at 49 d of age. Final BW of the VIP3A, isoline, and NC 1999 corn groups were within 21.1 g, whereas the NC 2000 group was 42.4 g lower than the lowest of this group. There was no overall corn source effect on adjusted feed conversion ratio (FCR) or mortality to 49 d of age. Carcass analysis demonstrated no differences in percentage yield due to corn source among males and females other than percentage wings in females. Comprehensive clinical chemical analyses of blood taken from representative birds at 49 d of age showed no differences due to corn sources. The transgenic VIP3A hybrid diets numerically supported the most rapid broiler chicken growth, the second lowest mortality rate and best FCR, without practical differences in carcass yield. The few differences found in this study were not unique to a given corn source but instead appeared to be distributed equally across the diet groups evaluated in the study. Although it was not clear whether small differences in performance were attributable to the transgenic corn per se or were due to possible slight differences in overall composition of the formulated diets, it was clear that the transgenic corn had no deleterious effects on broiler performance and carcass yield in this study.

  14. Estimating danofloxacin withdrawal time in broiler chickens based on physiologically based pharmacokinetics modeling.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Sun, N; Liu, Y M; Zeng, Z L

    2015-04-01

    In this study, a physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) model was firstly developed for danofloxacin in healthy broiler chickens after a single oral administration at 5 mg/kg bw. Then, the model extrapolation from healthy chickens to those infected with Pasteurella multocidaones was performed. The healthy model was validated through a comparison of predicted and previously published concentrations, which indicated that the healthy PBPK model had good predictive ability in plasma, lung, muscle, liver, and kidney, especially at the later sampling time points. Multiple dosing of administration was incorporated into the healthy and infected models. In addition, a Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) included 1000 iterations was further incorporated into both models to predict the withdrawal times of danofloxacin in healthy and infected chickens, which were estimated to be 3 and 2 days, respectively.

  15. Silicon in broiler drinking water promotes bone development in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sgavioli, S; de Faria Domingues, C H; Castiblanco, D M C; Praes, M F F M; Andrade-Garcia, Giuliana M; Santos, E T; Baraldi-Artoni, S M; Garcia, R G; Junqueira, O M

    2016-10-01

    Skeletal abnormalities, bone deformities and fractures cause significant losses in broiler production during both rearing and processing. Silicon is an essential mineral for bone and connective tissue synthesis and for calcium absorption during the early stages of bone formation. Performance was not affected by the addition of silicon. However, broilers receiving silicon showed a significant increase of phosphorus, zinc, copper, manganese and ash in the tibia. In conclusion, broiler performance was not impaired by adding the tested silicon product to the drinking water. In addition, bone development improved, as demonstrated by higher mineral and ash content. Further studies are required to determine the optimal concentration of silicon, including heat stress simulations, to better understand the effects of silicon on bone development.

  16. Changes of biochemical parameters and enzyme activities in broiler chickens with cold-induced ascites.

    PubMed

    Daneshyar, M; Kermanshahi, H; Golian, A

    2009-01-01

    An experiment with 250 one-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) was conducted to investigate the differences of some blood parameters of cold-induced ascitic and healthy broiler chicks in a 6-wk period. The chickens were divided into 2 groups of 5 replicates each. One group of these chickens was raised in normal temperature (NT) treatment and the other in cold temperature (CT) treatment to induce ascites. Mortality was necropsied daily to determine cause of death. At the end of the experiment (wk 6), 5 chickens from each replicate were randomly selected and slaughtered. The heart was removed; the right ventricle was dissected away from the left ventricle and septum. Weights of right and left ventricles were determined separately. Average BW gain and average feed intake were measured weekly, and weekly average feed conversion ratio was calculated. Serum glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, activity of lactate dehydrogenase, as-partate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were determined. Throughout the study, the right ventricle-to-total ventricle ratio and total mortality percentage due to ascites of CT-treated birds at the end of experiment was greater (P < or = 0.05) than those of NT-treated ones. Fasting blood sugar of CT-treated birds in wk 4 and 6 was greater (P < or = 0.05) than NT-treated birds. Total blood protein of CT treatment was lower than NT-treated birds in every week and whole period, but this difference was only significant (P < or = 0.05) in wk 6. There was not a significant difference between 2 treatments for triglyceride and cholesterol, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. It was concluded that cold-induced ascites could affect serum protein and fasting blood sugar of broiler chickens.

  17. Histopathology in diagnosis of broiler chicken and layer diseases--review of cases 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Dolka, I; Sapierzyński, R; Bielecki, W; Malicka, E; Zbikowski, A; Szeleszczuk, P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of histopathological lesions in the different organs in relation to the commercial-type and the age of birds (i.e. broiler chickens and layers). During the period 1999-2010 a total of 189 cases was submitted to the Division of Animal Pathomorphology, Department of Pathology and Veterinary Diagnostics at WULS. Most cases were found in broiler chickens (66.7%). The majority of the histopathological lesions were detected in the liver and lymphoid organs. In of 29% cases of hepatic injury pathognomonic lesions associated with inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) were found. The mean age of birds was 23 days. Among IBH cases proventriculitis (58%) was more often found than gizzard lesions (25.8%). Interestingly, we noted some intranuclear inclusions in the epithelial cells within the proventriculus. A low percentage of histopathological evidence of infectious bursal disease (IBD) was reported in chickens. The gastrointestinal tract was the second most frequent predilection site for histopathological lesions. Histopathological findings within the heart and lungs were less common and were more often seen in the upper respiratory tract. Cases of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) were registered in broiler chickens (3.2%, mean age 37 days) and in layers (4.8%; mean age 196 days). Lesions associated with Marek's disease, avian leukosis and fowl pox were recognized only in layers, respectively in 3.2% (mean age 176 days), 1.6% (mean age 205 days) and 1.1% (mean age 196 days) of all cases. Avian encephalomyelitis (AE) was noted only in 0.5% of all cases.

  18. Effects of dietary copper supplementation on production performance and plasma biochemical parameters in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Samanta, B; Biswas, A; Ghosh, P R

    2011-10-01

    A study was conducted to estimate the effect of copper (Cu) supplementation on growth performance and biochemical profiles of blood and meat in broiler chickens. A total of 240 d-old broiler chicks (Vencobb-100) were randomly divided into 12 groups, each of 20 chicks (4 treatments x 3 replicates). The basal diet (T₁) contained 215 g kg⁻¹ crude protein (CP), 12·76 MJ kg⁻¹ ME, 32 g kg⁻¹ total calcium and 5 g kg⁻¹ total phosphorus. T₂, T₃ and T₄ were formulated to contain an additional 75, 150 and 250 mg Cu kg⁻¹ diet, respectively. Copper sulphate pentahydrate (CuSO₄, 5H₂O) was used as the source of Cu. Significant reductions in plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride, and an elevated concentration of HDL-cholesterol, were observed in the chickens fed with 250 mg Cu kg⁻¹ (T₄) of feed at the 3rd and 6th week of the experiment. Total cholesterol in meat decreased significantly in the birds fed with dietary Cu at 250 mg kg⁻¹ (T₄) of feed. Growth performance was measured in terms of live weight gain, cumulative feed intake and feed conversion ratio at the end of d 21 and d 42 of the experiment, and the result was found to be commercially beneficial for the chickens receiving 150 mg Cu kg⁻¹ (T₃) of diet. The concentration of Cu in breast muscle and liver increased significantly at the end of experiment. From this study it can be concluded that supplementation with dietary Cu may be beneficial for production performance and plasma biochemical characteristics of broiler chickens.

  19. Influence of in ovo prebiotic and synbiotic administration on meat quality of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Maiorano, G; Sobolewska, A; Cianciullo, D; Walasik, K; Elminowska-Wenda, G; Slawinska, A; Tavaniello, S; Zylinska, J; Bardowski, J; Bednarczyk, M

    2012-11-01

    A trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of in ovo injection of prebiotic and synbiotics on growth performance, meat quality traits (cholesterol content, intramuscular collagen properties, fiber measurements), and the presence of histopathological changes in the pectoral muscle (PS) of broiler chickens. On d 12 of incubation, 480 eggs were randomly divided into 5 experimental groups treated with different bioactives, in ovo injected: C, control with physiological saline; T1 with 1.9 mg of raffinose family oligosaccharides; T2 and T3 with 1.9 mg of raffinose family oligosaccharides enriched with different probiotic bacteria, specifically 1,000 cfu of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis SL1 and Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris IBB SC1, respectively; T4 with commercially available synbiotic Duolac, containing 500 cfu of both Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus faecium with the addition of lactose (0.001 mg/embryo). Among the hatched chickens, 60 males were randomly chosen (12 birds for each group) and were grown to 42 d in collective cages (n = 3 birds in each 4 cages: replications for experimental groups). Broilers were fed ad libitum commercial diets according to age. In ovo prebiotic and synbiotic administration had a low effect on investigated traits, but depend on the kind of bioactives administered. Commercial synbiotic treatment (T4) reduced carcass yield percentage, and the feed conversion ratio was higher in T3 and T4 groups compared with other groups. The abdominal fat, the ultimate pH, and cholesterol of the PS were not affected by treatment. Broiler chickens of the treated groups with both slightly greater PS and fiber diameter had a significantly lower amount of collagen. The greater thickness of muscle fibers (not significant) and the lower fiber density (statistically significant), observed in treated birds in comparison with those of the C group, are not associated with histopathological changes in the PS of broilers. The incidence of

  20. Effect of sand and wood-shavings bedding on the behavior of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shields, S J; Garner, J P; Mench, J A

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 2 different bedding types, sand and wood shavings, on the behavior of broiler chickens. In experiment 1, 6 pens were divided down the center and bedded half with sand and half with wood shavings. Male broilers (10/pen) were observed by scan sampling at 5- or 12-min intervals throughout the 6-wk growth period during the morning (between 0800 to 0900 h), afternoon (1200 to 1500 h), and night (2300 to 0600 h). There was a significant behavior x substrate x week interaction during the day (P < 0.0001) and at night (P < 0.0002). Drinking, dustbathing, preening, and sitting increased in frequency on the sand side but decreased on the wood shavings side during the day, as did resting at night. In general, broilers performed a greater proportion of their total behavioral time budget on the sand (P < 0.0001) as they aged. Broilers used the divider between the 2 bedding types to perch; perching behavior peaked during wk 4. In experiment 2, male broilers were housed in 8 pens (50 birds/pen) bedded only in sand or wood shavings. Bedding type had no effect on behavioral time budgets (P = 0.8946), although there were age-related changes in behavior on both bedding types. These results indicate that when given a choice, broilers increasingly performed many of their behaviors on sand, but if only one bedding type was provided they performed those behaviors with similar frequency on sand or wood shavings.

  1. Evaluation of Emblica officinalis fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Patel, A. P.; Bhagwat, S. R.; Pawar, M. M.; Prajapati, K. B.; Chauhan, H. D.; Makwana, R. B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the dietary addition of Emblica officinalis (Amla) fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: An experiment was conducted on 135 commercial broiler chicks (Ven-Cobb 400 strain) divided into three groups with three replicates of 15 chicks each. Three treatment groups were as follows – T1: Basal diet as per BIS standards; T2: Basal diet supplemented with 0.4% of E. officinalis fruit powder; and T3: Basal diet supplemented with 0.8% of E. officinalis fruit powder. Results: The average body weights at the end of the 6th week were significantly higher (p<0.05) in groups T2 and T3 compared to group T1. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio and feed cost per kg live weight production were similar among the treatment groups. The net profit per bird was the highest in group T2 (Rs. 19.22/bird) followed by group T3 (Rs. 17.86/bird) and the lowest in group T1 (Rs. 14.61/bird). Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, it was concluded that dietary addition of E. officinalis (Amla) fruit powder had a positive effect on growth performance and net profit per bird in commercial broiler chickens. PMID:27051210

  2. Yeast β-d-glucans induced antimicrobial peptide expressions against Salmonella infection in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yujing; Wang, Zhong; Tian, Xiangyu; Guo, Yuming; Zhang, Haibo

    2016-04-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of yeast β-d-glucans (YG) on gene expression of endogenous β-defensins (AvBDs), cathelicidins (Cath) and liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide-2 (LEAP-2) in broilers challenged with Salmonella enteritidis (SE). 240 day-old Cobb male broilers were randomly assigned to 2×2 factorial arrangements of treatments with two levels of dietary YG (0 or 200mg/kg in diet) and two levels of SE challenge (0 or 1×10(9) SE at 7-9 days of age). The results showed SE infection reduced growth performance,and increased salmonella cecal colonization and internal organs invasion, increased concentration of intestinal specific IgA and serum specific IgG antibody, as compared to uninfected birds. SE challenge differentially regulated AvBDs, Caths and LEAP-2 gene expression in the jejunum and spleen of broiler chickens during the infection period. However, YG supplementation inhibited the growth depression by SE challenge, and further increased level of serum specific IgG and intestinal specific IgA antibody. Higher level of salmonella colonization and internal organs invasion in the SE-infected birds were reduced by YG. SE-induced differentially expression patterns of AMPs genes was inhibited or changed by YG. Results indicated YG enhance chicken's resistance to salmonella infection.

  3. A note on the effects of perches and litter substrate on leg weakness in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Su, G; Sørensen, P; Kestin, S C

    2000-09-01

    Two trials were conducted to investigate the effect of availability of perches on indices of leg weakness in broiler chickens. A third trial investigated the effect of litter substrate on similar indices of leg weakness in broiler chickens. Leg weakness traits examined were walking ability and tibial dyschondroplasia, tibial curvature, foot burn, and hock burn. Body weight was also measured in all trials. The presence of perches in the rearing pens had no effect on any of the indices of leg weakness examined in either trial. There were no consistent effects of perches on BW. Litter substrate significantly affected some indices of leg weakness; birds reared on wheat straw had poorer walking ability and more foot burn than birds reared on wood shavings, and birds reared on hemp waste were intermediate between them. There was no effect of litter substrate on tibial dyschondroplasia or tibial curvature. Turning the straw litter regularly and adding fresh supplies when necessary did not significantly improve indices of leg weakness. It was concluded that wood shavings provide a better litter substrate than straw, but that perches have no beneficial effect on reducing leg weakness in broilers.

  4. Color and fatty acid profile of abdominal fat pads from broiler chickens fed lobster meal.

    PubMed

    Rathgeber, B M; Anderson, D M; Thompson, K L; Macisaac, J L; Budge, S

    2011-06-01

    Consumer demands for food products enriched with healthful n-3 fatty acids are steadily increasing. Feeding marine byproducts may provide an economical means of increasing the long-chain n-3 content of broiler tissues. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary lobster meal (LM) on the color and fatty acid profile of broiler chicken fatty tissue. Broilers were fed increasing levels (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10%) of LM for 35 d. Fat pad samples were collected at slaughter and color and fatty acid concentrations were determined. A linear effect was found of LM on red coloration (P < 0.05) as dietary LM increased. Fat pad eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels also increased (P < 0.0001) in a linear fashion. The essential long-chain fatty acids were lower for the 10% LM diet (0.37 mg of EPA/g; 0.16 mg of DHA/g) compared with the 8% LM diet (0.51 mg of EPA/g; 0.27 mg of DHA/g). Using lobster meal as a feed ingredient resulted in broiler abdominal fat pads with a favorable increase in n-3 fatty acids.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for Campylobacter spp. in chicken broiler flocks in Reunion Island (Indian Ocean).

    PubMed

    Henry, Isabelle; Reichardt, Jef; Denis, Martine; Cardinale, Eric

    2011-06-01

    Our objectives were to determine Campylobacter prevalence in broiler chicken flocks in Reunion Island and to define specific practices associated with the presence of Campylobacter spp. Infection in Reunionese broiler flocks. Fifty broiler flocks were studied in Reunion Island from May 2007 to February 2009. A questionnaire was submitted to the farmers and samples of fresh droppings were collected to assess the flock's Campylobacter status. Fifty four percent of the flocks were infected by Campylobacter spp.: 30% (95% CI: 28.71-31.29) were infected with Campylobacter coli and 17% (95% CI: 15.95-18.05) with Campylobacter jejuni; only 7% (95% CI: 6.28-7.72) were infected by both species at the same time. Several poultry houses in the farm (OR=11.2; [1.05-92]) and cleaning without any detergent (OR=13.1; [2.1-78.3]) increased the risk of Campylobacter infection. A distance higher than 500 m between broiler farms (OR=0.27; [0.1-0.8]) and use of disinfectant during the rearing period decreased this risk of infection (OR=0.15; [0.1-0.75]).

  6. Use of Caprylic Acid in Broiler Chickens: Effect on Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Hovorková, Petra; Skřivanová, Eva

    2015-08-01

    The effect of caprylic acid (CA) on Campylobacter jejuni in chickens was evaluated using two approaches: dietary supplementation or surface treatment of chilled chicken carcasses. To analyze the dietary effect of CA, individually housed broiler chickens (n = 48) were artificially infected with C. jejuni VFU612 (10(6) colony-forming units [CFU]/bird) on the 21st and 35th days of life. Dietary CA (2.5 and 5 g/kg of feed, fed throughout the entire experiment) significantly decreased C. jejuni shedding (p<0.05). However, the effect only lasted for 3-7 days after infection. The numbers of Campylobacter shed by the positive control birds reached its maximum on the 37th day of life, while on that same day, both Treatment I and Treatment II groups shed significantly lower (p<0.05) numbers of Campylobacter (by 0.8 and 1.8 log10 CFU/g, respectively). Also, peak shedding was delayed by 1 day in both treated groups. After euthanasia of each chicken on the 42nd day of life, no differences in Campylobacter counts in the crop, gizzard, ileum, and cecum were found between the positive control and the treated groups (p>0.05). Surface contamination of the chilled chicken halves was performed with C. jejuni VFU612 (clinical isolate) and CCM6214 (collection strain). Surface treatment with CA at 1.25 and 2.5 mg/mL for 1 min significantly reduced C. jejuni VFU612 contamination of chicken skin (p<0.05) by 0.29-0.53 and 1.14-1.58 log10 CFU/g of skin, respectively. Counts of C. jejuni CCM6214 were reduced by 0.68-1.65 log10 CFU/g of skin). In conclusion, dietary CA affected numbers of C. jejuni in the gastrointestinal contents of chickens, whereas surface treatment reduced C. jejuni contamination in processed chicken carcasses.

  7. Potential use of caprylic acid in broiler chickens: effect on Salmonella enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Skřivanová, Eva; Hovorková, Petra; Čermák, Ladislav; Marounek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of dietary caprylic acid (CA) on Salmonella Enteritidis, as well as the surface treatment of chicken skin contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis was evaluated. To evaluate the dietary effect of CA on Salmonella Enteritidis, the individually housed broiler chickens (n=48) were divided into 4 groups (positive control, negative control, 2.5 g/kg of CA in the feed, and 5 g/kg of CA in the feed). The feed of all groups, except the negative control, was artificially contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 13076 (10(7) colony-forming units/100 g of feed). Both concentrations of dietary CA significantly decreased counts of Salmonella Enteritidis in the crop and cecum of experimental chickens (p<0.05). The effect of CA in the crop contents was more pronounced than in the cecum. Surface treatment of chilled chicken halves with CA at 1.25 and 2.5 mg/mL significantly decreased Salmonella Enteritidis contamination of chicken skin (p<0.05). The sensory evaluation of the skin and meat showed that treatment of the skin with 1.25 mg/mL of CA worsened odor and appearance of the chicken skin, while sensory traits of chicken meat were not significantly affected. Taste and overall acceptability was not influenced by CA in both meat and skin. Treatment of the skin with 2.5 mg/mL of CA resulted in more pronounced changes of the skin odor and appearance. In conclusion, dietary CA reduced carriage of Salmonella Enteritidis in chickens, whereas surface-treatment reduced or eliminated Salmonella Enteritidis contamination in the processed bird.

  8. The effects of age, energy and protein intake on protein turnover and the expression of proteolysis-related genes in the broiler breeder hen.

    PubMed

    Ekmay, Ricardo D; Salas, Catalina; England, Judy; Cerrate, Sandro; Coon, Craig N

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the changes that occur to proteolysis and related genes due to age, protein, and energy intake in high-yield broiler breeder hens (Gallus gallus). Cobb 700 broiler breeders were randomly assigned to one of six diets in a 2×3 factorial fashion. Two levels of energy (390 and 450 kcal/day) and three levels of protein (22, 24, and 26 g CP/day) were utilized. Protein turnover was determined in the left pectoralis at 22, 26, 31 and 44 weeks. Relative mRNA expression of calpain 2 (CAPN2), proteasome C2 subunit (PSMA1), and F box protein 32 (FBXO32) were determined via RT-PCR at 20, 25, and 44 weeks. Contrasts indicate fractional synthesis rate (FSR) and FBXO32 increase to a maximum at 25-26 weeks and a decrease thereafter. A significant drop in PSMA1 and FBXO32 was observed between 25 and 44 weeks and matched the decrease observed in FBR. No differences were detected in the levels of fractional synthesis and degradation, or the expression of CAPN2, PSMA1, and FBXO32, due to protein or energy intake. In summary, protein turnover was upregulated during the transition into sexual maturity and decreased thereafter. The observed changes in degradation appeared to be mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

  9. Sensor-based monitoring of the prevalence and severity of foot pad dermatitis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, G; Ammon, C; Volkamer, L; Sürie, C; Radko, D

    2013-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of a dielectric measurement to evaluate the prevalence and severity of foot pad dermatitis (FPD) in broiler chickens. 2. The study focussed on surveying the occurrence of FPD during the growing period of one broiler chicken flock. A scoring system consisting of 5 categories was used to assess the prevalence and severity of FPD macroscopically. Additionally, the dielectric constant (DC) of both foot pads of 50 chickens was measured in a triple iteration with the MoistureMeter D (Delfin Technologies, Kuopio, Finland) on three different dates. 3. On all measurement days, DC and FPD score were negatively correlated. The severity of FPD increased during the growing period, and severe lesions occurred at an early stage. 4. Further research is necessary to develop an effective early warning system for FPD in poultry houses. However, the non-invasive measurement of DC provides a reliable method for the objective assessment of occurrence and severity of FPD.

  10. Enrofloxacin degradation in broiler chicken manure under field conditions and its residuals effects to the environment.

    PubMed

    Slana, M; Žigon, D; Sollner-Dolenc, M

    2017-04-11

    The rate of degradation of enrofloxacin in broiler chicken manure has been characterised. Its degradation was investigated in manure excreted by broiler chickens in an intensively reared chicken facility; further, the degradation also followed after transfer of the excreta into the natural environment occurred. The effect of enrofloxacin and its degradation products on cucumber and tomato was also investigated. Enrofloxacin degradation was shown to take place within the rearing facility and also continuing after the manure was transferred into the environment. The rates of enrofloxacin degradation and the degree of degradation product formation in the manure heap incubated in the environment were condition specific, both variables depending on the manure sampling depth. The degradation half-lives ranged from 12.7 to 38.1 days for enrofloxacin and from 1.2 to 8.2 days for the main metabolite ciprofloxacin. Only the cucumber showed signs of toxicity when incubated with the composted manure immediately after transfer into field occurred (t = 0). No toxic effects to plants were observed when manure from the last incubation day (60th) of the field study and manure from the last incubation day of the laboratory degradation study were applied. The degradation study under field conditions showed that enrofloxacin and its degradation products degrade fast in the environment. Additionally, the toxic effects to plants decrease with the incubation time of manure containing enrofloxacin residuals.

  11. Protective potential of Lactobacillus species in lead toxicity model in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Jahromi, M F; Liang, J B; Ebrahimi, R; Soleimani, A F; Rezaeizadeh, A; Abdullah, N; Shokryazdan, P

    2016-11-02

    To alleviate adverse effects of heavy metal toxicity, diverse range of removing methods have been suggested, that is usage of algae, agricultural by-products and microorganisms. Here, we investigated lead (Pb) biosorption efficacy by two lactic acid bacteria species (LABs) in broiler chickens. In an in vitro study, Pb was added to culture medium of LABs (Lactobacillus pentosus ITA23 and Lactobacillus acidipiscis ITA44) in the form of lead acetate. Results showed that these LABs were able to absorb more than 90% of Pb from the culture medium. In follow-up in vivo study, LABs mixture was added to diet of broiler chickens contained lead acetate (200 mg/kg). Pb exposure significantly increased lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant activity in liver. The changes were recovered back to normal level upon LABs supplementation. Moreover, addition of LABs eliminated the liver tissue lesion and the suppressed performance in Pb-exposed chicks. Analysis of liver and serum samples indicated 48% and 28% reduction in Pb accumulation, respectively. In conclusion, results of this study showed that L. pentosus ITA23 and L. acidipiscis ITA44 effectively biosorb and expel dietary Pb from gastrointestinal tract of chickens.

  12. Functional assessment of encapsulated citral for controlling necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuexi; Wang, Qi; Diarra, Moussa S; Yu, Hai; Hua, Yufei; Gong, Joshua

    2016-04-01

    Development of viable alternatives to antibiotics to control necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by Clostridium perfringensis becoming urgent for chicken production due to pessures on poultry producers to limit or stop the use of antibiotics in feed. We have previously identified citral as a potential alternative to antibiotics. Citral has strong antimicrobial activity and can be encasupsulated in a powder form for protection from loss during feed processing, storage, and intestinal delivery. In the present study, encapsulated citral was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo for its antimicrobial activity against C. perfringens Encapsulation did not adversely affect the antimicrobial activity of citral. In addition, encapsulated citral was superior to the unencapsulated form in retaining its antimicrobial activity after treatment with simulated gastrointestinal fluids and in the presence of chicken intestinal digesta. In addition, the higher antimicrobial activity of encapsulated citral was confirmed in digesta samples from broilers that had been gavaged with encapsulated or unencapsulated citral. In broilers infected with C. perfringens, the diets supplemented with encapsualted citral at both 250 and 650 μg/g significantly reduced intestinal NE lesions, which was comparable to the effect of bacitracin- and salinomycin-containing diets. However, supplementation with the encapsulated citral appeared to have no significant impact on the intestinal burden of Lactobacillus These data indicate that citral can be used to control NE in chickens after proper protection by encapsulation.

  13. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-01-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat’s unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods. PMID:26104409

  14. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat.

    PubMed

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-07-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat's unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods.

  15. Deboning broiler chicken legs and wings by dislocation of articular cartilage followed by stripping periosteum.

    PubMed

    Nakano, T; Ozimek, L; Betti, M

    2012-11-01

    The yield of deboned meat is an important economic factor affecting the profit of the meat industry. This study was undertaken to determine whether the yield of boneless meat from broiler chicken leg (thigh and drumstick) and wing (drumette and winglet) is improved by introducing a new deboning method consisting of articular cartilage dislocation followed by stripping periosteum. A total of 44 broiler chicken carcasses were used in the deboning experiment. Right and left legs or wings from the first 22 carcasses were assigned to the new and ordinary hand deboning methods, respectively. For the remaining 22 carcasses, right and left legs or wings were assigned to the ordinary and new methods, respectively. The weight of residue, composed of bone and small amounts of cartilage and noncartilaginous tissues obtained after deboning, was then compared between the right and left legs or wings to see the difference between the 2 methods. The removal of tibia, fibula, humerus, radius, or ulna resulted in formation of a hollow in boneless meat obtained. There was no difference (P > 0.05) between the right and left legs or wings in the weight of residue obtained after deboning as expected. The weight of residue was less (P < 0.05) with the new method compared with the ordinary method in all chicken parts examined. The difference of residue weight between the 2 methods accounted for 10, 12, 14, and 21% of the weight of residue obtained by the ordinary method in thigh, drumstick, drumette, and winglet, respectively. The new method may be useful to deboners at home kitchens as well as the poultry meat industry. The present study also showed the development of a secondary ossification center at the proximal end of the carpometacarpus of chickens. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of development of secondary ossification center in chicken wings.

  16. Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Guillermo; Latorre, Juan D.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Kogut, Michael H.; Wolfenden, Amanda; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.; Bottje, Walter G.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Faulkner, Olivia B.

    2014-01-01

    Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the utilization of rye as energy source on bacterial translocation (BT), intestinal viscosity, gut integrity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with a traditional cereal (corn) in broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, broiler chickens were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 20 chickens/group). At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 chickens/group were randomly selected, and given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood samples were collected to determine the passage of FITC-d. The liver was collected from each bird to evaluate BT. Duodenum, ileum, and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with rye showed increased (p < 0.05) intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that chickens fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to chickens fed with corn. Chickens fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in chickens fed with rye when compared with corn fed chickens. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in chickens that alter the intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition as well as bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected DFM candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed chickens are currently being evaluated. PMID:25309584

  17. Antibiotic sensitivity and resistance in Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale strains from Belgian broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Devriese, L A; De Herdt, P; Haesebrouck, F

    2001-06-01

    Establishing the antibiotic sensitivity of the avian respiratory pathogen Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is difficult because of the organism's complex growth requirements and the unusually frequent occurrence of resistance. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of 10 antibiotics were determined for 45 strains of O. rhinotracheale from Belgian broiler chickens collected from 45 farms between 1995 and 1998. They were compared with the type strain, which was isolated from a turkey, and a strain isolated from a rook. All the broiler strains were resistant to lincomycin and to the beta-lactams ampicillin and ceftiofur. Less than 10% of the strains were sensitive to the macrolides tylosin and spiramycin, tilmicosin and flumequine. A few strains were sensitive to enrofloxacin and doxycycline. All strains were sensitive to tiamulin.

  18. Passage of Salmonella through the crop and gizzard of broiler chickens fed with fermented liquid feed.

    PubMed

    Heres, Lourens; Wagenaar, Jaap A; van Knapen, Frans; Urlings, Bert A P

    2003-04-01

    In vivo experiments were conducted in order to investigate the passage and bacterial reduction of Salmonella in the crop and gizzard of chickens when fed two different feeds. The chickens were fed dry conventional feed and fermented liquid feed. The fermented feed contains a relatively high concentration of lactic and acetic acid and lactobacilli. One and three week old broiler chickens were necropsied at short intervals after inoculation with Salmonella Enteritidis. Counts of Salmonella from the crop, gizzard, duodenum, caecum and colon/rectum were obtained. This revealed a sharper decrease of Salmonella in the anterior parts of the gastro-intestinal tract in chickens fed with fermented feed than in chickens fed dry feed. It is therefore concluded that fermented feed improves the barrier formed by the crop and gizzard. The reduction of Salmonella is fully realised in the crop and gizzard. The lower intestinal compartment did not show a substantial effect on the reduction of Salmonella. The performed in vivo method appeared to be an appropriate way to study intervention strategies that aim to control Salmonella by improving the barrier function of the upper gastro-intestinal tract.

  19. Dietary Inulin Supplementation Modifies Significantly the Liver Transcriptomic Profile of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sevane, Natalia; Bialade, Federica; Velasco, Susana; Rebolé, Almudena; Rodríguez, Maria Luisa; Ortiz, Luís T.; Cañón, Javier; Dunner, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Inclusion of prebiotics in the diet is known to be advantageous, with positive influences both on health and growth. The current study investigated the differences in the hepatic transcriptome profiles between chickens supplemented with inulin (a storage carbohydrate found in many plants) and controls. Liver is a major metabolic organ and has been previously reported to be involved in the modification of the lipid metabolism in chickens fed with inulin. A nutrigenomic approach through the analysis of liver RNA hybridized to the Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Array identified 148 differentially expressed genes among both groups: 104 up-regulated (≥1.4-fold) and 44 down-regulated (≤0.6-fold). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for five out of seven genes tested. The functional annotation analyses revealed a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in chicken growth and performance, while reinforcing the immune status of animals, and fostering the production of long chain fatty acids in broilers supplemented with 5 g of inulin kg−1 diet. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study on the effect of dietary inulin supplementation, supporting further research on the use of this prebiotic on chicken diets as a useful alternative to antibiotics for improving performance and general immunity in poultry farming, along with a healthier meat lipid profile. PMID:24915441

  20. Dietary inulin supplementation modifies significantly the liver transcriptomic profile of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sevane, Natalia; Bialade, Federica; Velasco, Susana; Rebolé, Almudena; Rodríguez, Maria Luisa; Ortiz, Luís T; Cañón, Javier; Dunner, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Inclusion of prebiotics in the diet is known to be advantageous, with positive influences both on health and growth. The current study investigated the differences in the hepatic transcriptome profiles between chickens supplemented with inulin (a storage carbohydrate found in many plants) and controls. Liver is a major metabolic organ and has been previously reported to be involved in the modification of the lipid metabolism in chickens fed with inulin. A nutrigenomic approach through the analysis of liver RNA hybridized to the Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Array identified 148 differentially expressed genes among both groups: 104 up-regulated (≥ 1.4-fold) and 44 down-regulated (≤ 0.6-fold). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for five out of seven genes tested. The functional annotation analyses revealed a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in chicken growth and performance, while reinforcing the immune status of animals, and fostering the production of long chain fatty acids in broilers supplemented with 5 g of inulin kg(-1) diet. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study on the effect of dietary inulin supplementation, supporting further research on the use of this prebiotic on chicken diets as a useful alternative to antibiotics for improving performance and general immunity in poultry farming, along with a healthier meat lipid profile.

  1. Leaky Gut and Mycotoxins: Aflatoxin B1 Does Not Increase Gut Permeability in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Galarza-Seeber, Rosario; Latorre, Juan D.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Vicente, Jose L.; Donoghue, Annie; Cross, David; Hargis, Billy M.; Tellez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by diet ingredients or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Two experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect of three concentrations of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1; 2, 1.5, or 1 ppm) on gastrointestinal leakage and liver bacterial translocation (BT). In experiment 1, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in two groups, each group had six replicates of 20 chickens (n = 120/group): Control feed or feed + 2 ppm AFB1. In experiment 2, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in three groups, each group had five replicates of 16 chickens (n = 80/group): Control feed; feed + 1 ppm AFB1; or feed + 1.5 ppm AFB1. In both experiments, chickens were fed starter (days 1–7) and grower diets (days 8–21) ad libitum and performance parameters were evaluated every week. At day 21, all chicks received an oral gavage dose of FITC-d (4.16 mg/kg) 2.5 h before collecting blood samples to evaluate gastrointestinal leakage of FITC-d. In experiment 2, a hematologic analysis was also performed. Liver sections were aseptically collected and cultured using TSA plates to determine BT. Cecal contents were collected to determine total colony-forming units per gram of Gram-negative bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), or anaerobes by plating on selective media. In experiment 2, liver, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius were removed to determine organ weight ratio, and also intestinal samples were obtained for morphometric analysis. Performance parameters, organ weight ratio, and morphometric measurements were significantly different between Control and AFB1 groups in both experiments. Gut leakage of FITC-d was not affected by the three concentrations of AFB1 evaluated (P > 0.05). Interestingly, a significant reduction in BT was observed in chickens that received 2 and

  2. Leaky Gut and Mycotoxins: Aflatoxin B1 Does Not Increase Gut Permeability in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Galarza-Seeber, Rosario; Latorre, Juan D; Bielke, Lisa R; Kuttappan, Vivek A; Wolfenden, Amanda D; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Vicente, Jose L; Donoghue, Annie; Cross, David; Hargis, Billy M; Tellez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by diet ingredients or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Two experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect of three concentrations of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1; 2, 1.5, or 1 ppm) on gastrointestinal leakage and liver bacterial translocation (BT). In experiment 1, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in two groups, each group had six replicates of 20 chickens (n = 120/group): Control feed or feed + 2 ppm AFB1. In experiment 2, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in three groups, each group had five replicates of 16 chickens (n = 80/group): Control feed; feed + 1 ppm AFB1; or feed + 1.5 ppm AFB1. In both experiments, chickens were fed starter (days 1-7) and grower diets (days 8-21) ad libitum and performance parameters were evaluated every week. At day 21, all chicks received an oral gavage dose of FITC-d (4.16 mg/kg) 2.5 h before collecting blood samples to evaluate gastrointestinal leakage of FITC-d. In experiment 2, a hematologic analysis was also performed. Liver sections were aseptically collected and cultured using TSA plates to determine BT. Cecal contents were collected to determine total colony-forming units per gram of Gram-negative bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), or anaerobes by plating on selective media. In experiment 2, liver, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius were removed to determine organ weight ratio, and also intestinal samples were obtained for morphometric analysis. Performance parameters, organ weight ratio, and morphometric measurements were significantly different between Control and AFB1 groups in both experiments. Gut leakage of FITC-d was not affected by the three concentrations of AFB1 evaluated (P > 0.05). Interestingly, a significant reduction in BT was observed in chickens that received 2 and 1

  3. Effects of corticosterone and dietary energy on immune function of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiachang; Liu, Lei; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Li, Congcong; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary energy level on the performance and immune function of stressed broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). A total of 96 three-day-old male broiler chickens (Ross × Ross) were divided into two groups. One group received a high energy (HE) diet and the other group received a low energy (LE) diet for 7 days. At 5 days of age, the chickens from each group were further divided into two sub-groups and received one of the following two treatments for 3 days: (1) subcutaneous injection of corticosterone, twice per day (CORT group; 2 mg of CORT/kg BW in corn oil) and (2) subcutaneous injection of corn oil, twice per day (Control/Sham treatment group). At 10 days of age, samples of blood, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were obtained. Compared with the other three groups, the LE group treated with CORT had the lowest average daily gain (ADG) and the poorest feed conversion ratio (FCR, P < 0.05). Furthermore, CORT treatment decreased the relative weight (RW) of the bursa independent of the dietary energy level, but it decreased the RW of the thymus only in the chickens fed the LE diet. By contrast, CORT administration decreased the RW of the spleen only in the chickens fed the HE diet (P < 0.05). The plasma total protein, albumin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 2 and immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels were affected by the CORT treatment (P < 0.05); however, these factors were not significantly affected by the dietary energy level. Toll-like receptor-5 mRNA level was down-regulated by CORT injection in the duodenum and ileum (P < 0.05) and showed a trend of down-regulation in the jejunum (P=0.0846). The present study showed that CORT treatment induced immunosuppressive effects on the innate immune system of broiler chickens, which were ameliorated by consumption of higher dietary energy.

  4. Cool perch availability improves the performance and welfare status of broiler chickens in hot weather.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J P; Jiao, H C; Jiang, Y B; Song, Z G; Wang, X J; Lin, H

    2012-08-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether water-cooled perches would be preferred by commercial broilers exposed to a hot ambient environment, and subsequently, whether utilization of these perches would improve performance and the well-being of birds, beyond those provided by normal perches. Four hundred and thirty-two 14-d-old male chickens from a commercial fast-growing strain (Arbor Acres) were housed in the following conditions: 1) cool perches, 2) normal perches, and 3) control pens with no perches. The results showed that there was greater use of cool perches than normal perches for broiler chickens during summer (F1, 4=125, P=0.0004). Cool perches increased BW gain (F2, 6=5.44, P=0.0449) and breast (F2, 24=3.31, P=0.0539) and thigh muscle yields (F2, 24=6.29, P=0.0063), while decreasing abdominal fat deposition (F2, 24=7.57, P=0.0028), cooking loss (pectoralis major, F2, 24=3.30, P=0.0542; biceps femoris, F2, 24=3.42, P=0.0493), percentage of panting birds (F2, 6=102, P<0.0001), and scores of footpad (F2, 6=122, P<0.0001) and hock (F2, 6=68.2, P<0.0001) burn, and abdominal plumage condition (F2, 6=52.0, P=0.0002), particularly toward the end of the rearing period. In contrast, normal perches hardly affected growth performance, carcass composition, meat quality and behavioral patterns, and appeared to worsen the welfare status, including footpad and hock burns and abdominal plumage condition, due to a lower occupancy rate. Cool perches offer a thermoregulatory and performance advantage to broilers exposed to a hot environment and appear to be a management strategy for improving the production and well-being of commercial broilers.

  5. Performance of broiler chickens given whey in the food and/or drinking water.

    PubMed

    Shariatmadari, F; Forbes, J M

    2005-08-01

    1. The effects on food intake and weight gain of offering broiler chickens (2 to 7 weeks of age) dry food, wet food, wet food containing whey, whey as drinking liquid and combinations of two of these were studied in 5 experiments. 2. Wet feed generally improved both weight gain and feed efficiencies significantly. Feeding whey also improved weight gain and feed conversion efficiency, but whey offered as a drinking fluid had an adverse effect on broiler performance. 3. When whey was offered both as drinking liquid and added to the food it had a deleterious effect. 4. When whey was offered from 4 or 6 weeks of age, it had a better effect than when offered from 2 weeks of age. 5. There was better performance when whey in the drinking water was diluted and/or offered on alternate days or half-days. 6. Broilers allowed to choose between wet and dry feed when water was freely available chose mostly dry feed; in the absence of drinking water they chose mostly wet food. Birds offered water and liquid whey avoided whey completely. 7. It is concluded that whey can be used in diets for broiler chickens by incorporating it in the food as long as drinking water is offered ad libitum. Whey may be offered as a drink if the food is mixed with 1.8 times its weight of water but it is better to dilute the whey with an equal volume of water whether it is added to food or given as drink. Good results can also be obtained when undiluted whey is offered alternately with water, either in half-day or full-day periods.

  6. Effects of high dietary fluorine on erythrocytes and erythrocyte immune adherence function in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yubing; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Luo, Qin

    2013-11-01

    Fluoride can exert toxic effects on soft tissues, giving rise to a broad array of symptoms and pathological changes. The aim of this study was to investigate on erythrocytes and erythrocyte immune adherence function in broiler chickens fed with high fluorine (F) diets by measuring the total erythrocyte count (TEC), the contents of hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volumn (PCV), erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF), erythrocyte C3b receptor rosette rate (E-C3bRR), and erythrocyte immune complex rosette rate (E-ICRR). A total of 280 1-day-old healthy avian broiler chickens were randomly allotted into four equal groups of 70 birds each and fed with a corn-soybean basal diet containing 22.6 mg F/kg (control group) or same basal diets supplemented with 400, 800, and 1,200 mg F/kg (high F groups I, II, and III) in the form of sodium fluoride for 42 days. Blood samples were collected for the abovementioned parameters analysis at 14, 28, and 42 days of age during the experiment. The experimental results indicated that TEC, Hb, and PCV were significantly lower (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01), and EOF was higher (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in the high F groups II and III than that in the control group from 14 to 42 days of age. The E-C3bRR was significantly decreased (p < 0.01) in the three high F groups, whereas the E-ICRR was markedly increased (p < 0.01) in the high F groups II and III from 14 to 42 days of age. It was concluded that dietary F in the range of 800 to 1, 200 mg/kg could significantly cause anemia and impair the integrity of erythrocyte membrane, the transport capacity of oxygen and carbon dioxide, and erythrocyte immune adherence function in broiler chickens.

  7. Effect of daily lithium chloride administration on bone mass and strength in growing broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Harvey, B M; Eschbach, M; Glynn, E A; Kotha, S; Darre, M; Adams, D J; Ramanathan, R; Mancini, R; Govoni, K E

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of oral lithium chloride supplementation on bone strength and mass in broiler chickens. Ninety-six broilers were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups (lithium chloride or control; n=48/treatment). Beginning at 1 or 3 wk of age, chickens were administered lithium chloride (20 mg/kg body weight) or water daily by oral gavage. At 6 wk of age, chickens were euthanized and bone and muscle samples were collected. A 24 h lithium chloride (20 mg/kg body weight) challenge determined that serum lithium chloride increased within 2 h and cleared the system within 24 h, demonstrating the effective delivery of lithium chloride. Treatment did not influence body weight (P≥0.20) or feed intake (P≥0.81), demonstrating that lithium chloride did not negatively affect broiler growth. To determine bone strength, 3-point bending was performed on the femora and tibiae obtained from control and lithium chloride-treated birds in the 1 wk group. Lithium chloride-treated birds had a 22% reduction in stiffness compared with control in the femora (P=0.02) without a corresponding reduction in elastic modulus. No differences were observed in yield or ultimate load and in the corresponding calculations of stresses (P≥0.26). The toughness of tibiae was not altered in lithium chloride compared with control (P=0.11). Bone length and micro-CT imaging were performed on the tibiae of control and lithium chloride groups. No differences (P≥0.52) in bone length, cortical or trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, number, or spacing were observed. Lithium chloride treatment did not affect pectoralis muscle color or lipid oxidation (P>0.05). In conclusion, lithium chloride treatment in broilers did not negatively affect growth or meat quality. A reduction in bone stiffness of the femur with lithium chloride treatment was observed, however unlike the mouse model, the dosages of lithium chloride used in the current study did not result in anabolic effects

  8. Chicken embryo origin-like strains are responsible for Infectious laryngotracheitis virus outbreaks in Egyptian cross-bred broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Awad A; Halami, Mohammad Y; Sultan, Hesham H; Abd El-Razik, Alaa G; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W

    2013-06-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) continues to cause respiratory disease in Egypt in spite of vaccination. The currently available modified live ILTV vaccines provide good protection but may also induce latent infections and even clinical disease if they spread extensively from bird-to-bird in the field. Four field ILTV isolates, designated ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Giza2007, ILT-Behera2009, and ILT-Behera2010 were isolated from cross-bred broiler chickens. The pathogenicity based on intratracheal pathogenicity index, tracheal lesion score, and mortality index for chicken embryos revealed that ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Behera2009 and ILT-Behera2010 isolates were highly pathogenic whereas ILT-Giza2007 was non-pathogenic. To study the molecular epidemiology of these field isolates, the infected cell protein 4 gene was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Behera2009, and ILT-Behera2010 are chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccine-related isolates while ILT-Giza2007 is a tissue culture origin vaccine-related isolate. These results suggest that CEO laryngotracheitis vaccine viruses could increase in virulence after bird-to-bird passages causing severe outbreaks in susceptible birds.

  9. [Avian Escherichia coli virulence factors associated with coli septicemia in broiler chickens].

    PubMed

    Ramirez Santoyo, R M; Moreno Sala, A; Almanza Marquez, Y

    2001-01-01

    In order to detect phenotypic characteristics associated with pathogenicity, 25 strains of Escherichia coli, isolated from clinical cases of colisepticemia in broiler chickens, were examined to determine the following properties: colicinogenicity, colicin V production, type 1 fimbriae, hemolysin expression and motility. Colicinogenicity occurred in 72% of the strains, 56% of all strains produced colicin V, 84% were positive for type 1 fimbriae and 80% were positive for motility. None of the strains had hemolytic activity; however, all of them, expressed at least one of the other characteristics studied. These results suggest that the diversity of phenotypes detected partially explain the multifactorial nature of avian colisepticemia.

  10. Alternatives to Antibiotics to Prevent Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens: A Microbiologist's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Caly, Delphine L.; D'Inca, Romain; Auclair, Eric; Drider, Djamel

    2015-01-01

    Since the 2006 European ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed, numerous studies have been published describing alternative strategies to prevent diseases in animals. A particular focus has been on prevention of necrotic enteritis in poultry caused by Clostridium perfringens by the use of microbes or microbe-derived products. Microbes produce a plethora of molecules with antimicrobial properties and they can also have beneficial effects through interactions with their host. Here we review recent developments in novel preventive treatments against C. perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens that employ yeasts, bacteria and bacteriophages or secondary metabolites and other microbial products in disease control. PMID:26648920

  11. Individual and combined effects of aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Huff, W E; Kubena, L F; Harvey, R B; Hagler, W M; Swanson, S P; Phillips, T D; Creger, C R

    1986-07-01

    The individual and combined effects of aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol (DON) were evaluated in young broiler chickens (Hubbard X Hubbard). The experimental design was a 2 X 2 factorial with treatments of 0 and 2.5 micrograms of aflatoxin/g of feed (ppm) and 0 and 16 micrograms of DON/g of feed. The broilers were maintained on these dietary treatments from hatching to 3 weeks of age in electrically heated batteries with feed and water available ad libitum. The aflatoxin treatment significantly (P less than .05) decreased body weight; weight gain; increased the relative weight of the spleen, liver, and kidney; induced hepatic hyperlipemia; decreased activity of lactic dehydrogenase; and decreased serum levels of protein, albumin, and phosphorus. The toxicity of DON was expressed through reduced growth rate, increased feed conversion; increased relative weight of the gizzard, anemia, decreased activity of lactic dehydrogenase, and decreased serum triglycerides. The interaction between aflatoxin and DON was characterized by reduced growth rates; increased feed conversion, increased relative weight of the proventriculus, gizzard, spleen, liver, and kidney, anemia, hepatic hyperlipemia, decreased activity of alkaline phosphatase, glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, and lactic dehydrogenase, and decreased serum levels of protein, albumin, uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides, and calcium. These data demonstrate that both aflatoxin and DON can limit broiler performance and adversely effect broiler health. The effects of the combination of aflatoxin and DON on broiler performance and health was more severe than the individual effects of these mycotoxins; however, the interaction was not severe enough to represent toxic synergy and can best be characterized as additive toxicity.

  12. Effect of heating system using a geothermal heat pump on the production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Choi, H C; Salim, H M; Akter, N; Na, J C; Kang, H K; Kim, M J; Kim, D W; Bang, H T; Chae, H S; Suh, O S

    2012-02-01

    A geothermal heat pump (GHP) is a potential heat source for the economic heating of broiler houses with optimum production performance. An investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of a heating system using a GHP on production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens. A comparative analysis was also performed between the GHP system and a conventional heating system that used diesel for fuel. In total, 34,000 one-day-old straight run broiler chicks were assigned to 2 broiler houses with 5 replicates in each (3,400 birds/replicate pen) for 35 d. Oxygen(,) CO(2), and NH(3) concentrations in the broiler house, energy consumption and cost of heating, and production performance of broilers were evaluated. Results showed that the final BW gain significantly (P < 0.05) increased when chicks were reared in the GHP broiler house compared with that of chicks reared in the conventional broiler house (1.73 vs. 1.62 kg/bird). The heating system did not affect the mortality of chicks during the first 4 wk of the experimental period, but the mortality markedly increased in the conventional broiler house during the last wk of the experiment. Oxygen content in the broiler house during the experimental period was not affected by the heating system, but the CO(2) and NH(3) contents significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the conventional broiler house compared with those in the GHP house. Fuel consumption was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) and electricity consumption significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the GHP house compared with the consumption in the conventional house during the experiment. The total energy cost of heating the GHP house was significantly lower (P < 0.05) compared with that of the conventional house. It is concluded that a GHP system could increase the production performance of broiler chicks due to increased inside air quality of the broiler house. The GHP system had lower CO(2) and NH(3) emissions with lower energy cost than the

  13. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Zhu; Lamont, Susan J.; Lee, William R.; Abasht, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE) are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE) chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE) commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample) in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE) at q (False Discover Rate) < 0.05 and fold change > 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01) enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences. PMID:26295149

  14. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Zhu; Lamont, Susan J; Lee, William R; Abasht, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE) are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE) chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE) commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample) in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE) at q (False Discover Rate) < 0.05 and fold change > 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01) enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences.

  15. Comparison of Quality Traits of Meat from Korean Native Chickens and Broilers Used in Two Different Traditional Korean Cuisines

    PubMed Central

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Bae, Young Sik; Yong, Hae In; Lee, Jun Heon; Kim, Jong Geun; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    With the aim of investigating the differences in the quality traits between Korean native chicken (Hanhyup, KNC) and broilers commonly used in two different traditional Korean cuisines, the chemical composition and sensory properties of breast and thigh meat from the two chicken strains were assessed. KNC for baeksuk (chicken meat braised in soup with various Oriental medicinal plants; KNL), KNC for samgyetang (similar to baeksuk but young chickens and ginseng are used; KNS), broiler for baeksuk (BL), and broiler for samgyetang (BS) were used as treatments in this study. KNL and KNS contained higher protein but lower fat content than BL and BS. The L* values of breast and thigh meat, but not the a* values, were significantly different between KNS and BS, whereas significant differences in both values were observed between KNL and BL. Compared to the other three types of chickens, KNS contained the highest total and insoluble collagen content, and KNL and BL showed higher inosine-5’-monophosphate content in their meat. Overall, KNL and KNS contributed darker, less tender meat with higher protein and less fat content together with more n-3 fatty acids, as opposed to their counterparts used for the same cuisines. Based on the results of the sensory analysis, even though there are some differences in physiochemical traits, different chicken sources do not differ in overall sensory quality. This information can help consumers to understand better the meat available for their preferred traditional cuisines. PMID:25049883

  16. Histopathology and serum clinical chemistry evaluation of broilers with femoral head separation disorder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Femoral head disarticulation (FHD) and necrosis is a sporadic leg problem of unknown etiology in broiler breeders. To determine the underlying physiology of FHD, the blood chemistry and the histopathology of the femoral heads of the affected chickens were compared with their age matched controls. Ch...

  17. Bone response of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) induced by corticosterone.

    PubMed

    Luo, J W; Zhou, Z L; Zhang, H; Ma, R S; Hou, J F

    2013-02-01

    Experiments were conducted with chickens exposed to corticosterone (CORT), with the aim of determining its effects on bone characteristics. At 7 d of age, the experimental birds were injected daily with CORT (4 mg/kg of body mass) for 1 week. CORT administration significantly decreased the body weight while increasing relative liver weight of the chickens and the bone parameters were also decreased. Histology and immunohistochemistry of type X collagen revealed that CORT reduced the lengths of proliferative and prehypertrophic zone in growth plate and the number of positive chondrocytes in the prehypertrophic zone. In conclusion exposure to CORT depressed the growth performance and retarded the longitudinal growth of the long bones by inhibiting the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes in growth plate in broilers.

  18. A quantitative trait locus for ascites on chromosome 9 in broiler chicken lines

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Smith, Candace D.; Al-Rubaye, Adnan A.; Erf, Gisela F.; Wideman, Robert F.; Anthony, Nicholas B.; Rhoads, Douglas D.

    2014-01-01

    A genome-wide SNP survey was used to identify chromosomal regions that showed linkage disequilibrium with respect to ascites susceptibility and ventricular hypertrophy in an F2 cross between previously described ascites-resistant and -susceptible lines. Variable number tandem repeats were used to obtain genotype data to further characterize these regions. A region on chromosome 9 (12 to 13 Mbp in 2011 assembly) shows association with ascites in the ascites lines and in several commercial broiler breeder lines with a significant sex effect. There are 2 candidate genes, AGTR1 (an angiotensin II type 1 receptor) and UTS2D (urotensin 2 domain containing), in this region that have been associated with hypertension and hypoxic response in mammals. PMID:24570451

  19. Exogenous administration of chronic corticosterone affects hepatic cholesterol metabolism in broiler chickens showing long or short tonic immobility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Duan, Yujing; Hu, Yun; Sun, Lili; Wang, Song; Fu, Wenyan; Ni, Yingdong; Zhao, Ruqian

    2016-01-01

    Tonic immobility (TI) is an innate characteristic of animals related to fear or stress response. Animals can be classified into long TI (LTI) and short TI (STI) phenotypes based on TI test duration. In this study, effect of TI phenotype, chronic corticosterone administration (CORT), and their interaction on cholesterol metabolism in liver was evaluated in broilers. LTI broilers showed higher level of cholesterol in liver compared to STI chickens (p<0.05), and CORT significantly increased hepatic cholesterol content (p<0.01). Real-time PCR results showed that both TI and CORT potentially altered ABCA1 and CYP7A1 gene expressions (0.05broilers showed higher level of HMGCR protein expression in liver than STI (p<0.05). These results indicate that chronic CORT administration causes hepatic cholesterol accumulation in broiler chickens mainly by enhancing cholesterol synthesis and uptake into liver. LTI chickens had higher amount of total cholesterol in liver, which might be associated with an increase of hepatic HMGCR protein expression. However, there is no interaction between TI and CORT on cholesterol metabolism in liver of broilers.

  20. Campylobacter jejuni is not merely a commensal in commercial broiler chickens and affects bird welfare.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Suzanne; Chaloner, Gemma; Kemmett, Kirsty; Davidson, Nicola; Williams, Nicola; Kipar, Anja; Humphrey, Tom; Wigley, Paul

    2014-07-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial food-borne infection; chicken meat is its main source. C. jejuni is considered commensal in chickens based on experimental models unrepresentative of commercial production. Here we show that the paradigm of Campylobacter commensalism in the chicken is flawed. Through experimental infection of four commercial breeds of broiler chickens, we show that breed has a significant effect on C. jejuni infection and the immune response of the animals, although these factors have limited impact on the number of bacteria in chicken ceca. All breeds mounted an innate immune response. In some breeds, this response declined when interleukin-10 was expressed, consistent with regulation of the intestinal inflammatory response, and these birds remained healthy. In another breed, there was a prolonged inflammatory response, evidence of damage to gut mucosa, and diarrhea. We show that bird type has a major impact on infection biology of C. jejuni. In some breeds, infection leads to disease, and the bacterium cannot be considered a harmless commensal. These findings have implications for the welfare of chickens in commercial production where C. jejuni infection is a persistent problem. Importance: Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of food-borne bacterial diarrheal disease in the developed world. Chicken is the most common source of infection. C. jejuni infection of chickens had previously not been considered to cause disease, and it was thought that C. jejuni was part of the normal microbiota of birds. In this work, we show that modern rapidly growing chicken breeds used in intensive production systems have a strong inflammatory response to C. jejuni infection that can lead to diarrhea, which, in turn, leads to damage to the feet and legs on the birds due to standing on wet litter. The response and level of disease varied between breeds and is related to regulation of the inflammatory immune response. These findings

  1. Effects of various field coccidiosis control programs on host innate and adaptive immunity in commercial broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidiosis control programs such as vaccines or in-feed anticoccidials are commonly practiced in poultry industry to improve growth performance and health of commercial broiler chickens. In this study, we assessed the effects of various coccidiosis control programs (e.g., in ovo vaccination, synth...

  2. Effect of varying light intensity on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated effects of varying levels of light intensities (25, 10, 5, 2.5, and 0.2 lx) on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights. Four identical trials were conducted with two replications per trial. In each trial, 600 1-d-old Ross 308 ...

  3. Comparison of live Eimeria vaccination with in-feed Salinomycin on growth and immune status in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidiosis vaccines and coccidiostat drugs are commonly used to control Eimeria infection during commercial poultry production. The present study was conducted to compare the relative effectiveness of these two disease control strategies in broiler chickens in an experimental research facility. B...

  4. Detection of Campylobacter on the outer surface of retail broiler chicken meat packages and on product within

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare prevalence of Campylobacter on the outside of broiler meat packages to the product inside the same packages. Chicken meat products were purchased at retail. Samples comprised whole carcasses and six different cut-up part products. Fifteen packages of eac...

  5. Growth performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition and blood serum metabolites of broiler chicken fed on diets containing flaxseed oil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, D C N; Xavier, E G; Santos, V L; Gonçalves, F M; Anciuti, M A; Roll, V F B; Del Pino, F A B; Feijó, J O; Catalan, A A S

    2013-01-01

    1. This study evaluated the effects of diets with partial and total substitution of soya bean oil (SO) with flaxseed (linseed) oil (FO) on broiler chicken performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition and blood serum metabolites. 2. A total of 448 one-d-old Cobb 500 broiler chicken were used. They were allotted among 4 treatments with 8 replications, using a completely randomised design, for 35 d. Four diets were compared: T1 = 100% SO (3%, 1-7 d; 4%, 8-21 d; and 5%, 22-35 d); T2 = 50% SO + 50% FO; T3 = 25% SO + 75% FO and T4 = 100% FO. 3. No significant differences were observed in body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and blood serum metabolites (total triglycerides, TRI; total cholesterol, CHO; high-density lipoprotein, HDL; low-density lipoprotein, LDL; glucose, GLU; albumin, ALB; globulin, GLO; and total proteins, TPs). Significant effects were observed for TRI, CHO, HDL, GLU, HDL, LDL, ALB and GLO with regard to the day of collection. 4. Carcass traits did not show significant differences for the treatments. No significant differences were observed for breast and drumstick chemical compositions, with the exception of drumstick fat concentration (quadratic effect). 5. In conclusion, the partial or total substitution of SO with FO did not affect growth performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition or blood serum profile in broiler chicken. Therefore, FO can be an alternative to SO in the diet formulation for broiler chicken.

  6. Intestinal Microbiota of Broiler Chickens As Affected by Litter Management Regimens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingling; Lilburn, Mike; Yu, Zhongtang

    2016-01-01

    Poultry litter is a mixture of bedding materials and enteric bacteria excreted by chickens, and it is typically reused for multiple growth cycles in commercial broiler production. Thus, bacteria can be transmitted from one growth cycle to the next via litter. However, it remains poorly understood how litter reuse affects development and composition of chicken gut microbiota. In this study, the effect of litter reuse on the microbiota in litter and in chicken gut was investigated using 2 litter management regimens: fresh vs. reused litter. Samples of ileal mucosa and cecal digesta were collected from young chicks (10 days of age) and mature birds (35 days of age). Based on analysis using DGGE and pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons, the microbiota of both the ileal mucosa and the cecal contents was affected by both litter management regimen and age of birds. Faecalibacterium, Oscillospira, Butyricicoccus, and one unclassified candidate genus closely related to Ruminococcus were most predominant in the cecal samples, while Lactobacillus was predominant in the ileal samples at both ages and in the cecal samples collected at day 10. At days 10 and 35, 8 and 3 genera, respectively, in the cecal luminal microbiota differed significantly in relative abundance between the 2 litter management regimens. Compared to the fresh litter, reused litter increased predominance of halotolerant/alkaliphilic bacteria and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a butyrate-producing gut bacterium. This study suggests that litter management regimens affect the chicken GI microbiota, which may impact the host nutritional status and intestinal health.

  7. Effect of heat stress and drinking water salt supplements on plasma electrolytes and aldosterone concentration in broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deyhim, F.; Teeter, R. G.

    1995-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing drinking water with isomolar (0.067 mol/l) KCl or NaCl on mass gain, food and water consumption, rectal temperature, and plasma concentrations of aldosterone, Na+, and K+ in broiler chickens reared in thermoneutral and cycling heat stressing environments. Heat stress decreased ( P≤0.05) mass gain, food consumption, and plasma concentrations of Na+ and K+, while increases ( P≤0.05) in plasma concentrations of aldosterone, rectal temperature, and water consumption were observed. Drinking water supplemented with either KCl or NaCl increased ( P≤0.05) broiler mass gain and water consumption, but had no effect ( P>0.1) on the other variables evaluated. The results of this study indicate that broiler chickens in a heat stress environment are under osmotic stress and supplementing drinking water with 0.067 mol/1 KCl or NaCl does not lessen this stress.

  8. Body composition and reproductive performance at entry into lay of anno 1980 versus anno 2000 broiler breeder females under fast and slow release from feed restriction.

    PubMed

    Eitan, Y; Lipkin, Ehud; Soller, M

    2014-05-01

    During the 1990s, various disturbances arose affecting broiler breeder females at entry into lay. These disturbances were associated with even slight overfeeding during release of feed restriction in this critical maturation period. The present experiment was carried out to gain some insight into the causes of these disturbances by comparing the effect of fast (FF) and slow (SF) release from feed restriction at entry into lay in 2 broiler breeder populations: B1980, representing the genetic level of 1980, and B2000, the genetic level of 2000. Under the FF treatment, B1980 entered lay 19.2 d earlier than B2000; this increased to 37.4 d earlier under SF. The B1980 population entered lay at virtually the same mean age for SF and FF, whereas B2000 entered lay 15.7 d earlier under the FF. Body weight at first egg were 2,621 g for the B1980 and 3,591 g for B2000. Differences in BW at first egg between feeding treatments within lines were minor. As a percentage of BW, ovary, oviduct, and follicle weights were the same for B1980 and B2000; breast weight was 14.9% for B1980 and 21.2% for B2000; abdominal fat pad weight was 5.37% for B1980 and 2.67% for B2000. Follicle weight and absolute difference in weight between successive follicles was greater in B2000 than in B1980. It is concluded that body fat content does not limit entry into lay, and that threshold BW for onset of sexual maturity of broiler breeder hens increased by about 1,000 g between 1980 and 2000, indicating a tight association between juvenile growth rate and threshold BW for onset of sexual maturity. It is also concluded that disturbances at entry into lay due to overfeeding are not due to smaller differences between successive follicles in B2000 compared with B1980. There are hints, however, that overfeeding may contribute to these disturbances by decreasing differences between successive follicles.

  9. Effect of vitamins, probiotics and protein level on semen traits and seminal plasma biochemical parameters of post-moult male broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Khan, R U; Rahman, Z U; Javed, I; Muhammad, F

    2013-01-01

    1. A study was designed to investigate the comparative effect of supplementary vitamin E, vitamin C, probiotics and dietary crude protein concentration on semen traits and seminal plasma biochemical parameters in male broiler breeders after Zn-induced moulting. 2. A total of 180 male broiler breeders were induced to moult at 65 weeks of age by mixing ZnO in diet at the rate 3000 mg/kg of feed. After moulting, the males were divided into six groups that were given feed supplemented with: vitamin C (500 IU/kg), vitamin E (100 IU/kg), protein (140 g CP/kg), probiotics (50 mg/kg) and the combination of these components, while one group was kept as a control. Semen samples were collected weekly and semen volume, spermatozoa concentration, motility and dead spermatozoa percentage were determined. Seminal plasma was separated to determine the concentration of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), homocysteine, paraoxonase (PON1), arylesterase, ceruloplasmin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities. 3. Semen volume was significantly higher in the vitamin E and C groups compared to the control. Spermatozoa motility was higher in the vitamin E group and dead spermatozoa percentage was significantly lower in the vitamin C group compared with the control group. 4. Seminal plasma TAC was higher in the vitamin E group, homocysteine was lower in the vitamin C and E groups. PON1 was higher in the combination group. Arylesterase increased significantly in the vitamin C and combination groups over time. Seminal plasma AST was significantly lower in the vitamin C and E supplemented groups whereas ALT decreased significantly only in the vitamin E group compared with the control. Higher concentrations of ceruloplasmin were observed in the combination group compared with the other treatments. 5. It was concluded that additional vitamin E and C or their combination was the most potent nutrient treatment for improving the semen traits and

  10. Effect of copper on antioxidant ability and nutrient metabolism in broiler chickens stimulated by lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhigang; Zhao, Tong; Liu, Lei; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the experiment was to investigate the interaction between Cu intake, inflammatory challenge and oxidative stress in broiler chickens. Furthermore, it was tested whether plasma ceruloplasmin (Cp) could be a sensible parameter for dietary Cu. One hundred forty-four day old chickens were raised on a basal control diet without added copper (Group Cu-6.5, basal Cu content 6.5 mg/kg diet) or a diet supplemented with Cu at 8 or 50 mg/kg (Groups Cu-14.5 and Cu-56.5, respectively) with four replicates of 12 animals for each treatment. Starting on day 21, chickens were injected intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) once a day for 3 days. Before this challenge, Group Cu-14.5 had the lowest gain and the feed to gain ratio was the highest. After injection of LPS, however, chickens of Group Cu-14.5 had the best zoo-technical performance. For chickens of Group Cu-6.5, LPS injection resulted in elevated rectal temperature, and lower erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) activity, compared with the other groups. LPS injection increased plasma uric acid in Group Cu-6.5 significantly, but was without influence in Group Cu-56.5. At all Cu-levels, LPS injection increased erythrocyte CuZn-SOD activity and decreased thiobarbituric acid reacting substances. No significant difference in plasma Cp was found in chickens fed different dietary Cu. LPS injection significantly increased plasma Cp in Group Cu-56.5. The results suggest that varying dietary Cu levels seem to modulate the parameters involved in immunological responses and oxidant stress and that plasma Cp is not a reliable parameter for dietary Cu.

  11. Campylobacter Antimicrobial Drug Resistance among Humans, Broiler Chickens, and Pigs, France

    PubMed Central

    Prouzet-Mauléon, Valérie; Kempf, Isabelle; Lehours, Philippe; Labadi, Leila; Camou, Christine; Denis, Martine; de Valk, Henriette; Desenclos, Jean-Claude; Mégraud, Francis

    2007-01-01

    We describe isolates from human Campylobacter infection in the French population and the isolates' antimicrobial drug resistance patterns since 1986 and compare the trends with those of isolates from broiler chickens and pigs from 1999 to 2004. Among 5,685 human Campylobacter isolates, 76.2% were C. jejuni, 17.2% C. coli, and 5.0% C. fetus. Resistance to nalidixic acid increased from 8.2% in 1990 to 26.3% in 2004 (p<10-3), and resistance to ampicillin was high over time. Nalidixic acid resistance was greater for C. coli (21.3%) than for C. jejuni (14.9%, p<10-3). C. jejuni resistance to ciprofloxacin in broilers decreased from 31.7% in 2002 to 9.0% in 2004 (p = 0.02). The patterns of resistance to quinolones and fluoroquinolones were similar between 1999 and 2004 in human and broiler isolates for C. jejuni. These results suggest a potential benefit of a regulation policy limiting use of antimicrobial drugs in food animals. PMID:17479889

  12. Mycotoxins Deoxynivalenol and Fumonisins Alter the Extrinsic Component of Intestinal Barrier in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Antonissen, Gunther; Van Immerseel, Filip; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Janssens, Geert P J; De Baere, Siegrid; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Su, Shengchen; Wong, Eric A; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Verlinden, Marc; Devreese, Mathias; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Novak, Barbara; Dohnal, Ilse; Martel, An; Croubels, Siska

    2015-12-23

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FBs) are secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium fungi that frequently contaminate broiler feed. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of DON and/or FBs on the intestinal barrier in broiler chickens, more specifically on the mucus layer and antioxidative response to oxidative stress. One-day-old broiler chicks were divided into four groups, each consisting of eight pens of seven birds each, and were fed for 15 days either a control diet, a DON-contaminated diet (4.6 mg DON/kg feed), a FBs-contaminated diet (25.4 mg FB1 + FB2/kg feed), or a DON+FBs-contaminated diet (4.3 mg DON and 22.9 mg FB1 + FB2/kg feed). DON and FBs affected the duodenal mucus layer by suppressing intestinal mucin (MUC) 2 gene expression and altering the mucin monosaccharide composition. Both mycotoxins decreased gene expression of the intestinal zinc transporter (ZnT)-1 and regulated intracellular methionine homeostasis, which are both important for preserving the cell's critical antioxidant activity. Feeding a DON- and/or FBs-contaminated diet, at concentrations close to the European Union maximum guidance levels (5 mg DON and 20 mg FB1 + FB2/kg feed) changes the intestinal mucus layer and several intestinal epithelial antioxidative mechanisms.

  13. Effects of copper source and level on intestinal physiology and growth of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Arias, V J; Koutsos, E A

    2006-06-01

    Dietary copper sulfate (CuSO4) and tribasic copper chloride (TBCC) were examined for their effects on intestinal physiology and growth of broiler chickens. In 2 experiments (Experiments 1 and 2), day-old broiler chicks were fed 1 of 4 diets: a basal diet with no supplemental copper (Cu; negative control), a basal diet + 188 mg of Cu/kg of diet from TBCC or CuSO4, or a basal diet + subtherapeutic antibiotics (bacitracin and roxarsone; positive control). In Experiment 1 (recycled litter), CuSO4 and TBCC increased carcass weight (d 45 posthatch) compared with the negative control (P < 0.05 for each). In Experiment 2 (fresh litter), negative control and TBCC increased carcass weight (d 42 posthatch) compared with the positive control (P < 0.05 for each). At d 30 to 31 posthatch, intestinal histology was measured. In Experiment 1 (recycled litter), dietary TBCC, CuSO4, and positive control decreased the number of lamina propia lymphocytes or intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), or both, compared with the negative control (P < 0.05). However, in Experiment 2 (fresh litter), TBCC and positive control increased the number of duodenum IEL compared with the negative control (P < 0.05), and negative control and TBCC increased the number of ileum IEL. These data demonstrate that broiler performance and intestinal physiology can be influenced by dietary Cu source and level as well as microbial environment (fresh vs. recycled litter).

  14. Non-reducible collagen cross-linking in cartilage from broiler chickens with tibial dyschondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Orth, M W; Leach, R M; Vailas, A C; Cook, M E

    1994-01-01

    Recent work has shown that hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), a non-reducible cross-link that stabilizes the collagen fibril network, is significantly greater (over 10-fold) in dyschondroplastic cartilage than in normal growth-plate cartilage in the tibiotarsi of chickens with homocysteine-induced tibial dyschondroplasia (TD). In the present study, broiler chicks with a genetic disposition to TD, as well as normal broiler chicks on a copper-deficient diet alone or supplemented with copper and thiram, were raised for 3 to 4 weeks (Expts. 1 and 2). Their dyschondroplastic cartilage from the proximal tibiotarsus was collected and analyzed for HP as well as lysylpyridinoline (LP) cross-links. Normal growth plate cartilage was obtained from chicks on the copper-deficient diet supplemented with copper. In a third experiment, another set of broiler chicks was raised on a corn/soybean meal-based diet with or without homocysteine, and their articular and sternal cartilage were isolated for cross-link analysis. In the first two experiments, dyschondroplastic cartilage from all birds with induced TD had higher HP and LP concentrations than growth-plate cartilage from birds without TD, although the ratios of HP to LP varied. In the third experiment, the sternal and articular cartilage from birds with homocysteine-induced TD appeared normal, having similar HP concentrations in the same types of cartilage in birds without TD.

  15. Incidence of Salmonella Contamination in Broiler Chickens in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, K.K.; O'Neil, J.B.; Prior, M.G.; Dunkelgod, K.E.

    1983-01-01

    The incidence of Salmonella contamination in ten Saskatchewan broiler flocks varying in size from 6 200 to 14 000 was investigated from February, 1977 to April, 1979. Prior to the initial chick placement, brooding equipment, feed, water and fresh litter samples were found to be free of Salmonellae. Samples obtained from the clean and disinfected processing plant equipment before the commencement of daily operation were negative except the isolation for Salmonella anatum from the fingers of the defeathering machine in flock 4. There was no evidence of Salmonella contamination in flocks 5, 6, 8 and 10. The incidence of Salmonella was lower when cloacal swabs were taken from day old chicks fasted for 48 hours than for the same groups of chicks when carcasses were blended in nutrient broth (flocks 7 and 9). The blending of such chicks appears to be a more critical test. The serotypes isolated from eviscerated birds were the same as those isolated from used litter samples. Salmonella saintpaul was isolated from a water sample at 53 days in flock 1 and the same serotype was recovered from the intestinal contents and skin of eviscerated birds. Salmonella typhimurium was recovered from the eviscerated birds and neck samples in flock 3. In flock 4, S. saintpaul and S. anatum were isolated from 13% of the eviscerated birds sampled. Salmonella thompson, Salmonella agona and Salmonella heidelberg were recovered from 61%, 5% and 1%, respectively, of the processed carcasses sampled in flock 7. PMID:6831304

  16. Effects of inulin on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and metabolisable energy in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Alzueta, C; Rodríguez, M L; Ortiz, L T; Rebolé, A; Treviño, J

    2010-06-01

    1. A 35 d feeding trial with 480 d-old male broiler chickens (Cobb) was conducted to evaluate the effects of graded levels of inulin (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 g/kg diet) in a maize-soybean meal based diet on growth performance, AME(N) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of crude protein, amino acids, starch, crude fat and fatty acids. A commercial product (Inulina 95) containing 9140 g/kg of inulin and a degree of polymerisation (DP) ranging from DP 1-10 to DP 51-60 was used. 2. The performance of birds (feed intake, BW gain and feed to gain ratio) was not affected by the different dietary inclusions of inulin. 3. Dietary inulin significantly improved the AID coefficient of crude protein and crude fat. Also, there was a significant effect of inulin on the digestibility of most amino acids (10 out of 15) and major fatty acids (oleic and linoleic acids). The AID coefficient of starch and the AME(N) content of diets were not affected by inulin inclusion. 4. In conclusion, the current study showed that inulin supplementation improved the digestibility of protein and fat in a maize-soybean meal based diet, but had no effect on the performance of broiler chickens.

  17. Thermoregulation responses of broiler chickens to humidity at different ambient temperatures. I. One week of age.

    PubMed

    Lin, H; Zhang, H F; Jiao, H C; Zhao, T; Sui, S J; Gu, X H; Zhang, Z Y; Buyse, J; Decuypere, E

    2005-08-01

    Three trials were conducted to investigate the effect of RH (35, 60, and 85%) on thermoregulation of 1-wk-old broiler chickens at different temperatures (35, 30, and 25 degrees C). The response to humidity in rectal temperature and plumage temperature at the back and breast within 24 h after exposure were recorded at 5 time points (1,4,8,16, and 24 h). Humidity affected the thermoregulation of 1-wk-old broiler chickens by redistributing heat within the body at high, low, and thermoneutral temperatures. The redistribution of heat resulted in decreased rectal temperature and increased peripheral temperature, which were, respectively, beneficial and unfavorable at high and low temperatures. These results suggested that feedback effects of surface temperature on core temperature also exist in poultry, as already observed in mammals, and could be induced not only by changed ambient temperature but also by the changes in humidity at high temperature. The disturbance of thermal equilibrium could not be established solely by changes in RT, but rather core and surface temperatures had to be considered. The daily rhythms in rectal and surface temperatures were affected by humidity.

  18. Effects of pig antibacterial peptides on growth performance and intestine mucosal immune of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bao, H; She, R; Liu, T; Zhang, Y; Peng, K S; Luo, D; Yue, Z; Ding, Y; Hu, Y; Liu, W; Zhai, L

    2009-02-01

    Currently, substitutions for antibiotic growth promoters in animals are attracting interest. This study investigated the effects of pig antibacterial peptides (PABP) on growth performance and small intestine mucosal immune responses in broilers. Three hundred 1-d-old Arbor Acre male broiler chickens were randomly allocated to 5 groups with 60 birds per group. The groups were control group; PABP administered in drinking water at 20 and 30 mg/L of water; or PABP supplemented in feed at 150 and 200 mg/kg of diet. The birds were fed a corn-soybean based diet for 6 wk. Chickens were weighed weekly and killed after 42 d of feeding, and growth performance was measured. Samples of the duodenum and jejunum were collected. The villus height, mucosa thickness, alkaline phosphatase activity, and numbers of secreting IgA and goblet cells were evaluated. The PABP-treated groups had greater BW and average daily gain, greater height of villus and thickness of gut mucosa, greater activity of alkaline phosphatase, higher ratio of secreting IgA, and a greater number of goblet cells compared with the control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, PABP can improve the growth performance, increase the intestinal ability to absorb nutrients, and improve the mucosal immunity of the intestine.

  19. Dietary and ontogenic regulation of fatty acid desaturase and elongase expression in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Jing, M; Gakhar, N; Gibson, R A; House, J D

    2013-08-01

    Effects of diet and ontogeny on the expression of fatty acid desaturases and elongases were examined in broiler chickens. In Study 1, 120 day-old male chicks received one of six diets with LA:ALA ranging from 46:4 to 16:34, for 33 days. Total n-6 PUFA decreased, and n-3 PUFA increased in response to a decrease in the dietary LA:ALA. FADS1, FADS2, ELOVL2 and ELOVL5 mRNAs were highest (P<0.05) in birds fed lower LA:ALA diets. In Study 2, 60 day-old male chicks were fed a basal diet, and liver samples were collected on day of hatch, and on days 2, 7, 14, 21 and 35 post-hatch. Total n-6 and n-3 PUFA increased (P<0.01) from days 7 to days 21. FADS1, FADS2 and ELOVL2 mRNAs generally increased (P<0.01) with age. These findings provide evidence for the dietary and developmental regulation of PUFA metabolism in broiler chickens.

  20. Isolation, identification and antimicrobial sensitivity of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in broilers chicken flocks of Khuzestan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mayahi, Mansour; Gharibi, Darioush; Ghadimipour, Rahim; Talazadeh, Forough

    2016-01-01

    Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) is a bacterium associated with respiratory disease, growth retardation, decreased egg production and mortality in chickens and turkeys. The objective of this study was isolation, identification and evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility of ORT bacterium in slaughtered broilers chicken flocks based on cultural and molecular tests in Khuzestan province, south-west of Iran. A total of 210 tracheal swab samples were collected from 21 broiler flocks slaughtered in abattoirs of the province. The results of cultural and biochemical tests showed that 23 (10.95%) isolates from tracheal swabs of 4 flocks (19.04%) were identified as ORT, but according to molecular characterization, 18 (8.57%) ORT isolates were positive in PCR assay and produced the predicted 784 bp amplification product. Finally, using the disk diffusion method, the drug resistance patterns of ORT isolates were determined against a panel of commonly used antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed that all isolates (100%) were sensitive to tetracycline, florfenicol and cephalexin. The highest antimicrobial resistance (89.00%) was seen for fosfomycin, sultrim and gentamicin. The results of present research showed that there was significant difference between the isolation rates of ORT from various areas of the province. As well, our findings indicated that the simultaneous use of both cultural and molecular techniques results in more comprehensive outcomes in the isolation and identification of the organismfrom understudy hosts. PMID:28144427

  1. Effects of dietary supplementation with carnosine on meat quality and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Cong, J; Zhang, L; Li, J; Wang, S; Gao, F; Zhou, G

    2017-02-01

    1. This study aimed to investigate the effects of carnosine supplementation on meat quality, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation status in broiler chickens. 2. A total of 256 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 treatments consisting of 8 replicates of 8 chickens each. The birds were supplied with 4 different diets: a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg carnosine, respectively. The whole experiment lasted 42 d. 3. The results showed that dietary supplementation with carnosine linearly increased the values of pH45 min and redness and reduced drip loss of breast meat. Dietary carnosine increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes in liver, serum and breast meat and decreased the contents of lipid peroxides at 21 and 42 d of age. 4. These findings indicated that dietary supplementation with carnosine was beneficial to enhance meat quality, antioxidant capacity and decrease lipid peroxidation status of breast meat.

  2. L-canavanine inhibits L-arginine uptake by broiler chicken intestinal brush border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Rueda, E; Michelangeli, C; Gonzalez-Mujica, F

    2003-09-01

    1. Intestinal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were prepared from 3-week-old broiler chickens. 2. Electron microscopy of the BBMV fraction showed single membrane vesicles of different sizes with no electron dense material inside. No other organelles were observed. The sucrase and maltase activities were enriched by factors of 16 and 18, respectively, in the BBMV fraction in comparison with the homogenate. On the other hand, the Na+/K+-ATPase sensitivity to ouabain was increased by a factor of 0.8. 3. The BBMV showed a maximum L-[14C]-arginine uptake (944.9 +/- 22.9 pmoles/mg protein) at 45 s and thereafter it declined slowly. In the presence of 0.5 mM L-canavanine, the L-[14C]-arginine uptake by BBMV was reduced by 43.6% at 45 s. 4. It is concluded that L-canavanine inhibits L-arginine Na+-dependent transport across the enterocyte apical membrane in a highly purified intestinal BBMV from broiler chickens.

  3. Developmental study of rectum in broiler chicken: A stereological and morphometrical study

    PubMed Central

    Fatahian Dehkordi, Rahmat-Allah; Ghahremani, Poria

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate development of the weight and the morphological development of the rectum in broiler chickens. Twenty broiler chickens (Ross 308) were used in this experiment and they were 12, 20, 35 and 44 days of age. Samples from the rectum of chicks were sectioned in an unbiased manner and examined quantitatively using stereology. In addition, the weight of both body (BW) and rectum and also rectum weight as a proportion of BW, height and width of the villi and thickness of rectum wall were measured. The results revealed that the body and rectum weight were increased with age. The greatest rectum weight as a proportion of BW was observed on day 20. An increase in height and width of the villi during the study period were obtained. The increase was more significant on days 35 and 44 than on days 12 and 20 (p < 0.05). There were significant difference in thickness of tunica mucosa, submucosa and muscular layer of the rectum on day 20 compared to day 35 (p < 0.05). The increase in the volume density of the wall, tunica mucosa and tunica muscular was greater on day 20 than on day 35. However, significant differences were observed in volume density of this layers between days 35 and 44 compared to days 12 and 20 (p < 0.05). PMID:27226886

  4. Estimating marbofloxacin withdrawal time in broiler chickens using a population physiologically based pharmacokinetics model.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Yang, Y R; Wang, L; Huang, X H; Qiao, G; Zeng, Z L

    2014-12-01

    Residue depletion of marbofloxacin in broiler chicken after oral administration at 5 mg/kg/day for three consecutive days was studied in this study. The areas under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to ∞ (AUC0-∞ s) of marbofloxacin in tissues and plasma were used to calculate tissue/plasma partition coefficients (PX s). Based on PX s and the other parameters derived from published studies, a flow-limited physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) model was developed to predict marbofloxacin concentrations, which were then compared with those derived from the residue depletion study so as to validate this model. Considering individual difference in drug disposition, a Monte Carlo simulation included 1000 iterations was further incorporated into the validated model to generate a population PBPK model and to estimate the marbofloxacin residue withdrawal times in edible tissues. The withdrawal periods were compared to those derived from linear regression analysis. The PBPK model presented here successfully predicted the measured concentrations in all tissues. The withdrawal times in all edible tissues derived from the population PBPK model were longer than those from linear regression analysis, and based on the residues in kidney, a withdrawal time of 4 days was estimated for marbofloxacin after oral administration at 5 mg/kg/day for three consecutive days. It was shown that population PBPK model could be used to accurately predict marbofloxacin residue withdrawal time in edible tissues in broiler chickens.

  5. Suppression of fat deposition in broiler chickens by (-)-hydroxycitric acid supplementation: A proteomics perspective

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Mengling; Han, Jing; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated. Biological network analysis showed that the identified proteins were involved in glycometabolism and lipid metabolism, whereas PDHA1, PDHB, ECHS1, and ME1 were identified in the canonical pathway by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA inhibited fatty acid synthesis by reducing the acetyl-CoA supply, via promotion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (upregulation of PDHA1, PDHB, ACO2, and DLST expression) and inhibition of ME1 expression. Moreover, (-)-HCA promoted fatty acid beta-oxidation by upregulating ECHS1 expression. These results reflect a biochemically relevant mechanism of fat reduction by (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. PMID:27586962

  6. Characterization and reactivity of broiler chicken sera to selected recombinant Campylobacter jejuni chemotactic proteins.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Hung-Yueh; Hiett, Kelli L; Line, John E; Seal, Bruce S

    2014-05-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative rod bacterium, is the leading causative agent of human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Consumption and handling of raw or undercooked poultry are regarded as a major source for human infection. Because bacterial chemotaxis guides microorganisms to colonization and invasion in the host cells, proteins involved in chemotactic processes can be novel targets for vaccine development. In this communication, we report amplification, cloning and expression of the C. jejuni chemotactic proteins in an Escherichia coli expression system. A total of 15 chemotactic protein genes were successfully expressed. These recombinant proteins were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing, SDS-PAGE analysis and immunoblot analysis of six-His and hemagglutinin tags. Twelve recombinant chemotactic proteins were further tested whether they were antigenic using sera from broiler chickens older than 4 weeks. The immunoblot results show that each chicken serum reacted to a variety of the recombinant proteins, but all sera reacted to the Cjj0473 gene product (annotated as a methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein), suggesting that anti-Campylobacter antibodies may be prevalent in the poultry population. These antibody screening results provide a rationale for further evaluation of the Cjj0473 protein as a potential vaccine for broilers to improve human food safety.

  7. Effect of dietary lead on intestinal nutrient transporters mRNA expression in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Roohollah; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Liang, Juan Boo; Soleimani Farjam, Abdoreza; Shokryazdan, Parisa; Idrus, Zulkifli

    2015-01-01

    Lead- (Pb-) induced oxidative stress is known to suppress growth performance and feed efficiency in broiler chickens. In an attempt to describe the specific underlying mechanisms of such phenomenon we carried out the current study. Ninety-six one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatment groups of 6 pen replicates, namely, (i) basal diet containing no lead supplement (control) and (ii) basal diet containing 200 mg lead acetate/kg of diet. Following 3 weeks of experimental period, jejunum samples were collected to examine the changes in gene expression of several nutrient transporters, antioxidant enzymes, and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) using quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that addition of lead significantly decreased feed intake, body weight gain, and feed efficiency. Moreover, with the exception of GLUT5, the expression of all sugar, peptide, and amino acid transporters was significantly downregulated in the birds under Pb induced oxidative stress. Exposure to Pb also upregulated the antioxidant enzymes gene expression together with the downregulation of glutathione S-transferase and Hsp70. In conclusion, it appears that Pb-induced oxidative stress adversely suppresses feed efficiency and growth performance in chicken and the possible underlying mechanism for such phenomenon is downregulation of major nutrient transporter genes in small intestine.

  8. Transmission of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli from broiler chicken farms to surrounding areas.

    PubMed

    Laube, H; Friese, A; von Salviati, C; Guerra, B; Rösler, U

    2014-08-27

    Although previous studies have demonstrated high carriage of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in livestock, especially in broiler chickens, data on emission sources of these bacteria into the environment are still rare. Therefore, this study was designed to systematically investigate the occurrence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in slurry, air (inside animal houses), ambient air (outside animal houses) and on soil surfaces in the areas surrounding of seven ESBL/AmpC-positive broiler chicken fattening farms, including investigation of the possible spread of these bacteria via the faecal route and/or exhaust air into the environment. Seven German broiler fattening farms were each investigated at three points in time (3-36 h after restocking, 14-18 and 26-35 days after housing) during one fattening period. The occurrence of ESBL/AmpC genes in the investigated samples was confirmed by PCR, detecting blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCMY-genes, and, if necessary, by sequencing and/or the disc diffusion method. The results showed a wide spread of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in broiler farms, as well as emissions into the surroundings. 12 out of 14 (86%) slurry samples were positive for ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli. Additionally, 28.8% (n=23/80) of boot swabs taken from various surfaces in the areas surrounding of the farms as well as 7.5% (n=3/40) of the exhaust air samples turned out to be positive for these microorganisms. Moreover, a small proportion of air samples from inside the barns were ESBL/AmpC-positive. By comparing selected isolates using pulsed field gel electrophoresis, we proved that faecal and airborne transfer of ESBL/AmpC-producing microorganisms from broiler fattening farms to the surrounding areas is possible. Two isolates from farm G2 (slurry and boot swab 50 m downwind), two isolates from farm G3 (slurry and individual animal swab) as well as two isolates from farm G6 (air sample in the barn and air sample 50 m downwind) showed 100% similarity in

  9. Antigenotoxic Effect of Piperine in Broiler Chickens Intoxicated with Aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Cardoso, Verônica; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; Ribeiro de Lima, Cristina Amorim; Mendes de Oliveira, Jéssica; Freire de Lima, Marco Edilson; Pinto da Silva, Lúcia Helena; Direito, Glória Maria; Miranda Danelli, Maria das Graças

    2016-01-01

    Piperine is an abundant amide extracted from black pepper seeds which has been shown to have protective effects against cytotoxic and genotoxic carcinogenesis induced by certain chemical carcinogens and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in vitro. The aim of this work was to study, in vivo, the antigenotoxic potential of feed-added piperine on broiler chickens experimentally intoxicated with AFB1, using micronucleus and comet assays. The antigenotoxicity assessment of 9-day-old chicks was performed on a total of 60 chickens divided into four groups of 15 broilers each: (C) control, (P) 60 mg·piperine kg−1 feed, (A) 0.5 mg·AFB1·kg−1 body weight, (daily by oral route), and (P + A) co-treatment with piperine and AFB1. The experiment was conducted for 26 days. Chicks intoxicated with AFB1 showed significant genotoxic effects in the first 24 h post intoxication, and the effects remained in the other periods analyzed (48, 72, and 96 h and 26 days of treatment). The DNA damage in peripheral blood cells, the number of erythrocytes with micronuclei, and polychromatic-to-normochromatic erythrocyte ratio were significantly reduced or absent in the piperine/AFB1 group. No significant differences were observed between the group piperine/AFB1 and the control and piperine-alone groups. The addition 60 mg·kg−1 of piperine to the diet of the broiler chicks was safe, promoting beneficial effects in poultry health with respect to the toxic effects 0.5 mg·AFB1·kg−1 body weight. PMID:27809242

  10. Effect of ambient temperature and light intensity on physiological reactions of heavy broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Olanrewaju, H A; Purswell, J L; Collier, S D; Branton, S L

    2010-12-01

    The effects of ambient temperature, light intensity, and their interaction on blood acid-base balance, metabolites, and electrolytes in broiler chickens under environmentally controlled conditions were examined in 2 trials. The experiment consisted of a factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design. The 9 treatments consisted of 3 levels of temperatures (low = 15.6°C; moderate = 21.1°C; high = 26.7°C) from 21 to 56 d of age and 3 levels of light intensities (0.5, 3.0, 20 lx) from 8 to 56 d of age at 50% RH. A total of 540 Ross 708 chicks were randomly distributed into 9 environmentally controlled chambers (30 male and 30 female chicks/chamber) at 1 d of age. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Venous blood samples were collected on d 21 (baseline), 28, 42, and 56. High ambient temperature significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced BW, partial pressure of CO(2), bicarbonate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, K(+), and Na(+) along with significantly (P ≤ 0.05) elevated pH level, Cl(-), glucose, osmolality, and anion gap concentrations. Partial pressure of O(2) was slightly increased in response to increased ambient temperature. There was no effect of light intensity on most of the blood variables examined. Acid-base regulation during high ambient temperature and light intensity exposure did not deteriorate despite a lower partial pressure of CO(2), which consequently increased blood pH because of a compensatory decrease in HCO(3)(-) concentration. Plasma corticosterone was not affected by temperature, light intensity, or their interaction. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to varying light intensities had a minor effect on physiological blood variables, whereas high ambient temperature markedly affected various blood variables without inducing stress in broilers.

  11. Dietary nisin modulates the gastrointestinal microbial ecology and enhances growth performance of the broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Józefiak, Damian; Kierończyk, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Rawski, Mateusz; Długosz, Jakub; Sip, Anna; Højberg, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Due to antimicrobial properties, nisin is one of the most commonly used and investigated bacteriocins for food preservation. Surprisingly, nisin has had limited use in animal feed as well as there are only few reports on its influence on microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The present study therefore aimed at investigating effects of dietary nisin on broiler chicken GIT microbial ecology and performance in comparison to salinomycin, the widely used ionophore coccidiostat. In total, 720 one-day-old male Ross 308 chicks were randomly distributed to six experimental groups. The positive control (PC) diet was supplemented with salinomycin (60 mg/kg). The nisin (NI) diets were supplemented with increasing levels (100, 300, 900 and 2700 IU nisin/g, respectively) of the bacteriocin. The negative control (NC) diet contained no additives. At slaughter (35 days of age), activity of specific bacterial enzymes (α- and β-glucosidases, α-galactosidases and β-glucuronidase) in crop, ileum and caeca were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the NC group, and nisin supplementation decreased the enzyme activities to levels observed for the PC group. A similar inhibitory influence on bacterial activity was reflected in the levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and putrefactive SCFA (PSCFA) in digesta from crop and ileum; no effect was observed in caeca. Counts of Bacteroides and Enterobacteriacae in ileum digesta were significantly (P<0.001) decreased by nisin and salinomycin, but no effects were observed on the counts of Clostridium perfringens, Lactobacillus/Enterococcus and total bacteria. Like salinomycin, nisin supplementation improved broiler growth performance in a dose-dependent manner; compared to the NC group, the body weight gain of the NI₉₀₀ and NI₂₇₀₀ groups was improved by 4.7 and 8.7%, respectively. Our findings suggest that dietary nisin exerts a mode of action similar to salinomycin and could be considered as a dietary supplement

  12. The genetic basis of pectoralis major myopathies in modern broiler chicken lines

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Richard A.; Watson, Kellie A.; Bilgili, S. F.; Avendano, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    This is the first report providing estimates of the genetic basis of breast muscle myopathies (BMM) and their relationship with growth and yield in broiler chickens. In addition, this paper addresses the hypothesis that genetic selection for increase breast yield has contributed to the onset of BMM. Data were analyzed from ongoing recording of BMM within the Aviagen breeding program. This study focused on three BMM: deep pectoral myopathy (DPM; binary trait), white striping (WS; 4 categories) and wooden breast (WB; 3 categories). Data from two purebred commercial broiler lines (A and B) were utilized providing greater than 40,000 meat quality records per line. The difference in selection history between these two lines has resulted in contrasting breast yield (BY): 29% for Line A and 21% for Line B. Data were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters using a multivariate animal model including six traits: body weight (BW), processing body weight (PW), BY, DPM, WB, and WS, in addition to the appropriate fixed effects and permanent environmental effect of the dam. Results indicate similar patterns of heritability and genetic correlations for the two lines. Heritabilities (h2) of BW, PW and BY ranged from 0.271–0.418; for DPM and WB h2 <0.1; and for WS h2 ≤0.338. Genetic correlations between the BMM and BW, PW, or BY were ≤0.132 in Line A and ≤0.248 in Line B. This paper demonstrates the polygenic nature of these traits and the low genetic relationships with BW, PW, and BY, which facilitates genetic improvement across all traits in a balanced breeding program. It also highlights the importance of understanding the environmental and/or management factors that contribute greater than 65% of the variance in the incidence of white striping of breast muscle and more than 90% of the variance of the incidence of wooden breast and deep pectoral myopathy in broiler chickens. PMID:26476091

  13. The genetic basis of pectoralis major myopathies in modern broiler chicken lines.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Richard A; Watson, Kellie A; Bilgili, S F; Avendano, Santiago

    2015-12-01

    This is the first report providing estimates of the genetic basis of breast muscle myopathies (BMM) and their relationship with growth and yield in broiler chickens. In addition, this paper addresses the hypothesis that genetic selection for increase breast yield has contributed to the onset of BMM. Data were analyzed from ongoing recording of BMM within the Aviagen breeding program. This study focused on three BMM: deep pectoral myopathy (DPM; binary trait), white striping (WS; 4 categories) and wooden breast (WB; 3 categories). Data from two purebred commercial broiler lines (A and B) were utilized providing greater than 40,000 meat quality records per line. The difference in selection history between these two lines has resulted in contrasting breast yield (BY): 29% for Line A and 21% for Line B. Data were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters using a multivariate animal model including six traits: body weight (BW), processing body weight (PW), BY, DPM, WB, and WS, in addition to the appropriate fixed effects and permanent environmental effect of the dam. Results indicate similar patterns of heritability and genetic correlations for the two lines. Heritabilities (h2) of BW, PW and BY ranged from 0.271-0.418; for DPM and WB h2<0.1; and for WS h2≤0.338. Genetic correlations between the BMM and BW, PW, or BY were ≤0.132 in Line A and ≤0.248 in Line B. This paper demonstrates the polygenic nature of these traits and the low genetic relationships with BW, PW, and BY, which facilitates genetic improvement across all traits in a balanced breeding program. It also highlights the importance of understanding the environmental and/or management factors that contribute greater than 65% of the variance in the incidence of white striping of breast muscle and more than 90% of the variance of the incidence of wooden breast and deep pectoral myopathy in broiler chickens.

  14. Comparative evaluation of probiotic and salinomycin effects on performance and coccidiosis control in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Wael; Mohnl, Michaela; Teichmann, Klaus; Doupovec, Barbara; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Lumpkins, Brett; Mathis, Greg

    2014-12-01

    The annual financial loss to the poultry industry as a result of coccidiosis has been estimated at about US $3 billion. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of probiotics and salinomycin as feed additives on performance and coccidiosis control in male broilers raised to 42 d of age. The study consisted of 360 Cobb male broiler chickens randomly allocated to 4 groups each with 3 replicates. Group 1: untreated, unchallenged negative control group (NC); group 2: untreated, challenged positive control group (PC); group 3: negative control supplemented with salinomycin 66 mg/kg, challenged group (Sal); and group 4: negative control supplemented with probiotics, challenged (Prob mix). On d 15, all birds (except group 1) were challenged with approximately 75,000, 25,000, and 75,000 of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella oocytes, respectively, that were mixed into the feed. Feed conversion ratio and mortality were recorded throughout the experiment. On d 21 and 42, intestinal lesions and litter conditions were scored. On d 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42, oocyst counts were determined from 10 freshly collected fecal samples per pen. The results showed that mortality, litter, and lesion scores at d 21 and 42, and oocyst shedding at d 21 did not differ significantly between the Prob mix and the Sal groups. However on d 28, oocyst shedding was significantly lower in the Sal group than in the PC group but insignificantly lower than the Prob mix group. Body weights of the Prob mix group at d 42 were significantly lower than the Sal group; however, the feed conversion ratio values were similar between the 2 groups. The results of this study showed that probiotics supplementation could be considered as a potential strategy to control coccidiosis in broiler chickens.

  15. Higher bioavailability of doxycycline in broiler chickens with a novel in-feed pharmaceutical formulation.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Lilia; Zermeño, Juan; Alcalá, Yazmín; Sumano, Héctor

    2017-02-23

    Bioavailability of a new, long-acting (LA) pharmaceutical preparation for administering doxycycline as in-feed medication to broiler chickens was compared to the standard in-feed administration of doxycycline. A commercial poultry house harboring Ross-308 broiler chickens, weighing 450 g, was divided into 7 sections as follows: doxy-FOLA group (n = 6,000 chickens divided into 3 replicates) medicated with 10% doxycyline, long-acting pellets at a dose of 400 g of doxycycline HCl/ton of food, resulting in a calculated dose of 48 mg/kg for 5 d; doxy-ref group (n = 6,000, divided into 3 replicates) medicated as for doxy-FOLA, but using a 20% commercial preparation of doxycycline. A third group of 300 broiler chickens (divided into 3 replicates), received a single IV dose of 48 mg/kg from a 2.4% solution of doxycycline HCl under ketamine anesthesia. Blood samples were obtained at designated times, serum was harvested, and doxycycline concentrations determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Bioavailability values were 156% and 227% on d 1 and 5 for doxy-FOLA and 13% and 23% for doxy-ref, on the same days. Mean residence time (MRT) and elimination half-life (T½β) were statistically different (P < 0.05) in doxy-FOLA group as compared to doxy-ref group (MRT: 26 h and 5.2 h; and T½β: 18 h vs 3 h, on the first day for doxy-FOLA and doxy-ref, respectively). Based on 3 levels of bacterial sensitivity of E. coli derived from a small survey carried out (i.e., 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 μg/mL) and considering pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) ratios required for this time-dependent antibacterial drug, it is possible to postulate that doxy-FOLA outstrips the reference preparation maintaining higher and more prolonged serum concentrations of doxycycline and consequently complying better with PK/PD ratios regarded as optimal for this drug. The advantages of using doxy-FOLA in poultry medicine include a more comprehensive use of the active principle

  16. Interrelations between the Microbiotas in the Litter and in the Intestines of Commercial Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Cressman, Michael D.; Yu, Zhongtang; Nelson, Michael C.; Moeller, Steven J.; Lilburn, Michael S.; Zerby, Henry N.

    2010-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota of broiler chickens and the microbiota in the litter have been well studied, but the interactions between these two microbiotas remain to be determined. Therefore, we examined their reciprocal effects by analyzing the intestinal microbiotas of broilers reared on fresh pine shavings versus reused litter, as well as the litter microbiota over a 6-week cycle. Composite ileal mucosal and cecal luminal samples from birds (n = 10) reared with both litter conditions (fresh versus reused) were collected at 7, 14, 21, and 42 days of age. Litter samples were also collected at days 7, 14, 21, and 42. The microbiotas were profiled and compared within sample types based on litter condition using PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The microbiotas were further analyzed using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from microbiota DNA extracted from both chick intestinal and litter samples collected at day 7. Results showed significant reciprocal effects between the microbiotas present in the litter and those in the intestines of broilers. Fresh litter had more environmental bacteria, while reused litter contained more bacteria of intestinal origin. Lactobacillus spp. dominated the ileal mucosal microbiota of fresh-litter chicks, while a group of bacteria yet to be classified within Clostridiales dominated in the ileal mucosal microbiota in the reused-litter chicks. The Litter condition (fresh versus reused) seemed to have a more profound impact on the ileal microbiota than on the cecal microbiota. The data suggest that the influence of fresh litter on ileal microbiota decreased as broilers grew, compared with temporal changes observed under reused-litter rearing conditions. PMID:20693454

  17. Evaluation of a highly soluble calcium source and phytase in the diets of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Walk, C L; Addo-Chidie, E K; Bedford, M R; Adeola, O

    2012-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of a highly soluble Ca (HSC) source on performance, bone ash and mineralization, and apparent ileal digestibility of Ca, P, N, and energy in Ross 708 broiler chickens. Dietary Ca was supplied by the HSC source and monocalcium phosphate to provide 4 levels of Ca (0.45, 0.60, 0.75, or 0.90%). Available P (aP) was maintained at 0.32% in all the diets. Each diet was supplemented with 0, 500, or 2,500 U/kg of phytase as a 4 × 3 factorial. An additional diet was formulated using limestone to contain 0.90% Ca and 0.45% aP as a positive control (PC). Diets were fed to 7 replicate cages of 8 birds per cage from d 0 to 21 posthatch. Feed intake (FI) was linearly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced, and BW gain was quadratically (P ≤ 0.05) reduced as Ca from HSC increased from 0.45 to 0.90%. Phytase supplementation linearly (P ≤ 0.05) increased FI and BW gain and improved feed conversion ratio. Tibia ash and P weights were lower in birds fed 0.90% Ca from HSC compared with broilers fed 0.90% Ca from limestone. Phytase supplementation increased tibia ash and P weights in broilers fed 0.60, 0.75, or 0.90% HSC (Ca level × phytase P ≤ 0.05). Phytase supplementation linearly (P ≤ 0.05) increased tibia Ca weight. Reducing HSC from 0.90 to 0.45% or increasing phytase supplementation linearly (P ≤ 0.05) improved ileal P digestibility. Ileal Ca digestibility increased linearly only in broilers fed 0.45% Ca from HSC as phytase supplementation increased (Ca level × phytase P ≤ 0.05). Nitrogen or energy digestibility were quadratically (P ≤ 0.05) influenced as HSC or phytase increased. In conclusion, feeding HSC with phytase allowed for reductions in dietary Ca while maintaining broiler performance and bone ash. In addition, P digestibility and P in the bones were increased in broilers fed reduced dietary Ca in the presence of phytase.

  18. Influence of pre-incubation treatment on hatching results of broiler breeder eggs produced at 37 and 59 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Meijerhof, R; Noordhuizen, J P; Leenstra, F R

    1994-05-01

    1. The influence of temperature in the nest box, temperature during storage, storage time and pre-setting temperature on the hatchability of broiler breeder eggs produced by birds of 37 and 59 weeks of age was examined. 2. All treatments that can be characterised as being less optimal for embryo survival than the control treatment affected the hatchability of fertile eggs more in the case of eggs produced by older birds. 3. A higher temperature in the nest box, longer storage periods, higher storage temperature, especially at longer storage periods, and higher pre-setting temperature significantly reduced the hatchability of fertile eggs from the older birds. 4. For the younger birds, a significant reduction of hatchability was found only for the longest storage period.

  19. Influence of penicillin on microbial diversity of the cecal microbiota in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pallavi; Karimi, Ahmad; Devendra, Kshitiz; Waldroup, Park W; Cho, Kwang Keun; Kwon, Young Min

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic growth promoters have been used for growth promotion of chickens in poultry industry since 1940. Recently, concerns have been raised to the use of antibiotic growth promoters in livestock due to development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of penicillin supplementation in the feed on cecal microbiota of broiler chickens. Two groups (n = 30) of chickens were fed corn-soybean meal diets with and without supplementation of penicillin at the concentration of 55 mg/kg (ANT vs. CON, respectively). At 18 d of age, the ANT group had significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher mean BW than the CON group (668.6 vs. 570.0 g). Cecal samples of 5 randomly selected birds were pooled from each group and used for genomic DNA isolation and PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene; 454 pyrosequencing of the amplicons resulted in 7,881 and 11,214 sequence reads for ANT and CON groups, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that penicillin supplementation in the ANT group resulted in an elevated proportion of phylum Firmicutes from 58.15 to 91.5% and a decreased proportion of phylum Bacteroidetes from 31.1 to 2.96% compared with the CON group. Recent studies conducted in humans, pigs, and mice have shown a similar shift in gut microbiota in obese individuals compared with the lean ones, indicating that this microbial shift could be responsible for the increase in energy harvest and BW. The results of this study suggest that the growth-promoting effect of penicillin supplementation in broilers may be mediated by a similar microbial process.

  20. Development of mechanical and thermal nociceptive threshold testing devices in unrestrained birds (broiler chickens).

    PubMed

    Hothersall, B; Caplen, G; Nicol, C J; Taylor, P M; Waterman-Pearson, A E; Weeks, C A; Murrell, J C

    2011-09-30

    Behavioural signs of pain are difficult to quantify and interpret in animals. Nociceptive threshold testing is therefore a useful method for examining the perception and processing of noxious stimuli underlying pain states. Devices were developed to measure response thresholds to quantified, ramped mechanical and thermal nociceptive stimuli applied to the leg or keel of unrestrained birds. Up to 9N mechanical force was delivered via a single round-ended 2mm pin using a pneumatic actuator at 0.4Ns(-1). Heat was applied through a small copper element at 0.8°Cs(-1) to a maximum of 50°C. The repeatability and reliability of threshold measures were validated using 10-12 broiler chickens (aged 49-66 days) per site and modality. Mechanical threshold, or skin and threshold temperature, were recorded over three sessions across a 36h period. Both stimulus types elicited clear, reproducible behavioural responses. Mechanical threshold means and 95% confidence intervals were 3.0 (2.8-3.2)N for keel and 2.0 (1.8-2.1)N for leg sites. Keel thermal tests gave a mean skin temperature of 39.3 (39.1-39.5)°C, and threshold of 46.8 (46.6-47.1)°C. Leg skin temperature was 35.7 (35.6-35.9)°C and threshold 42.5 (42.2-42.8)°C. Threshold measures were consistent within and across sessions and birds showed individual repeatability across tests within sessions. Individual birds' mechanical keel thresholds were also repeatable across sessions. The apparatus gave reliable, reproducible measurements of thresholds to noxious mechanical and thermal stimuli. The range recorded was comparable with previously published nociceptor thresholds in dissected chicken nerve filament fibres, and the method appears suitable for studying nociceptive processes in broiler chickens.

  1. Different antibiotic growth promoters induce specific changes in the cecal microbiota membership of broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marcio C; Bessegatto, Jose A; Alfieri, Amauri A; Weese, J Scott; Filho, João A B; Oba, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobials are sometimes given to food animals at low doses in order to promote faster growth. However, the mechanisms by which those drugs improve performance are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the impact of zinc bacitracin (55g/ton), enramycin (10g/ton); halquinol® (30g/ton); virginiamycin (16,5g/ton) and avilamycin (10g/ton) on the cecal microbiota of broiler chicken, compared to a control group. Six hundred and twenty four chicks (Cobb 500) arriving to an experimental unit were randomly assigned into each treatment with four repetitions per treatment. The cecal content of 16 animals per treatment (n = 96) was used for DNA extraction and sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using Illumina technology. The use of antimicrobials induced significant changes in membership but not in structure of the cecal microbiota compared to the control group, suggesting a greater impact on the less abundant species of bacteria present in that environment. Halquinol was the only drug that did not affect microbial membership. Firmicutes comprised the major bacterial phylum present in the cecum of all groups. There was no statistical difference in relative abundances of the main phyla between treated animals and the control group (all P>0.05). Treatment with enramycin was associated with decreased richness and with lower relative abundance of unclassified Firmicutes, Clostridium XI, unclassified Peptostreptococcaceae (all P<0.001) and greater abundance of Clostridium XIVb (P = 0.004) and Anaerosporobacter spp. (P = 0.015), and treatment with bacitracin with greater relative abundance of Bilophila spp. (P = 0.004). Several bacterial genera were identified as representative of usage of each drug. This study used high throughput sequencing to characterize the impact of several antimicrobials in broiler chicken under controlled conditions and add new insights to the current knowledge on how AGPs affect the cecal microbiota of chicken.

  2. Different antibiotic growth promoters induce specific changes in the cecal microbiota membership of broiler chicken

    PubMed Central

    Bessegatto, Jose A.; Alfieri, Amauri A.; Weese, J. Scott; Filho, João A. B.; Oba, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobials are sometimes given to food animals at low doses in order to promote faster growth. However, the mechanisms by which those drugs improve performance are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the impact of zinc bacitracin (55g/ton), enramycin (10g/ton); halquinol® (30g/ton); virginiamycin (16,5g/ton) and avilamycin (10g/ton) on the cecal microbiota of broiler chicken, compared to a control group. Six hundred and twenty four chicks (Cobb 500) arriving to an experimental unit were randomly assigned into each treatment with four repetitions per treatment. The cecal content of 16 animals per treatment (n = 96) was used for DNA extraction and sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using Illumina technology. The use of antimicrobials induced significant changes in membership but not in structure of the cecal microbiota compared to the control group, suggesting a greater impact on the less abundant species of bacteria present in that environment. Halquinol was the only drug that did not affect microbial membership. Firmicutes comprised the major bacterial phylum present in the cecum of all groups. There was no statistical difference in relative abundances of the main phyla between treated animals and the control group (all P>0.05). Treatment with enramycin was associated with decreased richness and with lower relative abundance of unclassified Firmicutes, Clostridium XI, unclassified Peptostreptococcaceae (all P<0.001) and greater abundance of Clostridium XIVb (P = 0.004) and Anaerosporobacter spp. (P = 0.015), and treatment with bacitracin with greater relative abundance of Bilophila spp. (P = 0.004). Several bacterial genera were identified as representative of usage of each drug. This study used high throughput sequencing to characterize the impact of several antimicrobials in broiler chicken under controlled conditions and add new insights to the current knowledge on how AGPs affect the cecal microbiota of chicken. PMID

  3. Preparation and storage stability of retort processed Chettinad chicken.

    PubMed

    Rajan, S; Kulkarni, V V; Chandirasekaran, V

    2014-01-01

    Chettinad chicken was prepared using boneless meat derived from spent hen and boiler breeder packed in retort pouches (250 g) and processed in retort at the product temperature of 121.1 °C and the corresponding F0 value of 5.2. The product was stored at ambient temperature (35 ± 2 °C) up to 180 days. The sensory scores for texture of the Chettinad chicken prepared from spent hen and broiler breeder meat decreased significantly however the scores were rated very acceptable even on 180th day. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA), tyrosine values and acid value increased gradually during storage but E. coli, Salmonella spp, Clostridium spp, Staphylococci spp, Streptococci spp, yeast and mould could not be detected during the entire storage period. The cost of production of Chettinad chicken (250 g) prepared from spent hen meat and broiler breeder meat was Rs.37 and Rs.50, respectively. It was concluded that the retort processed Chettinad chicken prepared from spent hen and broiler breeder meat can be safely stored up to 180 days at ambient temperature.

  4. Effects of inorganic and organic manganese supplementation on gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I and follicle-stimulating hormone expression and reproductive performance of broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jingjing; Tian, Chuanhuan; Zhu, Yongwen; Zhang, Liyang; Lu, Lin; Luo, Xugang

    2014-04-01

    Manganese is an essential microelement. Manganese deficiency affects reproduction performance and reproductive hormones in layers. However, little is known about its effects and the possible mechanism in regulating reproduction in broiler breeder hens. In the current study, broiler breeder hens at peak production were fed with diets supplemented with 0, 120, or 240 mg of Mn/kg as MnSO4 or Mn proteinate for 13 wk. Manganese supplementation did not alter egg laying rate, egg weight, fertility, hatchability, or hatchling weight over a 13-wk trial period. However, 240 mg of Mn/kg supplementation significantly increased serum Mn (P < 0.05). Manganese supplements increased the eggshell breaking strength (P < 0.05) without affecting the eggshell thickness. There was no difference in serum cholesterol and estradiol. Expression of follicle-stimulating hormone) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I) genes was significantly elevated by 240 mg of Mn/kg (P < 0.05). Furthermore, inorganic Mn supplementation doubled GnRH-I expression compared with supplementation with the organic form (P < 0.05), although serum Mn was comparable between these 2 supplements. No obvious difference was shown in gene expression of luteinizing hormone, prolactin, GnRH-I receptor, inducible NO synthase, and dopamine receptor D1 in the pituitary as well as tyrosine hydroxylase and inducible NO synthase in the hypothalamus. This suggests that dietary Mn supplementation could improve eggshell quality in the long term. The central mechanism of nontoxic high doses of Mn suggested the transcriptional activation of GnRH-I and follicle-stimulating hormone genes. The central effect of inorganic Mn activating GnRH-I genes compared with the reduced effect by organic Mn could possibly be due to a decreased capacity of the latter passing through the blood-brain barrier.

  5. Subclinical circulation of avian hepatitis E virus within a multiple-age rearing and broiler breeder farm indicates persistence and vertical transmission of the virus.

    PubMed

    Troxler, Salome; Pać, Krzysztof; Prokofieva, Irina; Liebhart, Dieter; Chodakowska, Beata; Furmanek, Danuta; Hess, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In a prospective longitudinal study, a broiler breeder flock and its progeny were monitored for the presence of avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA and antibodies. The flock was part of a multiple-age farm where the presence of avian HEV with clinical signs (increased mortality and decreased egg production) was demonstrated in several previous production cycles. Samples were taken twice at the rearing site and several times at the production site from broiler breeders including cockerels and day-old chicks. The samples were investigated by conventional and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and histological methods. At all time points, samples from the hens were positive for avian HEV RNA. The birds did not show any clinical signs, even though histopathological lesions of non-specific aetiology in the liver and spleen could be demonstrated. A significant increase in the number of positive birds and viral load was seen in week 45, in accordance with an increase in antibody titres. In comparison, cockerels investigated in week 62 tested negative by RT-PCR and ELISA. Avian HEV RNA was also detected in day-old chicks hatched from eggs laid in week 25, indicating vertical transmission. All partial helicase and capsid sequences retrieved within this study clustered together and were identical to previous sequences obtained from the same multiple-age farm. In conclusion, avian HEV persisted on the farm over years and circulated between the rearing and the production sites without causing any clinical signs although high viral loads in the adult hens were observed.

  6. Morphometric Documentation of a High Prevalence of Left Ventricular Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Both Clinically Normal and Cyanotic Mature Commercial Broiler Breeder Roosters with Comparisons to Market-Age Broilers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Floyd D; Magee, Danny L; Jones, Kelli H; Baravik-Munsell, Erica; Cummings, Timothy S; Wills, Robert W; Pace, Lanny W

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies documented the common occurrence of transitory cyanosis and echocardiographic aortic insufficiency in mature commercial broiler breeder roosters. During further investigations, we observed a high prevalence of hearts exhibiting extensive dilation of the left ventricle chamber compatible with dilated left ventricular cardiomyopathy present in both cyanotic and normal subpopulations. We conducted quantitative studies focused on documentation of cardiac ventricle parameters by using simple gross morphometric methods performed on formalin-fixed hearts obtained from both clinically normal roosters and those exhibiting variable transitory cyanosis, echocardiographic aortic insufficiency, or both. A high prevalence of often dramatic left ventricular dilation reflected in enlarged left ventricular chamber areas and elevated left ventricle-to-total ventricle area ratios was morphometrically documented. However, no statistically significant differences in the occurrence of ventricular abnormalities were observed between normal and cyanotic roosters. Age-associated changes were also demonstrated by comparative morphometric studies on hearts from normal market-age broilers (average age of 7 wk) and those of mature roosters (average age of 42 wk). Elevation in both left and right ventricular weight-to-total heart weight ratios dramatically increased with aging. In addition, values (average ± SD) for the left ventricle chamber area-to-total ventricle area ratios increased from 3.2 ± 2.0% in broilers up to 10.0 ± 8.8% in roosters. None of the normal broilers studied demonstrated left ventricular volume ratios above 10%, whereas 33% of the roosters had left ventricular volume ratios above 10%, including 13% with ratios of 20% or higher. However, the left ventricle wall area-to-body weight ratios were much closer for the two age groups (0.85 ± 0.18 cm(2)/kg in broilers and 0.79 ± 0.13 cm(2)/kg in roosters). Also, the standard right ventricle-to-total ventricle

  7. Effect of therapeutic supplementation of plant molecules, trans-cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in market-age broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the therapeutic efficacy of food-grade plant compounds, trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) and eugenol (EG) on reducing SE in commercial, market-age broiler chickens. In two separate experiments, day-old commercial broiler chicks were randomly grouped into six groups of 14 birds each ...

  8. Metabolism of deoxynivalenol and deepoxy-deoxynivalenol in broiler chickens, pullets, roosters and turkeys.

    PubMed

    Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi E; Fruhmann, Philipp; Dänicke, Sven; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Caha, Sylvia; Weber, Julia; Berthiller, Franz

    2015-11-12

    Recently, deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate (DON-3-sulfate) was proposed as a major DON metabolite in poultry. In the present work, the first LC-MS/MS based method for determination of DON-3-sulfate, deepoxy-DON-3-sulfate (DOM-3-sulfate), DON, DOM, DON sulfonates 1, 2, 3, and DOM sulfonate 2 in excreta samples of chickens and turkeys was developed and validated. To this end, DOM-3-sulfate was chemically synthesized and characterized by NMR and LC-HR-MS/MS measurements. Application of the method to excreta and chyme samples of four feeding trials with turkeys, chickens, pullets, and roosters confirmed DON-3-sulfate as the major DON metabolite in all poultry species studied. Analogously to DON-3-sulfate, DOM-3-sulfate was formed after oral administration of DOM both in turkeys and in chickens. In addition, pullets and roosters metabolized DON into DOM-3-sulfate. In vitro transcription/translation assays revealed DOM-3-sulfate to be 2000 times less toxic on the ribosome than DON. Biological recoveries of DON and DOM orally administered to broiler chickens, turkeys, and pullets were 74%-106% (chickens), 51%-72% (roosters), and 131%-151% (pullets). In pullets, DON-3-sulfate concentrations increased from jejunum chyme samples to excreta samples by a factor of 60. This result, put into context with earlier studies, indicates fast and efficient absorption of DON between crop and jejunum, conversion to DON-3-sulfate in intestinal mucosa, liver, and possibly kidney, and rapid elimination into excreta via bile and urine.

  9. Metabolism of Deoxynivalenol and Deepoxy-Deoxynivalenol in Broiler Chickens, Pullets, Roosters and Turkeys

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi E.; Fruhmann, Philipp; Dänicke, Sven; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Caha, Sylvia; Weber, Julia; Berthiller, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Recently, deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate (DON-3-sulfate) was proposed as a major DON metabolite in poultry. In the present work, the first LC-MS/MS based method for determination of DON-3-sulfate, deepoxy-DON-3-sulfate (DOM-3-sulfate), DON, DOM, DON sulfonates 1, 2, 3, and DOM sulfonate 2 in excreta samples of chickens and turkeys was developed and validated. To this end, DOM-3-sulfate was chemically synthesized and characterized by NMR and LC-HR-MS/MS measurements. Application of the method to excreta and chyme samples of four feeding trials with turkeys, chickens, pullets, and roosters confirmed DON-3-sulfate as the major DON metabolite in all poultry species studied. Analogously to DON-3-sulfate, DOM-3-sulfate was formed after oral administration of DOM both in turkeys and in chickens. In addition, pullets and roosters metabolized DON into DOM-3-sulfate. In vitro transcription/translation assays revealed DOM-3-sulfate to be 2000 times less toxic on the ribosome than DON. Biological recoveries of DON and DOM orally administered to broiler chickens, turkeys, and pullets were 74%–106% (chickens), 51%–72% (roosters), and 131%–151% (pullets). In pullets, DON-3-sulfate concentrations increased from jejunum chyme samples to excreta samples by a factor of 60. This result, put into context with earlier studies, indicates fast and efficient absorption of DON between crop and jejunum, conversion to DON-3-sulfate in intestinal mucosa, liver, and possibly kidney, and rapid elimination into excreta via bile and urine. PMID:26569307

  10. Overcrowding stress decreases macrophage activity and increases Salmonella Enteritidis invasion in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gomes, A V S; Quinteiro-Filho, W M; Ribeiro, A; Ferraz-de-Paula, V; Pinheiro, M L; Baskeville, E; Akamine, A T; Astolfi-Ferreira, C S; Ferreira, A J P; Palermo-Neto, J

    2014-01-01

    Overcrowding stress is a reality in the poultry industry. Chickens exposed to long-term stressful situations present a reduction of welfare and immunosuppression. We designed this experiment to analyse the effects from overcrowding stress of 16 birds/m(2) on performance parameters, serum corticosterone levels, the relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius, plasma IgA and IgG levels, intestinal integrity, macrophage activity and experimental Salmonella Enteritidis invasion. The results of this study indicate that overcrowding stress decreased performance parameters, induced enteritis and decreased macrophage activity and the relative bursa weight in broiler chickens. When the chickens were similarly stressed and infected with Salmonella Enteritidis, there was an increase in feed conversion and a decrease in plasma IgG levels in the stressed and Salmonella-infected birds. We observed moderate enteritis throughout the duodenum of chickens stressed and infected with Salmonella. The overcrowding stress decreased the macrophage phagocytosis intensity and increased Salmonella Enteritidis counts in the livers of birds challenged with the pathogenic bacterium. Overcrowding stress via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that is associated with an increase in corticosterone and enteritis might influence the quality of the intestinal immune barrier and the integrity of the small intestine. This effect allowed pathogenic bacteria to migrate through the intestinal mucosa, resulting in inflammatory infiltration and decreased nutrient absorption. The data strengthen the hypothesis that control of the welfare of chickens and avoidance of stress from overcrowding in poultry production are relevant factors for the maintenance of intestinal integrity, performance and decreased susceptibility to Salmonella infection.

  11. The influence of phytoncides on the immune system of broiler chickens and turkeys

    PubMed Central

    Śmiałek, Marcin; Tykałowski, Bartłomiej; Pestka, Daria; Stenzel, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of adiSalmoSOL PF dietary supplement, given for 3 days in drinking water, on selected parameters of cell-mediated (Experiment I) and humoral (Experiment II) immunity in chicken and turkey broilers. In Experiment I, birds were randomly divided into two groups of 10 birds each. Group 1 comprised control turkeys or chickens, whereas group 2 birds were administered adiSalmoSOLPF. In Experiment II, a total of 69 chickens were divided into three groups (1-3) of 23 birds each. At the age of 25 days, group 1 was given adiSalmoSOLPF. Birds from groups 1-3 were vaccinated at 28 days of age. Group 2 was given adiSalmoSOLPF after vaccination. In Experiment I, a significant increase in percentages of CD4 + T lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius, cecal tonsils and spleen, CD8 + T lymphocytes in the thymus and spleen, CD4 + CD8 + T lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius and ileal mucosa and IgM + B lymphocyte in the ileal mucosa were observed in group 2 chickens. In Experiment I, a significant increase in percentages of CD4 + T lymphocytes in the thymus and spleen, CD8+ T lymphocytes in the cecal tonsils and blood, and CD4 + CD8 + T lymphocytes in the thymus and ileal mucosa was recorded in group 2 turkeys. No differences in percentages of IgM + B lymphocytes were observed between turkey groups. In Experiment II, the highest post-vaccination titers of anti-IB antibodies were observed in group 2, but it was not statistically significant. The results of our study indicate that adiSalmoSOLPF showed immunomodulatory activity in chickens and turkeys. PMID:26648771

  12. Effect of different levels of dietary sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel extract on humoral immune system responses in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Pourhossein, Zohreh; Qotbi, Ali Ahmad Alaw; Seidavi, Alireza; Laudadio, Vito; Centoducati, Gerardo; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel extract (SOPE) on humoral immune system responses in broiler chickens. Three hundred 1-day broilers (Ross-308) were randomly allocated to treatments varying in supplemental SOPE added in the drinking water. The experimental groups consisted of three treatments fed for 42 days as follows: a control treatment without feed extract, a treatment containing 1000 ppm of SOPE and a treatment containing 1250 ppm of SOPE. All treatments were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Broilers were vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian influenza (AI), infectious bursal disease (IBD) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines. Antibody titer response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was higher in the group fed 1250 ppm of SOPE (P < 0.05) as well as for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM. Similarly, antibody titer responses to all vaccines were constantly elevated (P < 0.05) by SOPE enrichment in a dose-dependent manner. Relative weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were unaffected by treatments. Dietary SOPE supplementation may improve the immune response and diseases resistance, indicating that it can constitute a useful additive in broiler feeding. Thus, supplying SOPE in rations may help to improve relative immune response in broiler chickens.

  13. Metabolic study of enrofloxacin and metabolic profile modifications in broiler chicken tissues after drug administration.

    PubMed

    Morales-Gutiérrez, F J; Barbosa, J; Barrón, D

    2015-04-01

    In this work, the identification and distribution of the metabolites from enrofloxacin (ENR) in liver, kidney and muscle tissues from broiler chickens subjected to a pharmacological treatment was studied. In addition, qualitative analyses of changes in the metabolic profile in those tissues after drug administration were also investigated. As a result, a total of 31 different metabolites from ENR were identified, which ciprofloxacin (CIP) and desethylene-ENR were the major metabolites. After four days of withdrawal period, most of the metabolites were excreted, but residues of ENR and CIP still persisted in tissues at a concentration under the permitted maximum residue limit (MRL). Non-medicated, medicated and post-treatment samples of chicken tissues were clearly clustered according to their metabolite profile by principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis, which indicates that endogenous metabolites have not returned to their original levels after the withdrawal period. A total of 22 relevant mass features contributing to this separation as potential markers of chicken samples were tentatively identified.

  14. Effect of encapsulated carvacrol on the incidence of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaozhen; Diarra, Moussa S; Zhang, Yonggang; Wang, Qi; Yu, Hai; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong; Gong, Joshua

    2016-06-01

    There is an urgent need to control necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by Clostridium perfringens in chickens when antibiotics are withdrawn from feed. Carvacrol has strong antimicrobial activity and its delivery to the animal intestine can be significantly enhanced after encapsulation. The present study has investigated the potential of encapsulated carvacrol in controlling NE. In general, micro-encapsulation of carvacrol in an alginate-whey protein matrix showed no adverse effect on its antimicrobial activity towards C. perfringens in either Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth or a simulated gastrointestinal model. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of both encapsulated and un-encapsulated carvacrol were approximately 200 μl/l against C. perfringens in BHI. In a broiler infection model with C. perfringens, the diets supplemented with encapsulated carvacrol at the dose of either 250 or 650 μg/g significantly reduced NE in the chicken intestine, which was close to the degree of lesions observed in bacitracin/salinomycin treated birds. Supplementation with either bacitracin/salinomycin or encapsulated carvacrol showed no significant impact on intestinal burden of Lactobacillus. However, the treatment with bacitracin/salinomycin or the low dose of encapsulated carvacrol reduced the level of C. perfringens in the ileum of birds at 35 days of age. These results suggest that our encapsulated carvacrol can be used to combat NE disease in chickens.

  15. Frequency of thermophilic Campylobacter in broiler chickens during industrial processing in a Southern Brazil slaughterhouse.

    PubMed

    Franchin, P R; Ogliari, P J; Batista, C R V

    2007-04-01

    1. The frequency of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. on broiler carcases was determined during processing in a Southern Brazil slaughterhouse. Samples were collected after defeathering, evisceration, water chilling and freezing. In addition, samples were obtained from the water of the chiller tank and from the surface of equipment in direct contact with the chicken. 2. Samples (335) were analysed and 71.3% were positive for Campylobacter. The frequency of Campylobacter spp. on carcases rinsed in BPW and skin samples from carcases was 49 of 72 (68.0%) after defeathering, 50 of 72 (69.4%) after evisceration, 61 of 72 (84.7%) after chilling, and 46 of 72 (63.9%) after freezing. Campylobacter was positive for 21 of 23 (91.3%) samples in the chilling water and for 12 of 24 (50.0%) samples on the table surface. 3. The frequency of qualitative analysis for Campylobacter spp. was reduced in frozen chickens, but not during the slaughtering process. The use of drinking water alone as a decontaminant to reduce the incidence of Campylobacter spp. during slaughter is therefore not sufficient. Furthermore, to ensure food safety, chickens must be cooked properly before consuming.

  16. Broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat, pigs and pork as sources of ExPEC related virulence genes and resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from community-dwelling humans and UTI patients.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Lotte; Spangholm, Daniel J; Pedersen, Karl; Jensen, Lars B; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Agersø, Yvonne; Aarestrup, Frank M; Hammerum, Anette M; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2010-08-15

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections. UTI is primarily caused by extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) from the patients' own fecal flora. The ExPEC often belong to phylogroups B2 and D, the groups which include potent human ExPEC isolates causing UTI, bacteremia, and meningitis. The external sources of these ExPEC in the human intestine are unknown. The food supply may transmit ExPEC to humans. However, evidence of this hypothesis is limited. To assess this hypothesis, the objective of our study was to investigate the presence of ExPEC related virulence genes in E. coli isolates from UTI patients, community-dwelling humans, meat, and production animals. Accordingly, we included 964 geographically and temporally matched E. coli isolates from UTI patients (n=102), community-dwelling humans (n=109), fresh Danish (n=197) and imported broiler chicken meat (n=86), broiler chickens (n=138), fresh Danish (n=177) and imported pork (n=10), and pigs (n=145) in the study. All isolates were investigated for the presence of eight ExPEC related genes (kpsM II, papA, papC, iutA, sfaS, focG, afa, hlyD) using PCR. To investigate any similarities between isolates from the different origins, we performed a cluster analysis including antimicrobial resistance data previously published. We detected seven of the eight ExPEC related genes in isolates from broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork and pigs. Our findings suggest that broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork and pigs could be the source of strains with these ExPEC related virulence genes in community-dwelling humans and UTI patients. Especially detection of ExPEC related virulence genes in isolates belonging to phylogroups B2 and D is very concerning and may have a significant medical impact. The cluster analysis of virulence gene and antimicrobial resistance profiles showed strong similarities between UTI patient, community-dwelling human isolates, meat, and

  17. Comparison of three lines of broiler breeders differing in ascites susceptibility or growth rate. 1. Relationship between acoustic resonance data and embryonic or hatching parameters.

    PubMed

    Tona, K; Kemps, B; Bruggeman, V; Bamelis, F; De Smit, L; Onagbesan, O; De Baerdemaeker, J; Decuypere, E

    2005-09-01

    indicates that sensitivity to ascites and selection for rapid growth rate in ascites-sensitive lines have different effects on embryonic parameters. We concluded that the sensitivity of broiler breeders to ascites does not influence egg internal quality, but the occurrence of ascites sensitivity in broilers could not be reliably predicted by early in ovo acoustic resonance parameters and hatching events.

  18. A study of Aspergillus niger- hydrolyzed cassava peel meal as a carbohydrate source on the histology of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Adeyemo, Adeyemi Isaiah; Sani, Alhassan; Aderibigbe, Temitayo Abosede; Abdurrasheed, Muhammed Ola; Agbolade, James Oludare

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of hydrolysed cassava peel inclusion as a replacement for maize in broiler chicken feedstuff on the histology of the internal organs of broiler chickens. Thirty six, two weeks old unsexed broiler chickens were used for the study in a feeding trial of forty two days. The chickens were randomly allocated to six dietary treatments A - F using a completely randomized design. Each treatment group contained two replicates of three broiler chickens. Group A chickens (A1 and A2) were fed with the control diet (0% hydrolyzed cassava peel as main carbon source). Groups B-E (in replicates 1 and 2) were administered with experimental diets containing 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% of hydrolyzed cassava peels respectively replacing maize while group F (F1 and F2) were fed with diet containing 100% unhydrolyzed cassava peels replacing maize as the main carbon source. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum for the six weeks feeding trials period. Vaccine and drugs were administered as at when due. At the end of the third week, two replicate per group were fasted for twelve hours and slaughtered. Samples of liver, kidney and heart were collected and tissue samples were taken for histological examinations. All the chickens in group F that fed on unhydrolyzed cassava peel recorded 100% mortality within the first six days of the feeding trials while those in groups A to E recorded 0% mortality. Histology of the kidney, heart and liver showed increasing mark of coagulative necrosis, degeneration of the hepatocytes and vacuolations due to the shrinking of the hepatocellular and cardiac tissues as the cassava inclusion level increases in feed. It is concluded that birds can be fed with maize replaced with up to 50% hydrolyzed cassava peel in chicken feeds without serious deleterious effects and that the wastes have useful products in animal nutrition. Also, the replacement added economic in chicken production. The hydrolysis has led to a

  19. Effects of heat stress on the gene expression of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens ( Gallus gallus domesticus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Zhang, Haichao; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang

    2015-02-01

    In broiler chickens, heat stress disrupts nutrient digestion and absorption. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not clearly understood. Hence, to investigate the effects of high ambient temperatures on the expression levels of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens, seventy-two 35-day-old male broiler chickens with similar body weights were randomly allocated into two groups: control (24 ± 1 °C) and heat-stressed (32 ± 1 °C). The chickens in the heat-stressed group were exposed to 10 h of heat daily from 08:00 to 18:00 and then raised at 24 ± 1 °C. The rectal temperature and feed intake of the chickens were recorded daily. After 7 days, nine chickens per group were sacrificed by exsanguination, and the jejunum was collected. The results show that heat exposure significantly decreased the feed intake and increased the rectal temperature of the broiler chickens. The plasma concentrations of uric acid and triglyceride significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in the heat-stressed group. No significant differences in the levels of plasma glucose, total amino acids, and very low-density lipoprotein were observed between the heat-stressed and control groups. However, the plasma concentration of glucose tended to be higher ( P = 0.09) in the heat-stressed group than in the control group. Heat exposure did not significantly affect the mRNA levels of Na+-dependent glucose transporter 1 and amino acid transporters y + LAT1, CAT1, r-BAT, and PePT-1. However, the expression levels of GLUT-2, FABP1, and CD36 were significantly decreased by heat exposure. The results of this study provide new insights into the mechanisms by which heat stress affects nutrient absorption in broiler chickens. Our findings suggest that periodic heat exposure might alter the jejunal glucose and lipid transport rather than amino acid transport. However, intestinal epithelial damage and cell loss should be considered when interpreting the effects of heat

  20. Effects of heat stress on the gene expression of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaolei; Zhang, Haichao; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang

    2015-02-01

    In broiler chickens, heat stress disrupts nutrient digestion and absorption. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not clearly understood. Hence, to investigate the effects of high ambient temperatures on the expression levels of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens, seventy-two 35-day-old male broiler chickens with similar body weights were randomly allocated into two groups: control (24 ± 1 °C) and heat-stressed (32 ± 1 °C). The chickens in the heat-stressed group were exposed to 10 h of heat daily from 08:00 to 18:00 and then raised at 24 ± 1 °C. The rectal temperature and feed intake of the chickens were recorded daily. After 7 days, nine chickens per group were sacrificed by exsanguination, and the jejunum was collected. The results show that heat exposure significantly decreased the feed intake and increased the rectal temperature of the broiler chickens. The plasma concentrations of uric acid and triglyceride significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in the heat-stressed group. No significant differences in the levels of plasma glucose, total amino acids, and very low-density lipoprotein were observed between the heat-stressed and control groups. However, the plasma concentration of glucose tended to be higher (P = 0.09) in the heat-stressed group than in the control group. Heat exposure did not significantly affect the mRNA levels of Na(+)-dependent glucose transporter 1 and amino acid transporters y + LAT1, CAT1, r-BAT, and PePT-1. However, the expression levels of GLUT-2, FABP1, and CD36 were significantly decreased by heat exposure. The results of this study provide new insights into the mechanisms by which heat stress affects nutrient absorption in broiler chickens. Our findings suggest that periodic heat exposure might alter the jejunal glucose and lipid transport rather than amino acid transport. However, intestinal epithelial damage and cell loss should be considered when interpreting

  1. Effect of dietary supplementation of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sarangi, Nihar Ranjan; Babu, L. K.; Kumar, A.; Pradhan, C. R.; Pati, P. K.; Mishra, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementations of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 360 1-day-old Vencobb broiler chickens of either sex were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments each consisting of three replicates and each replicate having 30 birds for 6 weeks. The dietary treatments were (1) control group with basal diet, (2) basal diet supplemented with prebiotic (at 400 g/tonne of starter as well as finisher ration), (3) basal diet supplemented with probiotic (at 100 g/tonne of starter ration and 50 g/tonne of finisher ration), and (4) basal diet supplemented with synbiotic(at 500 g/tonne of starter as well as finisher ration). The birds were provided with ad-libitum feed and drinking water during the entire experimental period. Results: The highest body weight observed in asynbiotic group, which was non-significantly (p>0.05) higher than thecontrol group. Prebiotic and probiotic groups showed lower body weight than synbiotic and control groups. A total feed intake did not show any significant (p>0.05) difference between experimental groups. There were no significant (p>0.05) differences in feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens in prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic groups as compared with control group. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the carcass traits with respect to dressing percentage, carcass percentage, heart weight, liver weight and gizzard weight, wing percentage, breast percentage, back percentage, thigh percentage, and drumstick percentage in Cobb broilers under study. Conclusion: The growth performance and percentage of carcass yield did not show any significant increase by the dietary inclusion of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic compared with unsupplemented control in a commercial broiler chicken. PMID:27057118

  2. Digestion of fat and fatty acids along the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tancharoenrat, P; Ravindran, V; Zaefarian, F; Ravindran, G

    2014-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted. The first experiment investigated the digestion of fat and fatty acids (FA) from soybean oil and tallow along the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens. The second experiment was conducted to determine endogenous fat and FA losses and the FA profile of chicken bile. In experiment 1, 2-wk-old broilers were fed corn-soy diets supplemented with 50 g/kg of soybean oil or tallow for 7 d and digesta were collected from the duodenum, upper jejunum, upper ileum, and lower ileum. Apparent digestibility coefficients were calculated using the titanium marker ratio in diets, and digesta. Digestibility of fat was determined to be negative in the duodenum, indicating marked net secretion of fat into this segment. Fat was rapidly digested in the jejunum, with digestibility coefficients of 0.60 to 0.64 being determined at the end of the jejunum. The digestion of fat continued in the upper ileum. The apparent digestibility coefficient of fat determined at lower ileum in soybean oil diets was higher (P < 0.05) than that in tallow diets (0.82 vs. 0.74). Linoleic acid was digested throughout the intestinal tract, whereas the digestion of palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids started only in the jejunum. Measurements at the lower ileal level showed that the unsaturated FA (linoleic and oleic acids) were well digested (0.90 to 0.94), irrespective of the source of fat. In contrast, the digestibility of saturated FA (palmitic and stearic acids) was influenced (P < 0.05) by the fat source. Digestibility coefficients of palmitic and stearic acids at lower ileum were markedly higher (P < 0.05) in the diet containing soybean oil (0.77 to 0.85) compared with that containing tallow (0.58 to 0.68). In experiment 2, ileal endogenous fat loss was determined to be 1,714 mg/kg of DM intake. Endogenous fat was composed mainly of palmitic (75 g/kg), stearic (131 g/kg), oleic (73 g/kg), linoleic (133 g/kg), and arachidonic (60 g/kg) acids. Fatty acid profile of

  3. Sensorial quality and bone strength of female and male broiler chickens are influenced by weight and growth rate.

    PubMed

    Erdal, R; Richardson, I; Ljøkjel, K; Haug, A

    2012-01-01

    1. An experiment was conducted with 98 male and 98 female broiler chickens (Ross 308) to study the effect of growth rate, induced by different dietary means, sex and live weight (1500 g and 2000 g) at slaughter on production parameters, bone strength and sensorial characteristics of the breast meat. 2. The birds were divided into four groups and individually fed a standard commercial diet, a high energy diet or low energy diet from d 11 to slaughter at between d 28 and 39. Three groups were fed ad libitum and a further group was fed a restricted amount of the high energy feed. Half of the birds in each group were slaughtered at approximately 1500 g and the other half at 2000 g live weight. 3. The diets resulted in different growth rates. The chickens fed the high energy and the commercial diet had the highest growth rate at both live weights at slaughter. The restricted fed chickens had lower bone strength than the chickens fed the low energy diet. 4. Breast meat from male broilers was juicer, more tender and less hard than breast meat from females. Chickens slaughtered at 2000 g live weight were juicer than those slaughtered at 1500 g. Chickens given the high energy feed ad libitum and restricted had different growth rates, but the sensory parameter related to texture showed no difference. 5. It was concluded that an increased slaughter weight might improve meat quality due to improved juiciness.

  4. Studies on Emblica officinalis derived tannins for their immunostimulatory and protective activities against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kaleem, Qari Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Zafar, Muddassar; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir; Anwar, Muhammad Irfan

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO) derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT) and commercial tannins (CT) were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) by haemagglutination assay. Protective efficacy of tannins was measured against coccidial infection, induced by Eimeria species. Results revealed higher geomean titers against SRBCs in chickens administered with EOT as compared to those administered with CT and control group. Mean oocysts per gram of droppings were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in EOT administered chickens as compared to control group. Lesion scoring also showed the lowest caecal and intestinal lesion score of mild to moderate intensity in chickens administered with EOT. Further, significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily body weight gains and antibody titers were detected in EOT administered chickens as compared to those of CT administered and control groups. EOT showed the immunostimulatory properties in broilers and their administration in chickens boost the protective immunity against coccidiosis.

  5. Studies on Emblica officinalis Derived Tannins for Their Immunostimulatory and Protective Activities against Coccidiosis in Industrial Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kaleem, Qari Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Zafar, Muddassar; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO) derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT) and commercial tannins (CT) were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) by haemagglutination assay. Protective efficacy of tannins was measured against coccidial infection, induced by Eimeria species. Results revealed higher geomean titers against SRBCs in chickens administered with EOT as compared to those administered with CT and control group. Mean oocysts per gram of droppings were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in EOT administered chickens as compared to control group. Lesion scoring also showed the lowest caecal and intestinal lesion score of mild to moderate intensity in chickens administered with EOT. Further, significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily body weight gains and antibody titers were detected in EOT administered chickens as compared to those of CT administered and control groups. EOT showed the immunostimulatory properties in broilers and their administration in chickens boost the protective immunity against coccidiosis. PMID:24578631

  6. Immune Response of Salmonella Challenged Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Gallipro®, a Bacillus subtilis Probiotic.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Ali Asghar; Shawrang, Parvin; Shakorzadeh, Shirin

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding a probiotic, Bacillus subtilis, on antibody titers against Newcastle and infectious bursal viruses in broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis. One hundred and sixty 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four treatments in a completely randomized design. The treatments were negative control, probiotic-treated group, challenged group, and challenged probiotic treated group. Salmonella challenging decreased (P < 0.05) the relative weights of spleen and bursa. Inclusion of probiotic to diet of challenged chickens increased the relative weight of spleen, but had no effect on the relative weight of bursa. There were no differences for the antibody titers of chickens between negative control and probiotic-treated group. Salmonella challenging decreased (P < 0.05) antibody titers against Newcastle and infectious bursal viruses. Improvements in the antibody titers were observed by the addition of probiotic to diet of these chickens. The results showed that dietary inclusion of probiotic had no significant effect on immune parameters of chickens at non-contaminated environment, display a greater efficacy at environment contaminated with pathogen and can improve immune responses of infected chickens.

  7. Effect of feeder space during the growing and laying periods and the rate of feed increase at the onset of lay on broiler breeder female reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Leksrisompong, N; Romero-Sanchez, H; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Brake, J

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted to examine how 2 feeder space allocations during the rearing period followed by 2 feeder space allocations after photostimulation and 2 female feeding to peak programs (fast or slow) affected female broiler breeder reproductive performance and mortality. Sixteen pens of 76 breeder females each were equipped with either 4 tube feeders with a 132 cm circumference pan (7.0 cm/female) or 6 feeders (10.4 cm/female) to 21 wk of age. Thereafter, 64 females were moved to breeding pens, photostimulated, and fed sex-separate from either 3 (6.2 cm/female) or 5 (10.3 cm/female) feeders with either fast or slow feeding to peak feeding programs applied to complete a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. Seven males that were separately reared in a similar manner were added per pen. Individual female BW was determined at 6, 20, and 32 wk of age and BW uniformity assessed. Greater feeder space during rearing increased BW at 32 wk of age, whereas greater feeder space during lay or slow feeding to peak decreased BW at 32 wk. There were no differences in BW uniformity. Hens from the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination produced a significantly greater number of eggs as compared with the 7.0 to 10.3 cm/female and 10.4 to 6.2 cm/female combinations with the 7.0 to 6.2 cm/female combination intermediate. Percentage hen-day egg production of the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination hens was significantly greater than all other combinations. Livability was improved in the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination relative to the 7.0 to 10.3 cm/female combination with the others intermediate. The fast feeding to peak program increased yolk weight as well as yolk:albumen ratio at 28 and 30 wk of age, but egg weight did not differ. These data indicated that increased or decreased feeder space between the growing and laying periods did not affect broiler breeder female BW, uniformity, egg weight, fertility, or hatchability. The 10.3 cm/female laying feeder space exhibited the best hen

  8. Association of increased rate of condemnation of broiler carcasses due to hepatic abnormalities with immunosuppressive diseases in the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Keyvan; Zachar, Tara; Popowich, Shelly; Knezacek, Tennille; Goodhope, Bob; Willson, Philip; Gomis, Susantha

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the causative agents of hepatitis observed in broiler chickens at processing. Livers of chickens from 16 broiler farms in Saskatchewan with gross lesions of hepatitis were collected at processing. In addition to routine bacterial isolation and histopathological examination, serologic studies for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and Chicken anaemia virus (CAV), calculation of the ratio of the weight of the bursa of Fabricius (BF) to body weight (BBW), and histopathological examination of the BF were done. Of the 264 livers with gross lesions, 83% had multifocal to coalescing necrotizing hepatitis, 16% had perihepatitis, and 1% had hemorrhages. No definitive causative microorganisms were isolated from the hepatic lesions; however, no significant bacterial isolations were made. Bursal atrophy, low BBW ratio, and high titer of antibody against IBDV each correlated with the rate of total condemnations (P = 0.0188, P = 0.0001, and P = 0.0073, respectively). Nucleotide sequencing of IBDV isolated from the BF identified the variant strains Delaware-E and 586. Condemnation because of hepatic lesions was correlated with titer of antibody against IBDV and BBW (P = 0.016 and P = 0.027). The results of this study demonstrate that hepatic lesions in Saskatchewan chickens are not currently caused by a primary bacterial pathogen but are associated with indicators of immunosuppression that is likely due to variant IBDV. PMID:26424905

  9. Identification of Potential Biomarkers for Gut Barrier Failure in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Juxing; Tellez, Guillermo; Richards, James D.; Escobar, Jeffery

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify potential biomarkers for gut barrier failure in chickens. A total of 144 day-of-hatch Ross 308 male broiler chickens were housed in 24 battery cages with six chicks per cage. Cages were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON) or gut barrier failure (GBF) group. During the first 13 days, birds in CON or GBF groups were fed a common corn–soy starter diet. On day 14, CON chickens were switched to a corn grower diet, and GBF chickens were switched to rye–wheat–barley grower diet. In addition, on day 21, GBF chickens were orally challenged with a coccidiosis vaccine. At days 21 and 28, birds were weighed by cage and feed intake was recorded to calculate feed conversion ratio. At day 28, one chicken from each cage was euthanized to collect intestinal samples for morphometric analysis, blood for serum, and intestinal mucosa scrapings for gene expression. Overall performance and feed efficiency was severely affected (P < 0.05) by a GBF model when compared with CON group at days 21 and 28. Duodenum of GBF birds had wider villi, longer crypt depth, and higher crypt depth/villi height ratio than CON birds. Similarly, GBF birds had longer crypt depth in jejunum and ileum when compared with CON birds. Protein levels of endotoxin and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) in serum, as well as mRNA levels of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β4, and fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) 6 were increased (P < 0.05) in GBF birds compared to CON birds; however, mRNA levels of FABP2, occludin, and mucin 2 (MUC2) were reduced by 34% (P < 0.05), 24% (P = 0.107), and 29% (P = 0.088), respectively, in GBF birds compared to CON birds. The results from the present study suggest that serum endotoxin and AGP, as well as, gene expression of FABP2, FABP6, IL-8, IL-1β, TGF-β4, occludin, and MUC2 in mucosa may work as potential biomarkers for gut barrier health in chickens. PMID:26664943

  10. A comparison survey of organic and conventional broiler chickens for infectious agents affecting health and food safety.

    PubMed

    Van Overbeke, I; Duchateau, L; De Zutter, L; Albers, G; Ducatelle, R

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the health status of organic broiler chickens and the contamination rate with Salmonella and Campylobacter in organic broiler production in Belgium. The broilers were screened for antibodies against routinely monitored poultry diseases at 1 day old and at slaughter. Fecal examination for the presence of worm eggs was done at slaughter. Bacteriological examination for the detection of Salmonella and Campylobacter was performed at day 1, week 2, week 4, week 7, week 10, and slaughter. Conventional broilers of the same poultry integration and reared in the same geographic area were also screened and served as reference. Serologic data indicated lower antibody titers against infectious bronchitis and Newcastle disease in organic flocks. No significant differences could be found in prevalence of Salmonella between organic and conventional broilers at slaughter. In contrast, Campylobacter infections at slaughter were significantly higher in organic flocks. Organic flocks most probably become infected with Campylobacter between week 7 and week 10. Worm eggs were found in neither the organic flocks nor the conventional flocks. In conclusion, there are indications that the respiratory health status is better in organic broilers but that organic flocks are more often infected with Campylobacter than are conventional flocks.

  11. Intestinal Microbiota of Broiler Chickens As Affected by Litter Management Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingling; Lilburn, Mike; Yu, Zhongtang

    2016-01-01

    Poultry litter is a mixture of bedding materials and enteric bacteria excreted by chickens, and it is typically reused for multiple growth cycles in commercial broiler production. Thus, bacteria can be transmitted from one growth cycle to the next via litter. However, it remains poorly understood how litter reuse affects development and composition of chicken gut microbiota. In this study, the effect of litter reuse on the microbiota in litter and in chicken gut was investigated using 2 litter management regimens: fresh vs. reused litter. Samples of ileal mucosa and cecal digesta were collected from young chicks (10 days of age) and mature birds (35 days of age). Based on analysis using DGGE and pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons, the microbiota of both the ileal mucosa and the cecal contents was affected by both litter management regimen and age of birds. Faecalibacterium, Oscillospira, Butyricicoccus, and one unclassified candidate genus closely related to Ruminococcus were most predominant in the cecal samples, while Lactobacillus was predominant in the ileal samples at both ages and in the cecal samples collected at day 10. At days 10 and 35, 8 and 3 genera, respectively, in the cecal luminal microbiota differed significantly in relative abundance between the 2 litter management regimens. Compared to the fresh litter, reused litter increased predominance of halotolerant/alkaliphilic bacteria and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a butyrate-producing gut bacterium. This study suggests that litter management regimens affect the chicken GI microbiota, which may impact the host nutritional status and intestinal health. PMID:27242676

  12. Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Escherichia coli mixed infection model in broiler chickens for studying valnemulin pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Xiao, X; Zhao, D H; Yang, X; Shi, W; Deng, H; Ma, J; Zhang, S; Liu, Y H

    2014-02-01

    A Mycoplasma gallisepticum-Escherichia coli mixed infection model was developed in broiler chickens, which was applied to pharmacokinetics of valnemulin in the present experiment. The velogenic M. gallisepticum standard strain S6 was rejuvenated to establish the animal model, and the wild E. coli strain O78 was injected as supplementary inoculum to induce chronic respiratory disease in chickens. The disease model was evaluated based on its clinical signs, histopathological examination, bacteriological assay, and serum plate agglutination test. The pharmacokinetics of valnemulin in infected chickens was determined by intramuscular (i.m.) injection and oral administration (per os, p.o.) of a single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (BW). Plasma samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The plasma concentration-time curve of valnemulin was analyzed using the noncompartmental method. After the i.m. administration, the mean values of Cmax , Tmax , AUClast , MRT, CLβ /F, Vz /F, and t1⁄2β , were 27.94 μg/mL, 1.57 h, 171.63 μg·h/mL, 4.51 h, 0.06 L/h/kg, 0.56 L/kg, and 6.50 h, respectively. By contrast, the corresponding values after p.o. administration were 5.93 μg/mL, 7.14 h, 47.60 μg·h/mL, 9.80 h, 0.22 L/h/kg, 3.35 L/kg, and 10.60 h. The disposition of valnemulin was retarded in infected chickens after both modes of extravascular administration as compared to the healthy controls. More attention should be given to monitoring the therapeutic efficacy and adverse effects of mixed infection because of higher required plasma drug concentration and enlarged AUC with valnemulin treatment.

  13. Effect of inclusion level of linseed on the nutrient utilisation of diets for growing broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M L; Alzueta, C; Rebolé, A; Ortiz, L T; Centeno, C; Treviño, J

    2001-07-01

    1. Diets containing linseed at inclusions of 0, 80, 120 and 160 g/kg were evaluated for digestibility of nutrients and AMEn content with male broiler chickens. 2. Increasing the concentration of linseed decreased the retention of nitrogen and the digestibility of amino acids, crude fat and fatty acids of diets. 3. Dietary AMEn (MJ/kg) was also affected by the rate of inclusion of linseed, values decreasing from 14.39 to 12.49. 4. In general, a linear regression model explained the relationship between dietary linseed content and nutritive parameters. However, the quadratic response found for the digestibility of several amino acids and fatty acids indicated a non-additive change in their digestibility. 5. Viscosity ofjejunal digesta was markedly increased by each increment of linseed in the diets. This is attributable to the presence of mucilage in linseed and it might explain many of the results obtained in this study.

  14. Molecular typing and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens from broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Saad; Al Rifai, Rami; Al-Majali, Ahmad

    2010-12-01

    Clostridium perfringens (Cp) causes necrotic enteritis disease in commercial poultry. Antimicrobials are used to control and treat this disease and sometimes clinical outbreaks do not respond well to certain treatments. This study was designed to isolate Cp from clinical cases, type these isolates by multiplex PCR, and determine their antimicrobial susceptibility by micro-dilution method. A total of 67 Cp isolates were obtained from 155 broiler chicken flocks. All isolates were classified as type A and non-enterotoxin producers. Lincomycin, erythromycins, and tilmicosin showed very high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 50 of ≥256 μg/ml. However, tylosin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, penicillin, florfenicol, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, and oxytetracycline had variable MIC₅₀ of 64, 0.5, 1, 1, 8, 4, 8, 4, 8, 0.5 μg/ml, respectively. It is recommended that Cp infections in Jordan be treated with either penicillins or tetracyclines especially amoxicillin and oxytetracycline.

  15. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and cereals differently affect gut development in broiler chickens and young pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haoyu; Ivarsson, Emma; Lundh, Torbjörn; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-12-17

    Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P < 0.01). In contrast, a decreased TTAD of all fiber fractions was observed in chickens fed on diet CF120 (P < 0.05). Moreover, diet induced changes in gut morphology were observed in the large intestine of chickens. The alteration of cecal mucosal thickness was further positively correlated with TTAD of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and its constituent sugars (P < 0.05). In addition, in pigs, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of intestinal microbiota revealed substantial dietary effects (cereal control diet vs. chicory forage inclusion) on the relative abundance of 2 dominant bacterial phylotypes (Prevotella sp. vs. Roseburia sp

  16. Accelerated tissue aging and increased oxidative stress in broiler chickens fed allopurinol.

    PubMed

    Klandorf, H; Rathore, D S; Iqbal, M; Shi, X; Van Dyke, K

    2001-06-01

    Uric acid has been hypothesized as being one of the more important antioxidants in limiting the accumulation of glycosylated endproducts in birds. Study 1 was designed to quantitatively manipulate the plasma concentrations of uric acid using hemin and allopurinol while study 2 determined their effects on skin pentosidine, the shear force value of Pectoralis major muscle, plasma glucose, body weight and chemiluminescence monitored oxidative stress in broiler chickens. Hemin was hypothesized to raise uric acid concentrations thereby lowering oxidative stress whereas allopurinol was hypothesized to lower uric acid concentrations and raise measures of oxidative stress. In study 1 feeding allopurinol (10 mg/kg body weight) to 8-week-old broiler chicks (n=50) for 10 days decreased plasma uric acid by 57%. However, hemin (10 mg/kg body weight) increased uric acid concentrations 20%. In study 2, 12-week-old broiler chicks (n=90) were randomly assigned to either an ad libitum (AL) diet or a diet restricted (DR) group. Each group was further divided into three treatments (control, allopurinol or hemin fed). Unexpectedly, hemin did not significantly effect uric acid concentrations but increased (P<0.05) measures of chemiluminescence dependent oxidative stress in both the DR and AL birds probably due to the ability of iron to generate oxygen radicals. Allopurinol lowered concentrations of uric acid and increased (P<0.05) the oxidative stress in the AL birds at week 22, reduced (P<0.05) body weight in both the AL and DR fed birds at 16 and 22 weeks of age, and markedly increased (P<0.001) shear force values of the pectoralis major muscle. Skin pentosidine levels increased (P<0.05) in AL birds fed allopurinol or hemin fed birds, but not in the diet restricted birds at 22 weeks. The significance of these studies is that concentrations of plasma uric acid can be related to measures of oxidative stress, which can be linked to tissue aging.

  17. Protection Against Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens by Regulated Delayed Lysis Salmonella Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanlong; Mo, Hua; Willingham, Crystal; Wang, Shifeng; Park, Jie-Yeun; Kong, Wei; Roland, Kenneth L; Curtiss, Roy

    2015-12-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE), caused by Gram-positive Clostridium perfringens type A strains, has gained more attention in the broiler industry due to governmental restrictions affecting the use of growth-promoting antibiotics in feed. To date, there is only one commercial NE vaccine available, based on the C. perfringens alpha toxin. However, recent work has suggested that the NetB toxin, not alpha toxin, is the most critical virulence factor for causing NE. These findings notwithstanding, it is clear from prior research that immune responses against both toxins can provide some protection against NE. In this study, we delivered a carboxyl-terminal fragment of alpha toxin and a GST-NetB fusion protein using a novel attenuated Salmonella vaccine strain designed to lyse after 6-10 rounds of replication in the chicken host. We immunized birds with vaccine strains producing each protein individually, a mixture of the two strains, or with a single vaccine strain that produced both proteins. Immunization with strains producing either of the single proteins was not protective, but immunization with a mixture of the two or with a single strain producing both proteins resulted in protective immunity. The vaccine strain synthesizing both PlcC and GST-NetB was able to elicit strong production of intestinal IgA, IgY, and IgM antibodies and significantly protect broilers against C. perfringens challenge against both mild and severe challenges. Although not part of our experimental plan, the broiler chicks we obtained for these studies were apparently contaminated during transit from the hatchery with group D Salmonella. Despite this drawback, the vaccines worked well, indicating applicability to real-world conditions.

  18. Energy Value of Cassava Products in Broiler Chicken Diets with or without Enzyme Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, M M; Iji, P A

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the metabolizable energy (ME) intake, net energy of production (NEp), heat production (HP), efficiencies of ME use for energy, lipid and protein retention as well as the performance of broiler chickens fed diets based on cassava chips or pellets with or without supplementation with an enzyme product containing xylanase, amylase, protease and phytase. The two products, cassava chips and pellets, were analysed for nutrient composition prior to feed formulation. The cassava chips and pellets contained 2.2% and 2.1% crude protein; 1.2% and 1.5% crude fat; and 75.1% and 67.8% starch, respectively. Lysine and methionine were 0.077%, 0.075%, and 0.017%, 0.020% protein material, respectively, while calculated ME was 12.6 and 11.7 MJ/kg, respectively. Feed intake to day 21 was lower (p<0.01) on the diet containing cassava chips compared to diets with cassava pellets. Enzyme supplementation increased (p<0.01) feed intake on all diets. Live weight at day 21 was significantly (p<0.01) reduced on the diet based on cassava chips compared to pellets, but an improvement (p<0.01) was noticed with the enzyme supplementation. Metabolizable energy intake was reduced (p<0.01) by both cassava chips and pellets, but was increased (p<0.01) on all diets by enzyme supplementation. The NEp was higher (p<0.01) in the maize-based diets than the diets containing cassava. Enzyme supplementation improved (p<0.01) NEp in all the diets. Heat production was highest (p<0.01) on diets containing cassava pellets than on cassava chips. It is possible to use cassava pellets in diets for broiler chickens at a level close to 50% of the diet to reduce cost of production, and the nutritive value of such diets can be improved through supplementation of enzyme products containing carbohydrases, protease, and phytase.

  19. Evaluation of phytate-degrading Lactobacillus culture administration to broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Askelson, Tyler E; Campasino, Ashley; Lee, Jason T; Duong, Tri

    2014-02-01

    Probiotics have been demonstrated to promote growth, stimulate immune responses, and improve food safety of poultry. While widely used, their effectiveness is mixed, and the mechanisms through which they contribute to poultry production are not well understood. Microbial phytases are increasingly supplemented in feed to improve digestibility and reduce antinutritive effects of phytate. The microbial origin of these exogenous enzymes suggests a potentially important mechanism of probiotic functionality. We investigated phytate degradation as a novel probiotic mechanism using recombinant Lactobacillus cultures expressing Bacillus subtilis phytase. B. subtilis phyA was codon optimized for expression in Lactobacillus and cloned into the expression vector pTRK882. The resulting plasmid, pTD003, was transformed into Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, and Lactobacillus gasseri. SDS-PAGE revealed a protein in the culture supernatants of Lactobacillus pTD003 transformants with a molecular weight similar to that of the B. subtilis phytase. Expression of B. subtilis phytase increased phytate degradation of L. acidophilus, L. gasseri, and L. gallinarum approximately 4-, 10-, and 18-fold over the background activity of empty-vector transformants, respectively. Phytase-expressing L. gallinarum and L. gasseri were administered to broiler chicks fed a phosphorus-deficient diet. Phytase-expressing L. gasseri improved weight gain of broiler chickens to a level comparable to that for chickens fed a control diet adequate in phosphorus, demonstrating proof of principle that administration of phytate-degrading probiotic cultures can improve performance of livestock animals. This will inform future studies investigating whether probiotic cultures are able to provide both the performance benefits of feed enzymes and the animal health and food safety benefits traditionally associated with probiotics.

  20. Digestibility of solvent-treated Jatropha curcas kernel by broiler chickens in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Nesseim, Thierry Daniel Tamsir; Dieng, Abdoulaye; Mergeai, Guy; Ndiaye, Saliou; Hornick, Jean-Luc

    2015-12-01

    Jatropha curcas is a drought-resistant shrub belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family. The kernel contains approximately 60 % lipid in dry matter, and the meal obtained after oil extraction could be an exceptional source of protein for family poultry farming, in the absence of curcin and, especially, some diterpene derivatives phorbol esters that are partially lipophilic. The nutrient digestibility of J. curcas kernel meal (JKM), obtained after partial physicochemical deoiling was thus evaluated in broiler chickens. Twenty broiler chickens, 6 weeks old, were maintained in individual metabolic cages and divided into four groups of five animals, according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design where deoiled JKM was incorporated into grinded corn at 0, 4, 8, and 12 % levels (diets 0, 4, 8, and 12 J), allowing measurement of nutrient digestibility by the differential method. The dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) digestibility of diets was affected to a low extent by JKM (85 and 86 % in 0 J and 81 % in 12 J, respectively) in such a way that DM and OM digestibility of JKM was estimated to be close to 50 %. The ether extract (EE) digestibility of JKM remained high, at about 90 %, while crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) digestibility were largely impacted by JKM, with values closed to 40 % at the highest levels of incorporation. J. curcas kernel presents various nutrient digestibilities but has adverse effects on CP and CF digestibility of the diet. The effects of an additional heat or biological treatment on JKM remain to be assessed.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline in broiler chickens following different routes of administration.

    PubMed

    Ziółkowski, Hubert; Grabowski, Tomasz; Jasiecka, Agnieszka; Zuśka-Prot, Monika; Barski, Dariusz; Jaroszewski, Jerzy J

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline (OTC) in broiler chickens following intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), subcutaneous (SC) and oral (PO) administrations at a dose of 15 mg/kg bodyweight. Plasma concentrations of OTC were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was then conducted. The absorption half-life time was 1.23 ± 0.36 h, 1.19 ± 0.52 h, and 0.49 ± 0.38 h after IM, SC and PO administration, respectively. The elimination half-life time was 27.41 ± 6.06 h, 10.23 ± 4.20 h, 7.83 ± 0.56 h, and 14.86 ± 9.23 h, and the mean residence time was 9.67 ± 1.7 h, 11.45 ± 1.76 h, 11.38 ± 0.59 h, and 10.37 ± 3.91 h after IV, IM, SC and PO administration, respectively. Bioavailability was 76.88 ± 12.90%, 92.20 ± 10.53% and 12.13 ± 4.56% after IM, SC and PO administration, respectively, which indicated that OTC is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract in broiler chickens.

  2. Dietary overload lithium decreases the adipogenesis in abdominal adipose tissue of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shiping; Pan, Shuqin; Zhang, Keying; Ding, Xuemei; Wang, Jianping; Zeng, Qiufeng; Xuan, Yue; Su, Zuowei

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the toxic effects of dietary overload lithium on the adipogenesis in adipose tissue of chicken and the role of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) in this process, one-day-old male chicks were fed with the basal diet added with 0 (control) or 100mg lithium/kg diet from lithium chloride (overload lithium) for 35days. Abdominal adipose tissue and hypothalamus were collected at day 6, 14, and 35. As a percentage of body weight, abdominal fat decreased (p<0.001) at day 6, 14, and 35, and feed intake and body weight gain decreased during day 7-14, and day 15-35 in overload lithium treated broilers as compared to control. Adipocyte diameter and DNA content in abdominal adipose tissue were significantly lower in overload-lithium treatment than control at day 35, although no significant differences were observed at day 6 and 14. Dietary overload lithium decreased (p<0.01) transcriptional expression of preadipocyte proliferation makers ki-67 (KI67), microtubule-associated protein homolog (TPX2), and topoisomerase 2-alpha (TOP2A), and preadipocyte differentiation transcriptional factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) α mRNA abundance in abdominal adipose tissue. In hypothalamus, dietary overload lithium influenced (p<0.001) NPY, and NPY receptor (NPYR) 6 mRNA abundance at day 6 and 14, but not at day 35. In conclusion, dietary overload lithium decreased the adipogenesis in abdominal adipose tissue of chicken, which was accompanied by depressing transcriptional expression of adipogenesis-associated factors. Hypothalamic NPY had a potential role in the adipogenesis in abdominal adipose tissue of broilers with a short-term overload lithium treatment.

  3. Evaluating interventions against Salmonella in broiler chickens: applying synthesis research in support of quantitative exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Bucher, O; Fazil, A; Rajić, A; Farrar, A; Wills, R; McEwen, S A

    2012-05-01

    A scoping study and systematic review-meta-analyses (SR-MAs) were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of various interventions for Salmonella in broiler chicken, from grow-out farm to secondary processing. The resulting information was used to inform a quantitative exposure assessment (QEA) comparing various control options within the context of broiler chicken production in Ontario, Canada. Multiple scenarios, including use of two separate on-farm interventions (CF3 competitive exclusion culture and a 2% lactose water additive), a package of processing interventions (a sodium hydroxide scald water disinfectant, a chlorinated post-evisceration spray, a trisodium phosphate pre-chill spray and chlorinated immersion chilling) a package consisting of these farm and processing interventions and a hypothetical scenario (reductions in between-flock prevalence and post-transport concentration), were simulated and compared to a baseline scenario. The package of on-farm and processing interventions was the most effective in achieving relative reductions (compared to baseline with no interventions) in the concentration and prevalence of Salmonella by the end of chilling ranging from 89·94% to 99·87% and 43·88% to 87·78%, respectively. Contaminated carcasses entering defeathering, reductions in concentration due to scalding and post-evisceration washing, and the potential for cross-contamination during chilling had the largest influence on the model outcomes under the current assumptions. Scoping study provided a transparent process for mapping out and selecting promising interventions, while SR-MA was useful for generating more precise and robust intervention effect estimates for QEA. Realization of the full potential of these methods was hampered by low methodological soundness and reporting of primary research in this area.

  4. Estimation of nutrient excretion factors of broiler and layer chickens in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Akifumi; Murakami, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Takahiro; Furuya, Motohiro; Kawahara, Hirofumi; Ohkubo, Takako; Osada, Takashi

    2017-04-01

    We estimated the nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) excretion factors of broiler and layer chickens in Japan, using two approaches and the latest data available. In the top-down approach, we determined the nutrient amounts in the feeds and those in the products (i.e. the liveweight gain, eggs), and the national nutrient excretions were determined as the difference between these amounts. We then calculated the nutrient excretion factors by dividing the national excretions by the number of animals. In the bottom-up approach, we calculated the amounts of nutrients in the feed and product per head using productivity parameters (feed conversion ratio, etc.). The differences between these amounts were considered the nutrient excretion factors. The average nutrient excretion factors of broilers (g/day/head) estimated using the top-down and bottom-up approaches were: N, 1.40 and 1.87; P, 0.36, 0.50; K, 0.54, 0.77; Mg, 0.13, 0.18, respectively. The excretion factors obtained by the top-down approach can be used to calculate the national/regional excretions. The two approaches resulted in almost the same excretion factors for layers, and the average nutrient excretion factors of layers (g/day/head) estimated were: N, 2.20; P, 0.55; K, 0.68; Mg, 0.23. The estimated excretion factors for N (only) are smaller than the reported factors.

  5. Effects of Supplemental Exogenous Emulsifier on Performance, Nutrient Metabolism, and Serum Lipid Profile in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Amitava; Haldar, Sudipto; Mondal, Souvik; Ghosh, Tapan Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The effects of an exogenous emulsifier, glyceryl polyethylene glycol ricinoleate, on performance and carcass traits of broiler chickens were assessed. The emulsifier was added to the diet at dose rates of 0 (control), 1 (E1) and 2 (E2) % of added fat (saturated palm oil). Live weight gain (P < .07) and feed conversion ratio (P < .05) in 39 days were higher in the E1 dietary group. Gain: ME intake and gain: protein intake during the grower phase improved quadratically (P < .05). Gross carcass traits were not affected. Body fat content and fat accretion increased (P < .05) and liver fat content decreased (P < .05) linearly with the level of emulsifier in diet. Fat excretion decreased (P < .001) leading to increased ileal fat digestibility (P < .06) in the E1 group (quadratic response). Metabolizable intake of N (P < .1) and fat (P < .05) increased quadratically due to supplementation of emulsifier in diet. Metabolism of trace elements and serum lipid profiles were not affected. The study revealed that supplementation of exogenous emulsifiers in diets containing moderate quantities of added vegetable fats may substantially improve broiler performance. PMID:20671938

  6. Effect of clinoptilolite on serum biochemical and haematological characters of broiler chickens during aflatoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Oğuz, H; Keçeci, T; Birdane, Y O; Onder, F; Kurtoğlu, V

    2000-08-01

    Clinoptilolite (CLI, a natural zeolite) incorporated into the diet at 1.5 and 2.5 per cent were evaluated for their ability to reduce the deleterious effects of 2.5 mg total aflatoxin (AF) kg(-1)diet on broiler chickens from 1 to 21 days of age. In total 360 broiler chicks were divided into six equal treatment groups (control, AF, CLI (1.5 per cent), AF plus CLI (1.5 per cent), CLI (2.5 per cent) and AF plus CLI (2.5 per cent)). When compared with the controls, AF treatment significantly decreased serum total protein, albumin, inorganic phosphorus, uric acid, total cholesterol and the values of haematocrit, red blood cell counts, mean corpuscular volume, haemoglobin, thrombocyte counts, percentage of monocyte counts; increased values of white blood cell and heterophil counts. The addition of CLI (1.5 per cent) and CLI (2.5 per cent) to the AF -containing diet reduced the adverse effects of AF and should be helpful in a solution to the aflatoxicosis problem in poultry.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of thermophilic Campylobacter from humans, swine, and chicken broilers

    PubMed Central

    Guévremont, Evelyne; Nadeau, Éric; Sirois, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and the distribution of antimicrobial resistance, and the presence of genetic determinants of resistance, in Campylobacter recovered from swine, poultry, and human populations in Quebec. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 10 antimicrobial agents were determined by the agar dilution technique. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the tetO determinant, and mutations in gyrA were analyzed by sequencing and by mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA) PCR. Among C. coli isolates from pigs, the rates of resistance were high, at 59% for clindamycin, 61% for erythromycin, 67% for streptomycin, and 68% for tetracycline; isolates from chicken broilers were mainly resistant to streptomycin and tetracycline, with a rate of 50% for each; and 56% of the isolates from humans were resistant to tetracycline. The rates of resistance among C. jejuni isolates were low except for tetracycline (39% and 67% in humans and broilers, respectively). The tetO determinant was identified among both tetracycline-resistant and tetracycline-susceptible Campylobacter isolates from swine. Sequencing analysis showed that 64% and 100% of ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli isolates from swine and humans, respectively, had the mutation Thr-86→Ile, which is associated with quinolone resistance. The MAMA PCR gave identical results. Further analyses need to be done in order to detect other genetic determinants of tetracycline resistance. PMID:16639939

  8. Prediction of welfare outcomes for broiler chickens using Bayesian regression on continuous optical flow data.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Stephen J; Cain, Russell; Dawkins, Marian Stamp

    2012-12-07

    Currently, assessment of broiler (meat) chicken welfare relies largely on labour-intensive or post-mortem measures of welfare. We here describe a method for continuously and robustly monitoring the welfare of living birds while husbandry changes are still possible. We detail the application of Bayesian modelling to motion data derived from the output of cameras placed in commercial broiler houses. We show that the forecasts produced by the model can be used to accurately assess certain key aspects of the future health and welfare of a flock. The difference between healthy flocks and less-healthy ones becomes predictable days or even weeks before clinical symptoms become apparent. Hockburn (damaged leg skin, usually only seen in birds of two weeks or older) can be well predicted in flocks of only 1-2 days of age, using this approach. Our model combines optical flow descriptors of bird motion with robust multivariate forecasting and provides a sparse, efficient model with sparsity-inducing priors to achieve maximum predictive power with the minimum number of key variables.

  9. Effects of allopurinol on uric acid concentrations, xanthine oxidoreductase activity and oxidative stress in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Carro, M D; Falkenstein, E; Radke, W J; Klandorf, H

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of allopurinol (AL) on xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) activity and uric acid (UA) levels in chickens. Thirty 5-week-old broilers were divided into three groups and fed 0 (control), 25 (AL25) or 50 (AL50) mg AL per kg of body mass for 5 weeks. Chicks were weighed twice weekly and leukocyte oxidative activity (LOA) and plasma purine levels were determined weekly in five birds per group. Chicks were sacrificed after 2 or 5 weeks, and samples from tissues were taken for analysis of XOR activity. Plasma UA concentrations were lower (P<0.001) and xanthine and hypoxanthine concentrations were greater (P<0.001) in AL25 and AL50 birds compared to controls, whereas no differences (P=0.904) were detected in allantoin concentrations. By week 5, body mass was reduced (P<0.001) to 84.0 and 65.1% of that in controls for AL25 and AL50 broilers, respectively, and LOA was 4.1 times greater (P<0.05) in AL25 compared to control birds. Liver XOR activity was increased by 1.1 and 1.2 times in AL25 and AL50 birds, but there was no change (P>0.05) in XOR activity in the pancreas and intestine. These results suggest that AL effect on XOR activity is tissue dependent.

  10. Molecular characterisation of Escherichia coli from dead broiler chickens with signs of colibacillosis and ready-to-market chicken meat in the West Bank.

    PubMed

    Qabajah, M; Awwad, E; Ashhab, Y

    2014-01-01

    1. The aim of this work was to compare a group of virulence-associated characteristics of Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chickens that had died with signs of colibacillosis against E. coli isolates from ready-to-market chicken meat in the West Bank. 2. The isolates were investigated to determine the virulence factor (VF) profile, phylogenetic group and the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). A total of 66 avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains from different affected broiler farms and 21 E. coli isolates from ready-to-market chicken carcasses (hereinafter called meat strains) from 8 slaughter houses were analysed. 3. The overall content of VFs was significantly higher (P < 0.05) among APEC strains, with over 75% of APEC strains having ≥4 VFs, while over 75% of the meat strains had <4 VFs. The VFs iss, astA and iucD were frequently detected in APEC and meat strains, whereas cvi, papC, vat, tsh and irp2 occurred more significantly in APEC strains. Phylogenetic typing showed that 67% of the meat strains belonged to group B2. Phylogroup D was predominant (50%) in the APEC strains. Using double disc diffusion and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 10.6% of the APEC and 9.5% of the meat strains were determined to be ESBL positive. 4. Our findings show that the VFs papC, vat, irp2 and to a lesser extent tsh and cvi are significantly more prevalent in APEC strains. The results demonstrate that chicken meat can be contaminated with APEC strains (≥4 VF). A significant percentage of the meat strains fall in the B2 group, which is a phylogroup largely associated with human pathogenic ExPEC strains. The results of ESBL screening indicated that broiler chicken products in Palestine represent a potential reservoir of ESBL genes and therefore could be considered a possible public health risk.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of difloxacin in healthy and E. coli-infected broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Abo El-Ela, F I; Radi, A M; El-Banna, H A; El-Gendy, A A M; Tohamy, M A

    2014-01-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics of difloxacin were investigated in healthy and E. coli-infected broiler chickens following intravenous and oral administration of a single dose of 10 mg/kg bodyweight. 2. After intravenous injection of difloxacin, the serum concentration-time curves were best described by a two-compartment open model. The distribution and elimination half-lives (t0.5α) and (t0.5el), respectively, were 0.10 ± 0.016 h and 3.7 ± 0.08 h in healthy chickens compared with 0.05 ± 0.005 h and 6.42 ± 0.71 h in E. coli-infected birds. The volumes of distribution Vdss were 3.14 ± 0.11 and 9.25 ± 0.43 l/kg, with total body clearance (Cltot) of 0.65 ± 0.018 and 1.14 ± 0.1 ml/kg/h, respectively. 3. Following oral administration, difloxacin was absorbed with t0.5(ab) of 0.57 ± 0.06 and 0.77 ± 0.04 h and was eliminated with t0.5(el) of 4.7 ± 0.34 and 3.42 ± 0.19, respectively, in normal and infected chickens. The peak serum concentrations were 1.34 ± 0.09 and 1.05 ± 0.06 µg/ml and attained a Tmax of 2.27 ± 0.07 and 2.43 ± 0.06 h, respectively. The systemic bioavailability of difloxacin following oral administration was 86.2% in healthy chickens and 90.6% in E. coli-infected birds. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of difloxacin against the field strain of E. coli O78 in vitro were 0.02 µg and 0.04 µg/ml, respectively. 4. These results show that administration of a therapeutic dose of difloxacin is effective in the treatment of E. coli infection in chickens. The serum concentration of the drug was much higher than the MIC of the E. coli O78 strain in both healthy and infected chickens.

  12. Effects of dietary marigold extract supplementation on growth performance, pigmentation, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuhao; Zhang, Lin; Li, Jiaolong; Cong, Jiahui; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-01-01

    Objective This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with marigold extract on growth performance, pigmentation, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens. Methods A total of 320 one-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were randomly divided into 5 groups with 8 replicates of 8 chickens each. The chickens of control group were fed with basal diet and other experimental groups were fed with basal diet supplemented with 0.075%, 0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.60% marigold extract respectively (the corresponding concentrations of lutein were 15, 30, 60, and 120 mg/kg). Results The results showed that marigold extract supplementation increased the yellowness values of shank, beak, skin and muscle and the redness (a*) value of thigh muscle (linear, p<0.01). Marigold extract supplementation significantly increased the total antioxidant capacity, and the activities of superoxide dismutase in liver and thigh muscle (linear, p<0.01) and significantly decreased the malondialdehyde contents of liver and thigh muscle (linear, p<0.01). Marigold extract supplementation significantly decreased the drip loss and shear force of thigh muscles (linear, p<0.01). There was no significant effect on growth performance with marigold extract supplementation. Conclusion In conclusion, dietary supplementation of marigold extract significantly increased the yellowness values of carcass, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens. PMID:27282969

  13. Changes in apparent metabolizable energy and digestive tract of broiler chickens fed diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Masri, M. R.

    2003-05-01

    Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of feeding broiler chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 kGy), at a rate of 100 g/kg diet, on the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values, using total collection of feed and excreta, during different age periods (14-21, 21-28, 28-35 and 35-42 days) and on the biological aspects of the digestive organs during the last 4 weeks of chickens'age (14-42 days). Results indicated that feeding of broiler chickens with diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal had insignificant effects on the AME values which amounted to an average of 18.6 MJ/kg diet during the four weeks of experimental periods. The AME values increased significantly by 0.36-0.99 MJ/kg diet during the late fourth age period compared with the other earlier three age periods. No significant difference was noticed in the AME values between the second and third experimental age periods. Feeding chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal for 4 weeks (14-42 day of age) had no significant effects on the relative weights of crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caeca, colon, pancreas and liver. Therefore, radiation sterilized meat-bone meal could be used as feedstuff in poultry diets without any deleterious effect on the diet energy utilization and biological aspects of chickens'digestive tract.

  14. Effects of probiotic, Clostridium butyricum, on growth performance, immune function, and cecal microflora in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Yang, C M; Cao, G T; Ferket, P R; Liu, T T; Zhou, L; Zhang, L; Xiao, Y P; Chen, A G

    2012-09-01

    Four hundred and fifty 1-d-old male Lingnan Yellow broiler chickens were used to investigate the effects of Clostridium butyricum on growth performance, immune function, and cecal microflora. The birds were randomly assigned to 5 treatments and offered the same antibiotic-free basal diets for 42 d. The treatments were as follows: no addition (control), 1 × 10(7) cfu C. butyricum/kg of diet (CB1), 2 × 10(7) cfu C. butyricum/kg of diet (CB2), 3 × 10(7) cfu C. butyricum/kg of diet (CB3), and 10 mg of colistine sulfate/kg of diet (antibiotic). Birds fed either CB2 or antibiotic had greater overall BW than those in the control group. During d 1 to 7, d 21 to 42, and d 1 to 42, birds fed either CB2 or CB3 or the antibiotic diet had greater ADG compared with those in the control group. No significant differences were observed in BW or ADG among the CB2, CB3, and antibiotic groups. Birds fed the CB2 or CB3 diet had greater concentrations of IgA and IgG in the serum from d 14 to 42 and greater IgM in the serum from d 21 to 42 than those in the control group. Birds fed the CB3 diet had a greater concentration of complement component 3 in the serum than those in the control group from d 7 to 42. Dietary C. butyricum decreased (P < 0.05) Escherichia coli in cecal contents on d 14 and 42, and both CB2 and CB3 decreased (P < 0.05) cecal Salmonella and Clostridium perfringen from d 14 to 42 compared with the control. Broilers fed either CB2 or CB3 had greater cecal Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium counts from d 21 to 42, and birds fed C. butyricum had greater cecal C. butyricum counts during the whole period compared with those in the control group. The results indicate that C. butyricum promotes growth performance and immune function and benefits the balance of the intestinal microflora in broiler chickens.

  15. Phosphorus digestibility response of broiler chickens to dietary calcium-to-phosphorus ratios.

    PubMed

    Liu, J B; Chen, D W; Adeola, O

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the true digestibility of P in soybean meal (SBM) for broiler chickens fed diets with different dietary calcium-to-phosphorus ratios (Ca:P) using the regression method. The experiment used a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement with 12 diets formulated to contain combinations of 4 levels of dietary Ca:P: 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, or 2.0 and 3 levels of SBM: 31.0, 44.0, or 57.0%. A total of 576 male Ross 708 broilers were allocated to 12 dietary treatments with 8 cages (6 birds per cage) per treatment from d 15 to 22 posthatching, and the BW between groups were similar. Chromic dioxide was used as an indigestible marker to calculate P digestibility and retention. The results showed that BW gain and feed efficiency were increased (linear, P < 0.01), and prececal DM digestibility and DM retention were decreased (linear, P < 0.01) with graded SBM in diets for each Ca:P. Decreasing linear (P < 0.01) relationships were observed for apparent prececal P digestibility and total tract P retention with increased dietary SBM levels. The prececal and excreta P output increased (linear, P < 0.01; quadratic, P < 0.05) as increasing levels of SBM were added to the experimental diets. True prececal P digestibility in SBM was greater (P < 0.05) for birds fed a diet with Ca:P of 0.8 compared with those fed higher Ca:P, but there was no difference among the Ca:P ratios between 1.2 and 2.0. However, the total tract retention of P from SBM was not affected by Ca:P between 0.8 and 2.0. In conclusion, results of the present experiment demonstrated that prececal digestibility of P in SBM was not affected by Ca:P ratio between 1.2 and 2.0; and there was no difference in total tract retention of P from SBM among the Ca:P ratios between 0.8 and 2.0 in broiler chickens.

  16. Predicted optimum ambient temperatures for broiler chickens to dissipate metabolic heat do not affect performance or improve breast muscle quality

    PubMed Central

    Zahoor, I.; Mitchell, M.A.; Hall, S.; Beard, P.M.; Gous, R.M.; De Koning, D.J.; Hocking, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that muscle damage in fast-growing broiler chickens is associated with an ambient temperature that does not permit the birds to lose metabolic heat resulting in physiological heat stress and a reduction in meat quality.The experiment was performed in 4 climate chambers and was repeated in 2 trials using a total of 200 male broiler chickens. Two treatments compared the recommended temperature profile and a cool regimen. The cool regimen was defined by a theoretical model that determined the environmental temperature that would enable heat generated by the bird to be lost to the environment.There were no differences in growth rate or feed intake between the two treatments. Breast muscles from birds on the recommended temperature regimen were lighter, less red and more yellow than those from the cool temperature regimen. There were no differences in moisture loss or shear strength but stiffness was greater in breast muscle from birds housed in the cool compared to the recommended regimen.Histopathological changes in the breast muscle were similar in both treatments and were characterised by mild to severe myofibre degeneration and necrosis with regeneration, fibrosis and adipocyte infiltration. There was no difference in plasma creatine kinase activity, a measure of muscle cell damage, between the two treatments consistent with the absence of differences in muscle pathology.It was concluded that breast muscle damage in fast-growing broiler chickens was not the result of an inability to lose metabolic heat at recommended ambient temperatures. The results suggest that muscle cell damage and breast meat quality concerns in modern broiler chickens are related to genetic selection for muscle yields and that genetic selection to address breast muscle integrity in a balanced breeding programme is imperative. PMID:26670305

  17. Predicted optimum ambient temperatures for broiler chickens to dissipate metabolic heat do not affect performance or improve breast muscle quality.

    PubMed

    Zahoor, I; Mitchell, M A; Hall, S; Beard, P M; Gous, R M; De Koning, D J; Hocking, P M

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that muscle damage in fast-growing broiler chickens is associated with an ambient temperature that does not permit the birds to lose metabolic heat resulting in physiological heat stress and a reduction in meat quality. The experiment was performed in 4 climate chambers and was repeated in 2 trials using a total of 200 male broiler chickens. Two treatments compared the recommended temperature profile and a cool regimen. The cool regimen was defined by a theoretical model that determined the environmental temperature that would enable heat generated by the bird to be lost to the environment. There were no differences in growth rate or feed intake between the two treatments. Breast muscles from birds on the recommended temperature regimen were lighter, less red and more yellow than those from the cool temperature regimen. There were no differences in moisture loss or shear strength but stiffness was greater in breast muscle from birds housed in the cool compared to the recommended regimen. Histopathological changes in the breast muscle were similar in both treatments and were characterised by mild to severe myofibre degeneration and necrosis with regeneration, fibrosis and adipocyte infiltration. There was no difference in plasma creatine kinase activity, a measure of muscle cell damage, between the two treatments consistent with the absence of differences in muscle pathology. It was concluded that breast muscle damage in fast-growing broiler chickens was not the result of an inability to lose metabolic heat at recommended ambient temperatures. The results suggest that muscle cell damage and breast meat quality concerns in modern broiler chickens are related to genetic selection for muscle yields and that genetic selection to address breast muscle integrity in a balanced breeding programme is imperative.

  18. The effect of volatile oil mixtures on the performance and ilio-caecal microflora of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Cetin, E; Yibar, A; Yesilbag, D; Cetin, I; Cengiz, S S

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the individual and combined effects of rosemary, oregano and fennel volatile oil (FVO) supplementation on the performance and ilio-caecal bacteriological flora of broiler chickens. A total of 800 male Ross-308 broiler chickens were divided equally into 8 groups; each contained 100 chickens. The study included a control treatment (NC) with no dietary additives that was supplemented with oils according to the following 7 treatments: 200 mg α-tocopherol acetate/kg (PC), 100 mg oregano volatile oil (OVO)/kg, 100 mg rosemary volatile oil (RVO)/kg, 100 mg FVO/kg and an equal mixture of oregano+rosemary+fennel VO (100, 200, 400 mg/kg, VOM-1, VOM-2 and VOM-3, respectively). The experiment lasted for 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment, dietary supplementation with α-tocopherol, oregano, rosemary and FVO and two different volatile oil mixtures (VOMs) (VOM-2; VOM-3) significantly increased the body weights (BWs) of broilers at 7, 14 and 21 d of age compared to the negative control (NC) (-) and VOM-1 groups. At 0-42 d, birds fed on VOM-3 were considerably heavier and also gained more weight than NC (-) and VOM-1 groups. The blend of VOs at 400 mg/kg significantly increased Lactobacillus spp. in faeces. The blends of oregano, rosemary and FVOs (VOM-3) at 400 mg/kg concentration and also VOM-3 group exhibited stronger antibacterial activity against coliform bacteria compared to the NC (-) group. In conclusion, the blend of oregano, rosemary and fennel VOs at higher concentrations (400 mg/kg concentration) in diets can be used to stimulate the growth and can improve the intestinal microbial balance (including a reduction of coliform bacteria and an increase in Lactobacillus spp. counts) of broiler chickens.

  19. The Functions of Antioxidants and Heat Shock Proteins Are Altered in the Immune Organs of Selenium-Deficient Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zijiang; Liu, Ci; Zheng, Weijia; Teng, Xiaohua; Li, Shu

    2016-02-01

    Despite increasing evidence indicating the essential involvement of selenium (Se) in the immune system, the effect of Se deficiency on the regulation of oxidative stress and heat shock proteins (Hsps) in broiler chickens is still unclear. In the present study, we established an exudative diathesis (ED) broiler chicken model caused by Se deficiency. We then analyzed histological observations and detected the expression levels of Hsps and antioxidant indexes in immune tissues. The antioxidant function declined remarkably, and most of the Hsp expression levels increased significantly in the spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius of the broiler chicks with ED (except the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of Hsp27, Hsp40, and Hsp70, which decreased in thymus tissues from the treatment groups); therefore, constitutive oxidation resistance and higher Hsps in broiler chicks with ED caused defects in immune organ morphology and function, as evidenced by abnormal histological structures: red pulp broadening and lymphocytes in the cortex and medulla of the thymic lobule decreased distinctly and distributed loosely. These results underscore the importance of Se in establishing an immune organ microenvironment conducive to normal function.

  20. Virulence and Genomic Feature of Multidrug Resistant Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Broiler Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Haihong; Ren, Ni; Han, Jing; Foley, Steven L.; Iqbal, Zahid; Cheng, Guyue; Kuang, Xiuhua; Liu, Jie; Liu, Zhenli; Dai, Menghong; Wang, Yulian; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal the molecular mechanism involved in multidrug resistance and virulence of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler chickens. The virulence of six multidrug resistant C. jejuni was determined by in vitro and in vivo methods. The de novo whole genome sequencing technology and molecular biology methods were used to analyze the genomic features associated with the multidrug resistance and virulence of a selected isolate (C. jejuni 1655). The comparative genomic analyses revealed a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms, deletions, rearrangements, and inversions in C. jejuni 1655 compared to reference C. jejuni genomes. The co-emergence of Thr-86-Ile mutation in gyrA gene, A2075G mutation in 23S rRNA gene, tetO, aphA and aadE genes and pTet plasmid in C. jejuni 1655 contributed its multidrug resistance to fluoroquinolones, macrolides, tetracycline, and aminoglycosides. The combination of multiple virulence genes may work together to confer the relative higher virulence in C. jejuni 1655. The co-existence of mobile gene elements (e.g., pTet) and CRISPR-Cas system in C. jejuni 1655 may play an important role in the gene transfer and immune defense. The present study provides basic information of phenotypic and genomic features of C. jejuni 1655, a strain recently isolated from a chicken displaying multidrug resistance and relatively high level of virulence. PMID:27790202

  1. Proteomic Changes in the Plasma of Broiler Chickens with Femoral Head Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Packialakshmi, Balamurugan; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jackson O.; Okimoto, Ronald; Rath, Narayan C.

    2016-01-01

    Femoral head necrosis (FHN) is a skeletal problem in broiler chickens, where the proximal femoral head cartilage shows susceptibility to separation from its growth plate. The selected birds with FHN showed higher body weights and reduced plasma cholesterol. The proteomic differences in the plasma of healthy and FHN-affected chickens were explored using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to prospect for protein biomarkers. We isolated two differentially expressed low molecular weight proteins and identified them by MALDI peptide mass fingerprinting as fibrinogen- and fetuin-derived peptides, respectively. These peptides were reduced in birds susceptible to femoral head problems. Quantitation of LC-MS/MS spectra showed elevated levels of gallinacin-9, apolipoprotein A1, and hemoglobin and reduced levels of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, albumin, and SPINK7 proteins in FHN. These results suggest that the bodyweight and the lipid profiles along with the above proteins can be useful as noninvasive biomarkers of FHN. PMID:27147818

  2. A new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism: Response to mixed LED light system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Pan, Jinming; Ying, Yibin; Zhou, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Present study introduced a new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism by mixing the growth-advantage LED. We found that the green/blue LED mixed light system (G-B and G × B) have the similar stimulatory effect on chick body weight with single green light and single blue light (G and B), compared with normal artificial light (P = 0.028). Moreover, the percentage of carcass was significantly greater in the mixed light (G × B) when compared with the single light (P = 0.003). Synchronized with body weight, the mixed light (G-B and G × B) had a significant improved influence on the feed conversion of birds compared with normal light (P = 0.002). A significant improvement in feed conversion were found in mixed light (G × B) compared with single LED light (P = 0.037). G group resulted in a greater high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than B group (P = 0.002), whereas B group resulted in a greater low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than G group (P = 0.017). The mixed light significantly increased the birds’ glucose level in comparison with the single light (P = 0.003). This study might establish an effective strategy for maximizing growth of chickens by mixed LED technology.

  3. Effects of feeding plant-derived agents on the colonization of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kurekci, Cemil; Al Jassim, Rafat; Hassan, Errol; Bishop-Hurley, Sharon L; Padmanabha, Jagadish; McSweeney, Christopher S

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this work was to test the potential use of plant-derived extracts and compounds to control Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens. Over a 7-wk feeding period, birds were fed a commercial diet with or without plant extracts (Acacia decurrens, Eremophila glabra), essential oil [lemon myrtle oil (LMO)], plant secondary compounds [terpinene-4-ol and α-tops (including α-terpineol, cineole, and terpinene-4-ol)], and the antibiotic virginiamycin. Traditional culture and real-time quantitative PCR techniques were used to enumerate the numbers of C. jejuni in chicken fecal and cecal samples. In addition, BW and feed intake were recorded weekly for the calculation of BW gain and feed conversion ratio. The mean log10 counts of C. jejuni were similar (P > 0.05) across treatments. However, significantly lower levels of fecal Campylobacter counts (P < 0.05) were recorded at d 41 for the α-tops treatment by culture methods. No differences (P > 0.05) in BW gain were obtained for dietary supplementation, except for the E. glabra extract, which had a negative impact (P < 0.001) on BW, resulting in sporadic death. Results from this study suggest that supplemental natural compounds used in the current study did not reduce the shedding of C. jejuni to desired levels.

  4. Mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of the feed contaminant deoxynivalenol on glucose absorption in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Awad, W A; Ghareeb, K; Zentek, J

    2014-10-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), a major contaminant of cereals and grains, is of public health concern worldwide and has been shown to reduce the electrogenic transport of glucose. However, the full effects of Fusarium mycotoxins on nutrient absorption are still not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether decreased nutrient absorption was due to specific effects on transporter trafficking in the intestine and whether inhibition of phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI-3-kinase) affected the electrogenic jejunal transport of glucose. Jejunal mucosa of 6-week-old broiler chickens were mounted in Ussing chambers and treated with DON, wortmannin (a specific inhibitor of PI-3-kinase), DON + wortmannin, phlorizin and cytochalasin B. DON was found to decrease the short-circuit current (Isc) after glucose addition. A similar decline in Isc after glucose addition was observed following pre-application of wortmannin, or phlorizin (Na(+)/glucose co-transporter, SGLT1 inhibitor). The results indicate that DON decreased glucose absorption in the absence of wortmannin or phlorizin but had no additional effect on glucose absorption in their presence. Glucose transport was not affected by cytochalasin B (facilitative glucose transporter, GLUT2 inhibitor). The study provides evidence that the suppressive effect of DON on the electrogenic transport of glucose may be due to an inhibitory activity of the PI3 kinase pathway and intestinal SGLT1. Furthermore, the effect of cytochalasin B on glucose transport in chicken tissues differs from that in mammals.

  5. Nd:YAG laser in experimentally induced chronic degenerative osteoarthritis in broiler chickens: pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortuna, Damiano; Rossi, Giacomo; Bilotta, Teresa W.; Zati, Allesandro; Cardillo, Ilaria; Venturini, Antonio; Pinna, Stefania; Serra, Christian; Masotti, Leonardo

    2002-10-01

    The Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) has been widely tested in arthritis disorders, but there is still some disagreement in the results, therefore in this study we have investigated High Intensity Laser Therapy (HILT). The degenerative arthritis was induced in 18 chickens by intra-articular inoculation of Freund's complete adjuvant. Clinical studies were carried out (weight increase and grades of lameness) as well as morphological (macroscopic and histological) tests and seroassay (C Reactive Protein). The Nd:YAG pulsed wave was employed. The serologic data revealed the anti-inflammatory effect on the laser, with a highly significant difference between those treated and the control group. No lesion on the skin, i.e. burn, or in depth has been observed in the Treated group. Heavyline of broiler chickens in growing age has been revealed a good animal model of O.A.. The Nd:YAG Pulsed Wave it is safe on these structures. The anti-inflammatory effect of the HILT it seems to contrast the destructive degenerative process.

  6. Anticoccidial efficacy of drinking water soluble diclazuril on experimental and field coccidiosis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    El-Banna, H A; El-Bahy, M M; El-Zorba, H Y; El-Hady, M

    2005-08-01

    Prophylactic and curative capacity of water soluble formulation of Diclazuril (Diclosol 1%) and feed additive form (Clinacox, 0.5%) were tested against Eimeria infection in broiler chickens. Such testing was performed both experimentally and in the field. Toltrazuril (Baycox, 2.5%) was used as reference control drug. Water soluble formulation of Diclazuril induced a marked inhibitory effect on the different stages of the parasite life cycle in experimentally infected treated birds especially when applied on the day when blood first appeared in the faeces [fifth day post-infection (d.p.i.)] as well as on the second day of blood dropping (6 d.p.i.). Both tested dosage levels of Diclazuril water soluble formulation in drinking water (5 and 10 ppm) showed the same effect in controlling coccidial infection and reducing the total oocyst numbers, lesion and faecal scores. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the efficacy of water soluble form of Diclazuril and the reference control drug (Toltrazuril, 25 ppm). In addition, testing the water soluble formulation (5 ppm) in naturally infected poultry farm (20,000 birds), showed the same anticoccidial effect observed when using Toltrazuril, as a treatment for coccidiosis. In conclusion, addition of Diclazuril at the dose of 5 ppm in the drinking water of naturally coccidia infected bird induced the same effect as 25 ppm of Toltrazuril as a treatment for coccidiosis in chickens.

  7. Tissue lipid metabolism and hepatic metabolomic profiling in response to supplementation of fermented cottonseedmeal in the diets of broiler chickens*

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Cun-xi; Zhang, Wen-ju; Wang, Yong-qiang; Liu, Yan-feng; Ge, Wen-xia; Liu, Jian-cheng

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) on lipid metabolites, lipid metabolism-related gene expression in liver tissues and abdominal adipose tissues, and hepatic metabolomic profiling in broiler chickens. One hundred and eighty 21-d-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into three diet groups with six replicates of 10 birds in each group. The three diets consisted of a control diet supplemented with unfermented cottonseed meal, an experimental diet of cottonseed meal fermented by Candida tropicalis, and a second experimental diet of cottonseed meal fermented by C. tropicalis plus Saccharomyces cerevisae. The results showed that FCSM intake significantly decreased the levels of abdominal fat and hepatic triglycerides (P<0.05 for both). Dietary FCSM supplementation down-regulated the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and acetyl CoA carboxylase in liver tissues and the lipoprotein lipase expression in abdominal fat tissues (P<0.05 for both). FCSM intake resulted in significant metabolic changes of multiple pathways in the liver involving the tricarboxylic acid cycle, synthesis of fatty acids, and the metabolism of glycerolipid and amino acids. These findings indicated that FCSM regulated lipid metabolism by increasing or decreasing the expression of the lipid-related gene and by altering multiple endogenous metabolites. Lipid metabolism regulation is a complex process, this discovery provided new essential information about the effects of FCSM diets in broiler chickens and demonstrated the great potential of nutrimetabolomics in researching complex nutrients added to animal diets. PMID:26055906

  8. Involvement of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in medial hypertrophy of pulmonary arterioles in broiler chickens with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xun; Chai, Juan; Bi, Shi-Cheng; Li, Jun-Jun; Li, Wen-Wen; Zhou, Ji-Yong

    2012-08-01

    Medial hypertrophy of pulmonary arterioles during pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in humans is associated with enhanced proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Elevated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 has been found in pulmonary artery SMCs (PA-SMCs) in humans with idiopathic PAH, leading to the hypothesis that MMP-2 contributes to the proliferation and migration of vascular SMCs in the pathogenesis of PAH. Rapidly growing meat-type (broiler) chickens provide a model of spontaneous PAH. The present study was conducted to determine whether MMP-2 is involved in the medial hypertrophy of pulmonary arterioles in this model. Cultured PA-SMCs from normal birds were used to evaluate the effect of MMPs on cell proliferation. Gelatin zymography showed that endothelin (ET)-1-induced proliferation of PA-SMCs was concomitant with increased pro- and active MMP-2 production. Reverse transcription PCR demonstrated upregulation of MMP-2 mRNA. However, PA-SMC proliferation was inhibited by the MMP inhibitors doxycycline and cis-9-octadecenoyl-N-hydroxylamide. In vivo experiments revealed a significant increase of MMP-2 expression in hypertrophied pulmonary arterioles of PAH broiler chickens, which was positively correlated with wall thickness and medial hypertrophy. MMP-2 may contribute to medial hypertrophy in pulmonary arterioles during PAH in broiler chickens by enhancing the proliferation of vascular SMCs.

  9. Effect of Vancomycin, Tylosin, and Chlortetracycline on Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Colonization of Broiler Chickens During Grow-Out.

    PubMed

    Hume, Michael E; Donskey, Curtis J

    2017-01-27

    Broiler chickens may serve as reservoirs for human colonization by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). We examined the effects of vancomycin and two commonly used antimicrobial feed additives on VRE colonization in broiler chickens during grow-out. Chicks received unsupplemented feed or feed containing vancomycin, chlortetracycline, or tylosin from day of hatch to grow-out at 6 weeks. At 3 days of age, chicks received by crop gavage 10(7) colony-forming units (CFUs) of a human or poultry VRE isolate. Cecal contents were monitored weekly for VRE, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and bacterial denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profile methods. Vancomycin promoted persistent and high-level colonization with human- and poultry-derived VRE to grow-out in comparison with controls, while treatment with chlortetracycline and tylosin did not. Colonization by the poultry isolate in control, chlortetracycline, and tylosin groups persisted throughout the grow-out period with low concentrations present at 6 weeks, whereas the human isolate decreased to an undetectable level by week 6. Vancomycin resulted in significant reductions in cecal acetic acid and butyric acid in comparison with controls, but chlortetracycline and tylosin did not. DGGE profiles contained two main clusters with all vancomycin profiles in a smaller cluster and all other profiles in a larger cluster. These results demonstrate that vancomycin, but not chlortetracycline or tylosin, disrupted the indigenous microbiota and SCFA patterns of broiler chickens and promoted colonization by VRE.

  10. Sodium alginate oligosaccharides from brown algae inhibit Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Yan, G L; Guo, Y M; Yuan, J M; Liu, D; Zhang, B K

    2011-07-01

    The effects of sodium alginate oligosaccharides (sAO) on growth performance, cecal microbiota, Salmonella translocation to internal organs, and mucosal immune responses to challenge with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in broiler chickens were investigated. We designed an experiment with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, in which 3 feed treatments with supplementation of sAO at 0 (controls), 0.04, or 0.2% were provided in the diet for birds not challenged or challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis. There were 5 randomly placed replicate pens for each treatment. At 8 to 12 d of age, one-half the poults were orally gavaged with 10(8) cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis and the nonchallenged groups were inoculated with sterile PBS. Body weight loss and mortality resulting from Salmonella infection were mitigated by the addition of sAO. Supplementation of sAO at 0.2% was the most effective concentration for reducing Salmonella colonization and increasing the number of lactic acid bacteria in the cecum of chickens challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis. Cecal Salmonella Enteritidis-specific IgA production was significantly increased by sAO at 0.2% at 5 d postchallenge compared with the other treatments and was maintained at higher levels at the 2 dosages of sAO at 10 d postchallenge. With Salmonella Enteritidis challenge, sAO at 0.04% showed an anti-inflammatory effect through upregulation of interleukin (IL)-10 expression in the cecal tonsils. The supplementation level of 0.2% showed dramatic immunostimulatory activity by inducing interferon-γ, IL-10, and IL-1β mRNA expression in cecal tonsils of nonchallenged birds. However, the high level of sAO induced a robust mucosal immune response in the absence of a challenge, and this may have led to a decline in BW. These findings suggest that dietary sAO can decrease Salmonella colonization and improve intestinal barrier function and performance of chickens.

  11. Vaccination with recombinant NetB toxin partially protects broiler chickens from necrotic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Keyburn, Anthony L; Portela, Ricardo W; Sproat, Kathy; Ford, Mark E; Bannam, Trudi L; Yan, Xuxia; Rood, Julian I; Moore, Robert J

    2013-07-16

    NetB toxin from Clostridium perfringens is a major virulence factor in necrotic enteritis in poultry. In this study the efficacy of NetB as a vaccine antigen to protect chickens from necrotic enteritis was examined. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with purified recombinant NetB (rNetB), formalin treated bacterin and cell free toxoid with or without rNetB supplementation. Intestinal lesion scores and NetB antibody levels were measured to determine protection after mild oral gavage, moderate in-feed and heavy in-feed challenges with virulent C. perfringens isolates. Birds immunized with rNetB were significantly protected against necrotic enteritis when challenged with a mild oral dose of virulent bacteria, but were not protected when a more robust challenge was used. Bacterin and cell free toxoid without rNetB supplementation did not protect birds from moderate and severe in-feed challenge. Only birds immunized with bacterin and cell free toxoid supplemented with rNetB showed significant protection against moderate and severe in-feed challenge, with the later giving the greatest protection. Higher NetB antibody titres were observed in birds immunized with rNetB compared to those vaccinated with bacterin or toxoid, suggesting that the in vitro levels of NetB produced by virulent C. perfringens isolates are too low to induce the development of a strong immune response. These results suggest that vaccination with NetB alone may not be sufficient to protect birds from necrotic enteritis in the field, but that in combination with other cellular or cell-free antigens it can significantly protect chickens from disease.

  12. Electrolysed reduced water decreases reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improves performance in broiler chickens exposed to medium-term chronic heat stress.

    PubMed

    Azad, M A K; Kikusato, M; Zulkifli, I; Toyomizu, M

    2013-01-01

    1. The present study was designed to achieve a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and to improve the performance of broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress. 2. Chickens were given a control diet with normal drinking water, or diets supplemented with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) or grape seed extract (GSE), or a control diet with electrolysed reduced water (ERW) for 19 d after hatch. Thereafter, chickens were exposed to a temperature of either 34°C continuously for a period of 5 d, or maintained at 24°C, on the same diets. 3. The control broilers exposed to 34°C showed decreased weight gain and feed consumption and slightly increased ROS production and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in skeletal muscle. The chickens exposed to 34°C and supplemented with ERW showed significantly improved growth performance and lower ROS production and MDA contents in tissues than control broilers exposed to 34°C. Following heat exposure, CNSL chickens performed better with respect to weight gain and feed consumption, but still showed elevated ROS production and skeletal muscle oxidative damage. GSE chickens did not exhibit improved performance or reduced skeletal muscle oxidative damage. 4. In conclusion, this study suggests that ERW could partially inhibit ROS-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improve growth performance in broiler chickens under medium-term chronic heat treatment.

  13. Effects of dietary protein levels during rearing and dietary energy levels during lay on body composition and reproduction in broiler breeder females.

    PubMed

    van Emous, R A; Kwakkel, R P; van Krimpen, M M; Hendriks, W H

    2015-05-01

    A study with a 2 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement was conducted to determine the effects of 2 dietary protein levels (high = CPh and low = CPl) during rearing, 3 dietary energy levels (3,000, MEh1; 2,800, MEs1; and 2,600, MEl1, kcal/kg AMEn, respectively) during the first phase of lay, and 2 dietary energy levels (2,800, MEs2; and 3,000, MEh2, kcal/kg AMEn, respectively) during the second phase of lay on body composition and reproduction in broiler breeders. No meaningful interactions for energy and protein treatments within the different phases of the study were found and, therefore, this paper focusses on the main effects. Pullets fed the CPl diet had a 12.8% higher feed intake, 14% lower breast muscle, and 97% higher abdominal fat pad portion at 22 wk age. The increased abdominal fat pad and decreased breast muscle of the CPl compared to the CPh birds increased hatchability during the first phase of lay, due to a decreased embryonic mortality between d 10 to 21 of incubation, and increased egg production during the second phase of lay. Feeding birds the MEh1 and MEl1 diets slightly decreased egg production compared to the MEs1 birds. Birds fed the MEh1 diet showed a higher mortality compared to the birds fed the MEs1 and MEl1 diets. Feeding birds the MEh2 diet did not affect egg production, increased hatchability of fertile eggs, decreased embryonic mortality between d 3 to 21 of incubation, and increased the number of first-grade chicks. It was concluded that a low-protein diet during rearing changed body composition with positive effects on incubation traits during the first phase of lay and improved egg production during the second phase of lay in broiler breeders. A high-energy or low-energy diet compared to a standard diet during the first phase of lay slightly decreased total and settable egg numbers while a high-energy diet during the second phase of lay increased hatchability and number of saleable chicks.

  14. Characterization of a sustained-release estrogen implant on oviduct development and plasma Ca concentrations in broiler breeder chicks: modulation by feed restriction and thyroid state.

    PubMed

    Klandorf, H; Blauwiekel, R; Qin, X; Russell, R W

    1992-06-01

    The effect of estradiol-17 beta (E2) given as a sustained-release implant (Compudose 200) on concentrations of plasma calcium (Ca) and the development of the chick shell gland has been investigated in food-restricted and thyroid hormone-treated 6- to 8-week-old broiler breeder pullets. Chicks implanted with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 Compudose pellets for 24 days (n = 6/group) revealed a dose-response relationship between plasma E2 and Ca and on oviduct growth. Plasma E2 concentrations were characterized by an initial burst phase for approximately 17 days, followed by a constant release phase. Histologic examination of shell gland tissue confirmed the dose related E2-induced development of microvilliated epithelium and tubular glands over time. Feed restriction initiated at 2 weeks of age markedly increased the response to the E2 implants. Birds (n = 8/group) implanted with 2 pellets and feed restricted had increased plasma concentrations of E2 and Ca, and increased growth of the oviduct (P less than 0.01) as compared to ad libitum implanted birds. In a separate study birds (n = 6/group) had restricted access to feed from 8 weeks of age and were implanted with 0, 2, 4, or 8 pellets. At intervals from 9 to 45 days after implantation one bird from each group was killed. Although concentrations of plasma Ca were significantly greater in feed-restricted birds (P less than 0.01), oviduct growth was only marginally increased by the food restriction program. Plasma Ca concentrations in broiler breeder pullets (n = 8/group) implanted with 1 or 3 pellets and injected with T3/T4 (100 micrograms/day) were significantly decreased (P less than 0.05). Injection of thyroid hormone also marginally decreased shell gland epithelial cell height (P less than 0.05) and development of microvilli (P less than 0.05). There was no effect of the administration of the goitrogen, propylthiouracil (10 micrograms/day im), on the E2 induced development of the shell gland.

  15. Effects of feeding regimen, fiber inclusion, and crude protein content of the diet on performance and egg quality and hatchability of eggs of broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Mohiti-Asli, M; Shivazad, M; Zaghari, M; Rezaian, M; Aminzadeh, S; Mateos, G G

    2012-12-01

    A 12-wk experiment was conducted to study the effects of feeding regimen, inclusion of a fiber source, and CP content of the diet on performance of broiler breeder hens. In total, 360 hens and 60 males, 43 wk of age, were assigned to 60 floor pens (6 hens and 1 male each). There were 12 treatments arranged factorially with 2 feeding regimens [restricted (R) and liberal feeding (close to ad libitum consumption; LIB)], 3 sources of fiber (0, 3% inulin, and 3% cellulose), and 2 levels of CP (14.5 and 17.4%). No interactions among main effects were observed for any of the traits studied, and therefore, only main effects are presented. Body weight, liver weight, and abdominal fat weight were higher (P < 0.001) for the LIB than for the R-fed hens. However, egg production (P < 0.001), fertility index (P < 0.05), and percentage of hatch (P < 0.01) were lower for LIB than for R hens. The weights of ovaries (P < 0.05) and the size of the first preovulatory follicle (P < 0.05) were higher for the LIB than for the R hens. Also, egg yolk, egg weight, and BW of the hatching chicks were higher (P < 0.001) for the LIB hens. The inclusion of a fiber source in the diet decreased (P < 0.05) feed intake, BW gain, absolute liver and abdominal fat weight, and egg yolk weight, with effects being more pronounced (P < 0.05) with cellulose than with inulin. Hens fed additional fiber produced more (P < 0.05) eggs that were more fertile (P < 0.05) than control hens. Crude protein content of the diet did not affect hen performance but reduced (P < 0.01) the relative weight of the liver, ovary, and abdominal fat. It is concluded that the inclusion of inulin or cellulose in the diet improved hen performance and that an increase in dietary CP reduced obesity in broiler breeder hens.

  16. Effect of oligosaccharides extract from palm kernel expeller on growth performance, gut microbiota and immune response in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Siamak; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Liang, Juan Boo; Zulkifli, Idrus; Farjam, Abdoreza Soleimani; Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the prebiotic effects of oligosaccharides extract from palm kernel expeller (OligoPKE) on growth performance, cecal microbiota and immune response of broiler chickens. A total of ninety 1-day-old broiler chicks (Cobb-500) were randomly allocated to three treatment groups of six pens (replicates) with five birds per pen. Dietary treatments were: (i) basal diet as control, (ii) basal diet plus 0.5% OligoPKE, and (iii) basal diet plus 1% OligoPKE. Birds growth traits (ADG, ADFI and G:F) were measured during the starter (1-21 day), finisher (22-35 day) and the entire experimental periods. Blood and cecal digesta samples were collected from chickens at 21 and 35 days of age (DOA). Microbial quantification of the digesta samples, white blood cells including heterophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil counts and immunoglobulin (IgA and IgM) were also determined. OligoPKE had no effect on ADG and ADFI throughout the study period, but chickens fed OligoPKE supplemented diet had better (P < 0.05) G:F during finisher and overall rearing periods. Supplementing OligoPKE did not significantly alter the birds' microbiota of the cecal digesta. At 21 DOA, blood IgA concentration increased significantly when birds fed 1% OligoPKE in diet recorded compared to the control treatment. Similar observations were also recorded in birds at 35 DOA. Hematological data showed that heterophil and basophil counts of chickens fed OligoPKE supplement were lower than those in control group at 21 DOA. Our findings suggested that OligoPKE improved immune responses in broiler chickens, especially at younger age when the immune system is not still fully developed.

  17. The effect of Bacillus coagulans-fermented and nonfermented Ginkgo biloba on the immunity status of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Cao, Guanjun; Wang, Qin; Yao, Xuan; Fang, Binghu

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate and compare the effects of Bacillus coagulans-fermented Ginkgo biloba (FG) and nonfermented Ginkgo biloba (NFG) on the immunity status of broiler chickens, 180 1-d-old female Arbor Acres chicks were divided into 3 groups and fed either a basal diet, a basal diet supplemented with 0.3% NFG, or a basal diet supplemented with 0.3% FG. Blood samples were taken on the seventh (before vaccination), 14th, 21st, 28th and 35th day for the assessment of serum IL-18 and interferon γ (IFN-γ) levels by ELISA. In addition, Newcastle disease antibody titer analysis was made via hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition test methods. On d 35, 6 chickens from each group were sacrificed and the thymus, liver, spleen, small intestine (jejunum segment), cecum, and bursa of Fabricius from each chicken were removed for analysis. RNA was isolated for defensin expression detection by real-time PCR (q-PCR). The results showed that serum IL-18 and IFN-γ levels decreased after treatment with NFG and FG compared with untreated control chickens. The ND antibody titers did not differ significantly between the 3 groups on the seventh, 14th, 21st and 28th day; however, on the 35th day, the ND antibody titers of the NFG and FG chickens were both significantly higher than those of control group chickens. Defensin RNA expression levels were inhibited by NFG; however, they were induced by FG. In conclusion, fermentation of Ginkgo biloba with Bacillus coagulans can promote the beneficial effect of Gingko biloba on the immunity status of broiler chickens.

  18. Intrapulmonary arteries respond to serotonin and adenosine triphosphate in broiler chickens susceptible to idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kluess, H A; Stafford, J; Evanson, K W; Stone, A J; Worley, J; Wideman, R F

    2012-06-01

    This study examined factors contributing to increased vascular resistance and plexiform lesion formation in broiler chickens susceptible to idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). A diet supplemented with excess tryptophan (high-Trp diet), the precursor for serotonin, was used to accelerate the development of IPAH. Broilers fed the high-Trp diet had higher pulmonary arterial pressures than broilers fed the control diet, and plexiform lesion incidences tended to be higher (P = 0.11) in the high-Trp group than in the control group at 30 d of age. The intrapulmonary arteries were assessed for vasoconstriction in response to serotonin and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and for activities of key metabolic enzymes for serotonin and ATP. The pulmonary artery (defined as the first major branch of the pulmonary artery inside the lung) and the primary pulmonary arterial rami (defined as the second major branch of the pulmonary artery inside the lung) both exhibited vasoconstriction in response to serotonin and ATP. This is the first study to demonstrate purinergic-mediated vasoconstriction in intrapulmonary arteries from broilers. Arteriole responsiveness did not differ between broilers fed the control diet or the high-Trp diet. Therefore, the high-Trp diet enhanced the development of IPAH but did not affect the artery's sensitivity to serotonin or ATP. Monoamine oxidase activity, responsible for the breakdown of serotonin, was severely impaired in pulmonary arteries from broilers in the high-Trp group. Accordingly, serotonin may persist longer and elicit an amplified response in broilers fed the high-Trp diet.

  19. Effect of dietary manganese on antioxidant status and expression levels of heat-shock proteins and factors in tissues of laying broiler breeders under normal and high environmental temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong-Wen; Lu, Lin; Li, Wen-Xiang; Zhang, Li-Yang; Ji, Cheng; Lin, Xi; Liu, Hsiao-Ching; Odle, Jack; Luo, Xu-Gang

    2015-12-28

    To investigate the effect of Mn on antioxidant status and expression levels of heat-shock proteins/factors in tissues of laying broiler breeders subjected to heat challenge, we used a completely randomised design (n 6) with a factorial arrangement of 2 environmental temperatures (normal, 21 (sem 1)°C and high, 32 (sem 1)°C)×3 dietary Mn treatments (an Mn-unsupplemented basal diet (CON), or a basal diet supplemented with 120 mg Mn/kg diet as inorganic Mn sulphate (iMn) or organic Mn proteinate (oMn)). There were no interactions (P>0·10) between environmental temperature and dietary Mn in all of the measured indices. High temperature decreased (P<0·003) Mn content, and also tended (P=0·07) to decrease copper zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) activity in the liver and heart. However, an increased manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity (P<0·05) and a slight increase of malondialdehyde level (P=0·06) were detected in breast muscle. Up-regulated (P<0·05) expression levels of heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1) and HSF3 mRNA and heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA and protein were found in all three tissues. Broiler breeders fed either iMn or oMn had higher tissue Mn content (P<0·0001), heart MnSOD and CuZnSOD activities (P<0·01) and breast muscle MnSOD protein levels (P<0·05), and lower (P<0·05) breast muscle HSP70 mRNA and protein levels than those fed CON. Broiler breeders fed oMn had higher (P<0·03) bone Mn content than those fed iMn. These results indicate that high temperature decreases Mn retention and increases HSP70 and HSF1, HSF3 expression levels in tissues of laying broiler breeders. Furthermore, dietary supplementation with Mn in either source may enhance heart antioxidant ability and inhibit the expression of HSP70 in breast muscle. Finally, the organic Mn appears to be more available than inorganic Mn for bone in laying broiler breeders regardless of environmental temperatures.

  20. Effect of Bacillus Subtilis-based Direct-fed Microbials on Immune Status in Broiler Chickens Raised on Fresh or Used Litter.

    PubMed

    Lee, K W; Lillehoj, H S; Jang, S I; Lee, S H; Bautista, D A; Siragusa, G R

    2013-11-01

    Type of dietary direct-fed microbials (DFMs) or poultry litter could directly influence the composition of gut microbiota. Gut microbiota plays an important role in shaping the developing immune system and maintaining the homeostasis of the mature immune system in mammal and chickens. The present study was carried out to investigate the interaction among litter, DFMs and immunity in broiler chickens exposed to a field-simulated environment. Immune status of broiler chickens was assessed by serum antibodies against Eimeria spp. and Clostridium spp. and intestinal cytokine mRNA expression. The current experimental design had a 3 ×2 factorial arrangement of treatments with three types of litter, i.e., fresh litter or used litter that was obtained from a farm with no disease outbreak (used litter) or a farm with history of a gangrenous dermatitis outbreak (GD litter), and two dietary treatments with or without DFMs. It was found that either DFM addition or type of litter significantly affected anticoccidial antibody levels of broiler chickens at d 42. In general, dietary DFMs increased the anticoccidial antibodies in the fresh-litter raised chickens, but lowered the levels in the GD-litter raised chickens. Serum antibodies against Clostridium perfringens α-toxin were significantly (p<0.05) higher in chickens raised on GD litter compared with those raised on fresh litter. Cytokine mRNA expression was significantly (p<0.05) altered by either the type of litter or DFMs. Of interest, dietary DFMs lowered interferon-γ, interleukin 1beta, and CXCLi2 cytokine mRNA expression in chickens raised on fresh litter but increased them in GD-litter raised chickens. In conclusion, dietary DFMs modulate various immune parameters of broiler chickens, but the DFM-mediated effects were dependent upon the type of litter on which chickens were raised.

  1. Treatment with PPARα Agonist Clofibrate Inhibits the Transcription and Activation of SREBPs and Reduces Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels in Liver of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijun; Li, Chunyan; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Shenghua; Shangguan, Mingjun; Xue, Lina; Zhang, Bianying; Ding, Fuxiang; Hui, Dequan; Liang, Aihua; He, Dongchang

    2015-01-01

    PPARα agonist clofibrate reduces cholesterol and fatty acid concentrations in rodent liver by an inhibition of SREBP-dependent gene expression. In present study we investigated the regulation mechanisms of the triglyceride- and cholesterol-lowering effect of the PPARα agonist clofibrate in broiler chickens. We observed that PPARα agonist clofibrate decreases the mRNA and protein levels of LXRα and the mRNA and both precursor and nuclear protein levels of SREBP1 and SREBP2 as well as the mRNA levels of the SREBP1 (FASN and GPAM) and SREBP2 (HMGCR and LDLR) target genes in the liver of treated broiler chickens compared to control group, whereas the mRNA level of INSIG2, which inhibits SREBP activation, was increased in the liver of treated broiler chickens compared to control group. Taken together, the effects of PPARα agonist clofibrate on lipid metabolism in liver of broiler chickens involve inhibiting transcription and activation of SREBPs and SREBP-dependent lipogenic and cholesterologenic gene expression, thereby resulting in a reduction of the triglyceride and cholesterol levels in liver of broiler chickens. PMID:26693219

  2. Influence of enrofloxacin traces in drinking water to doxycycline tissue pharmacokinetics in healthy and infected by Mycoplasma gallisepticum broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gbylik-Sikorska, Malgorzata; Posyniak, Andrzej; Sniegocki, Tomasz; Sell, Bartosz; Gajda, Anna; Sawicka, Anna; Olszewska-Tomczyk, Monika; Bladek, Tomasz; Tomczyk, Grzegorz; Zmudzki, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Most of antibiotics, administrated in the treatment of poultry diseases are dissolved in drinking water, and it can lead to water supply systems contamination, especially when the regular cleaning is not using. This situation can lead to unconscious administration of low doses of antibiotics to untreated animals. The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of the exposure of enrofloxacin traces (500 μg l(-1)) to doxycycline pharmacokinetics in healthy and experimentally Mycoplasma gallisepticum infected broiler chickens., Two experimental groups, received of enrofloxacin in water and all groups, received 20 mg kg(-1) bw of doxycycline. The compounds concentrations in muscles and livers were determined by LC-MS/MS. The maximum drug tissue concentration (Cmax) of doxycycline was highest in liver obtained from infected chickens which, received enrofloxacin traces (ENR + DC/MG). It was about 40% higher than in healthy chickens from group I which received only doxycycline. It was found that the concentration-time curve AUC(0-t) values in group ENR + DC/MG were almost 75% higher than in the group (DC) and 35% higher than in group (ENR + DC) which also received enrofloxacin traces. The constant exposure of broiler chickens on enrofloxacin traces as well as infection, may significantly influenced on doxycycline tissue pharmacokinetic profile.

  3. A meta-analysis of the feed intake and growth performance of broiler chickens challenged by bacteria.

    PubMed

    Remus, A; Hauschild, L; Andretta, I; Kipper, M; Lehnen, C R; Sakomura, N K

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of a bacterial immune challenge (Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp.) on the ADFI, ADG, and nutrient partitioning (maintenance requirements and feed efficiency) of broiler chickens. The database used for the meta-analysis included 65 articles that were published between 1997 and 2012 concerning a total of 86,300 broilers and containing information on the feed intake, protein intake, methionine intake, and weight gain of broilers that were challenged with Clostridium spp., E. coli, or Salmonella spp. and were fed or not fed feed additives. The results of the ADFI and the ADG of the challenged broilers were transformed into values relative to those obtained in control broilers (ADG and ADFI). The meta-analysis involved 3 sequential analyses: graphical, correlation, and variance-covariance analysis. The results obtained for the birds that were challenged with Clostridium spp., E. coli, or Salmonella spp. indicated that the ADFI was reduced by 16, 7, and 9%, respectively, and the ADG was reduced by 40, 10, and 29%, respectively. When the results for the challenged birds that were treated or nontreated were compared, ADFI reductions of 26.0 and 26.5% and ADG reductions of 2.9 and 21.6% were observed, respectively. Regression analyses of the ADG as a function of the protein or methionine intake of the challenged birds suggested that nutrients were diverted to the immune system. The relationship between the ADG and the ADFI was quadratic in the challenged and nontreated or treated broilers, as well as for each disease. The intercept of the regression-based curves for the data from all of the challenges were different from zero and negative (-2.20, -0.70, and -3.37, respectively), indicating that all of the challenges increased the maintenance requirements. In general, this meta-analysis allowed for the quantification of the effects of bacteriological challenges on the maintenance and feed

  4. Effects of a phytogenic feed additive on growth performance and ileal nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Amad, A A; Männer, K; Wendler, K R; Neumann, K; Zentek, J

    2011-12-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the effects of a phytogenic feed additive (PFA) containing essential oils of thyme and star anise as lead active components on the growth performance and apparent ileal nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens. In total, 528 one-day-old Cobb male broilers were randomly divided into 4 dietary treatment groups with 6 replicate pens per treatment group (22 birds each). The dietary treatments were a control starter and grower basal diet without PFA or 150, 750, or 1,500 mg/kg of PFA. Body weight, weight gain, and feed intake were not significantly influenced by the feed additive, but the feed conversion ratio during the grower (22-42 d) and overall (1-42 d) periods improved linearly (P < 0.05) by the administration of PFA compared with that of the control diet. The average weights of the liver, heart, kidneys, and spleen were not significantly affected by the PFA. The results of the apparent ileal digestibility of crude ash, CP, crude fat, calcium, and phosphorus showed a linear increase (P < 0.05) related to the increase of PFA dose in the diet. Therefore, the means of digestibility of these nutrients were significantly higher in birds fed the PFA for all categories of age compared with the digestibility of these nutrients in the controls. In conclusion, the mode of action of the tested PFA can be explained by an improvement in the nutrient digestibility in the small intestine. The underlying physiological mechanisms, however, need to be characterized further.

  5. Measurement of true ileal phosphorus digestibility in meat and bone meal for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mutucumarana, R K; Ravindran, V; Ravindran, G; Cowieson, A J

    2015-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to estimate true ileal phosphorus (P:) digestibility of 3 meat and bone meal samples (MBM-1, MBM-2: , and MBM-3:) for broiler chickens. Four semipurified diets were formulated from each sample to contain graded concentrations of P. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with 6 replicates (6 birds per replicate) per dietary treatment. A total of 432 Ross 308 broilers were assigned at 21 d of age to the 12 test diets. The apparent ileal digestibility coefficient of P was determined by the indicator method, and the linear regression method was used to determine the true P digestibility coefficient. The apparent ileal digestibility coefficient of P in birds fed diets containing MBM-1 and MBM-2 was unaffected by increasing dietary concentrations of P (P > 0.05). The apparent ileal digestibility coefficient of P in birds fed the MBM-3 diets decreased with increasing P concentrations (linear, P < 0.001; quadratic, P < 0. 01). In birds fed the MBM-1 and MBM-2 diets, ileal endogenous P losses were estimated to be 0.049 and 0.142 g/kg DM intake (DMI:), respectively. In birds fed the MBM-3 diets, endogenous P loss was estimated to be negative (-0.370 g/kg DMI). True ileal P digestibility of MBM-1, MBM-2, and MBM-3 was determined to be 0.693, 0.608, and 0.420, respectively. True ileal P digestibility coefficients determined for MBM-1 and MBM-2 were similar (P < 0.05), but were higher (P < 0.05) than that for MBM-3. Total P and true digestible P contents of MBM-1, MBM-2, and MBM-3 were determined to be 37.5 and 26.0; 60.2 and 36.6; and 59.8 and 25.1 g/kg, respectively, on an as-fed basis.

  6. Studies on the feeding of cupric sulfate pentahydrate, cupric citrate, and copper oxychloride to broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ewing, H P; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I; Menten, J F

    1998-03-01

    Male commercial broiler strain chickens were fed either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with cupric sulfate pentahydrate, copper oxychloride, or cupric citrate in two experiments conducted in floor pens. In Experiment 1, feeding copper at 125 mg/kg diet for 42 d significantly increased broiler growth; and the response from cupric citrate was significantly better than either cupric sulfate or copper oxychloride. In Experiment 2, the inclusion of copper from cupric citrate was reduced to 63 mg/kg and the length of the experiment was increased to 56 d. Cupric sulfate pentahydrate and copper oxychloride treatments increased weight gain by 4.9% and cupric citrate increased weight gain by 9.1%. The feed conversion ratios (grams of feed:grams of gain of live birds) in the birds fed copper were not significantly different from those fed the basal diet (P > 0.05) unless corrections were made for the weights of the dead birds; the adjusted feed conversion ratios (grams of feed:grams of gain of live birds + grams of gain of mortalities) for the copper-treated birds in Experiments 1 and 2 were 5.2 and 7.6% lower, respectively, than the ratios of birds fed the basal diets. Plasma copper levels increased in supplemented chicks by 35% in Experiment 1 and 24% in Experiment 2. Liver copper levels in both experiments were increased by 26% with copper supplementation. Mortality was not affected by dietary treatment in either experiment (P > 0.05).

  7. Studies on the feeding of cupric sulfate pentahydrate and cupric citrate to broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I

    1996-09-01

    Male commercial broiler strain chickens were fed either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with cupric sulfate pentahydrate or cupric citrate in seven experiments (six in floor pens, one in wire-floored batteries). In Experiment 1, feeding 125 or 250 mg/kg copper increased growth (4.9%) and decreased feed conversion ratios (3.4%), total plasma cholesterol (40.2%), and breast muscle cholesterol (37.0%). Feeding 375 mg/kg copper was without further beneficial effect. In Experiment 2, withdrawing growth promoting supplements of copper from the feed for the last 7 d caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in breast muscle cholesterol at 42 d of age: 57.2, 48.0, and 43.2 mg/100 g meat for birds supplemented for 0, 35, or 42 d, respectively. Feeding 10 vs 260 mg/kg copper caused only small increases in tissue copper levels: 0.36 vs 0.41 mg/kg for breast meat, and 0.48 vs 0.60 mg/kg for thigh meat, respectively. Litter copper accumulations in these experiments were similar to those of earlier reports. Breast muscle cholesterol was reduced by feeding 125 mg/kg supplemental copper from cupric citrate (27.84 mg/100 g) or 125 mg supplemental copper from cupric sulfate pentahydrate (25.32 mg/100 g) compared to broilers fed the control diet (43.92 mg/100 g). Cupric citrate was efficacious for growth promotion at lower copper levels than cupric sulfate pentahydrate, resulting in reduced litter copper.

  8. Pathway underlying small intestine apoptosis by dietary nickel chloride in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bangyuan; Guo, Hongrui; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Xun; Huang, Jianying

    2016-01-05

    The aims of this study were to investigate the pathways which dietary nickel chloride (NiCl2) affects small intestine apoptosis in broiler chickens by observing the ultrastructure, and bcl-2, bax, and caspase-3 protein expression and mRNA expression, and cytochrome C, bak and caspase-9 mRNA expression of the small intestine. A total of 240 one-day-old avian broilers were divided into four groups and fed a corn-soybean basal diet as the control diet or three experimental diets supplemented with 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg of NiCl2 for 42 days. Ultrastructurally, the microvilli were apparently exfoliated, and the mitochondria were swollen and the number of lysosomes increased in the intestinal cells of three experimental groups. As measured by TUNEL and flow cytometry (FCM), the percentage of apoptotic cells in the small intestine and the lymphocytes in the ileum were significantly increased in three experimental groups when compared with those of the control group. Meanwhile, immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) tests showed that the protein expression, mRNA expression levels were decreased in the bcl-2, whereas those of bax and caspase-3, and the cytochrome C, bak and caspase-9 mRNA expression levels were increased in three experimental groups. The abovementioned results show that pathway of dietary NiCl2-induced small intestine apoptosis is related to the mitochondrial damage and promotion of the cytochrome C release from mitochondria, which activates the mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis pathway.

  9. Antibiotic resistance and diversity of Salmonella enterica serovars associated with broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Diarra, Moussa Sory; Delaquis, Pascal; Rempel, Heidi; Bach, Susan; Harlton, Colleen; Aslam, Mueen; Pritchard, Jane; Topp, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the antibiotic resistance phenotype and genotype of Salmonella isolated from broiler production facilities. A total of 193 Salmonella isolates recovered from commercial farms in British Columbia, Canada, were evaluated. Susceptibility to antibiotics was determined with the Sensititre system. Virulence and antibiotic resistance genes were detected by PCR assay. Genetic diversity was determined by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing. Seventeen serovars of Salmonella were identified. The most prevalent Salmonella serovars were Kentucky (29.0% of isolates), Typhimurium (23.8%), Enteritidis (13.5%), and Hadar (11.9%); serovars Heidelberg, Brandenburg, and Thompson were identified in 7.7, 4.1, and 3.6% of isolates, respectively. More than 43% of the isolates were simultaneously resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, cefoxitim, and ceftriaxone. This β-lactam resistance pattern was observed in 33 (58.9%) of the Salmonella Kentucky isolates; 2 of these isolates were also resistant to chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline. Genes associated with resistance to aminoglycosides (aadA1, aadA2, and strA), β-lactams (blaCMY-2, blaSHV, and blaTEM), tetracycline (tetA and tetB), and sulfonamide (sul1) were detected among corresponding resistant isolates. The invasin gene (invA) and the Salmonella plasmid virulence gene (spvC) were found in 97.9 and 25.9% of the isolates, respectively, with 33 (71.7%) of the 46 Salmonella Typhimurium isolates and 17 (65.4%) of the 26 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates carrying both invA and spvC. PGFE typing revealed that the antibiotic-resistant serovars were genetically diverse. These data confirm that broiler chickens can be colonized by genetically diverse antibiotic-resistant Salmonella isolates harboring virulence determinants. The presence of such strains is highly relevant to food safety and public health.

  10. Results of an international phosphorus digestibility ring test with broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Rodehutscord, M; Adeola, O; Angel, R; Bikker, P; Delezie, E; Dozier, W A; Umar Faruk, M; Francesch, M; Kwakernaak, C; Narcy, A; Nyachoti, C M; Olukosi, O A; Preynat, A; Renouf, B; Saiz Del Barrio, A; Schedle, K; Siegert, W; Steenfeldt, S; van Krimpen, M M; Waititu, S M; Witzig, M

    2016-12-05

    The objective of this ring test was to investigate the prececal phosphorus (P) digestibility of soybean meal (SBM) in broiler chickens using the trial protocol proposed by the World's Poultry Science Association. It was hypothesized that prececal P digestibility of SBM determined in the collaborating stations is similar. Three diets with different inclusion levels of SBM were mixed in a feed mill specialized in experimental diets and transported to 17 collaborating stations. Broiler chicks were raised on commercial starter diets according to station-specific management routine. Then they were fed the experimental diets for a minimum of 5 d before content of the posterior half of the ileum was collected. A minimum of 6 experimental replicates per diet was used in each station. All diets and digesta samples were analyzed in the same laboratory. Diet, station, and their interaction significantly affected (P < 0.05) the prececal digestibility values of P and calcium of the diets. The prececal P digestibility of SBM was determined by linear regression and varied among stations from 19 to 51%, with significant differences among stations. In a subset of 4 stations, the prececal disappearance of myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis (dihydrogen phosphate)-P; InsP6-P) also was studied. The prececal InsP6-P disappearance correlated well with the prececal P digestibility. We hypothesized that factors influencing InsP6 hydrolysis were main contributors to the variation in prececal P digestibility among stations. These factors were probably related to the feeding and housing conditions (floor pens or cages) of the birds in the pre-experimental phase. Therefore, we suggest that the World's Poultry Science Association protocol for the determination of digestible P be should extended to the standardization of the pre-experimental period. We also suggest that comparisons of P digestibility measurements among studies are made only with great caution until the protocol is more refined.

  11. Studies on feeding peanut meal as a protein source for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Costa, E F; Miller, B R; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I; Ewing, H P

    2001-03-01

    Four experiments were conducted to compare the performance of broilers fed soybean meal (SBM) versus peanut meal (PNM) as protein sources. Ross x Ross 208 broiler chickens were placed in battery brooders (Experiments 1 to 3, four replicates of 8 chicks per treatment) and floor pens (Experiment 4, four replicates of 34 chicks per treatment). In Experiment 1, addition of 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% Thr to a corn-PNM-based diet increased 0 to 18 d BW gain (BWG; 0.374c vs. 0.495b vs. 0.508b vs. 0.508b kg, respectively) and decreased feed conversion ratio (FCR; 2.09c vs. 1.63b vs. vs. 1.54b vs. 1.54b g/g, respectively) compared to the corn-SBM-based control diet (BWG = 0.593a and FCR = 1.36a). In Experiment 2, diets were formulated with the same amino acid minimums, and as the percentage of PNM increased in the diets (0, 10, 20, and 32%), BWG decreased (0.560a vs. 0.532a vs. 0.521a vs. 0.458b kg, respectively) and FCR increased (1.72b vs. 1.71b vs. 1.79bc vs. 1.86c g/g, respectively). In Experiment 3, addition of Thr to a corn-PNM-based diet increased BWG (-Thr = 0.284c vs. +Thr = 0.397b kg) and decreased FCR (-Thr = 1.60b vs. +Thr = 1.54b g/g). The BWG and FCR were best for the corn-SBM-based control diet (0.499a kg and 1.38a g/g, respectively). In Experiment 4, during the growing period (18 to 42 d), significant interactions occurred between protein source (PNM vs. SBM) and protein level (16 and 20% vs. 24%) for BW and FCR but not for carcass, breast, or leg quarter yield or fat pad weights (P < 0.05) at 42 d of age. Technical (not economic) performance of birds fed PNM was similar to SBM at the highest protein levels fed. PNM could be used as a protein source for broilers under appropriate economic conditions.

  12. Evaluation of an indigenous source of rock phosphate as a supplement for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tahir, M; Lughmani, A B; Pesti, G M

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of replacing dicalcium phosphate (DCP) with Hazara rock phosphate (HRP) on the growth performance of broiler chickens. The purpose was to determine the maximum level of F that could be well tolerated. The HRP (13.16% P and 2.98% F) was incorporated into a standard corn- and soybean meal-based diet by replacing 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of DCP based on P. Each treatment consisted of 5 replicate pens of 10 chicks each. The Ca and nonphytate P contents of all diets were maintained constant at 1.0 and 0.45%, respectively. Replacing 25% DCP with HRP significantly increased average BW gain. Substituting 100% HRP (562 mg of F/kg) decreased (P < 0.05) BW gain. The BW gain was maximized at 63.5:36.5 (DCP:HRP) using a quadratic relationship: BW gain (g) = 1,128.6 + 2.6848 × HRP - 0.0368 × HRP(2). Increasing the level of HRP decreased feed intake: feed intake (g) = 1,987.4 + 2.775 × HRP - 0.0515 × HRP(2). The effect of HRP was not pronounced (significant at P < 0.05) until 75% of DCP was replaced by HRP. Feed intake decreased by an average 3.77 g with each 1.0% increase in the levels of HRP beyond 27% HRP substitution. Replacing DCP with HRP up to 50% caused a significant increase in hot carcass weights. The Ca content of tibia was a quadratic function of HRP and was predicted to be highest at 56% HRP substitution. However, increasing HRP in the diet gradually decreased tibia P content (linear function). Serum Ca was increased by substituting HRP for DCP (linear effect). Increasing HRP in the diet decreased the P content of the serum and was predicted to be lowest (P < 0.05) beyond 50% HRP substitution, suggesting poor P availability at high HRP. In conclusion, growth was maximized by feeding about 36.5% HRP (205 mg of F/kg) and 63.5% DCP as P supplements. Using a multiple range test, it was concluded that between 25 and 50% DCP with HRP replacement (141 and 281 mg of F/kg, respectively) could be used safely without significantly

  13. Energy Value of Cassava Products in Broiler Chicken Diets with or without Enzyme Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Bhuiyan, M. M.; Iji, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the metabolizable energy (ME) intake, net energy of production (NEp), heat production (HP), efficiencies of ME use for energy, lipid and protein retention as well as the performance of broiler chickens fed diets based on cassava chips or pellets with or without supplementation with an enzyme product containing xylanase, amylase, protease and phytase. The two products, cassava chips and pellets, were analysed for nutrient composition prior to feed formulation. The cassava chips and pellets contained 2.2% and 2.1% crude protein; 1.2% and 1.5% crude fat; and 75.1% and 67.8% starch, respectively. Lysine and methionine were 0.077%, 0.075%, and 0.017%, 0.020% protein material, respectively, while calculated ME was 12.6 and 11.7 MJ/kg, respectively. Feed intake to day 21 was lower (p<0.01) on the diet containing cassava chips compared to diets with cassava pellets. Enzyme supplementation increased (p<0.01) feed intake on all diets. Live weight at day 21 was significantly (p<0.01) reduced on the diet based on cassava chips compared to pellets, but an improvement (p<0.01) was noticed with the enzyme supplementation. Metabolizable energy intake was reduced (p<0.01) by both cassava chips and pellets, but was increased (p<0.01) on all diets by enzyme supplementation. The NEp was higher (p<0.01) in the maize-based diets than the diets containing cassava. Enzyme supplementation improved (p<0.01) NEp in all the diets. Heat production was highest (p<0.01) on diets containing cassava pellets than on cassava chips. It is possible to use cassava pellets in diets for broiler chickens at a level close to 50% of the diet to reduce cost of production, and the nutritive value of such diets can be improved through supplementation of enzyme products containing carbohydrases, protease, and phytase. PMID:26194227

  14. Egg laying pattern, egg weight, body weight at hatch, and sex ratio bias relative to oviposition time of young-and mid-age broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, A H; Omar, O H

    2013-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine oviposition pattern and the effect of oviposition time on egg weight, body weight at hatch, and sex ratio of hatched chickens. In Experiment 1, eggs were collected from young and mid-age broiler flocks for 6 consecutive days at hourly intervals between 0400 and 2000h. In Experiment 2, eggs were categorized to represent eggs where oviposition occurred early, middle and late in the clutch (later in the day). These eggs were incubated to determine body weight at hatch and sex ratio of hatched chickens relative to oviposition time. Time of oviposition was affected by age. For the young flock, the percentage of ovipositions occurring before the 1100h was 79%. In contrast to the young flock, the percentage of ovipositions occurring before the 1100h in the mid-age flock was less (68%; P<0.01). Furthermore, for the mid-age flock, the percentage of ovipositions occurring from 1200 to 1700h was greater (P<0.01) at 32% in comparison to that of the younger flock at 21%. Egg weights when oviposition occurred earlier in the day were greater (P<0.01) than when oviposition occurred in the middle and later in the clutch (later in the day). Similarly, body weight at hatch of chicks from eggs where oviposition occurred earlier in the day was heavier than when oviposition occurred in the middle and later in the clutch (later in the day).With hatching of the eggs from hens when ovipositions occurred earlier in the day, there was a female sex bias. Differences in egg weights, body weight at hatch, and sex ratio due to time of oviposition suggest that oviposition time together with incubation conditions should be considered for obtaining greater uniformity and growth of chickens.

  15. Skeletal response to diet with soya bean seeds used as primary source of protein in growing broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Olkowski, B; Charuta, A; Radzki, R; Bieńko, M; Toczko, R

    2016-08-01

    The study was conducted using 120 commercial broiler chicks (Ross 308) randomly allocated to two experimental groups. The experimental diets, differing only in protein source, either solvent-extracted soya bean meal (SBM) or traditional (non-genetically modified) full-fat soya bean seeds (FFS), were prepared using practical corn-based formulation designed to meet nutritional requirements of broilers. Performance parameters were monitored weekly. Also, the subjects were evaluated daily for overt changes in skeletal anatomy and gait physiology. Randomly selected chickens from each group (seven males and seven females) were euthanized at 2, 3, 4 and 6 weeks of age, and bone specimens were collected for further study. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were determined in tibiotarsal bones. Broilers fed FFS diet showed retarded growth rate and decreased feed intake (both p < 0.001). Both BMD and BMC parameters were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in bones of chickens from the FFS group in comparison with the SBM group. The chickens fed the FFS diet showed higher incidence of skeletal pathology including angular deformities and torticollis (both p < 0.01). Of note, cases of torticollis were observed only in FFS group. In many cases, skeletal abnormalities resulted in considerable changes in gait pattern, and in some instances, the pathology of leg bones was so advanced that the affected individuals were unable to walk, but this deformity was not seen in SBM group. From this study, it can be inferred that raw soya beans contain factors that have some specific detrimental effects on skeletal system of chickens.

  16. Clostridium perfringens challenge and dietary fat type affect broiler chicken performance and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Józefiak, D; Kierończyk, B; Rawski, M; Hejdysz, M; Rutkowski, A; Engberg, R M; Højberg, O

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to examine how different fats commonly used in the feed industry affect broiler performance, nutrient digestibility and microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens challenged with virulent Clostridium perfringens strains. Two experiments were carried out, each including 480-day-old male broilers (Ross 308), which were randomly distributed to eight experimental groups using six replicate pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. In Experiment 1, birds were fed diets containing soybean oil, palm kernel fatty acid distillers, rendered pork fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens did not affect broiler chicken body weight gain (BWG) and mortality in either of the two experiments. The BWG was affected by dietary fat type in both experiments, indicating that the fatty acid composition of the fat source affects broiler growth performance. In particular, the inclusion of animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v. 1.69) and at 42 days (1.65 v. 1.68). In both experiments apparent metabolizable energy values were affected by dietary fat type. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge decreased the digesta pH in the crop and ileum, but had no effect in cecal contents. Moreover, in Experiment 1, total organic acid concentration in the ileum was two to three times lower on soybean oil diets as compared with other treatments, indicating that C. perfringens as well as

  17. Use of yeast cell walls; beta-1, 3/1, 6-glucans; and mannoproteins in broiler chicken diets.

    PubMed

    Morales-López, R; Auclair, E; García, F; Esteve-Garcia, E; Brufau, J

    2009-03-01

    Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary addition of yeast cell wall (YCW); beta-1, 3/1, 6-glucan (BG); and mannoprotein complex (MP) purified fractions in broilers. In experiment 1, there was a control diet and 5 experimental diets containing, respectively: 10 mg of avilamycin (AVI)/kg of feed, 500 mg of YCW/kg of feed, 95 mg of MP/kg of feed, 145 mg of BG/kg of feed, and 95 mg of MP plus 145 mg of BG/kg of feed. All birds were vaccinated via drinking water against Newcastle disease virus at 9 d of age. At 42 d, chickens fed AVI, YCW, MP + BG, and BG diets had similar BW not significantly different from chickens fed the control diet. The antibody response of Newcastle disease virus vaccine was not affected by any experimental treatment. Broilers fed MP + BG diet had greater thymus weights (P broiler growth rates was observed. Samples of the jejunum were collected at 21 d of age to determine villus height. Significantly higher villus height was observed in YCW, MP, and BG groups compared with that of the control group. The relative percentage of liver weight (P broilers fed YCW than in broilers fed the control diet, but no differences were observed in respect to chickens fed BG. Data of these studies suggested that the changes in thymus and liver relative weights and villus morphology of broilers were induced with the same intensity by the use of complete YCW, MP + BG, and BG supplements.

  18. Supplemental glycine and threonine effects on performance, intestinal mucosa development, and nutrient utilization of growing broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ospina-Rojas, I C; Murakami, A E; Oliveira, C A L; Guerra, A F Q G

    2013-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate Gly requirements in low-CP diets with different levels of digestible (dig) Thr, and their effects on performance, intestinal mucosal development, and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens from 21 to 35 d age. A total of 240 twenty-one-day-old Cobb-Vantress male broiler chickens were distributed in a completely randomized 4 × 2 factorial arrangement for a total of 8 treatments with 5 replicates of 6 birds each. The treatments consisted of 4 levels of Gly+Ser (1.47, 1.57, 1.67, or 1.77%) and 2 levels of dig Thr (0.70 or 0.77%, corresponding to 100 or 110% of Thr requirements, respectively). Common diets were fed to broilers until 20 d of age. At d 35, an interaction (P ≤ 0.01) was observed between the Gly+Ser and dig Thr levels for G:F. Glycine supplementation resulted in a linear increase (P < 0.05) in BW gain, G:F, intestinal mucin secretion, apparent digestibility of fat, and AME values of the experimental diets. Threonine levels greater than the levels required (0.77%) improved (P < 0.05) G:F and increased (P < 0.05) intestinal mucin secretion. However, intestinal morphometry and the number of goblet cells in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were not affected by the treatments. The dietary Gly+Ser level necessary to optimize G:F in low-CP diets containing 0.77% Thr for broiler chickens during growth was estimated to be 1.54%; however, this requirement may be greater than 1.77% in diets with 0.70% Thr. Supplemental Gly may be essential to support maximum performance for broiler chickens from 21 to 35 d of age when they are fed diets based exclusively on vegetable ingredients and with low protein levels. Glycine can directly or indirectly influence the proper function of the intestinal mucosa and improve dietary energy utilization.

  19. Effects of Functional Oils on Coccidiosis and Apparent Metabolizable Energy in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, A. E.; Eyng, C.; Torrent, J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of a mixture of functional oils (Essential, Oligo Basics Agroind. Ltda) on performance response of chickens challenged with coccidiosis and the determination of apparent metabolizable energy (AME), nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn), the coefficients of protein and ether extract digestibility and intestinal morphology of broilers fed with diets containing Essential. In Exp. 1, a completely randomized design (CRD) was used, with one control diet without Essential inclusion with coccidiosis (Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella) challenged birds and two different inclusion rates of Essential (1.5 kg/ton and 2 kg/ton) with coccidiosis-challenged and non-challenged birds for each inclusion rate, using 10 replicates and 50 birds per experimental unit. After 7 d of coccidiosis challenge, the livability was approximately 10% lower (p<0.05) for the control group. Intestinal lesion scores were lower (p<0.05) in the anterior intestine and the cecum for the chickens supplemented. Feed efficiency and growth rate were improved in birds supplemented with Essential (p<0.05) before the coccidiosis challenge and during the first 7 d post infection. In Exp. 2, a CRD was used, with one control diet without Essential inclusion and one diet with inclusion of Essential (1.5 kg/ton), using nine replications and 33 chicks per pen. The diets with Essential yielded approximately 4% higher AME (p = 0.003) and AMEn (p = 0.001). Essential supplementation increased villus height in the jejunum on d 14 (p<0.05). Villus height:crypt depth ratio for the supplemented birds was larger (p<0.05) in the jejunum on d 7, larger (p<0.05) in the jejunum and ileum on d 14. In conclusion, these functional oils improved the energy utilization and the livability and decreased lesions caused by coccidiosis in supplemented birds. PMID:25050040

  20. Pharmacokinetics of gamithromycin after intravenous and subcutaneous administration in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Watteyn, A; Plessers, E; Wyns, H; De Baere, S; De Backer, P; Croubels, S

    2013-06-01

    Gamithromycin is a new macrolide antibiotic that is only registered for use in cattle to treat respiratory disorders such as bovine respiratory disease. The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of gamithromycin in broiler chickens. Gamithromycin (6 mg/kg of BW) was injected intravenously (IV) or subcutaneously (SC) to six 4-wk-old chickens in a parallel study design, and blood was collected at different time points postadministration. Quantification of gamithromycin in plasma was performed using an in-house validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method and the pharmacokinetics analyzed according to a 2-compartmental model. Following IV administration, the mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0→∞), and α and β half-life of elimination (t1/2el α and t1/2el β) were 3,998 h•ng/mL, 0.90 h, and 14.12 h, respectively. Similar values were obtained after a SC bolus injection, i.e., 4,095 h•ng/mL, 0.34 h, and 11.63 h, for AUC0→∞, t1/2el α, and t1/2el β, respectively. The mean maximum plasma concentration (889.46 ng/mL) appeared at 0.13 h. Gamithromycin showed a large volume of distribution after IV as well as SC administration, 27.08 and 20.89 L/kg, respectively, and a total body clearance of 1.61 and 1.77 L/h•kg, respectively. The absolute bioavailability was 102.4%, showing that there is a complete absorption of gamithromycin after a SC bolus injection of 6 mg/kg of BW.

  1. Partitioning of external and internal bacteria carried by broiler chickens before processing.

    PubMed

    Cason, J A; Hinton, A; Northcutt, J K; Buhr, R J; Ingram, K D; Smith, D P; Cox, N A

    2007-09-01

    Broiler chickens from the loading dock of a commercial processing plant were sampled to determine the incidence and counts of coliforms, Escherichia coli, and pathogenic bacteria. Feathers were removed by hand from ten 6-week-old chickens from each of seven different flocks and rinsed in 400 ml of 0.1% peptone water. Heads and feet were removed and rinsed, and the picked carcass was also rinsed, each in 200 ml. The ceca, colon, and crop were aseptically removed and stomached separately in 100 ml of peptone water. Campylobacter was present in six of the seven flocks. Salmonella was isolated from 50 of the 70 carcasses, with at least 2 positive carcasses in each flock, and five-tube most-probable-number (MPN) assays were performed on positive samples. Significantly (P < 0.05) more coliforms and E. coli were found in the ceca than in the feathers, which in turn carried more than the other samples, but total external and internal counts were roughly equivalent. Counts of Campylobacter were higher in the ceca and colon than in the other samples. Salmonella was isolated in external samples from 46 of the 50 positive carcasses compared with 26 positive internal samples or 17 positives in the ceca alone. The total MPN of Salmonella was approximately equivalent in all samples, indicating that contamination was distributed through all external and internal sampling locations. Salmonella-positive samples did not carry higher counts of coliforms or E. coli, and there were no significant correlations between the indicators and pathogens in any sample. Campylobacter numbers in the ceca were correlated with Campylobacter numbers in the feathers and colon, but Salmonella numbers in those samples were not correlated. The pattern of bacterial contamination before processing is complex and highly variable.

  2. Use of Vitamin D3 and Its Metabolites in Broiler Chicken Feed on Performance, Bone Parameters and Meat Quality

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Ana Flávia Quiles Marques; Murakami, Alice Eiko; Duarte, Cristiane Regina do Amaral; Rojas, Iván Camilo Ospina; Picoli, Karla Paola; Puzotti, Maíra Mangili

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to assess the use of different vitamin D metabolites in the feed of broiler chickens and the effects of the metabolites on performance, bone parameters and meat quality. A total of 952 one-day-old male broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomised design, with four treatments, seven replicates and 34 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of four different sources of vitamin D included in the diet, D3, 25(OH)D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, and 1α(OH)D3, providing 2000 and 1600 IU of vitamin D in the starter (1 to 21 d) and growth phases (22 to 42 d), respectively. Mean weight, feed:gain and weight gain throughout the rearing period were less in animals fed 1α(OH)D3 when compared with the other treatments (p<0.05). No significant differences were noted among the treatments (p>0.05) for various bone parameters. Meat colour differed among the treatments (p>0.05). All of the metabolites used in the diets, with the exception of 1α(OH)D3, can be used for broiler chickens without problems for performance and bone quality, however, some aspects of meat quality were affected. PMID:25049804

  3. Influence of Butyrate Loaded Clinoptilolite Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performance, Development of Intestine and Antioxidant Capacity in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanan; Zhou, Yanmin; Lu, Changhui; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhang, Hao; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary butyrate loaded clinoptilolite (CLI-B) on growth performance, pancreatic digestive enzymes, intestinal development and histomorphology, as well as antioxidant capacity of serum and intestinal mucosal in chickens. Two hundred forty 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups: CON group (fed basal diets), SB group (fed basal diet with 0.05% sodium butyrate), CLI group (fed basal diet with 1% clinoptilolite), and CLI-B group (fed basal diet with 1% CLI-B). The results showed that supplementation of CLI-B significantly decreased (P < 0.05) feed conservation ratio at both 21 and 42 days of age, improved the pancreatic digestive enzymes activities (P < 0.05), increased the villus length and villus/crypt ratio (P < 0.05), and decreased the crypt depth of intestine (P < 0.05) as compared to the other experimental groups. Furthermore, the CLI-B environment improved the antioxidant capacity by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05) in intestine mucosal, and decreasing the NO content and iNOS activity (P < 0.05) in serum. In addition, CLI-B supplementation had improved the development of intestine and antioxidant capacity of broilers than supplementation with either clinoptilolite or butyrate sodium alone. In conclusion, 1% CLI-B supplementation improved the health status, intestine development and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens, thus appearing as an important feed additive for the poultry industry.

  4. Influence of Butyrate Loaded Clinoptilolite Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performance, Development of Intestine and Antioxidant Capacity in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanan; Zhou, Yanmin; Lu, Changhui; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhang, Hao; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary butyrate loaded clinoptilolite (CLI-B) on growth performance, pancreatic digestive enzymes, intestinal development and histomorphology, as well as antioxidant capacity of serum and intestinal mucosal in chickens. Two hundred forty 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups: CON group (fed basal diets), SB group (fed basal diet with 0.05% sodium butyrate), CLI group (fed basal diet with 1% clinoptilolite), and CLI-B group (fed basal diet with 1% CLI-B). The results showed that supplementation of CLI-B significantly decreased (P < 0.05) feed conservation ratio at both 21 and 42 days of age, improved the pancreatic digestive enzymes activities (P < 0.05), increased the villus length and villus/crypt ratio (P < 0.05), and decreased the crypt depth of intestine (P < 0.05) as compared to the other experimental groups. Furthermore, the CLI-B environment improved the antioxidant capacity by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05) in intestine mucosal, and decreasing the NO content and iNOS activity (P < 0.05) in serum. In addition, CLI-B supplementation had improved the development of intestine and antioxidant capacity of broilers than supplementation with either clinoptilolite or butyrate sodium alone. In conclusion, 1% CLI-B supplementation improved the health status, intestine development and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens, thus appearing as an important feed additive for the poultry industry. PMID:27104860

  5. Influence of granite-grit on nutrient digestibility and haematological parameters of broiler chickens fed rice offal based diets.

    PubMed

    Idachaba, C U; Abeke, F O; Olugbemi, T S; Ademu, L A

    2013-10-01

    A total of 270 broiler chickens were used for the study. The birds were fed common diet containing 23% Crude protein and 2864 kcal kg(-1) Metabolizable energy at the starter phase while 20% Crude protein and 2923 kcal kg(-1) Metabolizable energy was fed at the finisher phase. Starter and finisher diets contained 10 and 15% inclusion levels of rice offal respectively. Granite grit was added to the basal diet at 0.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 g per bird per month thus making a total of six treatments. Each treatment was replicated three times with 15 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design. Packed cell volume and haemoglobin level were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by dietary grit levels while total protein increased across the graded levels of granite grit. Crude protein, crude fibre and nitrogen free extract significantly (p<0.05) improved with increasing grit levels. These parameters improved up to the highest level of grit addition (10.0 g) granite-grit. It was concluded that 10.0 g granite grit per bird per month is beneficial to broiler chickens as it allows for efficient nutrient utilization. Further study to determine the optimum level of granite grit in broiler diet is encouraged since result obtained showed the optimum level was not attained.

  6. Oral Bioavailability, Hydrolysis, and Comparative Toxicokinetics of 3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol and 15-Acetyldeoxynivalenol in Broiler Chickens and Pigs.

    PubMed

    Broekaert, Nathan; Devreese, Mathias; De Mil, Thomas; Fraeyman, Sophie; Antonissen, Gunther; De Baere, Siegrid; De Backer, Patrick; Vermeulen, An; Croubels, Siska

    2015-10-07

    The goal of this study was to determine the absolute oral bioavailability, (presystemic) hydrolysis and toxicokinetic characteristics of deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol in broiler chickens and pigs. Crossover animal trials were performed with intravenous and oral administration of deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol to broilers and pigs. Plasma concentrations were analyzed by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and data were processed via a tailor-made compartmental toxicokinetic analysis. The results in broiler chickens showed that the absorbed fraction after oral deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol administration was 10.6, 18.2, and 42.2%, respectively. This fraction was completely hydrolyzed presystemically for 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol to deoxynivalenol and to a lesser extent (75.4%) for 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol. In pigs, the absorbed fractions were 100% for deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and both 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol were completely hydrolyzed presystemically. The disposition properties of 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol demonstrate their toxicological relevance and consequently the possible need to establish a tolerable daily intake.

  7. Comparison of the anticoccidial effect of granulated extract of Artemisia sieberi with monensin in experimental coccidiosis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Pirali Kheirabadi, Khodadad; Kaboutari Katadj, Jahangir; Bahadoran, Shahab; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Dehghani Samani, Amir; Cheraghchi Bashi, Mehdi

    2014-06-01

    Coccidiosis is the most important parasitic disease of the poultry production industry. Due to increasing resistance to conventional anticoccidial agents, it is necessary to find new anticoccidial compounds. Herbal compounds such as those from Artemisia species are promising weapons in this regard since preliminary studies have shown its anticoccidial effects. To compare the anticoccidial effect of a granulated extract of Artemisia sieberi (GEAS) versus monensin in experimental broiler coccidiosis, 120 one-day old Ross 308 broiler chickens were divided in four groups, each with three replicates (n=10). Group 1 was separated as an uninfected negative control and received no treatment. At 21days of age, groups 2, 3 and 4 were inoculated with a mixed suspension of 2×10(5) oocysts of Eimeria tenella, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria necatrix. Group 2 was maintained as an infected positive control and received no treatment while groups 3 and 4 received GEAS (5mg/kg feed), and monensin (110mg/kg feed) from the first day until 42days of age as a feed additive, respectively. Five days after inoculation, the number of oocycts per gram (OPG) of feces for 7 successive days was measured. Also, mean body weight (MBW), weight gain (WG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were determined weekly in all groups and replicates. The results showed that GEAS and monensin improved performance attributes (FI, MBW, WG, FCR) and significantly (P<0.05) decreased OPG in inoculated broiler chickens.

  8. Effects of dietary medium-chain fatty acids on performance, carcass characteristics, and some serum parameters of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shokrollahi, B; Yavari, Z; Kordestani, A H

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) on the performance, carcass characteristics, and some serum parameters of broiler chickens. A total of 176 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were assigned to four treatments including control treatment (basal diet), 0.1% MCFA, 0.2% MCFA, and 0.3% MCFA treatments according to a completely randomised design. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates with 11 chicks for each replicate. In MCFA treatments, the amounts of MCFAs were added to basal diet as a substitution of soybean oil. There were not any significant differences in body weight, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio among the treatments in different stages of the experiment. However, MCFA treatments had a lower abdominal fat and a higher breast yield compared to control treatment. Blood glucose, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations were significantly decreased, but blood high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration was significantly increased in the MCFA treatments compared to the control treatment. These results indicate that dietary MCFA has a positive effect on the health and productivity of broiler chickens.

  9. Effect of sex and dietary organic zinc on growth performance, carcass traits, tissue mineral content, and blood parameters of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Salim, H M; Lee, H R; Jo, C; Lee, S K; Lee, Bong Duk

    2012-06-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential mineral for animal development and function. A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of sex and dietary organic zinc (OZ) on growth performance, carcass traits, tissue mineral content, and blood parameters of broiler chickens. A total of 240 1-day-old male and 240 female broiler chicks (Cobb × Cobb) were assigned to two dietary levels of OZ (2 × 2 factorial) with six replicates per treatment (20 birds/replicate pen). The OZ supplementation levels were 0 and 25 ppm. Results showed that OZ supplementation did not affect the growth performance of male and female broilers, but the males showed significantly better (P < 0.05) growth performance than females did. Similarly, OZ supplementation did not affect the thickness of both the back and thigh skin of male and female broilers; however, males had thicker skin than females. Dietary OZ supplementation did not affect collagen contents in the skin and meat samples. Male broilers had higher skin collagen contents than females, but no sex difference was found in meat collagen contents. OZ supplementation did not affect the shear force values of skin and meat samples. Male broilers had higher shear force values of back skin than females, but not in the meat samples. Dietary OZ supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the thigh meat Zn content in both sexes. The plasma Ca content was significantly (P < 0.05) increased by dietary OZ supplementation; however, other blood parameters were not affected by dietary OZ supplementation. Males had higher plasma glucose and cholesterol content than females. It is concluded that dietary OZ supplementation at the level of 25 ppm does not affect the growth performance and skin quality of broiler chickens but increases the Zn content in thigh meat and Ca content in plasma of broiler chickens. Male broilers had better growth performance and skin quality than females.

  10. Ameliorative effects of melatonin administration and photoperiods on diurnal fluctuations in cloacal temperature of Marshall broiler chickens during the hot dry season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkalu, Victor O.; Ayo, Joseph O.; Adelaiye, Alexander B.; Hambolu, Joseph O.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were performed with the aim of determining the effect of melatonin administration on diurnal fluctuations in cloacal temperature (CT) of Marshall broiler chickens during the hot dry season. Birds in group I (12L:12D cycle) were raised under natural photoperiod of 12-h light and 12-h darkness, without melatonin supplementation, while those in group II (LL) were kept under 24-h continuous lighting, without melatonin administration. Broiler chickens in group III (LL + melatonin) were raised under 24-h continuous lighting, with melatonin supplementation at 0.5 mg/kg per os. The cloacal temperatures of 15 labeled broiler chickens from each group were measured at 6:00, 13:00, and 19:00 h, 7 days apart, from days 14-42. Temperature-humidity index was highest at day 14 of the study, with the value of 36.72 ± 0.82 °C but lowest at day 28 with the value of 30.91 ± 0.80 °C ( P < 0.0001). The overall mean hourly cloacal temperature value of 41.51 ± 0.03 °C obtained in the 12L:12D cycle birds was significantly higher ( P < 0.001) than the value of 41.16 ± 0.03 °C recorded in the melatonin-treated group but lower than that of 41.65 ± 0.03 °C obtained in the LL birds. Mortality due to hyperthermia commenced at day 28 in both 12L:12D cycle and LL broiler chickens but was delayed till day 42 in LL + MEL broiler chickens. In conclusion, melatonin administration alleviated the deleterious effects of heat stress on broiler chickens by maintaining their cloacal temperature at relatively low values.

  11. Ameliorative effects of melatonin administration and photoperiods on diurnal fluctuations in cloacal temperature of Marshall broiler chickens during the hot dry season.

    PubMed

    Sinkalu, Victor O; Ayo, Joseph O; Adelaiye, Alexander B; Hambolu, Joseph O

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were performed with the aim of determining the effect of melatonin administration on diurnal fluctuations in cloacal temperature (CT) of Marshall broiler chickens during the hot dry season. Birds in group I (12L:12D cycle) were raised under natural photoperiod of 12-h light and 12-h darkness, without melatonin supplementation, while those in group II (LL) were kept under 24-h continuous lighting, without melatonin administration. Broiler chickens in group III (LL + melatonin) were raised under 24-h continuous lighting, with melatonin supplementation at 0.5 mg/kg per os. The cloacal temperatures of 15 labeled broiler chickens from each group were measured at 6:00, 13:00, and 19:00 h, 7 days apart, from days 14-42. Temperature-humidity index was highest at day 14 of the study, with the value of 36.72 ± 0.82 °C but lowest at day 28 with the value of 30.91 ± 0.80 °C (P < 0.0001). The overall mean hourly cloacal temperature value of 41.51 ± 0.03 °C obtained in the 12L:12D cycle birds was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than the value of 41.16 ± 0.03 °C recorded in the melatonin-treated group but lower than that of 41.65 ± 0.03 °C obtained in the LL birds. Mortality due to hyperthermia commenced at day 28 in both 12L:12D cycle and LL broiler chickens but was delayed till day 42 in LL + MEL broiler chickens. In conclusion, melatonin administration alleviated the deleterious effects of heat stress on broiler chickens by maintaining their cloacal temperature at relatively low values.

  12. Genomic Comparison of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Hadar and Kentucky Isolates from Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Dhanani, Akhilesh S.; Block, Glenn; Dewar, Ken; Forgetta, Vincenzo; Topp, Edward; Beiko, Robert G.; Diarra, Moussa S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars, associated with different foods including poultry products, are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The colonization of the chicken gut by S. enterica could result in the contamination of the environment and food chain. The aim of this study was to compare the genomes of 25 S. enterica serovars isolated from broiler chicken farms to assess their intra- and inter-genetic variability, with a focus on virulence and antibiotic resistance characteristics. Methodology/Principal Finding The genomes of 25 S. enterica isolates covering five serovars (ten Typhimurium including three monophasic 4,[5],12:i:, four Enteritidis, three Hadar, four Heidelberg and four Kentucky) were sequenced. Most serovars were clustered in strongly supported phylogenetic clades, except for isolates of serovar Enteritidis that were scattered throughout the tree. Plasmids of varying sizes were detected in several isolates independently of serovars. Genes associated with the IncF plasmid and the IncI1 plasmid were identified in twelve and four isolates, respectively, while genes associated with the IncQ plasmid were found in one isolate. The presence of numerous genes associated with Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs) was also confirmed. Components of the type III and IV secretion systems (T3SS and T4SS) varied in different isolates, which could explain in part, differences of their pathogenicity in humans and/or persistence in broilers. Conserved clusters of genes in the T3SS were detected that could be used in designing effective strategies (diagnostic, vaccination or treatments) to combat Salmonella. Antibiotic resistance genes (CMY, aadA, ampC, florR, sul1, sulI, tetAB, and srtA) and class I integrons were detected in resistant isolates while all isolates carried multidrug efflux pump systems regardless of their antibiotic susceptibility profile. Conclusions/Significance This study showed that the predominant

  13. Cool perches improve the growth performance and welfare status of broiler chickens reared at different stocking densities and high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J P; Jiao, H C; Jiang, Y B; Song, Z G; Wang, X J; Lin, H

    2013-08-01

    The present study investigated the interaction of stocking density and cool perch availability on broiler chickens raised at high ambient temperature (>30.8°C). Behavior, live performance, and the incidence of footpad and hock burns and abdominal plumage damage were investigated over a 4-wk experimental period. A total of 1,152 one-day-old Arbor Acres chicks were subjected to a 2 (cool perches) × 3 (stocking densities) factorial arrangement of treatments. From 1 d of age, birds were provided with or without cool perches at each of 3 stocking densities (12, 16, or 20 birds/m(2); low, medium, or high stocking density, respectively) and corresponded to 48, 64, and 80 birds per pen. The perch design provided 380 cm of linear perching space in each treatment pen. The results showed that high stocking density decreased the growth (P < 0.05) and welfare (P < 0.01) of broilers. Cool perch availability increased BW gain and feed conversion efficiency of broilers (P < 0.05) regardless of stocking density. The birds' use of cool perches increased with age (P < 0.01) and decreased with higher stocking density (P < 0.05). The accessibility of cool perches changed birds' behavior patterns (P < 0.01) and reduced footpad or hock burns and damage to abdominal plumage (P < 0.05). These results suggest that cool perches have a favorable effect on the performance and welfare of broilers.

  14. Effects of a diet containing genetically modified rice expressing the Cry1Ab/1Ac protein (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) on broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Zeyang; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Minhong; Feng, Jinghai; Xiong, Yandan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice expressing the Cry1Ab/1Ac protein on broiler chicken. The genetically modified (GM) Bt rice was compared with the corresponding non-GM rice regarding performance of feeding groups, their health status, relative organ weights, biochemical serum parameters and occurrence of Cry1Ab/1Ac gene fragments. One hundred and eighty day-old Arbor Acres female broilers with the same health condition were randomly allocated to the two treatments (6 replicate cages with 15 broilers in each cage per treatment). They received diets containing GM rice (GM group) or its parental non-GM rice (non-GM group) at 52-57% of the air-dried diet for 42 days. The results show that the transgenic rice had a similar nutrient composition as the non-GM rice and had no adverse effects on chicken growth, biochemical serum parameters and necropsy during the 42-day feeding period. In birds fed the GM rice, no transgenic gene fragments were detected in the samples of blood, liver, kidneys, spleen, jejunum, ileum, duodenum and muscle tissue. In conclusion, the results suggest that Bt rice expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac protein has no adverse effects on broiler chicken. Therefore, it can be considered as safe and used as feed source for broiler chicken.

  15. Changes in variance explained by top SNP windows over generations for three traits in broiler chicken

    PubMed Central

    Fragomeni, Breno de Oliveira; Misztal, Ignacy; Lourenco, Daniela Lino; Aguilar, Ignacio; Okimoto, Ronald; Muir, William M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the set of genomic regions inferred as accounting for the majority of genetic variation in quantitative traits remain stable over multiple generations of selection. The data set contained phenotypes for five generations of broiler chicken for body weight, breast meat, and leg score. The population consisted of 294,632 animals over five generations and also included genotypes of 41,036 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) for 4,866 animals, after quality control. The SNP effects were calculated by a GWAS type analysis using single step genomic BLUP approach for generations 1–3, 2–4, 3–5, and 1–5. Variances were calculated for windows of 20 SNP. The top ten windows for each trait that explained the largest fraction of the genetic variance across generations were examined. Across generations, the top 10 windows explained more than 0.5% but less than 1% of the total variance. Also, the pattern of the windows was not consistent across generations. The windows that explained the greatest variance changed greatly among the combinations of generations, with a few exceptions. In many cases, a window identified as top for one combination, explained less than 0.1% for the other combinations. We conclude that identification of top SNP windows for a population may have little predictive power for genetic selection in the following generations for the traits here evaluated. PMID:25324857

  16. Effects of feed additives on the development on the ileal bacterial community of the broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Lu, J; Hofacre, C; Smith, F; Lee, M D

    2008-05-01

    Intensifying concerns about the use of antimicrobials in meat and poultry production has enhanced interest in the application of prebiotics, probiotics and enzymes to enhance growth and prevent disease in food animals. Growth-promoting antibiotics enhance growth of animals by reducing the load of bacteria in the intestine, by reducing colonization by intestinal pathogens or by enhancing the growth and/or metabolism of beneficial bacteria in the intestine. Recently, molecular ecology, utilizing DNA-sequence heterogeneity of the 16S rRNA gene, has revealed a surprising diversity of uncharacterized bacteria inhabiting this ecosystem. We used this approach to determine the effect of growth-promoting antibiotics on the development and composition of the ileal bacterial community. Pairwise comparisons, correspondence analysis and community diversity indices revealed significant differences among the treatments (bacitracin/virginiamycin or monensin) and controls. Antibiotics reduced the diversity of the ileal bacterial community and induced communities rich in Clostridia throughout the life of the broiler chicken. These results indicate that some bacterial species, such as lactobacilli, were suppressed and also suggest that many intestinal Clostridia may be non-pathogenic. Future studies should focus on characterizing the important bacterial species needed to stabilize the intestinal microbiota and identifying those commensals that stimulate and enhance development of intestinal function.

  17. Cellulitis lesions in broiler chickens are induced by Escherichia coli Vacuolating Factor (ECVF).

    PubMed

    Quel, N G; Aragão, A Z B; Salvadori, M R; Farias, A S; Joazeiro, P P; Santos, L M B; Sá, L R M; Ferreira, A J P; Yano, T

    2013-03-23

    Escherichia coli Vacuolating Factor (ECVF) is a heat-labile, vacuolating cytotoxin produced by avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) isolated from avian cellulitis lesions. In this report, we intend to demonstrate that purified ECVF induces the inflammatory process of cellulitis. Our group is the first to demonstrate the effect of ECVF in a histological analysis by in situ inoculation of broiler chickens with purified ECVF. The animals were inoculated with the APEC AC53 and with purified ECVF subcutaneously on their ventral surface (in the sternum region). The histological analysis showed different grades of an acute inflammatory response in the epidermis, dermis and panniculus. An increase in mRNA expression of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α was also demonstrated in the inflamed tissue. When ECVF was systemically administered, increased levels of TNF-α and IL-10 were observed in the serum. These results suggest that ECVF plays a key role in the inflammatory process associated with cellulitis that is mainly mediated by TNF-α. In addition, this inflammation can be downregulated by the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10.

  18. Changes in variance explained by top SNP windows over generations for three traits in broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Fragomeni, Breno de Oliveira; Misztal, Ignacy; Lourenco, Daniela Lino; Aguilar, Ignacio; Okimoto, Ronald; Muir, William M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the set of genomic regions inferred as accounting for the majority of genetic variation in quantitative traits remain stable over multiple generations of selection. The data set contained phenotypes for five generations of broiler chicken for body weight, breast meat, and leg score. The population consisted of 294,632 animals over five generations and also included genotypes of 41,036 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) for 4,866 animals, after quality control. The SNP effects were calculated by a GWAS type analysis using single step genomic BLUP approach for generations 1-3, 2-4, 3-5, and 1-5. Variances were calculated for windows of 20 SNP. The top ten windows for each trait that explained the largest fraction of the genetic variance across generations were examined. Across generations, the top 10 windows explained more than 0.5% but less than 1% of the total variance. Also, the pattern of the windows was not consistent across generations. The windows that explained the greatest variance changed greatly among the combinations of generations, with a few exceptions. In many cases, a window identified as top for one combination, explained less than 0.1% for the other combinations. We conclude that identification of top SNP windows for a population may have little predictive power for genetic selection in the following generations for the traits here evaluated.

  19. Synbiotic enhances immune responses against infectious bronchitis, infectious bursal disease, Newcastle disease and avian influenza in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Alireza; Amani, Amir; Pourmahmod, Masoud; Saghaei, Poya; Rezaie, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Increased susceptibility of birds to avian pathogens in intensive husbandry system has emphasized on necessity of improvement of innate and specific immune responses of birds by the fast establishment of a beneficial microflora and immune stimulator factors to guarantee healthy and low-price products. During this study, 192 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross-380) in four groups with three replicates per group were used to investigate effectiveness of synbiotic Biomin Imbo on immune responses of the chickens following routine vaccination against Newcastle disease (ND), avian influenza (AI), infectious bronchitis (IB) and infectious bursal disease (IBD). The results of this study indicated that supplementation of Biomin Imbo in diet enhanced humoral immune responses significantly in the case of ND, IB, IBD (p = 0.049, p = 0.020, p = 0.036, respectively), but insignificantly in the case of AI (p = 0.160) following vaccination of the chickens against these most common important viral poultry diseases. It was more effective following vaccination with live than killed vaccines. In conclusion, application of synbiotic Biomin Imbo, as a feed-additive adjuvant promotes acquired humoral immune responses of broiler chickens.

  20. L-carnitine supplementation decreases lipid peroxidation and improves cardiopulmonary function in broiler chickens reared at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Khajali, Fariborz; Khajali, Zahra

    2014-12-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of L-carnitine supplementation on growth performance and cardiopulmonary function of broiler chickens reared at high altitude (2100 m above sea level). A total of 96 day-old male chicks (Cobb 500) were randomly assigned into two dietary treatments containing 0 (control group) and 200 mg/kg L-carnitine. The experimental diets were fed for a period of 42 days consisting of the starting (days 1 to 21) and growing periods (days 21 to 42). Nutrient requirements of chickens met the NRC (1994) recommendations. The results showed that dietary L-carnitine had no significant influence on body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio. L-carnitine reduced plasma concentration of malondialdehyde, packed cell volume (PCV) and abdominal fat deposition compared to the control (P < 0.05). A significant (P < 0.05) decrease was observed in the right to total ventricular weight ratio (RV:TV) in birds receiving L-carnitine when compared to the control. Supplementation of L-carnitine increased plasma nitric oxide and immune responsiveness, which manifested in an increased toe-web thickness index measured at 24 h following the injection of phytohaemagglutinin P. In conclusion, supplementation of L-carnitine had beneficial effects on preventing lipid peroxidation and pulmonary hypertension in broiler chickens raised at high altitude.

  1. Growth performance, digestibility, and gut development of broiler chickens on diets with inclusion of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, H Y; Ivarsson, E; Jönsson, L; Holm, L; Lundh, T; Lindberg, J E

    2011-04-01

    A total of 256 broiler chickens (1 d old) were used in a 32-d growth trial to study the effects of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage and root inclusion on growth performance, digestibility, and gut development. The chicory forage originated from 2 harvests (June and September) and was included at 60 and 120 g/kg. The chicory root was included alone at 60 g/kg or together with chicory forage, from both harvests, in equal amounts (60 g/kg). The cereal-based control diet and 7 experimental diets were fed to each of 4 pens of chickens (8 chickens/pen). A higher BW gain and lower feed conversion ratio were found at 13 d of age in chickens fed the 60 g/kg chicory forage diet (P ≤ 0.05), whereas performance did not differ between the control and 60 g/kg chicory root diets. In contrast, a lower performance and digestibility of DM, organic matter, and AME as well as a thinner cecal mucosa layer were found for the 120 g/kg chicory forage diet (P ≤ 0.05). No diet effects on organ parameters or on pH of cecum digesta were detected. The soluble nonstarch polysaccharides fractions of chicory forage did not have any major negative effects on performance and gut development, and chicory forage from the September harvest was seen to have a higher nutritional value than that from the June harvest. Thus, results from the current study suggest that chicory forage is a potentially useful fiber-rich feed ingredient with high palatability for broiler chickens.

  2. Early warning of footpad dermatitis and hockburn in broiler chicken flocks using optical flow, bodyweight and water consumption.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, M S; Roberts, S J; Cain, R J; Nickson, T; Donnelly, C A

    2017-02-27

    Footpad dermatitis and hockburn are serious welfare and economic issues for the production of broiler (meat) chickens. The authors here describe the use of an inexpensive camera system that monitors the movements of broiler flocks throughout their lives and suggest that it is possible to predict, even in young birds, the cross-sectional prevalence at slaughter of footpad dermatitis and hockburn before external signs are visible. The skew and kurtosis calculated from the authors' camera-based optical flow system had considerably more power to predict these outcomes in the 50 flocks reported here than water consumption, bodyweight or mortality and therefore have the potential to inform improved flock management through giving farmers early warning of welfare issues. Further trials are underway to establish the generality of the results.

  3. Evaluation of the Presence and Levels of Enrofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Sulfaquinoxaline and Oxytetracycline in Broiler Chickens after Drug Administration

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Guilherme Resende; Lanza, Isabela Pereira; Ribeiro, Ana Cláudia dos Santos Rossi; Lana, Ângela Maria Quintão; Lara, Leonardo José Camargos

    2016-01-01

    The depletion times of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin as well as sulfaquinoxaline and oxytetracycline were evaluated in broiler chickens that had been subjected to pharmacological treatment. The presence and residue levels of these drugs in muscle tissue were evaluated using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method that was validated in this work. The results showed the presence of all antimicrobial residues; however, the presence of residues at concentrations higher than the drugs’ maximum residue limit (MRL) of 100 μg kg-1 was found only during the treatment period for oxytetracycline and until two days after discontinuation of the medication for enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and sulfaquinoxaline. It was concluded that the residues of all antimicrobials were rapidly metabolized from the broiler muscles; after four days of withdrawal, the levels were lower than the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method for the studied analytes. PMID:27846314

  4. Effect of different amylases on the utilization of cornstarch in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jianmin; Wang, Xingyu; Yin, Dafei; Wang, Maofei; Yin, Xiaonan; Lei, Zhao; Guo, Yuming

    2016-09-23

    This study compared the effect of different amylases on the utilization of cornstarch in broiler chickens fed a corn-based diet. Three-day-old Arbor Acres plus male chickens were randomly divided into 7 treatments and fed a diet supplemented with different sources and concentrations of amylase: 1,500 U/kg and 3,000 U/kg α-1,4 amylase from Aspergillus oryzae (α-amylase A); 480 U/kg and 960 U/kg α-1,4 amylase from Bacillus subtilis (α-amylase B); 200 U/kg and 400 U/kg α-1,6 isoamylase from B. subtilis; and the control. The experimental period comprised 11 d, during which performance, nutrient digestibility, digestive enzyme activity, intestinal morphology, and glucose transporter transcription of the chickens were evaluated. The results indicated that 1,500 U/kg α-amylase improved the digestibility of energy and decreased the feed conversion rate compared to α-1,6 isoamylase (P < 0.05). Supplemental 400 U/kg α-1,6 isoamylase decreased ileal digestibility of amylopectin and total starch (P < 0.05) compared to 200 U/kg α-1,6 isoamylase, α-amylase A, α-amylase B, and the control (P < 0.05). Supplemental α-1,6 isoamylase decreased (P < 0.05) insulin content. Supplemental 3,000 U/kg α-amylase A and α-1,6 isoamylase increased (P < 0.05) the relative weight of the liver. In addition, 3,000 U/kg α-amylase A, 480 U/kg α-amylase B, and α-1,6 isoamylase decreased the V:C in the duodenum and ileum. α-amylase A increased sucrase activity in the jejunum (P < 0.05), whereas 400 U/kg α-1,6 isoamylase reduced maltase activity in the duodenum (P < 0.05). Furthermore, 3,000 U/kg α-amylase A and α-amylase B decreased (P < 0.05) sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) mRNA expression in the duodenum and jejunum. However, 200 U/kg α-1,6 isoamylase increased glucose transporter 2 (GLUCT2) in the duodenum (P < 0.05). These results suggest that exogenous amylase affects the digestibility of starch by affecting disaccharidase activity in the

  5. Effect of soaking, germination, and enzyme treatment of whole barley on nutritional value and digestive tract parameters of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Svihus, B; Newman, R K; Newman, C W

    1997-09-01

    1. An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of soaking at 0 degrees C, soaking at room temperature, germination, or enzyme treatment of whole barley on feeding value and digestive tract parameters of 2- to 4-week old broiler chickens given diets with 700g/kg whole barley. 2. Soaking or germination decreased the soluble and total beta-glucan content (P < 0.05) and, except for soaking at 0 degrees C, the acid extract viscosity of the grain also decreased (P < 0.05). Germination and soaking in the presence of enzymes produced the lowest beta-glucan content and viscosity. 3. Except for soaking in cold water, the soaking, germination and enzyme treatments increased weight gain and decreased food:gain ratio (P < 0.05). Correspondingly, the digestibility of protein, fat, and ash, and the digestible energy content, increased (P < 0.05) after enzyme treatment or germination. 4. Chickens fed on enzyme-treated or germinated barley diets had intestinal contents with a greater proportion of dry matter and lower viscosity than chickens fed on untreated barley (P < 0.05). Consequently, the cages and chickens were cleaner (P < 0.05) and the weight of digestive organs as proportion of live weight was lower. 5. Particle size analysis of excreta revealed that whole barley was efficiently ground by the gizzards of 16-d-old chickens, and very few whole kernels were found.

  6. Addition of a worm leachate as source of humic substances in the drinking water of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Rosales, S; de L Angeles, M

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the growth performance, the apparent ileal digestibility of nitrogen and energy, the retention of nutrients and the apparent metabolizable energy corrected to zero nitrogen retention (AMEn) in broiler chickens supplemented with increasing doses of a worm leachate (WL) as a source of humic substances (HS) in the drinking water. In Exp. 1, 140 male broilers were penned individually and assigned to four WL levels (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%) mixed in the drinking water from 21 to 49 days of age. Water was offered in plastic bottles tied to the cage. In Exp. 2, 600 male broilers from 21 to 49 days of age housed in floor pens were assigned to three levels of WL (0%, 10%, and 20%) mixed in the drinking water. The WL was mixed with tap water in plastic containers connected by plastic tubing to bell drinkers. The results of both experiments were subjected to analysis of variance and polynomial contrasts. In Exp. 1, the daily water consumption was similar among treatments but the consumption of humic, fulvic, and total humic acids increased linearly (p<0.01) as the WL increased in the drinking water. The feed conversion (p<0.01) and the ileal digestibility of energy, the excretion of dry matter and energy, the retention of dry matter, ash and nitrogen and the AMEn showed quadratic responses (p<0.05) relative to the WL levels in drinking water. In Exp. 2, the increasing level of WL in the drinking water had quadratic effects on the final body weight, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio (p<0.05). The addition of WL as a source of HS in the drinking water had beneficial effects on the growth performance, ileal digestibility of energy, the retention of nutrients as well on the AMEn in broiler chickens; the best results were observed when the WL was mixed at levels of 20% to 30% in the drinking water.

  7. Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance profiles of escherichia coli isolates of broiler chickens at slaughter in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Chunu; McFall, Margaret; King, Robin; Irwin, Rebecca

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial resistance profiles of Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chickens in Alberta, Canada. Cecal contents of broiler chickens from 24 flocks were collected at slaughter between January and March 2005 for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing against a panel of 15 antimicrobials using a broth microdilution technique. Of 600 E. coli isolates tested, 475 (79.2%) were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, 326 (54.3%) were resistant to three or more antimicrobials, 65 (10.8%) were resistant to five or more antimicrobials, and 15 (2.5%) were resistant to seven or more antimicrobials. The most common resistance was to tetracycline (69.2%), followed by streptomycin (48.2%), kanamycin (40.3%), and sulfisoxazole (38.0%). None of the E. coli isolates were resistant to amikacin, ceftriaxone, or ciprofloxacin. Of the isolates that were resistant to two or more antimicrobials, the most common multidrug resistance patterns were streptomycinte-tracycline (44.0%), streptomycin-sulfisoxazole-tetracycline (30.7%), and kanamycin-streptomycin-sulfisoxazole-tetracycline (23.5%). Resistance to tetracycline and kanamycin (odds ratio = 46.7, P = 0.0001) was highly associated, followed by resistance to streptomycin and sulfisoxazole (odds ratio = 12.0, P = 0.0001), and streptomycin and tetracycline (odds ratio = 10.3, P = 0.0001). The flock level prevalence of resistance varied from 16.7% for chloramphenicol to 100.0% for ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline. The results of this study provided baseline information on antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli isolates of broiler chickens at slaughter in Alberta, which can serve as a bench mark for future research.

  8. The effect of level of straw bale provision on the behaviour and leg health of commercial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bailie, C L; O'Connell, N E

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of the number of straw bales (SBs) provided on the behaviour and leg health of commercial broiler chickens. Houses containing ~23 000 broiler chickens were assigned to one of two treatments: (1) access to 30 SBs per house, '30SB' or (2) access to 45 SB per house, '45SB'. This equated to bale densities of 1 bale/44 m2 and 1 bale/29 m2 of floor space within houses, respectively. Treatments were applied in one of two houses on a commercial farm, and were replicated over six production cycles. Both houses had windows and were also artificially lit. Behaviour was observed in weeks 3 to5 of the cycle. This involved observations of general behaviour and activity, gait scores (0: perfect to 5: unable to walk) and latency to lie (measured in seconds from when a bird had been encouraged to stand). Production performance and environmental parameters were also measured. SB density had no significant effect on activity levels (P>0.05) or walking ability (P>0.05). However, the average latency to lie was greater in 30SB birds compared with 45SB birds (P<0.05). The incidence of hock burn and podo dermatitis, average BW at slaughter and levels of mortality and culling were unaffected by SB density (P>0.05). The results from this study suggest that increasing SB levels from 1 bale/44 m2 to 1 bale/29 m2 floor space does not lead to significant improvements in the welfare of commercial broiler chickens in windowed houses.

  9. Effect of lycopene on the copper-induced oxidation of low-density lipoprotein in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Woo; Choo, Won-Don; Kang, Chang-Won; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate whether dietary lycopene (LP) could prevent the copper-mediated oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL), and affect growth performance, relative organ weights, plasma and meat lipid profiles, and LP contents in plasma and tissues in broiler chickens. A total of 160 day-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into 16 pens with rice husk as a bedding material. Each experiment had 4 replicates, 10 chicks per replicate (n = 4 per treatment). A corn-soybean meal base diet was used as a control diet (CONT). To formulate the experimental diets, the base diet was added with LP at the levels of 10 (LP10) or 20 mg/kg (LP20), or 17 g/kg of tomato paste (TP17) which was equivalent to 5 ppm of LP. The experiment lasted 4 weeks. Growth performance and relative organ weights were not affected (p > 0.05) by any of dietary treatments. Dietary LP significantly lowered (p < 0.05) triglyceride and LDL cholesterol at 2 weeks of age, but did not affect them at 4 weeks of age. Total cholesterol in thigh meats was not altered by dietary treatments. LP was not detected in leg meats in all chicks, nor in liver or plasma of the CONT group. LP was found in liver and plasma, being the former greater in the concentration, of the chicks fed diets containing LP10, LP20, or TP17. At 2 and 4 weeks, the copper-mediated oxidation of LDL was delayed (p < 0.05) in either LP- or TP-fed chickens compared with the CONT group. In conclusion, LP lowers triglyceride and LDL cholesterol, is deposited into serum and liver, and prevents the LDL oxidation in broiler chickens, confirming the role of LP in the lipid-lowering and antioxidant properties in broiler chickens.

  10. Effects of vitamins, probiotics, and protein level on semen traits and some seminal plasma macro- and microminerals of male broiler breeders after zinc-induced molting.

    PubMed

    Khan, Rifat Ullah; Zia-Ur-Rahman; Javed, Ijaz; Muhammad, Faqir

    2012-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of vitamin E, vitamin C, probiotics, dietary protein level, and their combination on semen traits and seminal plasma macro- and microminerals in 65-week-old male broiler breeders after zinc-induced molting. One hundred eighty birds were induced to molt by mixing zinc oxide (3,000 mg/kg) in the diet. The birds were divided into six groups (five replicates) by completely randomized design. One group was kept as control (16% CP), while the other five were supplemented with vitamin E (100 IU/kg feed), vitamin C (500 IU/kg feed) probiotics (50 mg/L), protein level (14% CP), and their combination. Semen samples were weekly collected for determination of semen volume, sperm concentration, motility, and dead sperm percentage. Analyses of Na, K, Ca and Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn, and Cu in seminal plasma were also performed. Overall, mean semen volume was significantly high in vitamin E and C supplemented groups compared to control. Overall mean sperm motility was significantly higher in vitamin E supplemented group, whereas dead sperm percentage was significantly lower in the vitamin C group compared to control. Mineral analyses revealed that overall mean seminal plasma Mg increased significantly in vitamin E and C supplemented groups compared to control. Similarly, significantly high overall mean seminal plasma Cu concentration was observed in vitamins E and C and combination groups. It can be concluded that vitamins have a vital role in improving semen quality and bioavailability of Mg and Cu in seminal plasma of the post-molt cockerels.

  11. Comparison of serum biochemical parameters between two broiler chicken lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content.

    PubMed

    Dong, J-Q; Zhang, H; Jiang, X-F; Wang, S-Z; Du, Z-Q; Wang, Z-P; Leng, L; Cao, Z-P; Li, Y-M; Luan, P; Li, H

    2015-07-01

    In humans, obesity is associated with increased or decreased levels of serum biochemical indicators. However, the relationship is not as well understood in chickens. Due to long-term intense selection for fast growth rate, modern broilers have the problem of excessive fat deposition, exhibiting biochemical or metabolic changes. In the current study, the Northeast Agricultural University broiler lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content (NEAUHLF) were used to identify differences in serum biochemical parameters between the 2 lines. A total of 18 serum biochemical indicators were investigated in the 16th, 17th, and 18th generation populations of NEAUHLF, and the genetic parameters of these serum biochemical indicators were estimated. After analyzing the data from these 3 generations together, the results showed that the levels of 16 of the tested serum biochemical parameters were significantly different between the lean and fat birds. In the fat birds, serum concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), HDL-C:low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total bile acid, total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate transaminase (AST):alanine transaminase (ALT), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), uric acid, and creatinine were very significantly higher (P < 0.01), whereas LDL-C, albumin:globulin, glucose, AST, ALT, and free fatty acids concentrations in serum were very significantly lower than those in the lean birds (P < 0.01). Of these 16 serum biochemical parameters, 5 (LDL-C, HDL-C:LDL-C, total bile acid, albumin, and albumin:globulin) had high heritabilities (0.58 ≤ h2 ≤ 0.89), 6 (HDL-C, total protein, globulin, AST:ALT, GGT, and creatinine) had moderate heritabilities (0.29 ≤ h2 ≤ 0.48), and the remaining 5 had low heritabilities (h2 < 0.20). Serum HDL-C, HDL-C:LDL-C, and glucose had higher positive genetic correlation coefficients (rg) with abdominal fat traits (0.30 ≤ rg ≤ 0.80), whereas serum globulin, AST, and uric acid

  12. Biochemical studies in experimentally Escherichia coli infected broiler chicken supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikash; Jakhar, K. K.; Nehra, Vikas; Kumar, Sarvan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: An experimental study was conducted on 192-day-old broiler chicks for evaluating the effect of 10% neem leaf extract (NLE) supplementationon biochemical parameters in chickens experimentally infected with Escherichia coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml at 7 days of age. Materials and Methods: The 192-day-old broiler chicks were procured. These chicks were divided into two groups (A and B) containing 96 birds each on the 1st day. Diet of all the chicks of Group A was supplemented with 10%NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were given feed and water devoid of NLE supplementation throughout the experiment. After rearing for 1 week, chicks of both the groups (A and B) were again divided into two subgroups (Group A into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2) of 54 and 42 birds, respectively. At the age of 7 days all the chicks of groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected from six chicks from each group at day 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 days post-infection and serum was separated for biochemical studies. Results: There was a significant increase in serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, globulin concentration and a decrease in total protein (TP), albumin concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in both the infected groups. However, the changes in biochemical values, i.e., ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, TP, albumin, and globulin wereof lower magnitude in NLE supplemented group suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. Conclusions: Fromthe present study, it is reasonable to conclude that significant increase in the value of ALT, AST, LDH, globulin, and significant decrease in the value of ALP, TP, and albumin was of lower magnitude in supplemented infected group (A1) as compared to non-supplemented infected group (B1) suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. PMID:27047040

  13. Anaemia-dermatitis of broilers: field observations on its occurrence, transmission and prevention.

    PubMed

    Vielitz, E; Landgraf, H

    1988-01-01

    Anaemia-dermatitis was first observed in German broiler flocks in 1977. Its frequency has increased in the past six years. Atrophy of thymus, bursa and bone marrow occur and are affected by a severe anaemia and immunosuppression. Secondary bacterial infections of the skin cause gangrenous dermatitis. Systematic investigations of outbreaks in two broiler integrations showed the syndrome to occur only in the offspring of young broiler breeders during the first 3 to 9 weeks of production. Anaemia could be reproduced experimentally in CAA-antibody negative SPF birds by injecting a bacteria-free filtrate of organ homogenates of diseased birds; birds kept in contact with the inoculated chicks remained healthy. It is concluded that anaemia-dermatitis is primarily caused by the chicken anaemia agent (CAA). Vertical transmission via hatching egg predominates with no evidence of horizontal transmission. In order to prevent egg transmission of CAA immunisation during rearing is indicated for breeder stocks.

  14. Growth response, nutrient and mineral retention, bone mineralisation and walking ability of broiler chickens fed with dietary inclusion of various unconventional mineral sources.

    PubMed

    Oso, A O; Idowu, A A; Niameh, O T

    2011-08-01

    Growth response, nutrient and mineral retention, bone mineral content and walking ability of broiler chicken fed dietary inclusion of various unconventional calcium sources were studied using 160-day-old broilers. Four isonitrogenous, isocaloric diets balanced for Ca and P were formulated such that oyster shell, snail shell, wood ash and limestone were used as main non-phytate (Ca from other sources apart from plant) calcium sources. Each dietary treatment consisted of 40 birds replicated four times with 10 birds per replicate. A single diet was fed to the broilers throughout the duration of the study which lasted for 8 weeks. Broilers fed diet containing oyster shell as calcium sources recorded the highest (p < 0.05) feed intake of 5863.30 g, while those fed diet containing limestone consumed the least intake (p < 0.05) of 5432.56 g. Occurrence of lameness and evidences of gaits were highest (p < 0.05) for broilers fed diet containing wood ash. Lowest (p < 0.05) Ca and ash retention were recorded for broiler fed diet containing wood ash as Ca sources. Similar tibia ash values were recorded for broilers fed oyster shell, snail shell and limestone. Wood ash inclusion resulted in a low Ca availability hence its inclusion in feeds for broilers should be discouraged.

  15. Direct effects of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) acetone leaf extract on broiler chickens naturally infected with Eimeria species.

    PubMed

    Ola-Fadunsin, Shola David; Ademola, Isaiah Oluwafemi

    2013-08-01

    Avian coccidiosis is one of the most important diseases of poultry and it is responsible for a large number of all broiler mortalities worldwide. The control of this disease relies mainly on the use of anticoccidial drugs. However, herbal preparations could be an alternative for the treatment against coccidiosis in chickens. The direct effects of Moringa oleifera acetone extracts on broiler chickens naturally infected with mixed Eimeria species was investigated to determine the relative efficacy of the extracts against coccidiosis in birds. The investigations were carried out in seven groups (ten chickens per group). The birds were given various doses (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 g/kg body weight) of acetone extract of leaves of M. toltrazuril (positive control) and untreated (negative control). The extract was evaluated for anticoccidial activity by means of inhibition of oocyst output in faeces, faecal score, weight gain and mortality. Haematological indices were evaluated by standard methods. The group treated with 1.0 g/ kg body weight Moringa oleifera extract produced the least inhibitory effect on oocyst shed in the faeces (96.4%), while the groups treated with 2.0 g/kg, 3.0 g/kg, 4.0 g/kg and 5.0 g/kg body weight of the extract produced 97.4, 98.7, 99.1 and 99.8%, respectively. Body weight gains of infected chickens treated with the extract significantly improved (p < 0.05), and faecal scores were milder. Packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration and red blood count of the treated birds were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of the infected untreated group. Moringa oleifera leaves could find application in the treatment of avian coccidiosis in veterinary practice.

  16. Transcriptome analysis of post-hatch breast muscle in legacy and modern broiler chickens reveals enrichment of several regulators of myogenic growth.

    PubMed

    Davis, Richard V N; Lamont, Susan J; Rothschild, Max F; Persia, Michael E; Ashwell, Chris M; Schmidt, Carl J

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture provides excellent model systems for understanding how selective pressure, as applied by humans, can affect the genomes of plants and animals. One such system is modern poultry breeding in which intensive genetic selection has been applied for meat production in the domesticated chicken. As a result, modern meat-type chickens (broilers) exhibit enhanced growth, especially of the skeletal muscle, relative to their legacy counterparts. Comparative studies of modern and legacy broiler chickens provide an opportunity to identify genes and pathways affected by this human-directed evolution. This study used RNA-seq to compare the transcriptomes of a modern and a legacy broiler line to identify differentially enriched genes in the breast muscle at days 6 and 21 post-hatch. Among the 15,945 genes analyzed, 10,841 were expressed at greater than 0.1 RPKM. At day 6 post-hatch 189 genes, including several regulators of myogenic growth and development, were differentially enriched between the two lines. The transcriptional profiles between lines at day 21 post-hatch identify 193 genes differentially enriched and still include genes associated with myogenic growth. This study identified differentially enriched genes that regulate myogenic growth and differentiation between the modern and legacy broiler lines. Specifically, differences in the ratios of several positive (IGF1, IGF1R, WFIKKN2) and negative (MSTN, ACE) myogenic growth regulators may help explain the differences underlying the enhanced growth characteristics of the modern broilers.

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of Post-Hatch Breast Muscle in Legacy and Modern Broiler Chickens Reveals Enrichment of Several Regulators of Myogenic Growth

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Richard V. N.; Lamont, Susan J.; Rothschild, Max F.; Persia, Michael E.; Ashwell, Chris M.; Schmidt, Carl J.

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture provides excellent model systems for understanding how selective pressure, as applied by humans, can affect the genomes of plants and animals. One such system is modern poultry breeding in which intensive genetic selection has been applied for meat production in the domesticated chicken. As a result, modern meat-type chickens (broilers) exhibit enhanced growth, especially of the skeletal muscle, relative to their legacy counterparts. Comparative studies of modern and legacy broiler chickens provide an opportunity to identify genes and pathways affected by this human-directed evolution. This study used RNA-seq to compare the transcriptomes of a modern and a legacy broiler line to identify differentially enriched genes in the breast muscle at days 6 and 21 post-hatch. Among the 15,945 genes analyzed, 10,841 were expressed at greater than 0.1 RPKM. At day 6 post-hatch 189 genes, including several regulators of myogenic growth and development, were differentially enriched between the two lines. The transcriptional profiles between lines at day 21 post-hatch identify 193 genes differentially enriched and still include genes associated with myogenic growth. This study identified differentially enriched genes that regulate myogenic growth and differentiation between the modern and legacy broiler lines. Specifically, differences in the ratios of several positive (IGF1, IGF1R, WFIKKN2) and negative (MSTN, ACE) myogenic growth regulators may help explain the differences underlying the enhanced growth characteristics of the modern broilers. PMID:25821972

  18. Effects of Heat-oxidized Soy Protein Isolate on Growth Performance and Digestive Function of Broiler Chickens at Early Age

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X.; Chen, Y. P.; Wu, D. W.; Wen, C.; Zhou, Y. M.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate effects of heat-oxidized soy protein isolate (HSPI) on growth performance, serum biochemical indices, apparent nutrient digestibility and digestive function of broiler chickens. A total of 320 1-day-old Arbor Acres chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 replicates of 10 birds, receiving diets containing soy protein isolate (SPI, control group) or the same amount of SPI heated in an oven at 100°C for 1, 4, or 8 h, for 21 days, respectively. The results indicated that compared with the control group, body weight gain and feed intake of birds fed diet containing SPI heated for 8 h were significantly lower (p<0.05). Serum urea nitrogen concentration was higher in the broilers fed diet containing SPI heated for 4 or 8 h at d 21 (p<0.05). In contrast, serum glucose content was decreased by HSPI substitution at d 21 (p<0.05). The relative pancreas weight in HSPI groups was higher than that in the control group at d 21 (p<0.05). Meanwhile, the opposite effect was observed for relative weight of anterior intestine and ileum in broilers fed a diet containing SPI heated for 8 h (p<0.05). Birds fed diets containing SPI heated for 4 or 8 h had a decreased lipase activity in anterior intestinal content at d 14 and 21 (p<0.05), respectively. In addition, the same effect was also noted in broilers given diets containing SPI heated for 1 h at d 21 (p<0.05). Similarly, amylase, protease and trypsin activity in anterior intestinal content were lower in broilers fed diets containing SPI heated for 8 h at d 21 (p<0.05). The apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM) from d 8 to 10 and DM, crude protein (CP), and ether extract from d 15 to 17 were lower in broilers fed diets containing SPI heated for 8 h (p<0.05). Besides, birds given diets containing SPI heated for 4 h also exhibited lower CP apparent digestibility from d 15 to 17 (p<0.05). It was concluded that HSPI inclusion can exert a negative influence on the growth performance of

  19. Tracking Campylobacter contamination along a broiler chicken production chain from the farm level to retail in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Licai; Wang, Yang; Shen, Jianzhong; Zhang, Qijing; Wu, Congming

    2014-07-02

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of Campylobacter species along a broiler production chain from farm to retail, and to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance profile of Campylobacter isolates. A total of 259 Campylobacter isolates (C. jejuni n=106, C. coli n=153) were isolated from broiler ceca samples (72.5%, 103/142), broiler carcasses (34.1%, 46/135), and retail broiler meat (31.3%, 40/128) samples collected in Shanghai, China. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of six antimicrobials were determined using the agar dilution method. High prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin (C. jejuni: 99.1%;C. coli: 100%) and tetracycline (C. jejuni: 100%;C. coli: 98.7%) was detected among the C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. The vast majority of C. coli were resistant to clindamycin (92.2%), gentamicin (95.4%), and erythromycin (94.1%), but only 25.5%, 53.8%, and 16.0% of C. jejuni exhibited resistance to these three antimicrobials, respectively. In contrast, the prevalence of florfenicol resistance in C. jejuni (37.7%) was significantly higher than that in C. coli (7.8%) (P<0.05). It is noteworthy that all Campylobacter isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, and 71.7% of C. jejuni and 98.0% of C. coli isolates exhibited multi-drug resistance (resistant to three or more antimicrobials). Fifty-five C. jejuni and sixty C. coli isolates, selected from different production stages, species, and antimicrobial resistance patterns, were analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), among which 15 unique PFGE patterns (PFGE patterns represented by a single strain) and 31 clusters (PFGE patterns represented by multiple strains) were detected. Furthermore, nearly all of the PFGE patterns of the Campylobacter strains isolated from retail broiler meats overlapped with those of the strains from ceca and slaughterhouse carcasses. Together, these findings revealed the high prevalence of Campylobacter species in a broiler chicken

  20. An l-Arginine supplement improves broiler hypertensive response and gut function in broiler chickens reared at high altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajali, Fariborz; Moghaddam, Maryam Heydary; Hassanpour, Hossein

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of supplemental dietary arginine (ARG) on growth, hypertensive response, and gut function in broilers reared at high altitude (2,100 m). A total of 120 day-old male broilers (Cobb 500) were divided equally into two treatment groups. Treatments included a control basal diet composed of corn and soybean meal and an experimental diet to which an l-ARG supplement was added at 10 g/kg. The trial lasted for 42 days. There were no treatment differences with regard to feed intake, body weight gain, or feed conversion ratio. However ARG supplementation did increase the plasma concentration of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator ( P < 0.05), and attenuated indices of pulmonary hypertension as reflected by reductions in the hematocrit and the right to total ventricular weight ratio ( P < 0.05). Significantly enhanced intestinal mucosal development was observed in broilers receiving ARG supplement when compared with controls ( P < 0.05), suggesting that ARG supplementation increased the absorptive surface area of the jejunum and ileum. In conclusion, broiler diets supplemented with ARG beneficially improved pulmonary hemodynamics and appeared to enhance gut function.

  1. Guar meal germ and hull fractions differently affect growth performance and intestinal viscosity of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, J T; Bailey, C A; Cartwright, A L

    2003-10-01

    High concentrations of guar meal in poultry diets deleteriously affect growth, feed intake, and digesta viscosity. These effects are attributed to residual gum in the meal. A 2 x 5 factorial experiment investigated the impacts of two guar meal fractions (germ and hull) at five inclusion levels (0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0%) on intestinal viscosity, measures of growth, and feed conversion in broiler chickens fed to 20 d of age. Growth and feed conversion ratio were not affected by inclusion of as much as 7.5% of the germ fraction into poultry diets, while inclusion of the hull fraction reduced growth at all concentrations. The hull fraction increased intestinal viscosity at all inclusion levels fed, although feed conversion was not affected until the inclusion rate exceeded 5.0%. The germ fraction significantly increased intestinal viscosity at 7.5 and 10% inclusion rates. When germ fraction was fed, relative organ weights remained constant through all concentrations except for the ventriculus and duodenum at 7.5 and 10% inclusion levels. Relative pancreas weight was significantly increased at the 10% level of the hull fraction. Increases in intestinal viscosity corresponded with growth depression. These results suggest that residual gum was responsible for some deleterious effects seen when guar meal was fed. The germ fraction was a superior ingredient when compared with the hull fraction. The guar meal germ fraction constituting as much as 7.5% of the diet supported growth and feed conversion measures similar to those observed with a typical corn-soybean poultry ration.

  2. Anticoccidial effects of Aloe secundiflora leaf extract against Eimeria tenella in broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Kaingu, Fredrick; Liu, Dandan; Wang, Lele; Tao, Jianping; Waihenya, Rebecca; Kutima, Helen

    2017-04-01

    Anticoccidial effects of Aloe secundiflora crude leaf extract was tested in broiler chickens following oral infection with Eimeria tenella. Sixty 22-day-old birds were divided into six groups of ten birds each. Three treatment groups A, B, and C were fed with the extract (100, 250, and 500 mg/day, respectively) mixed in feed for 10 days, and three control groups: group D (drug control) administered 300 mg/l of sulfachloropyrazine sodium soluble powder in drinking water for 5 days, group E (infected/non-medicated positive control), and group F (uninfected/non-medicated negative control). Except for group F, all groups were orally inoculated with 75,000 sporulated oocysts of E. tenella. The effects of the extract on E. tenella infection were evaluated by severity of bloody diarrhea, body weight (BW) gain, oocyst output, and lesion score. No bird in the treated groups died of coccidiosis, and severity of bloody diarrhea was milder than in the positive control group. BW gains in the treated groups were significantly higher than in group E (p < 0.05). The lesion scores of the treated groups were significantly lower than that of group E. Oocyst output in groups A, B, and C were 11.23, 8.24, and 6.82 × 10(6), respectively. As compared with the negative control group (12.84 × 10(6)), the reductions in oocyst production were 12.54, 35.83, and 46.88%, respectively. Oocyst output significantly reduced with an increase in Aloe dosage. The findings of this study suggest that Aloe secundiflora extract presents an alternative anticoccidial agent for the control of avian coccidiosis.

  3. Methionine+cystine requirement of broiler chickens fed low-density diets under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Aftab, Usama; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2009-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the M+C requirement of straight-run broiler chickens (Hubbard x Hubbard) during the period 4-21 (Exp. 1) and 21-40 (Exp. 2) days of age. Experiments were conducted during summer months (July-August) in open-sided houses, thus exposing chicks to chronic heat stress. Daily min-max temperature averaged 26-37C (Exp. 1) and 23-36C (Exp. 2). M+C deficient basal diets were formulated to contain low-nutrient-density, i.e., 2750 kcal per kg ME, 20.1% CP (Exp. 1), and 2780 kcal per kg ME, 17.0% CP (Exp. 2). Diets were supplemented with DL-methionine to provide total M+C level ranging from 0.64 to 0.89 % (six increments) and 0.54 to 0.79% (six increments), respectively in experiment 1 and 2. Requirements (0.95 of the maximum quadratic response) were found to be 0.77 and 0.75% total M+C, respectively for gain and feed efficiency, during 4-21 days; and 0.67% total M+C for both gain and feed efficiency during 21-40 days of age. Calculated on the digestible M+C basis, the estimates were 0.67 and 0.65% respectively for gain and feed efficiency during 4-21 days of age; and 0.60% for gain and feed efficiency during 21-40 days of age.

  4. [Food value of spiruline algae for growth of the broiler-type chicken].

    PubMed

    Blum, J C; Calet, C

    1975-01-01

    Five trials were carried out during the growth (0-8 weeks) of the broiler type chicken. The weight increase was always depressed when spiruline algae replaced traditional protein sources (soybean meal, fish meal, ...) in a complete and well balanced diet (trials 1 and 2). The delay in growth was small and non significant for 5 p. 100 or less of spirulines in the diet. However, for the highest levels of spirulines the delay in growth was more pronounced, especially during the starting period (0-4 weeks): live weight gain was reduced from 16 and 26 per cent for the spirulines levels of 20 and 30 p. 100. Different methods (live weight gain, balance technique, body analysis) were used for the determination of the protein and energy efficiencies. Spirulines were fed at different levels, either added to a protein free diet (trial 3), or included with other protein sources in complete diets (trial 4). Both protein and energy efficiencies were reduced when the spiruline level increased. Thus, the protein efficiency of the spirulines was found to be similar to that of the other traditional protein sources (soybean, fish,...) for a level lower than 10 p. 100. In contrast, it was reduced (--20 p. 100) when more than 20 p. 100 of algae were included in the diet. The average metabolizable energy was 2,487 kcal per kilogram when 20 and 30 p. 100 of algae were added in the protein free diet. In the complete diets, this value was found to be smaller or greater according to the level of spirulines, 30 p. 100 reduced and 5 p. 100 increased the energy value. The poor digestibility of some glucidic fraction in the algae seems responsible for the low energy value and for the reduced growth performance. The addition of a glycolytic enzyme to the diet failed to improve the performance (trial 5).

  5. Passive immunization to reduce Campylobacter jejuni colonization and transmission in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterium-mediated diarrheal disease in humans worldwide. Poultry products are considered the most important source of C. jejuni infections in humans but to date no effective strategy exists to eradicate this zoonotic pathogen from poultry production. Here, the potential use of passive immunization to reduce Campylobacter colonization in broiler chicks was examined. For this purpose, laying hens were immunized with either a whole-cell lysate or the hydrophobic protein fraction of C. jejuni and their eggs were collected. In vitro tests validated the induction of specific ImmunoglobulinY (IgY) against C. jejuni in the immunized hens’ egg yolks, in particular. In seeder experiments, preventive administration of hyperimmune egg yolk significantly (P < 0.01) reduced bacterial counts of seeder animals three days after oral inoculation with approximately 104 cfu C. jejuni, compared with control birds. Moreover, transmission to non-seeder birds was dramatically reduced (hydrophobic protein fraction) or even completely prevented (whole-cell lysate). Purified IgY promoted bacterial binding to chicken intestinal mucus, suggesting enhanced mucosal clearance in vivo. Western blot analysis in combination with mass spectrometry after two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis revealed immunodominant antigens of C. jejuni that are involved in a variety of cell functions, including chemotaxis and adhesion. Some of these (AtpA, EF-Tu, GroEL and CtpA) are highly conserved proteins and could be promising targets for the development of subunit vaccines. PMID:24589217

  6. Physicochemical characterization and pharmacokinetics in broiler chickens of a new recrystallized enrofloxacin hydrochloride dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, L; Miranda-Calderon, J E; Garcia-Gutierrez, P; Sumano, H

    2015-04-01

    Enrofloxacin, a key antimicrobial agent in commercial avian medicine, has limited bioavailability (60%). This prompted its chemical manipulation to yield a new solvate-recrystallized enrofloxacin hydrochloride dihydrate entity (enroC ). Its chemical structure was characterized by means of mass spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and thermal analysis. Comparative oral pharmacokinetics (PK) of reference enrofloxacin (enroR ) and enroC in broiler chickens after oral administration revealed noticeable improvements in key parameters and PK/PD ratios. Maximum serum concentration values were 2.61 ± 0.21 and 5.9 ± 0.42 μg/mL for enroR and enroC , respectively; mean residence time was increased from 5.50 ± 0.26 h to 6.20 ± 0.71 h and the relative bioavailability of enroC was 336%. Considering Cmax /MIC and AUC/MIC ratios and the MIC values for a wild-type Escherichia coli O78/H12 (0.25 μg/mL), optimal ratios will only be achieved by enroC (Cmax /MIC = 23.6 and AUC/MIC = 197.7 for enroC ; vs. Cmax /MIC = 10.4 and AUC/MIC = 78.1 for enroR ). Furthermore, enroC may provide in most cases mutant prevention concentrations (Cmax /MIC ≥ 16). Ready solubility of powder enroC in drinking water at concentrations regularly used (0.01%) to provide an additional advantage of enroC in the field. Further development of enroC is warranted before it can be recommended for clinical use in veterinary medicine.

  7. The effects of lactoferrin on the intestinal environment of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Geier, M S; Torok, V A; Guo, P; Allison, G E; Boulianne, M; Janardhana, V; Bean, A G D; Hughes, R J

    2011-10-01

    The influence of in-feed lactoferrin (Lf) on bird production, intestinal microbiota, mucosal immune system and gut microarchitecture was assessed in male Cobb 500 broiler chickens. Birds were given one of four diets from da