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Sample records for broiler breeder flock

  1. Prevalence of salmonellae in broiler, layer and breeder flocks in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sasipreeyajan, J; Jerngklinchan, J; Koowatananukul, C; Saitanu, K

    1996-05-01

    Salmonellae were detected in thirteen broiler flocks, 15 layer flocks and 7 parent breeder flocks in Thailand from October 1991 to August 1992. Salmonellae were isolated from samples of feed, drinking water, cloacal swabs, faeces and litter from all broiler and breeder flocks, and 87% of the layer flocks. From broiler flocks, litter samples were more frequently contaminated than other samples, while feed left over in the layer house and drinking water in the parent breeder house were the most commonly contaminated. Of the total of 1,488 samples examined from all flocks, salmonellae were recovered from samples of litter (42%), water in drinking troughs (36%), feed left over in the feed trays (28%), water in the main tanks (17%), cloacal swabs (13%) and stock feed (8%). The most common serovars associated with the broiler, layer and parent breeder flocks were Salmonella blockley, S. weltevreden and S. amsterdam respectively.

  2. Multivariate epidemiological approach to salmonellosis in broiler breeder flocks.

    PubMed

    Henken, A M; Frankena, K; Goelema, J O; Graat, E A; Noordhuizen, J P

    1992-05-01

    A retrospective, case-control study into risk factors of salmonellosis was undertaken using data from 111 broiler breeder flocks assembled during a 5-yr period. The results of both univariate and multivariate analyses are presented. Many different Salmonella species were detected. Multivariate models were created based on the outcome of univariate analyses. The following variables appeared to be the most relevant: disinfection tubs, hygiene barriers, the interaction of disinfection tubs by hygiene barriers, and feed mills. The final model indicated that flocks housed at farms without a disinfection tub, with poor hygiene barriers, and receiving their feed from a small feed mill had a 46.1 times greater risk of being Salmonella-positive than flocks housed at farms with a disinfection tub, with good hygiene barriers, and receiving their feed from a large feed mill. It is concluded that the application of quantitative epidemiological methods can be valuable not only to identify potential risk factors but also to quantify their contributory effect on the disease outcome. Hence, it may be a useful tool for application in "integrated food chain quality control programs".

  3. Effect of Testosterone Administration and Spiking on Reproductive Success of Broiler Breeder Flocks.

    PubMed

    Ordas, B; Vahedi, S; Seidavi, A; Rahati, M; Laudadio, V; Tufarelli, V

    2015-10-01

    Age negatively affects reproductive success of broiler breeder flocks. One of the main hormones involved in the change of fertility with the age is testosterone (TT). The introduction of young males at later production stages of broiler flocks is known as spiking and is expected to reduce the fertility decline with age. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of injection of different levels of TT and the effect of spiking on reproductive fitness of broiler breeder flocks. Two experiments were conducted on Ross 308 breeder flocks for 10 weeks (41-50 weeks of age). The experiment 1 included a control and three treatments corresponding to three doses of TT (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 cc), while the experiment 2 included a control and one treatment corresponding to spiking. The lower dose of TT (0.1 cc) and the spiking clearly slowed down the decline in hatchability. Therefore, either the external administration of TT to the males when the natural concentration of TT starts to decline or spiking the breeder flock with young roosters could contribute to improve reproductive success in later stages of the production cycle in broiler breeder flocks.

  4. Effect of vaccinating breeder chickens with a killed Salmonella vaccine on Salmonella prevalences and loads in breeder and broiler chicken flocks.

    PubMed

    Berghaus, R D; Thayer, S G; Maurer, J J; Hofacre, C L

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vaccination of breeder chickens on Salmonella prevalences and loads in breeder and broiler chicken flocks. Chickens housed on six commercial breeder farms were vaccinated with a killed Salmonella vaccine containing Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Kentucky. Unvaccinated breeders placed on six additional farms served as controls. Eggs from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks were kept separately in the hatchery, and the resulting chicks were used to populate 58 commercial broiler flock houses by using a pair-matched design. Vaccinated breeder flocks had significantly higher Salmonella-specific antibody titers than did the unvaccinated breeder flocks, although they did not differ significantly with respect to environmental Salmonella prevalences or loads. Broiler flocks that were the progeny of vaccinated breeders had significantly lower Salmonella prevalences and loads than broiler flocks that were the progeny of unvaccinated breeders. After adjusting for sample type and clustering at the farm level, the odds of detecting Salmonella in samples collected from broiler flocks originating from vaccinated breeders were 62% lower (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.38 [0.21, 0.68]) than in flocks from unvaccinated breeders. In addition, the mean load of culture-positive samples was lower in broilers from vaccinated breeders by 0.30 log most probable number per sample (95% confidence interval of -0.51, -0.09; P = 0.004), corresponding to a 50% decrease in Salmonella loads. In summary, vaccination of broiler breeder pullets increased humoral immunity in the breeders and reduced Salmonella prevalences and loads in their broiler progeny, but did not significantly decrease Salmonella in the breeder farm environment.

  5. The prevalence of Campylobacter amongst a free-range broiler breeder flock was primarily affected by flock age.

    PubMed

    Colles, Frances M; McCarthy, Noel D; Layton, Ruth; Maiden, Martin C J

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter successfully colonizes broiler chickens, but little is known about the longer term natural history of colonization, since most flocks are slaughtered at an immature age. In this study, the prevalence and genetic diversity of Campylobacter colonizing a single free-range broiler breeder flock was investigated over the course of a year. The age of the flock was the most important factor in determining both the prevalence and diversity of Campylobacter over time. There was no correlation with season, temperature, the amount of rain and sunshine, or the dynamics of colonization amongst geographically and temporally matched broiler flocks. The higher prevalence rates coincided with the age at which broiler chickens are typically slaughtered, but then in the absence of bio-security or other intervention methods, and despite changes in flock management, the prevalence fell to significantly lower levels for the remainder of the study. The genetic diversity of Campylobacter increased as the flock aged, implying that genotypes were accumulated within the flock and may persist for a long time. A better understanding of the ecology of Campylobacter within commercial chicken flocks will allow the design of more effective farm-based interventions.

  6. Avian hepatitis E virus infection and possible associated clinical disease in broiler breeder flocks in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Chris J; Samu, Gyozo; Mátrai, Eszter; Klausz, Akos; Wood, Alasdair M; Richter, Susanne; Jaskulska, Barbara; Hess, Michael

    2008-10-01

    In broiler breeder flocks in one broiler integration in Hungary, a new syndrome appeared in January 2005 with initially four successive post-peak flocks experiencing significant decreases in egg production. Clinically birds became depressed and there was a small increase in the mortality rate. Postmortem examinations revealed enlarged livers in up to 19% of birds dying, and enlarged spleens in some. Also observed were birds with either clotted blood or serosanguineous fluid in the abdomen and subcapsular haemorrhages of the liver. Histopathology and polymerase chain reaction excluded tumours and the presence of common tumour-associated viruses. Chronic bacterial infections (especially causing hepatitis, peritonitis and airsacculitis) were common but many enlarged livers had no obvious bacterial involvement. After a 9-month period during which a majority of flocks became affected, no newly affected flocks occurred. Investigations showed that all tested affected flocks were seropositive in the big liver and spleen (BLS) Agar Gel Immunodiffusion test. Subsequent flocks without post-peak egg-production drops were shown to be seronegative in the BLS AGID test, as were all the parent flocks contributing to the affected flocks. Liver samples and cloacal swabs were positive by polymerase chain reaction (aHEV helicase target), and calicivirus-like particles were demonstrated in bile samples from affected birds. These observations are similar to hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome as described in North America and BLS syndrome as described in Australia. Histopathological features were a non-specific chronic hepatitis similar to those described in BLS and hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome. Immunohistochemistry using a BLS-specific monoclonal antibody confirmed the presence of avian hepatitis E virus antigen in livers and spleen.

  7. Epidemiological survey on Mycoplasma synoviae infection in Portuguese broiler breeder flocks.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Fernando Alberto; Cardoso, Luís; Coelho, Ana Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    Since modernization and expansion of the poultry industry, infections with Mycoplasma spp. bacteria have been reported as a cause of considerable economic losses. The prevalence of Mycoplasma synoviae infection in 974,000 Portuguese broiler breeders, belonging to 36 flocks, was investigated from December 2008 to March 2012. This study was conducted using a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the analysis of serum antibodies, and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the tracheal tissue. Twenty-four flocks were simultaneously found positive by ELISA and PCR [66.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 43.5-76.9%]. The M. synoviae prevalence among chickens averaged 40.3% (483/1,200), with values ranging from 0.0 to 83.3% per flock. The prevalence of farms where M. synoviae positive birds have been found was determined in different poultry categories such as density, biosecurity, strains, offspring quality, premises'age, and others husbandry factors. Prevalence values were significantly higher among birds housed in new facilities (less than 3 years old) and were also significantly higher in the production period. The high prevalence of M. synoviae infection detected in the present study suggests the need to adopt appropriate control measures.

  8. The long-term dynamics of Campylobacter colonizing a free-range broiler breeder flock: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Colles, Frances M; McCarthy, Noel D; Bliss, Carly M; Layton, Ruth; Maiden, Martin C J

    2015-04-01

    A free-range broiler breeder flock was studied in order to determine the natural patterns of Campylobacter colonization over a period of 63 weeks. Campylobacter sequence types (STs) were not mutually exclusive and on average colonized only 17.7% of the birds tested at any time. Campylobacter STs typically reached a peak in prevalence upon initial detection in the flock before tailing off, although the ST and antigenic flaA short variable region in combination were stable over a number of months. There was evidence that, with a couple of exceptions, the ecology of C. jejuni and C. coli differed, with the latter forming a more stable population. Despite being free range, no newly colonizing STs were detected over a 6-week period in autumn and a 10-week period in winter, towards the end of the study. There was limited evidence that those STs identified among broiler chicken flocks on the same farm site were likely to colonize the breeder flock earlier (R(2) 0.16, P 0.01). These results suggest that there is natural control of Campylobacter dynamics within a flock which could potentially be exploited in designing new intervention strategies, and that the two different species should perhaps be considered separately.

  9. Seroprevalence of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale infection in broiler and broiler breeder chickens in West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Allymehr, M

    2006-02-01

    Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is a pleomorphic Gram-negative rod shaped bacterium of the rRNA superfamily V that is associated with respiratory disease in poultry. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of O. rhinotracheale infection in broiler and broiler breeder chickens in West Azerbaijan (Urmia lake region) by using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In this study, 463 serum samples were obtained from 50 broiler flocks and 472 blood sera from 42 broiler breeder flocks. Results showed that 41 broiler flocks (82%) and 39 broiler breeder flocks (92.8%) were positive. Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale antibodies were detected in 205 (44.2%) of the 463 broiler serum samples. Of the 472 blood sera examined from broiler breeder, 340 (72%) were positive. The results of this study indicated that the prevalence of O. rhinotracheale antibodies is high in the broiler and broiler breeder flocks in West Azerbaijan.

  10. Efficacy of Recombinant HVT-IBD Vaccines Administered to Broiler Chicks from a Single Breeder Flock at 30 and 60 Weeks of Age.

    PubMed

    Gelb, Jack; Jackwood, Daral J; Brannick, Erin M; Ladman, Brian S

    2016-09-01

    The efficacy of commercially available recombinant herpesvirus of turkeys-infectious bursal disease (rHVT-IBD) virus vaccines was studied in broiler chickens derived from an IBDV-vaccinated breeder flock at 30 wk of age (Trial 1) and 60 wk of age (Trial 2). In parallel, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) white leghorn chickens were used to evaluate vaccine efficacy to control for the effects of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) associated with the broiler chickens. Broilers and SPF leghorns were vaccinated subcutaneously in the neck at 1 day of age with Vaxxitek® HVT+IBD or Vectormune® HVT-IBD vaccines and were placed in isolators. On 10, 14, 18, 22, and 26 days postvaccination (DPV), vaccinated and nonvaccinated broilers and SPF leghorns were bled prior to challenge via the oral-nasal route with infectious bursal disease (IBD) reference strains ST-C, Delaware variant E (Del E), or contemporary field isolates DMV/5038/07 or FF6. Microscopic lesion assessment of the bursa was useful for assessing IBDV challenge in both rHVT-IBD-vaccinated broiler and SPF leghorn chickens. In general, rHVT-IBD vaccines induced greater protection as the time between vaccination and challenge increased. Based on incidence of microscopic lesions (IML) of bursa tissue, Vaxxitek HVT+IBD vaccination of SPF leghorns induced protection by 18 DPV and continued to protect 22 DPV and 26 DPV in Trials 1 and 2. Vectormune HVT-IBD vaccine induced protection of SPF leghorns by 18 or 22 DPV in Trial 1, depending upon the IBDV challenge strain. However, the onset of protection was delayed until 22 or 26 DPV in Trial 2. With either commercial vaccine, rHVT-IBD vaccination of broiler chickens was not as effective as was observed in SPF leghorns, based on IML of bursa tissue. However, Vaxxitek HVT+IBD vaccination protected broilers following challenge with ST-C in both Trial 1 (30-wk-old breeder progeny) and Trial 2 (60-wk-old breeder progeny). Partial protection against FF6 (Trial 1) and DMV/5038

  11. Eradication of Mycoplasma synoviae from a multi-age broiler breeder farm using antibiotics therapy.

    PubMed

    Hong, Young-Ho; Kwon, Ji-Seon; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won

    2015-10-01

    Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is a common respiratory pathogen in the poultry industry. Eradication of MS from broiler breeder flocks is important for reducing economic losses caused by MS-associated diseases on broiler farms. An outbreak of MS infection was detected on a multi-age Korean broiler breeder farm that implements a flock replacement program every 3 to 6 months and uses A-type cages. Continuous administration of tilmicosin after 2 rounds of intensive antibiotics treatment with chlortetracycline, doxycycline, and enrofloxacin reduced MS shedding from the MS-positive flocks and eventually eradicated MS from the farm. Flock 3 was the last MS-positive flock by both PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while flocks introduced to the farm after flock 3 were MS-negative by both PCR and ELISA at the time of depletion. This is the first report of successful eradication of MS from a multi-age broiler breeder farm using continuous antibiotic treatments.

  12. Impact of Feeding Systems and Vaccination Programs on Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization and Clearance of E. Coli In Broiler Broiler Breeders Pullets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler breeder pullets from a single grandparent flock were in ovo-vaccinated with Marek's vaccines herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) + chicken herpesvirus (SB1) or a vector HVT + Infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine+SB1. The chicks were placed in an experimental broiler breeder facility at the Univer...

  13. Clearance of Escherichia coli After Intravenous Inoculation in Broiler Breeder Pullets Fed Skip a day, Every Day in the feeder and Every Day on the Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of feeding programs on the time of clearance of Escherichia coli in broiler breeder pullets was investigated. Broiler breeder pullets from a single grandparent flock were in ovo-vaccinated at 19 d of incubation with a vector HVT (vHVT) vector HVT + Infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine....

  14. Impact of Feeding Systems and Hatchery Vaccination Programs on Immune System Development, Salmonella Colonization, Clearance of E. Coli and Reproductive Traits In Broiler Breeder Pullets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler breeder pullets from a single grandparent flock were vaccinated at 19 days of embryonation with Marek's vaccines HVT +SB1 or a Vector HVT + Infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine. The birds were placed in an experimental broiler breeder facility at the University of Georgia and fed ad libit...

  15. Evaluation of nutrient specifications for broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Wilson, H R; Harms, R H

    1984-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if previously suggested nutrient requirements of broiler breeders (23 g protein, 850 mg sulfur amino acids, 4.5 g calcium, and 750 mg phosphorus/bird/day) are in excess and could be reduced during the laying period. In Experiment 1, Cobb color-sex broiler breeders were fed daily nutrient allowances that were 100.0, 96.3, 92.5, 89.4, and 86.6% of the suggested requirements. In Experiment 2, Cobb feather-sex breeders were fed daily allowances that were 92.5, 89.4, 86.6, 83.4, and 80.9% of the suggested requirements. Birds on all diets were fed the same energy level; however, energy varied with season to maintain body weight. Egg production, fertility, hatchability, egg weight, and shell quality were not significantly affected by the reductions in nutrient intake in either experiment. The diet with the lowest nutrient level (80.9% of the suggested requirement) was adequate, indicating a considerable margin of safety for the stated requirements. Body weight was quite variable but tended to decrease with nutrient restriction. Weights of broilers hatched from treated breeders were not significantly affected at 49 days of age by the breeder dietary treatments. These results indicate that broiler breeder diets formulated to meet presently suggested requirements have a large margin of safety and a reduction of specifications by approximately 10% is suggested. The revised daily intakes recommended are: 20.6 g protein, 754 mg sulfur amino acids, 400 mg methionine, 938 mg lysine, 1379 mg arginine, 256 mg tryptophan, 4.07 g calcium, 683 mg total phosphorus, and 170 mg sodium.

  16. THE EFFECT OF EMBRYONIC AGE AND BREEDER FLOCK AGE ON THE GASTROINTESTINAL MICROBIOME OF DEVELOPING BROILER CHICKEN: POTENTIAL IMPLICATIONS FOR FOOD SAFETY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: There are several food-safety issues related to broiler egg production, including the introduction/proliferation of zoonotic pathogens during embryonic gastrointestinal (GI) tract development. Little is known about the overall GI bacterial communities, how they change over time, or how ...

  17. Keratoglobus lesions in the eyes of rearing broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Landman, W J; Boeve, M H; Dwars, R M; Gruys, E

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the occurrence of keratoglobus lesions in a rearing flock of broiler breeder grandparent stock (female line), and its ophthalmological and ocular pathomorphological features. Keratoglobus is known as a recessive sex-linked (Z chromosome) trait in some lines of chickens. The first cases were encountered at 5 weeks of age. At the end of the rearing period a total of 1.5% of the flock was affected. In the flock and affected birds, no signs of any other disease were detected. Compared to eyes of healthy flock mates, the most prominent symptom was ocular protrusion due to bulging and thinning of the cornea, and increase in anterior chamber depth. In addition, there were mononuclear, granulocytic and plasma cell infiltrates in the iris and corpus ciliare, and mild to minimal exudate in the anterior chamber in all cases examined. Although the corneal epithelium and collagen bundles appeared normal on electron microscopy, the corneal endothelium showed some loss of cells and the keratocytes some degenerative changes. The cornea had not lost its transparency and did not show any signs of inflammation, whereas the conjunctiva contained mononuclear infiltrations. Other eye structures did not show any clinical or pathological changes. The pathogenesis of keratoglobus lesions in chickens is unknown. Although a hereditary origin seems probable, it is not known whether the inflammatory changes found caused the presented pathology or were secondary to the extreme corneal bulging.

  18. Lighting during grow-out and Salmonella in broiler flocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lighting is used during broiler grow-out to modify bird behavior to reach the goals of production. The protocols for lighting intensity vary. In a field project, we evaluated if the lighting protocol impacts the burden of Salmonella in grow-out broiler flocks. Conventional grow-out flocks reared ...

  19. Distribution and Genetic Profiles of Campylobacter in Commercial Broiler Production from Breeder to Slaughter in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Prachantasena, Sakaoporn; Charununtakorn, Petcharatt; Muangnoicharoen, Suthida; Hankla, Luck; Techawal, Natthaporn; Chaveerach, Prapansak; Tuitemwong, Pravate; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa; Williams, Nicola; Humphrey, Tom; Luangtongkum, Taradon

    2016-01-01

    Poultry and poultry products are commonly considered as the major vehicle of Campylobacter infection in humans worldwide. To reduce the number of human cases, the epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry must be better understood. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the distribution and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter in the Thai chicken production industry. During June to October 2012, entire broiler production processes (i.e., breeder flock, hatchery, broiler farm and slaughterhouse) of five broiler production chains were investigated chronologically. Representative isolates of C. jejuni from each production stage were characterized by flaA SVR sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Amongst 311 selected isolates, 29 flaA SVR alleles and 17 sequence types (STs) were identified. The common clonal complexes (CCs) found in this study were CC-45, CC-353, CC-354 and CC-574. C. jejuni isolated from breeders were distantly related to those isolated from broilers and chicken carcasses, while C. jejuni isolates from the slaughterhouse environment and meat products were similar to those isolated from broiler flocks. Genotypic identification of C. jejuni in slaughterhouses indicated that broilers were the main source of Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat during processing. To effectively reduce Campylobacter in poultry meat products, control and prevention strategies should be aimed at both farm and slaughterhouse levels. PMID:26886590

  20. Distribution and Genetic Profiles of Campylobacter in Commercial Broiler Production from Breeder to Slaughter in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Prachantasena, Sakaoporn; Charununtakorn, Petcharatt; Muangnoicharoen, Suthida; Hankla, Luck; Techawal, Natthaporn; Chaveerach, Prapansak; Tuitemwong, Pravate; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa; Williams, Nicola; Humphrey, Tom; Luangtongkum, Taradon

    2016-01-01

    Poultry and poultry products are commonly considered as the major vehicle of Campylobacter infection in humans worldwide. To reduce the number of human cases, the epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry must be better understood. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the distribution and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter in the Thai chicken production industry. During June to October 2012, entire broiler production processes (i.e., breeder flock, hatchery, broiler farm and slaughterhouse) of five broiler production chains were investigated chronologically. Representative isolates of C. jejuni from each production stage were characterized by flaA SVR sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Amongst 311 selected isolates, 29 flaA SVR alleles and 17 sequence types (STs) were identified. The common clonal complexes (CCs) found in this study were CC-45, CC-353, CC-354 and CC-574. C. jejuni isolated from breeders were distantly related to those isolated from broilers and chicken carcasses, while C. jejuni isolates from the slaughterhouse environment and meat products were similar to those isolated from broiler flocks. Genotypic identification of C. jejuni in slaughterhouses indicated that broilers were the main source of Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat during processing. To effectively reduce Campylobacter in poultry meat products, control and prevention strategies should be aimed at both farm and slaughterhouse levels.

  1. Effect of litter quality on foot pad dermatitis, hock burns and breast blisters in broiler breeders during the production period.

    PubMed

    Kaukonen, Eija; Norring, Marianna; Valros, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Foot pad dermatitis and hock burn lesions are a form of contact dermatitis, a condition affecting skin areas in contact with unsuitable or irritating material. Contact dermatitis is a common problem, reducing the welfare of broilers, and is believed to also affect broiler breeders. However, there is very little research on contact dermatitis in breeders. This study followed the severity of foot pad lesions in broiler breeders throughout the production period. At slaughter the presence of hock burns and breast blisters was also determined. In addition, changes in litter condition over time and the impact of litter quality on foot pads were evaluated. The study was performed on 10 broiler breeder farms, including altogether 18 flocks. Foot pads of 100 hens per flock were assessed at the end of rearing period, three times during the production period, and at slaughter. Foot pad and hock lesions, as well as litter condition were scored on a 5-point scale. Litter quality was evaluated as pH, moisture and ammonia content. The condition of foot pads deteriorated towards slaughter age, with the occurrence of severe lesions reaching a maximum of 64% on average at slaughter. Hock lesions and breast blisters were rare. The litter layer became drier over time. Although poorer litter condition and wetness influenced foot pad health negatively, the effect on severe lesions was not significant. We also observed a negative effect on foot pad condition of larger slat areas. In conclusion, maintaining good litter quality alone is not enough to ensure healthy foot pads in broiler breeders.

  2. Reduction of campylobacter infections in broiler flocks by application of hygiene measures.

    PubMed Central

    van de Giessen, A. W.; Tilburg, J. J.; Ritmeester, W. S.; van der Plas, J.

    1998-01-01

    Transmission routes of Campylobacter spp. in broilers and possibilities for prevention of infections were studied on two Dutch broiler farms. The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. was studied in successive broiler flocks, in the environment of the farms and in some of the parent flocks involved. Isolates of Campylobacter spp. were typed by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The results indicate that broiler flocks become infected from environmental sources. The typing results suggest that on one farm transmission of Campylobacter spp. occurred from cattle to broilers via the farmer's footwear. After several campylobacter positive broiler cycles hygiene measures, including thorough cleaning and disinfection procedures, change of footwear at the entrance of each broiler house, control of vermin and other hygienic precautions, were introduced on both farms in order to prevent transmission of Campylobacter spp. from the farm environment to the broilers. The results indicate that the application of hygiene measures significantly reduced campylobacter infections of broiler flocks on both farms. PMID:9747756

  3. Protein and sulfur amino acid requirements of broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Harms, R H; Wilson, H R

    1980-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted with Cobb color-sexed broiler breeder hens to determine their protein and sulfur amino acid requirement. A daily intake between 400 and 478 mg of methionine and between 722 and 839 mg of total sulfur amino acids was necessary for maximum egg production, the latter in a diet of 13.07% protein. Slightly lower levels supported maximum body weights. Hens laying at the highest rate consumed 23.4 g of protein per day.

  4. Parameters for quantification of hunger in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Ingrid C; van Voorst, A Sander; Blokhuis, Harry J

    2003-04-01

    The commercial restricted feeding programme of broiler breeders has a major negative effect on welfare, as the birds are continuously hungry. Objective parameters of hunger are needed to evaluate new management or feeding systems that may alleviate hunger and thus improve broiler breeder welfare. The aim of this experiment was to develop such parameters. Female broiler breeders (Hybro G), n=10 per treatment, were subjected to different levels of feed restriction and we assumed that we thus induced different levels of hunger. Treatment groups were fed ad libitum and at 90%, 70%, 50%, 35% and 25% of ad libitum. In addition, female broiler breeders that were less intensively selected on growth and food conversion (JA57, n=10 per treatment) were fed ad libitum and at 70% of ad libitum. At 6-7 weeks of age, home pen behaviour, behaviour in the open field and baseline plasma corticosterone, glucose and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were determined. Thereafter, birds were subjected to the feed intake motivation (FIM) test that measures compensatory feed intake. Linear relationships between the level of restriction and the compensatory feed intake on the first days of the FIM test and the glucose/NEFA ratio were found which indicate that these parameters can be used to quantify the level of hunger. Curvilinear relationships between sitting and standing in the home pen, walking in the open field and level of restriction were found. A third-grade hyperbolic relationship between the level of restriction and the baseline plasma corticosterone concentration was found. Thus, these parameters do not seem to represent a straightforward relation with the level of hunger. Intensive selection on growth and food conversion seems to have affected the behaviour but not the physiological responses to feed restriction, because the JA57 birds responded behaviourally, but not physiologically, different to feed restriction as compared with the Hybro birds.

  5. Identification of novel candidate genes for follicle selection in the broiler breeder ovary

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Broiler breeders fed ad libitum are characterised by multiple ovulation, which leads to poor shell quality and egg production. Multiple ovulation is controlled by food restriction in commercial flocks. However, the level of food restriction raises welfare concerns, including that of severe hunger. Reducing the rate of multiple ovulation by genetic selection would facilitate progress towards developing a growth profile for optimum animal welfare. Results The study utilised 3 models of ovarian follicle development; laying hens fed ad libitum (experiment 2) and broiler breeders fed ad libitum or a restricted diet (experiments 1 & 3). This allowed us to investigate gene candidates for follicular development by comparing normal, abnormal and “controlled” follicle hierarchies at different stages of development. Several candidate genes for multiple ovulation were identified by combining microarray analysis of restricted vs. ad libitum feeding, literature searches and QPCR expression profiling throughout follicle development. Three candidate genes were confirmed by QPCR as showing significant differential expression between restricted and ad libitum feeding: FSHR, GDF9 and PDGFRL. PDGFRL, a candidate for steroidogenesis, showed significantly up-regulated expression in 6–8 mm follicles of ad libitum fed broiler breeders (P = 0.016), the period at which follicle recruitment occurs. Conclusions Gene candidates have been identified and evidence provided to support a possible role in regulation of ovarian function and follicle number. Further characterisation of these genes will be required to assess their potential for inclusion into breeding programmes to improve the regulation of follicle selection and reduce the need for feed restriction. PMID:22992265

  6. Selection for early response to photostimulation in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Tyler, N C; Gous, R M

    2011-08-01

    1. To determine if selection for early response to photostimulation could be successful, 150 male broiler breeders were photostimulated at 8 weeks of age. The first 20 to produce a semen sample and have a reddened comb with an area > 10 cm2 were selected as responders (R) and 20 birds that did not show these signs of sexual development were chosen as non-responders (NR). Once sexually mature, 8 birds from each group that consistently produced a semen sample were mated with both egg-type hybrids and broiler breeder females to observe the response to 8-week photostimulation in the as-hatched offspring. 2. The AFE of the F1 females with NR or R paternity and egg-type hybrid layer maternity (F1L) were similar, but AFE was advanced in birds from R relative to NR paternity when they had broiler breeder maternity (F1B). 3. Date following a normal distribution of AFE were extracted from the overall data set. This group included offspring from both NR and R paternity, but AFE in F1L and F1B females with R paternity was advanced compared to those with NR paternity. 4. Mean testis weights, or age at most rapid testis growth predicted using parameters from Tyler and Gous (2009), of F1 males were not significantly different in birds with NR or R paternity. A strong correlation was found between predicted age at most rapid growth and AFE of full sibs and so it is likely that an advance in AFE in female offspring would also result in an advance in age of testis development of males. 5. There was no significant difference in 21-d body weight of F1B females of NR or R paternity, but the 21-d body weights of F1L females were higher from R than from NR sires, suggesting that although fertility and meat-type traits are often negatively correlated, there was no adverse effect of selection for responsiveness to early photostimulation and broiler growth rates to 21 d. 6. These findings showed that the response to early stimulation is heritable, and should be useful to the broiler breeder

  7. Breeder age affects small intestine development of broiler chicks with immediate or delayed access to feed.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, K Z; Edens, F W

    2012-01-01

    1. The relationship between breeder age and chick gastrointestinal tract development to 21 days of age, as influenced by immediate or delayed access to feed, was examined in three consecutive trials. 2. Ross 708 chicks, derived from breeder flocks at 31 (young), 40 (middle) and 63 (old) weeks of age were placed randomly into either a control group with immediate access to feed and water, or a 48 h feed delayed (FD) group with free access to water. 3. FD negatively affected body weight (BW) of chicks derived from young and old flocks through the first and second weeks of age, respectively. Chicks from the older flock absorbed more yolk in the first 48 h with no FD effect. When feed was made available, chicks from the FD group showed a large increase in small intestine weight relative to BW, surpassing (P < 0·05) the control groups across all breeder flock ages. 4. Morphological measurements in all intestinal sections had higher values in chicks derived from the middle age breeder flock. FD to newly hatched chicks from the young breeder flock shortened villi (P < 0·01), decreased crypt depth and villus surface area (P < 0·001) in the duodenum through the first week post hatch. 5. Crypt depths were maximised between 7 and 14 d post-hatch in chicks from young and old breeder flocks, but crypt depths in chicks from the middle aged flocks continued to deepen. 6. The increased crypt depth may augment the number of enterocytes available for villus growth, and facilitate longer villi and greater villus surface area, in chicks from the middle age flocks. Intestinal morphological variation was associated with breeder flock age, which accounted for differential growth in chicks derived from young, middle, and old aged breeder flocks.

  8. Liver pathology associated with increased mortality in turkey breeder and meat turkey flocks.

    PubMed

    Popp, Christina; Hauck, Rüdiger; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W; Lüschow, Dörte; Kershaw, B Olivia; Hoferer, Marc; Hafez, Hafez M

    2014-09-01

    Between 2006 and 2011 a series of disease conditions characterized by raised mortality and liver disorders occurred in turkey breeder flocks and in meat turkey flocks in Germany. The flocks were between 12 and 23 wk of age, and mostly hens were affected. Clinical signs were nonspecific and accompanied by mortality varying between 1% and 7%. Affected birds displayed swollen livers that were marbled with black and red spots and yellowish areas. The pericardium was filled with an amber fluid, and the coronary groove was extensively filled with fat. Spleens were swollen, and a serous fluid that seemed to leak from the liver was present in the body cavity. Histopathological findings in all but one case included fatty degeneration of hepatocytes with parenchymal collapse and associated hemorrhages. Some animals showed cholangitis and hepatitis with intranuclear inclusion bodies. In three cases with breeders, electron microscopy detected virus particles that were between 23 and 30 nm and similar to parvo- or picornavirus. In addition, picornavirus RNA was detected in the livers of one meat turkey flock. Investigations by PCR for circovirus, polyomavirus parvovirus, and aviadenovirus yielded negative results in all cases, but an aviadenovirus was isolated from livers twice and a reovirus from the intestines once. Supplementation with vitamin E and selenium seemed to improve the situation. The most likely diagnosis is lipidosis, a metabolic disorder with complex etiology, which has rarely been described in turkeys.

  9. Effects of breeder age, broiler strain, and eggshell temperature on development and physiological status of embryos and hatchlings.

    PubMed

    Nangsuay, A; Meijerhof, R; van den Anker, I; Heetkamp, M J W; Morita, V De Souza; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2016-07-01

    Breeder age and broiler strain can influence the availability of nutrients and oxygen, particularly through differences in yolk size and shell conductance. We hypothesized that these egg characteristics might affect embryonic responses to changes in eggshell temperature (EST). This study aimed to investigate the effect of breeder age, broiler strain, and EST on development and physiological status of embryos. A study was designed as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement using 4 batches of 1,116 hatching eggs of 2 flock ages at 29 to 30 wk (young) and 54 to 55 wk (old) of Ross 308 and Cobb 500. EST of 37.8 (normal) or 38.9°C (high) was applied from incubation d 7 (E7) until hatching. The results showed that breeder age rather than broiler strain had an influence on yolk size (P = 0.043). The shell conductance was higher in Ross 308 than in Cobb 500 (P < 0.001). A high EST resulted in a higher yolk free body mass (YFBM) compared to the normal EST at E14 and E16, but at 3 h after hatch YFBM was lower when eggs were incubated at high EST compared to normal EST (all P < 0.001). Cobb 500 eggs yielded embryos with a lower YFBM at E14, E18, and 3 h after hatch (all P < 0.05) than Ross 308 eggs. Breeder age had no effect on YFBM, but the RSY weight was higher in embryos from the old flock compared to the young flock embryos at E14 and E16 (both P < 0.05). A 3-way interaction among breeder age, strain, and EST was found, especially for incubation duration, navel quality, and relative heart and stomach weights at 3 h after hatch (all P < 0.05). Based on the results obtained, we conclude that oxygen availability rather than nutrient availability determines embryonic development, and the egg characteristics affected embryonic responses to changes of EST, especially for variables related to chick quality.

  10. Effects of preincubation heating of broiler hatching eggs during storage, flock age, and length of storage period on hatchability.

    PubMed

    Gucbilmez, M; Ozlü, S; Shiranjang, R; Elibol, O; Brake, J

    2013-12-01

    The effects of heating of eggs during storage, broiler breeder age, and length of egg storage on hatchability of fertile eggs were examined in this study. Eggs were collected from Ross 344 male × Ross 308 broiler breeders on paper flats, held overnight (1 d) at 18°C and 75% RH, and then transferred to plastic trays. In experiment 1, eggs were obtained at 28, 38, and 53 wk of flock age. During a further 10 d of storage, eggs either remained in the storage room (control) or were subjected to a heat treatment regimen of 26°C for 2 h, 37.8°C for 3 h, and 26°C for 2 h in a setter at d 5 of storage. In experiment 2, eggs from a flock at 28 wk of age were heated for 1 d of a 6-d storage period. Eggs from a 29-wk-old flock were either heated at d 1 or 5 of an 11-d storage period in experiment 3. In experiment 4, 27-wk-old flock eggs were heated twice at d 1 and 5 of an 11-d storage period. Control eggs stored for 6 or 11 d were coincubated as appropriate in each experiment. Heating eggs at d 5 of an 11-d storage period increased hatchability in experiment 1. Although no benefit of heating 28-wk-old flock eggs during 6 d of storage in experiment 2 was observed, heating eggs from a 29-wk-old flock at d 1 or 5 of an 11-d storage period increased hatchability in experiment 3. Further, heating eggs from a 27-wk-old flock twice during 11 d of storage increased hatchability in experiment 4. These effects were probably due to the fact that eggs from younger flocks had been reported to have many embryos at a stage of development where the hypoblast had not yet fully developed (less than EG-K12 to EG-K13), such that heating during extended storage advanced these embryos to a more resistant stage.

  11. Characterization of reticuloendotheliosis virus isolates obtained from broiler breeders, turkeys, and prairie chickens located in various geographical regions in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mays, Jody K; Silva, Robert F; Lee, Lucy F; Fadly, Aly M

    2010-10-01

    Nine reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) isolates obtained from broiler breeders, turkeys, and prairie chickens located in three different geographical regions in the USA, and three isolates obtained from known contaminated live-virus vaccines were characterized using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) assays. All isolates were propagated in chicken embryo fibroblasts obtained from a specific pathogen free breeder flock. PCR analysis of all 12 isolates resulted in the amplification of the 291-bp REV long-terminal repeat region (LTR); none of the isolates exhibited a different pattern or shift from the expected PCR product of REV LTR. The subtype of the REV isolates was determined by IFA using REV-specific monoclonal antibodies, 11B118.22, 11C237.8, and 11D182. Results from sub-typing indicated that all nine isolates from broiler breeders, turkeys, and prairie chickens belonged to subtype 3, and are antigenically related to the chick syncytial virus (CSV) strain of REV, the prototype of subtype 3 REV. In contrast, the three isolates from contaminated vaccines were classified as subtype 2, and were antigenically related to spleen necrosis virus (SNV) strain of REV, the prototype of subtype 2 REV. Three isolates representing REV isolated from broiler breeders, turkeys, and prairie chickens were cloned and further evaluated by DNA sequence analysis of the envelope gene. Results from DNA sequence analysis confirmed those from sub-typing and indicated that the three REV isolates representing those from broiler breeders, turkeys, and prairie chickens are closely related to CSV of REV, with an amino acid homology of 98% or greater as compared with SNV with an amino acid homology of 95% or less. Data from this study clearly indicate that subtype 3 is the most common subtype of REV circulating in three different avian species, namely broiler breeders, turkeys and prairie chickens, located in three different geographical regions in the United

  12. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp isolated from broiler flocks

    PubMed Central

    Kuana, Suzete Lora; dos Santos, Luciana Ruschel; Rodrigues, Laura Beatriz; Borsoi, Anderlise; Moraes, Hamilton Luis do Souza; Salle, Carlos Tadeu Pippi; do Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of 62 Campylobacter spp. strains obtained from broiler flocks using the agar diffusion method. The Campylobacter spp strains were isolated from 22 flocks aged between 3 and 5 weeks of life, isolated from cloacae swabs, stools and cecal droppings in the farm and from the carcass rinsing in the slaughterhouse. Campylobacter spp strains were tested on Mueller-Hilton (MH) agar (27 samples) and MH plus TTC agar (35 samples). The antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed a 62.5% resistance to at least one drug, especially to enrofloxacin (71%), neomycin (50%), lincomycin (50%), tetracycline (43%), penicillin (42%), ceftiofur (33%) amoxicillin (27%), spiramycin (20%), ampicillin (18%) and norfloxacin (14%), whereas a lower percentage of strains was resistant to erythromycin (10%) and doxycycline (10%). All strains were sensitive to gentamicin and lincomycin-spectinomycin and 80% of them to colistin. These results indicate that it is necessary to reduce the use of antimicrobials in veterinary and human medicine. PMID:24031299

  13. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp isolated from broiler flocks.

    PubMed

    Kuana, Suzete Lora; Dos Santos, Luciana Ruschel; Rodrigues, Laura Beatriz; Borsoi, Anderlise; Moraes, Hamilton Luis do Souza; Salle, Carlos Tadeu Pippi; do Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of 62 Campylobacter spp. strains obtained from broiler flocks using the agar diffusion method. The Campylobacter spp strains were isolated from 22 flocks aged between 3 and 5 weeks of life, isolated from cloacae swabs, stools and cecal droppings in the farm and from the carcass rinsing in the slaughterhouse. Campylobacter spp strains were tested on Mueller-Hilton (MH) agar (27 samples) and MH plus TTC agar (35 samples). The antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed a 62.5% resistance to at least one drug, especially to enrofloxacin (71%), neomycin (50%), lincomycin (50%), tetracycline (43%), penicillin (42%), ceftiofur (33%) amoxicillin (27%), spiramycin (20%), ampicillin (18%) and norfloxacin (14%), whereas a lower percentage of strains was resistant to erythromycin (10%) and doxycycline (10%). All strains were sensitive to gentamicin and lincomycin-spectinomycin and 80% of them to colistin. These results indicate that it is necessary to reduce the use of antimicrobials in veterinary and human medicine.

  14. Prevalence and risk factors of Campylobacter infection in broiler flocks from southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Torralbo, Alicia; Borge, Carmen; Allepuz, Alberto; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Sheppard, Samuel K; Perea, Anselmo; Carbonero, Alfonso

    2014-05-01

    An extensive epidemiological study was performed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of Campylobacter infection in broiler farms in Andalusia (southern Spain). A total of 2221 cloacal swabs and 747 environmental swabs from 291 broiler flocks were screened between April 2010 and May 2012. The prevalence of Campylobacter in individual animals was 38.1%, and the flock prevalence was 62.9%. Flocks were predominantly infected by C. jejuni and C. coli but were also infected by untyped Campylobacter spp., and mixed-species infection could be found. Risk factors for Campylobacter infection were assessed from direct interview of the farmers. The number of positive samples by flock was modelled assuming a binomial distribution. Analysis indicated five factors associated with increased intra-flock prevalence: presence of dogs or cats on the farm, older age of the broiler flock, the application of thinning of flocks, the presence of windows with canvas blinds, and the presence of rodents in the poultry house. Two factors were associated with decreased intra-flock prevalence: the treatment of drinking water and having an entrance room for access into the poultry house. This is the first study performed on broilers farms from Spain reporting the risk factors of Campylobacter infection and is the largest study on the prevalence of Campylobacter infection.

  15. Prevalence of avian respiratory viruses in broiler flocks in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Kareem E; Shany, Salama A S; Ali, A; Dahshan, Al-Hussien M; El-Sawah, Azza A; El-Kady, Magdy F

    2016-06-01

    In this study, respiratory viral pathogens were screened using real-time RT-PCR in 86 broiler chicken flocks suffering from respiratory diseases problems in 4 Egyptian governorates between January 2012 and February 2014. The mortality rates in the investigated flocks ranged from 1 to 47%. Results showed that mixed infection represented 66.3% of the examined flocks. Mixed infectious bronchitis (IBV) and avian influenza (AI)-H9N2 viruses were the most common infection (41.7%). Lack of AI-H9N2 vaccination and high rates of mixed infections in which AI-H9N2 is involved indicate an early AI-H9N2 infection with a potential immunosuppressive effect that predisposes for other viral infections. High pathogenic AI-H5N1 and virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) infections were also detected (26.7% and 8.1%, respectively). Interestingly, co-infection of AI-H9N2 with either AIV-H5N1 or vNDV rarely resulted in high mortality. Partial cell-mediated immunity against similar internal AI genes, as well as virus interference between AI and vNDV, could be an explanation for this. Highly prevalent IBV and AI-H9N2 were isolated and were molecularly characterized based on S1 gene hypervariable region 3 ( HVR3: ) and hemagglutinin gene (HA) sequences, respectively. IBV strains were related to the variant group of IBV with multiple mutations in HVR3. Though AI-H9N2 viruses showed low rate of evolution in comparison to recent strains, few amino acid substitutions indicative of antibody selection pressure were observed in the HA gene. In conclusion, mixed viral infections, especially with IBV and AI-H9N2 viruses, are the predominant etiology of respiratory disease problems in broiler chickens in Egypt. Further investigations of the role of AI, IBV, and ND viruses' co-infections and interference in terms of altering the severity of clinical signs and lesions and/or generating novel reassortants within each virus are needed.

  16. Campylobacter detection in broiler ceca at processing - a three year 211 flock survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is associated with live broilers and chicken meat products. There is some discussion in the literature about the possibility that Campylobacter prevalence in broilers could be affected by season or weather conditions. The objective of this study was to measure the flock prevalence of...

  17. Associations between vaccinations against protozoal and viral infections and Salmonella in broiler flocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing the burden of Salmonella in broiler flocks presents a challenge for public health and for sustainability of the industry. A number of other infections are simultaneously controlled in grow-out broilers world-wide by vaccination. The purpose of this exploratory analysis was to test, in a f...

  18. Molecular characterization of chicken infectious anemia viruses detected from breeder and broiler chickens in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, H-R; Kwon, Y-K; Bae, Y-C; Oem, J-K; Lee, O-S

    2010-11-01

    In South Korea, 32 sequences of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) from various flocks of breeder and commercial chickens were genetically characterized for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral protein 1 gene, including a hypervariable region of the CIAV genome, indicated that Korean CIAV strains were separated into groups II, IIIa, and IIIb. Strains were commonly identified in great-grandparent and grandparent breeder farms as well as commercial chicken farms. In the field, CIAV strains from breeder farms had no clinical effects, but commercial farm strains were associated with depression, growth retardation, and anemia regardless of the group from which the strain originated. In addition, we identified 7 CIAV genomes that were similar to vaccine strains from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks. These data suggest that further studies on pathogenicity and vaccine efficacy against the different CIAV group are needed, along with continuous CIAV surveillance and genetic analysis at breeder farms.

  19. Age effect of broiler breeders on fertility and sperm penetration of the perivitelline layer of the ovum.

    PubMed

    Gumułka, Małgorzata; Kapkowska, Ewa

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the age effect of a broiler breeder flock on duration of fertility and number of spermatozoa penetrating the perivitelline layer overlying the germinal disc (SP/mm(2) GDIPVL). Moreover, in the second half of the flock's reproductive life, the effect of using ejaculates of young roosters (CA2) in artificial insemination (AI) on the above parameters of fertility was estimated. The commercial flock of broiler breeder hens (n = 100) was inseminated six times from 31 to 62 weeks of age. Additional inseminations, with ejaculates of roosters aged 31 and 36 weeks (CA2), were performed at 56 and 62 weeks of age. AI was performed during two consecutive days (D0 and D1) with an insemination dose of 125 x 10(6) spermatozoa/0.06 ml containing pooled ejaculates. The following parameters were studied: the effective and maximum duration of fertility (De and Dm), percent of fertility on different days after AI (FD10, FD15 and FD20), indices of duration of sperm penetration (DSP, SP < or = 3/GDIPVL), SP/mm(2) GDIPVL in eggs laid on successive days after insemination of hens at different age, and correlations between some fertility indices. Both for De and Dm, the highest values were noted after AI of the layers at 36 weeks of age (14.8 +/- 0.49 and 17.4 +/- 0.46 days, respectively), which were about 2 days longer than at 56 weeks. All fertility indices decreased gradually with age, starting from AI at peak egg production (31-36 weeks of age), while the use of ejaculates from CA2 did not help to increase them significantly. Correlation coefficients between SP/mm(2) GDIPVL and the other fertility indices were positive and highest for eggs laid on D3. It is concluded that high De values can be obtained from broiler breeders in adequate environmental and technological conditions of AI. It is suggested that the age-related decrease in fertility is more pronounced in females, in which the efficiency of sperm storage tubules decreases. The

  20. The prevalence of Salmonella enteritidis and other Salmonella sp. among Canadian registered commercial chicken broiler flocks.

    PubMed Central

    Poppe, C.; Irwin, R. J.; Messier, S.; Finley, G. G.; Oggel, J.

    1991-01-01

    A nation-wide survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella enteritidis and other salmonellas among Canadian commercial broiler flocks. Environmental (litter and/or water) samples from 226 of 294 (76.9%) randomly selected flocks were contaminated with salmonellas. Litter samples were more often contaminated with salmonellas than water samples (47.4 v. 12.3%). Fifty different salmonella serovars were isolated. The most prevalent serovars were S. hadar, S. infantis, and S. schwarzengrund; they were isolated from samples of 98/294 (33.3%), 26/294 (8.8%), and 21/294 (7.1%) flocks, respectively. Feed samples of 39/290 (13.4%) flocks were contaminated with salmonellas. Salmonella enteritidis was isolated from the environmental samples of 9/294 (3.1%) flocks. Salmonella enteritidis phage type (PT) 8 was isolated from seven flocks, and PT 13a from two flocks. PMID:1879484

  1. Detecting reproductive system abnormalities of broiler breeder roosters at different ages.

    PubMed

    Lagares, M A; Ecco, R; Martins, Nrs; Lara, Ljc; Rocha, Jsr; Vilela, Dar; Barbosa, V M; Mantovani, P F; Braga, Jfv; Preis, I S; Gheller, V A; Cardeal, P C; Baião, N C

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to detect the reasons of rooster's fertility decrease at 50 weeks of age. Therefore, the reproductive system of broiler breeder roosters was laparoscopic, macroscopic and histopathology evaluated, and a comparison of the anatomical aspect with the sperm analysis and birds' age was realized. Cobb roosters (n = 59) were distributed into two groups (30 and 50 weeks). Evaluations were performed with laparoscopy, macroscopy and histopathology, and seminal quality, blood serum testosterone concentration and weight were also determined. The old roosters presented smaller testicle size, higher intensity epididymal lithiasis and lower testicle sperm production, compared to the young roosters. The use of the endoscope could easily distinguish a normal-sized testicle than an atrophic one. Four old roosters with severe testicular atrophy did not show spermatogenesis, although three still had sperm in the ejaculate. This would falsely indicate a wrong diagnosis of normal fertility before the testicular atrophy took place. In conclusion, in addition to the weight increase with age, the testicular atrophy and impairment of sperm production seemed to be the main reason to the decrease in the rooster's fertility at 50 weeks of age. Therefore, the use of the laparoscopy as a way to detect the roosters with testicular atrophy before 50 weeks of age and their removal from them flock could be useful as a diagnostic tool to prevent the birds' fertility loss.

  2. Bacterial orchitis and epididymo-orchitis in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Monleon, Rafael; Martin, Michael P; John Barnes, H

    2008-12-01

    Two cases of orchitis and epididymo-orchitis in broiler breeders are described. The first case occurred in a 62-week-old rooster showing signs of breeding inactivity. Grossly, the left testis was abnormally shaped and had multiple yellow foci, prominent blood vessels, and a gelatinous mass on the surface. The right testis and other tissues appeared normal. A pure, heavy growth of Staphylococcus aureus was obtained on bacterial culture, and intralesional Gram-positive cocci were numerous on histopathology. The second case occurred in a 28-week-old rooster that was found dead. Both testes were abnormally shaped, swollen, firm, and had irregular, dark, depressed areas, prominent vessels, and multiple petechial haemorrhages. Epididymides were enlarged and nodular. Other lesions in this rooster included poor nutritional condition, distended cloaca, and urate scalding of the abdominal skin below the vent. Microscopically, there was extensive, severe heterophilic intratubular orchitis and epididymitis with intralesional Gram-negative bacteria. A heavy, pure growth of Escherichia coli was obtained from the testes and epididymides. In both cases, the findings suggested that the most probable route of infection was ascending via the ductus deferens.

  3. Effect of dietary aminoguanidine on tissue pentosidine and reproductive performance in broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M; Probert, L L; Klandorf, H

    1997-11-01

    Factors influencing the age-related decline in production parameters of broiler breeder hens are poorly understood. Elevated blood glucose concentrations measured in broiler breeder hens may contribute to this decline. The nonenzymatic attachment of glucose to proteins generates glycoxidation crosslinks in tissue proteins, which can ultimately impair their function. One such glycoxidation crosslink, pentosidine, has been used as a biomarker for aging studies because of its accumulation on the structural protein collagen. The objectives of these studies were to determine whether pentosidine accumulates with age in hens and whether the crosslinking inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG), could retard this accumulation. An additional objective was to determine whether AG had any effect on production performance. In the first study, broiler breeder hens (n = 318) were randomly assigned to two groups: control and supplemented (400 ppm AG). Pentosidine was measured in the skin of the birds at 20 and 67 wk of age. Egg production was measured daily. In a second study, broiler breeder hens (n = 60) were reared as previously described. Pentosidine was measured in the skin of the birds at 20 and 68 wk of age. Results showed that pentosidine was present in the skin of the hens, and that concentrations increased with age (P < 0.001). Although pentosidine was reduced (P < 0.001) in AG-supplemented birds, production performance was not affected. In conclusion, AG retarded the rate of accumulation of pentosidine during lay in broiler breeder hens, but the reduction in pentosidine did not significantly affect production performance.

  4. The Impact of Yeast Culture Residue on the Suppression of Dietary Aflatoxin on the Performance of Broiler Breeder Hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to examine the effect of yeast culture residue (YCR) on the suppression of aflatoxicosis in broiler breeder hens. One hundred twenty, 35-wk-old, Cobb broiler breeder hens of the same cross were fed diets supplemented with aflatoxin (AF) (0 or 3 mg/kg) and YCR (0 or 2 lb/ton) s...

  5. Risk factors for Campylobacter spp. infection in Senegalese broiler-chicken flocks.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, E; Tall, F; Guèye, E F; Cisse, M; Salvat, G

    2004-06-10

    Our objective was to identify the risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Senegalese broiler flocks. Seventy broiler farms were studied around Dakar from January 2000 to December 2001 around Dakar. A questionnaire was administered to the farmers, and samples of fresh droppings were taken to assess the flocks' Campylobacter status. About 63% of the flocks were infected by Campylobacter spp.; Campylobacter jejuni was the most-prevalent species (P < 0.05). An elevated risk of Campylobacter infection was associated with other animals (mainly laying hens, cattle and sheep) being bred in the farm, the farm staff not wearing their work clothing exclusively in the poultry houses, uncemented poultry-house floors and the use of cartons that transport chicks from the hatchery to the farm as feed plates (rather than specifically designed feed plates). Alternatively, thorough cleaning and disinfection of poultry-house surroundings and manure disposal outside the farm were associated with decreased flock risk.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors for Campylobacter spp. in chicken broiler flocks in Reunion Island (Indian Ocean).

    PubMed

    Henry, Isabelle; Reichardt, Jef; Denis, Martine; Cardinale, Eric

    2011-06-01

    Our objectives were to determine Campylobacter prevalence in broiler chicken flocks in Reunion Island and to define specific practices associated with the presence of Campylobacter spp. Infection in Reunionese broiler flocks. Fifty broiler flocks were studied in Reunion Island from May 2007 to February 2009. A questionnaire was submitted to the farmers and samples of fresh droppings were collected to assess the flock's Campylobacter status. Fifty four percent of the flocks were infected by Campylobacter spp.: 30% (95% CI: 28.71-31.29) were infected with Campylobacter coli and 17% (95% CI: 15.95-18.05) with Campylobacter jejuni; only 7% (95% CI: 6.28-7.72) were infected by both species at the same time. Several poultry houses in the farm (OR=11.2; [1.05-92]) and cleaning without any detergent (OR=13.1; [2.1-78.3]) increased the risk of Campylobacter infection. A distance higher than 500 m between broiler farms (OR=0.27; [0.1-0.8]) and use of disinfectant during the rearing period decreased this risk of infection (OR=0.15; [0.1-0.75]).

  7. Space-time patterns of Campylobacter spp. colonization in broiler flocks, 2002-2006.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, M E; Norström, M; Sandberg, M; Ersbøll, A K; Hofshagen, M

    2010-09-01

    This study was performed to investigate space-time patterns of Campylobacter spp. colonization in broiler flocks in Norway. Data on the Campylobacter spp. status at the time of slaughter of 16 054 broiler flocks from 580 farms between 2002 and 2006 was included in the study. Spatial relative risk maps together with maps of space-time clustering were generated, the latter by using spatial scan statistics. These maps identified the same areas almost every year where there was a higher risk for a broiler flock to test positive for Campylobacter spp. during the summer months. A modified K-function analysis showed significant clustering at distances between 2.5 and 4 km within different years. The identification of geographical areas with higher risk for Campylobacter spp. colonization in broilers indicates that there are risk factors associated with Campylobacter spp. colonization in broiler flocks varying with region and time, e.g. climate, landscape or geography. These need to be further explored. The results also showed clustering at shorter distances indicating that there are risk factors for Campylobacter spp. acting in a more narrow scale as well.

  8. Effect of refined functional carbohydrates from enzymatically hydrolyzed yeast on the presence of Salmonella spp. in the ceca of broiler breeder females.

    PubMed

    Walker, G K; Jalukar, S; Brake, J

    2017-03-31

    Broiler breeders hatched from Salmo-nella negative grandparents received either zero or 50 g/MT of refined functional carbohydrates (RFC) in their diets from d of placement to end of lay. There were no other treatments used. Pullets and cockerels were reared separately in an enclosed litter-floor house to 21 wk of age when 28 randomly selected pullets from each diet were transferred to individual cages for an additional 14 d before they were killed, and their ceca were excised aseptically and tested for Salmonella spp. The remaining birds were transferred to a two-thirds slat and one-third litter curtain-sided laying house. There were 8 pens of 60 to 65 females and 8 to 18 males, depending upon flock age and housing type, fed each diet, and there was no effort made to isolate pens from typical daily foot traffic between pens. At 51 wk of age, male progeny broiler chicks were hatched and received either zero or 50 g/MT of RFC to complete a 2 × 2 design with 4 replicate pens of 12 males per interaction. All broilers were tested for cecal Salmonella spp. at 34 d of age. Ceca were collected from 30 breeder hens from each treatment at 64 wk of age and tested for Salmonella spp. Of the ceca sampled at 23 wk from the control pullets, 71.4% were found to contain Salmonella spp., while none of the ceca from the RFC pullets tested positive. Of the ceca sampled from the control hens at 64 wk, 40% were found to contain Salmonella spp., while none of the ceca from the RFC hens tested positive. Salmonella spp. was isolated from broilers in one pen of the control broilers that were also progeny of control breeders out of 4 replicates but not from any pens in which the breeders had been fed RFC. These data demonstrated that RFC reduced natural Salmonella spp. colonization of broiler breeder hen and broiler progeny ceca during a complete production cycle.

  9. Risk factors for Campylobacter colonization in Danish broiler flocks, 2010 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, M; Sørensen, L L; Steenberg, B; Chowdhury, S; Ersbøll, A K; Alban, L

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of the two studies presented were to estimate the prevalence of Campylobacter-positive farms and flocks and to acquire updated knowledge about risk factors for the introduction of Campylobacter in Danish broiler flocks. In the first study, from September 2010 to September 2011, there were 25 Danish broiler farms visited, and a questionnaire was filled in by a veterinarian/consultant. In the second study, a similar questionnaire was distributed electronically to all Danish broiler farmers (n=164) that were on record with an email address in the Quality Assurance System in the Danish Broiler Production (KIK) database. House- and flock-specific data collected in the surveys were supplemented with information obtained from the KIK database. Data obtained from the two studies were analyzed separately by logistic regression analysis. In both models, the dependent variable was "Campylobacter flock status (positive/negative)," which was based on real-time PCR testing of fecal material from the floor of each broiler house that had been collected preslaughter using a pair of tube gauze "socks." This material was pooled into one sample. Of the 25 farms visited, 17 had delivered Campylobacter-positive flocks during the study period, and eight farms had no Campylobacter-positive flocks. Moreover, the flock prevalence of Campylobacter was 17% (n=418). Data obtained from the electronically distributed survey revealed that 63% (n=71) of the farms were Campylobacter-positive. Further, the flock prevalence of Campylobacter was 14% (n=1,286). The multivariable models from the two sets of data identified the following statistically significant risk factors: summer vs. winter; if the previous flock in the house was positive for Campylobacter vs. if the previous flock in the house was negative; and litter delivered into the house close to the time of arrival of new chickens vs. storing litter on the farm. Furthermore, the data showed that a vertically based ventilation

  10. Mating behavior and fertility of broiler breeder males reared on shortened growth cycles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the more difficult tasks when raising broiler breeder cockerels is controlling weight gain in the rearing house without inflicting excess stress. This is a period of time for the young male when many portions of reproductive system are in the formative stages and, if neglected, can have lif...

  11. A prospective study of management and litter variables associated with cellulitis in California broiler flocks.

    PubMed

    Schrader, J S; Singer, R S; Atwill, E R

    2004-09-01

    Cellulitis has emerged as an economically important disease of broiler chickens. The impact of environmental risk factors on the incidence of cellulitis has not been evaluated in the United States. Escherichia coli (E. coli), the causative agent, is introduced through skin scratches during the grow out. Our previous work suggested that the litter was an important reservoir for cellulitis-associated E. coli. We hypothesized that factors contributing to a positive environment for E. coli growth would increase the opportunity for exposure of a broiler to an infectious dose of E. coli, capable of initiating a cellulitis lesion. This prospective study of 304 flocks on five farms from two integrated broiler companies was conducted to determine the effect of environmental factors on the prevalence of cellulitis in California broiler flocks. Environmental variables included temperature, wind velocity, and relative humidity (RH) at the litter surface. Litter variables measured included E. coli and total gram-negative bacteria load (colony forming units/g dry matter), water activity, and pH. Management variables such as clean out, the number of flocks reared on the same litter (litter run, LR), and downtime (DT) between flocks were also evaluated. Cellulitis ranged from 0.197% to 6.04%. Significant associations were identified using linear regression between farm, LR, DT, ambient temperature during the brooding period, gram-negative bacteria load in the litter during the brooding period, RH mid-grow out, and E. coli load late in the grow out. The significant variation in the rate of cellulitis between farms combined with the strong association of LR and DT with cellulitis demonstrated that management choices were highly influential in this disease syndrome. Based on these data and our previous findings, managers would be advised to increase DT between flocks and perform a total clean out of the house when a flock processes with a high incidence of cellulitis.

  12. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter in broiler flocks in Japan.

    PubMed

    Haruna, M; Sasaki, Y; Murakami, M; Ikeda, A; Kusukawa, M; Tsujiyama, Y; Ito, K; Asai, T; Yamada, Y

    2012-06-01

    Campylobacter was isolated from 67 (47.2%) of 142 broiler flocks between September 2009 and February 2010. The prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks was significantly lower during January and February than it was from September to December. Campylobacter colonization was more common in flocks that were not provided with a disinfected water supply, which was consistent with the findings of a previous study. The prevalence of antimicrobial drug-resistant Campylobacter spp. was investigated, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of eight antimicrobial agents were determined for 122 Campylobacter jejuni isolates and 46 Campylobacter coli isolates from broiler flocks between 2007 and 2010. In this study, 29.5% (36/122) of C. jejuni isolates and 41.3% (19/46) of C. coli isolates were resistant to enrofloxacin (ERFX), whereas all isolates were susceptible to erythromycin. Furthermore, the ERFX-resistant isolates were tested for susceptibility to other classes of antimicrobial agents, and 55.6% (20/36) of ERFX-resistant C. jejuni isolates and 47.4% (9/19) of ERFX-resistant C. coli isolates were resistant to at least one of aminobenzyl penicillin, dihydrostreptomycin and oxytetracycline. To avoid an impact of antimicrobial drug-resistant Campylobacter spp. on the efficacy of antimicrobial treatment for human campylobacteriosis, prudent use of antimicrobial agents is a requisite. The use of antimicrobial agents should be accompanied by various approaches such as prevention of Campylobacter colonization in broiler flocks with the aim of lowering the occurrence of Campylobacter infection in humans.

  13. Isolation of Campylobacter from Brazilian broiler flocks using different culturing procedures.

    PubMed

    Vaz, C S L; Voss-Rech, D; Pozza, J S; Coldebella, A; Silva, V S

    2014-11-01

    Conventional culturing methods enable the detection of Campylobacter in broiler flocks. However, laboratory culture of Campylobacter is laborious because of its fastidious behavior and the presence of competing nontarget bacteria. This study evaluated different protocols to isolate Campylobacter from broiler litter, feces, and cloacal and drag swabs. Samples taken from commercial Brazilian broiler flocks were directly streaked onto Preston agar (PA), Campy-Line agar (CLA), and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) and also enriched in blood-free Bolton broth (bfBB) for 24 and 48 h followed by plating onto the different selective media. Higher numbers of Campylobacter-positive cloacal and drag swab samples were observed using either direct plating or enrichment for 24 h before plating onto PA, compared with enrichment for 48 h (P < 0.05). Furthermore, direct plating was a more sensitive method to detect Campylobacter in broiler litter and feces samples. Analysis of directly plated samples revealed that higher Campylobacter levels were detected in feces streaked onto PA (88.8%), cloacal swabs plated onto mCCDA (72.2%), drag swabs streaked onto CLA or mCCDA (69.4%), and litter samples inoculated onto PA (63.8%). Preston agar was the best agar to isolate Campylobacter from directly plated litter samples (P < 0.05), but there was no difference in the efficacies of PA, mCCDA, and CLA in detecting Campylobacter in other samples. The isolated Campylobacter strains were phenotypically identified as Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. The predominant contaminant observed in the Campylobacter cultures was Proteus mirabilis, which was resistant to the majority of antimicrobial agents in selective media. Together, these data showed that direct plating onto PA and onto either CLA or mCCDA as the second selective agar enabled the reliable isolation of thermophilic Campylobacter species from broiler samples. Finally, Campylobacter was detected in all

  14. The effects of pullet body weight, dietary nonpyhtate phosphorus intake, and breeder feeding regimen on production performance, chick quality, and bone remodeling in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Ekmay, R D; Salas, C; England, J; Cerrate, S; Coon, C N

    2012-04-01

    A 3 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment, consisting of 52 hens per treatment, was conducted to determine the effects of pullet BW, dietary nonphytate phosphorus (NPP), and feeding regimen on performance, progeny quality, and bone remodeling. Cobb 500 broiler breeder pullets were reared to 3 different growth curves: 20% under, Cobb standard, and 20% over. Body weights were recorded weekly and feed adjustments made accordingly. At 21 wk, 624 hens were fed one of 2 breeder diets differing only in the amount of dietary NPP: 0.15 or 0.40%. A normal feeding regimen was appropriate for the particular growth curve; an alternative regimen considered the 3 growth curves together as a flock. At 24, 26, and 29 wk, blood was collected from 5 hens per treatment every 4 h over a 24-h period. Plasma samples were analyzed for total alkaline phosphatase, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, parathyroid hormone-related peptide, Ca, and inorganic P. Eggs per hen housed were diminished in hens fed the low dietary NPP and by low pullet target weight. Hens fed low dietary NPP also had lower egg weights but better eggshell quality. Mortality was significantly higher in hens fed low dietary NPP. Breeder tibia relative strength and ash were also significantly lower in hens fed low dietary NPP, regardless of the quantitative amount. Progeny tibia ash was not affected by any treatment. Total alkaline phosphatase responded to pullet BW, however by wk 29, total alkaline phosphatase also became sensitive to dietary NPP. The NPP by pullet BW interaction for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase levels became significant by 29 wk, and pullet BW was significant at wk 24. The NPP by pullet growth curve interaction was also critical for plasma inorganic P levels throughout the sampling period. In summary, both 0.15% dietary NPP and reared pullets 20% under standard BW negatively affect egg production but do not impair progeny productivity. Body composition appears to be a main contributor in bone remodeling

  15. Effects of canthaxanthin on the productive and reproductive performance of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Rosa, A P; Scher, A; Sorbara, J O B; Boemo, L S; Forgiarini, J; Londero, A

    2012-03-01

    The effects of supplementing canthaxanthin on productive and reproductive aspects of broiler breeders were examined in this study. In total, 360 female pullets and 36 roosters were placed in an open-sided house with 12 pens, each pen with an area of 7.0 m(2) (3.5 × 2.0 m). At 42 wk of age, the breeder hens and roosters were distributed into 2 experimental groups with similar BW and uniformity. From 46 to 66 wk of age, one group received 6 mg/kg of canthaxanthin supplemented in the diet and the other group received the diet without the addition of canthaxanthin (control diet). Body weight was measured every 28 d, the laying rate was calculated weekly, and mortality was evaluated at the end of the study. Twenty-one weekly incubations were performed to evaluate fertility and incubation responses. To evaluate the antioxidant effect of canthaxanthin at different storage times and during the incubation process, eggs from each treatment were subject to thiobarbituric reactive substances analysis. Body weight, mortality, and laying rate were not affected by the inclusion of canthaxanthin in the breeder's diets. An increase in hatchability of total and fertile eggs (P ≤ 0.0001 and P ≤ 0.0003, respectively) in breeders fed canthaxanthin during the experimental period was observed. Canthaxanthin also improved breeder fertility and reduced embryo mortality. This can be attributed to reductions in embryo mortality in the first 48 h of incubation and in the last wk of incubation. No differences were observed in BW and quality of the chicks. A reduction of thiobarbituric reactive substances was observed in yolks from stored hatching eggs produced by breeders fed diets plus canthaxanthin. The same effect was observed in yolks of eggs stored for 4 d and incubated for 7 d. The supplementation of broiler breeder diets with canthaxanthin improved the hatchability rate, fertility, and reduced the presence of thiobarbituric reactive substances in eggs.

  16. Herd immunity to Newcastle disease virus in broiler flocks in Israel.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Anat; Berman, Elyakum M

    2017-03-27

    Due to the ongoing need to protect poultry from virulent Newcastle disease virus, all commercial poultry flocks in Israel are vaccinated according to a defined programme using a combination of live and inactivated vaccines. The vaccination protocol for broilers during the years of the study comprised a live vaccine administered by spray on the day of hatching, inactivated vaccine by subcutaneous injection at 10-12 days of age, and another live vaccine given by aerosol at 17-21 days of age. A cross-sectional study was designed in order to examine the influence of herd immunity on the risk of Newcastle disease outbreak in broiler flocks. The study was based on the extensive field data kept in the Poultry Health Laboratories database. The results of serology tests employing haemagglutination inhibition for Newcastle disease virus were analysed and crossed with the list of flocks that had been diagnosed with ND in the years 2007-2014. At the peak of induced immunization (fifth week of growth), 87.5% of the tested flocks had achieved herd immunity (≥85% of birds in the flock with an HI titre ≥4). Based on a logistic regression model, the odds ratio for ND in flocks without herd immunity was 3.7 (95% CI 1.8-7.3, P-value < 0.001). The higher the percentage of birds with low HI titres the higher the risk of ND outbreak. Under field conditions, herd immunity is an important indicator for the risk of ND outbreak.

  17. Subclinical circulation of avian hepatitis E virus within a multiple-age rearing and broiler breeder farm indicates persistence and vertical transmission of the virus.

    PubMed

    Troxler, Salome; Pać, Krzysztof; Prokofieva, Irina; Liebhart, Dieter; Chodakowska, Beata; Furmanek, Danuta; Hess, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In a prospective longitudinal study, a broiler breeder flock and its progeny were monitored for the presence of avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA and antibodies. The flock was part of a multiple-age farm where the presence of avian HEV with clinical signs (increased mortality and decreased egg production) was demonstrated in several previous production cycles. Samples were taken twice at the rearing site and several times at the production site from broiler breeders including cockerels and day-old chicks. The samples were investigated by conventional and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and histological methods. At all time points, samples from the hens were positive for avian HEV RNA. The birds did not show any clinical signs, even though histopathological lesions of non-specific aetiology in the liver and spleen could be demonstrated. A significant increase in the number of positive birds and viral load was seen in week 45, in accordance with an increase in antibody titres. In comparison, cockerels investigated in week 62 tested negative by RT-PCR and ELISA. Avian HEV RNA was also detected in day-old chicks hatched from eggs laid in week 25, indicating vertical transmission. All partial helicase and capsid sequences retrieved within this study clustered together and were identical to previous sequences obtained from the same multiple-age farm. In conclusion, avian HEV persisted on the farm over years and circulated between the rearing and the production sites without causing any clinical signs although high viral loads in the adult hens were observed.

  18. Effect of four levels of added fat on broiler breeder performance.

    PubMed

    Brake, J

    1990-10-01

    Broiler breeders were fed corn-soybean diets and reared under 8 h of incandescent light. Birds were photostimulated with a mixture of incandescent light and daylight at 20 wk of age. Corn-soybean breeder diets with 0, 2, 4, and 6% added poultry fat were fed from 24 to 64 wk of age. Daily feed allocations were adjusted to provide comparable calculated protein intake at peak egg production; calculated ME intake was 413, 437, 461, and 484 kcal per bird per day for the 0, 2, 4, and 6% added fat diets, respectively. Feed was gradually reduced such that ME intake reached 400, 415, 429, and 422 kcal ME per bird per day from 57 to 64 wk of age for the respective diets. When compared with 0%, all levels of added fat significantly increased egg production and feed conversion. Fertility was increased significantly with the 4% added fat when compared with fertility at 2%; fertility with 0 or 6% added fat was intermediate. Female body weight increased in a dose-related manner in response to added fat. Chicks per hen was maximized at 4% added fat. Taken together, the data are interpreted to mean that 4% added fat is near the optimum for broiler breeders.

  19. Lysine requirements of pre-lay broiler breeder pullets: determination by indicator amino acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Russell A; Bertolo, Robert F; Moehn, Soenke; Leslie, Michael A; Ball, Ronald O; Korver, Doug R

    2003-09-01

    The indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method allows the determination of amino acid requirements under conditions of low growth rate as found in pre-laying broiler breeder pullets. Cobb 500 breeder pullets (20 wk old; 2290 +/- 280 g, n = 4) were adapted (6 d) to a pelleted, purified control diet containing all nutrients at >or=110% of NRC recommendations. After recovery from surgery for implantation of a jugular catheter, each bird was fed, in random order, test diets containing one of nine levels of lysine (0.48, 0.96, 1.92, 2.88, 3.84, 4.80, 7.68, 9.60 and 14.40 g/kg of diet). Indicator oxidation was determined during 4-h primed (74 kBq/kg body), constant infusions (44 kBq x h(-1). kg body(-1)) of L-[1-(14)C]phenylalanine. Using the breakpoint of a one-slope broken-line model, the lysine requirement was determined to be 4.88 +/- 0.96 g/kg of diet or 366 +/- 72 mg x hen(-1) x d(-1) with an upper 95% CI of 6.40 g/kg of diet or 480 mg x hen(-1) x d(-1). IAAO allows determination of individual bird amino acid requirements for specific ages and types of birds over short periods of time and enables more accurate broiler breeder pullet diet formulation.

  20. Amino acid requirements of broiler breeders at peak production for egg mass, body weight, and fertility.

    PubMed

    Ekmay, R D; De Beer, M; Mei, S J; Manangi, M; Coon, C N

    2013-04-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine the amino acid and protein requirements of broiler breeders at peak production. In trial 1, 32-wk-old Cobb 500 broiler breeders with similar BW were selected to determine the digestible amino acid requirement for daily product output (g of egg mass + g of BW gain/b/d) and feed conversion (g of feed/g of product) for Met, Phe, Arg, Ile, Lys, and CP in a 42-d production study. In trial 2, 30-wk-old Cobb 500 broiler breeders were selected to determine the digestible requirement for Met, Lys, Ile, Arg, Cys, Val, Trp, and Thr in a 70-d production study. Breeders were given a corn-soy basal diet plus crystalline amino acids with 8 graded levels of amino acids (10 birds per level), representing 40 to 130% of the highest suggested requirements reported in the literature. All other amino acids were maintained at 100% of their suggested requirement level. All breeders were inseminated weekly and fertility was determined. A third trial consisted of 41-wk-old colostomized hens randomly assigned to 1 of 2 diets differing only in the amount of Ile. Urine was collected after a 6-wk feeding period. The average digestible requirements per breeder per day for both product and feed/product ratio from trials 1 and 2 for Met, Cys, TSAA, Phe, Phe + Tyr, Trp, Arg, Ile, Lys, Val, Thr, and CP were 424, 477, 901, 689, 997, 252, 1,026, 830, 916, 799, 613 mg/d, and 20.0 g/d, respectively. The ideal profile for digestible Met, Cys, TSAA, Phe, Phe + Tyr, Trp, Arg, Ile, Lys, Val, and Thr was 46, 52, 98, 76, 108, 28, 112.0, 91, 100.0, 87, and 67%, respectively. A significant decrease in fertility was noted with increasing levels of Ile and Lys. Urine pH was significantly more alkaline in hens fed the higher level of Ile. It is suggested that adequate dietary Lys and Ile should be provided for maximum hatching egg production but an excess may affect fertility.

  1. Isolation, identification and antimicrobial sensitivity of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in broilers chicken flocks of Khuzestan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mayahi, Mansour; Gharibi, Darioush; Ghadimipour, Rahim; Talazadeh, Forough

    2016-01-01

    Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) is a bacterium associated with respiratory disease, growth retardation, decreased egg production and mortality in chickens and turkeys. The objective of this study was isolation, identification and evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility of ORT bacterium in slaughtered broilers chicken flocks based on cultural and molecular tests in Khuzestan province, south-west of Iran. A total of 210 tracheal swab samples were collected from 21 broiler flocks slaughtered in abattoirs of the province. The results of cultural and biochemical tests showed that 23 (10.95%) isolates from tracheal swabs of 4 flocks (19.04%) were identified as ORT, but according to molecular characterization, 18 (8.57%) ORT isolates were positive in PCR assay and produced the predicted 784 bp amplification product. Finally, using the disk diffusion method, the drug resistance patterns of ORT isolates were determined against a panel of commonly used antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed that all isolates (100%) were sensitive to tetracycline, florfenicol and cephalexin. The highest antimicrobial resistance (89.00%) was seen for fosfomycin, sultrim and gentamicin. The results of present research showed that there was significant difference between the isolation rates of ORT from various areas of the province. As well, our findings indicated that the simultaneous use of both cultural and molecular techniques results in more comprehensive outcomes in the isolation and identification of the organismfrom understudy hosts. PMID:28144427

  2. Occurrence and genotypes of Campylobacter in broiler flocks, other farm animals, and the environment during several rearing periods on selected poultry farms.

    PubMed

    Zweifel, Claudio; Scheu, Kathrin Daniela; Keel, Michaela; Renggli, Franz; Stephan, Roger

    2008-07-15

    On 15 Swiss poultry farms, broiler flocks, other farm animals, and the environment were examined during consecutive rearing periods to investigate the occurrence and genetic diversity of Campylobacter. Of the 5154 collected samples, 311 (6%) from 14 farms were Campylobacter positive by culture. Amongst the positive samples, 228 tested positive for Campylobacter jejuni and 92 for Campylobacter coli. Positive samples originated from broilers, the broiler houses, cattle, pigs, bantams, laying hens, a horse, and a mouse. Feed, litter, flies, and the supply air to the broiler house tested negative. By flagellin gene typing (fla-RFLP) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), 917 Campylobacter isolates were genotyped. Additionally, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was performed on 15 assorted strains. On eight farms, matching genotypes were isolated from broiler flocks and other farm animals: Certain genotypes from cattle (farms H, K, L, and M), pigs (farms D and P), or laying hens (farm L) were subsequently found in the broiler flocks, whereas other genotypes initially present in the broiler flocks turned up in cattle (farms A, D, and O). These results emphasize the importance of other farm animals on poultry farms for broiler flock colonization. Indications of persistent contamination of the broiler house were evident on four farms (C, D, I, and L) where matching genotypes were detected in consecutive broiler flocks, but not concurrently in other samples. By fla-RFLP, PFGE, and confirmed by AFLP, some genotypes proofed to be identical across different farms.

  3. Virulence characteristics of Escherichia coli isolates obtained from broiler breeders with salpingitis.

    PubMed

    Monroy, Maria A R; Knöbl, Terezinha; Bottino, José A; Ferreira, Claudete S Astolfi; Ferreira, Antonio J Piantino

    2005-01-01

    Thirty isolates of Escherichia coli from broiler breeders with salpingitis were studied. Using the slide agglutination test, the isolates were found to belong to serogroups O1, O2, O5, O36, O45, O53 and O78. Pathogenicity for day-old chicks was determined by air sac inoculation and isolates were categorized as having high, intermediate or low virulence. Growth on iron starvation medium was observed together with aerobactin production. Based on the results of in vitro adherence tests, attachment to oviduct epithelium from old birds was found to be superior to that observed using corresponding material from young birds. DNA hybridization testing for type 1, P, and S fimbriae revealed predominant expression of type 1, correlating with mannose-sensitive hemagglutination using guinea-pig erythrocytes. In this study, P and S fimbriae were not considered to be important adherence factors. Study findings would suggest that, as far as salpingitis is concerned, type 1 fimbriae can play an important role in E. coli infection in breeders. An interesting result to emerge from the study was the observation that E. coli isolates were completely resistant to serum from young breeders, whereas they were completely sensitive using serum from older breeders. Based on serogroups involved, pathogenicity for day-old chicks and virulence indicators, the salpingitis isolates were similar to those from cases of chronic respiratory disease.

  4. Comparison of Campylobacter populations isolated from a free-range broiler flock before and after slaughter.

    PubMed

    Colles, Frances M; McCarthy, Noel D; Sheppard, Samuel K; Layton, Ruth; Maiden, Martin C J

    2010-02-28

    Relatively little is known about the Campylobacter genotypes colonizing extensively reared broiler flocks and their survival through the slaughter process, despite the increasing demand for free-range and organic products by the consumer. Campylobacter isolates from a free-range boiler flock, sampled before and after slaughter, were genotyped by MLST (multilocus sequence typing) and sequence analysis of the flaA short variable region (SVR). The Campylobacter genotypes isolated before and after slaughter were diverse, with up to five sequence types (STs) (seven-locus allelic profiles resulting from MLST) identified per live bird, up to eight STs identified per carcass and 31 STs identified in all. The majority (72.0%) of isolates sampled from carcasses post-slaughter were indistinguishable from those isolated from the live flock before slaughter by ST and flaA SVR type, however, sampling 'on-farm' failed to capture all of the diversity seen post-slaughter. There were statistically significant increases in the genetic diversity of Campylobacter (p=0.005) and the proportion of C. coli (p=0.002), with some evidence for differential survival of genotypes contaminating the end product. C. coli genotypes isolated after slaughter were more similar to those from free-range and organic meat products sampled nationally, than from the live flock sampled previously. This study demonstrated the utility of MLST in detecting genetic diversity before and after the slaughter process.

  5. Spondylitis in broiler breeder farms in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran: Clinical Report.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Alireza; Taifebagherlu, Jafar; Sharifi, Arian; Delkhosh-Kasmaie, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Spondylitis is a reemerging epidemic spinal infection in male broiler chickens (5 to 7 weeks of age) as well as broiler breeder roosters (15 to 18 weeks of age). Among various causative agents, Enterococcus species and in particular E. cecorum, a gram-positive bacterium as a gastrointestinal flora of birds, have mostly been isolated. On late September 2015, a number of 10 weeks old roosters with characteristic clinical signs of lameness and hock-sitting posture were autopsied. During thorough general routine post-mortem examinations, abnormalities like nodular masses correlated well with the hock-sitting posture and posterior paresis/paralysis were observed in joint spaces on the caudal thoracic vertebral column (T6-T7) immediately anterior to the kidneys in all affected birds. At histopathological examinations, osteomyelitis with limited pathological lesions including mononuclear inflammatory cells infiltration and edema in spinal cord were seen and the infection was diagnosed as an acute spondylosis.

  6. Spondylitis in broiler breeder farms in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran: Clinical Report

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Alireza; Taifebagherlu, Jafar; Sharifi, Arian; Delkhosh-Kasmaie, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Spondylitis is a reemerging epidemic spinal infection in male broiler chickens (5 to 7 weeks of age) as well as broiler breeder roosters (15 to 18 weeks of age). Among various causative agents, Enterococcus species and in particular E. cecorum, a gram-positive bacterium as a gastrointestinal flora of birds, have mostly been isolated. On late September 2015, a number of 10 weeks old roosters with characteristic clinical signs of lameness and hock-sitting posture were autopsied. During thorough general routine post-mortem examinations, abnormalities like nodular masses correlated well with the hock-sitting posture and posterior paresis/paralysis were observed in joint spaces on the caudal thoracic vertebral column (T6-T7) immediately anterior to the kidneys in all affected birds. At histopathological examinations, osteomyelitis with limited pathological lesions including mononuclear inflammatory cells infiltration and edema in spinal cord were seen and the infection was diagnosed as an acute spondylosis. PMID:28144429

  7. Broiler breeder manure phosphorus forms are affected by diet, location, and period of accumulation.

    PubMed

    Casteel, S N; Maguire, R O; Israel, D W; Crozier, C R; Brake, J

    2011-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) modifications of poultry diets have successfully decreased the total P (TP) in manures, but the effects on manure water-soluble P (WSP(M)) remain unclear. Our objectives were to characterize P forms in broiler breeder manures as affected by dietary P modification, location within the pen, and manure accumulation period. Two diets were formulated with and without phytase to attain 0.40% available P (AvP) during the breeder laying phase (22-64 wk of age). Manure was collected after accumulation periods of 48 h, 3 wk, and 39 wk in locations under the feeder and drinker and under the common area (between the feeder and drinker) of the pen. The TP, WSP(M), orthophosphate, and phytate in manure were measured. Broiler breeders that were fed phytase with a simultaneous reduction in nonphytate P (NPP) produced manures with 15% lower TP than those fed a traditional diet, but did not change WSP(M) when averaged over manure accumulation periods and locations within the pen. Regardless of diet, location within the pen, or accumulation period (r(2) = 0.76), the WSP(M) increased linearly as the manure moisture increased. As manure accumulation periods increased (48 h, 3 wk, and 39 wk), TP manure concentrations increased (11.9, 13.2, and 17.3 g/kg, respectively), orthophosphate proportions increased (73.2, 80.1, and 91.0%, respectively), and phytate proportions decreased (23.1, 17.0, and 6.7%, respectively). The mineralization of phytate and other organic complexes, which drive off carbon dioxide, presumably contributed to the increased orthophosphate and TP concentrations. Keeping breeder manures dry helps to avoid the mineralization of phytate to orthophosphate; this mineralization increased WSP(M) in our study, and thus increased the potential for elevated P loss in runoff when surface applied.

  8. Lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, arginine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, and threonine maintenance requirements of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Sakomura, N K; Ekmay, R D; Mei, S J; Coon, C N

    2015-11-01

    Five hundred and sixty Cobb-Vantress broiler breeders were used to determine the maintenance requirement of dietary Arg, His, Ile, Leu, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, and Val in 10 21-d assays using the comparative slaughter technique. Fifty sexually immature broiler breeder pullets per assay were given crystalline amino acid diets containing graded levels of Arg, His, Ile, Leu, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, or Val, respectively, representing 0, 10, 20, 30, 40% of their suggested requirement level (NRC, 1994) with all other amino acids maintained at 40% of their suggested requirement level. Sixty hens were slaughtered prior to the beginning of the study to assess initial body composition at 3 weight groups. Linear regression lines (protein accretion vs. amino acid intake) were determined and the maintenance requirements were calculated based on zero protein accretion. The maintenance requirements expressed on a metabolic weight basis were determined to be 174, 94, 52, 81, 60, 126, 133, and 155 mg/kg(0.75)/d for Arg, Ile, Leu, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, and Val, respectively. Additionally, the maintenance requirements, expressed on metabolic protein weight basis, were determined to be 651, 329, 172, 295, 223, 523, 478, and 546 mg/kgCP/d for Arg, Ile, Leu, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, and Val, respectively. The requirement for His could not be established as the results obtained were outside of assay range.

  9. Effect of vitamins, probiotics and protein on semen traits in post-molt male broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Khan, R U; Rahman, Zia-ur; Javed, I; Muhammad, F

    2012-11-01

    The study aimed to investigate the comparative effect of vitamins E and C, probiotics, lower than normal protein level and the combination of these treatments in male broiler breeders after Zn-induced molting. One hundred and eighty birds at 65 weeks of age were divided into six groups (five replicates per group) in a completely randomized block design. Birds were induced to molt by mixing zinc oxide in feed at the rate of 3000 mg/kg of feed. Upon completion of molting, birds were fed different supplements. One group was kept as a control, while the other groups were fed: vitamin E (100 IU/kg), vitamin C (500 IU/kg), probiotics (50 mg/L of water), lower dietary protein level (14%) or the combination of these treatments. Results revealed that vitamins (E and C) supplementation increased (P<0.05) semen volume, however, sperm motility and egg fertility were significantly higher only in vitamin E supplemented group compared to control. The dead sperm percentage decreased (P<0.05) in vitamin C fed group, whereas, sperm concentration did not differ (P>0.05) between the control and treated groups. The results validate the key role of antioxidant vitamins in male broiler breeders' fertility after Zn-induced molting.

  10. Organic trace minerals (Mintrex P) in broiler breeder diets and pre-incubation conditions on bone development and leg health of broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leg health issues and bone disorders are developmental problems that may be increased by environmental stress, inadequate nutrition, and improper incubation conditions. Organic trace minerals (OTM) as Mintrex® P were added on top (1 kg/MT) of Ross 708 broiler breeder diets from start of lay. Eggs fr...

  11. Oocyst output and transmission rates during successive infections with Eimeria acervulina in experimental broiler flocks.

    PubMed

    Velkers, Francisca C; Bouma, Annemarie; Stegeman, J Arjan; de Jong, Mart C M

    2012-06-08

    The infection dynamics of Eimeria species determine the clinical manifestation of the disease coccidiosis in poultry flocks, and a better understanding of the dynamics may contribute to improvement of control measures. Our aim was to study the course of infection and the transmission of Eimeria acervulina in groups of broilers by quantifying the transmission rate parameter and oocyst output. Three transmission experiments were carried out with groups of 20 male SPF broilers. At 2 days of age, one bird in each trial was orally inoculated with five sporulated E. acervulina oocysts (D0 post-inoculation, pi). One day after inoculation (D1 pi), the inoculated bird was housed with 19 non-inoculated contact birds. Individual faecal droppings were examined daily from D3-D32 pi to quantify the number of oocysts per gram faeces. The inoculated bird started shedding oocysts at D5 pi and contact birds between D10 and D17 pi. Contact birds that became infected due to oocyst excretion by the inoculated bird were characterized as first generation contact birds (C1). Contact birds excreting from D15 pi onwards (C2) became infected after the first C1 birds had started shedding and were considered to belong to a successive generation of the flock infection. Oocyst output was significantly lower for C1 compared to C2 birds, but the transmission rate parameter remained constant for both infection generations. These results suggest that although oocyst load increases, the transmission rate of E. acervulina remains constant between successive generations of infection in a flock.

  12. Early warning of footpad dermatitis and hockburn in broiler chicken flocks using optical flow, bodyweight and water consumption.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, M S; Roberts, S J; Cain, R J; Nickson, T; Donnelly, C A

    2017-02-27

    Footpad dermatitis and hockburn are serious welfare and economic issues for the production of broiler (meat) chickens. The authors here describe the use of an inexpensive camera system that monitors the movements of broiler flocks throughout their lives and suggest that it is possible to predict, even in young birds, the cross-sectional prevalence at slaughter of footpad dermatitis and hockburn before external signs are visible. The skew and kurtosis calculated from the authors' camera-based optical flow system had considerably more power to predict these outcomes in the 50 flocks reported here than water consumption, bodyweight or mortality and therefore have the potential to inform improved flock management through giving farmers early warning of welfare issues. Further trials are underway to establish the generality of the results.

  13. Evaluating and improving terminal hygiene practices on broiler farms to prevent Campylobacter cross-contamination between flocks.

    PubMed

    Battersby, Tara; Walsh, D; Whyte, P; Bolton, D

    2017-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate current cleaning practices in broiler houses by testing a range of sites after cleaning and disinfection and to test the efficacy of the most commonly used methods in a commercial broiler house after flock harvesting. Cleaning procedures on 20 broiler houses (10 separate farms) were examined by testing a range of sampling points (feeders, drinkers, walls, etc.) for total viable count (TVC), total Enterobacteriaceae count (TEC) and Campylobacter spp. after cleaning and disinfection, using culture based methods. In a second experiment, the six most commonly used commercially available disinfectants and/or detergent products were evaluated. The results of the first study demonstrated that critical areas in 12 of the 20 broiler houses were not effectively cleaned and disinfected between flocks as the tarmac apron, ante-room, house door, feeders, drinkers, walls, columns, barriers and/or bird weighs were Campylobacter positive. Thermal fogging with the combination of potassium peroxymonosulfate, sulfamic acid and sodium chloride (5%, v/v) or the glutaraldehyde and quaternary ammonium complex (0.3%, v/v) were the most effective treatments while other disinfectant treatments were considerably less effective. It was therefore concluded that farmers should review their broiler house cleaning and disinfection procedures if Campylobacter cross-contamination between successive flocks is to be prevented.

  14. Infectious bronchitis virus in different avian physiological systems-a field study in Brazilian poultry flocks.

    PubMed

    Balestrin, Eder; Fraga, Aline P; Ikuta, Nilo; Canal, Cláudio W; Fonseca, André S K; Lunge, Vagner R

    2014-08-01

    Avian infectious bronchitis is a highly contagious viral disease with economic effects on poultry agribusiness. The disease presents multi-systemic clinical signs (respiratory, renal, enteric, and reproductive) and is caused by one coronavirus (infectious bronchitis virus, IBV). Infectious bronchitis virus is classified into different serotypes and genotypes (vaccine strains and field variants). This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of IBV in commercial poultry flocks from 3 important producing regions in Brazil and to determine the tropism of the main circulating genotypes to 3 different avian physiological systems (respiratory, digestive, urinary/reproductive). Clinical samples with suggestive signs of IBV infection were collected from 432 different poultry commercial flocks (198 from broilers and 234 from breeders). The total number of biological samples consisted of organ pools from the 3 above physiological systems obtained of farms from 3 important producing regions: midwest, northeast, and south. Infectious bronchitis virus was detected by reverse-transcription, real-time PCR of the 5' untranslated region. The results showed 179 IBV-positive flocks (41.4% of the flocks), with 107 (24.8%) from broilers and 72 (16.8%) from breeders. There were similar frequencies of IBV-positive flocks in farms from different regions of the country, most often in broilers (average 54%) compared with breeders (average 30.8%). reverse-transcription was more frequently detected in the digestive system of breeders (40%), and in the digestive (43.5%) and respiratory (37.7%) systems of broilers. Infectious bronchitis virus genotyping was performed by a reverse-transcription nested PCR and sequencing of the S1 gene from a selection of 79 IBV-positive flocks (45 from broilers and 34 from breeders). The majority of the flocks were infected with Brazilian variant genotype than with Massachusetts vaccine genotype. These results demonstrate the predominance of the Brazilian variant

  15. Effects of supplementing broiler breeder diets with organoselenium compounds and polyunsaturated fatty acids on hatchability.

    PubMed

    Pappas, A C; Acamovic, T; Sparks, N H C; Surai, P F; McDevitt, R M

    2006-09-01

    The effects of supplementing broiler breeder diets with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and organoselenium compounds on fertility, hatchability, and the weight of 1-d-old chicks was assessed. Prepeak (23 wk) and peak (27 wk) production breeders were fed 1 of 4 diets: a wheat-based commercial breeder diet with 55 g/kg of either soybean oil (SO) or fish oil (FO), but no added Se (only that originating from feed ingredients), and each diet with added Se as Sel-Plex (SO + Se, FO + Se). The diets were designed to contain <0.1 mg/kg of Se and about 0.5 mg/kg of Se for the nonsupplemented (no added Se) and the supplemented diets, respectively. The Se concentration of the eggshell of the hatching egg was measured. The concentration of Se, PUFA, and total lipid content of the brain and liver of the 1-d-old chick was determined. The number of fertile eggs increased, embryonic mortality decreased, and hatchability increased as hen age increased from 23 to 27 wk. The Se concentration in the eggshell and the brain and liver of 1-d-old chicks was higher in the high-Se treatments com pared with the concentration in the low-Se treatments. Fish oil inclusion in the breeder diet increased embryonic mortality in wk 3 of incubation and reduced both hatchability and 1-d-old chick weight in hens of both ages. The addition of Se to the FO diets ameliorated some of these adverse effects, because chicks hatched from eggs laid by 23-wk-old breeders of the FO + Se treatment were heavier than those receiving the FO treatment. The Se concentration in the brain and liver of chicks from the FO hens was higher than that in chicks from the SO hens. The concentration of docosahexaenoic fatty acid was higher in the liver of chicks from the SO + Se treatment compared with that of chicks from the SO treatment, indicating possible protective effects of Se. Hatchability was decreased by increased PUFA and was higher in 27-wk-old compared with 23-wk-old breeders.

  16. Effect of broiler breeder feeding programme and feeder space change at photostimulation using maize- or wheat-based diets on broiler progeny growth performance and leg health.

    PubMed

    Eusebio-Balcazar, P; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Wineland, M J; Osborne, J; Brake, J

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diet type, maternal feeding programme at 29 weeks of age and breeder feeder space change at photostimulation on broiler progeny performance and leg health at 6 weeks of age. 2. Fast-feathering Cobb 500 broiler breeders were fed on either maize- or wheat-based diets that had been formulated to have similar nutrient composition during growing and layer phases. Two feeding programmes, fast or flow, were used from 14 to 29 weeks of age. At 22 weeks, 69 females from each pen were placed in a layer house where feeder space was either similar to that in rearing (6.3 to 6.5 cm/female) or was increased from 6.3 to 8.4 cm/female. Eggs produced at 32 and 44 weeks of age were collected and incubated for two broiler experiments. A total of 16 male and 16 female one-d-old chicks were placed in floor pens in two experiments, respectively, with 6 and 4 replicate pens. Broiler gait scores and leg problem prevalence were evaluated at 6 weeks of age. 3. Data were analysed as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design with diet type, feeding programme and feeder space change as main factors. 4. The wheat diet increased the probability of observing crooked toes in broiler progeny compared to the use of maize, but only when breeders were fed according to the fast feeding programme and given similar feeder space as during rearing. 5. Breeders given more feeder space in the laying period produced progeny with more locomotion problems compared with those provided similar feeder space, but only when maize was used and the slow feeding programme was applied to the breeders. 6. The maternal feeding programme interacted with other factors to influence progeny leg health, but it did not solely influence walking ability or leg problems of progeny. 7. In conclusion, an increased probability of observing walking impairment of broiler progeny was detected when breeders were given greater feeder space at photostimulation rather than no change and fed

  17. Comparative study of the effects of organic selenium on hen performance and productivity of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Rajashree, K; Muthukumar, T; Karthikeyan, N

    2014-01-01

    1. A 10-week experiment was conducted with Ross 308 broiler breeder chickens in cages to evaluate the influence of organic and inorganic sources of selenium (Se) supplementation. A total of 600 birds at 29 weeks of age were divided at random into 4 groups and fed on a maize-soya basal diet supplemented with different forms of Se. 2. The first (control) group was given the basal diet without Se supplementation, whereas the second, third and fourth groups were given, respectively, the basal diet with 0.3 mg/kg of inorganic Se in the form of sodium selenite or 0.3 and 0.5 mg/kg of organic Se in the form of Se enriched yeast (Se-yeast). 3. The experiment was carried out for 10 weeks to compare and evaluate the influence of Se supplementation on breeder performance, egg production, hatchability and the quality of eggs. Samples were collected for analysis at weeks 0, 5 and 10 of the experimental period. 4. At the end of the experiment (39 weeks), there was a reduction in mortality in breeders given diets supplemented with 0.5 mg/kg of Se-yeast. Supplementation of feed with 0.5 mg/kg organic Se increased egg production, percentage of settable eggs and hatchability. 5. Selenium supplementation increased egg weight and specific gravity compared to the control diet. However, no significant variation was found in albumen or yolk protein content at the end of week 10. 6. Selenium accumulation and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activity were lower in the egg albumen and yolk of control compared with Se-supplemented treatments. Se accumulation and GSHPx activity were higher in the group given 0.3 mg/kg organic compared to 0.3 mg/kg of inorganic Se. 7. The results favour the use of Se-yeast at the dose of 0.5 mg/kg in broiler breeder diets for better productivity of eggs, settable eggs, hatchability and higher Se accumulation and antioxidant status in eggs.

  18. Effects of acute and chronic heat stress on plasma metabolites, hormones and oxidant status in restrictedly fed broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jingjing; Tang, Li; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Liyang; Lin, Xi; Liu, Hsiao-Ching; Odle, Jack; Luo, Xugang

    2015-07-01

    Heat tolerance can be improved by feed restriction in broiler chickens. It is unknown whether the same is true for broiler breeders, which are restrictedly fed. Therefore, the current study was conducted to study the effects of heat stress on plasma metabolites, hormones, and oxidative status of restricted fed broiler breeders with special emphases on the temperature and latency of heat exposure. In trial 1, 12 broiler breeders were kept either in a thermoneutral chamber (21°C, control, n = 6) or in a chamber with a step-wise increased environmental temperature from 21 to 33°C (21, 25, 29, 33°C, heat-stressed, n = 6). Changes in plasma total cholesterol, glucose, and triiodothyronine (T3) were closely related to the environmental temperature. When the temperature reached 29°C, plasma T3 (P < 0.05) was significantly decreased in acute heat-stressed birds, whereas plasma glucose (P < 0.001) and cholesterol (P = 0.002) increased only when the temperature reached 33°C. Plasma triglyceride (P = 0.026) and creatine kinase (CK, P = 0.018) were lower in heat-stressed birds than controls regardless of the temperatures applied. In Trial 2, 24 broiler breeders were divided into 2 groups and raised under 21°C and 32°C for 8 weeks, respectively. Total cholesterol was increased in chronic heat-stressed broiler breeders after 4 weeks. Plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, P = 0.047) and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, P = 0.036) was up-regulated after 6 weeks of thermal treatment, whereas plasma CK (P = 0.009) was increased at the end of thermal treatment. Plasma malonaldehyde, protein carbonyl content, activity of total superoxide dismutase (SOD), and corticosterone content were not altered after acute and prolonged heat challenges. Taken together, acute heat stress primarily resulted in disturbance of plasma metabolites, whereas chronic heat stress caused tissue damage reflected by increased plasma LDA, GOT, and CK. During acute heat stress, plasma metabolites were

  19. Severe pododermatitis in broiler breeder hens housed on pressure-treated slats.

    PubMed

    Sander, J E; Wilson, J L; Bush, P B; Rowland, G N

    1994-01-01

    Severe foot-pad dermatitis was diagnosed in a case of broiler hens housed on slats made of lumber pressure-treated with chromated copper arsenate. Studies were conducted in an attempt to determine whether contact with the lumber caused the lesions. Breeder pullets were housed for 17 weeks on slats made from either untreated oak or pressure-treated lumber. Cresylic acid disinfectant was applied to one set of each slat type. Foot-pad lesions were scored and tissue arsenic levels were measured. Foot pads of the hens on pressure-treated slats were the only tissue with detectable arsenic levels. All groups developed foot-pad lesions, although the lesions appeared to be most severe, and to have developed earlier, in birds on pressure-treated disinfected slats.

  20. Effect of vitamins, protein level and probiotics on immune response of moulted male broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Khan, R U; Rahman, Z U; Javed, I; Muhammad, F

    2014-08-01

    This study was planned to investigate the comparative effect of vitamins C (L-ascorbic acid), E (DL-α-tocopherol acetate), probiotics, lower than normal protein level (14%) and combination of these treatments on immune response of male broiler breeders after zinc-induced moulting. One hundred and eighty birds at the age of 65 weeks were induced to moult by mixing zinc oxide (ZnO) in feed at the rate 3000 IU/kg of feed. Upon completion of moulting, birds were divided into six groups (five replicates per group) in a completely randomized design and were fed vitamin C (500 IU/kg), vitamin E (100 IU/kg), lower protein level, probiotics (50 mg/l), and a combination of these components, while one group was kept as control. After completion of moulting phase (5 weeks), the treatment effects were tested as in vitro macrophages engulfment percentage, nitric oxide (NO) production, serum antibody titres against Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bronchitis (IB). The results showed that in vitro macrophage engulfment percentage in unopsonized conditions was significantly higher in vitamin E-supplemented group. In addition, in opsonized condition, the macrophage engulfment percentage was significantly higher in both vitamin E- and C-supplemented groups. The NO (opsonized and unopsonized) production and antibody titre against ND and IB were significantly higher in vitamin E-supplemented group. It was concluded that vitamin E is a better option for enhanced immune response in broiler breeders after zinc-induced moulting.

  1. Feeding broiler breeder males. 1. Effect of feeding program and dietary crude protein during rearing on body weight and fertility of broiler breeder males.

    PubMed

    Romero-Sanchez, H; Plumstead, P W; Brake, J

    2007-01-01

    A 2 x 2 factorial experiment was conducted to compare the effects of 2 male broiler breeder feed allocation programs (Concave or Sigmoid) during the rearing period to 26 wk of age and the interaction with dietary CP (12 or 17%) on BW and fertility. From 0 to 2 wk, all birds received a starter diet, after which, pens were randomly assigned to the 4 treatment combinations that ended at 26 wk of age. All males were weighed individually at 4, 8, 12, 16, 22, 26, 28, 32, 36, 40, 48, 52, 56, and 64 wk of age, and fertility was determined weekly from 27 to 32 wk of age and then every 2 wk to 64 wk of age. At 49 wk of age, the male feed allocation for all treatments was increased by 5 g/d. Even when fed the same as Sigmoid program males during the production period, males reared on the Concave feeding program lost BW from 32 to 40 wk of age and exhibited lower BW from 40 to 48 wk of age, which corresponded to a more rapid decrease in fertility. The 17% CP diet increased BW from 8 to 32 wk of age, but no significant differences were subsequently observed. The 12% CP rearing diet improved both weekly and cumulative fertility. A significant interaction between rearing feeding program and dietary CP during the third quartile period showed that the Concave program-17% CP diet combination was most negatively affected. The increase in male feed allocation at 49 wk restored fertility and caused differences among treatments to diminish. These data suggested that BW during the early rearing period did not affect fertility, but an increased BW due to either providing fast feed increments toward the end of the rearing period (Concave) or feeding a 17% CP diet produced males that were unable to sustain fertility after 40 wk of age without an appropriate allocation of feed.

  2. Epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. at two Dutch broiler farms.

    PubMed

    Jacobs-Reitsma, W F; van de Giessen, A W; Bolder, N M; Mulder, R W

    1995-06-01

    Broiler flocks on two Dutch poultry farms were screened weekly for the presence of campylobacter in fresh caecal droppings during eight consecutive production cycles. Hatchery and fresh litter samples were taken at the start of each new cycle. Water, feed, insects, and faeces of domestic animals, present on the farms were also included in the sampling. Penner serotyping of isolates was used to identify epidemiological factors that contribute to campylobacter colonization in the broiler flocks. Generally, broiler flocks became colonized with campylobacter at about 3-4 weeks of age with isolation percentages of 100%, and stayed colonized up to slaughter. A similar pattern of serotypes was found within the various broiler houses on one farm during one production cycle. New flocks generally showed also a new pattern of serotypes. Most serotypes isolated from the laying hens, pigs, sheep and cattle were different from those isolated from the broilers at the same time. Campylobacter serotypes from darkling beetles inside the broiler houses were identical to the ones isolated from the broilers. No campylobacter was isolated from any of the hatchery, water, feed or fresh litter samples. Conclusive evidence of transmission routes was not found, but results certainly point towards horizontal transmission from the environment. Horizontal transmission from one broiler flock to the next one via a persistent contamination within the broiler house, as well as vertical transmission from breeder flocks via the hatchery to progeny, did not seem to be very likely.

  3. The effect of low-density broiler breeder diets on performance and immune status of their offspring.

    PubMed

    Enting, H; Boersma, W J A; Cornelissen, J B W J; van Winden, S C L; Verstegen, M W A; van der Aar, P J

    2007-02-01

    Effects of low-density broiler breeder diets on offspring performance and mortality were studied using 2,100 female and 210 male Cobb 500 breeders. Breeder treatments involved 4 experimental groups and a control group with normal density diets (ND, 2,600 kcal of AME/kg during rearing and 2,800 kcal of AME/kg during laying). In treatment 2, nutrient densities were decreased by 12% (LD12) and 11% (LD11) during the rearing and laying periods, respectively, whereas in treatment 3, nutrient densities were decreased by 23% (LD23) and 21% (LD21) during the rearing and laying periods, respectively. The nutrient density in these treatments was decreased through inclusion of palm kernel meal, wheat bran, wheat gluten feed, and sunflower seed meal in the diets. Treatment 4 included diets with the same nutrient densities as in treatment 2 but included oats and sugar beet pulp (LD12(OP) and LD11(OP)). In treatment 5, the same low-density diet was given to the breeders as in treatment 2 during the rearing period, but it was followed by a normal density diet during the laying period (LD12-ND). Treatments were applied from 4 to 60 wk of age. On low-density diets, offspring showed an increased 1-d-old weight. As compared with offspring of breeders that received ND, the d 38 live weight of chickens from 29-wk-old breeders fed LD11 was improved. Mortality was reduced in offspring from 60-wk-old parent stock given low-density diets. The IgM titers in 35-d-old offspring from eggs with a lower-than-average weight were reduced when 29-wk-old broiler breeders were fed low-density diets. In offspring from eggs with a higher-than-average weight from 60-wk-old parent stock given LD11 or LD21 diets, IgM titers were higher compared with ND. It was concluded that low-density broiler breeder diets can improve offspring growth rates, reduce mortality, and reduce or increase immune responses, depending on breeder age and egg weight.

  4. Detection of rotaviruses and intestinal lesions in broiler chicks from flocks with runting and stunting syndrome (RSS).

    PubMed

    Otto, Peter; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth M; Elschner, Mandy; Reetz, Jochen; Löhren, Ulrich; Diller, Roland

    2006-09-01

    The intestinal tract and intestinal contents were collected from 34 stunted, 5-to-14-day-old broiler chicks from eight flocks with runting and stunting syndrome (RSS) in Northern Germany to investigate intestinal lesions and the presence of enteric pathogens with a special focus on rotaviruses (RVs). Seven chicks from a healthy flock were used as controls. Severe villous atrophy was seen in chicks from six flocks with RSS but not in the control flock. Lesions were often "regionally" distributed in the middle-to-distal small intestine. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (PAGE), reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and seminested RT-PCR were used for detection and characterization of RVs. The PAGE allows discrimination of different RV groups, and the RT-PCR was used to verify the presence of group (gp) A RVs. RVs were detected (by all methods) in 32 of 34 chicks from the flocks with RSS. By TEM (negative staining), RV particles were observed in intestinal contents of 28 chicks from the flocks with RSS. PAGE analysis showed four RV groups: gpA, gpD, gpF, and gpG. Group A RVs were detected in four chicks from two flocks with RSS, without intestinal lesions. GpD RVs were detected in 12 chicks of five flocks with RSS, 10 of them with severe villous atrophy. GpF RVs were confirmed in four chicks from three flocks with RSS and in two birds in the control flock. GpG RVs were verified in two chicks from two flocks with RSS, one with, and one without, intestinal lesions. At present, PCR methods are only available for detection of gpA RVs. Using RT-PCR, gpA RVs were identified in samples from 22 chicks including samples of two chicks from the control flock. Statistical analysis revealed a positive correlation between presence of gpD RV and severe villous atrophy in flocks with RSS. The results suggest that gpD RV plays a major role in the pathogenesis of RSS.

  5. Effect of supplementary choline on the performance of broiler breeders fed on different energy sources.

    PubMed

    Rama Rao, S V; Sunder, G S; Reddy, M R; Praharaj, N K; Raju, M V; Panda, A K

    2001-07-01

    1. Laying performance, egg quality, fertility and hatchability, and fat deposition in liver and abdomen were recorded in broiler breeders (29 to 48 weeks of age) fed on diets containing perarl millet (Pennisetum typhoides) (PM), broken rice (BR) or yellow maize (YM) (600 g/kg diet). Constant ratios of metabolisable energy (ME) to other nutrients were maintained in all the diets. Food grade choline chloride (50%) was added to the diets at 3 concentrations (0, 760 and 1,520 mg/kg). Each diet was offered to 3 replicate groups of 15 birds (12 hens and 3 cockerels), maintained in deep litter pens, to provide 1.46 MJ ME/bird/d. 2. Neither the source of energy nor dietary choline content had any influence on hen-d egg production, fertility or hatchability. Food efficiency and egg weight were significantly reduced in BR-fed groups compared to those fed on the other energy sources. 3. The efficiency of energy and protein utilisation increased and liver fat content was decreased significantly by dietary choline supplementation. 4. Haugh unit score, egg shell weight, liver weight and intestinal weight were not influenced by either supplementary choline or the source of energy. However, the yolk colour index was significantly reduced in PM- or BR-fed groups compared to those fed on the maize-based diet. 5. Deposition of abdominal fat was significantly greater in BR-fed birds compared to those fed on the YM-based diet, while liver fat content was significantly greater in the birds fed on the PM-or BR-based diets than those based on YM. Although supplementation of the diet with choline had no influence on abdominal fat deposition, liver fat content was significantly reduced in birds given diet containing 760 mg supplemental choline/kg diet. 6. The present study indicates that PM or BR can be used as principal energy sources in place of YM in broiler breeder diets without affecting egg production, fertility or hatchability. Liver fat content can be reduced by adding choline at

  6. Peanut hulls as a litter source for broiler breeder replacement pullets.

    PubMed

    Lien, R J; Hess, J B; Conner, D E; Wood, C W; Shelby, R A

    1998-01-01

    Broiler breeder pullets were reared on either peanut hulls or pine shavings to determine effects of litter type on growth performance and litter characteristics. Pullets were reared to 20 wk of age in rooms initially bedded with 8 cm of clean shavings or hulls. Heating and ventilation were standardized in all rooms. Restricted skip-a-day feeding was used to attain recommended growth curves. Water was continuously provided for ad libitum consumption. Litter and environmental variables were measured throughout rearing and 2 wk after pullets were removed from the litter materials. Feed consumption, BW, mortality, and uniformity at 20 wk were not affected by litter type; however, gizzard weights were decreased in pullets reared on hulls. Litter bulk density increased with use and was greater for shavings through 11 wk, but not thereafter. Particle size decreased with use in both litter types. Through 11 wk, there were more particles in the > 4 mm range and less in the < 1.7 mm range with hulls. Litter moisture increased with use but was not affected by litter type. Litter pH was greater in unused shavings, but during and after use was generally greater in hulls. With both litter types, litter and environmental ammonia levels increased to 11 wk then decreased; however, this effect was more pronounced for hulls. Bacteria populations were not affected by litter type; however, greater fungal populations were observed in shavings at 7 and 15 wk. Aflatoxins were detected in unused hulls but not shavings. Because aflatoxin levels decreased during use and Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus populations were not detected in samples collected during use, aflatoxins observed were presumed to have been formed prior to use. Peanut hulls performed similarly to pine shavings as a litter source for breeder pullets; however, the specific influence of the aflatoxins contained in this litter source on bird performance deserves further study.

  7. Vitamin E and selenium in broiler breeder diets: Effect on live performance, hatching process, and chick quality.

    PubMed

    Urso, U R A; Dahlke, F; Maiorka, A; Bueno, I J M; Schneider, A F; Surek, D; Rocha, C

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different dietary vitamin E levels and different selenium sources on the productive and reproductive performance of broiler breeders. In total 640 females and 64 males between 22 and 52 weeks old were studied. A completely randomized experimental design in factorial arrangement, with 4 treatments of 8 replicates with 20 females and 2 males each, was applied. Treatments consisted of 2 vitamin E levels (30 and 120 mg/kg) and two selenium sources (sodium selenite and zinc-L-selenomethionine). Egg production (rate of lay and eggs per breeder), egg characteristics (egg, yolk, eggshell, and albumen weights), fertility, incubation responses (egg weight loss during incubation, hatchability, and hatching window), and hatchling characteristics (weight and yield) were evaluated. There was no influence of dietary vitamin E levels or selenium sources on egg production (P > 0.05). Mature breeders (47 weeks old) fed zinc-L-selenomethionine and 120 mg vitamin E/kg feed produced heavier eggs and albumen. Hatchability of the eggs of breeders fed 120 mg vitamin E/kg feed was higher than breeders fed 30 mg vitamin at 29 wks. The dietary inclusion of organic selenium also promoted heavier hatchling weight until egg production peak (33 wk), but did not influence hatchling quality or hatching window. It was concluded that the dietary supplementation of zinc-L-selenomethione and vitamin E (120 mg/kg feed) could be used to improve egg characteristics and incubation response.

  8. Effects of dietary L-arginine on laying performance and antioxidant capacity of broiler breeder hens, eggs, and offspring during the late laying period.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaoxue; Li, Feng; Mou, Shaoyang; Feng, Jiawei; Liu, Peifeng; Xu, Liangmei

    2015-12-01

    The effects of maternal L-arginine supplementation on laying performance and the antioxidant capacity of broiler breeder hens, egg yolk, and their one-day-old offspring were investigated. In a 9 wk experiment, 210 60-week-old Arbor Acres healthy female broiler breeders were randomly divided into 5 treatments with 6 replicates of 7 females and fed a corn and soybean meal diet with 5 arginine levels (0.96%, 1.16%, 1.36%, 1.56%, and 1.76% digestible arginine). Laying performance and anti-oxidant capacity of broiler breeder hens, eggs, and offspring were evaluated. Digestible arginine level in the broiler breeder diet had a significant effect on the laying rate (linear and quadratic effect, P<0.0001). The highest laying rate was obtained when the diet with 1.36% digestible arginine was fed. There was a significant effect of digestible arginine level in the broiler breeder diet on the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) levels and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) concentration in the broiler breeder serum, egg yolk and serum, and liver and breast of one-day-old offspring (linear and quadratic effect, P<0.05). The T-AOC level was highest and the MDA concentration lowest in all tissues when a diet with 1.36% digestible arginine was fed. No difference in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity in the broiler breeder serum was observed. There were significant effects of digestible arginine level in the broiler breeder diet on the GSH-PX activity of the egg yolk (linear effect, P<0.01; quadratic effect, P<0.05) and serum, liver, and breast of one-day-old offspring (linear and quadratic effect, P≤0.01). The GSH-PX activity in all tissues measured in this experiment was highest when the dietary digestible arginine was 1.36%. These results indicate that the diet with 1.36% digestible arginine (1,972 mg/d) is optimal to satisfy the nutritional needs of a female broiler breeder during the late laying period.

  9. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in Austrian broiler flocks in the context of the EU-wide baseline survey 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Lassnig, Heimo; Much, Peter; Schliessnig, Harald; Osterreicher, Elfriede; Kostenzer, Klaus; Kornschober, Christian; Köfer, Josef

    2012-01-01

    In Austria an EU-wide baseline survey on the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in broilers organized by the EU commission was conducted from October 2005 to September 2006. The aim of this study was to produce comparable data on the prevalence of Salmonella in broiler flocks and holdings for all member states and for the EU-Commission to set EU-wide targets for the control of Salmonella in the broiler populations. A randomised sampling plan was designed according to EU-commission parameters (p = 50%; CI = 95%, a = 5%). Sampling was carried out regularly throughout the whole year. On every farm one flock was sampled with five pairs of boot swabs and analysed in the lab according to appendix D of ISO 6579 (2002). In Austria, 363 flocks on farms consisting of at least 5000 broilers each were tested. 28 flocks (7.7%) showed infections with Salmonella spp., eight flocks (2.2%) had either S. Enteritidis (six flocks) or S. Typhimurium (two flocks). In detail, S. Enteritidis (1.7%), S. Typhimurium (0.6%), S. Montevideo (4.1%), S. Infantis 0.6%, S. Senftenberg, S. Tennessee and S. Virchow (0.3% each) have been found. Data indicated that the risk of vertical transmission of Salmonella spp. to broiler flocks has almost been kept at bay; however, the risk of horizontal transmission still needs attention. Contamination of feeding stuff, possible persistence, spreading between barns of a farm as well as introduction of Salmonella spp. through individuals or materials are important factors for future control strategies.

  10. Genetic Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates from Conventional Broiler Flocks and the Impacts of Sampling Strategy and Laboratory Method.

    PubMed

    Vidal, A B; Colles, F M; Rodgers, J D; McCarthy, N D; Davies, R H; Maiden, M C J; Clifton-Hadley, F A

    2016-04-01

    The genetic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coliisolates from commercial broiler farms was examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), with an assessment of the impact of the sample type and laboratory method on the genotypes of Campylobacter isolated. A total of 645C. jejuniand 106C. coli isolates were obtained from 32 flocks and 17 farms, with 47 sequence types (STs) identified. The Campylobacter jejuniisolates obtained by different sampling approaches and laboratory methods were very similar, with the same STs identified at similar frequencies, and had no major effect on the genetic profile of Campylobacter population in broiler flocks at the farm level. ForC. coli, the results were more equivocal. While some STs were widely distributed within and among farms and flocks, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a high degree of genetic diversity among farms forC. jejuni, where farm effects accounted for 70.5% of variance, and among flocks from the same farm (9.9% of variance for C. jejuni and 64.1% forC. coli). These results show the complexity of the population structure of Campylobacterin broiler production and that commercial broiler farms provide an ecological niche for a wide diversity of genotypes. The genetic diversity of C. jejuni isolates among broiler farms should be taken into account when designing studies to understand Campylobacter populations in broiler production and the impact of interventions. We provide evidence that supports synthesis of studies on C. jejuni populations even when laboratory and sampling methods are not identical.

  11. Effects of Zinc Glycinate on Productive and Reproductive Performance, Zinc Concentration and Antioxidant Status in Broiler Breeders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Wang, Yong-Xia; Xiao, Xue; Wang, Jiang-Shui; Wang, Qian; Li, Kai-Xuan; Guo, Tian-Yu; Zhan, Xiu-An

    2017-01-27

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of zinc glycinate (Zn-Gly) supplementation as an alternative for zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) on productive and reproductive performance, zinc (Zn) concentration and antioxidant status in broiler breeders. Six hundred 39-week-old Lingnan Yellow broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 6 groups consisting of 4 replicates with 25 birds each. Breeders were fed a basal diet (control group, 24 mg Zn/kg diet), basal diet supplemented with 80 mg Zn/kg diet from ZnSO4 or basal diet supplemented with 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg Zn/kg diet from Zn-Gly. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks after a 4-week pre-test with the basal diet, respectively. Results showed that Zn supplementation, regardless of sources, improved (P < 0.05) the feed conversion ratio (kilogram of feed/kilogram of egg) and decreased broken egg rate, and elevated (P < 0.05) the qualified chick rate. Compared with the ZnSO4 group, the 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group significantly increased (P < 0.05) average egg weight, fertility, hatchability and qualified chick rate, whereas it decreased (P < 0.05) broken egg rate. The Zn concentrations in liver and muscle were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group than that in ZnSO4 group. Compared with ZnSO4 group, 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group significantly elevated (P < 0.05) the mRNA abundances of metallothionein (MT) and copper-zinc superoxide (Cu-Zn SOD), as well as the Cu-Zn SOD activity and MT concentration in liver. Moreover, the 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group had higher (P < 0.05) serum T-SOD and Cu-Zn SOD activities than that in the ZnSO4 group. This study indicated that supplementation of Zn in basal diet improved productive and reproductive performance, Zn concentration and antioxidant status in broiler breeders, and the 80 mg Zn/kg from Zn-Gly was the optimum choice for broiler breeders compared with other levels of Zn from Zn-Gly and 80 mg/kg Zn from ZnSO4.

  12. Lysine partitioning in broiler breeders is not affected by energy or protein intake when fed at current industry levels.

    PubMed

    Ekmay, R D; Salas, C; England, J; Cerrate, S; Coon, C N

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary energy and protein intake on the partitioning of lysine in broiler breeder hens. One hundred twenty-six broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 (390, 450 kcal/d) × 3 (22, 24, 26 g of CP/d) fashion. Thirty-six hens were administered a daily oral dose of 15 mg of (15)N-Lys for a period of 2 wk or until first egg. After the 2-wk enrichment period, no isotopes were given for 2 d. After 2 d, a daily oral dose of 15 mg of (2)D4-Lys was administered until the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th egg (saved) after the initial (2)D4-Lys was given, at which point pectoralis muscle was sampled. Weeks 25, 29, and 45 were assessed. Isotopic enrichment of pectoralis muscle, egg yolk, and albumen was determined via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The (15)N-Lys was intended to represent endogenous lysine, whereas the (2)D4-Lys was intended to represent dietary lysine. Greater than 78% of all labeled lysine ((15)N and (2)D4-Lys) was found in breast muscle. Endogenous muscle was the main source of lysine for yolk formation at wk 25 and 45. Diet was the main source of lysine for albumen formation at wk 25 and 29. A consistent decrease in the (15)N-Lys in breast muscle from the 2nd to the 3rd egg was observed, while also seeing an increase in the (15)N-Lys in the egg from the 3rd to the 4th egg. No difference in the partitioning of lysine was determined by energy or protein intake at levels typical for the current poultry industry. Rather, age, and possibly rate of production, appear to be the main drivers of lysine partitioning in the broiler breeder hen.

  13. Broiler breeder semen quality as affected by trace minerals in vitro.

    PubMed

    Barber, S J; Parker, H M; McDaniel, C D

    2005-01-01

    Research has shown that trace elements, such as Se, Mn, and Zn, can alter reproductive functions. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the sperm quality index (SQI) and sperm viability as affected by various levels and sources of Se, Mn, and Zn when added in vitro to broiler breeder semen. In vitro treatments consisted of the following sources and levels of minerals: Control, no minerals added to sperm; seleno L-methionine, 4 levels ranging from 8.78 to 7,896 microg/L; sodium selenite, 4 levels ranging from 8.78 to 7,896 microg/L; MnSO4, 8 levels ranging from 6,500 to 65,000 mg/L; Zn 180 (Zinpro Corporation), 4 levels ranging from 0.65 to 650 mg/L; and ZnSO4, 4 levels ranging from 0.65 to 650 mg/L. The addition of 7,896 microg of sodium selenite/L to semen was detrimental to sperm motility. Also, MnSO4 adversely affected SQI and sperm viability at concentrations of 6,500 mg/L and greater. Sperm viability was decreased when 650 mg/L of Zn 180 was added to semen. Sperm motility was depressed by exposure to Zn 180 at 650 mg/L and ZnSO4 at 65 and 650 mg/L. Our results suggest that these trace minerals must act at the reproductive tissue level during spermatogenesis to improve semen quality. Direct in vitro application of these elements to semen appears to be detrimental to spermatozoa.

  14. Comparison of selenium levels and sources and dietary fat quality in diets for broiler breeders and layer hens.

    PubMed

    Leeson, S; Namkung, H; Caston, L; Durosoy, S; Schlegel, P

    2008-12-01

    Two experiments were carried out with broiler breeders (experiment 1) and laying hens (experiment 2) to study the effects of Se sources, in interaction with dietary level of Se or dietary fats on performance, Se incorporation into tissues (blood, liver, breast muscle, and egg) and eggs, hatchability, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities in tissues and blood. Both experiments involved a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of 3 Se sources (selenite, Se yeast, or B-Traxim Se) and either 2 levels of each source (0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg) or 2 fats (fresh or oxidized). Egg production was not affected by Se source or dietary fat in both experiments. Egg production was greater (P < 0.01) in breeder hens fed 0.3 mg/kg of Se in experiment 1. Hatchability of eggs from hens fed 0.1 mg/kg of Se was lower (P < 0.05) in hens fed Se yeast, whereas from hens fed 0.3 mg/kg of Se, it was comparable across treatments. Selenium in egg, liver, and breast muscle was greater (P < 0.01 or <0.05) in hens fed the greater concentration of Se. Eggs from breeder hens fed organic Se sources had greater (P < 0.01) Se content than those of inorganic source. Egg albumen from breeder fed Se yeast had the greatest Se (P < 0.01), whereas egg yolk from hens fed B-Traxim Se had the greatest Se (P < 0.05). These parameters were affected by interaction between dietary Se level and source (P < 0.01 or < 0.05). Selenium contents in liver and breast muscle were greater (P < 0.01) in hens fed Se yeast compared with hens fed other sources of Se. In experiment 1, liver GPX was greater (P < 0.01) in hens fed selenite or Se yeast, whereas plasma GPX was greater (P < 0.01) in hens fed selenite compared with B-Traxim Se or Se yeast. Supplementation with oxidized fat increased (P < 0.05) GPX in blood and liver. B-Traxim Se decreased (P < 0.05) malondialdehyde content in breast muscle of layers. It is concluded that broiler breeders require supplementation of 0.3 mg/kg of Se, and that there are numerous measurable advantages

  15. Inhibition by aminoguanidine of glucose-derived collagen cross-linking in skeletal muscle of broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Klandorf, H; Zhou, Q; Sams, A R

    1996-03-01

    Aminoguanidine (AG) is a nucleophilic compound that inhibits nonenzymatic, glucose-derived collagen cross-linking in animal tissues. Whether AG can attenuate the accumulation of collagen cross-links in the Biceps femoris muscle of 64-wk-old broiler breeder hens as well as improve meat quality, was investigated. Eighty-four broiler breeder hens (30-wk-old) were divided into four equal groups. Each group was assigned randomly to diets supplemented with 0. 200, 400, or 800 ppm AG, respectively. Birds were fed individually, 150 g diet/d. After feeding AG for 34 wk, six birds from each group were killed and samples from the leg muscle were analyzed for changes in collagen content. Aminoguanidine decreased (P < 0.05) glucose-derived collagen cross-links in skeletal muscle as measured by fluorescence and collagen solubility. Insoluble collagen fraction decreased with increasing AG dosage, whereas acid-soluble and pepsin-soluble fractions increased with increasing AG dosage. Aminoguanidine did not affect shear force. In agreement with studies on animals with diabetes, AG is a potent inhibitor of glucose-derived cross-linking in chickens although the results from the measurements of shear force do not support its used for improving carcass quality in spent hens.

  16. Effects of different methionine sources on production and reproduction performance, egg quality and serum biochemical indices of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xue; Wang, Yongxia; Liu, Weilong; Ju, Tingting; Zhan, Xiuan

    2016-12-17

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different methionine (Met) sources on production performance, reproduction performance, egg quality and serum biochemical indices in broiler breeders. After receiving a basal diet (containing 0.25% Met) for a 2-wk pretreatment period, a total of 360 39-wk-old Lingnan yellow broiler breeders were randomly allocated to four treatments with six replicates each (15 birds per replicate). Breeders were fed with basal diets (control) or diets supplemented with DL-methionine (DLM), DL-2-hydroxy-4-methylthio butytric calcium (MHA-Ca) and coated DL-Met (CME) respectively (containing 0.1% Met). The results showed that CME supplementation promoted laying rate and decreased feed-to-egg ration (F/E) (P<0.05), DLM and MHA-Ca supplementation decreased F/E (P<0.05) when compared with control group. The rate of fertility, hatchability and birthrate were higher (P<0.05) in DLM, MHA-Ca and CME groups than control group. Compared with control group, CME increased the eggshell thickness (P<0.05); MHA-Ca improved the eggshell thickness, relative eggshell weight and eggshell strength (P<0.05). Results also showed that CME elevated the concentration of total protein in serum (P<0.05); MHA-Ca improved the concentration of Calcium in serum (P<0.05). The concentration of serum uric acid in DLM, MHA-Ca and CME groups was higher than that in control group (P<0.05). Besides, CME had higher concentrations of serum taurine, cysteine and cystanthionine (P<0.05) while MHA-Ca and DLM promoted the serum taurine concentration (P<0.05) compared with control group. Based on the results, it was concluded that Met supplementation could enhance the production and reproduction performance as well as the antioxidant status and egg quality of broiler breeders. In terms of improving the production performance, reproduction performance and antioxidant performance, CME was superior to DLM and MHA-Ca; but in regard to the enhancement of eggshell quality and serum

  17. Effects of maternal dietary EPA and DHA supplementation and breeder age on embryonic and post-hatch performance of broiler offspring: age and n-3 pufa affect embryonic and post-hatch performance.

    PubMed

    Koppenol, A; Delezie, E; Wang, Y; Franssens, L; Willems, E; Ampe, B; Buyse, J; Everaert, N

    2015-04-01

    Breeder age and nutrition are amongst the most important factors affecting progeny growth and development. The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of n-3 fatty acid (FA), with special emphasis on the ratio of eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6 n-3) acid, provided to the diet of ageing broiler breeder hens at different ratios, on the incubation parameters and the performance of the offspring. Four hundred and eighty Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed one of four different diets (120/treatment), with an equal fat content. The control diet was a basal diet, rich in n-6 FAs (CON). Blends of fish oil were used to enrich the three other diets in n-3 FA and to obtain different EPA/DHA ratios of 1/1 (EPA=DHA), 1/2 (DHA) or 2/1 (EPA). Every 5 weeks, incubation parameters were assessed. Every 15 weeks, offspring was reared until slaughter age on a standard diet. Breeder age affected almost all incubation and post-hatch parameters, whereas n-3 FA treatment only lowered egg weight (p < 0.0001) and consequently hatched chick weight (p < 0.0001). Supplementation of EPA resulted in a higher proportional liver weight (p = 0.0219) at hatch, a lower body weight up to 28 days post-hatch (p = 0.0418), a lower daily weight gain (p = 0.0498) and a higher feed conversion ratio (p = 0.0395) during the starter period (p = 0.0498), resulting in a higher overall offspring feed conversion ratio (p = 0.0317) compared to the control diet. DHA supplementation, on the other hand, resulted in a lower residual yolk weight (p = 0.0220) and a higher overall offspring mortality (p = 0.0125). In conclusion, supplementation of n-3 FA could not counter the adverse effect of breeder flock age, but did not harm incubation or improve post-hatch performance, either. EPA and DHA affected offspring development differently during early post-hatch life.

  18. Fertility of male and female broiler breeders following exposure to elevated ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, C D; Bramwell, R K; Wilson, J L; Howarth, B

    1995-06-01

    Because elevated ambient temperatures decrease fertility, this study was designed to segregate the male and female contribution to heat stress infertility in broiler breeders. Eighty hens and 16 roosters at 21 wk of age were divided equally among two heat stress (S) and two control (C) temperature chambers. For a 10-wk pretreatment period, all birds were maintained at an ambient temperature of 21.1 C and 40% relative humidity. Following the pretreatment period, birds in the S chambers were acclimated for 1 wk at a constant temperature of 29.4 C after which the temperature in the S chambers was increased to 32.2 C for 8 wk. The temperature in the two C chambers was maintained at 21.1 C. Hens in each chamber were artificially inseminated on a weekly basis with 5 x 10(7) sperm per 50 microL from either C or S males. Egg production, semen volume, spermatocrit, and percentage dead sperm were similar during the acclimation period, even though body temperature was significantly elevated in S birds (41.8 vs 41.3 C). Sperm penetration of the perivitelline layer overlying the germinal disc (GD) was decreased in eggs from hens inseminated with semen from S males compared to eggs from hens inseminated with semen from C males (9.5 vs 23.4 sperm per GD). Following the acclimation period, body temperature remained elevated in the S birds compared to the C birds (42.2 vs 41.3 C). Also, egg production was depressed in the S vs C hens (55.8 vs 82.9%). Semen volume, spermatocrit, and percentage dead sperm were not affected by S treatment. However, when hens were inseminated with semen from S males, sperm penetration of the perivitelline layer overlying the GD and egg fertility were decreased compared to hens inseminated with semen from C males (5.4 vs 14.9 sperm per GD, 45.5 vs 73.8% fertility). In conclusion, the male bird appears to contribute more to heat stress infertility than the female.

  19. Nonlinear mixed models to study metabolizable energy utilization in broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Romero, L F; Zuidhof, M J; Renema, R A; Robinson, F E; Naeima, A

    2009-06-01

    This study developed mathematical models to overcome limitations of linear models of energy partitioning in hens. The fit of 1 linear and 2 nonlinear models of ME intake (MEI) were compared, using empirical data of 288 caged broiler breeder hens from 20 to 60 wk of age. Pullets were individually caged at 16 wk and assigned to 1 of 4 feed allocation groups. Three groups had feed allocated on a group basis with divergent target BW: standard (STD), HIGH (STD x 1.1), and LOW (STD x 0.9). The fourth group had individual-based feed allocation (IND) and followed the STD BW target. The linear model expressed MEI as a function of BW(0.75), ADG, egg mass (EM), and temperature. Nonlinear mixed models employed a normally distributed term associated with hen metabolic BW, and exponential terms of ADG and EM, or Cobb-Douglas form interactions between terms. Fit was evaluated with the Bayesian information criterion and systematic bias was analyzed through linear regressions of observed versus expected values. The linear model estimated energy partitioned to maintenance and retention in the range of reported values in the literature. However, this model had the poorest fit (R(2) = 0.64) and exhibited a slope bias of 0.91 (i.e., MEI was overestimated at low values and underestimated at high values). The first nonlinear mixed model indicated that MEI partitioned to ADG was a factor of ADG(1.15), whereas the ME partitioned to EM was a factor of EM(1.12). This model had improved fit (R(2) = 0.71) relative to the linear model. The second nonlinear mixed model indicated that the energy requirement for ADG increased by 0.60% and the EM energy requirement decreased by 2.07% for each 1% increment in BW. This model further improved fit (R(2) = 0.75). Nonlinear mixed models reduced estimation bias by accounting for individual variation in maintenance energy expenditure. These nonlinear mixed models may be used to analyze energy partitioning in animals, to develop prediction equations of MEI

  20. The effect of dietary alterations during rearing on feather condition in broiler breeder females.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, K L H; Widowski, T; Leeson, S; Sandilands, V; Arnone, A; Torrey, S

    2014-07-01

    In commercial production, broiler breeders are severely feed restricted to maintain healthy BW. This restriction can induce stereotypic behavior, including feather pecking, which has negative welfare implications for both the victim and performer. It has been suggested that the problem may be symptomatic of chronic hunger or the frustration of feeding motivation. In this study, we determined whether feather condition, as an indirect measure of feather pecking, could be improved via dietary manipulation. Six dietary treatments were tested, each with 5 replicate pens of 9 to 12 birds. Control diets (C) were fed on a daily or skip-a-day (SAD) basis. Alternative diets included soybean hulls as a bulking ingredient and calcium propionate (CaP) as an appetite suppressant of either a feed grade (F) or purified (P) quality. Both alternative diets were fed on either a daily or SAD basis. Five or 6 birds were randomly chosen from each pen and feather scored at 10, 14, 20, 26, and 36 wk of age. Six body parts (neck, back, wings, legs, vent area, tail) were given a score from 0 to 5 (0 = no feather damage, and 5 ≥ 50% feather loss with tissue damage). Scores were summed for each bird and averaged for each pen. Data were analyzed with room and feeding frequency as main factors and diet as the subfactor with repeated measures. There was an interaction between diet and time (P < 0.01) with the feather condition of the C birds worsening more quickly in comparison with the F and P birds. There was an interaction between feeding frequency and time (P = 0.015), with SAD-fed birds scoring better than daily-fed birds at 20, 26, and 36 wk. This interaction could indicate that SAD feeding increased satiety after the birds became accustomed to the schedule. Because feather condition was better with the alternative diets, this may indicate a reduction in stereotyped feather pecking with these diets. This suggests that the alternative diets increase satiety compared with the control diets.

  1. Oral exposure of broiler breeder hens to extra thyroxine modulates early adaptive immune responses in progeny chicks.

    PubMed

    Akhlaghi, A; Zamiri, M J; Jafari Ahangari, Y; Atashi, H; Ansari Pirsaraei, Z; Deldar, H; Eghbalian, A N; Akhlaghi, A A; Navidshad, B; Yussefi Kelarikolaei, K; Hashemi, S R

    2013-04-01

    Based on the findings of a recent study suggesting a decreased cold-induced ascites incidence in broiler progeny from hyperthyroid (HYPER) breeder hens, and a controversy on the effects of hyperthyroidism on immunocompetence, the present study was conducted to determine the probable adverse effect of induced maternal hyperthyroidism on immune function in progeny chicks. Breeder hens (n = 88) were randomly allotted to the control or HYPER groups and received common or thyroxine (T4)-added (1 mg/L) water, respectively. The hens were artificially inseminated, and hatching eggs (n = 924) were incubated. Thereafter, the male hatchlings (n = 288) were reared for 42 d, and several cellular and humoral immune responses were evaluated at standard or low ambient temperature. Prevaccination antibody titers to Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease virus were higher in HYPER chicks during 1 wk of age, although not different in their dams. For primary response to SRBC administered at 7 d of age, HYPER chicks recorded higher total, IgM (d 14), and IgG (d 21) anti-SRBC antibody titers. Higher cutaneous basophilic hypersensitivity response in HYPER chicks (d 10) was not observed at 35 d of age. Carbon clearance assay showed no difference, but in vitro lymphoproliferative response to concanavalin A was higher in 19-d-old HYPER chicks, independent of temperature treatment. An increase in lymphocyte percentage coincided with a decreased heterophil percentage and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (d 14) in the HYPER group. The weight of lymphoid organs in progeny was not influenced by the oral exposure of dams to extra T4. Independent of T4 treatment, cold exposure was generally associated with decreased immune functions at early stages. The data suggested that oral exposure of broiler breeder hens to 1 mg/L of T4 not only had no adverse effect on immune function, but also modulated early adaptive immune responses in progeny chicks for which the causal

  2. Temperature-related risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler-chicken flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, 2001-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to identify temperature-related risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler-chicken flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, with an underlying assumption that at minimum ambient temperatures, flies (Musca domestica) play a role in the epidemiology and seasonality of...

  3. Genetic Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates from Conventional Broiler Flocks and the Impacts of Sampling Strategy and Laboratory Method

    PubMed Central

    Colles, F. M.; Rodgers, J. D.; McCarthy, N. D.; Davies, R. H.; Maiden, M. C. J.; Clifton-Hadley, F. A.

    2016-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from commercial broiler farms was examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), with an assessment of the impact of the sample type and laboratory method on the genotypes of Campylobacter isolated. A total of 645 C. jejuni and 106 C. coli isolates were obtained from 32 flocks and 17 farms, with 47 sequence types (STs) identified. The Campylobacter jejuni isolates obtained by different sampling approaches and laboratory methods were very similar, with the same STs identified at similar frequencies, and had no major effect on the genetic profile of Campylobacter population in broiler flocks at the farm level. For C. coli, the results were more equivocal. While some STs were widely distributed within and among farms and flocks, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a high degree of genetic diversity among farms for C. jejuni, where farm effects accounted for 70.5% of variance, and among flocks from the same farm (9.9% of variance for C. jejuni and 64.1% for C. coli). These results show the complexity of the population structure of Campylobacter in broiler production and that commercial broiler farms provide an ecological niche for a wide diversity of genotypes. The genetic diversity of C. jejuni isolates among broiler farms should be taken into account when designing studies to understand Campylobacter populations in broiler production and the impact of interventions. We provide evidence that supports synthesis of studies on C. jejuni populations even when laboratory and sampling methods are not identical. PMID:26873321

  4. Comparison of different sampling types across the rearing period in broiler flocks for isolation of Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Ingresa-Capaccioni, S; González-Bodí, S; Jiménez-Trigos, E; Marco-Jiménez, F; Catalá, P; Vega, S; Marin, C

    2015-04-01

    Campylobacter is the most common bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal disease in most developed countries. It is generally accepted that poultry products are a significant source of foodborne Campylobacter infections in humans. Assessing the effectiveness of any potential intervention at farm level requires monitoring of the Campylobacter status of broiler flocks, using appropriate sampling methods. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the sample type across the rearing period for the detection of Campylobacter spp. at farm level. During this study, 21 commercial broiler farms were intensively sampled. Each farm was visited and sampled at different times during the rearing period (d 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42). On the first day of rearing, the status of the house and the day-old flock was evaluated, and environmental and cecal samples were collected. During rearing, 4 different sample types were collected: feces with sock swabs (sock swabs), feces directly from the litter (feces), cloacal swabs, and cecal content. All samples were analyzed according to ISO 10272-1:2006 (Annex E) and also by direct culture. The results of this study showed that Campylobacter spp. were detected in all of the sample types on d 14 of rearing. From this point on, the detection increased significantly, with a maximum detection rate by the end of rearing, regardless of the sample type. All samples that were negative upon direct culture were also negative after pre-enrichment. At the end of rearing, the percentage of samples positive for Campylobacter spp. was 71.4% for cecal samples, 61.9% for cloacal swabs, 45.2% for sock swabs, and 69.1% for fecal samples. C. jejuni was detected in all the sample types, with positive rates ranging from 67.1 to 76.0% for cecal samples and cloacal content, respectively. Cecal samples, cloacal swabs, and fecal samples cultured by direct plating onto modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) without pre-enrichment have

  5. Active immunization of broiler breeder cockerels against chicken inhibin accelerates puberty and prevents age-induced testicular involution.

    PubMed

    Satterlee, D G; Castille, S A; Fioretti, W C

    2006-06-01

    Injection of quail and breeder hens with a recombinant protein antigen (MBP-cINA521)--a fusion of the bacterical maltose-binding protein (MBP) and a fragment of the alpha-subunit of chicken inhibin (cINA521)--accelerates puberty and enhances lay. Herein, the effects of this immunogen on reproductive responses in broiler breeder males were assessed. Cockerels were subcutaneously injected with 0 (vehicular controls), 1, 3, or 5 mg of MBP-cINA521 at 13 wk of age and with one-half of these dosages (boosters) at 18 wk. Bird subsamples were weighed, blood sampled, and killed at 24, 28, and 39 wk of age to assess age and vaccination effects on BW, testes weight (TWT), TWT relative to BW (RTWT), TWT > or = 20 g (TWT20; theoretical threshold TWT for maximum fertility), and plasma testosterone. Breeder males are sexually developing, reach peak sexual activity, and show age-related reproductive decline at these ages. Because vaccine gonadal effects at 24 wk appeared to be dramatic, the size of the left testis was also scored to see if size differences could be detected by mere visual inspection. Male fighting increasingly reduced sample sizes beyond 24 wk. Because mortality was unrelated to the treatments and to insure meaningful statistical comparisons, MBP-cINA521 data were pooled. Body weight (P < 0.04), testis score (P < 0.02), TWT (P < 0.03), RTWT (P = 0.06), and plasma testosterone (P = 0.08) were elevated in immunogen-treated males at 24 wk of age, and more (P < 0.05) MBP-cINA521-treated birds than controls achieved a TWT20 at this time. These variables did not differ by treatment at 28 wk. However, by 39 wk, treatment effects reemerged as follows: TWT (P < 0.04), RTWT (P = 0.06), and TWT20 (P < 0.01) were increased in vaccinated males who also showed nearly 3-fold higher levels of plasma testosterone. We conclude that immunoneutralization of inhibin accelerates puberty and retards age-related sexual senescence that typically occurs in broiler breeder males.

  6. Darkling Beetles as a Potential Transmission Source of Salmonella in Broiler Flocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adult and larval darkling beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer) are common insect pests of commercial broiler operations. High populations of darkling beetles in commercial broiler operations can have a negative impact finanacially due to structural and insulation damage within the house, red...

  7. Potential risk factors associated with contact dermatitis, lameness, negative emotional state, and fear of humans in broiler chicken flocks.

    PubMed

    Bassler, A W; Arnould, C; Butterworth, A; Colin, L; De Jong, I C; Ferrante, V; Ferrari, P; Haslam, S; Wemelsfelder, F; Blokhuis, H J

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to 1) identify determinants of poor welfare in commercial broiler chicken flocks by studying the associations between selected resource-based measures (RBM, potential risk factors), such as litter quality and dark period, and animal-based welfare indicators (ABM), such as foot pad dermatitis and lameness, and 2) establish the breadth of effect of a risk factor by determining the range of animal welfare indicators associated with each of the risk factors (i.e., the number of ABM related to a specific RBM). Eighty-nine broiler flocks were inspected in 4 European countries (France, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands) in a cross-sectional study. The ABM were contact dermatitis (measured using scores of foot-pad dermatitis and hock burn, respectively), lameness (measured as gait score), fear of humans (measured by the avoidance distance test and the touch test), and negative emotional state (measured using qualitative behavior assessment, QBA). In a first step, risk factors were identified by building a multiple linear regression model for each ABM. Litter quality was identified as a risk factor for contact dermatitis. Length of dark period at 3 wk old (DARK3) was a risk factor for the touch test result. DARK3 and flock age were risk factors for lameness, and the number of different stockmen and DARK3 were risk factors for QBA results. Next, the ABM were grouped according to risk factor and counted. Then, in a second step, associations between the ABM were investigated using common factor analysis. The breadth of a risk factor's effect was judged by combining the number (count) of ABM related to this factor and the strength of association between these ABM. Flock age and DARK3 appeared to affect several weakly correlated ABM, thus indicating a broad range of effects. Our findings suggest that manipulation of the predominant risk factors identified in this study (DARK3, litter quality, and slaughter age) could generate

  8. Molecular typing of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli colonies originating from outbreaks of E. coli peritonitis syndrome in chicken flocks.

    PubMed

    Landman, W J M; Buter, G J; Dijkman, R; van Eck, J H H

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli colonies isolated from the bone marrow of fresh dead hens of laying flocks with the E. coli peritonitis syndrome (EPS) were genotyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Typing is important from an epidemiological point of view and also if the use of autogenous (auto)vaccines is considered. Birds with EPS originated from one house of each of three layer farms and one broiler breeder farm. Farms were considered as separate epidemiological units. In total, six flocks were examined including two successive flocks of one layer farm and the broiler breeder farm. E. coli colonies (one per bird) from nine to 16 hens of each flock were genotyped. The clonality of E. coli within birds was studied using five colonies of each of nine to 14 birds per flock. E. coli genotypes, which totalled 15, differed between farms and flocks except for two successive layer flocks that shared three genotypes. One to five genotypes were found per flock with one or two genotypes dominating each outbreak. Within hens, E. coli bacteria were always clonal. Colonies of the same PFGE type always had the same multilocus sequence type. However, four PFGE types shared sequence type 95. Neither PFGE types nor multilocus sequence types were unambiguously related to avian pathogenic E. coli from EPS. In cases where persistence of E. coli strains associated with EPS is found to occur frequently, routine genotyping to select strains for autovaccines should be considered.

  9. Arginine, soy isoflavone and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose have protective effects against obesity in broiler breeder hens fed on high-energy diets.

    PubMed

    Khalaji, S; Zaghari, M; Ganjkhanloo, M; Ghaziani, F

    2013-01-01

    1. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of arginine, soy isoflavone (ISF) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) on obesity in broiler breeder hens. 2. A total of 320 Cobb 500 hens, 45 weeks of age, were assigned to 64 floor pens. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomised design in a factorial arrangement (2 × 2 × 2 × 2) with 4 replicates of 5 hens in each pen. Factors included two concentrations of HPMC (0 and 1%), two concentrations of arginine (8.4 and 12 g/kg), two concentrations of ISF (zero and three times more than that present in basal diets) and two contents of energy (11.7 and 14.6 MJ/kg). Performance criteria and blood characteristics of hens were measured during the experimental period. Expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism was determined in the liver at 55 weeks of age. 3. Hens given high-energy diets showed increased BW (body weight), ovary weight and abdominal fat pad and enhanced plasma glucose, triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, haemoglobin, haematocrit and low lymphocyte percentages. The expression of malic enzyme, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) increased and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP1c) decreased with increasing energy content of diets. Arginine addition decreased TG, cholesterol and A1-c haemoglobin concentration and increased PPARα, PPARγ and iNOS expression. Inclusion of ISF and HPMC decreased BW, egg weight, plasma TG, cholesterol and increased egg production and also enhanced PPARγ and iNOS expression. Significant interactions were observed between energy concentration and ISF and HPMC on BW. 4. The results of the current study revealed that ISF, HPMC and arginine have beneficial effects on controlling the metabolism of obese broiler breeder hens and using a mix of these products minimises the harmful effects of obesity.

  10. The effect of low-density diets on broiler breeder development and nutrient digestibility during the rearing period.

    PubMed

    Enting, H; Veldman, A; Verstegen, M W A; van der Aar, P J

    2007-04-01

    Low-density diets might help to reduce hunger feeling in restricted-fed broiler breeders. Effects of low-density diets on nutrient digestibility and bird development were studied in Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens from 4 wk of age until the onset of the lay (wk 26). The experiment included 4 treatments. The control treatment was a normal density diet (ND; 2,600 kcal/kg). Treatments 2 and 3 had a 12 and 23% lower nutrient density than ND (LD12 and LD23, respectively) through inclusion of palm kernel meal, wheat bran, wheat gluten feed, and sunflower seed meal. Treatment 4 also had a 12% lower nutrient density than ND but included oats and sugar beet pulp (LD12(OP)). Total daily intake of energy, digestible lysine, calcium, retainable phosphorus, sodium, and linoleic acid was kept constant in the low-density dietary treatments. Animal performance and development of the intestinal tract and reproductive tract were determined in addition to digestibility and feed passage rate. The LD12(OP) provided a lower AME and nutrient digestibility than calculated and was related to lower live weights. Birds given LD23 and LD12(OP) showed a faster ovarian and oviduct development between wk 24 and 26 compared with ND. At 22 wk of age, LD23 and LD12(OP) diets resulted in higher empty jejunum and ileum weights. Low-density diets did not affect intestinal tract contents and decreased mean retention time of the contents. It was concluded that low-density diets can affect live weight and development of digestive and reproductive tracts.

  11. Inter-relationships of Salmonella status of flock and grow-out environment at sequential segments in broiler production and processing.

    PubMed

    Volkova, V V; Bailey, R H; Rybolt, M L; Dazo-Galarneau, K; Hubbard, S A; Magee, D; Byrd, J A; Wills, R W

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we investigated how the likelihoods of Salmonella presence in various samples from broilers and their grow-out environment throughout one production cycle were related. Sixty-four broiler flocks from 10 complexes of two companies in the southern United States were included in the study. Samples from the gastrointestinal tracts of chicks, transport tray pads and litter and drag swabs from the house were collected on the day of placement of each flock. Approximately, 1 week before harvest, whole bird carcass rinses, caecum and crop samples were collected from birds from these same flocks. On the day of harvest, litter and drag swab samples were also taken from the house after the birds were removed. Upon arrival of the flocks at the processing plant, whole carcass rinses, caecum and crop samples were collected. As the flocks were processed, carcass rinses were collected just before the carcasses entered the immersion chill tank and as they exited the chill tank. Logistic regression was used to model the relationships between the likelihood of Salmonella in samples of each type collected at each sampling point and Salmonella frequencies in all the samples taken from the flock and grow-out environment at preceding production stages. The analysis demonstrated that increased likelihood of Salmonella contaminated carcasses entering the immersion chill tank was associated with higher contamination of the exteriors and crops of birds at arrival for processing as well as house environmental samples at the time of harvest and prior to placement. The best predictors of post-chill broiler carcass Salmonella status were the frequencies of Salmonella in the litter on the day of harvest and prior to placement. The immersion chilling appeared to disrupt some of the relationships between the processing plant and pre-harvest samples.

  12. Effect of broiler breeders fed with corn or sorghum diet and canthaxanthin supplementation on production and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, C E V; Rosa, A P; Londero, A; Giacomini, C B S; Orso, C; Fernandes, M O; Paixão, S J; Bonamigo, D V

    2017-03-04

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of corn or sorghum diet and canthaxanthin (CX) supplementation on performance in broiler breeders. A total of 440 females with similar body weight (BW) (3.71 ± 0.14 kg) and 60 roosters were placed in an open-sided house with 20 pens, randomly distributed in a factorial arrangement (2 × 2). There were 4 diets of 2 ingredients; corn (CO) or sorghum (SO) and 2 levels of CX; 6 mg/kg (CX) and 0 mg/kg (NCX) totaling 5 replicate pens of 22 females and 3 males each, from 42 to 65 wk, divided in 2 periods (from wk 42 to 53 and wk 54 to 65). Birds' BW was measured every 28 d and mortality rate was calculated at the end of trial. Egg production (%), egg specific gravity (g/cm3), egg weight (g), yolk weight (%), albumen weight (%), eggshell weight (%) and yolk colorimetric score were measured weekly. Incubation parameters were recorded in 12 incubations to evaluate hatching eggs, hatching (%), hatchability (%), fertility (%), weight of the chicks born and their quality. The BW, mortality, percentage of yolk and albumen weight, fertility and some incubation parameters were not affected (P > 0.05) by diets used. An increase in the egg production, hatching eggs, chicks born and first quality chick by hen at the second period were observed in CX breeder's diets (P = 0.0066; P = 0.0060; P = 0.0368; P = 0.0326). Egg specific gravity and eggshell weight were improved at the first period by SO+CX diet (P = 0.0138; P = 0.0209) and the same effect to egg weight, but at the second period (P = 0.0251). The CX was well absorbed from the diet and effectively transferred to the egg yolk, thereby increasing egg yolk pigmentation in the both periods (P < 0.0001). The CX supplementation in broiler breeder diets improved the productive and reproductive performance (laying% and hatchable eggs) at the second period, also to the both periods improved the egg yolk pigmentation.

  13. Darkling beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus) and their larvae as potential vectors for the transfer of Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enterica serovar paratyphi B variant Java between successive broiler flocks.

    PubMed

    Hazeleger, Wilma C; Bolder, Nico M; Beumer, Rijkelt R; Jacobs-Reitsma, Wilma F

    2008-11-01

    Broiler flocks often become infected with Campylobacter and Salmonella, and the exact contamination routes are still not fully understood. Insects like darkling beetles and their larvae may play a role in transfer of the pathogens between consecutive cycles. In this study, several groups of beetles and their larvae were artificially contaminated with a mixture of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi B Variant Java and three C. jejuni strains and kept for different time intervals before they were fed to individually housed chicks. Most inoculated insects were positive for Salmonella and Campylobacter just before they were fed to the chicks. However, Campylobacter could not be isolated from insects that were kept for 1 week before they were used to mimic an empty week between rearing cycles. All broilers fed insects that were inoculated with pathogens on the day of feeding showed colonization with Campylobacter and Salmonella at levels of 50 to 100%. Transfer of both pathogens by groups of insects that were kept for 1 week before feeding to the chicks was also observed, but at lower levels. Naturally contaminated insects that were collected at a commercial broiler farm colonized broilers at low levels as well. In conclusion, the fact that Salmonella and Campylobacter can be transmitted via beetles and their larvae to flocks in successive rearing cycles indicates that there should be intensive control programs for exclusion of these insects from broiler houses.

  14. Comparison of embryo physiological parameters during incubation, chick quality, and growth performance of three lines of broiler breeders differing in genetic composition and growth rate.

    PubMed

    Tona, K; Onagbesan, O M; Jego, Y; Kamers, B; Decuypere, E; Bruggeman, V

    2004-03-01

    In broiler breeder management, stringent feed restriction is practiced to reduce body size in order to improve egg production and meet broiler production demand, but this practice has raised welfare issues. The potential for the dwarfing (dw) gene to reduce feed intake and body size of breeders under ad libitum feeding or less stringent restriction while maintaining improved egg production has been reported. In this study, we compared embryo physiology, quality of chicks, and performance of broilers from eggs of dwarf breeders with those from a standard broiler breeder. Hatching eggs from 3 commercial lines of broiler breeders were compared for incubation parameters, 1-d-old chick weight, chick quality, and broiler growth to 41 d of age. The lines included a standard heavy (S) line, an experimental (E) line, and a label-type (L) line. The E and L line breeders carry the sex-linked dw gene and are being used to assess the potential for dw to reduce feed intake or lower feed restriction and improve reproductive performance in heavy female broiler parent stock. Two separate experiments were conducted. All female parent stocks were mated to Cornish males, and fertile eggs were collected. In the first experiment, eggs were incubated for 21 d under standard conditions to determine, during final stages of incubation, corticosterone and thyroid hormone levels (triiodothyronine, T3; thyroxine, T4) in embryos and hatchlings, CO2 partial pressure (pCO2), and O2 partial pressure (pO2) in air cells, heat production by eggs and 1-d-old weights. In the second experiment, eggs were incubated for 21 d to compare chick quality, chick weights at 1 d of age, and broiler growth to 7 and 41 d. Average egg weights were higher for the S and L lines than the E line, but weight loss during incubation was lowest for the E line. Plasma T3 and T3/T4 ratio was similar between lines at IP, but corticosterone was higher in the S line. At hatch, T3/T4 ratio was higher in the S line compared with

  15. Feed Intake Regulation for the Female Broiler Breeder: In Theory and in Practice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The modern commercial broiler is the product of intensive genetic selection for rapid and efficient growth. An unintended consequence of this selective breeding has been the loss of the ability for self-regulation of feed intake to closely match the requirements for maintenance, growth and reproduc...

  16. The epizootiology of Eimeria infections in commercial broiler chickens where anticoccidial drug programs were employed in six successive flocks to control coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, H D; Barta, J R; Hafeez, M A; Matsler, P; Rathinam, T; Raccoursier, M

    2016-08-01

    The course of natural Eimeria infections in 6 successive broiler flocks at a commercial farm comprising 4 houses, where different anticoccidial drug programs were employed, was studied by counting the number of oocysts in the litter at weekly intervals. The course of infection in all flocks followed a bell shaped curve in which oocyst numbers, initially low, increased to a peak ranging from 36 × 10(3) to 74 × 10(3) oocysts/g (OPG) of litter around 3 to 4 wk of age. Numbers subsequently declined to 3 × 10(3) to 15 × 10(3) OPG. Oocysts could be detected between flocks when birds were not present. Species of Eimeria identified included E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella Despite the presence of large numbers of oocysts in the litter, coccidial lesions were not observed in the intestines of the birds. The performance of broilers at the study site was comparable to that of other farms in the area where birds from the same settlement were reared to a similar age using the same drug programs. The results indicate the ubiquitous nature of Eimeria spp. infections in commercial broilers despite prophylactic medication.

  17. Compliance/non-compliance with biosecurity rules specified in the Danish Quality Assurance system (KIK) and Campylobacter-positive broiler flocks 2012 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, M; Dahl, J; Lindegaard, L L; Pedersen, J R

    2017-01-01

    One source for Campylobacter jejuni infections in humans could be consumption of broiler meat. Transmission of Campylobacter into broiler houses/flocks occurs via many routes. A number of biosecurity rules is specified in the Quality Assurance System in Danish Chicken Production (KIK) - for which the broiler producers annually are audited for compliance with, by bureau Veritas. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigated the association between Compliance/non-compliance with biosecurity rules and Campylobacter-positive flocks - on KIK data from 2012 and 2013. Month and before after audit period were also included in the models. KIK rules important to comply with were: no vegetation around houses, closed systems for feed storage and distribution, and division between clean and unclean zones within broiler houses. A Campylobacter-reducing effect was observed of audit visits (in itself), indicating that there is more focus on compliance with KIK at the time of an audit visit, and that adequate daily biosecurity behavior is important.

  18. The effect of photoperiod and food intake on daily changes in plasma calcitonin in broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Klandorf, H; Boyce, C S; Killefer, J; McGowan, J A; Peterson, R A; Valent, M; Deaver, D R

    1997-09-01

    The roles of photoperiod, energy balance, and concentrations of plasma total calcium (CaT) on daily changes in plasma calcitonin (CT) were investigated in broiler breeder hens (84-100 weeks old). In the first study, broiler breeder hens (n = 24), reared on 14L:10D, were divided into two groups. One group was transferred from a restricted diet (DR) of 150 g/day to ad libitum (AL) for 14 days, while the other group remained on DR. After 2 weeks of ad libitum feeding, birds from each group (AL and DR) were bled every 2 hr for 24 hr for measurement of plasma CaT and CT. In a second study, the hens (n = 20) were transferred to continuous light (LL) for 30 days. After the 30 days, food was removed from one group for 48 hr prior to blood sampling for 24 hr at 3-hr intervals. In a third study, birds were transferred to an ahemeral light cycle (11L:10D) for 28 days. Food was removed from the birds (n = 11) for 48 hr prior to blood sampling every 3 hr for 24 hr. Four weeks later the same birds were bled again for 24 hr, but this time the birds were maintained on a restricted feeding schedule. Plasma CT was measured by a specific heterologous electrochemiluminescent (ECL) assay while plasma CaT was measured by atomic absorption. The results showed that plasma CT concentrations did not correlate with plasma CaT concentrations. Comparisons made between initial and final CaT and CT concentrations indicated an effect of stress due to repeated handling of the birds. Concentrations of plasma CT were significantly reduced in the fasted animals (P < 0.05) compared to diet-restricted controls. There was a significant increase in plasma CT during the dark period of fed animals which was abolished in animals maintained on LL or fasted. In conclusion, a surge in plasma CT requires that the hens be provided food and that they be exposed to a dark cycle.

  19. Effects of environmental temperature and dietary manganese on egg production performance, egg quality, and some plasma biochemical traits of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y W; Xie, J J; Li, W X; Lu, L; Zhang, L Y; Ji, C; Lin, X; Liu, H C; Odle, J; Luo, X G

    2015-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of environmental temperature and dietary Mn on egg production performance, egg quality, and some plasma biochemical traits of broiler breeders. A completely randomized factorial design involved 2 environmental temperatures (a normal temperature, 21 ± 1°C, and a high temperature, 32 ± 1°C) × 3 dietary Mn treatments (a Mn-unsupplemented corn–soybean meal basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 120 mg of Mn/kg of diet as either MnSO4·H2O or manganese proteinate). There were 6 treatments with 6 replicates (4 birds per replicate). High temperature decreased egg weight (P < 0.0001), laying rate (P < 0.0001), egg yield (P < 0.0001), feed intake (P < 0.0001), egg:feed ratio (P < 0.0001), eggshell strength (P < 0.05) and thickness (P < 0.0001), plasma triiodothyronine level (P < 0.05), and alkaline phosphatase activity (P < 0.04) whereas it increased rectal temperature (P < 0.0001); plasma malondialdehyde level (P < 0.02); and activities (P < 0.002) of lactic dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase. Broiler breeders fed the diets supplemented with Mn regardless of source had greater (P < 0.05) eggshell strength and lower (P ≤ 0.05) plasma triiodothyronine level and protein carbonyl content than those fed the control diet. The broiler breeders fed the diet supplemented with the organic Mn had greater (P < 0.01) eggshell thickness than those fed the control diet. There were interactions (P < 0.05) between environmental temperature and dietary Mn in laying rate, egg yield, feed intake, and egg:feed ratio. Under normal temperature, dietary Mn did not affect the above 4 parameters; however, under high temperature, broiler breeders fed the diet supplemented with the organic Mn showed greater (P < 0.03) improvements in these 4 parameters than those fed the control diet. The results from this study indicated that high temperature significantly impaired egg production performance and

  20. Farm and environmental distribution of Campylobacter and Salmonella in broiler flocks.

    PubMed

    Thakur, S; Brake, J; Keelara, S; Zou, M; Susick, E

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in broilers and their distribution in the indoor and outdoor farm environment. Nine hundred samples (400 faecal; 300 indoor environment; 200 outdoor environment), were collected from 10 individual broiler houses on 10 farms. Campylobacter jejuni prevalence was significantly higher (P=0.003) in faeces (29.5%; 118/400) than the environment (0.8%; 4/500) in contrast to Salmonella Typhimurium from faecal (8.8%; 35/400) and environmental (8.4%; n=42/500) sources (P=0.217). S. Typhimurium predominantly exhibited antimicrobial resistance (AR) to streptomycin (46%) and tetracycline (31.5%). C. jejuni isolates exhibited AR only to tetracycline (55.5%). The PFGE profile revealed 100% similarity between S. Typhimurium isolates from faecal and environmental sources. No relationship was detected between C. jejuni isolates. The low prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in the outdoor environment indicates that it may not be a significant reservoir for transmission of these pathogens on broiler farms.

  1. Effects of lighting program during the growing period and dietary fat during the laying period on broiler breeder performance.

    PubMed

    Brake, J; Garlich, J D; Baughman, G R

    1989-09-01

    In two experiments, broiler breeders were grown in either of two lighting regimens, fed diets without added fat, and then fed diets with or without 5% added poultry fat during the subsequent laying period. In Experiment 1 half the birds were subjected to decreasing daylength using daylight (800 lx) and half were subjected to 9 h of incandescent light (20 lx) to 20 wk of age. In Experiment 2 the lighting regimen was either an 8-h photoperiod supplied by daylight (800 lx) or an 8-h photoperiod supplied by incandescent light (20 lx) to 20 wk of age. Added dietary fat produced significantly higher egg weight (Experiments 1 and 2), egg production (Experiment 2), and significantly lower fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs (Experiments 1 and 2). Short photoperiods (8 or 9 h) provided by incandescent light produced significantly higher fertility (Experiments 1 and 2) and hatchability of fertile eggs (Experiment 2), and significantly lower egg specific gravity, shell percentage (Experiment 1), egg weight, and eggshell weight (Experiment 2). Effects on fertility may be related to higher female body weight during lay due to daylight rearing or added fat, or relative changes in light intensity at photostimulation.

  2. Effects of selenium sources and levels on reproductive performance and selenium retention in broiler breeder, egg, developing embryo, and 1-day-old chick.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dong; Zhan, XiuAn; Wang, YongXia

    2011-12-01

    An 8-week experiment was conducted using 540 48-week-old Lingnan Yellow broiler breeders to evaluate the effect of the sources and levels of selenium (Se) on reproduction and Se retention. After receiving basal diet for 8 weeks, breeders were randomly assigned to six dietary treatments and fed corn-soy-based diets supplemented with 0.15 or 0.30 mg/kg of Se from sodium selenite (SS) or from Se-enriched yeast (SY) or from selenomethionine (SM). The Se concentration of basal diet was 0.04 mg/kg of Se. With the increase of dietary Se level, hatchability decreased (P < 0.05), but the Se concentrations were elevated in liver, kidney, pancreas, and breast muscle of breeders, yolk and albumen, liver and breast muscle of developing embryos, and tissues (liver, kidney, pancreas, and breast muscle) of 1-day-old chicks (P < 0.01). Irrespective of the Se level, the Se concentrations in liver, kidney, pancreas, and breast muscle were greater (P < 0.01) in breeders fed SY or SM compared with breeders fed SS, and kidney from breeders fed SM had greater Se concentration than that from breeders fed SY (P < 0.01). Yolk and albumen from SM treatments also had the greatest Se concentrations (P < 0.01). The embryonic liver and breast muscle from SM treatments had higher (P < 0.01) Se concentrations than those of SS treatments. The Se concentrations in liver, kidney, and breast muscle of 1-day-old chicks were greater (P < 0.01) in SY or SM treatments compared with SS treatments, and there was a more significant increase in Se concentrations in kidney and breast muscle of 1-day-old chicks from SM treatments than those from SY treatments (P < 0.01). The results suggest that the Se retention efficiency of SM is higher than that of SY, which, in turn, is higher than that of SS for broiler breeders and their offspring.

  3. Use of Direct LAMP Screening of Broiler Fecal Samples for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in the Positive Flock Identification Strategy.

    PubMed

    Sabike, Islam I; Uemura, Ryoko; Kirino, Yumi; Mekata, Hirohisa; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Okabayashi, Tamaki; Goto, Yoshitaka; Yamazaki, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Rapid identification of Campylobacter-positive flocks before slaughter, following freezing and heat treatment for the Campylobacter-positive carcasses at the slaughterhouses is an effective control strategy against foodborne campylobacteriosis. We evaluated a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the direct screening of naturally contaminated chicken cloacal swabs for C. jejuni/C. coli to compare this assay with conventional quantitative culture methods. In a comparison study of 165 broilers, the LAMP assay showed 82.8% (48/58 by conventional culture) sensitivity, 100% (107/107) specificity, 100% (48/48) positive predictive value (PPV), and 91.5% (107/117) negative predictive value (NPV). In a comparison of 55 flocks, LAMP showed 90.5% (19/21) sensitivity, 100% (34/34) specificity, 100% (19/19) PPV, and 94.4% (34/36) NPV. In the cumulative total of 28 farm-level comparisons, LAMP showed 100% (12/12) sensitivity, 100% (16/16) specificity, 100% (12/12) PPV, and 100% (16/16) NPV. The LAMP assay required less than 90 min from the arrival of the fecal samples to final results in the laboratory. This suggests that the LAMP assay will facilitate the identification of C. jejuni/C. coli-positive broiler flocks at the farm level or in slaughterhouses before slaughtering, which would make it an effective tool in preventing the spread of Campylobacter contamination.

  4. Egg laying pattern, egg weight, body weight at hatch, and sex ratio bias relative to oviposition time of young-and mid-age broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, A H; Omar, O H

    2013-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine oviposition pattern and the effect of oviposition time on egg weight, body weight at hatch, and sex ratio of hatched chickens. In Experiment 1, eggs were collected from young and mid-age broiler flocks for 6 consecutive days at hourly intervals between 0400 and 2000h. In Experiment 2, eggs were categorized to represent eggs where oviposition occurred early, middle and late in the clutch (later in the day). These eggs were incubated to determine body weight at hatch and sex ratio of hatched chickens relative to oviposition time. Time of oviposition was affected by age. For the young flock, the percentage of ovipositions occurring before the 1100h was 79%. In contrast to the young flock, the percentage of ovipositions occurring before the 1100h in the mid-age flock was less (68%; P<0.01). Furthermore, for the mid-age flock, the percentage of ovipositions occurring from 1200 to 1700h was greater (P<0.01) at 32% in comparison to that of the younger flock at 21%. Egg weights when oviposition occurred earlier in the day were greater (P<0.01) than when oviposition occurred in the middle and later in the clutch (later in the day). Similarly, body weight at hatch of chicks from eggs where oviposition occurred earlier in the day was heavier than when oviposition occurred in the middle and later in the clutch (later in the day).With hatching of the eggs from hens when ovipositions occurred earlier in the day, there was a female sex bias. Differences in egg weights, body weight at hatch, and sex ratio due to time of oviposition suggest that oviposition time together with incubation conditions should be considered for obtaining greater uniformity and growth of chickens.

  5. High-fibre pelleted rations decrease water intake but do not improve physiological indexes of welfare in food-restricted female broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Hocking, P M

    2006-02-01

    1. A 3x2 factorial experiment was conducted with three diets and two lines of broiler breeder females to evaluate the contribution of low-energy rations for improving the welfare of feed-restricted birds during rearing. Experimental diets were fed from 6 to 16 weeks of age and were created by diluting a conventional grower (Control) ration containing 11.0 MJ ME/kg with 200 (8.8 MJ ME/kg) or 400 (6.6 MJ ME/kg) g oat hulls/kg using Optimoist to facilitate the pelleting process. Welfare was assessed by changes in behaviour and physiological variables at 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age. Birds were fed restricted quantities of feed to meet recommended body weight targets. 2. There was a decrease in the proportion of observations of drinking and an increase of preening in birds fed on the two experimental diets compared with the control. There was a linear decrease in litter moisture and the number of litter changes with increasing diet dilution, and water intake at 12 weeks was higher in the control than in the two experimental diets. There were no changes in physiological indexes of welfare (heterophil-lymphocyte ratio, plasma corticosterone and antibody responses) associated with the dietary treatments. 3. There were no important differences in the growth, behaviour or physiological responses to dietary treatment between the two lines of broiler breeders. Changes with age were similar to those reported in other experiments. 4. It was concluded that low-energy pelleted diets would improve litter conditions but not improve indexes of welfare in feed-restricted broiler breeders.

  6. Broiler breeders with an efficient innate immune response are more resistant to Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Swaggerty, C L; Genovese, K J; He, H; Duke, S E; Pevzner, I Y; Kogut, M H

    2011-05-01

    In previous studies we characterized the innate immune response of 2 parental broiler lines (A and B) and compared their resistance against Salmonella, Enterococcus, and Campylobacter challenges. In all cases, line A was more responsive and more resistant than line B. In the present study, we sought to determine whether this trend was also observed following challenge with the protozoan parasite Eimeria tenella. In 3 separate experiments, 14-d-old chickens from lines A and B were challenged orally with 15 to 50 × 10(3) E. tenella oocysts. Birds were killed 6 d postchallenge and the ceca was removed and scored for lesions and weight gain compared with noninfected controls. Line A birds were more resistant to intestinal pathology as demonstrated by lower lesion scores compared with line B birds. As might be expected, the lower lesion scores in line A chickens were often accompanied by higher weight gain compared with line B chickens, thus reducing potential revenue loss associated with low carcass weights often observed with coccidia-infected birds. The results from this study showed that in addition to having enhanced resistance against bacterial infections, line A chickens were also more resistant to coccidial infections compared with line B birds. Taken together with all of our earlier studies using these lines of birds, an efficient innate immune response protects against a broad range of foodborne and poultry pathogens, including costly coccidial infections.

  7. Age-related changes in meat tenderness and tissue pentosidine: effect of diet restriction and aminoguanidine in broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M; Kenney, P B; Klandorf, H

    1999-09-01

    The nonenzymatic glycosylation of tissue protein contributes to the formation of crosslinks that leads to structural and functional deterioration in the long-lived tissue protein, collagen. The accumulation of these crosslinks thus contributes to the objectionable toughness of meat from aged animals, decreases its economic value, and limits its use in whole muscle foods. The objectives of this study were to determine the effectiveness of diet restriction and the crosslinking inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG), on reducing the accumulation of crosslinks, thereby improving meat tenderness in broiler breeder hens. The glycoxidation product, pentosidine, was also measured in skin (Ps) to determine whether changes in its concentrations correlated with the changes in shear value (SV). Chicks (n = 450) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups from 8 to 125 wk after hatch: ad libitum (AL), diet restricted (DR), AL and DR groups supplemented with 400 ppm AG each (AL+AG and DR+AG, respectively). Shear value was measured with an Instron Universal Mechanical Machine. Skin pentosidine was isolated by reverse phase HPLC. There was an age-related, linear increase in SV (P<0.0001, r = 0.96), which correlated (r = 0.86) with the age-related increase in Ps in AL hens. Diet restriction retarded SV (P<0.0001) over the sampling period. In general, SV values for AL+AG were similar to those measured in DR, whereas no additive effect was observed for AG in DR birds. It was concluded that there was a linear increase in meat toughness (SV) with age that correlates with the accumulation of Ps, and that the decline in meat tenderness can be retarded by DR or AG. Secondly, the effect of DR on accumulation of Ps was so pronounced that AG supplementation did not further enhance this effect.

  8. Effect of dietary boron supplementation on egg production, shell quality, and calcium metabolism in aged broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Qin, X; Klandorf, H

    1991-10-01

    Three experiments were conducted using aged broiler breeder hens (greater than 60 wk) to investigate the effects of supplemental B on egg production (EP), shell quality, and Ca metabolism. Experiment 1 had a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) high Ca (3.5%); 2) high Ca plus B; 3) low Ca (1.5%); and 4) low Ca plus B; using 32 60-wk-old hens. The B levels were basal and 100 ppm supplemental for the first 2 wk of the experiment and reduced to 60 ppm for the remaining 3 wk. Egg production, shell thickness (ST), and egg specific gravity (SG) were recorded weekly. In Experiment 2, 40 60-wk-old hens were divided into two groups: high and low shell quality. Each group was further divided into two subgroups and fed a low-Ca basal diet with or without supplemental B. The level of B supplementation and the experimental period was the same as in Experiment 1. In Experiment 3, 52 75-wk-old hens were force-molted. After molting, 36 hens were fed a commercial layer diet with the remaining 16 hens fed the control diet supplemented with 100 ppm B. Blood samples were taken during the nonlaying and laying periods, respectively. The results showed that B significantly (P less than .05) depressed EP in Experiment 1 but not in Experiments 2 and 3. Supplemental B decreased plasma Ca when hens were fed a diet containing high Ca levels (3.5%). Supplemental B did not affect SG, ST, or Ca retention, but did significantly increase tibial bone ash percentage (P less than .05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Relationship between mechanical properties and pentosidine in tendon: effects of age, diet restriction, and aminoguanidine in broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M; Kenney, P B; Al-Humadi, N H; Klandorf, H

    2000-09-01

    Nonenzymatic glycosylation contributes to the formation of crosslinks, which leads to the structural and functional deterioration of tissue protein. The accumulation of these crosslinks in tissue proteins has been implicated in the alteration of biomechanical properties of connective tissues. The objective of this study was to determine whether tendon breaking time (TBT) and tendon breaking strength (TBS) of the flexor perforans et perforatus digiti iii tendon were related to concentrations of pentosidine in tendons (Pt) of broiler breeder hens from 8 to 125 wk of age. In addition, effects of diet restriction (DR) and a crosslinking inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG) on Pt, TBS, and TBT were determined. Female chicks (n = 450) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups immediately after hatch: ad libitum-fed (AL); diet-restricted (DR; 60% of AL); and AL and DR groups supplemented with 1.35 mg/kg BW per day AG in the feed (AL+AG and DR+AG, respectively). In AL hens, Pt increased with increasing age (P < or = 0.0001). Concurrently, an age-related parallel increase was found for TBS (P < or = 0.0001) and TBT (P < or = 0.0001). Rate of Pt accumulation was lower in DR (P < or = 0.001), TBS (P < or = 0.01), and TBT (P < or = 0.02) hens compared with AL hens. Concentration of Pt in the AL + AG group was lower (P < or = 0.0002) than in the AL group; TBS and TBT (P < or = 0.01) followed a similar pattern. Supplementation of DR with AG did not affect Pt, TBS, or TBT. The age-related increase in Pt and loss of elasticity in the tendon was retarded by diet restriction and AG.

  10. Molecular characterization of infectious bursal disease viruses detected in vaccinated commercial broiler flocks in Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Ndashe, Kunda; Simulundu, Edgar; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Moonga, Ladslav; Ogawa, Hirohito; Takada, Ayato; Mweene, Aaron S

    2016-03-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, highly contagious, and immunosuppressive viral disease of young chickens and remains one of the economically most important diseases threatening the poultry industry worldwide. In this study, 16 and 11 nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR) and part of VP1, respectively, of IBD virus (IBDV) detected in vaccinated broiler chickens in Lusaka in 2012 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these Zambian IBDVs separated into three genotypes of very virulent (VV) IBDVs. Although the majority of these viruses belonged to the African VV type (VV1), which consisted of viruses from West Africa, South Africa and Zambia, one virus belonged to the East African VV type (VV2). Interestingly, a Zambian IBDV belonging to the VV3 genotype (composed of viruses from several continents) clustered with attenuated vaccine strains. Although sequence analysis of VP2-HVR showed that all detected Zambian IBDVs had conserved putative virulence marker amino acids (i.e., 222A, 242I, 256I, 294I and 299S), one virus had two unique amino acid substitutions, N280S and E300A. This study demonstrates the diversity of Zambian IBDVs and documents for the first time the possible involvement of attenuated vaccine strains in the epidemiology of IBD in Zambia. Strict biosecurity of poultry farms, monitoring of live vaccine use in the field, surveillance and characterization of IBDV in poultry and development of a vaccine from local or regional IBDV field strains are recommended for improved IBD control in Zambia.

  11. The effects of age, energy and protein intake on protein turnover and the expression of proteolysis-related genes in the broiler breeder hen.

    PubMed

    Ekmay, Ricardo D; Salas, Catalina; England, Judy; Cerrate, Sandro; Coon, Craig N

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the changes that occur to proteolysis and related genes due to age, protein, and energy intake in high-yield broiler breeder hens (Gallus gallus). Cobb 700 broiler breeders were randomly assigned to one of six diets in a 2×3 factorial fashion. Two levels of energy (390 and 450 kcal/day) and three levels of protein (22, 24, and 26 g CP/day) were utilized. Protein turnover was determined in the left pectoralis at 22, 26, 31 and 44 weeks. Relative mRNA expression of calpain 2 (CAPN2), proteasome C2 subunit (PSMA1), and F box protein 32 (FBXO32) were determined via RT-PCR at 20, 25, and 44 weeks. Contrasts indicate fractional synthesis rate (FSR) and FBXO32 increase to a maximum at 25-26 weeks and a decrease thereafter. A significant drop in PSMA1 and FBXO32 was observed between 25 and 44 weeks and matched the decrease observed in FBR. No differences were detected in the levels of fractional synthesis and degradation, or the expression of CAPN2, PSMA1, and FBXO32, due to protein or energy intake. In summary, protein turnover was upregulated during the transition into sexual maturity and decreased thereafter. The observed changes in degradation appeared to be mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

  12. The impact of biosecurity and partial depopulation on Campylobacter prevalence in Irish broiler flocks with differing levels of hygiene and economic performance

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Shaun; Messam, Locksley L. McV.; Meade, Joseph; Gibbons, James; McGill, Kevina; Bolton, Declan; Whyte, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial food-borne pathogen within the European Union (EU), and poultry meat is the primary route for transmission to humans. Material and methods This study examined the impact of partial depopulation (thinning), season, and farm performance (economic, hygiene, and biosecurity) on Campylobacter prevalence in Irish broilers over a 13-month period. Ten caecal samples were taken per flock, for a total of 211 flocks from 23 farms during the duration of the study. Campylobacter was isolated and enumerated according to modified published ISO methods for veterinary samples. Biosecurity was evaluated through a questionnaire based on risk factors for Campylobacter identified in previous studies. Hygiene compliance was assessed from audit records taken over the course of 1 year. All information relating to biosecurity and hygiene was obtained directly from the processing company. This was done to ensure farmers were unaware they were being monitored for Campylobacter prevalence and prevent changes to their behaviour. Results and discussion Farms with high performance were found to have significantly lower Campylobacter prevalence at first depopulation compared with low-performance farms across all seasons (P≤0.01). Peak Campylobacter levels were observed during the summer season at first thin in both the high- and low-performance groups. Campylobacter prevalence was found to increase to ≥85% in both high- and low-performance farms across all seasons at final depopulation, suggesting that Campylobacter was introduced during the first depopulation. On low-performance farms, four biosecurity interventions were found to significantly reduce the odds of a flock being Campylobacter positive (physical step-over barrier OR=0.17, house-specific footwear OR=0.13, absence of water body within 0.5 km OR=0.13, two or more broiler houses on a farm OR=0.16), compared with farms without these interventions. For high-performance farms, no

  13. Effect of aluminum sulfate on litter composition and ammonia emission in a single flock of broilers up to 42 days of age.

    PubMed

    Madrid, J; López, M J; Orengo, J; Martínez, S; Valverde, M; Megías, M D; Hernández, F

    2012-08-01

    New alternatives are necessary if the environmental impact linked to intensive poultry production is to be reduced, and different litter handling methods should be explored. Among these, acidifying amendments added to poultry litters has been suggested as a management practice to help reduce the potential environmental effect involved in multiple flock cycles. There have been several studies on the use of aluminum sulfate (alum) and its benefits, but almost no data are available under farm conditions in Europe. An experiment with Ross 308 broilers from 1 to 42 days of age was conducted to evaluate the effect of alum on litter composition, the solubility of some mineral elements and NH3 emission during a single flock-rearing period in commercial houses located in southeast Spain. Broilers were placed on clean wood shavings in four commercial houses, containing 20 000 broilers each. Before filling, alum was applied at a rate of 0.25 kg/m2 to the wood shavings of two poultry houses, whereas the remaining two were used as control. Litter from each poultry house was sampled every 3 to 5 days. Ammonia emissions from the poultry houses were monitored from 37 to 42 days of age. In comparison with the control group, alum treatment significantly reduced the pH level of the litter (P < 0.001) with an average difference of 1.32 ± 0.24 units. Alum-treated litter showed, on average, a higher electrical conductivity than the control litter (5.52 v. 3.63 dS/m). The dry matter (DM) and total N and P contents did not show differences between the treatments (P > 0.05). Regarding the NH4 +-N content, alum-treated litter showed a higher value than the untreated litter, with an average difference of 0.16 ± 0.07% (on a DM basis). On average, alum-treated litter had lower water-soluble P, Zn and Cu contents than the untreated litter. Alum noticeably reduced the in-house ammonia concentration (P < 0.001), with an average of 4.8 ppm at 42 days of age (62.9% lower than the control), and

  14. Body composition and reproductive performance at entry into lay of anno 1980 versus anno 2000 broiler breeder females under fast and slow release from feed restriction.

    PubMed

    Eitan, Y; Lipkin, Ehud; Soller, M

    2014-05-01

    During the 1990s, various disturbances arose affecting broiler breeder females at entry into lay. These disturbances were associated with even slight overfeeding during release of feed restriction in this critical maturation period. The present experiment was carried out to gain some insight into the causes of these disturbances by comparing the effect of fast (FF) and slow (SF) release from feed restriction at entry into lay in 2 broiler breeder populations: B1980, representing the genetic level of 1980, and B2000, the genetic level of 2000. Under the FF treatment, B1980 entered lay 19.2 d earlier than B2000; this increased to 37.4 d earlier under SF. The B1980 population entered lay at virtually the same mean age for SF and FF, whereas B2000 entered lay 15.7 d earlier under the FF. Body weight at first egg were 2,621 g for the B1980 and 3,591 g for B2000. Differences in BW at first egg between feeding treatments within lines were minor. As a percentage of BW, ovary, oviduct, and follicle weights were the same for B1980 and B2000; breast weight was 14.9% for B1980 and 21.2% for B2000; abdominal fat pad weight was 5.37% for B1980 and 2.67% for B2000. Follicle weight and absolute difference in weight between successive follicles was greater in B2000 than in B1980. It is concluded that body fat content does not limit entry into lay, and that threshold BW for onset of sexual maturity of broiler breeder hens increased by about 1,000 g between 1980 and 2000, indicating a tight association between juvenile growth rate and threshold BW for onset of sexual maturity. It is also concluded that disturbances at entry into lay due to overfeeding are not due to smaller differences between successive follicles in B2000 compared with B1980. There are hints, however, that overfeeding may contribute to these disturbances by decreasing differences between successive follicles.

  15. Effect of vitamins, probiotics and protein level on semen traits and seminal plasma biochemical parameters of post-moult male broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Khan, R U; Rahman, Z U; Javed, I; Muhammad, F

    2013-01-01

    1. A study was designed to investigate the comparative effect of supplementary vitamin E, vitamin C, probiotics and dietary crude protein concentration on semen traits and seminal plasma biochemical parameters in male broiler breeders after Zn-induced moulting. 2. A total of 180 male broiler breeders were induced to moult at 65 weeks of age by mixing ZnO in diet at the rate 3000 mg/kg of feed. After moulting, the males were divided into six groups that were given feed supplemented with: vitamin C (500 IU/kg), vitamin E (100 IU/kg), protein (140 g CP/kg), probiotics (50 mg/kg) and the combination of these components, while one group was kept as a control. Semen samples were collected weekly and semen volume, spermatozoa concentration, motility and dead spermatozoa percentage were determined. Seminal plasma was separated to determine the concentration of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), homocysteine, paraoxonase (PON1), arylesterase, ceruloplasmin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities. 3. Semen volume was significantly higher in the vitamin E and C groups compared to the control. Spermatozoa motility was higher in the vitamin E group and dead spermatozoa percentage was significantly lower in the vitamin C group compared with the control group. 4. Seminal plasma TAC was higher in the vitamin E group, homocysteine was lower in the vitamin C and E groups. PON1 was higher in the combination group. Arylesterase increased significantly in the vitamin C and combination groups over time. Seminal plasma AST was significantly lower in the vitamin C and E supplemented groups whereas ALT decreased significantly only in the vitamin E group compared with the control. Higher concentrations of ceruloplasmin were observed in the combination group compared with the other treatments. 5. It was concluded that additional vitamin E and C or their combination was the most potent nutrient treatment for improving the semen traits and

  16. Influence of pre-incubation treatment on hatching results of broiler breeder eggs produced at 37 and 59 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Meijerhof, R; Noordhuizen, J P; Leenstra, F R

    1994-05-01

    1. The influence of temperature in the nest box, temperature during storage, storage time and pre-setting temperature on the hatchability of broiler breeder eggs produced by birds of 37 and 59 weeks of age was examined. 2. All treatments that can be characterised as being less optimal for embryo survival than the control treatment affected the hatchability of fertile eggs more in the case of eggs produced by older birds. 3. A higher temperature in the nest box, longer storage periods, higher storage temperature, especially at longer storage periods, and higher pre-setting temperature significantly reduced the hatchability of fertile eggs from the older birds. 4. For the younger birds, a significant reduction of hatchability was found only for the longest storage period.

  17. Effects of inorganic and organic manganese supplementation on gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I and follicle-stimulating hormone expression and reproductive performance of broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jingjing; Tian, Chuanhuan; Zhu, Yongwen; Zhang, Liyang; Lu, Lin; Luo, Xugang

    2014-04-01

    Manganese is an essential microelement. Manganese deficiency affects reproduction performance and reproductive hormones in layers. However, little is known about its effects and the possible mechanism in regulating reproduction in broiler breeder hens. In the current study, broiler breeder hens at peak production were fed with diets supplemented with 0, 120, or 240 mg of Mn/kg as MnSO4 or Mn proteinate for 13 wk. Manganese supplementation did not alter egg laying rate, egg weight, fertility, hatchability, or hatchling weight over a 13-wk trial period. However, 240 mg of Mn/kg supplementation significantly increased serum Mn (P < 0.05). Manganese supplements increased the eggshell breaking strength (P < 0.05) without affecting the eggshell thickness. There was no difference in serum cholesterol and estradiol. Expression of follicle-stimulating hormone) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I) genes was significantly elevated by 240 mg of Mn/kg (P < 0.05). Furthermore, inorganic Mn supplementation doubled GnRH-I expression compared with supplementation with the organic form (P < 0.05), although serum Mn was comparable between these 2 supplements. No obvious difference was shown in gene expression of luteinizing hormone, prolactin, GnRH-I receptor, inducible NO synthase, and dopamine receptor D1 in the pituitary as well as tyrosine hydroxylase and inducible NO synthase in the hypothalamus. This suggests that dietary Mn supplementation could improve eggshell quality in the long term. The central mechanism of nontoxic high doses of Mn suggested the transcriptional activation of GnRH-I and follicle-stimulating hormone genes. The central effect of inorganic Mn activating GnRH-I genes compared with the reduced effect by organic Mn could possibly be due to a decreased capacity of the latter passing through the blood-brain barrier.

  18. Morphometric Documentation of a High Prevalence of Left Ventricular Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Both Clinically Normal and Cyanotic Mature Commercial Broiler Breeder Roosters with Comparisons to Market-Age Broilers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Floyd D; Magee, Danny L; Jones, Kelli H; Baravik-Munsell, Erica; Cummings, Timothy S; Wills, Robert W; Pace, Lanny W

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies documented the common occurrence of transitory cyanosis and echocardiographic aortic insufficiency in mature commercial broiler breeder roosters. During further investigations, we observed a high prevalence of hearts exhibiting extensive dilation of the left ventricle chamber compatible with dilated left ventricular cardiomyopathy present in both cyanotic and normal subpopulations. We conducted quantitative studies focused on documentation of cardiac ventricle parameters by using simple gross morphometric methods performed on formalin-fixed hearts obtained from both clinically normal roosters and those exhibiting variable transitory cyanosis, echocardiographic aortic insufficiency, or both. A high prevalence of often dramatic left ventricular dilation reflected in enlarged left ventricular chamber areas and elevated left ventricle-to-total ventricle area ratios was morphometrically documented. However, no statistically significant differences in the occurrence of ventricular abnormalities were observed between normal and cyanotic roosters. Age-associated changes were also demonstrated by comparative morphometric studies on hearts from normal market-age broilers (average age of 7 wk) and those of mature roosters (average age of 42 wk). Elevation in both left and right ventricular weight-to-total heart weight ratios dramatically increased with aging. In addition, values (average ± SD) for the left ventricle chamber area-to-total ventricle area ratios increased from 3.2 ± 2.0% in broilers up to 10.0 ± 8.8% in roosters. None of the normal broilers studied demonstrated left ventricular volume ratios above 10%, whereas 33% of the roosters had left ventricular volume ratios above 10%, including 13% with ratios of 20% or higher. However, the left ventricle wall area-to-body weight ratios were much closer for the two age groups (0.85 ± 0.18 cm(2)/kg in broilers and 0.79 ± 0.13 cm(2)/kg in roosters). Also, the standard right ventricle-to-total ventricle

  19. Comparison of different sampling strategies and laboratory methods for the detection of C. jejuni and C. coli from broiler flocks at primary production.

    PubMed

    Vidal, A B; Rodgers, J; Arnold, M; Clifton-Hadley, F

    2013-09-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the performance of different combinations of sample type, transport medium and culture methods for the recovery of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli from broiler flocks at primary production. Boot swabs moistened with one of four different transport media [maximum recovery diluent (n=120), Exeter broth (EX) (n=120), buffered peptone water (n=120) and modified semi-solid Cary-Blair (n=120)], caecal samples (n=40) and faecal samples (n=120) from 40 broiler flocks were compared and sensitivity estimates obtained using a Bayesian model. Samples were cultured onto mCCDA before and after enrichment in EX and incubated microaerobically at 41.5°C. Campylobacter suspect colonies were identified to the species level by multiplex PCR. Results from the Bayesian model indicated that boot swabs after enrichment had higher sensitivity (90-94%) than caecal contents before or after enrichment (84% and 89%, respectively) and faecal samples after enrichment (82%) for the detection of Campylobacter spp., although these differences were not statistically significant. Enrichment significantly increased the sensitivity of boot swab and caecal samples for detection of Campylobacter spp. and C. jejuni, respectively. However, the enrichment of caecal samples resulted in a significant decrease in the sensitivity of these samples for detection of C. coli. There was much greater variation in the sensitivity estimates of the methods for detecting C. coli than for C. jejuni, and the ranking of methods was different between the two species. Boot swabs gave the best sensitivity values for detection of C. jejuni, and enrichment culture of faecal samples was the most sensitive method for detection of C. coli.

  20. Comparison of three lines of broiler breeders differing in ascites susceptibility or growth rate. 1. Relationship between acoustic resonance data and embryonic or hatching parameters.

    PubMed

    Tona, K; Kemps, B; Bruggeman, V; Bamelis, F; De Smit, L; Onagbesan, O; De Baerdemaeker, J; Decuypere, E

    2005-09-01

    indicates that sensitivity to ascites and selection for rapid growth rate in ascites-sensitive lines have different effects on embryonic parameters. We concluded that the sensitivity of broiler breeders to ascites does not influence egg internal quality, but the occurrence of ascites sensitivity in broilers could not be reliably predicted by early in ovo acoustic resonance parameters and hatching events.

  1. Effect of feeder space during the growing and laying periods and the rate of feed increase at the onset of lay on broiler breeder female reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Leksrisompong, N; Romero-Sanchez, H; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Brake, J

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted to examine how 2 feeder space allocations during the rearing period followed by 2 feeder space allocations after photostimulation and 2 female feeding to peak programs (fast or slow) affected female broiler breeder reproductive performance and mortality. Sixteen pens of 76 breeder females each were equipped with either 4 tube feeders with a 132 cm circumference pan (7.0 cm/female) or 6 feeders (10.4 cm/female) to 21 wk of age. Thereafter, 64 females were moved to breeding pens, photostimulated, and fed sex-separate from either 3 (6.2 cm/female) or 5 (10.3 cm/female) feeders with either fast or slow feeding to peak feeding programs applied to complete a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. Seven males that were separately reared in a similar manner were added per pen. Individual female BW was determined at 6, 20, and 32 wk of age and BW uniformity assessed. Greater feeder space during rearing increased BW at 32 wk of age, whereas greater feeder space during lay or slow feeding to peak decreased BW at 32 wk. There were no differences in BW uniformity. Hens from the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination produced a significantly greater number of eggs as compared with the 7.0 to 10.3 cm/female and 10.4 to 6.2 cm/female combinations with the 7.0 to 6.2 cm/female combination intermediate. Percentage hen-day egg production of the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination hens was significantly greater than all other combinations. Livability was improved in the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination relative to the 7.0 to 10.3 cm/female combination with the others intermediate. The fast feeding to peak program increased yolk weight as well as yolk:albumen ratio at 28 and 30 wk of age, but egg weight did not differ. These data indicated that increased or decreased feeder space between the growing and laying periods did not affect broiler breeder female BW, uniformity, egg weight, fertility, or hatchability. The 10.3 cm/female laying feeder space exhibited the best hen

  2. Anaemia-dermatitis of broilers: field observations on its occurrence, transmission and prevention.

    PubMed

    Vielitz, E; Landgraf, H

    1988-01-01

    Anaemia-dermatitis was first observed in German broiler flocks in 1977. Its frequency has increased in the past six years. Atrophy of thymus, bursa and bone marrow occur and are affected by a severe anaemia and immunosuppression. Secondary bacterial infections of the skin cause gangrenous dermatitis. Systematic investigations of outbreaks in two broiler integrations showed the syndrome to occur only in the offspring of young broiler breeders during the first 3 to 9 weeks of production. Anaemia could be reproduced experimentally in CAA-antibody negative SPF birds by injecting a bacteria-free filtrate of organ homogenates of diseased birds; birds kept in contact with the inoculated chicks remained healthy. It is concluded that anaemia-dermatitis is primarily caused by the chicken anaemia agent (CAA). Vertical transmission via hatching egg predominates with no evidence of horizontal transmission. In order to prevent egg transmission of CAA immunisation during rearing is indicated for breeder stocks.

  3. Campylobacter epidemiology from breeders to their progeny in Eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Ingresa-Capaccioni, S; Jiménez-Trigos, E; Marco-Jiménez, F; Catalá, P; Vega, S; Marin, C

    2016-03-01

    While horizontal transmission is a route clearly linked to the spread of Campylobacter at the farm level, few studies support the transmission of Campylobacter spp. from breeder flocks to their offspring. Thus, the present study was carried out to investigate the possibility of vertical transmission. Breeders were monitored from the time of housing day-old chicks, then throughout the laying period (0 to 60 wk) and throughout their progeny (broiler fattening, 1 to 42 d) until slaughter. All samples were analyzed according with official method ISO 10272:2006. Results revealed that on breeder farms, Campylobacter isolation started from wk 16 and reached its peak at wk 26, with 57.0% and 93.2% of positive birds, respectively. After this point, the rate of positive birds decreased slightly to 86.0% at 60 wk. However, in broiler production all day-old chicks were found negative for Campylobacter spp, and the bacteria was first isolated at d 14 of age (5.0%), with a significant increase in detection during the fattening period with 62% of Campylobacter positive animals at the end of the production cycle. Moreover, non-positive sample was determined from environmental sources. These results could be explained because Campylobacter may be in a low concentration or in a non-culturable form, as there were several studies that successfully detected Campylobacter DNA, but failed to culture. This form can survive in the environment and infect successive flocks; consequently, further studies are needed to develop more modern, practical, cost-effective and suitable techniques for routine diagnosis.

  4. Contaminated Larval and Adult Lesser Mealworms, Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)can Transmit Salmonella Typhimurium in a Broiler Flock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of the lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), commonly known as the darkling beetle, to transmit a marker strain Salmonella Typhimurium to day-of-hatch broiler chicks was evaluated, as well as the spread to non-challenged pen mates. Day-of-hatch chicks were orally gavaged wit...

  5. Contaminated larval and adult darkling beetles can serve as vectors in transmission of Salmonella Typhimurium in a broiler flock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the role darkling beetles serve in Salmonella transmission is critical in order to develop better food pathogen intervention strategies on the broiler farm. Prior studies have shown that Salmonella can persist in darkling beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus) up to 63 d, more than long eno...

  6. Effects of dietary protein levels during rearing and dietary energy levels during lay on body composition and reproduction in broiler breeder females.

    PubMed

    van Emous, R A; Kwakkel, R P; van Krimpen, M M; Hendriks, W H

    2015-05-01

    A study with a 2 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement was conducted to determine the effects of 2 dietary protein levels (high = CPh and low = CPl) during rearing, 3 dietary energy levels (3,000, MEh1; 2,800, MEs1; and 2,600, MEl1, kcal/kg AMEn, respectively) during the first phase of lay, and 2 dietary energy levels (2,800, MEs2; and 3,000, MEh2, kcal/kg AMEn, respectively) during the second phase of lay on body composition and reproduction in broiler breeders. No meaningful interactions for energy and protein treatments within the different phases of the study were found and, therefore, this paper focusses on the main effects. Pullets fed the CPl diet had a 12.8% higher feed intake, 14% lower breast muscle, and 97% higher abdominal fat pad portion at 22 wk age. The increased abdominal fat pad and decreased breast muscle of the CPl compared to the CPh birds increased hatchability during the first phase of lay, due to a decreased embryonic mortality between d 10 to 21 of incubation, and increased egg production during the second phase of lay. Feeding birds the MEh1 and MEl1 diets slightly decreased egg production compared to the MEs1 birds. Birds fed the MEh1 diet showed a higher mortality compared to the birds fed the MEs1 and MEl1 diets. Feeding birds the MEh2 diet did not affect egg production, increased hatchability of fertile eggs, decreased embryonic mortality between d 3 to 21 of incubation, and increased the number of first-grade chicks. It was concluded that a low-protein diet during rearing changed body composition with positive effects on incubation traits during the first phase of lay and improved egg production during the second phase of lay in broiler breeders. A high-energy or low-energy diet compared to a standard diet during the first phase of lay slightly decreased total and settable egg numbers while a high-energy diet during the second phase of lay increased hatchability and number of saleable chicks.

  7. Characterization of a sustained-release estrogen implant on oviduct development and plasma Ca concentrations in broiler breeder chicks: modulation by feed restriction and thyroid state.

    PubMed

    Klandorf, H; Blauwiekel, R; Qin, X; Russell, R W

    1992-06-01

    The effect of estradiol-17 beta (E2) given as a sustained-release implant (Compudose 200) on concentrations of plasma calcium (Ca) and the development of the chick shell gland has been investigated in food-restricted and thyroid hormone-treated 6- to 8-week-old broiler breeder pullets. Chicks implanted with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 Compudose pellets for 24 days (n = 6/group) revealed a dose-response relationship between plasma E2 and Ca and on oviduct growth. Plasma E2 concentrations were characterized by an initial burst phase for approximately 17 days, followed by a constant release phase. Histologic examination of shell gland tissue confirmed the dose related E2-induced development of microvilliated epithelium and tubular glands over time. Feed restriction initiated at 2 weeks of age markedly increased the response to the E2 implants. Birds (n = 8/group) implanted with 2 pellets and feed restricted had increased plasma concentrations of E2 and Ca, and increased growth of the oviduct (P less than 0.01) as compared to ad libitum implanted birds. In a separate study birds (n = 6/group) had restricted access to feed from 8 weeks of age and were implanted with 0, 2, 4, or 8 pellets. At intervals from 9 to 45 days after implantation one bird from each group was killed. Although concentrations of plasma Ca were significantly greater in feed-restricted birds (P less than 0.01), oviduct growth was only marginally increased by the food restriction program. Plasma Ca concentrations in broiler breeder pullets (n = 8/group) implanted with 1 or 3 pellets and injected with T3/T4 (100 micrograms/day) were significantly decreased (P less than 0.05). Injection of thyroid hormone also marginally decreased shell gland epithelial cell height (P less than 0.05) and development of microvilli (P less than 0.05). There was no effect of the administration of the goitrogen, propylthiouracil (10 micrograms/day im), on the E2 induced development of the shell gland.

  8. Effects of feeding regimen, fiber inclusion, and crude protein content of the diet on performance and egg quality and hatchability of eggs of broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Mohiti-Asli, M; Shivazad, M; Zaghari, M; Rezaian, M; Aminzadeh, S; Mateos, G G

    2012-12-01

    A 12-wk experiment was conducted to study the effects of feeding regimen, inclusion of a fiber source, and CP content of the diet on performance of broiler breeder hens. In total, 360 hens and 60 males, 43 wk of age, were assigned to 60 floor pens (6 hens and 1 male each). There were 12 treatments arranged factorially with 2 feeding regimens [restricted (R) and liberal feeding (close to ad libitum consumption; LIB)], 3 sources of fiber (0, 3% inulin, and 3% cellulose), and 2 levels of CP (14.5 and 17.4%). No interactions among main effects were observed for any of the traits studied, and therefore, only main effects are presented. Body weight, liver weight, and abdominal fat weight were higher (P < 0.001) for the LIB than for the R-fed hens. However, egg production (P < 0.001), fertility index (P < 0.05), and percentage of hatch (P < 0.01) were lower for LIB than for R hens. The weights of ovaries (P < 0.05) and the size of the first preovulatory follicle (P < 0.05) were higher for the LIB than for the R hens. Also, egg yolk, egg weight, and BW of the hatching chicks were higher (P < 0.001) for the LIB hens. The inclusion of a fiber source in the diet decreased (P < 0.05) feed intake, BW gain, absolute liver and abdominal fat weight, and egg yolk weight, with effects being more pronounced (P < 0.05) with cellulose than with inulin. Hens fed additional fiber produced more (P < 0.05) eggs that were more fertile (P < 0.05) than control hens. Crude protein content of the diet did not affect hen performance but reduced (P < 0.01) the relative weight of the liver, ovary, and abdominal fat. It is concluded that the inclusion of inulin or cellulose in the diet improved hen performance and that an increase in dietary CP reduced obesity in broiler breeder hens.

  9. Genetic analysis of H9N2 avian influenza viruses circulated in broiler flocks: a case study in Iraq in 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Kraidi, Qayssar Ali; Madadgar, Omid; Ghalyanchi Langeroudi, Arash; Karimi, Vahid

    2017-04-01

    H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have been recorded in Eurasian for several years. Since 2004-2005, the disease has become endemic in Iraq, causing serious economic losses in the poultry industry. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), two out of eight protein-coding genes, play an important role during the early stage of infection and hinder virus assembling. Little is known about the genetic information of the H9N2 viruses currently circulating in Iraq; thus, gene sequences of six AIVS of the H9N2 subtype have been detected and analyzed in the period of 2014-2015 from different outbreaks of broiler flocks in five provinces situated in the middle and southern parts of Iraq. Genetic comparison of the partial sequences of HA gene indicated that all Iraqi viruses are related to each other and could be divided into two subgroups. Viruses of the first and the second subgroups demonstrated a high similar identity with Pakistani and Iranian viruses, respectively. The nucleotide sequences of the NA protein of the all studied Iraqi viruses were very similar (95.2-100% identity), and shared high nucleotide sequence identity with Iranian, Pakistani, and Lebanese strains. All six recent viruses possessed histidine, alanine, and leucine at positions 183, 190, and 226, respectively, which are the key residues in receptor-binding sites. The Iraqi viruses were closely related to viruses of G1-like lineage isolated from poultry flocks of Iran and Pakistan, suggesting that possible epidemiological links could be derived from a common origin. Further investigations are required and should include the viral isolation and full-length molecular characterization of H9N2 AIVs in this area.

  10. Effect of dietary manganese on antioxidant status and expression levels of heat-shock proteins and factors in tissues of laying broiler breeders under normal and high environmental temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong-Wen; Lu, Lin; Li, Wen-Xiang; Zhang, Li-Yang; Ji, Cheng; Lin, Xi; Liu, Hsiao-Ching; Odle, Jack; Luo, Xu-Gang

    2015-12-28

    To investigate the effect of Mn on antioxidant status and expression levels of heat-shock proteins/factors in tissues of laying broiler breeders subjected to heat challenge, we used a completely randomised design (n 6) with a factorial arrangement of 2 environmental temperatures (normal, 21 (sem 1)°C and high, 32 (sem 1)°C)×3 dietary Mn treatments (an Mn-unsupplemented basal diet (CON), or a basal diet supplemented with 120 mg Mn/kg diet as inorganic Mn sulphate (iMn) or organic Mn proteinate (oMn)). There were no interactions (P>0·10) between environmental temperature and dietary Mn in all of the measured indices. High temperature decreased (P<0·003) Mn content, and also tended (P=0·07) to decrease copper zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) activity in the liver and heart. However, an increased manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity (P<0·05) and a slight increase of malondialdehyde level (P=0·06) were detected in breast muscle. Up-regulated (P<0·05) expression levels of heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1) and HSF3 mRNA and heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA and protein were found in all three tissues. Broiler breeders fed either iMn or oMn had higher tissue Mn content (P<0·0001), heart MnSOD and CuZnSOD activities (P<0·01) and breast muscle MnSOD protein levels (P<0·05), and lower (P<0·05) breast muscle HSP70 mRNA and protein levels than those fed CON. Broiler breeders fed oMn had higher (P<0·03) bone Mn content than those fed iMn. These results indicate that high temperature decreases Mn retention and increases HSP70 and HSF1, HSF3 expression levels in tissues of laying broiler breeders. Furthermore, dietary supplementation with Mn in either source may enhance heart antioxidant ability and inhibit the expression of HSP70 in breast muscle. Finally, the organic Mn appears to be more available than inorganic Mn for bone in laying broiler breeders regardless of environmental temperatures.

  11. Effect of trypsin inhibitor activity in soya bean on growth performance, protein digestibility and incidence of sub-clinical necrotic enteritis in broiler chicken flocks.

    PubMed

    Palliyeguru, M W C D; Rose, S P; Mackenzie, A M

    2011-06-01

    1. The effect of three different levels of dietary trypsin inhibitor activity (achieved by varying the amount of non-toasted full fat soya bean in replacement for toasted full fat soya bean) on the incidence of spontaneously-occurring sub-clinical necrotic enteritis (NE) in broiler chickens was compared. A fourth dietary treatment compared the effect of a diet that used potato protein concentrate as the major protein source. The determined trypsin inhibitor activity increased with the increasing content of non-toasted soya bean: 1·90, 6·21, 8·46 and 3·72 mg/g for the three soya bean diets (0, 100 and 200 g of non-toasted soya bean/kg) and the potato protein diet respectively. 2. Although increasing amounts of the non-toasted full-fat soya bean increased the feed intakes of the birds, there was a marked reduction in protein digestibility, weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. 3. There was a linear increase in sub-clinical NE lesions in the duodenum, jejunum, mid small intestine and ileum with increasing non-toasted soya bean. Caecal Clostridium perfringens counts increased with the increasing dietary content of non-toasted soya bean. Serum α-toxin antibodies were higher in the birds fed the 200 g non-toasted soya bean/kg diet compared with the other diets. 4. The results demonstrated that variation in the amount of non-toasted dietary soya bean not only affects growth performance of broilers but also affects the incidence of sub-clinical necrotic enteritis in the flock. Ensuring the lowest possible trypsin-inhibitor activity in soya bean samples is a valuable tool to improve the health and welfare of birds and in reducing the financial losses from this disease.

  12. Prevalence, molecular characterization and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella serovars isolated from northwestern Spanish broiler flocks (2011-2015).

    PubMed

    Lamas, A; Fernandez-No, I C; Miranda, J M; Vázquez, B; Cepeda, A; Franco, C M

    2016-09-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance to twenty antibiotics, and class 1 integron and virulence genes of Salmonella isolated from poultry houses of broilers in northwestern Spain between 2011 and 2015. Strains were classified to the serotype level using the Kauffman-White typing scheme and subtyping with enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR. The prevalence of Salmonella spp. was 1.02%. Sixteen different serotypes were found, with S. typhimurium and S. arizonae 48:z4, z23:- being the most prevalent. A total of 59.70% of strains were resistant to at least one, and 19.70% were resistant to multiple drugs. All Salmonella spp. were susceptible to cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, levofloxacin, neomycin, and trimethoprim. The highest level of resistance was to sulfamethoxazole (40.29%), doxycycline (17.91%), and nalidixic acid (17.91%). None of the isolates carried class 1 integron and only isolates of S. enterica subspecies enterica were positive for all virulence factors tested, whereas S. arizonae lacked genes related to replication and invasion in nonphagocytic cells. This study demonstrates that the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in poultry houses of broilers of northwestern Spain is low compared with those found in other studies and in other steps of the food chain.

  13. Molecular characterization and genotypic antimicrobial resistance analysis of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from broiler flocks in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, M; Andrighetto, C; Rossi, F; Lombardi, A; Rizzotti, L; Martini, M; Piccirillo, A

    2012-12-01

    Genetic variability and genotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from commercial broiler farms were investigated in this study. Campylobacter isolates were genetically characterized by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and flaA-SVR and flaB-SVR sequence-based typing. Eight RAPD types were identified in C. jejuni and three in C. coli, while 16 fla profiles were detected among all isolates. Further, 13 flaA-SVR and 13 flaB-SVR alleles were identified. Both typing methods detected a high level of genetic diversity, but fla-SVR typing showed a higher discriminatory power. Indeed, Simpson's index of fla typing (D=0.920) was higher than that of RAPD typing (D=0.814). Moreover, the association of flaA-SVR and flaB-SVR sequence analysis showed a higher discriminatory power compared with the sequence analysis of single loci. Isolates were also analysed by the mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR test and the detection of cmeB gene to determine the occurrence of genetic determinants of AMR to macrolides and fluoroquinolones and multidrug resistance. The A2074C and A2075G mutations in the 23S rRNA gene, the C257T mutation in the gyrA gene, and the cmeB gene were higher in C. coli (19.0%, 67.0%, 100.0% and 100.0%, respectively) than in C. jejuni (0.0%, 3.1%, 48.3% and 48.3%, respectively). This study showed a high degree of genetic diversity and a high prevalence of genetic determinants of macrolide resistance, fluoroquinolone resistance and multidrug resistance among C. jejuni and C. coli isolates from Italian commercial broiler farms.

  14. Significance of chick quality score in broiler production.

    PubMed

    van de Ven, L J F; van Wagenberg, A V; Uitdehaag, K A; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2012-10-01

    The quality of day old chicks is crucial for profitable broiler production, but a difficult trait to define. In research, both qualitative and quantitative measures are used with variable predictive value for subsequent performance. In hatchery practice, chick quality is judged on a binomial scale, as chicks are divided into first grade (Q1-saleable) and second grade (Q2) chicks right after hatch. Incidences and reasons for classifying chicks as Q2, and potential of these chicks for survival and post-hatch performance have hardly been investigated, but may provide information for flock performance. We conducted an experiment to investigate (1) the quality of a broiler flock and the relation with post-hatch flock performance based on a qualitative score (Pasgar©score) of Q1 chicks and based on the incidence of Q2 chicks and (2) the reasons for classifying chicks as Q2, and the potential of these chicks for survival and post-hatch growth. The performance was followed of Q1 and Q2 chicks obtained from two breeder flocks that hatched in two different hatching systems (a traditional hatcher or a combined hatching and brooding system, named Patio). Eggs were incubated until embryo day 18, when they were transferred to one of the two hatching systems. At embryo day 21/post-hatch day 0, all chicks from the hatcher (including Q2 chicks) were brought to Patio, where the hatchery manager marked the Q2 chicks from both flocks and hatching systems and registered apparent reasons for classifying these chicks as Q2. Chick quality was assessed of 100 Q1 chicks from each flock and hatching system. Weights of all chicks were determined at days 0, 7, 21 and 42. There were no correlations between mean Pasgar©score and post-hatch growth or mortality, and suboptimal navel quality was the only quality trait associated with lower post-hatch growth. Growth was clearly affected by breeder flock and hatching system, which could not be linked to mean Pasgar©score or incidence of Q2 chicks

  15. Egg laying characteristics, egg weight, embryo development, hatching weight and post-hatch growth in relation to oviposition time of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Akil, R; Zakaria, A H

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine egg laying characteristics and the effects of oviposition time on egg weight, embryo development and post-hatch growth in broiler breeders. In experiment 1, eggs collected for 3 consecutive days on hourly basis between 06:30 and 17:30h were categorized to early, middle and late oviposition times in the clutch. In experiment 2, eggs were incubated to study embryo development, remaining albumen, liver weight, heart weight and the tibia length of embryos at 12, 14, 16 and 18 days of incubation as well as the body weight of hatchlings and chickens at 7, 21 and 42 days of age in relation to oviposition time. About 76% of nest eggs were laid from 06:30 to 11:30h. A similar pattern was observed in floor eggs. Egg weight decreased (P<0.01) with advanced position in the clutch. Generally, oviposition time had no effect on embryo growth parameters. At hatch, body weight of chicks derived from eggs of late oviposition times was less (P<0.01) than that of chicks from eggs produced earlier in the clutch. From 3-week-old onwards, chickens of early oviposition time sustained heavier (P<0.05) weight than chickens of middle oviposition time whereas chickens of late oviposition time obtained a middle weight. Differences in egg weights, body weight at hatch and post-hatch growth due to time of oviposition suggest that oviposition time together with incubation conditions should be considered for obtaining greater uniformity and growth of chickens.

  16. Effects of vitamins, probiotics, and protein level on semen traits and some seminal plasma macro- and microminerals of male broiler breeders after zinc-induced molting.

    PubMed

    Khan, Rifat Ullah; Zia-Ur-Rahman; Javed, Ijaz; Muhammad, Faqir

    2012-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of vitamin E, vitamin C, probiotics, dietary protein level, and their combination on semen traits and seminal plasma macro- and microminerals in 65-week-old male broiler breeders after zinc-induced molting. One hundred eighty birds were induced to molt by mixing zinc oxide (3,000 mg/kg) in the diet. The birds were divided into six groups (five replicates) by completely randomized design. One group was kept as control (16% CP), while the other five were supplemented with vitamin E (100 IU/kg feed), vitamin C (500 IU/kg feed) probiotics (50 mg/L), protein level (14% CP), and their combination. Semen samples were weekly collected for determination of semen volume, sperm concentration, motility, and dead sperm percentage. Analyses of Na, K, Ca and Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn, and Cu in seminal plasma were also performed. Overall, mean semen volume was significantly high in vitamin E and C supplemented groups compared to control. Overall mean sperm motility was significantly higher in vitamin E supplemented group, whereas dead sperm percentage was significantly lower in the vitamin C group compared to control. Mineral analyses revealed that overall mean seminal plasma Mg increased significantly in vitamin E and C supplemented groups compared to control. Similarly, significantly high overall mean seminal plasma Cu concentration was observed in vitamins E and C and combination groups. It can be concluded that vitamins have a vital role in improving semen quality and bioavailability of Mg and Cu in seminal plasma of the post-molt cockerels.

  17. Reproductive performance and oviductal expression of avidin and avidin-related protein-2 in young and old broiler breeder hens orally exposed to supplementary biotin.

    PubMed

    Daryabari, H; Akhlaghi, A; Zamiri, M J; Mianji, G Rahimi; Pirsaraei, Z Ansari; Deldar, H; Eghbalian, A N

    2014-09-01

    Published data on the probable involvement of avidin and avidin-related protein-2 (AVR2) in sustaining sperm viability in sperm storage tubules in 38-wk-old turkeys, and the high affinity of avidin or its analogs to biotin suggest that supplementary biotin may increase oviductal avidin and AVR2 expression, thereby attenuating the adverse effect of aging on hen reproductive performance. Broiler breeder hens (n = 120) were randomly assigned to receive 0 (T0), 0.30 (T1), or 0.45 (T2) mg of biotin/L of drinking water from 30 to 33 (young) and 53 to 56 (old) wk of age, and artificially inseminated to determine their reproductive performance. At the end of each period of biotin administration, 8 hens from each treatment group were killed for RNA extraction from the uterovaginal junction. Egg production was lower in the old hens (44%) compared with the young ones (82%), and biotin supplementation increased egg production only in the latter. Administering supplementary biotin to young hens increased their oviductal expression of AVR2, which was much higher in the old hens (1.0 and 4.6 for young and old groups, respectively). Fertility rate was not different between young and old hens, and was increased (4.4%) at the higher level of biotin supplementation. Hatchability and hatchling quality were not affected by biotin supplementation. Embryonic mortality between 17 to 21 d of incubation was higher in young (5.2%) compared with old (1.4%) birds. Egg fertility rate showed a moderate correlation (P < 0.05) with avidin (r = 0.59) and AVR2 (r = 0.55) expression in the young-age group, and very low correlations in old-age group (0.04 and 0.17). Regardless of the hen's age, the correlation coefficient of hatchability with avidin or AVR2 expression was very low (-0.16 and 0.18). Overall, the effect of biotin supplementation on AVR2 expression, and the relationship between biotin administration and oviductal expression of avidin and AVR2 was dependent on the hen's age, being higher

  18. Effects of breeder age and egg weight on morphological changes in the small intestine of chicks during the hatch window.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, S; Izzetoğlu, G T; Aktaş, A

    2013-01-01

    1. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of breeder age and egg weight on hatching performance and morphological changes in segments of the small intestine of broiler chicks during a 21 h hatch window. 2. Eggs from Ross broiler breeder flocks aged 29 (young) and 48 weeks (old) were classified as light (LE) or heavy (HE) and incubated at the same conditions. At 475 h of incubation, eggs were checked every 3 h to determine time of external pipping and hatching. The first 42 chicks to emerge from each group were weighed and chick length was measured and 14 chicks from each group were sampled to collect residual yolk and intestine segments. The rest of chicks were placed back in the incubator and chick weight and length were measured individually at 9, 15 and 21 h after chicks hatched. At the end of 21 h, 14 chicks from each group were sampled again and the same procedure was followed. 3. The HE chicks pipped and hatched later than LE, regardless of breeder age. From hatch to the end of the hatch window, chick weight, but not yolk-free chick weight, gradually reduced. Relative residual yolk weight of chicks from both egg weights was similar at hatch, however, yolk sac utilisation was higher for LE chicks during the 21 h post-hatch period. At hatch, jejunum and ileum villus development was very similar for HE and LE chicks but greater development was observed for villus area with an increase in the jejunum villus length, width and goblet cell numbers in HE chicks. 4. The longest jejunum villus and the widest duodenum and jejunum villus were obtained for HE chicks from old breeders indicating that HE chicks from old breeders would have a greater surface area for nutrient absorption.

  19. Construction of an infectious cDNA clone of genotype 1 avian hepatitis E virus: characterization of its pathogenicity in broiler breeders and demonstration of its utility in studying the role of the hypervariable region in virus replication.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Byung-Woo; Moon, Hyun-Woo; Sung, Haan Woo; Yoon, Byung-Il; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Kwon, Hyuk Moo

    2015-05-01

    A full-length infectious cDNA clone of the genotype 1 Korean avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) (pT11-aHEV-K) was constructed and its infectivity and pathogenicity were investigated in leghorn male hepatoma (LMH) chicken cells and broiler breeders. We demonstrated that capped RNA transcripts from the pT11-aHEV-K clone were translation competent when transfected into LMH cells and infectious when injected intrahepatically into the livers of chickens. Gross and microscopic pathological lesions underpinned the avian HEV infection and helped characterize its pathogenicity in broiler breeder chickens. The avian HEV genome contains a hypervariable region (HVR) in ORF1. To demonstrate the utility of the avian HEV infectious clone, several mutants with various deletions in and beyond the known HVR were derived from the pT11-aHEV-K clone. The HVR-deletion mutants were replication competent in LMH cells, although the deletion mutants extending beyond the known HVR were non-viable. By using the pT11-aHEV-K infectious clone as the backbone, an avian HEV luciferase reporter replicon and HVR-deletion mutant replicons were also generated. The luciferase assay results of the reporter replicon and its mutants support the data obtained from the infectious clone and its derived mutants. To further determine the effect of HVR deletion on virus replication, the capped RNA transcripts from the wild-type pT11-aHEV-K clone and its mutants were injected intrahepatically into chickens. The HVR-deletion mutants that were translation competent in LMH cells displayed in chickens an attenuation phenotype of avian HEV infectivity, suggesting that the avian HEV HVR is important in modulating the virus infectivity and pathogenicity.

  20. Fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-04-20

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.

  1. Fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-02-22

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.

  2. 9 CFR 147.21 - Flock sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... brooder houses and other premises following infection of such premises by any contagious disease. (c) Poultry houses should be screened and proofed against free-flying birds. An active rodent eradication... status of both the flock and introduced birds should be evaluated. (h) In rearing broiler or...

  3. Microbial population analysis of broilers in different flock and embryonic ages from GI, yolk and egg wash via Illumina MiSeq and QIIME pipeline (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are several food-safety issues related to broiler egg production, including the introduction/proliferation of zoonotic pathogens during embryonic gastrointestinal (GI) tract development. Little is known about the overall GI bacterial communities, how they change over time, or how their composi...

  4. Unexpected consequences of genetic selection in broilers and turkeys: problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Hocking, P M

    2014-02-01

    1. Genetic theory leads to the expectation that unexpected consequences of genetic selection for production traits will inevitably occur and that these changes are likely to be undesirable. 2. Both artificial selection for production efficiency and "natural" selection for adaptation to the production environment result in selection sweeps that increase the frequencies of rare recessive alleles that have a negative effect on fitness. 3. Fitness is broadly defined as any trait that affects the ability to survive, reproduce and contribute to the next generation, such as musculoskeletal disease in growing broiler chickens and multiple ovulation in adult broiler parents. 4. Welfare concerns about the negative effects of genetic selection on bird welfare are sometimes exaggerated but are nevertheless real. Breeders have paid increasing attention to these traits over several decades and have demonstrated improvement in pedigree flocks. There is an urgent need to monitor changes in commercial flocks to ensure that genetic change is accompanied by improvements in that target population. 5. New technologies for trait measurement, whole genome selection and targeted genetic modification hold out the promise of efficient and rapid improvement of welfare traits in future breeding of broiler chickens and turkeys. The potential of targeted genetic modification for enhancing welfare traits is considerable, but the goal of achieving public acceptability for the progeny of transgenic poultry will be politically challenging.

  5. Comparison of sample types and analytical methods for the detection of highly campylobacter-colonized broiler flocks at different stages in the poultry meat production chain.

    PubMed

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Duarte, Alexandra; Baré, Julie; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Dierick, Katelijne; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2015-05-01

    Exclusion of broiler batches, highly colonized with Campylobacter (>7.5 log10 colony-forming units/g), from the fresh poultry meat market might decrease the risk of human campylobacteriosis. The objective of this study was to compare different sample types (both at the farm and the slaughterhouse) and methods (direct culture, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction [qPCR], propidium monoazide [PMA]-qPCR) applied for the quantification of the Campylobacter colonization level. In addition, the applicability of the lateral flow-based immunoassay, Singlepath(®) Direct Campy Poultry test (Singlepath(®) test), was evaluated as a rapid method for the qualitative detection of Campylobacter in highly colonized broiler batches. Campylobacter counts differed significantly between sample types collected at farm level (cecal droppings, feces, boot swabs) and at slaughterhouse level (cecal content, fecal material from crates). Furthermore, comparison of Campylobacter counts obtained by different methods (direct culture, qPCR, PMA-qPCR) in cecal droppings revealed significant differences, although this was not observed for cecal-content samples. Evaluation of the Singlepath(®) test on cecal droppings and cecal-content samples revealed an acceptable level of sensitivity and specificity. In conclusion, cecal droppings and cecal content are proposed as the most representative sample types for quantification of Campylobacter colonization level of broilers at farm and slaughterhouse, respectively. Direct culture and qPCR are equally sensitive for quantification of Campylobacter in fresh cecal-content samples. PMA treatment before qPCR inhibits the signal from dead Campylobacter cells. Consequently, when samples are extensively stored and/or transported, qPCR is preferred to direct culture and PMA-qPCR. Furthermore, the Singlepath(®) test offers a convenient alternative method for rapid detection of Campylobacter in highly colonized broiler batches.

  6. Effect of feeder space during the growing and laying periods and the rate of feed increase at the onset of lay on broiler breeder female reproductive function1 2

    PubMed Central

    Leksrisompong, N.; Romero-Sanchez, H.; Oviedo-Rondón, E. O.; Brake, J.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine how 2 feeder space allocations during the rearing period followed by 2 feeder space allocations after photostimulation and 2 female feeding to peak programs (fast or slow) affected female broiler breeder reproductive performance and mortality. Sixteen pens of 76 breeder females each were equipped with either 4 tube feeders with a 132 cm circumference pan (7.0 cm/female) or 6 feeders (10.4 cm/female) to 21 wk of age. Thereafter, 64 females were moved to breeding pens, photostimulated, and fed sex-separate from either 3 (6.2 cm/female) or 5 (10.3 cm/female) feeders with either fast or slow feeding to peak feeding programs applied to complete a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. Seven males that were separately reared in a similar manner were added per pen. Individual female BW was determined at 6, 20, and 32 wk of age and BW uniformity assessed. Greater feeder space during rearing increased BW at 32 wk of age, whereas greater feeder space during lay or slow feeding to peak decreased BW at 32 wk. There were no differences in BW uniformity. Hens from the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination produced a significantly greater number of eggs as compared with the 7.0 to 10.3 cm/female and 10.4 to 6.2 cm/female combinations with the 7.0 to 6.2 cm/female combination intermediate. Percentage hen-day egg production of the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination hens was significantly greater than all other combinations. Livability was improved in the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination relative to the 7.0 to 10.3 cm/female combination with the others intermediate. The fast feeding to peak program increased yolk weight as well as yolk:albumen ratio at 28 and 30 wk of age, but egg weight did not differ. These data indicated that increased or decreased feeder space between the growing and laying periods did not affect broiler breeder female BW, uniformity, egg weight, fertility, or hatchability. The 10.3 cm/female laying feeder space exhibited the best hen

  7. Effects of broiler feed medications on Salmonella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This pilot analysis was conducted with data from 52 conventional grow-out broiler flocks in a prospective field observational study in the Southeastern U.S. from 2003-2006. Each flock was sampled for Salmonella one week before the end of grow-out, upon arrival at the processing plant, and during pr...

  8. Characterization of H9N2 influenza viruses isolated from vaccinated flocks in an integrated broiler chicken operation in eastern China during a 5 year period (1998-2002).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pinghu; Tang, Yinghua; Liu, Xiaowen; Peng, Daxin; Liu, Wenbo; Liu, Hongqi; Lu, Shan; Liu, Xiufan

    2008-12-01

    In the current study, we characterized H9N2 influenza viruses isolated from vaccinated flocks in an integrated broiler chicken operation during a 5 year period (1998-2002). Phylogenetic analysis of the 8 genes of 11 representative viruses showed that they all shared high similarity to that of the first isolate, A/Chicken/Shanghai/F/1998 (Ck/SH/F/98), and clustered to the same lineages. Furthermore, all 11 viruses had a 9 nt deletion between positions 206 and 214 of the neuraminidase gene. These genetic characteristics strongly suggest that these viruses are descendants of the first isolate. In addition, our study also showed that the H9N2 viruses circulating in the operation during this 5 year period were evolving, as shown by antigenic variations between viruses manifested by reactivity with polyclonal antisera and monoclonal antibodies, by haemagglutination with erythrocytes from different animals, by amino acid differences in haemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins, and by variation in their ability to replicate in the respiratory and intestinal tract and to be transmitted by aerosol. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the internal genes from some H5N1 viruses of duck origin clustered together with those from H9N2 virus and that the RNP genes of these H5N1 viruses isolated after 2001 are more closely related to the genes of the Ck/SH/F/98-like H9N2 viruses, indicating more recent reassortment events between these two subtypes of viruses. Continuous surveillance of influenza virus in poultry and waterfowl is critical for monitoring the genesis and emergence of potentially pandemic strains in this region.

  9. Typhlocolitis associated with spirochaetes in duck flocks.

    PubMed

    Glávits, Róbert; Ivanics, Eva; Thuma, Akos; Kaszanyitzky, Eva; Samu, Péterné; Ursu, Krisztina; Dencso, László; Dán, Adám

    2011-02-01

    The aetiology of increased mortality observed in two breeder duck flocks (Flock A consisting of 3500 laying ducks and Flock B comprising 4300 laying ducks) during the first egg-laying season was studied. In Flocks A and B, 773 ducks and 715 ducks (18.4% and 16.6%) died within a 24-week and a 20-week period, respectively. Death was preceded by clinical signs including movement difficulties, lack of appetite and depression lasting for 1 to 2 days. Diarrhoea was not observed. On gross pathological examination, the ducks were found to have haemorrhagic to fibrinonecrotic typhlocolitis, renal degeneration accompanied by fibrosis and mineralization, hepatic and splenic amyloidosis, and swelling of some of the metatarsal and phalangeal joints. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination consistently demonstrated spirochaetes in the mucous membrane of the affected large intestine. On the basis of their cultural and biochemical properties and polymerase chain reaction sequencing analysis, four out of seven spirochaete strains isolated from the ducks (Flock A) by culture on special media under anaerobic conditions were identified as Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, and five out of eight strains (Flock B) were identified as Brachyspira pilosicoli. This is the first report on the isolation of B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli from laying ducks affected by fibrinonecrotic typhlocolitis.

  10. Inclusion body hepatitis associated with an outbreak of fowl adenovirus type 2 and type 8b in broiler flocks in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Maartens, Louis H; Joubert, Hilda W; Aitchison, Henry; Venter, Estelle H

    2014-12-02

    Inclusion body hepatitis is an acute disease of chickens ascribed to viruses of the genus Aviadenovirus and referred to as fowl adenovirus (FAdV). There are 12 FAdV types (FAdV1to FAdV8a and FAdV8b to FAdV11), classified into five species based on their genotype (designated FAdVA to FAdVE). A total of 218 000 chickens, 2-29 days of age, were affected over a 1-year period, all testing positive by microscopy, virus isolation and confirmation with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Affected birds were depressed, lost body weight,were weak and had watery droppings. Pathological changes observed during necropsy indicated consistent changes in the liver, characterised by hepatomegaly, cholestasis and hepatitis. Lesions were also discernible in the spleen, kidney and gizzard wall and were characterised by splenomegaly, pinpoint haemorrhages, nephritis with haemorrhage,visceral gout and serosal ecchymosis of the gizzard wall. Histopathological lesions were most consistently observed in the liver but could also be seen in renal and splenic tissue. Virus isolation was achieved in embryonated eggs and most embryos revealed multifocalto diffuse hepatic necrosis, with a mixed cellular infiltrate of macrophages and heterophils(necro-granulomas), even in the absence of macroscopic pathology. Virus isolation results were verified by histopathology and PCR on embryonic material and further characterised by nucleotide sequence analysis. Two infectious bursal disease virus isolates were also made from the Klerksdorp flock. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the L1 hexon loop of all the FAdV isolates indicated homology (99%) with prototype strains P7-A for FAdV-2, as well as for FAdV-8b.

  11. Comparative efficacy of a yeast product and bacitracin methylene disalicylate in enhancing early growth and intestinal maturation in broiler chicks from breeder hens of different ages.

    PubMed

    Fasina, Y O; Thanissery, R R

    2011-05-01

    The intestine of the newly hatched chick is immature at hatch. Yeast contains nucleotides and β-glucans that enhance intestinal development and chick growth. Accordingly, a 14-d experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a novel yeast product and bacitracin methylene disalicylate in enhancing early growth and intestinal maturation in chicks obtained from young (26-27 wk old) and old (58 to 59 wk old) breeder hens. Chicks (384) were randomly assigned to 8 dietary treatments. Treatment 1 (YH) consisted of chicks, from young hens, fed corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet alone. Treatment 2 (YHB) consisted of chicks, from young hens, fed corn-SBM basal into which BMD was added at 0.055 g/kg. Treatment 3 (YHE) consisted of chicks, from young hens, fed corn-SBM basal into which yeast extract (YE) was added at 0.075% level. Treatment 4 (YHED) consisted of chicks, from young hens, fed corn-SBM basal into which YE was added at 0.15% level. Treatments 5 (OH), 6 (OHB), 7 (OHE), and 8 (OHED) consisted of chicks from old hens fed diets similar to those given to YH in treatments 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Growth performance (body weight gain and feed conversion ratio) was evaluated on d 7 and 14. Intestinal tissue samples were also analyzed for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as an indicator of intestinal maturation on d 4 and 13 of experiment. Results showed that by d 14 of experiment, only BMD treatments (YHB and OHB) improved body weight gain (P < 0.05). However, the body weight gains of chicks in the yeast-supplemented treatments (YHE, YHED, OHE, and OHED) were statistically similar (P > 0.05) to those of the BMD treatments. Ileal ALP activity was consistently enhanced by BMD and yeast product supplemented at 0.075% of the diet. It was concluded that antibiotic BMD and our novel yeast product supplemented at 0.075% of the diet improved early chick growth and maturation of the ileal segment of the small intestine.

  12. A Systematic Review Characterizing On-Farm Sources of Campylobacter spp. for Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Agunos, Agnes; Waddell, Lisa; Léger, David; Taboada, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter are frequently isolated from broiler chickens worldwide. In Canada, campylobacteriosis is the third leading cause of enteric disease and the regional emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter in broiler chickens has raised a public health concern. This study aimed to identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature on sources of Campylobacter in broilers at the farm level using systematic review methodology. Literature searches were conducted in January 2012 and included electronic searches in four bibliographic databases. Relevant studies in French or English (n = 95) conducted worldwide in any year and all study designs were included. Risk of Bias and GRADE criteria endorsed by the Cochrane collaboration was used to assess the internal validity of the study and overall confidence in the meta-analysis. The categories for on-farm sources were: broiler breeders/vertical transfer (number of studies = 32), animals (n = 57), humans (n = 26), environment (n = 54), and water (n = 63). Only three studies examined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter from these on-farm sources. Subgroups of data by source and outcome were analyzed using random effect meta-analysis. The highest risk for contaminating a new flock appears to be a contaminated barn environment due to insufficient cleaning and disinfection, insufficient downtime, and the presence of an adjacent broiler flock. Effective biosecurity enhancements from physical barriers to restricting human movement on the farm are recommended for consideration to enhance local on-farm food safety programs. Improved sampling procedures and standardized laboratory testing are needed for comparability across studies. Knowledge gaps that should be addressed include farm-level drug use and antimicrobial resistance information, further evaluation of the potential for vertical transfer, and improved genotyping methods to

  13. Coated ceramic breeder materials

    DOEpatents

    Tam, Shiu-Wing; Johnson, Carl E.

    1987-04-07

    A breeder material for use in a breeder blanket of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The breeder material comprises a core material of lithium containing ceramic particles which has been coated with a neutron multiplier such as Be or BeO, which coating has a higher thermal conductivity than the core material.

  14. Coated ceramic breeder materials

    DOEpatents

    Tam, Shiu-Wing; Johnson, Carl E.

    1987-01-01

    A breeder material for use in a breeder blanket of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The breeder material comprises a core material of lithium containing ceramic particles which has been coated with a neutron multiplier such as Be or BeO, which coating has a higher thermal conductivity than the core material.

  15. Interventions to reduce the bacterial load in recycled broiler litter.

    PubMed

    Vaz, C S L; Voss-Rech, D; de Avila, V S; Coldebella, A; Silva, V S

    2017-03-23

    Two experiments were undertaken to evaluate the bacterial load in recycled litter between broiler flocks following addition of quicklime (T1), windrowing (T2), shallow fermentation (T3), and control (no intervention, T4). The first experiment was developed in field conditions in which the broiler houses were accompanied by 6 consecutive flocks and the effect of the treatments was assessed on enterobacteria and aerobic mesophiles. The second experiment was conducted in an experimental broiler house with recycled litter for assessment of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 (SE PT4). In the field study, T3 presented the best results in reducing enterobacteria in broiler litter in relation to the other treatments, with the highest reduction occurring in the first 3 flocks, tending to stabilization from the fourth flock onward for all the treatments assessed. From the third to sixth flocks, enterobacteria level at the end of the treatments (d 12) was lower than the average in the fresh litter, except in T4. All treatments reduced aerobic mesophiles throughout the flocks, where T2 showed the highest reduction. The percentage of dry matter in the broiler litter diminished in T4 and increased in T3 over the course of the flocks. In the second experiment, the drop in the SE PT4 level in the broiler litter first occurred in T2 and T3. However, all the treatments except for T4 eliminated SE PT4 within 12 d. The temperature of the broiler litter in T2 was higher in relation to the other treatments. The results show that litter treatment prior to reutilization by the successive broiler flock is required to reduce the level of residual bacteria. The fermentative treatments (T2 and T3) were found to be superior to the others in terms of reducing the bacterial load, with shallow fermentation standing out with the highest reduction of enterobacteria and equivalent SE PT4 elimination when compared to windrowing.

  16. House-Level Risk Factors for the Occurrence of Campylobacter in Broilers in Iceland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Horizontal transmission from the environment is thought to be an important source of Campylobacter to broilers. Our objective was to identify broiler house characteristics and house-level management practices associated with the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter in Icel...

  17. Serotyping of Salmonella Isolates from Broiler Vertical Integrations in Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study analyzed 106 Salmonella isolates from different points in broiler vertical integrations of two important poultry areas of Colombia. It was possible to identify the presence of Salmonella in five categories: breeder farm (17.9%), hatchery (6.6 %), broiler farm (38.7 %), processing plant (9...

  18. Hydrodynamics of Turning Flocks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M Cristina

    2015-12-18

    We present a hydrodynamic model of flocking that generalizes the familiar Toner-Tu equations to incorporate turning inertia of well-polarized flocks. The continuum equations controlled by only two dimensionless parameters, orientational inertia and alignment strength, are derived by coarse-graining the inertial spin model recently proposed by Cavagna et al. The interplay between orientational inertia and bend elasticity of the flock yields anisotropic spin waves that mediate the propagation of turning information throughout the flock. The coupling between spin-current density to the local vorticity field through a nonlinear friction gives rise to a hydrodynamic mode with angular-dependent propagation speed at long wavelengths. This mode becomes unstable as a result of the growth of bend and splay deformations augmented by the spin wave, signaling the transition to complex spatiotemporal patterns of continuously turning and swirling flocks.

  19. Hydrodynamics of Turning Flocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M. Cristina

    2015-12-01

    We present a hydrodynamic model of flocking that generalizes the familiar Toner-Tu equations to incorporate turning inertia of well-polarized flocks. The continuum equations controlled by only two dimensionless parameters, orientational inertia and alignment strength, are derived by coarse-graining the inertial spin model recently proposed by Cavagna et al. The interplay between orientational inertia and bend elasticity of the flock yields anisotropic spin waves that mediate the propagation of turning information throughout the flock. The coupling between spin-current density to the local vorticity field through a nonlinear friction gives rise to a hydrodynamic mode with angular-dependent propagation speed at long wavelengths. This mode becomes unstable as a result of the growth of bend and splay deformations augmented by the spin wave, signaling the transition to complex spatiotemporal patterns of continuously turning and swirling flocks.

  20. Hydrodynamics of Turning Flocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M. Cristina

    2015-03-01

    We present a hydrodynamic model of flocking that generalizes the familiar Toner-Tu equations to incorporate turning inertia of well polarized flocks. The continuum equations are derived by coarse graining the inertial spin model recently proposed by Cavagna et al. The interplay between orientational inertia and bend elasticity of the flock yields spin waves that mediate the propagation of turning information throughout the flock. When the inertia is large, we find a novel instability that signals the transition to complex spatio-temporal patterns of continuously turning and swirling flocks. This work was supported by the NSF Awards DMR-1305184 and DGE-1068780 at Syracuse University and NSF Award PHY11-25915 and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Grant No. 2919 at the KITP at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

  1. Chicken infectious anemia virus infection in Israeli commercial flocks: virus amplification, clinical signs, performance, and antibody status.

    PubMed

    Davidson, I; Kedem, M; Borochovitz, H; Kass, N; Ayali, G; Hamzani, E; Perelman, B; Smith, B; Perk, S

    2004-01-01

    The impact of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) infection on commercial chicken flocks in Israel was examined by analyzing flocks with or without typical CIAV signs, signs of other diseases, or apparently healthy flocks. In 23 flocks (broilers and layers) of ages up to 8 wk, typical signs of CIAV infection (stunting, gangrenous dermatitis, and secondary bacterial infections) were recorded. When permitted by flock owners, in several cases among these 23 flocks the morbidity, mortality, and performance parameters were recorded; the presence of CIAV was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR); and the antibody status of parents and broilers was measured. In addition, total mortality, number of birds sold, total kilograms of meat sold, density (kg/m2), mean age at slaughter, daily growth rate in grams, total kilogram of food consumed, food conversion rate, and the European Index were calculated. We also surveyed flocks affected by other diseases, such as tumors, respiratory diseases, or coccidiosis, and flocks with no apparent clinical signs. The latter flocks were negative by CIAV-PCR, indicating that typical CIAV clinical signs are associated with one-step PCR-CIAV amplification. However, a small amount of CIAV might still be present in these flocks, acting to induce the subclinical effects of CIAV infection. These data indicate a link between the presence of virus sequences and typical CIAV signs and strengthen the concept that CIAV infection has a negative economic impact on the chicken industry.

  2. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  3. Multiple typing for the epidemiological study of the contamination of broilers with Salmonella from the hatchery to the slaughterhouse.

    PubMed

    Heyndrickx, M; Herman, L; Vlaes, L; Butzler, J P; Wildemauwe, C; Godard, C; De Zutter, L

    2007-02-01

    Eighteen Belgian broiler flocks were followed from the hatchery to the slaughterhouse by a multiple typing approach (sero-, geno-, and phage types) for the investigation of the transmission of Salmonella and its subtypes. For 12 of the 18 flocks, there was no correlation between the serotypes found preharvest and those isolated from the feces in the transport crates and on the carcasses in the slaughterhouse. Serotypes found in the crates were usually also found on the carcasses. In 5 of the 10 flocks with Salmonella-positive broilers, complex contamination patterns with the involvement of different serotypes, genotypes, or both were revealed. In two of these flocks (flocks 8 and 9), the Salmonella Enteritidis contamination of the broilers could be traced to the hatchery. In flock 9, evidence was found for the acquisition, during rearing, of a megaplasmid in the Salmonella Enteritidis strain. In the other three positive flocks (flocks 6, 7, and 10), the environment and movable material (e.g., footwear) played a determining role in the infection and shedding pattern of the broilers. For flocks 6 and 7, reared consecutively in the same broiler house, a persistent Salmonella Hadar geno/phage type predominated in the preharvest period, while another Salmonella Hadar geno/phage type was found in the house or the environment but never in the broilers. Only for the above-mentioned five flocks were the same strains that were found preharvest also recovered from the carcasses, although these strains were not predominant on the carcasses, with the exception of one flock (flock 10). In conclusion, it can be said that most of the time, Salmonella strains that contaminate Belgian broiler carcasses do not predominate in the preharvest environment.

  4. Salmonella in Broiler Litter and Properties of Soil at Farm Location

    PubMed Central

    Volkova, Victoriya V.; Bailey, R. Hartford; Wills, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Contamination of litter in a broiler grow-out house with Salmonella prior to placement of a new flock has been shown to be a precursor of the flock's Salmonella contamination further down the production continuum. In the southern USA, broiler grow-out houses are primarily built on dirt pad foundations that are placed directly on top of the native soil surface. Broiler litter is placed directly on the dirt pad. Multiple grow-out flocks are reared on a single litter batch, and the litter is kept in the houses during downtime between flocks. The effects of environmental determinants on conditions in broiler litter, hence Salmonella ecology within it, has received limited attention. In a field study that included broiler farms in the states of Alabama, Mississippi and Texas we assessed Salmonella in broiler litter at the end of downtime between flocks, i.e. at the time of placement of a new flock for rearing. Here we utilized these results and the U.S. General Soil Map (STATSGO) data to test if properties of soil at farm location impacted the probability of Salmonella detection in the litter. The significance of soil properties as risk factors was tested in multilevel regression models after accounting for possible confounding differences among the farms, the participating broiler complexes and companies, and the farms' geographical positioning. Significant associations were observed between infiltration and drainage capabilities of soil at farm location and probability of Salmonella detection in the litter. PMID:19636431

  5. Prevalence, quantitative load, and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. from broiler ceca and broiler skin samples in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chokboonmongkol, C; Patchanee, P; Gölz, G; Zessin, K-H; Alter, T

    2013-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in broiler flocks by testing cecal contents at slaughter and to detect and quantify Campylobacter on broiler carcass skin samples of the corresponding slaughter batches, to determine antimicrobial resistance patterns of the Campylobacter isolates, and to genotype selected Campylobacter jejuni isolates using multilocus sequence typing analysis. Ninety-eight broiler flocks were included in the study. Intact ceca were randomly taken at the time of evisceration throughout a slaughter batch to detect Campylobacter spp. at the broiler flock level and one whole carcass per slaughter batch was taken for the detection of Campylobacter spp. on broiler skin. The prevalences of Campylobacter spp. in broiler ceca and broiler skin samples were 11.2% (11/98) and 51% (50/98), respectively. Even though most Campylobacter-positive broiler skin samples were contaminated with only up to 230 most probable number per gram, a substantial share (13.3%) showed very high Campylobacter numbers on the broiler skin samples (most probable number = ∞; lower confidence limit T(0) 580/g). From 32 C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates tested, the highest antimicrobial resistance rates were found for ciprofloxacin (81.2%), followed by tetracycline (40.6%), ampicillin (31.2%), and erythromycin (9.4%). All tested strains were sensitive to gentamicin. By multilocus sequence typing analysis, a total of 9 different sequence types were identified among 16 C. jejuni isolates. Campylobacter jejuni isolated from cecal content and carcass skin of the same farm or slaughter batch showed corresponding allelic profiles. Our data suggest that intense cross-contamination during the slaughter process led to a strong increase of Campylobacter prevalence on broiler skin compared with the prevalence in broiler ceca. To reduce Campylobacter prevalences on broiler skin, on-farm biosecurity measures need to be accompanied by control measures

  6. The Effect of Increased Mineral Levels in the Feed on Leg Weakness and Sudden Death Syndrome in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    In two experiments with 98,000 and 40,000 broilers on commercial broiler farms, half of each flock were fed starter, grower and finisher diets with 0.2% added calcium, 0.2% added phosphorus and 0.2% added magnesium. This ration had no significant effect on the incidence of sudden death syndrome but the incidence of leg weakness in broilers on the increased mineral ration was higher in both flocks. Approximately 28% of the mortality in both flocks was from sudden death syndrome, more than from any other condition. Approximately 20% of the mortality was associated with leg weakness. PMID:17422644

  7. Flocking in Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouellette, Nicholas; Khurana, Nidhi

    2013-03-01

    Models of active, self-propelled particles with simple interaction rules have long been shown to produce large-scale emergent behavior reminiscent of collective animal motion seen in nature. Such model flocks can be shown to be robust against random noise terms added to the equations. But real animals, such as birds, fish, or insects, live in fluid environments, where the background flow field is nonzero and is often turbulent. In this case, the fluctuations experienced by the individuals in the aggregation are not random, but rather are correlated in space and time. We explore the impact of such spatiotemporally correlated perturbations on flocking by numerically simulating the behavior of a simple flocking model in a turbulent-like flow field produced by a kinematic simulation. The introduction of flow strongly changes the flock formation dynamics. Additionally, we find that under some conditions the background flow tends to break stable flocks into smaller units. We study these clusters, and discuss their relation to the underlying flow field.

  8. Solid breeder materials

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.E.; Clemmer, R.G.; Hollenber, G.w.

    1981-01-01

    Increased attention is being given to the consideration of lithium-containing ceramic materials for use as breeder blankets in fusion devices. These materials, e.g., Li/sub 2/O, ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/, Li/sub 4/SiO/sub 4/, Li/sub 2/ZrO/sub 3/, etc., are attractive because of their inherent safety advantages. At present, there is a broad scope of laboratory and irradiation activities in force to provide the requisite data enabling selection of th prime-candidate solid breeder material.

  9. Detection of Campylobacter in 100 commercial flocks - evaluation of plating media and filtration method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is a natural member of the gut microflora in many commercial broilers and as such can become a contaminant on edible surfaces during processing. Culturing gut contents or feces can be a means to determine flock status prior to live-haul. The wide variety of non-Campylobacter backgrou...

  10. Effects of breeder age on mineral contents and weight of yolk sac, embryo development, and hatchability in Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Onbasilar, E E; Erdem, E; Hacan, O; Yalçin, S

    2014-02-01

    The current study was carried out to investigate the effects of breeder age on egg composition, changes of embryo, yolk sac, and yolk minerals during incubation and hatchability in Pekin ducks. A total of 495 freshly laid eggs were obtained from the same flock of Pekin ducks, aged 28, 34, and 40 wk, and were reared in accordance with the management guide of the duck breeders (Star 53-Grimaud Freres). At each breeder age, egg measurements were made on a random subsample of unincubated eggs. Embryo and yolk sac measurements were made on embryonic day (E) 12, E16, E20, and E25. On d 28 of incubation, the healthy ducklings were removed and sex of chicks was determined. All chicks were weighed and hatching results were determined. Egg weight and yolk percentages increased; however, albumen percentages, shell thickness, and yolk index decreased as the flock aged. Shell percentages, shell breaking strength, albumen index, and haugh units were not affected by breeder age. Also, breeder age affected the Mg, P, K, Ca, Cu, and Zn levels in the yolk, except for Na level on day of setting, and breeder age affected the mineral consumed by embryo during incubation. However, on E25, the levels of examined minerals, except for P level in the yolk sac, were not statistically different in duck breeder age groups. Relative yolk sac and embryo weights of eggs obtained from different breeder ages varied from E16 to E25; however, embryo length was different in breeder age groups from E12 to E20. Hatching weight was affected by breeder age and sex. Hatching results were not different among breeder age groups. This study indicates that breeder age is important for some egg characteristics, relative yolk sac weight, some contents of minerals in the yolk, embryonic growth during incubation, and duckling weight.

  11. A comparison survey of organic and conventional broiler chickens for infectious agents affecting health and food safety.

    PubMed

    Van Overbeke, I; Duchateau, L; De Zutter, L; Albers, G; Ducatelle, R

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the health status of organic broiler chickens and the contamination rate with Salmonella and Campylobacter in organic broiler production in Belgium. The broilers were screened for antibodies against routinely monitored poultry diseases at 1 day old and at slaughter. Fecal examination for the presence of worm eggs was done at slaughter. Bacteriological examination for the detection of Salmonella and Campylobacter was performed at day 1, week 2, week 4, week 7, week 10, and slaughter. Conventional broilers of the same poultry integration and reared in the same geographic area were also screened and served as reference. Serologic data indicated lower antibody titers against infectious bronchitis and Newcastle disease in organic flocks. No significant differences could be found in prevalence of Salmonella between organic and conventional broilers at slaughter. In contrast, Campylobacter infections at slaughter were significantly higher in organic flocks. Organic flocks most probably become infected with Campylobacter between week 7 and week 10. Worm eggs were found in neither the organic flocks nor the conventional flocks. In conclusion, there are indications that the respiratory health status is better in organic broilers but that organic flocks are more often infected with Campylobacter than are conventional flocks.

  12. U.S. broiler housing ammonia emissions inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, R. S.; Casey, K. D.; Wheeler, E. F.; Xin, H.; Pescatore, A. J.

    Using recently published baseline ammonia emissions data for U.S. broiler chicken housing, we present a method of estimating their contribution to an annual ammonia budget that is different from that used by USEPA. Emission rate increases in a linear relationship with flock age from near zero at the start of the flock to a maximum at the end of the flock, 28-65 days later. Market weight of chickens raised for meat varies from "broilers" weighing about 2 kg to "roasters" weighing about 3 kg. Multiple flocks of birds are grown in a single house annually, with variable downtime to prepare the house between flocks. The method takes into account weight and number of chickens marketed. Uncertainty in baseline emissions estimates is used so that inventory estimates are provided with error estimates. The method also incorporates the condition of litter that birds are raised upon and the varying market weight of birds grown. Using 2003 USDA data on broiler production numbers, broiler housing is estimated to contribute 8.8-11.7 kT ammonia for new and built-up litter, respectively, in Kentucky and 240-324 kT ammonia for new and built-up litter, respectively, nationally. Results suggest that a 10% uncertainty in annual emission rate is expected for the market weight categories of broilers, heavy broilers, and roasters. A 27-47% reduction in annual housing emission rate is predicted if new rather than built-up litter were used for every flock. The estimating method can be adapted to other meat bird building emissions and future ammonia emission strategies, with suitable insertion of an age-dependent emission factor or slope into a predictive model equation. The method can be readily applied and is an alternative to that used by USEPA.

  13. Temperature-Related Risk Factors for the Occurrence of Campylobacter in Broilers in Iceland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction A summertime increased risk of Campylobacter is well-established in humans and broilers. Our objective was to identify temperature-related risk factors for the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter in Iceland, with an assumption that flies play a role in the epidemiology an...

  14. Systematic evaluation of in-house broiler litter windrowing effects on production benefits and environmental impact

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In-house windrowing of broiler litter between flocks has been adopted by producers to reduce pathogens and improve litter quality before chick placement. In this study, 5 consecutive windrow trials were conducted in commercial broiler houses for their effect on litter bacterial populations, organic ...

  15. Dissemination and tracking of Salmonella spp. in integrated broiler operation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Aeran; Kang, Min Su; Kwag, Sang Ick; Cho, Jae Keun

    2007-01-01

    Controlling Salmonella in integrated broiler operation is complicated because there are numerous potential sources of Salmonella contamination, including chicks, feed, rodents, wild poultry operations, and the processing plant. The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution of Salmonella through all phases of two integrated broiler operations and to determine the key areas related to the control of all known sources of infection. Two different Salmonella serotypes were observed at integrated broiler chicken company A. S. enteritidis, the predominant company A isolate, was consistently found in the breeder farm, hatcheries, broiler farms, and chicken slaughterhouse. At company B, a total of six different serotypes, S. heidelberg, S. senftenberg, S. enteritidis, S. blockley, S. gallinarum, and S. virchow, were detected. Although S. heidelberg was not found in the broiler farms, it was consistently found in the breeder farm, hatcheries, and chicken slaughterhouse. In addition, S. enteritidis was found in the hatcheries, broiler farm, and chicken slaughterhouse. In order to obtain the genetic clonality, 22 S. enteritidis isolates were digested with XbaI and analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrohporesis (PFGE). A difference in the PFGE pattern was found to be related to the origin of the integrated broiler operation. These data support the critical need to control Salmonella in breeder farms and hatcheries, and demonstrate important points related to the control of infection in large-scale poultry operations of Korea. PMID:17519569

  16. Effectiveness and efficiency of controlling Campylobacter on broiler chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Havelaar, Arie H; Mangen, Marie-Josee J; de Koeijer, Aline A; Bogaardt, Marc-Jeroen; Evers, Eric G; Jacobs-Reitsma, Wilma F; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Wagenaar, Jaap A; de Wit, G Ardine; van der Zee, Henk; Nauta, Maarten J

    2007-08-01

    Campylobacter bacteria are an important cause of foodborne infections. We estimated the potential costs and benefits of a large number of possible interventions to decrease human exposure to Campylobacter by consumption of chicken meat, which accounts for 20-40% of all cases of human campylobacteriosis in the Netherlands. For this purpose, a farm-to-fork risk assessment model was combined with economic analysis and epidemiological data. Reduction of contamination at broiler farms could be efficient in theory. However, it is unclear which hygienic measures need to be taken and the costs can be very high. The experimental treatment of colonized broiler flocks with bacteriophages has proven to be effective and could also be cost efficient, if confirmed in practice. Since a major decrease of infections at the broiler farm is not expected in the short term, additional measures in the processing plant were also considered. At this moment, guaranteed Campylobacter-free chicken meat at the retail level is not realistic. The most promising interventions in the processing plant are limiting fecal leakage during processing and separation of contaminated and noncontaminated flocks (scheduling), followed by decontamination of the contaminated flock. New (faster and more sensitive) test methods to detect Campylobacter colonization in broilers flocks are a prerequisite for successful scheduling scenarios. Other methods to decrease the contamination of meat of colonized flocks such as freezing and heat treatment are more expensive and/or less effective than chemical decontamination.

  17. Research note: the effects of darkling beetles on broiler performance.

    PubMed

    Skewes, P A; Monroe, J L

    1991-04-01

    Six polyvinylchlorine pipe darkling beetle traps were placed in 20 commercial broiler production facilities, and the relative level of beetle infestation was determined from weekly sampling during 4 wk of the growout period. The average number of beetles found at each facility was compared with the following production parameters: mortality, feed conversion, condemnation rate, and production cost. In the 20 commercial broiler flocks evaluated, the level of darkling beetles within the facility was not related to any of the production parameters measured.

  18. Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis in broilers: influence of sires and straight-run versus sex-separate rearing.

    PubMed

    Wideman, R F; Al-Rubaye, A; Reynolds, D; Yoho, D; Lester, H; Spencer, C; Hughes, J D; Pevzner, I Y

    2014-07-01

    Two experiments (E1, E2) were conducted to compare the influence of sires (sire A on dam C vs. sire B on dam C) and straight-run versus sex-separate rearing on the incidence of bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) in broilers. Fertile eggs from commercial breeder flocks were incubated and hatched at the University of Arkansas Poultry Research Hatchery. Male and female chicks were reared together (straight-run) or separately (sex-separate) in 3 × 3 m pens on litter or flat wire flooring with 65 (E1) or 60 (E2) birds per pen. Necropsies revealed lesions that are pathognomonic for BCO in ≥98% of the birds that became lame. The SigmaStat Z-test was used to compare cumulative BCO incidences through 8 wk of age. For birds reared on litter, the incidences of BCO were low regardless of cross or sex (range: 1.7 to 5.1%; P ≥ 0.6). Within a cross and sex, rearing the broilers straight-run versus sex-separate on wire flooring did not significantly affect the incidence of BCO. Significant incidences of BCO did not develop until after d 40. Males from the sire A cross developed a higher incidence of BCO than males from the sire B cross in E1 (27 vs. 17%, respectively; P = 0.009) but not in E2 (28.5 vs. 22.6%, respectively; P = 0.141). In both experiments, males from the sire A cross developed higher incidences of BCO than females from the sire B cross (27 vs. 11.9%, in E1; 28.5 vs. 14.8%, in E2). With the sexes pooled, broilers from the sire A cross consistently developed higher incidences of BCO than broilers from the sire B cross (21.4 vs. 14.9%, P = 0.005 in E1; 26.5 vs. 18.7%, P = 0.003 in E2). High susceptibilities to both femoral head (all femoral head necrosis = 66 to 85% incidences) and tibial head (all tibial head necrosis = 81 to 96% incidences) BCO lesions were demonstrated in lame birds from both sexes and crosses. This study supports a sire influence on the susceptibility of broilers to BCO. Sire lines can be chosen to reduce BCO susceptibility

  19. An economic analysis of the impact of subclinical (mild) necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Skinner, James T; Bauer, Sharon; Young, Virginia; Pauling, Gail; Wilson, Jeff

    2010-12-01

    Costs to broiler producers associated with subclinical (mild) necrotic enteritis (SNE) were estimated using published information on impacts on body weight and feed conversion rate (FCR) associated with SNE and costs and revenues associated with broiler production. Estimates were expressed in U.S. dollars from the perspective of poultry producers. SNE was estimated to result in a 12% reduction in body weight and a 10.9% increase in FCR compared with healthy birds. For the purposes of this analysis, we considered scenarios involving hypothetical flocks of 20,000 birds raised to final body weights ranging from 4.63 to 7.94 lb. The incidence of SNE was assumed to occur at 20% based on the literature. For flocks raised for the length of time required to reach these target weights, SNE resulted in a loss to producers ranging from US$878.19 to US$1480.52 per flock. When feed costs required to obtain SNE flocks having a total live body weight equal to equivalent healthy flocks at market age were calculated, the increased cost to producers ranged from US$370.49 to US$739.38 per flock. SNE has the potential to cause a significant negative economic impact in broiler flocks. Strategies to reduce the incidence of SNE may help to increase the profitability of broiler production.

  20. Effects of breeder hen age and dietary L-carnitine on progeny embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Peebles, E D; Kidd, M T; McDaniel, C D; Tanksley, J P; Parker, H M; Corzo, A; Woodworth, J C

    2007-06-01

    1. Ross 308 broiler breeder hens were given diets containing 0 or 25 mg L-carnitine/kg (8 replications per treatment) from 21 weeks of age. 2. Hens were inseminated with semen from Ross broiler breeder males. In a common facility, subsequent progeny hatchability and embryonic mortality at 25, 30, 32, and 38 weeks of breeder age were evaluated. 3. Subsequent egg component weights, incubational egg water loss, progeny embryo growth, and embryo, yolk sac and liver composition through 18 d of incubation at 27, 32, and 38 weeks of breeder age were evaluated. 4. Calculated additions of L-carnitine were in agreement with analysed contents of 3.5 and 31.1 mg free L-carnitine/kg of diet, respectively, and total L-carnitine concentrations increased by 48.6, 21.7, and 10.0% in 0-d yolk, 18-d yolk sac, and 18-d liver samples, respectively, due to the addition of dietary L-carnitine. 5. Supplemental L-carnitine resulted in increased (0.6%) relative 0-d egg yolk weight across weeks 27, 32, and 38, and reduced (0.38%) 18-d yolk sac palmitoleic acid concentration at week 27 without altering embryogenesis. 6. In conclusion, dietary L-carnitine (25 mg/kg of the diet) was deposited in the yolks of broiler breeder hens and was subsequently transferred to the embryonic liver via yolk sac absorption through 18 d of incubation. Furthermore, dietary L-carnitine supplementation increased ovarian follicle yolk deposition in 27-, 32-, and 38-week-old breeder hens, and influenced yolk sac fatty acid beta-oxidation in embryos from 27-week-old breeder hens causing yolk sac palmitoleic acid concentrations to be reduced by 18 d of incubation.

  1. Flock-based microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Hitzbleck, Martina; Lovchik, Robert D; Delamarche, Emmanuel

    2013-05-21

    Flock-based microfluidics are created by depositing hydrophilic microfibers on an adhesive-coated substrate using an electric field. This enables the fabrication of self-powered microfluidics from one or more different kinds of fibers that form 2D and 3D flowpaths, which can wick 40 microliters of liquid per square centimeter. With this approach, large areas of functional wicking materials can be produced at extremely low cost.

  2. Type C and C/D toxigenic Clostridium botulinum is not normally present in the intestine of healthy broilers.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Simon P; Kaldhusdal, Magne

    2013-08-30

    Toxigenic Clostridium botulinum spores are widely distributed in wetland environments and are frequently recovered from healthy wild birds, where ingestion of toxic maggots from carcasses is considered a major initiating factor for botulism outbreaks. Toxic carcasses can perpetuate an existing outbreak also in poultry, but their importance as an initiating factor for poultry botulism is less clear. Although toxigenic C. botulinum can be recovered from healthy broilers during outbreaks, there are almost no data on the prevalence in healthy broiler flocks (and, by extension, carcasses) and their environment. To test the hypothesis that toxigenic C. botulinum is frequently present in healthy broilers, we examined 100 healthy broiler flocks and environmental samples from 30 broiler houses 3 to 4 years after an epidemic of botulism in the broiler population. None of the 100 flocks yielded type C or C/D botulinum toxin genes using real time PCR whereas a flock house that had remained empty since the most recent outbreak yielded type C (or C/D) toxin genes. The absence of toxigenic C. botulinum in all examined flocks indicates that botulism is a sporadic and exogenously acquired event in this broiler population and unlikely to mirror the epidemiology in wild birds.

  3. Effect of egg position during three and fourteen days of storage and turning frequency during subsequent incubation on hatchability of broiler hatching eggs.

    PubMed

    Elibol, O; Brake, J

    2008-06-01

    Two experiments were carried out to examine the interaction of egg storage period, egg position during storage, and turning frequency during subsequent incubation on fertile hatchability and embryonic mortality of broiler hatching eggs. Broiler hatching eggs from breeder flocks at 62 and 60 wk of age were stored for either 3 or 14 d at 18 degrees C and 75% RH in either the normal large end up or inverted small end up (SEU) position and then turned either 24 or 96 times daily to 18 d of incubation in 2 experiments. The longer storage period decreased fertile hatchability, whereas storage in the SEU position improved fertile hatchability in both experiments. There was a significant storage position x length of storage period interaction in both experiments due to better fertile hatchability for the SEU eggs stored 14 d but not 3 d. The 96-times turning frequency numerically improved fertile hatchability in both experiments. A significant storage period x turning frequency interaction in experiment 1 was related to a 6.6% increase in fertile hatchability of 14-d stored eggs due to increased turning frequency. A similar numerical increase of 4.9% was observed in experiment 2. These data show that the detrimental effects of a long storage period may be practically ameliorated by either storage in the SEU position or by an increased turning frequency during subsequent incubation.

  4. Ceramic breeder materials

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.E.; Kummerer, K.R.; Roth, E.

    1987-01-01

    Ceramic materials are under investigation as potential breeder material in fusion reactors. This paper will review candidate materials with respect to fabrication routes and characterization, properties in as-fabricated and irradiated condition, and experimental results from laboratory and inpile investigations on tritium transport and release. Also discussed are the resources of beryllium, which is being considered as a neutron multiplier. The comparison of ceramic properties that is attempted here aims at the identification of the most-promising material for use in a tritium breeding blanket. 82 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Relations between the occurrence of resistance to antimicrobial growth promoters among Enterococcus faecium isolated from broilers and broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Emborg, H-D; Andersen, J S; Seyfarth, A M; Andersen, S R; Boel, J; Wegener, H C

    2003-08-01

    From 1995 to 2001, Enterococcus faecium isolates were collected from broiler flocks at slaughter and broiler meat products at retail outlets and were tested for susceptibility to classes of antimicrobials used for growth promotion in broilers in Denmark, namely: evernimicin, glycopeptide, macrolide and streptogramin. By February 1998, all antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) were withdrawn from the Danish broiler production. The present study investigates, by logistic regression analyses, the (1) changes in the occurrence of AGP resistance among E. faecium from broilers and broiler meat from the fourth quarter of 1995 to the fourth quarter of 2001 and (2) relations between the occurrence of AGP resistance among E. faecium isolates from Danish broilers and AGP resistance among E. faecium isolates from the broiler meat of Danish and unknown origin collected in the same quarter within the year. In the present study, we showed that after the AGP withdrawal, a significant decline in resistance to avilamycin, erythromycin, vancomycin and virginiamycin was observed among E. faecium from broilers and broiler meat. In addition, a decline in the occurrence of AGP resistance among E. faecium from Danish broilers was associated with a decrease in the predicted probability of isolating an AGP-resistant E. faecium isolate from a randomly selected broiler meat product. In the analyses "relations between the occurrence of AGP resistance among E. faecium isolated from broilers and broiler meat collected in the same quarter" errors in the explanatory variable were expected. Therefore, a simulation study was performed to validate the results from logistic regression analyses. The results obtained by the two methods were similar.

  6. Enteric viruses detected by molecular methods in commercial chicken and turkey flocks in the United States between 2005 and 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intestinal samples collected from 43 commercial broiler, and 33 commercial turkey flocks from all regions of the United States during 2005 and 2006, were examined for the presence of astrovirus, rotavirus, reovirus, and coronavirus by RT-PCR, and for the presence of groups I and II adenovirus by PCR...

  7. Flocking ferromagnetic colloids

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Andreas; Snezhko, Alexey; Aranson, Igor S.

    2017-01-01

    Assemblages of microscopic colloidal particles exhibit fascinating collective motion when energized by electric or magnetic fields. The behaviors range from coherent vortical motion to phase separation and dynamic self-assembly. Although colloidal systems are relatively simple, understanding their collective response, especially under out-of-equilibrium conditions, remains elusive. We report on the emergence of flocking and global rotation in the system of rolling ferromagnetic microparticles energized by a vertical alternating magnetic field. By combing experiments and discrete particle simulations, we have identified primary physical mechanisms, leading to the emergence of large-scale collective motion: spontaneous symmetry breaking of the clockwise/counterclockwise particle rotation, collisional alignment of particle velocities, and random particle reorientations due to shape imperfections. We have also shown that hydrodynamic interactions between the particles do not have a qualitative effect on the collective dynamics. Our findings shed light on the onset of spatial and temporal coherence in a large class of active systems, both synthetic (colloids, swarms of robots, and biopolymers) and living (suspensions of bacteria, cell colonies, and bird flocks). PMID:28246633

  8. Coordinated Behaviour in Pigeon Flocks

    PubMed Central

    Yomosa, Makoto; Mizuguchi, Tsuyoshi; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Nagy, Máté

    2015-01-01

    We analysed pigeon flock flights using GPS trajectory data to reveal the most important kinematic aspects of flocking behaviour. We quantitatively investigated the internal motion of the flock based on pairwise statistics and found the following general relationships in all datasets: i) the temporal order of decisions characterised by the delay between directional changes is strictly related to the spatial order characterised by the longitudinal relative position within the flock; ii) during circling motion, pigeons use a mixture of two idealised and fundamentally different turning strategies, namely, parallel-path and equal-radius type turning. While pigeons tend to maintain their relative position within the flock on average, as in the parallel-path approximation, those who turn later also get behind as in the equal-radius case. Equal-radius type turning also tends to be expressed more during smaller radius turns. PMID:26485662

  9. Coordinated Behaviour in Pigeon Flocks.

    PubMed

    Yomosa, Makoto; Mizuguchi, Tsuyoshi; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Nagy, Máté

    2015-01-01

    We analysed pigeon flock flights using GPS trajectory data to reveal the most important kinematic aspects of flocking behaviour. We quantitatively investigated the internal motion of the flock based on pairwise statistics and found the following general relationships in all datasets: i) the temporal order of decisions characterised by the delay between directional changes is strictly related to the spatial order characterised by the longitudinal relative position within the flock; ii) during circling motion, pigeons use a mixture of two idealised and fundamentally different turning strategies, namely, parallel-path and equal-radius type turning. While pigeons tend to maintain their relative position within the flock on average, as in the parallel-path approximation, those who turn later also get behind as in the equal-radius case. Equal-radius type turning also tends to be expressed more during smaller radius turns.

  10. An outbreak of blindness due to retinopathy in nine flocks of guinea fowl.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, M; Lupini, C; Bolognesi, P G; Marzadori, F; Raffini, E; Frasnelli, M; Poppi, L; Shivaprasad, H L; Catelli, E

    2014-06-01

    Blindness was observed in 10- to 14-day-old guinea fowl. The incidence ranged from 25% to 80% in nine flocks within a total population of 110,000 guinea fowls. Clinical signs of blindness in birds included aimless wandering, failure to find feed and water, lateral recumbency, loss of weight, and increased mortality. The birds lacked papillary reflexes to light, and there were no gross lesions in the eyes. Histologically there was degeneration and disorganization of photoreceptors in the retina. The guinea fowl came from three different breeder sources but all of the birds were given the same feed. The condition was not observed in the subsequent flocks that came from the same breeder sources but that were given different feed. Based on these observations, toxicity of an unknown ingredient in the feed is suspected as the cause of blindness in the guinea fowl.

  11. Measurement of broiler litter production rates and nutrient content using recycled litter.

    PubMed

    Coufal, C D; Chavez, C; Niemeyer, P R; Carey, J B

    2006-03-01

    It is important for broiler producers to know litter production rates and litter nutrient content when developing nutrient management plans. Estimation of broiler litter production varies widely in the literature due to factors such as geographical region, type of housing, size of broiler produced, and number of flocks reared on the same litter. Published data for N, P, and K content are also highly variable. In addition, few data are available regarding the rate of production, characteristics, and nutrient content of caked litter (cake). In this study, 18 consecutive flocks of broilers were reared on the same litter in experimental pens under simulated commercial conditions. The mass of litter and cake produced was measured after each flock. Samples of all litter materials were analyzed for pH, moisture, N, P, and K. Average litter and cake moisture content were 26.4 and 46.9%, respectively. Significant variation in litter and cake nutrient content was observed and can largely be attributed to ambient temperature differences. Average litter, cake, and total litter (litter plus cake) production rates were 153.3, 74.8, and 228.2 g of dry litter material per kg of live broiler weight (g/kg) per flock, respectively. Significant variation in litter production rates among flocks was also observed. Cumulative litter, cake, and total litter production rates after 18 flocks were 170.3, 78.7, and 249.0 g/kg, respectively. The data produced from this research can be used by broiler producers to estimate broiler litter and cake production and the nutrient content of these materials.

  12. Comparison between broilers and layers for growth and protein use by embryos.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Y; Yoshida, T; Tsushima, N

    2004-05-01

    Three experiments were conducted to compare the growth and protein utilization of embryo between broilers and layers. In experiments 1 and 2, the average weight of eggs was the same for broilers and layers. Nothing or an amino acid (AA) solution was injected into the eggs of broilers at d 7 of incubation, and the plasma AA concentration of newly hatched chicks was determined in broilers in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the same treatments as experiment 1 were used on layer breeder eggs. Plasma Tau, Thr, and Lys concentrations of hatched chicks increased when AA solution was injected in broilers breeder eggs (P < 0.05) but not in layers (P > 0.05). The AA ratio to Lys was reduced by AA injection in broilers but not in layers. In experiment 3, weights of embryos and egg were recorded, and CP contents were analyzed over time during incubation (d 0, 7, 14, and 19 of incubation) in broilers and layers using eggs of the same weight. There were no differences in the weights and CP contents of embryos and eggs from broilers and layers. On d 14 and 19 of incubation, weights and CP contents of embryo were higher in broilers than layers (P < 0.05). These results suggested that the egg protein content might be adequate for hatching but insufficient for maximum growth of embryos from broilers.

  13. Natural zeolites in diet or litter of broilers.

    PubMed

    Schneider, A F; Almeida, D S De; Yuri, F M; Zimmermann, O F; Gerber, M W; Gewehr, C E

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to analyse the influence of adding natural zeolites (clinoptilolite) to the diet or litter of broilers and their effects on growth performance, carcass yield and litter quality. Three consecutive flocks of broilers were raised on the same sawdust litter, from d 1 to d 42 of age, and distributed in three treatments (control with no added zeolites, addition of 5 g/kg zeolite to diet and addition of 100 g/kg zeolites to litter). The addition of zeolites to the diet or litter did not affect growth performance or carcass yield. The addition of zeolites to the diet did not influence moisture content of the litter, ammonia volatilisation was reduced only in the first flock and pH of litter was reduced in the second and third flock. However, the addition of zeolites to the litter reduced moisture content, litter pH and ammonia volatilisation in all flocks analysed. The addition of 5 g/kg zeolite to the diet in three consecutive flocks was not effective in maintaining litter quality, whereas the addition of 100 g/kg natural zeolites to sawdust litter reduced litter moisture and ammonia volatilisation in three consecutive flocks raised on the same litter.

  14. Incidence of Salmonella Contamination in Broiler Chickens in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, K.K.; O'Neil, J.B.; Prior, M.G.; Dunkelgod, K.E.

    1983-01-01

    The incidence of Salmonella contamination in ten Saskatchewan broiler flocks varying in size from 6 200 to 14 000 was investigated from February, 1977 to April, 1979. Prior to the initial chick placement, brooding equipment, feed, water and fresh litter samples were found to be free of Salmonellae. Samples obtained from the clean and disinfected processing plant equipment before the commencement of daily operation were negative except the isolation for Salmonella anatum from the fingers of the defeathering machine in flock 4. There was no evidence of Salmonella contamination in flocks 5, 6, 8 and 10. The incidence of Salmonella was lower when cloacal swabs were taken from day old chicks fasted for 48 hours than for the same groups of chicks when carcasses were blended in nutrient broth (flocks 7 and 9). The blending of such chicks appears to be a more critical test. The serotypes isolated from eviscerated birds were the same as those isolated from used litter samples. Salmonella saintpaul was isolated from a water sample at 53 days in flock 1 and the same serotype was recovered from the intestinal contents and skin of eviscerated birds. Salmonella typhimurium was recovered from the eviscerated birds and neck samples in flock 3. In flock 4, S. saintpaul and S. anatum were isolated from 13% of the eviscerated birds sampled. Salmonella thompson, Salmonella agona and Salmonella heidelberg were recovered from 61%, 5% and 1%, respectively, of the processed carcasses sampled in flock 7. PMID:6831304

  15. EBIS charge breeder for CARIBU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrashev, S.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C.; Fischer, R.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Vondrasek, R.; Pikin, A.

    2014-02-01

    A high-efficiency charge breeder based on an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) is being developed by the ANL Physics Division to increase the intensity and improve the purity of accelerated radioactive ion beams. A wide variety of low-energy neutron-rich ion beams are produced by the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) for the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). These beams will be charge-bred by an EBIS charge breeder to a charge-to-mass ratio (q/A) ≥ 1/7 and accelerated by ATLAS to energies of about 10 MeV/u. The assembly of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder except the injection/extraction beam lines has been completed. This summer we started electron beam commissioning of the EBIS. The first results on electron beam extraction, transport from the electron gun to a high power electron collector are presented and discussed.

  16. Microbial ecology of Campylobacter jejuni in a United Kingdom chicken supply chain: intermittent common source, vertical transmission, and amplification by flock propagation.

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, A D; Greenwood, M H; Feltham, R K; Healing, T D; Donaldson, J; Jones, D M; Colwell, R R

    1996-01-01

    A study of Campylobacter jejuni on a broiler chicken farm between 1989 and 1994 gave an estimated isolation rate of 27% (3,304 of 12,233) from a 0.9% sample of 1.44 million broiler chickens from six to eight sheds over 32 consecutive rearing flocks comprising 251 broiler shed flocks. During the study, C. jejuni was found in 35.5% of the 251 shed flocks but only 9.2% (23 of 251) had Campylobacter isolates in successive flocks, with 9 of those 23 sheds having the same serotype between consecutive flocks, indicating a low level of transmission between flocks. Analysis of a systematic sample of 484 of 3,304 (14.6%) C. jejuni isolates showed that 85% were of 10 serotype complexes but 58% were of 3 serotype complexes, indicating a high degree of strain similarity throughout the entire study. The three commonest types were detected in 8 of 32 flocks during the 5-year study period, suggesting an intermittent common external Campylobacter source. This hypothesis was tested by a retrospective cohort analysis of C. jejuni rates and types by reference to hatchery supplier of the 1-day-old chicks. Isolation rates of C. jejuni and frequency distribution of types were determined in 6-week-old broiler chickens identified by the hatchery supplying the original chicks. The isolation rate of C. jejuni in broilers, supplied by hatchery A, was 17.6%, compared to 42.9% (P < 0.0001) for broilers reared from chicks supplied by hatchery B. In two instances, when both hatcheries were used to stock the same farm flock, Campylobacter isolates were found only in those sheds with chicks supplied by hatchery B. Thus, the frequency distribution of Campylobacter types for chickens supplied by the two hatcheries over the 5-year period showed marked dissimilarity. These findings suggest that the isolation rate and type of Campylobacter isolates in broiler chickens was associated with the hatchery supplying chicks. The lack of diversity of types and the intermittent high positivity of sheds is

  17. Campylobacter contamination and the relative risk of illness from organic broiler meat in comparison with conventional broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Boysen, Louise; Krogh, Anne Louise; Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Nauta, Maarten

    2013-04-01

    Danish organic broiler meat, represented by carcasses sampled at the end of processing after chilling, was more frequently contaminated with thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. than conventional broiler carcasses; the yearly mean prevalence being 54.2% (CI: 40.9-67.5) for organic and 19.7% (CI: 14.8-24.7) for conventional carcasses. Campylobacter jejuni was the most frequently isolated species. The difference in prevalence was obvious in all quarters of the year. Contamination of organic and conventional broiler carcasses was more likely to occur in the warmer summer months, in this case in the third quarter, as also documented for conventional broiler flocks. When contaminated, the mean concentration of Campylobacter on neck skin samples of organic and conventional carcasses was not significantly different (P=0.428); 2.0±0.65 log 10 cfu/g and 2.1±0.93 log 10 cfu/g, respectively. Assessing the relative risk of becoming ill following exposure to Campylobacter on conventional or organic broiler meat indicated that the risk per serving from organic carcasses was 1.7 times higher than that of conventional carcasses. The higher risk of illness from organic broiler carcasses compared with conventional broiler carcasses emphasizes the importance of implementing control measures in organic broiler production.

  18. The effects of thermal manipulations during embryogenesis of broiler chicks on growth of embryo and skeletal traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    Incubation temperature is one of the important environmental factors that can induce epigenetic thermal adaptation of different physiological control systems. Thus, post hatch thermo tolerance ability of birds may be gained using these manipulations during different incubation periods. The current study was carried out to reveal the effects of temperature manipulations during early and late embryogenesis on weight of embryo and size of skeletal bilateral traits (face, wings, metatarsus, tibia, and femur) in broiler chicken embryos. One thousand commercial broiler eggs from 46 week old breeder flock were used in study. Treatments consisted of eggs incubated at 37.8°C and 55% relative humidity throughout (control; DG1), heated to 36.9°C and supplied 60% relative humidity for 6 hours daily from day 0 to 8 (DG2), heated to 36.9°C and supplied 60% relative humidity for 6 hours daily from day 10 to 18 (DG3), heated to 41°C and supplied 65% relative humidity for 3 hours daily from day 8 to 10 (DG4), and heated to 41°C and supplied 65% relative humidity for 3 hours daily from day 16 to 18 (DG5). Measurements of embryo weight and bilateral traits were obtained at 20 day of incubation and at hatch (at day 21). It was determined that the live weights of embryo and chick were affected significantly by treatment; DG3 group has shown higher mean values than the other treatment groups (P<0.05). There were differences in lengths of femur, tibia and metatarsus among treatment groups at hatch. Particularly, the high incubator temperatures at the second half of incubation accelerated growth of body and bone in embryos. These consequences of the treatments performed at different temperatures and times indicate that the different metabolic shifts realized by the embryos.

  19. Effects of floor eggs on hatchability and later life performance in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, H; Sosef, M P; Lourens, A; van Harn, J

    2016-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted in which effects of floor eggs, washed floor eggs, and clean nest eggs were investigated on incubation characteristics and performance in later life of broiler chickens. In both experiments, a young and an older breeder flock were used in a 3×2 factorial design during incubation. In the second experiment, male and female chickens were reared separately until d 35 of age in floor pens. During this grow out trial, an extra group was created in which chickens obtained from clean nest eggs were mixed with chickens obtained from floor eggs, meaning that grow out period was set up as a 4×2×2 factorial design with 4 egg types, 2 breeder ages, and 2 sexes. In both experiments, fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs were lower in floor and washed eggs than in clean nest eggs (hatchability: experiment 1: 74.4 vs. 70.6 vs. 92.6% for floor eggs, washed floor eggs and clean nest eggs, respectively, P<0.001; experiment 2: 78.3 vs. 81.7 vs. 90.2%, respectively, P<0.001). In experiment 2, BW at d 0 of chickens obtained from clean nest eggs was higher than that of chickens from floor eggs and washed floor eggs (41.5 vs. 40.4 and 40.3 g, respectively; P<0.001). This difference disappeared during the grow out period and was absent at slaughter age at d 35 of age. Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and mortality during the grow out period were not affected by egg type. Incidence and severity of hock burns and footpad dermatitis were not affected by egg type or breeder age. Litter friability at d 35 of age tended to be lower in pens with chickens obtained from washed floor eggs compared to clean nest eggs. We conclude that incubation of floor eggs or washed floor eggs resulted in lower fertility and hatchability compared to clean nest eggs, but that performance during the grow out period was not affected.

  20. Hydrodynamics and phases of flocks

    SciTech Connect

    Toner, John; Tu Yuhai . E-mail: yuhai@us.ibm.com; Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2005-07-01

    We review the past decade's theoretical and experimental studies of flocking: the collective, coherent motion of large numbers of self-propelled 'particles' (usually, but not always, living organisms). Like equilibrium condensed matter systems, flocks exhibit distinct 'phases' which can be classified by their symmetries. Indeed, the phases that have been theoretically studied to date each have exactly the same symmetry as some equilibrium phase (e.g., ferromagnets, liquid crystals). This analogy with equilibrium phases of matter continues in that all flocks in the same phase, regardless of their constituents, have the same 'hydrodynamic'-that is, long-length scale and long-time behavior, just as, e.g., all equilibrium fluids are described by the Navier-Stokes equations. Flocks are nonetheless very different from equilibrium systems, due to the intrinsically nonequilibrium self-propulsion of the constituent 'organisms'. This difference between flocks and equilibrium systems is most dramatically manifested in the ability of the simplest phase of a flock, in which all the organisms are, on average moving in the same direction (we call this a 'ferromagnetic' flock; we also use the terms 'vector-ordered' and 'polar-ordered' for this situation) to exist even in two dimensions (i.e., creatures moving on a plane), in defiance of the well-known Mermin-Wagner theorem of equilibrium statistical mechanics, which states that a continuous symmetry (in this case, rotation invariance, or the ability of the flock to fly in any direction) can not be spontaneously broken in a two-dimensional system with only short-ranged interactions. The 'nematic' phase of flocks, in which all the creatures move preferentially, or are simply oriented preferentially, along the same axis, but with equal probability of moving in either direction, also differs dramatically from its equilibrium counterpart (in this case, nematic liquid crystals). Specifically, it shows enormous number fluctuations, which

  1. Fusion Breeder Program interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.; Lee, J.D.; Neef, W.

    1982-06-11

    This interim report for the FY82 Fusion Breeder Program covers work performed during the scoping phase of the study, December, 1981-February 1982. The goals for the FY82 study are the identification and development of a reference blanket concept using the fission suppression concept and the definition of a development plan to further the fusion breeder application. The context of the study is the tandem mirror reactor, but emphasis is placed upon blanket engineering. A tokamak driver and blanket concept will be selected and studied in more detail during FY83.

  2. Molecular identification of Mycoplasma synoviae from seroprevalent commercial breeder farms at Chittagong district, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Md. Inkeyas; Abid, Md. Harisul; Islam, Md. Shafiqul; Rakib, Tofazzal Md.; Sen, Ashim Baran; Chowdhury, Shah Mohammed Ziqrul Haq; Anwar, Md. Nurul; Kamaruddin, Kazi Md.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Worldwide, Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is an important pathogen of poultry, especially for chicken and turkey. It causes respiratory tract infection and infectious sinusitis. The study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of MS infection with associated risk factors and identification of MS organism in unvaccinated flocks of commercial breeder farms of the Chittagong district, Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: A total of 365 serum samples were collected and tested for MS using serum plate agglutination (SPA) test for determination of MS seroprevalence. On the other hand, tracheal swabs were collected from each seropositive flocks for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the presence of MS organism. Results: Among the farms, the highest prevalence was found to be 69% and the lowest prevalence was 28% with the average 60%. The seroprevalence of MS infection in breeder farms was highest 70% with the flock size >10,000 birds, whereas it was lowest 57% in the flocks ranging from 4000 to 7000. According to age group, the prevalence was found highest 70% in >60 weeks age group of birds and lowest 42% in 10-19 weeks group. The seroprevalence of MS in winter season was found as highest as 64%, whereas it was found lowest 60% in the summer season. There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.01) among the seroprevalence of MS in different breeder farms, flock size, and age groups, but there was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the winter, summer, and rainy season. To confirm the presence of MS in the samples, PCR test was applied using specific primers to amplify a 214 bp region of the 16S rRNA gene of the organism. In PCR, all seropositive flocks showed a positive result for MS. Conclusion: As the plate agglutination test result showed 100% similar with PCR result, it can be suggested that agglutination test is better than molecular and culture techniques for MS detection and it is also cheaper and less time-consuming method. PMID:27847414

  3. Effects of top-dressing recycled broiler litter on litter production, litter characteristics, and nitrogen mass balance.

    PubMed

    Coufal, C D; Chavez, C; Niemeyer, P R; Carey, J B

    2006-03-01

    Top-dressing is a method of broiler litter management in which a thin layer of new, clean litter material is spread over the top of previously used litter prior to placement of a new flock. This fresh layer of bedding material increases the absorptive capacity of the litter and decreases litter caking. Although this practice has been widely used in the poultry industry for many years, no research has been conducted to quantify the effects the practice has on broiler performance, litter production rates, and nutrient content, or the ability of broiler litter to retain manure N and prevent volatilization. An experiment was conducted to quantify these parameters under simulated commercial conditions in a research facility. Nine consecutive flocks of broilers were reared on recycled broiler litter that had previously been used for 9 flocks. Control pens received no litter treatment whereas top-dressed pens received a thin layer of new rice hulls (1 to 2 cm) before the placement of each flock. Nitrogen loss was calculated using the mass balance method. Average broiler performance was not different between the top-dressed and control pens. Top-dressing of litter significantly (P < 0.05) reduced caked litter production compared with control pens in 6 of 9 flocks. However, average total litter production over all 9 flocks was not different between the 2 litter management strategies. In all flocks, litter N content was significantly reduced in top-dressed pens compared with control pens. As a result, litter C:N ratios were significantly higher for pens with top-dressed litter. Differences in N loss between the treatments were not consistent. Average N loss for all flocks was 10.61 and 11.92 g of N/kg of marketed broiler for control and top-dressed pens, respectively, or 20.1 and 22.5% of N inputs, respectively. Based on this experiment, top-dressing of recycled broiler litter would not be recommended as a strategy to reduce the volatilization of N from broiler rearing

  4. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL-BREEDER FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Currier, E.L. Jr.; Nicklas, J.H.

    1962-08-14

    A fuel-breeder fuel element was developed for a nuclear reactor wherein discrete particles of fissionable material are dispersed in a matrix of fertile breeder material. The fuel element combines the advantages of a dispersion type and a breeder-type. (AEC)

  5. A comparison of post-mortem findings in broilers dead-on-farm and broilers dead-on-arrival at the abattoir.

    PubMed

    Kittelsen, K E; Granquist, E G; Kolbjørnsen, Ø; Nafstad, O; Moe, R O

    2015-11-01

    Broiler mortality during transport to abattoirs (dead-on-arrival/DOA) evokes concern due to compromised animal welfare and associated economic losses. The general aim of this study was to characterize pathological lesions associated with mortality in broilers close to slaughter. The specific aim was to investigate whether disease at the end of the growth period may be a predisposing factor for DOA by describing and comparing the pathological findings in broilers dead-on-farm (DOF) in the final days of the production cycle and in broilers DOA from the same flocks. Gross post-mortem examinations were performed on 607 broilers from 32 flocks, either DOF (371) or DOA (236). In DOF broilers, the most common pathological lesions were lung congestion (37.7%), endocarditis (29.4%), and ascites (24.0%), whereas the most common findings in broilers DOA were lung congestion (57.2%) and trauma (24.6%). Lung congestion was more prevalent among DOA broilers compared to DOF broilers (P-value of > 0.001). A possible cause behind the pathological finding lung congestion is sudden death syndrome (SDS). The study indicates that steps in the transportation process per se cause the majority of pathological lesions such as lung congestion and trauma that may have led to the mortalities registered. Pre-existing diseases such as ascites and osteomyelitis may also predispose for DOA. Thus, factors relating to on-farm health, catching, and transportation are all areas of future investigation in order to reduce transport mortalities and to enhance welfare in broilers.

  6. Turkey knockdown in successive flocks.

    PubMed

    Evans, R D; Edson, R K; Watkins, K L; Robertson, J L; Meldrum, J B; Novilla, M N

    2000-01-01

    Turkey knockdown was diagnosed in three of five flocks of hen turkeys on a single farm within a 12-mo period. The age of birds in the flocks affected ranged from 6 wk 2 days to 7 wk 4 days. The attack rate ranged from 0.02% to 0.30% with a case fatality rate in affected birds ranging from 0 to 74%. The diagnosis was made on the basis of clinical signs and histopathologic lesions associated with knockdown. The feed in all flocks contained bacitracin methylene disalicylate and monensin (Coban). Affected birds were recumbent, demonstrated paresis, and were unable to vocalize. Postmortem examination revealed few significant lesions although pallor of the adductor muscles and petechiation in adductor and gastrocnemius muscles were noted. Birds that had been recumbent for extended periods were severely dehydrated. Consistent microscopic lesions included degeneration, necrosis, and regeneration of adductor, gastrocnemius, and abdominal muscles. No lesion in cardiac tissue was noted. Results of our investigation indicated that changes in water consumption, vitamin E status, and brooder to finisher movement correlated with the occurrence of knockdown. Turkey knockdown was defined in 1993 as any condition identified in a turkey flock that has affected the neuromuscular system to a degree that a turkey is unable to walk or stand. This definition was later modified to...neuromuscular or skeletal systems to a degree that a turkey is unable to walk or stand properly. Knockdown may be associated with numerous feed, management, or disease factors alone or in combination. Dosage of monensin, feed restriction/gorging, water restriction, heat stress, copper, mycotoxins, sodium chloride in feed, and sulfa drugs have all been suggested as contributing factors; however, laboratory studies to duplicate this have not been successful. This report presents observations from a single farm at which three of five hen flocks in a single year experienced knockdown. When a flock was reported as

  7. Hydrogen sulfide and nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions from broiler houses in the Southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions from two mechanically ventilated commercial broiler houses located in the Southeastern United States were continuously monitored over 12 flocks during the one-year period of 2006-2007 as a joint effort between Iowa State University a...

  8. Ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from broiler houses with downtime windrowed litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An emerging poultry manure management practice is in house windrowing to disinfect the litter. With this practice, growers windrow the litter in broiler houses between flocks, usually for 2 weeks. This results in high litter temperatures that can reduce pathogens in the litter. However, this practi...

  9. Farm-Level Risk Factors for the Occurrence of Campylobacter in Broilers in Iceland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction A longitudinal study was conducted in Iceland to identify the means to decrease the frequency of broiler flock colonization with Campylobacter, thereby reducing the burden of foodborne illness associated with poultry consumption. Our objective in this study was to identify risk factors...

  10. Evaluation of filter-plating methods for simplified detection of Campylobacter associated with broiler cecal samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Campylobacter is natural member of the gut microflora in many commercial broilers and as such can become a contaminant on edible surfaces during processing. Culturing gut contents or feces can be a means to determine flock status prior to live-haul. However, the wide variety of non...

  11. Cultivation and qPCR Detection of Pathogenic and Antibiotic-Resistant Bacterial Establishment in Naive Broiler Houses.

    PubMed

    Brooks, J P; McLaughlin, M R; Adeli, A; Miles, D M

    2016-05-01

    Conventional commercial broiler production involves the rearing of more than 20,000 broilers in a single confined space for approximately 6.5 wk. This environment is known for harboring pathogens and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, but studies have focused on previously established houses with mature litter microbial populations. In the current study, a set of three naive houses were followed from inception through 11 broiler flocks and monitored for ambient climatic conditions, bacterial pathogens, and antibiotic resistance. Within the first 3 wk of the first flock cycle, 100% of litter samples were positive for and , whereas was cultivation negative but PCR positive. Antibiotic resistance genes were ubiquitously distributed throughout the litter within the first flock, approaching 10 to 10 genomic units g. Preflock litter levels were approximately 10 CFU g for heterotrophic plate count bacteria, whereas midflock levels were >10 colony forming units (CFU) g; other indicators demonstrated similar increases. The influence of intrahouse sample location was minor. In all likelihood, given that preflock levels were negative for pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes and 4 to 5 Log lower than flock levels for indicators, incoming birds most likely provided the colonizing microbiome, although other sources were not ruled out. Most bacterial groups experienced a cyclical pattern of litter contamination seen in other studies, whereas microbial stabilization required approximately four flocks. This study represents a first-of-its-kind view into the time required for bacterial pathogens and antibiotic resistance to colonize and establish in naive broiler houses.

  12. Local equilibrium in bird flocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, Thierry; Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Ginelli, Francesco; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Viale, Massimiliano; Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene

    2016-12-01

    The correlated motion of flocks is an example of global order emerging from local interactions. An essential difference with respect to analogous ferromagnetic systems is that flocks are active: animals move relative to each other, dynamically rearranging their interaction network. This non-equilibrium characteristic has been studied theoretically, but its impact on actual animal groups remains to be fully explored experimentally. Here, we introduce a novel dynamical inference technique, based on the principle of maximum entropy, which accommodates network rearrangements and overcomes the problem of slow experimental sampling rates. We use this method to infer the strength and range of alignment forces from data of starling flocks. We find that local bird alignment occurs on a much faster timescale than neighbour rearrangement. Accordingly, equilibrium inference, which assumes a fixed interaction network, gives results consistent with dynamical inference. We conclude that bird orientations are in a state of local quasi-equilibrium over the interaction length scale, providing firm ground for the applicability of statistical physics in certain active systems.

  13. Histopathology and serum clinical chemistry evaluation of broilers with femoral head separation disorder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Femoral head disarticulation (FHD) and necrosis is a sporadic leg problem of unknown etiology in broiler breeders. To determine the underlying physiology of FHD, the blood chemistry and the histopathology of the femoral heads of the affected chickens were compared with their age matched controls. Ch...

  14. Comparison blastoderms traits from two lines of broilers before and after egg storage and incubation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the impact of egg storage on the hatchability of eggs from two lines (A and B) of commercial broiler breeders with known differences in fertility (Line B higher) and hatchability following egg storage (Line A lower). Eggs from both lines were stored in a 16 C room for 3-4, 10-12, and 17...

  15. Animation of flocks flying in line formations.

    PubMed

    Klotsman, Marina; Tal, Ayellet

    2012-01-01

    We provide a biologically motivated technique for modeling and animating bird flocks in flight, which produces plausible and realistic-looking flock animations. While most previous approaches have focused on animating cluster formations, this article introduces a technique for animating flocks that fly in certain patterns, so-called line formations. We distinguish between the behavior of such flocks during initiation and their behavior during steady flight. Our simulation of the initiation stage is rule-based and incorporates an artificial bird model. Our simulation of the steady-flight stage combines a data-driven approach and an energy-savings model.

  16. Accelerator breeders: will they replace liquid metal fast breeders

    SciTech Connect

    Grand, P.; Powell, J.R.; Steinberg, M.; Takahashi, H.

    1983-06-01

    Investigation of accelerator breeders at Brookhaven National Laboratory indicate that the AB-LWR fuel cycle is economically competitive with the LMFBR fuel cycle. The same can be said about the accelerator breeder-High Temperature Gas Reactor symbiosis. This system appears to be very competitive with the added real advantage of superior safety and proliferation resistance. This discussion would be incomplete if the real competitor to accelerator breeding was not mentioned, namely Fusion Hybrid Breeding (FHB). Fusion Hybrid Breeding is a nearer option than pure fusion, as the breakeven Q value requirements are much more modest. Fusion Hybrid Breeding, if successful and practical, has the potential for highly efficient fissile fuel breeding, leading to cheaper fuel. The system, however, has yet to be demonstrated scientifically and to be shown commercially feasible. This is in contrast with the AB system which is an extension of proven, state-of-the-art technology with implementation possible within twenty years. 25 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

  17. A 5-year study of the incidence and economic impact of variant infectious bursal disease viruses on broiler production in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Zachar, Tara; Popowich, Shelly; Goodhope, Bob; Knezacek, Tennille; Ojkic, Davor; Willson, Philip; Ahmed, Khawaja Ashfaque; Gomis, Susantha

    2016-10-01

    While the prevalence of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) on chicken farms in some provinces of Canada has been documented, the economic impact of variant IBDV infection on the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan has not. The objectives of this study were to identify the variant strains of IBDV circulating on Saskatchewan chicken farms and evaluate their economic impact on broiler production. Infection due to IBDV was detected in 43% of Saskatchewan chicken farms, with variant strains detected in infected birds closely related predominantly to NC171, 586, and Delaware-E. Infected flocks showed an IBDV antibody titer of 4236 geometric mean (GM), whereas an antibody titer of 157 GM was measured in uninfected flocks. Infected flocks had very low (0.06) bursa-to-body-weight (BBW) ratio (an indicator of immunity) compared to high BBW ratio (0.17) in uninfected flocks, which suggests a significant immunosuppression in the former. Flocks positive for IBDV had mean mortality of 8.6% and mean condemnation of 1.5%. In contrast, mean mortality in uninfected flocks was 6.1% and mean condemnation was 1.1%. The live market weight per grow area at 37 d of age was 29.3 kg/m(2) in infected flocks and 34.0 kg/m(2) in flocks without IBDV infection. Flock mortality and condemnation rate were positively correlated with IBDV infection, whereas low BBW ratio was inversely correlated, as expected. Overall, IBDV-infected flocks had higher mortality, bursal atrophy, poorer feed conversion ratio (FCR), and decreased meat production. Our data suggest that the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan loses 3.9 million kilograms of meat production per year due to variant IBDV strains.

  18. [Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pig breeders and cattle breeders].

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M J E; Beaujean, D J M A

    2006-08-05

    It was recently observed that pig breeders in The Netherlands often carry methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus (MRSA). These MRSA strains are related to MRSA strains found in pigs. A case-control study showed that not only pig breeders but also cattle breeders are at risk of carrying MRSA. It is advised to keep pig breeders, if they are admitted to a hospital, in isolation until surveillance cultures are proven negative. This also applies to veterinarians and slaughterhouse personnel. For cattle breeders screening without isolation on admission to a hospital is sufficient.

  19. Breeder Reactors, Understanding the Atom Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Walter, III; Turner, Stanley E.

    The theory of breeder reactors in relationship to a discussion of fission is presented. Different kinds of reactors are characterized by the cooling fluids used, such as liquid metal, gas, and molten salt. The historical development of breeder reactors over the past twenty-five years includes specific examples of reactors. The location and a brief…

  20. Polytetrafluoroethylene gas intoxication in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Boucher, M; Ehmler, T J; Bermudez, A J

    2000-01-01

    A poultry research facility that housed 2400 Peterson x Hubbard cross broilers (48 pens of 50 chicks each) experienced 4% mortality within 24 hr of chick placement. Mortality started within 4 hr of placement, and within 72 hr, cumulative mortality had reached 52%. Mild dyspnea was the only clinical sign noted in some chicks prior to death. The primary gross lesion noted in the chicks submitted was moderate to severe pulmonary congestion. The lungs of four of these chicks sank in formalin, and blood-tinged fluid was noted in the mouth and nares of two chicks. The microscopic lesions noted in the affected chicks were moderate to severe pulmonary edema and congestion. The diagnosis indicated to the submitter was that pulmonary edema caused by exposure to an unidentified noxious gas caused the death of the chicks. The poultry house environment was tested for sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and volatile organic compounds (as produced by combustion engines); all tests were negative for significant levels of these compounds. A second broiler flock was placed in the same facility and the mortality at 6 wk was 11%, which was greater than the 2.5%-4.7% mortality seen in the previous four flocks on the farm. Further investigation revealed that the only change in management practice in this facility prior to the onset of the severe mortality problem was the replacement of 48 heat lamp bulbs (one for each pen). The new heat lamp bulbs were polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coated. PTFE gas intoxication has been reported in several exotic avian species, but this intoxication has not been previously reported in a poultry flock.

  1. A Leader-Follower Flocking System Based on Estimated Flocking Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zongyao; Gu, Dongbing

    This chapter introduces a robot flocking system in which only minority members are the group leaders who have global trajectory knowledge, while majority members are the group followers who do not have global trajectory information, but can communicate with neighbors. The followers even do not know who the leaders are in the group. In order to keep the flocking group connected, all the group members estimate the position of flocking center by using a consensus algorithm via local communication. Based on the estimated positions of flocking center, a leader-follower flocking algorithm is proposed. A group of real robots, "wifibots", are used to test the feasibility of the flocking algorithm. The simulation is conducted for a large group to demonstrate its scalability. The results show that this leader-follower flocking system can track desired trajectories led by the leaders.

  2. Flocking in Distributed Control and Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    flocking discipline. Swarms, flocks and other group formations can be found in nature in many organisms ranging from simple bacteria to mammals. Such...Contact email if there is a problem with the report. agarcia@virginia.edu Primary Contact Phone Number Contact phone number if there is a problem with

  3. Pathological manifestations observed in dead-on-arrival broilers at a Danish abattoir.

    PubMed

    Lund, V P; Kyvsgaard, N C; Christensen, J P; Bisgaard, M

    2013-01-01

    1. The mortality of broilers during pre-slaughter handling, including harvesting and transport, is an issue of increasing public concern which has led to the adoption of Council Directive EC/43/2007 implementing abattoir surveillance regarding the number of dead-on-arrival (DOA) broilers. 2. Pathological lesions and causes of death of DOA broilers at a Danish abattoir were investigated in a cross-sectional study comprising 300 DOA broilers (25 broilers from each of 12 randomly selected flocks). Major pathological manifestations of DOA broilers included severe pulmonary congestion (51.5%), lung congestion in combination with trauma (12.5%), trauma (10.2%), nephropathy accompanied by dehydration and/or discolouration (8.8%), morbus cordis (2.0%), septicaemia (1.7%) and suspected septicaemia (1.0%). Lung congestion accompanied by circulatory disturbances in other tissues was suggested to be due to suffocation. 3. Analyses of pathological diagnoses revealed that DOA broilers can be divided into two main categories, lung congestion and trauma, based on the chronicity of the lesions, both of which are primarily related to management and handling procedures. Most DOA broilers examined (74.2%) were estimated to have died as a consequence of events during pre-slaughter handling underlining the importance of increased focus on handling-related factors to reduce DOA rate.

  4. Viral infections in goose flocks in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kozdruń, W; Woźniakowski, G; Samorek-Salamonowicz, E; Czekaj, H

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the infectious agents isolated from infection - suspected geese sent for the diagnostic examination to National Veterinary Research Institute. The birds were sent from goose flocks localized in different parts of Poland. Totally, 1,013 birds from 122 flocks were examined. The presence of goose parvovirus (GPV), goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus (GHPV), and goose circovirus (GoCV) was detected by triplex PCR. The presence of GPV DNA was shown in 36 flocks. The disease was most frequently diagnosed in goslings aging 3.5 weeks (ten flocks), and 2.5 weeks (six flocks). The analysis of the nucleotide sequence of VP1 encoding region has shown close similarity of Polish GPV strains within the group which ranged from 92% to 100%. Moreover, the similarity level of these strains with GPV isolated in Europe was from 91.3% to 100%. The occurrence of GoCV DNA was shown in 25 goose flocks. The presence of GoCV DNA was found among geese aged from 2 to 6 weeks, but predominantly in those aging 3.5 (three flocks) and 5 weeks (five flocks). The sequence analysis of PCR products from the sequenced region of ORFC1 capsid protein of GoCV has shown that Polish isolates share from 85% to 91% similarity with the sequences of GoCV strains isolated in other countries. The presence of DNA of GHPV was found in 3-week-old geese. During the last 2 years the presence of GHPV was confirmed in three flocks of goslings at the age from 3 to 3.5 weeks. During the last 12 years the occurrence of co-infection with GPV and GoCV was detected in six flocks aging from 5 to 6 weeks.

  5. Thermal breeder fuel enrichment zoning

    DOEpatents

    Capossela, Harry J.; Dwyer, Joseph R.; Luce, Robert G.; McCoy, Daniel F.; Merriman, Floyd C.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the performance of a thermal breeder reactor having regions of higher than average moderator concentration are disclosed. The fuel modules of the reactor core contain at least two different types of fuel elements, a high enrichment fuel element and a low enrichment fuel element. The two types of fuel elements are arranged in the fuel module with the low enrichment fuel elements located between the high moderator regions and the high enrichment fuel elements. Preferably, shim rods made of a fertile material are provided in selective regions for controlling the reactivity of the reactor by movement of the shim rods into and out of the reactor core. The moderation of neutrons adjacent the high enrichment fuel elements is preferably minimized as by reducing the spacing of the high enrichment fuel elements and/or using a moderator having a reduced moderating effect.

  6. Fast breeder reactor protection system

    DOEpatents

    van Erp, J.B.

    1973-10-01

    Reactor protection is provided for a liquid-metal-fast breeder reactor core by measuring the coolant outflow temperature from each of the subassemblies of the core. The outputs of the temperature sensors from a subassembly region of the core containing a plurality of subassemblies are combined in a logic circuit which develops a scram alarm if a predetermined number of the sensors indicate an over temperature condition. The coolant outflow from a single subassembly can be mixed with the coolant outflow from adjacent subassemblies prior to the temperature sensing to increase the sensitivity of the protection system to a single subassembly failure. Coherence between the sensors can be required to discriminate against noise signals. (Official Gazette)

  7. Light-Water Breeder Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Beaudoin, B. R.; Cohen, J. D.; Jones, D. H.; Marier, Jr, L. J.; Raab, H. F.

    1972-06-20

    Described is a light-water-moderated and -cooled nuclear breeder reactor of the seed-blanket type characterized by core modules comprising loosely packed blanket zones enriched with fissile fuel and axial zoning in the seed and blanket regions within each core module. Reactivity control over lifetime is achieved by axial displacement of movable seed zones without the use of poison rods in the embodiment illustrated. The seed is further characterized by a hydrogen-to-uranium-233 atom ratio in the range 10 to 200 and a uranium-233-to-thorium-232 atom ratio ranging from 0.012 to 0.200. The seed occupies from 10 to 35 percent of the core volume in the form of one or more individual islands or annuli. (NSA 26: 55130)

  8. Collective Behaviour: Leadership and Learning in Flocks.

    PubMed

    Herbert-Read, James

    2015-12-07

    A new study has decoded which birds become leaders in homing pigeon flocks, finding an unexpected benefit of leadership: faster birds emerge as leaders, and these leaders learn more about their environment than their followers.

  9. Universal Fast Breeder Reactor Subassembly Counter manual

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.; Eccleston, G.W.; Swansen, J.E.; Goris, P.; Abedin-Zadeh, R.; Ramalho, A.

    1984-08-01

    A neutron coincidence counter has been designed for the measurement of fast breeder reactor fuel assemblies. This assay system can accommodate the full range of geometries and masses found in fast breeder subassemblies under IAEA safeguards. The system's high-performance capability accommodates high plutonium loadings of up to 16 kg. This manual describes the system and its operation and gives performance and calibration parameters for typical applications.

  10. A role for flies (Diptera) in the transmission of Campylobacter to broilers?

    PubMed

    Royden, A; Wedley, A; Merga, J Y; Rushton, S; Hald, B; Humphrey, T; Williams, N J

    2016-11-01

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial diarrhoeal disease worldwide, with raw and undercooked poultry meat and products the primary source of infection. Colonization of broiler chicken flocks with Campylobacter has proved difficult to prevent, even with high levels of biosecurity. Dipteran flies are proven carriers of Campylobacter and their ingress into broiler houses may contribute to its transmission to broiler chickens. However, this has not been investigated in the UK. Campylobacter was cultured from 2195 flies collected from four UK broiler farms. Of flies cultured individually, 0·22% [2/902, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0-0·53] were positive by culture for Campylobacter spp. Additionally, 1293 flies were grouped by family and cultured in 127 batches: 4/127 (3·15%, 95% CI 0·11-6·19) from three broiler farms were positive for Campylobacter. Multilocus sequence typing of isolates demonstrated that the flies were carrying broiler-associated sequence types, responsible for human enteric illness. Malaise traps were used to survey the dipteran species diversity on study farms and also revealed up to 612 flies present around broiler-house ventilation inlets over a 2-h period. Therefore, despite the low prevalence of Campylobacter cultured from flies, the risk of transmission by this route may be high, particularly during summer when fly populations are greatest.

  11. Research on an infectious disease transmission by flocking birds.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mingsheng; Mao, Xinjun; Guessoum, Zahia

    2013-01-01

    The swarm intelligence is becoming a hot topic. The flocking of birds is a natural phenomenon, which is formed and organized without central or external controls for some benefits (e.g., reduction of energy consummation). However, the flocking also has some negative effects on the human, as the infectious disease H7N9 will easily be transmited from the denser flocking birds to the human. Zombie-city model has been proposed to help analyzing and modeling the flocking birds and the artificial society. This paper focuses on the H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and from the flocking birds to the human. And some interesting results have been shown: (1) only some simple rules could result in an emergence such as the flocking; (2) the minimum distance between birds could affect H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and even affect the virus transmissions from the flocking birds to the human.

  12. Staphylococcus-induced gangrenous dermatitis in broilers.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, H M; Munger, L L; Ley, D H; Ficken, M D

    1988-01-01

    An infectious bursal disease (IBD)-vaccinated flock of 23,900 broilers, 17 days of age, experienced sudden onset of depression, dermatitis, and mortality. Postmortem examination showed extensive subcutaneous serosanguineous fluid accumulation over the pectoral muscles, discrete hepatic whitish foci, fluid-filled intestines, and small, flaccid bursae of Fabricius. Gram-stained impression smears from the affected areas revealed numerous gram-positive cocci. Aerobic culture of liver and subcutaneous tissue consistently produced heavy growth of penicillin-sensitive Staphyloccus aureus. Histopathologically, subcutaneous tissue showed diffuse hemorrhage and large numbers of gram-positive cocci with severe congestion and hemorrhage of the underlying skeletal muscle. Liver sections showed multiple, randomly scattered areas of acute coagulation necrosis with numerous gram-positive cocci. Bursal lesions were characterized by extensive follicular necrosis and collapse. A diagnosis of staphylococcal gangrenous dermatitis secondary to IBD was made. Mortality returned to preinfection levels within 72 hours after penicillin was added to the drinking water.

  13. Sources of Salmonella contamination during broiler production in Eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Marin, C; Balasch, S; Vega, S; Lainez, M

    2011-01-01

    Prevention of Salmonella contamination of poultry products requires detailed knowledge of the main sources associated with its presence in the production system. The aims of this study were to determine the main sources of Salmonella contamination in broiler production during growing, to assess the risk factors for Salmonella contamination at the end of the rearing period and to determine the main serovars involved in broiler production systems in Eastern Spain. A total of 65 different broiler houses from different farms were sampled. Each house was sampled at different times during the rearing period. First, when the previous flock was taken to the slaughterhouse, samples of dust, surfaces and previous flock faeces were collected. After cleaning and disinfection (C&D), samples of dust and surfaces were also taken. On the first day of rearing, samples of water, bedding, farming boots, meconiums, delivery-box liners and feed were collected. During rearing, feed samples were taken directly from the truck and from feeders. On slaughter day, samples of dust, surfaces, water, feed and faeces were also collected. Finally, two days after slaughter, carriers (rodents, flies and beetles) were trapped. All samples collected were analysed according to ISO 6579:2002 (Annex D) and positive samples were serotyped in accordance with Kauffman-White-Le-Minor technique. Our results showed that all different types of samples collected were contaminated with Salmonella (prevalence ranged between 1.5% and 38.6%). The most contaminated samples related with poultry production were: delivery-box liners (32.0%), faeces samples (31.2%), dust samples (25.0%), farming boots (19.7%) and feed from feeders (16.0%). However, the most important risk factors for Salmonella contamination of the flocks at the end of the rearing period were Salmonella status of the house after cleaning and disinfection, Salmonella status of day-old chick flocks and feed from feeders. Twenty-one different serovars were

  14. Risk factors for malformations and impact on reproductive performance and mortality rates of Schmallenberg virus in sheep flocks in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Luttikholt, Saskia; Veldhuis, Anouk; van den Brom, René; Moll, Lammert; Lievaart-Peterson, Karianne; Peperkamp, Klaas; van Schaik, Gerdien; Vellema, Piet

    2014-01-01

    In Northwestern Europe, an epizootic outbreak of congenital malformations in newborn lambs due to infection with Schmallenberg virus (SBV) started at the end of 2011. The objectives of this study were to describe clinical symptoms of SBV infection, the effect of infection on mortality rates, and reproductive performance in sheep, as well as to identify and quantify flock level risk factors for SBV infections resulting in malformations in newborn lambs. A case-control study design was used, with 93 case flocks that had notified malformed lambs and 84 control flocks with no such lambs. Overall animal seroprevalence in case flocks was estimated at 82.0% (95% CI: 74.3-87.8), and was not significantly different from the prevalence in control flocks being 76.4% (95% CI: 67.2-83.6). The percentages of stillborn lambs or lambs that died before weaning, repeat breeders, and lambs with abnormal suckling behaviour were significantly higher in case flocks compared to control flocks. However, effect of SBV infection on mortality rates and reproductive performance seemed to be limited. Multivariable analysis showed that sheep flocks with an early start of the mating season, i.e. before August 2011 (OR = 33.1; 95% CI: 10.0-109.8) and in August 2011 (OR = 8.2; 95% CI: 2.7-24.6) had increased odds of malformations in newborn lambs caused by SBV compared to sheep flocks with a start of the mating season in October 2011. Other flock-level risk factors for malformations in newborn lambs were purchase of silage (OR 5.0; 95% CI: 1.7-15.0) and flocks with one or more dogs (OR = 3.3; 95% CI: 1.3-8.3). Delaying mating until October could be a potential preventive measure for naïve animals to reduce SBV induced losses. As duration of immunity after infection with SBV is expected to last for several years, future SBV induced congenital malformations are mainly expected in offspring of early mated seronegative animals.

  15. Farmers flock to coastal cities.

    PubMed

    Zhou, M; Mulley, S

    1994-01-01

    China's rural-urban migration flows, particularly into Shanghai, Guangdong province, Beijing, and coastal areas, present challenges for urban development. The impact on rural and urban areas and suggestions for minimizing undesirable consequences were discussed. Professor Zhang Qingwu, deputy director of the Population Research Institute of Xiamen University in Fujian province, believes that the large migrating populations and those without residence cards pose problems for heavily populated cities: they strain resources (housing, water and electricity supplies, transportation, telecommunication, environmental hygiene, food supplies, and educational facilities). Crime increases. Municipal departments must increase their administrative load in service sectors. The general idea is that rural-to-urban migration reflects social progress and adds to a productive work force. Flexible policies are recommended. In Guangdong province, where migrants arrived from Sichuan and Hunan provinces, counties from the latter two provinces have established offices for supervising their former residents. Employment adjustment can be anticipated when the major flock of migrants arrive after the Lantern Festival. Professor Gui Shixun of the Population Research Institute of East China Normal University and advisor to the State Family Planning Commission recommends that development strategies incorporate planning for imbalances between local population and migrant urban workers. In some areas, women represent the bulk of migrants, while in other areas men do. Cultural development should be stressed, with investments also improved in telecommunications, traffic and transportation, education, and hygiene. Professor Jiang Zhixue recommends shifting from labor-intensive enterprises to technology-intensive enterprises and a better trained work force. Other schemes, such as the purchase by migrants of residence cards in Xiamen, would entitle migrants to the same rights and obligations as

  16. Hierarchical group dynamics in pigeon flocks.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Máté; Akos, Zsuzsa; Biro, Dora; Vicsek, Tamás

    2010-04-08

    Animals that travel together in groups display a variety of fascinating motion patterns thought to be the result of delicate local interactions among group members. Although the most informative way of investigating and interpreting collective movement phenomena would be afforded by the collection of high-resolution spatiotemporal data from moving individuals, such data are scarce and are virtually non-existent for long-distance group motion within a natural setting because of the associated technological difficulties. Here we present results of experiments in which track logs of homing pigeons flying in flocks of up to 10 individuals have been obtained by high-resolution lightweight GPS devices and analysed using a variety of correlation functions inspired by approaches common in statistical physics. We find a well-defined hierarchy among flock members from data concerning leading roles in pairwise interactions, defined on the basis of characteristic delay times between birds' directional choices. The average spatial position of a pigeon within the flock strongly correlates with its place in the hierarchy, and birds respond more quickly to conspecifics perceived primarily through the left eye-both results revealing differential roles for birds that assume different positions with respect to flock-mates. From an evolutionary perspective, our results suggest that hierarchical organization of group flight may be more efficient than an egalitarian one, at least for those flock sizes that permit regular pairwise interactions among group members, during which leader-follower relationships are consistently manifested.

  17. Farm-scale evaluation of ozonation for mitigating ammonia concentrations in broiler houses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingjuan; Oviedo-Rondón, Edgar O; Small, John; Liu, Zifei; Sheldon, Brian W; Havenstein, Gerald B; Williams, C Mike

    2010-07-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of in-house ozonation within the public health standard limit (0.1 parts per million [ppm]) for mitigating ammonia (NH3) concentrations inside commercial broiler houses. The project was conducted in four identical tunnel-ventilated houses. Two houses served as treatment and the other two served as control units. The experiment was replicated in five consecutive flocks. Except for ozonation treatment, all other operational parameters including feed, broiler strain, age and number of broilers, and ventilation system were the same among four houses. NH3 and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the treatment and control houses were measured for a minimum of 48 hr/week throughout the five flocks of 8 or 9 weeks each. The gas measurements were conducted using portable multigas units (PMUs). House temperatures were recorded with data loggers in each flock. Comparison of temperatures and CO2 concentrations among houses indicated no significant differences in ventilation rates among treatment and control houses in any of the five flocks. As a result, comparisons of NH3 concentrations inside houses were used to evaluate the effectiveness of house ozonation for NH3 emission mitigation. Statistical test of mean NH3 concentrations for each flock separated by house indicated that the house-to-house variation was significantly smaller than the flock-to-flock variation. There was a substantial variation in NH3 concentrations across different flocks, but no house had consistently higher or lower mean NH3 concentrations than any other. Evaluations for differences in mean NH3 from week to week, between treatment groups, and differences in week-to-week variations between treatment groups suggested that ozone effect was not uniform for each week and the effect was not statistically significant for any week. Tests of overall ozone treatment effect and treatment-week interaction indicated there was no difference in mean NH3 between the control and

  18. Accelerator breeder with uranium, thorium target

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, H.; Powell, J.; Kouts, H.

    1983-01-01

    An accelerator breeder, that uses a low-enriched fuel as the target material, can produce substantial amounts of fissile material and electric power. A study of H/sub 2/O- and D/sub 2/O-cooled, UO/sub 2/, U, (depleted U), or thorium indicates that U-metal fuel produces a good fissile production rate and electrical power of about 60% higher than UO/sub 2/ fuel. Thorium fuel has the same order of magnitude as UO/sub 2/ fuel for fissile-fuel production, but the generating electric power is substantially lower than in a UO/sub 2/ reactor. Enriched UO/sub 2/ fuel increases the generating electric power but not the fissile-material production rate. The Na-cooled breeder target has many advantages over the H/sub 2/O-cooled breeder target.

  19. Phase Transitions in Models of Bird Flocking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulidi, H.; van der Weele, K.; Antonopoulos, Ch. G.; Bountis, T.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present paper is to elucidate the transition from collective to random behavior exhibited by various mathematical models of bird flocking. In particular, we compare Vicsek's model [Vicsek et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1226-1229 (1995)] with one based on topological considerations. The latter model is found to exhibit a first order phase transition from flocking to decoherence, as the "noise parameter" of the problem is increased, whereas Vicsek's model gives a second order transition. Refining the topological model in such a way that birds are influenced mostly by the birds in front of them, less by the ones at their sides and not at all by those behind them (because they do not see them), we find a behavior that lies in between the two models. Finally, we propose a novel mechanism for preserving the flock's cohesion, without imposing artificial boundary conditions or attractive forces.

  20. Functional Diversification within a Predatory Species Flock

    PubMed Central

    Burress, Edward D.; Duarte, Alejandro; Serra, Wilson S.; Loueiro, Marcelo; Gangloff, Michael M.; Siefferman, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Ecological speciation is well-known from adaptive radiations in cichlid fishes inhabiting lentic ecosystems throughout the African rift valley and Central America. Here, we investigate the ecological and morphological diversification of a recently discovered lotic predatory Neotropical cichlid species flock in subtropical South America. We document morphological and functional diversification using geometric morphometrics, stable C and N isotopes, stomach contents and character evolution. This species flock displays species-specific diets and skull and pharyngeal jaw morphology. Moreover, this lineage appears to have independently evolved away from piscivory multiple times and derived forms are highly specialized morphologically and functionally relative to ancestral states. Ecological speciation played a fundamental role in this radiation and our data reveal novel conditions of ecological speciation including a species flock that evolved: 1) in a piscivorous lineage, 2) under lotic conditions and 3) with pronounced morphological novelties, including hypertrophied lips that appear to have evolved rapidly. PMID:24278349

  1. Megabacteriosis in a flock of budgerigars.

    PubMed

    Christensen, N H; Hunter, J E; Alley, M R

    1997-10-01

    Megabacteriosis was diagnosed as the cause of depression and wasting in a flock of breeding budgerigars in the Manawatu. Large numbers of megabacteria were detected in direct smears from mucosal scrapings of the proventriculus of two birds and in the faeces of live birds. The diagnosis was confirmed by demonstrating a chronic proventriculitis histologically associated with megabacterial organisms. Treatment of seven individuals with amphotericin B resulted in clinically sustained weight gain over a 10-week period. Treatment of the whole flock resulted in the resumption of normal condition, behaviour and activity.

  2. 78 FR 25943 - Changes to Scrapie Flock Certification Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Changes to Scrapie Flock Certification Program AGENCY: Animal... giving notice of changes to the Scrapie Flock Certification Program (SFCP), a voluntary program for sheep and goat flock owners who wish to reduce and/or eliminate the risk of introducing classical...

  3. Socialized sub-groups in a temporary stable Raven flock?

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Anna; Walsdorff, Thomas; Fraser, Orlaith N.; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A complex social life serves as one of the main driving forces behind the evolution of higher cognitive abilities in vertebrates. In birds, however, data are primarily derived from captive animals, which strongly contrast with free-flying birds in terms of the number of interaction partners as well as available space. In captivity, Common Raven Corvus corax, nonbreeder groups show strong social bonds and complex tactical manoeuvring, whereas wild non-breeders are thought to resemble anonymous aggregations. Over 2 years, we observed a free-flying population of Ravens that visits a game park in the northern Alps. We here focus on the daily fission–fusion dynamics, individual spacing, and the influence of spacing on the birds’ agonistic and affiliative behaviour. The composition of marked Ravens in the local population changed slowly but constantly, although often remaining stable for several weeks. Birds only flocked for feeding, mobbing and roosting, and spent the rest of the day in loose aggregations, characterised by temporary small subgroups of 2–5 individuals. Aggression was high during crowd foraging but low outside of a feeding context. Affiliative behaviours, such as sitting within reaching distance, allo-preening and social play, were observed particularly in the small subgroups. These findings suggest that Raven aggregations are not as unstructured as previously thought. Birds may spend time and/or interact affilliatively with multiple individuals during the day. This, along with temporary stability in group composition, provides the opportunity for social relationships to develop, and enables the existence of socialised subgroups within free-flying Raven aggregations. PMID:25892747

  4. Effects of two different broiler flooring systems on production performances, welfare, and environment under commercial production conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Wen, X; Alphin, R; Zhu, Z; Zhou, Z

    2017-03-03

    Research comparing conventional litter and alternative perforated flooring (netting) systems is relatively limited under commercial production conditions. A comprehensive comparison of broiler production performances, welfare quality, and housing environment of two broiler houses with conventional litter and new perforated plastic floors was conducted over four flocks for eight months in eastern China. The two broiler houses each had 31,700 broilers per flock on average and were ventilated using a negative-pressure system. Prior to the onset of the monitoring, litter/manure in all houses was removed. The environmental conditions, gaseous concentrations, and ventilation rate were recorded continuously. Production performance and welfare quality data were collected weekly. Results showed that indoor temperature and relative humidity were not affected by the different floors when the two houses had the same ventilation configuration and management. The average ammonia concentration was lower at 10.44 ppm in the litter house compared to 15.02 ppm in the netting flooring house due to the manure accumulation under the floor. Broiler production performance including live weight, feed conversion, and mortality, was not affected by the netting floor compared to the litter system. In addition, the results suggested that birds raised in the netting floor house may increase breast blister incidence. In this study, the welfare quality parameters including hock and foot pad lesions, lameness, and fearfulness levels were similar in both for both flooring systems.

  5. Spatial contrasts of seasonal and intraflock broiler litter trace gas emissions, physical and chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Miles, D M; Brooks, J P; Sistani, K

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive mitigation strategies for gaseous emissions from broiler operations requires knowledge of the litters' physical and chemical properties, gas evolution, bird effects, as well as broiler house management and structure. This research estimated broiler litter surface fluxes for ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Ancillary measurements of litter temperature, litter total N, ammonium (NH4+), total C content, moisture, and pH were also made. Grid sampling was imposed over the floor area of two commercial broiler houses at the beginning (Day 1), middle (Day 23), and end (Day 43) of a winter and subsequent summer flock housed on reused pine shavings litter. The grid was composed of 36 points, three locations across the width, and 12 locations down the length of the houses. To observe feeder and waterer (F/W) influences on the parameters, eight additional sample locations were added in a crisscross pattern among these automated supply lines. Color variograms illustrate the nature of parameter changes within each flock and between seasons. Overall trends for the NH3, N2O, and CO2 gas fluxes indicate an increase in magnitude with bird age during a flock for both summer and winter, but flux estimates were reduced in areas where compacted litter (i.e., caked litter or cake) formed at the end of the flocks (at F/W locations and in the fan area). End of flock gas fluxes were estimated at 1040 mg NH3 m(-2) h(-1), 20 mg N2O m(-2) h(-1), and 24,200 mg CO2 m(-2) h(-1) in winter; and 843 mg NH3 m(-2) h(-1), 18 mg N2O m(-2) h(-1)), and 27,200 mg CO2 m(-2) h(-1) in summer. The results of intensive sample efforts during winter and summer flocks, reported visually using contour plots, offer a resource to the poultry industry and researchers for creating new management strategies for improving production and controlling gas evolution. Particularly, efforts could focus on designing housing systems that minimize extremes in litter compaction. The

  6. Distributions of lesser mealworm (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in litter of a compacted earth floor broiler house in subtropical Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lambkin, Trevor A; Kopittke, Rosemary A; Rice, Steven J; Bartlett, Justin S; Zalucki, Myron P

    2007-08-01

    Distributions of lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), in litter of a compacted earth floor broiler house in southeastern Queensland, Australia, were studied over two flocks. Larvae were the predominant stage recorded. Significantly low densities occurred in open locations and under drinker cups where chickens had complete access, whereas high densities were found under feed pans and along house edges where chicken access was restricted. For each flock, lesser mealworm numbers increased at all locations over the first 14 d, especially under feed pans and along house edges, peaking at approximately 26 d and then declining over the final 28 d. A life stage profile per flock was devised that consisted of the following: beetles emerge from the earth floor at the beginning of each flock, and females lay eggs, producing larvae that peak in numbers at approximately 3 wk; after a further 3 to 4 wk, larvae leave litter to pupate in the earth floor, and beetles then emerge by the end of the flock time. Removing old litter from the brooder section at the end of a flock did not greatly reduce mealworm numbers over the subsequent flock, but it seemed to prevent numbers increasing, while an increase in numbers in the grow-out section was recorded after reusing litter. Areas under feed pans and along house edges accounted for 5% of the total house area, but approximately half the estimated total number of lesser mealworms in the broiler house occurred in these locations. The results of this study will be used to determine optimal deployment of site-specific treatments for lesser mealworm control.

  7. Vitamin A toxicosis in a lorikeet flock.

    PubMed

    Park, Fiona

    2006-09-01

    Vitamin A toxicosis has recently been recognized as a concern for granivorous birds such as cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and nectarivorous birds such as lorikeets. Such birds have little exposure to performed vitamin A in their wild diet, relying on carotene conversion to supply their vitamin A needs. Multiple clinical problems arose in a lorikeet flock when excessive vitamin A supplementation was used.

  8. Further investigation of a quantitative trait locus for ascites on chromosome 9 in broiler chicken lines.

    PubMed

    Dey, Shatovisha; Krishna, Sriram; Anthony, Nicholas B; Rhoads, Douglas D

    2016-10-10

    Previously, we reported a genome wide association study (GWAS) that had shown association of a region between 11.8 and 13.6 Mbp on chromosome 9 with ascites phenotype in broilers. We had used microsatellite loci to demonstrate an association of particular genotypes for this region with ascites in experimental ascites lines and commercial broiler breeder lines. We identified two potential candidate genes, AGTR1 and UTS2D, within that chromosomal region for mediating the quantitative effect. We have now extended our analysis using SNPs for these genes to assess association with resistance or susceptibility to ascites in these same broiler lines. Surprisingly, in contrast to our previous GWAS and microsatellite data for this region, we find no association of the SNP genotypes or haplotypes in the region suggesting that the two genes might have limited association with the disease phenotype.

  9. Egg storage duration and hatch window affect gene expression of nutrient transporters and intestine morphological parameters of early hatched broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, S; Gursel, I; Bilgen, G; Izzetoglu, G T; Horuluoglu, B H; Gucluer, G

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, researchers have given emphasis on the differences in physiological parameters between early and late hatched chicks within a hatch window. Considering the importance of intestine development in newly hatched chicks, however, changes in gene expression of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of early hatched chicks within a hatch window have not been studied yet. This study was conducted to determine the effects of egg storage duration before incubation and hatch window on intestinal development and expression of PepT1 (H+-dependent peptide transporter) and SGLT1 (sodium-glucose co-transporter) genes in the jejunum of early hatched broiler chicks within a 30 h of hatch window. A total of 1218 eggs obtained from 38-week-old Ross 308 broiler breeder flocks were stored for 3 (ES3) or 14 days (ES14) and incubated at the same conditions. Eggs were checked between 475 and 480 h of incubation and 40 chicks from each egg storage duration were weighed; chick length and rectal temperature were measured. The chicks were sampled to evaluate morphological parameters and PepT1 and SGLT1 expression. The remaining chicks that hatched between 475 and 480 h were placed back in the incubator and the same measurements were conducted with those chicks at the end of hatch window at 510 h of incubation. Chick length, chick dry matter content, rectal temperature and weight of small intestine segments increased, whereas chick weight decreased during the hatch window. The increase in the jejunum length and villus width and area during the hatch window were higher for ES3 than ES14 chicks. PepT1 expression was higher for ES3 chicks compared with ES14. There was a 10.2 and 17.6-fold increase in PepT1 and SGLT1 expression of ES3 chicks at the end of hatch window, whereas it was only 2.3 and 3.3-fold, respectively, for ES14 chicks. These results suggested that egg storage duration affected development of early hatched chicks during 30 h of hatch window. It can be concluded that

  10. How backyard poultry flocks influence the effort required to curtail avian influenza epidemics in commercial poultry flocks.

    PubMed

    Smith, G; Dunipace, S

    2011-06-01

    This paper summarizes the evidence that the contribution of backyard poultry flocks to the on-going transmission dynamics of an avian influenza epidemic in commercial flocks is modest at best. Nevertheless, while disease control strategies need not involve the backyard flocks, an analysis of the contribution of each element of the next generation matrix to the basic reproduction number indicates that models which ignores the contribution of backyard flocks in estimating the effort required of strategies focused one host type (e.g. commercial flocks only) necessarily underestimate the level of effort to an extent that may matter to policy makers.

  11. Fast Breeder Reactors in Sweden: Vision and Reality.

    PubMed

    Fjaestad, Maja

    2015-01-01

    The fast breeder is a type of nuclear reactor that aroused much attention in the 1950s and '60s. Its ability to produce more nuclear fuel than it consumes offered promises of cheap and reliable energy. Sweden had advanced plans for a nuclear breeder program, but canceled them in the middle of the 1970s with the rise of nuclear skepticism. The article investigates the nuclear breeder as a technological vision. The nuclear breeder reactor is an example of a technological future that did not meet its industrial expectations. But that does not change the fact that the breeder was an influential technology. Decisions about the contemporary reactors were taken with the idea that in a foreseeable future they would be replaced with the efficient breeder. The article argues that general themes in the history of the breeder reactor can deepen our understanding of the mechanisms behind technological change.

  12. Kinematic Analysis Quantifies Gait Abnormalities Associated with Lameness in Broiler Chickens and Identifies Evolutionary Gait Differences

    PubMed Central

    Caplen, Gina; Hothersall, Becky; Murrell, Joanna C.; Nicol, Christine J.; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E.; Weeks, Claire A.; Colborne, G. Robert

    2012-01-01

    This is the first time that gait characteristics of broiler (meat) chickens have been compared with their progenitor, jungle fowl, and the first kinematic study to report a link between broiler gait parameters and defined lameness scores. A commercial motion-capturing system recorded three-dimensional temporospatial information during walking. The hypothesis was that the gait characteristics of non-lame broilers (n = 10) would be intermediate to those of lame broilers (n = 12) and jungle fowl (n = 10, tested at two ages: immature and adult). Data analysed using multi-level models, to define an extensive range of baseline gait parameters, revealed inter-group similarities and differences. Natural selection is likely to have made jungle fowl walking gait highly efficient. Modern broiler chickens possess an unbalanced body conformation due to intense genetic selection for additional breast muscle (pectoral hypertrophy) and whole body mass. Together with rapid growth, this promotes compensatory gait adaptations to minimise energy expenditure and triggers high lameness prevalence within commercial flocks; lameness creating further disruption to the gait cycle and being an important welfare issue. Clear differences were observed between the two lines (short stance phase, little double-support, low leg lift, and little back displacement in adult jungle fowl; much double-support, high leg lift, and substantial vertical back movement in sound broilers) presumably related to mass and body conformation. Similarities included stride length and duration. Additional modifications were also identified in lame broilers (short stride length and duration, substantial lateral back movement, reduced velocity) presumably linked to musculo-skeletal abnormalities. Reduced walking velocity suggests an attempt to minimise skeletal stress and/or discomfort, while a shorter stride length and time, together with longer stance and double-support phases, are associated with

  13. Fermented liquid feed reduces susceptibility of broilers for Salmonella enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Heres, L; Engel, B; van Knapen, F; de Jong, M C M; Wagenaar, J A; Urlings, H A P

    2003-04-01

    The presence of Salmonella in chickens is a problem because poultry meat is recognized as a source of human salmonellosis. Fermented feed has characteristics like a high number of lactobacilli and high concentration of lactic acid, which could make chickens less susceptible for infection with Salmonella. Fermented feed might therefore prevent the colonization of chickens with Salmonella. Two studies were performed to quantify the effect of fermented liquid feed on the susceptibility of broilers for Salmonella. The fermented feed was prepared by fermenting a dry broiler feed supplemented with 1.4 parts of water. Lactobacillus plantarum was used for fermentation. The fermented liquid feed (FLF) contained 10(9) to 10(10) cfu lactobacilli per gram, and the pH was 4. Individually housed control chickens and FLF-fed chickens were inoculated with 10(2) to 10(7) cfu Salmonella enteritidis (SE). Colonization was estimated by cloacal swabs and quantitative caecal culture. The proportion of SE-shedding chickens was decreased in FLF-fed chickens. FLF-fed chickens required a longer time after inoculation or a higher inoculation dose to get the same proportion of infected chickens in comparison with dry feed-fed chickens. The level of cecal colonization with Salmonella in the ceca was not different at the end of the experimental period. The results indicate that FLF can hamper the introduction of Salmonella in broiler flocks because the chickens are less susceptible for infection. Fermented liquid feed might therefore be a new hurdle in the strategy to control Salmonella in chicken flocks.

  14. Experimental Breeder Reactor I Preservation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Julie Braun

    2006-10-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR I) is a National Historic Landmark located at the Idaho National Laboratory, a Department of Energy laboratory in southeastern Idaho. The facility is significant for its association and contributions to the development of nuclear reactor testing and development. This Plan includes a structural assessment of the interior and exterior of the EBR I Reactor Building from a preservation, rather than an engineering stand point and recommendations for maintenance to ensure its continued protection.

  15. Do avian cooperative breeders live longer?

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Guy

    2014-07-22

    Cooperative breeding is not common in birds but intriguingly over-represented in several families, suggesting that predisposing factors, similar ecological constraints or a combination of the two facilitate the evolution of this breeding strategy. The life-history hypothesis proposes that cooperative breeding is facilitated by high annual survival, which increases the local population and leads to a shortage of breeding opportunities. Clutch size in cooperative breeders is also expected to be smaller. An earlier comparative analysis in a small sample of birds supported the hypothesis but this conclusion has been controversial. Here, I extend the analysis to a larger, worldwide sample and take into account potential confounding factors that may affect estimates of a slow pace of life and clutch size. In a sample of 81 species pairs consisting of closely related cooperative and non-cooperative breeders, I did not find an association between maximum longevity and cooperative breeding, controlling for diet, body mass and sampling effort. However, in a smaller sample of 37 pairs, adult annual survival was indeed higher in the cooperative breeders, controlling for body mass. There was no association between clutch size and cooperative breeding in a sample of 93 pairs. The results support the facilitating effect of high annual survival on the evolution of cooperative breeding in birds but the effect on clutch size remains elusive.

  16. Do avian cooperative breeders live longer?

    PubMed Central

    Beauchamp, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative breeding is not common in birds but intriguingly over-represented in several families, suggesting that predisposing factors, similar ecological constraints or a combination of the two facilitate the evolution of this breeding strategy. The life-history hypothesis proposes that cooperative breeding is facilitated by high annual survival, which increases the local population and leads to a shortage of breeding opportunities. Clutch size in cooperative breeders is also expected to be smaller. An earlier comparative analysis in a small sample of birds supported the hypothesis but this conclusion has been controversial. Here, I extend the analysis to a larger, worldwide sample and take into account potential confounding factors that may affect estimates of a slow pace of life and clutch size. In a sample of 81 species pairs consisting of closely related cooperative and non-cooperative breeders, I did not find an association between maximum longevity and cooperative breeding, controlling for diet, body mass and sampling effort. However, in a smaller sample of 37 pairs, adult annual survival was indeed higher in the cooperative breeders, controlling for body mass. There was no association between clutch size and cooperative breeding in a sample of 93 pairs. The results support the facilitating effect of high annual survival on the evolution of cooperative breeding in birds but the effect on clutch size remains elusive. PMID:24898375

  17. Role of projection in the control of bird flocks

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Daniel J. G.; Miller, Adam M.; Rowlands, George; Turner, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    Swarming is a conspicuous behavioral trait observed in bird flocks, fish shoals, insect swarms, and mammal herds. It is thought to improve collective awareness and offer protection from predators. Many current models involve the hypothesis that information coordinating motion is exchanged among neighbors. We argue that such local interactions alone are insufficient to explain the organization of large flocks of birds and that the mechanism for the exchange of long-range information necessary to control their density remains unknown. We show that large flocks self-organize to the maximum density at which a typical individual still can see out of the flock in many directions. Such flocks are marginally opaque—an external observer also still can see a substantial fraction of sky through the flock. Although this seems intuitive, we show it need not be the case; flocks might easily be highly diffuse or entirely opaque. The emergence of marginal opacity strongly constrains how individuals interact with one another within large swarms. It also provides a mechanism for global interactions: an individual can respond to the projection of the flock that it sees. This provides for faster information transfer and hence rapid flock dynamics, another advantage over local models. From a behavioral perspective, it optimizes the information available to each bird while maintaining the protection of a dense, coherent flock. PMID:25002501

  18. Is the species flock concept operational? The Antarctic shelf case.

    PubMed

    Lecointre, Guillaume; Améziane, Nadia; Boisselier, Marie-Catherine; Bonillo, Céline; Busson, Frédéric; Causse, Romain; Chenuil, Anne; Couloux, Arnaud; Coutanceau, Jean-Pierre; Cruaud, Corinne; d'Acoz, Cédric d'Udekem; De Ridder, Chantal; Denys, Gael; Dettaï, Agnès; Duhamel, Guy; Eléaume, Marc; Féral, Jean-Pierre; Gallut, Cyril; Havermans, Charlotte; Held, Christoph; Hemery, Lenaïg; Lautrédou, Anne-Claire; Martin, Patrick; Ozouf-Costaz, Catherine; Pierrat, Benjamin; Pruvost, Patrice; Puillandre, Nicolas; Samadi, Sarah; Saucède, Thomas; Schubart, Christoph; David, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    There has been a significant body of literature on species flock definition but not so much about practical means to appraise them. We here apply the five criteria of Eastman and McCune for detecting species flocks in four taxonomic components of the benthic fauna of the Antarctic shelf: teleost fishes, crinoids (feather stars), echinoids (sea urchins) and crustacean arthropods. Practical limitations led us to prioritize the three historical criteria (endemicity, monophyly, species richness) over the two ecological ones (ecological diversity and habitat dominance). We propose a new protocol which includes an iterative fine-tuning of the monophyly and endemicity criteria in order to discover unsuspected flocks. As a result nine « full » species flocks (fulfilling the five criteria) are briefly described. Eight other flocks fit the three historical criteria but need to be further investigated from the ecological point of view (here called "core flocks"). The approach also shows that some candidate taxonomic components are no species flocks at all. The present study contradicts the paradigm that marine species flocks are rare. The hypothesis according to which the Antarctic shelf acts as a species flocks generator is supported, and the approach indicates paths for further ecological studies and may serve as a starting point to investigate the processes leading to flock-like patterning of biodiversity.

  19. Is the Species Flock Concept Operational? The Antarctic Shelf Case

    PubMed Central

    Lecointre, Guillaume; Améziane, Nadia; Boisselier, Marie-Catherine; Bonillo, Céline; Busson, Frédéric; Causse, Romain; Chenuil, Anne; Couloux, Arnaud; Coutanceau, Jean-Pierre; Cruaud, Corinne; d'Acoz, Cédric d'Udekem; De Ridder, Chantal; Denys, Gael; Dettaï, Agnès; Duhamel, Guy; Eléaume, Marc; Féral, Jean-Pierre; Gallut, Cyril; Havermans, Charlotte; Held, Christoph; Hemery, Lenaïg; Lautrédou, Anne-Claire; Martin, Patrick; Ozouf-Costaz, Catherine; Pierrat, Benjamin; Pruvost, Patrice; Puillandre, Nicolas; Samadi, Sarah; Saucède, Thomas; Schubart, Christoph; David, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    There has been a significant body of literature on species flock definition but not so much about practical means to appraise them. We here apply the five criteria of Eastman and McCune for detecting species flocks in four taxonomic components of the benthic fauna of the Antarctic shelf: teleost fishes, crinoids (feather stars), echinoids (sea urchins) and crustacean arthropods. Practical limitations led us to prioritize the three historical criteria (endemicity, monophyly, species richness) over the two ecological ones (ecological diversity and habitat dominance). We propose a new protocol which includes an iterative fine-tuning of the monophyly and endemicity criteria in order to discover unsuspected flocks. As a result nine « full » species flocks (fulfilling the five criteria) are briefly described. Eight other flocks fit the three historical criteria but need to be further investigated from the ecological point of view (here called « core flocks »). The approach also shows that some candidate taxonomic components are no species flocks at all. The present study contradicts the paradigm that marine species flocks are rare. The hypothesis according to which the Antarctic shelf acts as a species flocks generator is supported, and the approach indicates paths for further ecological studies and may serve as a starting point to investigate the processes leading to flock-like patterning of biodiversity. PMID:23936311

  20. Temporal and Contextual Consistency of Leadership in Homing Pigeon Flocks

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Carlos D.; Neupert, Stefanie; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Wikelski, Martin; Dechmann, Dina K. N.

    2014-01-01

    Organized flight of homing pigeons (Columba livia) was previously shown to rely on simple leadership rules between flock mates, yet the stability of this social structuring over time and across different contexts remains unclear. We quantified the repeatability of leadership-based flock structures within a flight and across multiple flights conducted with the same animals. We compared two contexts of flock composition: flocks of birds of the same age and flight experience; and, flocks of birds of different ages and flight experience. All flocks displayed consistent leadership-based structures over time, showing that individuals have stable roles in the navigational decisions of the flock. However, flocks of balanced age and flight experience exhibited reduced leadership stability, indicating that these factors promote flock structuring. Our study empirically demonstrates that leadership and followership are consistent behaviours in homing pigeon flocks, but such consistency is affected by the heterogeneity of individual flight experiences and/or age. Similar evidence from other species suggests leadership as an important mechanism for coordinated motion in small groups of animals with strong social bonds. PMID:25054203

  1. Flocking algorithm for autonomous flying robots.

    PubMed

    Virágh, Csaba; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Tarcai, Norbert; Szörényi, Tamás; Somorjai, Gergő; Nepusz, Tamás; Vicsek, Tamás

    2014-06-01

    Animal swarms displaying a variety of typical flocking patterns would not exist without the underlying safe, optimal and stable dynamics of the individuals. The emergence of these universal patterns can be efficiently reconstructed with agent-based models. If we want to reproduce these patterns with artificial systems, such as autonomous aerial robots, agent-based models can also be used in their control algorithms. However, finding the proper algorithms and thus understanding the essential characteristics of the emergent collective behaviour requires thorough and realistic modeling of the robot and also the environment. In this paper, we first present an abstract mathematical model of an autonomous flying robot. The model takes into account several realistic features, such as time delay and locality of communication, inaccuracy of the on-board sensors and inertial effects. We present two decentralized control algorithms. One is based on a simple self-propelled flocking model of animal collective motion, the other is a collective target tracking algorithm. Both algorithms contain a viscous friction-like term, which aligns the velocities of neighbouring agents parallel to each other. We show that this term can be essential for reducing the inherent instabilities of such a noisy and delayed realistic system. We discuss simulation results on the stability of the control algorithms, and perform real experiments to show the applicability of the algorithms on a group of autonomous quadcopters. In our case, bio-inspiration works in two ways. On the one hand, the whole idea of trying to build and control a swarm of robots comes from the observation that birds tend to flock to optimize their behaviour as a group. On the other hand, by using a realistic simulation framework and studying the group behaviour of autonomous robots we can learn about the major factors influencing the flight of bird flocks.

  2. Model flocks in a steady vortical flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggaley, A. W.

    2015-05-01

    We modify the standard Vicsek model to clearly distinguish between intrinsic noise due to imperfect alignment between organisms and extrinsic noise due to fluid motion. We then consider the effect of a steady vortical flow, the Taylor-Green vortex, on the dynamics of the flock, for various flow speeds, with a fixed intrinsic particle speed. We pay particular attention to the morphology of the flow, and quantify its filamentarity. Strikingly, above a critical flow speed there is a pronounced increase in the filamentarity of the flock, when compared to the zero-flow case. This is due to the fact that particles appear confined to areas of low vorticity; a familiar phenomena, commonly seen in the clustering of inertial particles in vortical flows. Hence, the cooperative motion of the particles gives them an effective inertia, which is seen to have a profound effect on the morphology of the flock, in the presence of external fluid motion. Finally, we investigate the angle between the flow and the particles direction of movement and find it follows a power-law distribution.

  3. Transgenerational epigenetic effects on innate immunity in broilers: an underestimated field to be explored?

    PubMed

    Berghof, T V L; Parmentier, H K; Lammers, A

    2013-11-01

    Transgenerational epigenetics is becoming more and more important for understanding the variation of physiological responses of individuals to the environment and the inheritance of these responses based on all mechanisms other than the actual DNA nucleotide sequence. Transgenerational epigenetics is the phenomenon that the information of the environment of (usually) a female animal is translated into memory-like responses preparing the offspring. As a consequence, individuals of the next generation may show different phenotypic traits depending whether their mothers were kept under different environmental conditions. This may result in either positive or negative effects on the next-generation individuals, which is different from individuals from mothers that have been kept in a different environment. Transgenerational epigenetic effects have been proposed and indicated for specific immune (T cell and antibody) responses (especially in mammals, but also in birds) and innate immunity (nonvertebrates), but surprisingly very little is known of transgenerational effects on innate immunity in chickens. Given the short lifespan of the chicken and therefore the likely dependence of chicken on innate immune mechanisms, more attention should be given to this arm of immunity and mechanisms of inheritance including transgenerational effects that can be initiated in the breeder generation. In addition, it is becoming evident that innate immunity also underlies metabolic disorders in broilers. In the current paper, we will argue that although very little is known of transgenerational effects of innate immunity in poultry, more attention should be given to this type of study. We will illustrate examples of transgenerational epigenetics, and finally propose strategies that should reveal the presence of transgenerational epigenetic effects on innate immunity in chickens and strategies to modulate breeder birds such that these effects positively affect innate immunity of broilers

  4. Water cooled breeder program summary report (LWBR (Light Water Breeder Reactor) development program)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    The purpose of the Department of Energy Water Cooled Breeder Program was to demonstrate pratical breeding in a uranium-233/thorium fueled core while producing electrical energy in a commercial water reactor generating station. A demonstration Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was successfully operated for more than 29,000 effective full power hours in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The reactor operated with an availability factor of 76% and had a gross electrical output of 2,128,943,470 kilowatt hours. Following operation, the expended core was examined and no evidence of any fuel element defects was found. Nondestructive assay of 524 fuel rods determined that 1.39 percent more fissile fuel was present at the end of core life than at the beginning, proving that breeding had occurred. This demonstrates the existence of a vast source of electrical energy using plentiful domestic thorium potentially capable of supplying the entire national need for many centuries. To build on the successful design and operation of the Shippingport Breeder Core and to provide the technology to implement this concept, several reactor designs of large breeders and prebreeders were developed for commercial-sized plants of 900--1000 Mw(e) net. This report summarizes the Water Cooled Breeder Program from its inception in 1965 to its completion in 1987. Four hundred thirty-six technical reports are referenced which document the work conducted as part of this program. This work demonstrated that the Light Water Breeder Reactor is a viable alternative as a PWR replacement in the next generation of nuclear reactors. This transition would only require a minimum of change in design and fabrication of the reactor and operation of the plant.

  5. Efficacy of feed additives against Campylobacter in live broilers during the entire rearing period.

    PubMed

    Guyard-Nicodème, M; Keita, A; Quesne, S; Amelot, M; Poezevara, T; Le Berre, B; Sánchez, J; Vesseur, P; Martín, Á; Medel, P; Chemaly, Marianne

    2016-02-01

    Poultry meat is the major source of human campylobacteriosis, the most frequently reported zoonosis in the EU. The prevalence of Campylobacter colonization in European broiler flocks is 71%. Despite considerable efforts, there is still no effective strategy available to prevent or reduce Campylobacter colonization in broilers. This study tested a wide variety of feed additives to reduce Campylobacter shedding in primary poultry production. Twelve additives containing organic or fatty acids, monoglycerides, plant extracts, prebiotics, or probiotics were tested. For each additive, broilers contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni were fed with an additive free diet (control group) or with a supplemented diet (treated group) and Campylobacter loads compared at three sampling times. No treatment was able to prevent broiler colonization by Campylobacter, and there was a high degree of variation in contamination among the birds. At 14 d of age, eight treatments significantly decreased the colonization level compared to the control group by a maximum of 2 log10 CFU/g. At 35 d of age, three of these treatments still had a significant effect with a maximum reduction of 1.88 log10 CFU/g for a probiotic. At 42 d of age, only one short-chain fatty acid was still significantly efficient with a mean reduction over 2 log10 CFU/g. In addition, a probiotic and a prebiotic-like compound significantly decreased the contamination by a maximum of 3 log10 CFU/g, only at the 42-d sampling period. This study gives promising results regarding the use of feed additives to reduce Campylobacter infection in flocks. Nevertheless, a global approach, combining intervention measures at the different steps of the broiler meat production chain could have a greater impact on the reduction of public health risk.

  6. Prediction of welfare outcomes for broiler chickens using Bayesian regression on continuous optical flow data.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Stephen J; Cain, Russell; Dawkins, Marian Stamp

    2012-12-07

    Currently, assessment of broiler (meat) chicken welfare relies largely on labour-intensive or post-mortem measures of welfare. We here describe a method for continuously and robustly monitoring the welfare of living birds while husbandry changes are still possible. We detail the application of Bayesian modelling to motion data derived from the output of cameras placed in commercial broiler houses. We show that the forecasts produced by the model can be used to accurately assess certain key aspects of the future health and welfare of a flock. The difference between healthy flocks and less-healthy ones becomes predictable days or even weeks before clinical symptoms become apparent. Hockburn (damaged leg skin, usually only seen in birds of two weeks or older) can be well predicted in flocks of only 1-2 days of age, using this approach. Our model combines optical flow descriptors of bird motion with robust multivariate forecasting and provides a sparse, efficient model with sparsity-inducing priors to achieve maximum predictive power with the minimum number of key variables.

  7. Nylon flocked swab severely reduces Hexagon Obti sensibility.

    PubMed

    Frippiat, Christophe; De Roy, Gilbert; Fontaine, Louis-Marie; Dognaux, Sophie; Noel, Fabrice; Heudt, Laeticia; Lepot, Laurent

    2015-02-01

    Hexagon Obti immunological blood test and flocked swab are widely used in forensic laboratories. Nevertheless, up to now, no compatibility tests have been published between sampling with the ethylene oxide treated flocked swab and the Hexagon Obti blood detection strip. In this study, we investigated this compatibility. Our work shows that sampling with ethylene oxide treated flocked swab reduces by a factor of at least 100 the detection threshold of blood using the Hexagon Obti immunological test.

  8. Entropic effects in a nonequilibrium system: Flocks of birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellana, Michele; Bialek, William; Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene

    2016-05-01

    When European starlings come together to form a flock, the distribution of their individual velocities narrows around the mean velocity of the flock. We argue that, in a broad class of models for the joint distribution of positions and velocities, this narrowing generates an entropic effect that opposes the cohesion of the flock. The strength of this effect depends strongly on the nature of the interactions among birds: If birds are coupled to a fixed number of neighbors, the entropic forces are weak, while if they couple to all other birds within a fixed distance, the entropic effects are sufficient to tear a flock apart.

  9. Task-Based Flocking Algorithm for Mobile Robot Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hongsheng; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; Tong, Guofeng

    In this paper, one task-based flocking algorithm that coordinates a swarm of robots is presented and evaluated based on the standard simulation platform. Task-based flocking algorithm(TFA) is an effective framework for mobile robots cooperation. Flocking behaviors are integrated into the cooperation of the multi-robot system to organize a robot team to achieve a common goal. The goal of the whole team is obtained through the collaboration of the individual robot’s task. The flocking model is presented, and the flocking energy function is defined based on that model to analyze the stability of the flocking and the task switching criterion. The simulation study is conducted in a five-versus-five soccer game, where the each robot dynamically selects its task in accordance with status and the whole robot team behaves as a flocking. Through simulation results and experiments, it is proved that the task-based flocking algorithm can effectively coordinate and control the robot flock to achieve the goal.

  10. Is allicin able to reduce Campylobacter jejuni colonization in broilers when added to drinking water?

    PubMed

    Robyn, J; Rasschaert, G; Hermans, D; Pasmans, F; Heyndrickx, M

    2013-05-01

    Reducing Campylobacter shedding on the farm could result in a reduction of the number of human campylobacteriosis cases. In this study, we first investigated if allicin, allyl disulfide, and garlic oil extract were able to either prevent C. jejuni growth or kill C. jejuni in vitro. Allyl disulfide and garlic oil extract reduced C. jejuni numbers in vitro below a detectable level at a concentration of 50 mg/kg (no lower concentrations were tested), whereas allicin reduced C. jejuni numbers below a detectable level at a concentration as low as 7.5 mg/kg. In further experiments we screened for the anti-C. jejuni activity of allicin in a fermentation system closely mimicking the broiler cecal environment using cecal microbiota and mucus isolated from C. jejuni-free broilers. During these fermentation experiments, allicin reduced C. jejuni numbers below a detectable level after 24 h at a concentration of 50 mg/kg. In contrast, 25 mg/kg of allicin killed C. jejuni in the first 28 h of incubation, but anti-C. jejuni activity was lost after 48 h of incubation, probably due to the presence of mucin in the growth medium. This had been confirmed in fermentation experiments in the presence of broiler cecal mucus. Based on these results, we performed an in vivo experiment to assess the prevention or reduction of cecal C. jejuni colonization in broiler chickens when allicin was added to drinking water. We demonstrated that allicin in drinking water did not have a statistically significant effect on cecal C. jejuni colonization in broilers. It was assumed, based on in vitro experiments, that the activity of allicin was thwarted by the presence of mucin-containing mucus. Despite promising in vitro results, allicin was not capable of statistically influencing C. jejuni colonization in a broiler flock, although a trend toward lower cecal C. jejuni numbers in allicin-treated broilers was observed.

  11. Temperature during the last week of incubation. I. Effects on hatching pattern and broiler chicken embryonic organ development.

    PubMed

    Maatjens, C M; van Roovert-Reijrink, I A M; Engel, B; van der Pol, C W; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the effects of an eggshell temperature (EST) of 35.6, 36.7, 37.8, and 38.9°C applied from d of incubation (E) 15, E17, and E19 on hatching pattern and embryonic organ development. A total of 2,850 first-grade eggs of a 43-week-old Ross 308 broiler breeder flock were incubated at an EST of 37.8°C until E15. From E15, E17, or E19 onward, eggs were incubated at an EST of 35.6, 36.7, 37.8, or 38.9°C. Moment of internal pipping (IP), external pipping (EP), and hatch was determined, and organ development was measured at E15, E17, E19, IP, EP, and hatch. A lower EST extended incubation duration compared to a higher EST. The lower incubation duration was mainly caused by the extended time until IP, whereas time between IP and hatch hardly varied between treatments. Relative heart weight was affected by EST already from 2 d after the start of EST treatment on E15, and effects became more pronounced at longer exposure time to various EST treatments. At hatch, the largest difference in relative heart weight was found between an EST of 35.6 and 38.9°C started at E15 (Δ=64.4%). From E17 onward, EST affected yolk-free body mass (YFBM) and relative stomach weight, where a lower EST resulted in a lower YFBM and relative stomach weight before IP and a higher YFBM and relative stomach weight after IP. From E19 onward, a lower EST resulted in a higher relative liver and spleen weight regardless of start time of treatment. Yolk weight and relative intestine weight were not affected by EST before and at E19, but a higher EST resulted in a higher yolk weight and lower relative intestine weight from IP onward. Based on the higher YFBM and higher relative organ growth found at hatch, we concluded that an EST lower than 37.8°C from E15 onward appears to be beneficial for optimal embryo development.

  12. Safety design of prototype fast breeder reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bhoje, S.B.; Chetal, S.C.; Singh, Om Pal

    2004-07-01

    The basic design and safety design of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is presented. Design aspects covered include safety classification, seismic categorization, design basis conditions, design safety limits, core physics, core monitoring, shutdown system, decay heat removal system, protection against sodium leaks and tube leaks in steam generator, plant layout, radiation protection, event analysis, beyond design basis accidents, integrity of primary containment, reactor containment building and design pressure resulting from core disruptive accident. The measures provided in the design represent a robust case of the safety of the reactor. (authors)

  13. ITER solid breeder blanket materials database

    SciTech Connect

    Billone, M.C.; Dienst, W.; Flament, T.; Lorenzetto, P.; Noda, K.; Roux, N.

    1993-11-01

    The databases for solid breeder ceramics (Li{sub 2},O, Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} and LiAlO{sub 2}) and beryllium multiplier material are critically reviewed and evaluated. Emphasis is placed on physical, thermal, mechanical, chemical stability/compatibility, tritium, and radiation stability properties which are needed to assess the performance of these materials in a fusion reactor environment. Correlations are selected for design analysis and compared to the database. Areas for future research and development in blanket materials technology are highlighted and prioritized.

  14. Growth, livability, feed consumption, and carcass composition of the Athens Canadian Random Bred 1955 meat-type chicken versus the 2012 high-yielding Cobb 500 broiler.

    PubMed

    Collins, K E; Kiepper, B H; Ritz, C W; McLendon, B L; Wilson, J L

    2014-12-01

    A flock of the Athens Canadian Random Bred (ACRB), a 1955 meat-type chicken control strain, was raised alongside a flock of 2012 Cobb 500 fast feathering high-yielding broilers to determine selection changes over the past 57 yr. All birds were reared under management practices appropriate for the Cobb 500. Birds were weighed weekly and processed at 6, 8, and 10 wk. Whole carcass, carcass parts, and organs were weighed. Modern broilers outweighed ACRB at every age, ranging from 3.7 to 4.7 times the size of the ACRB. All parts and organs were compared as a percentage of live fasted BW. The ACRB had significantly heavier feet, wings, internal organs, and feathers. The modern Cobb broiler had double the breast and larger leg muscles and had a significantly greater fat pad. Despite the larger muscle mass, the supply organs, the heart and lungs, were significantly smaller in the Cobb broiler than the ACRB as a percentage of BW. Relative size of supply and other vital organs should be given consideration for genetic selection of the future broiler. Comparisons of ACRB weights and organ percentages with past published data indicates that the ACRB remains a consistent control strain.

  15. Broiler performance when reared under various light sources.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, N G

    1988-01-01

    Three trials were conducted to determine if modern energy-efficient light sources, which vary in wavelength emission, affect broiler growth performance. The effect of light source on growth performance was determined by measuring body weight, feed conversion, and livability at intervals throughout rearing and at market age in three flocks of approximately 3,600 broilers each. Illuminance within the light-proof experimental facility was approximately 5 1x and photoregimen was 1 h dark:23 h light. Trial 1 compared incandescent (IN), warm white fluorescent (WWF), and daylight fluorescent (DLF) light sources. The WWF source provided superior body weight compared to IN light but feed conversion ratios were similar. Both IN and WWF light sources resulted in better body weight and feed conversion than that of the DLF light source. Trial 2 used IN, WWF, DLF, PL-5 fluorescent (PLF), design white fluorescent (DWF), and high pressure sodium (HPS) light sources. The PLF source resulted in mean body weight significantly higher than those produced by IN, HPS, and DWF. No other significant differences were observed. Trial 3 used IN, WWF, DLF, PLF, HPS, and low pressure sodium (LPS) light sources. Feed conversion for the HPS treatment was superior to that of PLF and LPS treatments. No other significant differences were observed. Light source did not affect livability in any of the trials. These trials demonstrated that energy-efficient light sources varying in wavelength emission may affect broiler growth performance, but consistent differences were not observed. Generally, IN light sources may be replaced with more energy-efficient light sources without adverse effects on broiler growth performance.

  16. A Novel Mycoplasma sp. Associated with Phallus Disease in Goose Breeders: Pathological and Bacteriological Findings.

    PubMed

    Carnaccini, S; Ferguson-Noel, N M; Chin, R P; Santoro, T; Black, P; Bland, M; Bickford, A A; Sentíes-Cué, C G

    2016-06-01

    In April 2014, poor fertility in a major commercial goose breeder operation in California triggered the submission of six live affected Toulouse ganders ( Anser anser ) to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory, Turlock branch (University of California-Davis). Toulouse were principally affected among all breeds, and their egg fertility dropped from 65.7% to less than 33.9% in the first 40 days of the 2014 breeding season. The flock consisted of 410 adult birds, 90 males and 320 females, between 2 and 5 yr of age. Inspection of the flock revealed that 44.4% of the Toulouse ganders had severe phallic deformities that prevented them from mating. At postmortem examination, severe yellowish fibrocaseous exudate disrupted the architecture of the phallus and occasionally produced fistulating tracts through the wall of the organ. Microscopically, multifocal lymphoid nodules were noted in the mucosa and submucosa of the phallus and were associated with extensive granulomatous reaction, intralesional bacteria, and spermatozoa. Mycoplasma spp. were isolated from the phallus of affected and nonaffected birds, and PCR protocols targeting the 16S-23S ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer regions and the RNA polymerase beta subunit gene were performed to identify the isolates. Three distinct species were identified on sequencing and analysis using the National Center for Biotechnology Information basic local alignment search tool: Mycoplasma cloacale , Mycoplasma anseris , and an unknown novel Mycoplasma sp. Additionally, Pasteurella multocida , in combination with other bacteria, was also isolated from the phallic lesions and identified as serotype 3 with a DNA profile of 1511 (National Veterinary Service Laboratory). This is the first report of these Mycoplasma spp. and other bacteria associated with reproductive disease in ganders in the United States.

  17. Potential environmental benefits of prospective genetic changes in broiler traits.

    PubMed

    Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Kyriazakis, I

    2016-02-01

    A system approach-based Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) framework, combined with a simple mechanistic model of bird energy balance was used to predict the potential effects of 15 y prospective broiler breeding on the environmental impacts of the standard UK broiler production system. The year 2014 Ross 308 genotype was used as a baseline, and a future scenario was specified from rates of genetic improvement predicted by the industry. The scenario included changes in the traits of growth rate (reducing the time to reach a target weight 2.05 kg from 34 d to 27 d), body lipid content, carcass yield, mortality and the number of chicks produced by a breeder hen. Diet composition was adjusted in order to accommodate the future nutrient requirements of the birds following the genetic change. The results showed that predicted changes in biological performance due to selective breeding could lead to reduced environmental impacts of the broiler production chain, most notably in the Eutrophication Potential (by 12%), Acidification Potential (by 10%) and Abiotic Resource Use (by 9%) and Global Warming Potential (by 9%). These reductions were mainly caused by the reduced maintenance energy requirement and thus lower feed intake, resulting from the shorter production cycle, together with the increased carcass yield. However, some environmental benefits were limited by the required changes in feed composition (e.g., increased inclusion of soy meal and vegetable oil) as a result of the changes in bird nutrient requirements. This study is the first one aiming to link the mechanistic animal modeling approach to predicted genetic changes in order to produce quantitative estimates of the future environmental impacts of broiler production. Although a more detailed understanding on the mechanisms of the potential changes in bird performance and their consequences on feeding and husbandry would be still be needed, the modeling framework produced in this study provides a starting point for

  18. Feather conditions and clinical scores as indicators of broilers welfare at the slaughterhouse.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, S; Saraiva, C; Stilwell, G

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the welfare of 64 different broiler farms on the basis of feather conditions and clinical scores measures collected at the slaughterhouse. A 3-point scale (0, 1 or 2) was used to classify dirty feathers, footpad dermatitis and hock burns measures, and a 2-point scale (present or absent) was used to classify breast burns, breast blisters and breast ulcer measures. Flocks were allocated into three body weight (BW) classes (A, B, C): class A (light) ≥1.43 and ≤1.68kg, class B (medium) ≥1.69 and ≤1.93kg; class C (heavy) ≥1.94 and ≤2.41kg. The absence of hock burns was more common in class A, while mild hock burns was more common in class B flocks. Breast ulcer was observed in class C flocks. The association observed for mild hock burns, breast burns and severe footpad dermatitis can indicate a simultaneous occurrence of these painful lesions. Very dirty feathers and severe footpad dermatitis relationship suggest litter humidity to be the common underlying cause. In conclusion, it was shown that clinical indicators can be used at the slaughterhouse to identify welfare problems. In the studied flocks, footpad dermatitis, feather conditions and hock burns were the main restrictions for good welfare and should be considered significant welfare indicators of the on-farm rearing conditions.

  19. Stability of model flocks in a vortical flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggaley, A. W.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the stability of self-propelled particle flocks in the Taylor-Green vortex, a steady vortical flow. We consider a model in which particles align themselves to a combination of the orientation and the acceleration of particles within a critical radius. We identify two distinct regimes: If alignment with orientation is dominant, the particles tend to be expelled from regions of high vorticity. In contrast, if anticipation is dominant, the particles accumulate in areas of large vorticity. In both regimes, the relative order of the flock is reduced. However, we show that there can be a critical balance of the two effects that stabilizes the flock in the presence of external fluid forcing. This strategy could provide a mechanism for animal flocks to remain globally ordered in the presence of fluid forcing, and it may also have applications in the design of flocking autonomous drones and artificial microswimmers.

  20. Recovery of Campylobacter from broiler feces during extended storage of transport cages.

    PubMed

    Berrang, M E; Northcutt, J K; Cason, J A

    2004-07-01

    Feces deposited in transport cages by a Campylobacter-positive flock can cause the spread of Campylobacter to subsequent flocks placed in the same cages. This experiment was designed to determine the effect of extended cage storage on the viability of Campylobacter in feces deposited on the cage floor during commercial transport and holding. After 4 h of feed (but not water) withdrawal, Campylobacter-positive broilers were caught by commercial catching crews, placed into 3 new commercial cages and transported with the rest of the flock to the holding area at a commercial processing facility. Broilers were allowed to remain in the cages for 8 h before being unloaded by facility personnel. After removal of the broilers, empty cages were held under a shed and sampled at 7 intervals for the presence of viable Campylobacter. Cages were sampled by removing all the feces out of a different randomly assigned compartment in each cage at 0.5, 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, and 48 h after unloading. No decrease in Campylobacter numbers was noted through 8 h of storage. After 24 h in both replications, Campylobacter was detected in 2 of 3 compartments by direct plating and detected in the third by enrichment only. After 48 h, Campylobacter was detected in one replication by enrichment only, and was not detected in the second replication at all. Storing soiled transport cages for 48 h between uses results in lower numbers of Campylobacter in feces, but may not eliminate Campylobacter entirely. Due to cage cost and space requirements, routine cage storage between uses would not be practical.

  1. The roles of the infectious bursal agent and several avian adenoviruses in the hemorrhagic-aplastic-anemia syndrome and gangrenous dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, J K; Klopp, S; Eckroade, R J; Krauss, W C

    1975-01-01

    The effect that breeder-flock immune status regarding the infectious bursal agent (IBA) and two avian adenoviruses (DPI-1 and DPI-2) has on the susceptibility of their commercially reared Delmarva broiler progeny to the hemorrhagic-aplastic-anemia syndrome and concurrent gangrenous dermatitis was determined. Lack of immunity to the IBA in breeder flocks was related to an increased susceptibility of progeny to anemia and dermatitis. Breeder-flock immunity to the two adenoviruses tested could not be related to the resistance or susceptibility of their progeny to the hemorrhagic-aplastic-anemia syndrome and gangrenous dermatitis.

  2. Age is not a determinant factor in susceptibility of broilers to H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Bertran, Kateri; Lee, Dong-Hun; Balzli, Charles; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Spackman, Erica; Swayne, David E

    2016-11-21

    In 2014-2015, the US experienced an unprecedented outbreak of H5 clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus. The H5N2 HPAI virus outbreak in the Midwest in 2015 affected commercial turkey and layer farms, but not broiler farms. To assess any potential genetic resistance of broilers and/or age-related effects, we investigated the pathogenesis and transmission of A/turkey/Minnesota/12582/2015 (H5N2) (Tk/MN/15) virus in commercial 5-week-old broilers, 8-week-old broilers, and >30-week-old broiler breeders. The mean bird lethal dose (BLD50) was 5.0 log10 mean egg infectious dose (EID50) for all age groups. The mean death time (MDT) was statistically not different among the three age groups, ranging between 3.2 and 4.8 days. All broilers that became infected shed high levels of virus with transmission to contacts and demonstrated severe pathology. Mortality and virus shedding results indicated that age is not a determinant factor in susceptibility of broilers to H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 HPAI virus. Previously, the Tk/MN/15 virus had a BLD50 of 3.6 log10 EID50 and MDT of 2 days in White Leghorn chickens and a BLD50 of 5.0 log10 EID50 and MDT of 5.9 days in turkeys, suggesting that the broiler breed is less susceptible to Midwestern H5N2 virus than the layer breed but similarly susceptible to turkeys. Therefore, genetic resistance of broilers to infection may have accounted only partially for the lack of affected broiler farms in the Midwestern outbreaks, with other contributing factors such as fewer outside to on farm exposure to contacts, type of production management system or enhanced biosecurity.

  3. Thermal baffle for fast-breeder reacton

    DOEpatents

    Rylatt, John A.

    1977-01-01

    A liquid-metal-cooled fast-breeder reactor includes a bridge structure for separating hot outlet coolant from relatively cool inlet coolant consisting of an annular stainless steel baffle plate extending between the core barrel surrounding the core and the thermal liner associated with the reactor vessel and resting on ledges thereon, there being inner and outer circumferential webs on the lower surface of the baffle plate and radial webs extending between the circumferential webs, a stainless steel insulating plate completely covering the upper surface of the baffle plate and flex seals between the baffle plate and the ledges on which the baffle plate rests to prevent coolant from washing through the gaps therebetween. The baffle plate is keyed to the core barrel for movement therewith and floating with respect to the thermal liner and reactor vessel.

  4. Broiler survivors of intravenous micro-particle injections: evaluation of growth, livability, meat quality, and arterial blood gas values during a cyclic heat challenge.

    PubMed

    Wideman, R F; Chapman, M E; Owens, C M; Devabhaktuni, M K; Cavitt, L C; Wang, W; Erf, G F

    2003-03-01

    When broilers are exposed to high ambient temperatures, their cardiac output can increase by 20 to 50%. Previously, we developed an intravenous micro-particle injection technique to select broilers having a cardiopulmonary capacity capable of accommodating increases in cardiac output associated with fast growth and cool temperatures. In the present study, male broilers were injected at 18 to 20 d of age with cellulose micro-particles sufficient to trigger >50% mortality by 35 d of age. The survivors of micro-particle injections (cellulose survivors) and saline-injected flock mates (control group) were exposed to a moderate cyclic heat challenge (peak temperature of 35 to 37 degrees C) beginning on d 36 and continuing through d 57. We tested the hypothesis that if the cellulose survivors represent the population cohort having the most robust cardiopulmonary capacity, then during a subsequent heat challenge these survivorspotentially may perform better than their unselected flock mates. Based on data combined from two independent experiments, the cellulose survivors exhibited improved livability and body weight gain when compared with their unselected flock mates during the cyclic heat challenge. Meat quality characteristics did not differ between the groups. In a third experiment, cellulose survivors and saline-injected male broilers were reared at thermoneutral temperatures or were exposed to a cyclic heat challenge beginning on d 36. Arterial blood samples were collected from unanesthetized birds at 47 to 49 d of age and were analyzed for pH, partial pressure of CO2, bicarbonate, partial pressure of O2, and saturation of hemoglobin with O2. The blood gas values for the cellulose survivors and saline-injected broilers did not differ within a temperature regimen, regardless of whether the broilers were chronically acclimated to heat or were exposed to an acute heat challenge at the end of the experiment. The cellulose survivors did not differ in susceptibility to

  5. Birth, death, and flight: a theory of Malthusian flocks.

    PubMed

    Toner, John

    2012-02-24

    I study "Malthusian flocks": moving aggregates of self-propelled entities (e.g., organisms, cytoskeletal actin, microtubules in mitotic spindles) that reproduce and die. Long-ranged order (i.e., the existence of a nonzero average velocity (v(r,t))≠0) is possible in these systems, even in spatial dimension d=2. Their spatiotemporal scaling structure can be determined exactly in d=2; furthermore, they lack both the longitudinal sound waves and the giant number fluctuations found in immortal flocks. Number fluctuations are very persistent, and propagate along the direction of flock motion, but at a different speed.

  6. The role of MIF, cyclinD1 and ERK in the development of pulmonary hypertension in broilers.

    PubMed

    Li, Haoyun; Wang, Yanmei; Chen, Lingli; Han, Lijuan; Li, Lifang; He, Han; Li, Yuan; Huang, Nan; Ren, Hao; Pei, Fangying; Li, Guilan; Cheng, Jia; Wang, Wenkui

    2017-04-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a major disease in the broiler breeding industry. During PH, the pulmonary artery undergoes remodelling, which is caused by pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. CyclinD1 regulates cell proliferation. This study investigated the role of cyclinD1 in the development of PH in broilers, and which bioactivators and signalling pathway are involved in the pathological process. The PH group contained 3-4-week-old broilers with clinical PH, and the healthy group broilers from the same flock without PH. Histopathology indicated pulmonary arterial walls were thicker in the PH group compared with the healthy group. Target gene expressions of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and cyclinD1 detected by quantitative real-time PCR were upregulated in the PH group compared with the healthy group. Immunohistochemistry showed MIF, phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) and cyclinD1 were present on pulmonary vascular walls; MIF was present in the cytoplasm of arterial endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells; p-ERK and cyclinD1 were present in smooth muscle cell cytoplasm. Western blotting demonstrated that MIF, p-ERKand cyclinD1 levels were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in the PH group compared with the healthy group. In summary, increased MIF in PH broiler pulmonary arteries upregulated cyclinD1 via the ERK signalling pathway to induce pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, causing pulmonary artery remodelling and hypertension.

  7. Broiler Breeder Sperm Mobility Phenotype and its Effects on Female Fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Semen quality in poultry can be characterized by different phenotypic traits including volume, concentration, mobility, viability, and sperm morphology. To date, sperm mobility phenotype has been shown to be the most reliable indicator of male fertilizing potential under artificial insemination (AI...

  8. Similarities and differences between the sperm quality index and sperm mobility index of broiler breeder semen.

    PubMed

    Dumpala, P R; Parker, H M; McDaniel, C D

    2006-12-01

    The sperm quality index (SQI) and sperm mobility index (SMI) both predict sperm motility. Previous research was conducted comparing the SMI with the SQI; however, semen was diluted improperly for the SQI (40-fold). For an accurate comparison, semen must be diluted 10-fold for the SQI. Therefore, the overall objective of this study, utilizing 4 experiments, was to examine the relationship of the SQI with the SMI when: 1) active, heat-inactivated, and boiled sperm were incubated and analyzed over 60 min, 2) motile and immotile sperm were combined, 3) dead sperm (boiled or frozen) and live sperm were combined, and 4) sperm were rendered immotile by adding Zn. In experiment 1, the SQI was stable throughout incubation for active sperm and zero for heat-inactivated and boiled sperm. The SMI from active sperm steadily increased over incubation. However, the SMI from heat-inactivated sperm increased drastically resulting in values higher than active sperm after 35 min of incubation. The SMI from active sperm was higher than boiled sperm throughout incubation. For experiment 2, a cubic increase in the SQI occurred as active sperm increased from 0 to 100%. However, there was no difference in SMI readings until samples contained 80% active sperm. In experiment 3, for both boiled and frozen sperm, as the percentage of viable sperm increased, there was a logarithmic increase in the SQI. The SMI values were similar for 0 and 100% viable sperm when using boiled sperm, and all SMI readings were similar to 0% viable for frozen sperm. For experiment 4, both the SQI and SMI values from semen incubated with Zn were lower than that of saline. The SQI from sperm incubated in saline was higher than that of Zn throughout incubation, yet there were no differences in SMI values after 90 min of incubation. In conclusion, both the SQI and SMI of sperm decrease in response to Zn. However, it appears that immotile and dead sperm are capable of increasing SMI values but not SQI values.

  9. The use of blood gas parameters to predict ascites susceptibility in juvenile broilers.

    PubMed

    van As, P; Elferink, M G; Closter, A M; Vereijken, A; Bovenhuis, H; Crooijmans, R P M A; Decuypere, E; Groenen, M A M

    2010-08-01

    Ascites syndrome is a metabolic disorder found in modern broilers that have insufficient pulmonary vascular capacity. Commercial breeding programs have heavily focused on high growth rate, which led to fast-growing chickens, but as a negative consequence, the incidence of ascites syndrome increased. However, not all birds with a high growth rate will suffer from ascites syndrome, which might indicate a genetic susceptibility to ascites. Information on blood gas parameters measured early in life and their relation to ascites susceptibility is expected to contribute to identification on the cause of ascites syndrome. In this study, several physiological parameters, such as blood gas parameters [pH, partial pressure of CO(2) in venous blood (pvCO(2)), and partial pressure of O(2) in venous blood], hematocrit, electrolytes (Na(+), Ca(2+), and K(+)), metabolites (lactate and glucose), were measured at d 11 to 12 of age from 100 female and 100 male broilers. From d 14 onward, the birds were challenged to provoke the development of ascites syndrome. Our results showed that high pvCO(2) values together with low pH values (males) or high pH values (females) in the venous blood of juvenile broilers coincided with ascites. Therefore, blood pvCO(2) and pH in both juvenile male and female broilers seem to be critical factors in ascites pathophysiology and can be used as phenotypic traits to predict ascites susceptibility in juvenile broilers at d 11 to 12. A prediction model was built on a subpopulation of the broilers without any loss in sensitivity (0.52) and specificity (0.78) when applied to the validation population. The parameter sex was included in the prediction model because levels of pvCO(2) and pH that associated with ascites susceptibility are different between males and females. Commercial breeders can include these phenotypic traits in their genetic selection programs to reduce the incidence of ascites syndrome.

  10. Progress and problems in vaccination against necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mot, Dorien; Timbermont, Leen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2014-01-01

    Necrotic enteritis in broilers is caused by Clostridium perfringens type A strains that produce the NetB toxin. Necrotic enteritis is one of the gastrointestinal diseases in poultry that has gained worldwide importance during the last decade due to efforts to improve broiler performance. Prevention strategies include avoiding predisposing factors, such as coccidiosis, and in-feed supplementation with a variety of feed additives. However, vaccination with modified toxin or other secreted immunogenic proteins seems a logical preventive tool for protection against a toxin-producing bacterium. Formalin-inactivated crude supernatant has been used initially for vaccination. Several studies have been carried out recently to identify the most important immunogenic and protective proteins that can be used for vaccination. These include the NetB toxin, as well as a number of other proteins. There is evidence that immunization with single proteins is not protective against severe challenge and that combinations of different antigens are needed. Most published studies have used multiple dosage vaccination regimens that are not relevant for practical use in the broiler industry. Single vaccination regimens for 1-day-old chicks appear to be non-protective. This review describes the history of vaccination strategies against necrotic enteritis in broilers and gives an update on future vaccination strategies that are applicable in the field. These may include breeder hen vaccination, in ovo vaccination and live attenuated vectors to be used in feed or in drinking water.

  11. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica isolates throughout an integrated broiler supply chain in China.

    PubMed

    Ren, X; Li, M; Xu, C; Cui, K; Feng, Z; Fu, Y; Zhang, J; Liao, M

    2016-10-01

    A total of 1145 samples were collected from chicken breeder farms, hatcheries, broiler farms, a slaughterhouse and retail refrigerated chicken stores in an integrated broiler supply chain in Guangdong Province, China, in 2013. One-hundred and two Salmonella enterica strains were isolated and subjected to serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, virulence profile determination and molecular subtyping by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The contamination rates in samples from breeder farms, hatcheries, broiler farms, the slaughterhouse and retail stores were 1·46%, 4·31%, 7·00%, 62·86% and 54·67%, respectively. The isolated strains of S. enterica belonged to 10 serotypes; most of them were S. Weltevreden (46·08%, 47/102) and S. Agona (18·63%, 19/102). Isolates were frequently resistant to streptomycin (38·2%), tetracycline (36·3%), sulfisoxazole (35·3%) and gentamicin (34·3%); 31·4% of isolates were multidrug resistant. The isolates were screened for 10 virulence factors. The Salmonella pathogenicity island genes avrA, ssaQ, mgtC, siiD, and sopB and the fimbrial gene bcfC were present in 100% of the strains. PFGE genotyping of the 102 S. enterica isolates yielded 24 PFGE types at an 85% similarity threshold. The PFGE patterns show that the genotypes of S. enterica in the production chain are very diverse, but some strains have 100% similarity in different parts of the production chain, which indicates that some S. enterica persist throughout the broiler supply chain.

  12. Longitudinal monitoring of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli at German broiler chicken fattening farms.

    PubMed

    Laube, H; Friese, A; von Salviati, C; Guerra, B; Käsbohrer, A; Kreienbrock, L; Roesler, U

    2013-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli to modern beta-lactam antibiotics due to the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and/or plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases (AmpC) represents an emerging and increasing resistance problem that dramatically limits therapeutic options in both human and veterinary medicine. The presence of ESBL/AmpC genes in commensal E. coli from food-producing animals like broilers may pose a human health hazard. However, there are no data available concerning the prevalence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in German broiler flocks using selective methods. In this longitudinal study, samples were taken from seven conventional broiler fattening farms at three different times within one fattening period. Various samples originating from the animals as well as from their direct environment in the barn were investigated for the occurrence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli. Average detection levels of 51, 75, and 76% in animal samples collected during the three samplings in the course of the fattening period demonstrate a colonization of even 1-day-old chicks, as well as a continuous significant (P < 0.001) increase in prevalence thereafter. The detection frequencies in housing environmental samples were relatively high, with an increase over time, and ranged between 54.2 and 100%. A total of 359 E. coli isolates were characterized by PCR and partly via the disc diffusion method. This study shows that prevalence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli increases during the fattening period of the broiler flocks examined. Both colonized day-old chicks and contaminated farm environments could represent significant sources of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in German broiler fattening farms.

  13. Relations between the consumption of antimicrobial growth promoters and the occurrence of resistance among Enterococcus faecium isolated from broilers.

    PubMed Central

    Emborg, H. D.; Andersen, J. S.; Seyfarth, A. M.; Wegener, H. C.

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigates, at farm level, the effect of the time-span between sampling and the last time a particular antimicrobial growth promoter (AGP) was included in the feed on the probability of selecting an AGP-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolate from a broiler flock. The probability that a randomly selected E. faecium isolate was resistant to avilamycin, erythromycin or virginiamycin was 0.91, 0.92 and 0.84, respectively if the isolate originated from a broiler flock fed either avilamycin- or virginiamycin-supplemented feed. As the time-span between sampling and the last AGP consumption increased, the probability of isolating an E. faecium isolate resistant to a particular AGP decreased (probability <0.2 within 3-5 years after last exposure to AGPs). The decrease in probability over time showed little farm-to-farm variation. The number of times a particular AGP was given to previous flocks reared in the same house had no effect on the probability of isolating a resistant isolate. PMID:14979595

  14. Relations between the consumption of antimicrobial growth promoters and the occurrence of resistance among Enterococcus faecium isolated from broilers.

    PubMed

    Emborg, H D; Andersen, J S; Seyfarth, A M; Wegener, H C

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigates, at farm level, the effect of the time-span between sampling and the last time a particular antimicrobial growth promoter (AGP) was included in the feed on the probability of selecting an AGP-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolate from a broiler flock. The probability that a randomly selected E. faecium isolate was resistant to avilamycin, erythromycin or virginiamycin was 0.91, 0.92 and 0.84, respectively if the isolate originated from a broiler flock fed either avilamycin- or virginiamycin-supplemented feed. As the time-span between sampling and the last AGP consumption increased, the probability of isolating an E. faecium isolate resistant to a particular AGP decreased (probability <0.2 within 3-5 years after last exposure to AGPs). The decrease in probability over time showed little farm-to-farm variation. The number of times a particular AGP was given to previous flocks reared in the same house had no effect on the probability of isolating a resistant isolate.

  15. Nutrient balances as indicators for sustainability of broiler production systems.

    PubMed

    Kratz, S; Halle, I; Rogasik, J; Schnug, E

    2004-04-01

    1. Flock balances of nitrogen, phosphorus, zinc and copper (N, P, Zn, Cu) were calculated in order to evaluate environmental effects of three different broiler production systems (intensive indoor, free range and organic). 2. Nutrient gain in birds per unit nutrient intake (retention) in intensive indoor production was higher than in free range and organic production. 3. Nutrient surplus relative to nutrient retention was higher in organic production than in free range and intensive indoor production. 4. The main reasons for differences in nutrient efficiency between intensive indoor, free range and organic production were duration of growth period, strain of broilers and feeding strategy. 5. The calculation of whole farm indicators (livestock density, N and P excretions per hectare of farmland) demonstrates how defining system boundaries affects the outcome of an evaluation: organic farms had the smallest livestock densities and the lowest N and P excretions per hectare of farmland. 6. In the efforts to reach a more holistic evaluation of agricultural production systems, the definition of adequate system boundaries must be discussed. In addition to nutrient balances, further indicators of sustainability, such as human and ecological toxicity, should be considered.

  16. Light-water breeder reactors: preliminary safety and environmental information document. Volume III

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Information is presented concerning prebreeder and breeder reactors based on light-water-breeder (LWBR) Type 1 modules; light-water backfit prebreeder supplying advanced breeder; light-water backfit prebreeder/seed-blanket breeder system; and light-water backfit low-gain converter using medium-enrichment uranium, supplying a light-water backfit high-gain converter.

  17. Fabrication, properties, and tritium recovery from solid breeder materials

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.E. ); Kondo, T. ); Roux, N. ); Tanaka, S. ); Vollath, D. )

    1991-01-01

    The breeding blanket is a key component of the fusion reactor because it directly involves tritium breeding and energy extraction, both of which are critical to development of fusion power. The lithium ceramics continue to show promise as candidate breeder materials. This promise was recognized by the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design team in its selection of ceramics as the first option for the ITER breeder material. Blanket design studies have indicated properties in the candidate materials data base that need further investigation. Current studies are focusing on tritium release behavior at high burnup, changes in thermophysical properties with burnup, compatibility between the ceramic breeder and beryllium multiplier, and phase changes with burnup. Laboratory and in-reactor tests, some as part of an international collaboration for development of ceramic breeder materials, are underway. 133 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Analysis of UF6 breeder reactor power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    Gaseous UF6 fueled breeder reactor design and technical applications of such concepts are summarized. Special attention was given to application in nuclear power plants and to reactor efficiency and safety factors.

  19. Prevalence and clustering of louse infestation in Queensland sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Ward, M P; Armstrong, R T

    1999-04-12

    Information provided by wool growers in Queensland, Australia between 1995 and 1997 was used to assess the prevalence and spatial distribution of louse (Bovicola ovis) infestation in sheep flocks. The estimated prevalence of louse-infested flocks was 40% (95% confidence interval, 35-46%). Although the prevalence of infestation was higher in western regions (41-50%) compared to the south region of Queensland (31%), the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Significant (P = 0.02) clustering of infested flocks was detected in the south region where two foci were apparent. We conclude that Queensland sheep flocks have a moderate prevalence of louse infestation, and that clustering of infestation is not strong. The control of lice is an industry-wide issue that needs to be addressed by most wool growers in Queensland.

  20. Obstacle and predator avoidance in a model for flocking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecholsky, Nicholas A.; Ott, Edward; Antonsen, Thomas M.

    2010-06-01

    The modeling and investigation of the dynamics and configurations of animal groups is a subject of growing attention. In this paper, we present a deterministic continuum model of flocking and use it to investigate the linearized response of an infinite extent flock to an obstacle or an attacking predator. We show that the steady-state flock response is in the form of density disturbances that resemble Mach cones whose configuration is determined by the anisotropic propagation of waves through the flock. We analytically and numerically test relations that predict the Mach wedge angles, disturbance heights, and wake widths. We find that these expressions are insensitive to many of the parameters of the model.

  1. Prevalence of avian infectious bronchitis virus in broiler chicken farms in south of Iraq, 2014 – 2015

    PubMed Central

    Seger, Waleed; Ghalyanchi Langeroudi, Arash; Karimi, Vahid; Madadgar, Omid; Vasfi Marandi, Mehdi; Hashemzadeh, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Avian infectious bronchitis (IB), caused by a gammacoronavirus, is an OIE-listed (List B) disease and characterized by respiratory and renal involvements, causing high mortality, and economic loss in both layers and broilers. In comparison with other diagnostic methods, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and conventional RT-PCR are potent, more sensitive and faster techniques for infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) detection. This research was conducted to detect IBV using specific primers of IB in three governorates (Basra, Thi-Qar and Muthana) in the south of Iraq. Tracheal specimens were collected from 46 IB suspected commercial broiler flocks. XCE2+ and XCE2- Primers, which amplify all IBV serotypes, were used. Primers MCE1+, BCE1+ and DCE1+ were used to amplify the specific nucleotide sequences of Massachusetts, 793/B and D274 genotypes, respectively. The results of real-time RT-PCR of this study showed that 34 (74.00%) out of 46 infected flocks were positive to IBV. The results of nested PCR showed that 50.00% and 5.89% of positive samples were belonged to genotypes 793/B and Massachusetts, respectively, and the remaining positive (44.11%) were unknown. The results indicate presence of Massachusetts and 793/B IBV strains in commercial broilers in southern Iraq. PMID:28144423

  2. Effects of maternal energy efficiency on broiler chicken growth, feed conversion, residual feed intake, and residual maintenance metabolizable energy requirements.

    PubMed

    Romero, L F; Zuidhof, M J; Renema, R A; Naeima, A; Robinson, F E

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of maternal energy efficiency on broiler chicken growth and energy efficiency from 7 to 40 d of age. Residual feed intake (RFI) and residual maintenance ME requirement (RME) were used to measure energetic efficiency. Residual feed intake was defined as the difference between observed and predicted ME intake, and RME(m) as the difference between observed and predicted maintenance ME requirements. A total of 144 Ross-708 broiler breeder pullets were placed in individual laying cages at 16 wk of age. Hens with the greatest RFI (n = 32) and lowest RFI (n = 32) values from 20 to 56 wk of age were selected (maternal RFI; RFI(mat)). Selected hens were retrospectively assigned to a high- or low-RME(m) category (maternal RME(m); RME(mmat)). At 59 wk, eggs were collected for 8 d and pedigree hatched. A total of 338 broilers grouped by dam and sex were raised in 128 cages where feed intake, BW, and temperature were recorded from 7 to 40 d to calculate broiler feed conversion ratios, RFI, and RME(m). The design was a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial with 2 levels of RFI(mat), 2 levels of RME(mmat), and 2 sexes. Neither the RFI(mat) nor RME(mmat) category affected broiler offpring BW or total conversion ratio. The high-RFI(mat) × low-RME(mmat) broilers had decreased growth to 40 d. Low-RFI(mat) × low-RME(mmat) broilers had a lower RME(m) (-5.93 kcal of ME/kg(0.60) per day) and RFI (-0.86 kcal of ME/d) than high-RFI(mat) × low-RME(mmat) broilers (RME(m) = 1.70 kcal of ME/kg(0.60) per day; RFI = 0.38 kcal of ME/d). Overall, hens with low maintenance requirements (low RME(m)) produced more efficient broilers when other efficiency related traits, represented in a lower RFI, were present. Exclusion of high-RFI × low-RME(m) hens from selection programs may improve energy efficiency at the broiler level. The RME(m) methodology is a viable alternative to evaluate energy efficiency in broilers because it avoids confounding environmental effects and allows

  3. Ceramic breeder materials: Status and needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. E.; Noda, K.; Roux, N.

    1998-10-01

    The tritium breeding blanket is one of the most important components of a fusion reactor because it directly involves both energy extraction and tritium production, both of which are critical to fusion power. Because of their overall desirable properties, lithium-containing ceramic solids are recognized as attractive tritium breeding materials for fusion reactor blankets. Indeed, their inherent thermal stability and chemical inertness are significant safety advantages. In numerous in-pile experiments, these materials have performed well, showing good thermal stability and good tritium release characteristics. Tritium release is particularly facile when an argon or helium purge gas containing hydrogen, typically at levels of about 0.1%, is used. However, the addition of hydrogen to the purge gas imposes a penalty when it comes to recovery of the tritium produced in the blanket. In particular, a large amount of hydrogen in the purge gas will necessitate a large multiple-stage tritium purification unit, which could translate into higher costs. Optimizing tritium, release while minimizing the amount of hydrogen necessary in the purge gas requires a deeper understanding of the tritium release process, especially the interactions of hydrogen with the surface of the lithium ceramic. This paper reviews the status of ceramic breeder research and highlights several issues and data needs.

  4. Fusion breeder: its potential role and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The fusion breeder is a concept that utilizes 14 MeV neutrons from D + T ..-->.. n(14.1 MeV) + ..cap alpha..(3.5 MeV) fusion reactions to produce more fuel than the tritium (T) needed to sustain the fusion process. This excess fuel production capacity is used to produce fissile material (Pu-239 or U-233) for subsequent use in fission reactors. We are concentrating on a class of blankets we call fission suppressed. The blanket is the region surrounding the fusion plasma in which fusion neutrons interact to produce fuel and heat. The fission-suppressed blanket uses non-fission reactions (mainly (n,2n) or (n,n't)) to generate excess neutrons for the production of net fuel. This is in contrast to the fast fission class of blankets which use (n,fiss) reactions to generate excess neutrons. Fusion reactors with fast fission blankets are commony known as fusion-fission hybrids because they combine fusion and fission in the same device.

  5. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in clinically healthy German sheep flocks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Current epidemiological data on the situation of Coxiella (C.) burnetii infections in sheep are missing, making risk assessment and the implementation of counteractive measures difficult. Using the German state of Thuringia as a model example, the estimated sero-, and antigen prevalence of C. burnetii (10% and 25%, respectively) was assessed at flock level in 39/252 randomly selected clinically healthy sheep flocks with more than 100 ewes and unknown abortion rate. Results The CHECKIT™ Q-fever Test Kit identified 11 (28%) antibody positive herds, whereas real-time PCR revealed the presence of C. burnetii DNA in 2 (5%) of the flocks. Multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis of 9 isolates obtained from one flock revealed identical profiles. All isolates contained the plasmid QpH1. Conclusions The results demonstrate that C. burnetii is present in clinically inconspicuous sheep flocks and sporadic flare-ups do occur as the notifications to the German animal disease reporting system show. Although C. burnetii infections are not a primary veterinary concern due to the lack of significant clinical impact on animal health (with the exception of goats), the eminent zoonotic risk for humans should not be underestimated. Therefore, strategies combining the interests of public and veterinary public health should include monitoring of flocks, the identification and culling of shedders as well as the administration of protective vaccines. PMID:22429653

  6. Assembly of avian mixed-species flocks in Amazonia.

    PubMed Central

    Graves, G R; Gotelli, N J

    1993-01-01

    Diamond's "assembly rules" model posits that competitive interactions among species govern the composition of avifaunas. Although originally applied to islands in archipelagoes, this controversial set of hypotheses is difficult to test because islands differ in habitat and resource availability, colonization history, and stochastic effects. Permanent mixed-species flocks of Amazonian birds are a model system for testing the assembly rules hypothesis because flocks occur in relatively homogeneous tracts of rain forest and because resident species are potentially interactive from minute to minute. To analyze cooccurrence patterns of species in flocks, we used null models that incorporate realistic autecological colonization parameters. Potentially competing pairs of congeneric species with similar ecologies cooccur in flocks less often than expected by chance, resulting in perfect checkerboard distributions. Interactions among more distantly related species, however, appear to have little effect on the assembly of mixed-species flocks. Checkerboard distributions enhance local species diversity within habitats by generating different combinations of species in different flocks. This process may have contributed to the immense species richness of the Amazonian avifauna. PMID:8433996

  7. Flying in a flock comes at a cost in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Usherwood, James R; Stavrou, Marinos; Lowe, John C; Roskilly, Kyle; Wilson, Alan M

    2011-06-22

    Flying birds often form flocks, with social, navigational and anti-predator implications. Further, flying in a flock can result in aerodynamic benefits, thus reducing power requirements, as demonstrated by a reduction in heart rate and wingbeat frequency in pelicans flying in a V-formation. But how general is an aerodynamic power reduction due to group-flight? V-formation flocks are limited to moderately steady flight in relatively large birds, and may represent a special case. What are the aerodynamic consequences of flying in the more usual 'cluster' flock? Here we use data from innovative back-mounted Global Positioning System (GPS) and 6-degrees-of-freedom inertial sensors to show that pigeons (1) maintain powered, banked turns like aircraft, imposing dorsal accelerations of up to 2g, effectively doubling body weight and quadrupling induced power requirements; (2) increase flap frequency with increases in all conventional aerodynamic power requirements; and (3) increase flap frequency when flying near, particularly behind, other birds. Therefore, unlike V-formation pelicans, pigeons do not gain an aerodynamic advantage from flying in a flock. Indeed, the increased flap frequency, whether due to direct aerodynamic interactions or requirements for increased stability or control, suggests a considerable energetic cost to flight in a tight cluster flock.

  8. Switching hierarchical leadership mechanism in homing flight of pigeon flocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Duxin; Vicsek, Tamás; Liu, Xiaolu; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Hai-Tao

    2016-06-01

    To explore the fascinating inter-individual interaction mechanism governing the abundant biological grouping behaviors, more and more efforts have been devoted to collective motion investigation in recent years. Therein, bird flocking is one of the most intensively studied behaviors. A previous study (Nagy M. et al., Nature, 464 (2010) 890.) claims the existence of a well-defined hierarchical structure in pigeon flocks, which implies that a multi-layer leadership network leads to the occurrence of highly coordinated pigeon flock movements. However, in this study, by using high-resolution GPS data of homing flight of pigeon flocks, we reveal an explicit switching hierarchical mechanism underlying the group motions of pigeons. That is, a pigeon flock has a long-term leader for smooth moving trajectories, whereas the leading tenure passes to a temporary one upon sudden turns or zigzags. Therefore, the present observation helps explore more deeply into the principle of a huge volume of bird flocking dynamics. Meanwhile, from the engineering point of view, it may shed some light onto industrial multi-robot coordination and unmanned air vehicle formation control.

  9. Prevalence and differentiation of diseases in Maryland backyard flocks.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jennifer M; Zimmermann, Nickolas G; Timmons, Jennifer; Tablante, Nathaniel L

    2013-09-01

    Several epidemiologic surveillance studies have implicated backyard flocks as a reservoir for poultry diseases; however, much debate still exists over the risk these small flocks pose. To evaluate this concern, the prevalence of Newcastle disease (ND), infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), and Salmonella was determined in 39 Maryland backyard flocks. Serum, tracheal, and cloacal swabs were randomly collected from 262 birds throughout nine counties in Maryland. Through PCR and ELISA analysis, disease prevalence and seroprevalence were determined in flocks, respectively, for the following: ND (0%, 23%); ILT (26%, 77%); MG (3%, 13%); and Salmonella (0%, not done). Vaccine status could not be accurately confirmed. Premise positives were further differentiated and identified by partial nucleotide sequencing. Screening of the 10 ILT premise positives showed that most were live attenuated vaccines: eight matched a tissue culture origin vaccine, one matched a chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccine, and one was CEO related. The single MG-positive flock, also positive for the CEO-related sequence, was identified as the infectious S6 strain. The prevalence rates for these economically important poultry diseases ranged from none to relatively low, with the vast majority of sampled flocks presenting no clinical signs.

  10. Emergence of Anisotropy in Flock Simulations and Its Computational Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makiguchi, Motohiro; Inoue, Jun-Ichi

    2010-03-01

    In real flocks, it was revealed that the angular density of nearest neighbors shows a strong anisotropic structure of individuals by very recent extensive field studies [Ballerini et al, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105, pp. 1232-1237 (2008)]. In this paper, we show that this structure of anisotropy also emerges in an artificial flock simulation, namely, Boid simulation by Reynolds [C.W. Reynolds, Flocks, Herds, and Schools: A Distributed Behavioral Model, Computer Graphics, 21, pp. 25-34 (1987)]. To quantify the anisotropy, we evaluate a useful statistics, that is to say, the so-called γ-value which is defined as an inner product between the vector in the direction of the lowest angular density of flocks and the vector in the direction of the flock is moving. Our results concerning the emergence of the anisotropy through the γ-value might enable us to judge whether an optimal flock simulation seems to be realistic or not.

  11. Design of the injection beamline for the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade electron beam ion source for charge breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson C. A.; Pikin A.; Mustapha, B.; Kondrashev, S.; Ostroumov, P.N.; Savard, S.; Levand, A.

    2012-02-07

    The design of the ion injection line connecting the electron beam ion source (EBIS) charge breeder and the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade radio frequency quadrupole cooler-buncher at the Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System was investigated with particle tracking simulations. The injection line was configured to accommodate several differential pumping sections, individual optical components were optimized to minimize emittance growth, and the ion beam parameters were matched with the EBIS electron beam acceptance to minimize losses upon injection.

  12. Design of the injection beamline for the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade electron beam ion source charge breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, C. A.; Mustapha, B.; Kondrashev, S.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Savard, G.; Levand, A.; Pikin, A.

    2012-02-15

    The design of the ion injection line connecting the electron beam ion source (EBIS) charge breeder and the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade radio frequency quadrupole cooler-buncher at the Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System was investigated with particle tracking simulations. The injection line was configured to accommodate several differential pumping sections, individual optical components were optimized to minimize emittance growth, and the ion beam parameters were matched with the EBIS electron beam acceptance to minimize losses upon injection.

  13. Design of the injection beamline for the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade electron beam ion source charge breeder.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, C A; Mustapha, B; Kondrashev, S; Ostroumov, P N; Savard, G; Levand, A; Pikin, A

    2012-02-01

    The design of the ion injection line connecting the electron beam ion source (EBIS) charge breeder and the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade radio frequency quadrupole cooler-buncher at the Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System was investigated with particle tracking simulations. The injection line was configured to accommodate several differential pumping sections, individual optical components were optimized to minimize emittance growth, and the ion beam parameters were matched with the EBIS electron beam acceptance to minimize losses upon injection.

  14. Laboratory evaluation of Newcastle disease vaccination programs for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Giambrone, J J

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the efficacy of various commercial vaccination programs for the prevention of Newcastle disease (ND) in broilers. In all, chicks were from breeders vaccinated against ND via drinking water at 75-day intervals. Vaccination was by company personnel on company premises. In Expt. 1, the initial ND vaccination programs tested were vaccination at 1 day by coarse spray with the Spra-Vac machine or by tracheal instillation with the Beak-o-Vac machine, and vaccination at 7 days via drinking water. In Expts. 2-4, birds initially vaccinated via one of the three previously mentioned methods (Spra-Vac in Expt. 2, Beak-o-Vac in Expt. 3, and drinking water in Expt. 4) were revaccinated against ND by either drinking water or coarse spray with one of two commercial portable machines (ULVA Fan or Spray Master). Serologic and challenge data in Expt. 1 indicated that although broilers vaccinated by any of the three initial routes failed to produce measurable antibody to NDV, all methods resulted in protection against NDV challenge at 35 and 49 days. However, resistance to challenge with virulent ND was greatest in birds initially vaccinated by coarse spray with the Spra-Vac machine. Results in Expts. 2-4 indicated that NDV hemagglutination-inhibition titers were highest and resistance to challenge greatest in birds initially vaccinated at day 1 by coarse spray (Spra-Vac) and then revaccinated at 14 days by coarse spray. There were no differences, however, between the portable coarse spray machines in efficacy in reimmunizing broilers against NDV.

  15. Development of electron beam ion source charge breeder for rare isotopes at Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade.

    PubMed

    Kondrashev, S; Dickerson, C; Levand, A; Ostroumov, P N; Pardo, R C; Savard, G; Vondrasek, R; Alessi, J; Beebe, E; Pikin, A; Kuznetsov, G I; Batazova, M A

    2012-02-01

    Recently, the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) was commissioned and became available for production of rare isotopes. Currently, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used as a charge breeder for CARIBU beams. To further increase the intensity and improve the purity of neutron-rich ion beams accelerated by ATLAS, we are developing a high-efficiency charge breeder for CARIBU based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS). The CARIBU EBIS charge breeder will utilize the state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The electron beam current density in the CARIBU EBIS trap will be significantly higher than that in existing operational charge-state breeders based on the EBIS concept. The design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder is nearly complete. Long-lead components of the EBIS such as a 6-T superconducting solenoid and an electron gun have been ordered with the delivery schedule in the fall of 2011. Measurements of expected breeding efficiency using the BNL Test EBIS have been performed using a Cs(+) surface ionization ion source for external injection in pulsed mode. In these experiments we have achieved ∼70% injection∕extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state of ∼17%.

  16. Development of electron beam ion source charge breeder for rare isotopes at Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgradea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrashev, S.; Dickerson, C.; Levand, A.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Pardo, R. C.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A.; Kuznetsov, G. I.; Batazova, M. A.

    2012-02-01

    Recently, the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) was commissioned and became available for production of rare isotopes. Currently, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used as a charge breeder for CARIBU beams. To further increase the intensity and improve the purity of neutron-rich ion beams accelerated by ATLAS, we are developing a high-efficiency charge breeder for CARIBU based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS). The CARIBU EBIS charge breeder will utilize the state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The electron beam current density in the CARIBU EBIS trap will be significantly higher than that in existing operational charge-state breeders based on the EBIS concept. The design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder is nearly complete. Long-lead components of the EBIS such as a 6-T superconducting solenoid and an electron gun have been ordered with the delivery schedule in the fall of 2011. Measurements of expected breeding efficiency using the BNL Test EBIS have been performed using a Cs+ surface ionization ion source for external injection in pulsed mode. In these experiments we have achieved ˜70% injection/extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state of ˜17%.

  17. Development of electron beam ion source charge breeder for rare isotopes at Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Kondrashev S.; Alessi J.; Dickerson, C.; Levand, A.; Ostroumov, P.N.; Pardo, R.C.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A.; Kuznetsov, G.I.; Batazova, M.A.

    2012-02-03

    Recently, the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) was commissioned and became available for production of rare isotopes. Currently, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used as a charge breeder for CARIBU beams. To further increase the intensity and improve the purity of neutron-rich ion beams accelerated by ATLAS, we are developing a high-efficiency charge breeder for CARIBU based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS). The CARIBU EBIS charge breeder will utilize the state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The electron beam current density in the CARIBU EBIS trap will be significantly higher than that in existing operational charge-state breeders based on the EBIS concept. The design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder is nearly complete. Long-lead components of the EBIS such as a 6-T superconducting solenoid and an electron gun have been ordered with the delivery schedule in the fall of 2011. Measurements of expected breeding efficiency using the BNL Test EBIS have been performed using a Cs{sup +} surface ionization ion source for external injection in pulsed mode. In these experiments we have achieved {approx}70% injection/extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state of {approx}17%.

  18. Development of electron beam ion source charge breeder for rare isotopes at Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Kondrashev, S.; Dickerson, C.; Levand, A.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Pardo, R. C.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A.; Kuznetsov, G. I.; Batazova, M. A.

    2012-02-15

    Recently, the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) was commissioned and became available for production of rare isotopes. Currently, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used as a charge breeder for CARIBU beams. To further increase the intensity and improve the purity of neutron-rich ion beams accelerated by ATLAS, we are developing a high-efficiency charge breeder for CARIBU based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS). The CARIBU EBIS charge breeder will utilize the state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The electron beam current density in the CARIBU EBIS trap will be significantly higher than that in existing operational charge-state breeders based on the EBIS concept. The design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder is nearly complete. Long-lead components of the EBIS such as a 6-T superconducting solenoid and an electron gun have been ordered with the delivery schedule in the fall of 2011. Measurements of expected breeding efficiency using the BNL Test EBIS have been performed using a Cs{sup +} surface ionization ion source for external injection in pulsed mode. In these experiments we have achieved {approx}70% injection/extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state of {approx}17%.

  19. Incidence and Mechanism of Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Commercial Poultry Flocks in the United Kingdom before, during, and after Fluoroquinolone Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Griggs, Deborah J.; Johnson, Maggie M.; Frost, Jennifer A.; Humphrey, Tom; Jørgensen, Frieda; Piddock, Laura J. V.

    2005-01-01

    Five commercial broiler flocks were treated with a fluoroquinolone for a clinically relevant infection. Fresh feces from individual chickens and environmental samples were cultured for campylobacters before, during, and weekly posttreatment until slaughter. Both Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli were isolated during all treatment phases. An increased proportion of quinolone-resistant strains was seen during treatment, and these strains persisted posttreatment. One quinolone-resistant isolate of each species, each serotype, and each phage type from each sample at all treatment phases was examined for its phenotype and mechanism of resistance. Two resistant phenotypes were isolated: Nalr Cipr and Nalr Cips. The majority (269 of 290) of fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates, whether they were C. jejuni or C. coli, had a mutation in gyrA that resulted in the substitution Thr-86→Ile. The other gyrA mutations detected were Thr-86→Ala (n = 17) and Asp-90→Asn (n = 10). The genotypic variation, based on the silent mutations in gyrA identified by the denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography pattern and DNA sequencing, was used to supplement typing data and provided evidence for both the spread of preexisting resistant strains and the selection of spontaneous resistant mutants in treated flocks. Multidrug resistance was significantly (P < 0.01) associated with resistance to ciprofloxacin. Twenty-five percent (73 of 290) of ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates but only 13% (24 of 179) of susceptible isolates were resistant to three or more unrelated antimicrobial agents. In conclusion, quinolone-resistant campylobacters were isolated from commercial chicken flocks in high numbers following therapy with a veterinary fluoroquinolone. Most ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates had the GyrA substitution Thr-86→Ile. Resistant isolates were isolated from the feces of some flocks up to the point of slaughter, which may have consequences for public health. PMID:15673754

  20. Repeated isolation of Salmonella enterica Goverdhan, a very rare serovar, from Danish poultry surveillance samples.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Karl; Sørensen, Gitte; Szabo, Istvan; Hächler, Herbert; Le Hello, Simon

    2014-12-05

    We report here the appearance of a very rare serovar of Salmonella, S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Goverdhan, in routine Salmonella surveillance samples from Danish poultry production. S. Goverdhan was found on nine occasions: in one broiler breeder farm in October 2010, four broiler farms and one broiler breeder farm in June-September 2012, two broiler breeder flocks simultaneously in June 2013, and one layer flock in July 2013. The five isolates from 2012 and the three isolates from 2013 had identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles, whereas the profile of the isolate from 2010 deviated in a single band. It is the first time this serovar has been described in samples from poultry. The origin of the bacterium is still unknown, but it is suggested that it may have been a pseudo-outbreak caused by contaminated sampling material.

  1. A Longitudinal Study Simultaneously Exploring the Carriage of APEC Virulence Associated Genes and the Molecular Epidemiology of Faecal and Systemic E. coli in Commercial Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kemmett, Kirsty; Humphrey, Tom; Rushton, Steven; Close, Andrew; Wigley, Paul; Williams, Nicola J.

    2013-01-01

    Colibacillosis is an economically important syndromic disease of poultry caused by extra-intestinal avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) but the pathotype remains poorly defined. Combinations of virulence-associated genes (VAGs) have aided APEC identification. The intestinal microbiota is a potential APEC reservoir. Broiler chickens are selectively bred for fast, uniform growth. Here we simultaneously investigate intestinal E. coli VAG carriage in apparently healthy birds and characterise systemic E. coli from diseased broiler chickens from the same flocks. Four flocks were sampled longitudinally from chick placement until slaughter. Phylogrouping, macro-restriction pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) were performed on an isolate subset from one flock to investigate the population structure of faecal and systemic E. coli. Early in production, VAG carriage among chick intestinal E. coli populations was diverse (average Simpson's D value  = 0.73); 24.05% of intestinal E. coli (n = 160) from 1 day old chicks were carrying ≥5 VAGs. Generalised Linear models demonstrated VAG prevalence in potential APEC populations declined with age; 1% of E. coli carrying ≥5 VAGs at slaughter and demonstrated high strain diversity. A variety of VAG profiles and high strain diversity were observed among systemic E. coli. Thirty three new MLST sequence types were identified among 50 isolates and a new sequence type representing 22.2% (ST-2999) of the systemic population was found, differing from the pre-defined pathogenic ST-117 at a single locus. For the first time, this study takes a longitudinal approach to unravelling the APEC paradigm. Our findings, supported by other studies, highlight the difficulty in defining the APEC pathotype. Here we report a high genetic diversity among systemic E. coli between and within diseased broilers, harbouring diverse VAG profiles rather than single and/or highly related pathogenic clones

  2. A continuum model for flocking: Obstacle avoidance, equilibrium, and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecholsky, Nicholas Alexander

    The modeling and investigation of the dynamics and configurations of animal groups is a subject of growing attention. In this dissertation, we present a partial-differential-equation based continuum model of flocking and use it to investigate several properties of group dynamics and equilibrium. We analyze the reaction of a flock to an obstacle or an attacking predator. We show that the flock response is in the form of density disturbances that resemble Mach cones whose configuration is determined by the anisotropic propagation of waves through the flock. We investigate the effect of a flock 'pressure' and pairwise repulsion on an equilibrium density distribution. We investigate both linear and nonlinear pressures, look at the convergence to a 'cold' (T → 0) equilibrium solution, and find regions of parameter space where different models produce the same equilibrium. Finally, we analyze the stability of an equilibrium density distribution to long-wavelength perturbations. Analytic results for the stability of a constant density solution as well as stability regimes for constant density solutions to the equilibrium equations are presented.

  3. Size differences in migrant sandpiper flocks: ghosts in ephemeral guilds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eldridge, J.L.; Johnson, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    Scolopacid sandpipers were studied from 1980 until 1984 during spring migration in North Dakota. Common species foraging together in mixed-species flocks differed in bill length most often by 20 to 30 percent (ratios from 1.2:1 to 1.3:1). Observed flocks were compared to computer generated flocks drawn from three source pools of Arctic-nesting sandpipers. The source pools included 51 migrant species from a global pool, 33 migrant species from a Western Hemisphere pool, and 13 species that migrated through North Dakota. The observed flocks formed randomly from the available species that used the North Dakota migration corridor but the North Dakota species were not a random selection from the Western Hemisphere and global pools of Arctic-nesting scolopacid sandpipers. In short, the ephemeral, mixed-species foraging flocks that we observed in North Dakota were random mixes from a non-random pool. The size-ratio distributions were consistent with the interpretation that use of this migration corridor by sandpipers has been influenced by some form of size-related selection such as competition.

  4. Laser fusion driven breeder design study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berwald, D.H.; Massey, J.V.

    1980-12-01

    The results of the Laser Fusion Breeder Design Study are given. This information primarily relates to the conceptual design of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) breeder reactor (or fusion-fission hybrid) based upon the HYLIFE liquid metal wall protection concept developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The blanket design for this breeder is optimized to both reduce fissions and maximize the production of fissile fuel for subsequent use in conventional light water reactors (LWRs). When the suppressed fission blanket is compared with its fast fission counterparts, a minimal fission rate in the blanket results in a unique reactor safety advantage for this concept with respect to reduced radioactive inventory and reduced fission product decay afterheat in the event of a loss-of-coolant-accident.

  5. Distortion and destruction of colloidal flocks in disordered environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, Alexandre; Desreumaux, Nicolas; Caussin, Jean-Baptiste; Bartolo, Denis

    2017-01-01

    How do flocks, herds and swarms move through disordered environments? The answer to this question is crucial not only to animal groups in the wild, but also to effectively all applications of collective robotics and active materials composed of synthetic motile units. In stark contrast, aside from rare exceptions, our physical understanding of flocking has so far been limited to homogeneous media. Here we explain how collective motion survives in geometrical disorder. To do so, we combine experiments and analytical theory to examine motile colloids cruising between randomly positioned microfabricated obstacles. We elucidate how disorder and bending elasticity compete to channel the flow of polar flocks along sparse river networks akin those found beyond plastic depinning in driven condensed matter. Further increasing the disorder, we demonstrate that collective motion is suppressed in the form of a first-order phase transition generic to all polar active materials.

  6. EBIS charge breeder for radioactive ion beams at ATLAS.

    SciTech Connect

    Ostroumov, P.; Kondrashev, S.; Pardo, R.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A.

    2010-07-01

    The construction of the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) for the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility is completed and its commissioning is being performed. In its full capacity, the CARIBU facility will use fission fragments from a 1 Curie (Ci) {sup 252}Cf source. The ions will be thermalized and collected into a low-energy ion beam by a helium gas catcher, mass analyzed by an isobar separator, and charge bred to higher charge states for acceleration in ATLAS. To reach energies E/A 10 MeV/u, one should inject ions with charge-to-mass ratio (q/A) {ge} 1/7 into the ATLAS linac. In the first stage, the existing Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source will be used as a charge breeder. The maximum intensity of radioactive ion beams at the output of the gas catcher will not exceed 10{sup 7} ions per second. A charge breeder based on an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) has significant advantages over the ECR option for ion beam intensities up to about 10{sup 9} ions per second, providing 3-4 times higher efficiency and significantly better purity of highly charged radioactive ion beams for further acceleration. The proposed EBIS project for CARIBU will heavily utilize state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This will allow us to reduce both the project cost and timescale, simultaneously insuring reliable technical realization of the cutting-edge technology. Several parameters of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder (EBIS-CB) will be relaxed with respect to the BNL EBIS in favor of higher reliability and lower cost. Technical performance of the CARIBU charge breeder will not suffer from such a relaxation and will provide high efficiency for a whole range of radioactive ion beams. The goal of this paper is to present the initial design of the EBIS charge breeder for radioactive ion beams at ATLAS.

  7. EBIS charge breeder for radioactive ion beams at ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostroumov, P.; Kondrashev, S.; Pardo, R.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A.

    2010-07-01

    The construction of the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) for the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility is completed and its commissioning is being performed. In its full capacity, the CARIBU facility will use fission fragments from a 1 Curie (Ci) 252Cf source. The ions will be thermalized and collected into a low-energy ion beam by a helium gas catcher, mass analyzed by an isobar separator, and charge bred to higher charge states for acceleration in ATLAS. To reach energies E/A 10 MeV/u, one should inject ions with charge-to-mass ratio (q/A) >= 1/7 into the ATLAS linac. In the first stage, the existing Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source will be used as a charge breeder. The maximum intensity of radioactive ion beams at the output of the gas catcher will not exceed 107 ions per second. A charge breeder based on an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) has significant advantages over the ECR option for ion beam intensities up to about 109 ions per second, providing 3-4 times higher efficiency and significantly better purity of highly charged radioactive ion beams for further acceleration. The proposed EBIS project for CARIBU will heavily utilize state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This will allow us to reduce both the project cost and timescale, simultaneously insuring reliable technical realization of the cutting-edge technology. Several parameters of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder (EBIS-CB) will be relaxed with respect to the BNL EBIS in favor of higher reliability and lower cost. Technical performance of the CARIBU charge breeder will not suffer from such a relaxation and will provide high efficiency for a whole range of radioactive ion beams. The goal of this paper is to present the initial design of the EBIS charge breeder for radioactive ion beams at ATLAS.

  8. EBIS charge breeder for radioactive ion beams at ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Ostroumov, P.; Alessi, J.; Kondrashev, S.; Pardo, R.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A.

    2010-07-20

    The construction of the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) for the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility is completed and its commissioning is being performed. In its full capacity, the CARIBU facility will use fission fragments from a 1 Curie (Ci) {sup 252}Cf source. The ions will be thermalized and collected into a low-energy ion beam by a helium gas catcher, mass analyzed by an isobar separator, and charge bred to higher charge states for acceleration in ATLAS. To reach energies E/A 10 MeV/u, one should inject ions with charge-to-mass ratio (q/A) {ge} 1/7 into the ATLAS linac. In the first stage, the existing Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source will be used as a charge breeder. The maximum intensity of radioactive ion beams at the output of the gas catcher will not exceed 10{sup 7} ions per second. A charge breeder based on an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) has significant advantages over the ECR option for ion beam intensities up to about 10{sup 9} ions per second, providing 3-4 times higher efficiency and significantly better purity of highly charged radioactive ion beams for further acceleration. The proposed EBIS project for CARIBU will heavily utilize state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This will allow us to reduce both the project cost and timescale, simultaneously insuring reliable technical realization of the cutting-edge technology. Several parameters of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder (EBIS-CB) will be relaxed with respect to the BNL EBIS in favor of higher reliability and lower cost. Technical performance of the CARIBU charge breeder will not suffer from such a relaxation and will provide high efficiency for a whole range of radioactive ion beams. The goal of this paper is to present the initial design of the EBIS charge breeder for radioactive ion beams at ATLAS.

  9. Transmission and genetic diversity of Enterococcus faecalis during hatch of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Christensen, Henrik; Bisgaard, Magne

    2012-11-09

    The normal gastrointestinal flora of poultry includes Enterococcus faecalis. E. faecalis is also associated with first week mortality of chickens, but it is not clear whether this is due to vertical or horizontal transmission. Aims of the present study were to investigate transmission and genetic diversity of E. faecalis during hatching of broiler chicks. When hatching started, 15% of the chicks were colonized with E. faecalis. This colonization was interpreted as vertical transmission and was higher than previously reported. Transmission of E. faecalis from parents older than 42 weeks was five times greater than transmission of E. faecalis from younger parents. Seventy percent of broiler chicks were colonized with E. faecalis within 24 h after hatch started, which was interpreted as horizontal transmission. Twenty-one sequence types (STs) were demonstrated among 322 isolates of E. faecalis obtained from newly hatched chicks representing 11 different broiler parent flocks. Furthermore, three STs (ST59, ST82, ST174) made up 50.6% of the isolates, indicating that these STs have adapted successfully to the avian niche. All STs, except those novel to this study, have previously been associated with lesions in poultry, underlining the importance of controlling these particular STs.

  10. Observations on the distribution and control of Salmonella species in two integrated broiler companies.

    PubMed

    Davies, R; Breslin, M; Corry, J E; Hudson, W; Allen, V M

    2001-08-25

    The effectiveness of cleaning and disinfecting broiler farms and the persistence of Salmonella species in two integrated broiler companies was investigated for two years. Both companies used a cleaning and disinfection regime which included the application of a spray of phenolic disinfectant followed by fogging with formaldehyde solution, and this was highly effective in preventing carry-over of infection in the broiler houses. The disinfection of service areas and areas outside the houses was less effective but it had no influence on the Salmonella status of later flocks. Both companies had persistent problems with the contamination of pellet cooling systems in their feedmills with Salmonella 4, 12:d:- in company A, and with Salmonella binza and Salmonella ohio in company B. The hatcher incubators of both companies were also persistently contaminated with Salmonella livingstone and Salmonella thomasville in company A and with Salmonella senftenberg in company B. At both companies sites Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium Tr104 were also isolated occasionally from various locations.

  11. Prevalence and Distribution of Campylobacter jejuni in Small-Scale Broiler Operations.

    PubMed

    Tangkham, Wannee; Janes, Marlene; LeMieux, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni has been recognized as one of the most prevalent causes of foodborne bacterial illnesses in humans. Previous studies have focused on the transmission routes of C. jejuni from commercial flock farms to the final retail product. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. jejuni and Campylobacter spp. in eggshells, live birds, feed, drinking water, and the rearing environment in a small-scale broiler operation. Broilers were raised under two different production systems: (i) environmentally controlled housing and (ii) open-air housing with two replications. Each week, samples were collected from eggshells, bird feces, feed, drinking water, enclosures (vertical walls of bird housing), and feed troughs for enumeration and isolation testing. All samples were plated on modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar to determine the log CFU per gram and percent prevalence of Campylobacter spp. Isolation of C. jejuni was verified with latex agglutination and hippurate hydrolysis tests. The results from this study suggest that vertical transmission of these bacteria from egg surfaces to newly hatched chicks is not a significant risk factor. The results also suggest that the prevalence of C. jejuni at time of harvest (week 6) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the open-air housing broilers than in those in the environmentally controlled housing. Elevated levels of cross-contaminants, especially water and feed, may have played a role in this outcome.

  12. Antibiotic resistance of Clostridium perfringens isolates from broiler chickens in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Osman, K M; Elhariri, M

    2013-12-01

    The use of antibiotic feed additives in broiler chickens results in a high prevalence of resistance among their enteric bacteria, with a consequent emergence of antibiotic resistance in zoonotic enteropathogens. Despite growing concerns about the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains, which show varying prevalences in different geographic regions, little work has been done to investigate this issue in the Middle East. This study provides insight into one of the world's most common and financially crippling poultry diseases, necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens. The study was designed to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in C. perfringens isolates from clinical cases of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens in Egypt. A total of 125 isolates were obtained from broiler flocks in 35 chicken coops on 17 farms and were tested using the disc diffusion method. All 125 isolates were resistant to gentamicin, streptomycin, oxolinic acid, lincomycin, erythromycin and spiramycin. The prevalence of resistance to other antibiotics was also high: rifampicin (34%), chloramphenicol (46%), spectinomycin (50%), tylosin-fosfomycin (52%), ciprofloxacin (58%), norfloxacin (67%), oxytetracycline (71%), flumequine (78%), enrofloxacin (82%), neomycin (93%), colistin (94%), pefloxacin (94%), doxycycline (98%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (98%). It is recommended that C. perfringens infections in Egypt should be treated with antibiotics for which resistant isolates are rare at present; namely, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephradine, fosfomycin and florfenicol.

  13. Investigation of a chronic feed-passage problem on a broiler farm in northwest Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Apple, R O; Skeeles, J K; Houghten, G E; Beasley, J N; Kim, K S

    1991-01-01

    A commercial broiler farm with a history of poor feed conversion and chronic feed-passage problems was chosen for investigation. Chickens were taken from the broiler flock at specified intervals during growout and tested by virus isolation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for avian reovirus. Abnormal tissue pathology was first seen in the broilers at 9 days of age and continued sporadically throughout the growout period. Antireovirus antibody levels began to increase at 24 days of age. Avian reovirus and avian adenovirus was recovered at different intervals starting at 17 and 31 days of age, respectively. One-day-old specific-pathogen-free chicks housed in filtered-air positive-pressure isolation units were inoculated with two inocula recovered from the field study. Avian reovirus was recovered from the tissues of both treatment groups using chick kidney cells. Significant weight differences were seen in one of the two treatment groups. This avian reovirus was given the name SS-412.

  14. Effect of transportation duration of 1-day-old chicks on postplacement production performances and pododermatitis of broilers up to slaughter age.

    PubMed

    Bergoug, H; Guinebretière, M; Tong, Q; Roulston, N; Romanini, C E B; Exadaktylos, V; Berckmans, D; Garain, P; Demmers, T G M; McGonnell, I M; Bahr, C; Burel, C; Eterradossi, N; Michel, V

    2013-12-01

    This experiment studied the effect of transportation duration of 1-d-old chicks on dehydration, mortality, production performance, and pododermatitis during the growout period. Eggs from the same breeder flock (Ross PM3) were collected at 35, 45, and 56 wk of age, for 3 successive identical experiments. In each experiment, newly hatched chicks received 1 of 3 transportation duration treatments from the hatchery before placement in the on-site rearing facility: no transportation corresponding to direct placement in less than 5 min (T00), or 4 (T04) or 10 h (T10) of transportation. The chicks were housed in 35-m(2) pens (650 birds each) and reared until 35 d old. Hematocrit and chick BW were measured on sample chicks before and after transportation. During the growout period, bird weight, feed uptake, and feed conversion ratio were measured weekly until slaughter. Transportation duration affected BW; T00 groups had a significantly higher BW than T04 and T10 transported birds but this effect lasted only until d 21. No clear effect on hematocrit, feed uptake, feed conversion ratio, or mortality was observed for birds transported up to 10 h. The decrease in weight in T10 birds was associated with less severe pododermatitis. Increasing age of the breeder flock was correlated with reduced egg fertility and hatchability, and also with higher quality and BW of hatched chicks. Chicks from older breeders also exhibited reduced mortality during the growout period.

  15. Interpreting the flock algorithm from a statistical perspective.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Eric C; Barry, Patrick D

    2015-09-01

    We show that the algorithm in the program flock (Duchesne & Turgeon 2009) can be interpreted as an estimation procedure based on a model essentially identical to the structure (Pritchard et al. 2000) model with no admixture and without correlated allele frequency priors. Rather than using MCMC, the flock algorithm searches for the maximum a posteriori estimate of this structure model via a simulated annealing algorithm with a rapid cooling schedule (namely, the exponent on the objective function →∞). We demonstrate the similarities between the two programs in a two-step approach. First, to enable rapid batch processing of many simulated data sets, we modified the source code of structure to use the flock algorithm, producing the program flockture. With simulated data, we confirmed that results obtained with flock and flockture are very similar (though flockture is some 200 times faster). Second, we simulated multiple large data sets under varying levels of population differentiation for both microsatellite and SNP genotypes. We analysed them with flockture and structure and assessed each program on its ability to cluster individuals to their correct subpopulation. We show that flockture yields results similar to structure albeit with greater variability from run to run. flockture did perform better than structure when genotypes were composed of SNPs and differentiation was moderate (FST= 0.022-0.032). When differentiation was low, structure outperformed flockture for both marker types. On large data sets like those we simulated, it appears that flock's reliance on inference rules regarding its 'plateau record' is not helpful. Interpreting flock's algorithm as a special case of the model in structure should aid in understanding the program's output and behaviour.

  16. Real-time qPCR is a powerful assay to estimate the 171 R/Q alleles at the PrP locus directly in a flock's raw milk: a comparison with the targeted next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Feligini, Maria; Bongioni, Graziella; Brambati, Eva; Amadesi, Alessandra; Cambuli, Caterina; Panelli, Simona; Bonacina, Cesare; Galli, Andrea

    2014-10-01

    The hazard to human health represented by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in sheep is one of the major reasons for implementing the genetic selection plan to break down prion diseases. The problem is particularly important because of the risk of disease transmission from ewe to lamb via milk or colostrum. In order to establish an active and convenient monitoring of the flocks already undergone genetic selection and thus, indirectly increase consumers' security, the challenge of the work was quantifying the classical scrapie risk in bulk milk. A new quantitative real-time PCR assay for the estimation of the 171 R and Q allelic frequencies in a DNA pool representative of all the lactating ewes present in a flock was optimized and validated "in field". The repeatability range was 3.69-5.27 for R and 4.20-5.75 for Q. The ruggedness of the allele frequencies resulted 4.26 for R and 4.77 for Q. Regarding the validation "in field", none of the considered sources of variability (flock, month, number of genotyped animals and somatic cell count) showed a significant effect on flock and milk at the linear model. The targeted next-generation sequencing was also tested to evaluate its applicability in this context. Results show that the real-time PCR assay could represent a valid tool for the determination of 171 R/Q allele frequencies in bulk milk. The implementation of a service for breeder self-control along the production chain would aim to increase the production of high-security dairy products, while monitoring over time of the effects of genetic selection in the flocks.

  17. Simulation and design of an electron beam ion source charge breeder for the californium rare isotope breeder upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, Clayton; Mustapha, Brahim; Pikin, Alexander; Kondrashev, Sergey; Ostroumov, Peter; Levand, Anthony; Fischer, Rick

    2013-02-01

    An electron beam ion source (EBIS) will be constructed and used to charge breed ions from the californium rare isotope breeder upgrade (CARIBU) for postacceleration into the Argonne tandem linear accelerator system (ATLAS). Simulations of the EBIS charge breeder performance and the related ion transport systems are reported. Propagation of the electron beam through the EBIS was verified, and the anticipated incident power density within the electron collector was identified. The full normalized acceptance of the charge breeder with a 2 A electron beam, 0.024πmmmrad for nominal operating parameters, was determined by simulating ion injection into the EBIS. The optics of the ion transport lines were carefully optimized to achieve well-matched ion injection, to minimize emittance growth of the injected and extracted ion beams, and to enable adequate testing of the charge bred ions prior to installation in ATLAS.

  18. Maternal hyperthyroidism is associated with a decreased incidence of cold-induced ascites in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Akhlaghi, A; Zamiri, M J; Zare Shahneh, A; Jafari Ahangari, Y; Nejati Javaremi, A; Rahimi Mianji, G; Mollasalehi, M R; Shojaie, H; Akhlaghi, A A; Deldar, H; Atashi, H; Ansari Pirsaraei, Z; Zhandi, M

    2012-05-01

    A hypothesis was tested that providing the breeder hens with exogenous thyroxine (T(4)) would help their offspring to better survive the ascites-inducing condition during the growing period. In total, 132 broiler breeder hens were randomly assigned to one of 3 treatments: control (CON), hypothyroid [HYPO; 6-N-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU)-treated], and hyperthyroid (HYPER; T(4)-treated). The hens were artificially inseminated, and the hatching eggs (n = 1,320) were incubated. No eggs in the HYPO group hatched. The 1-d-old male chicks (n = 288) from other groups were reared for 42 d under standard or low ambient temperature to induce ascites. Blood samples were drawn from the hens, embryos, and broilers for determination of T(4) and triiodothyronine (T(3)). The hematocrit was also determined in broilers. The PTU-treated hens had an increased BW along with lower plasma T(3) and T(4) concentrations. Plasma T(4) was higher in the HYPER hens compared with CON hens, but T(3) concentration was not different between these groups. The fertility rate was not affected by either hypo- or hyperthyroidism. The embryos in the HYPO group had lower plasma T(3) and T(4) concentrations at d 18 of embryonic development and internal pipping. Higher plasma T(4) was recorded in the HYPER birds at internal pipping, although plasma T(3) concentration was not affected at this stage. Maternal hyperthyroidism decreased the overall incidence of ascites in the cold-exposed chickens (10.0 vs. 33.4% for HYPER and CON groups, respectively). Although the effect of maternal PTU or T(4) treatment on plasma thyroid hormones and on the right ventricle-to-total ventricular weight ratio in the broilers was not significant, the cold-exposed healthy CON chicks showed higher hematocrit values, compared with the HYPER birds. It was concluded that maternal hyperthyroidism could decrease the incidence of cold-induced ascites in broiler chickens; however, probable causal mechanisms remain to be elucidated.

  19. 9 CFR 145.33 - Terminology and classification; flocks and products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... a flock qualifying by means of a blood test shall be tested within the past 12 months, except that the retesting of a participating flock which is retained for more than 12 months shall be conducted a... have existed in hatchery supply flocks within the State during the preceding 12 months. (c) U.S....

  20. 9 CFR 145.33 - Terminology and classification; flocks and products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... a flock qualifying by means of a blood test shall be tested within the past 12 months, except that the retesting of a participating flock which is retained for more than 12 months shall be conducted a... have existed in hatchery supply flocks within the State during the preceding 12 months. (c) U.S....

  1. Selection against abdominal fat percentage may increase intramuscular fat content in broilers.

    PubMed

    Leng, L; Zhang, H; Dong, J Q; Wang, Z P; Zhang, X Y; Wang, S Z; Cao, Z P; Li, Y M; Li, H

    2016-10-01

    Excessive abdominal fat content (AFC) has negative impacts on feed efficiency and carcass quality. Unlike AFC, intramuscular fat content (IMFC) could be a favourable trait, which has a positive impact on meat quality. To meet consumers' needs, a long-term goal of broiler breeders is to decrease AFC and improve the IMFC simultaneously. The current study was designed to investigate the relationship between AFC and IMFC and to compare IMFC, including the pectoral major muscle fat content (PIMFC) and intramuscular fat content of leg muscle (LIMFC), between two broiler lines divergently selected for abdominal fat percentage over 17 generations. The results showed that there was a significant difference in PIMFC and LIMFC between the two lines in all five generation populations used. The birds in the lean line had significantly lower AFC but higher PIMFC and LIMFC than the birds in the fat line. We also detected differences in the liver fat content (LFC) between the two lines and the results showed that birds in the fat line had significant higher LFC than birds in the lean line. Our results indicated that a desirable broiler line with higher IMFC but lower AFC could be obtained by genetic selection.

  2. Fission-suppressed hybrid reactor: the fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Coops, M.S.

    1982-12-01

    Results of a conceptual design study of a /sup 233/U-producing fusion breeder are presented. The majority of the study was devoted to conceptual design and evaluation of a fission-suppressed blanket and to fuel cycle issues such as fuel reprocessing, fuel handling, and fuel management. Studies in the areas of fusion engineering, reactor safety, and economics were also performed.

  3. Evaluation of tritium release properties of advanced tritium breeders

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, T.; Ochiai, K.; Edao, Y.; Kawamura, Y.

    2015-03-15

    Demonstration power plant (DEMO) fusion reactors require advanced tritium breeders with high thermal stability. Lithium titanate (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) advanced tritium breeders with excess Li (Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y}) are stable in a reducing atmosphere at high temperatures. Although the tritium release properties of tritium breeders are documented in databases for DEMO blanket design, no in situ examination under fusion neutron (DT neutron) irradiation has been performed. In this study, a preliminary examination of the tritium release properties of advanced tritium breeders was performed, and DT neutron irradiation experiments were performed at the fusion neutronics source (FNS) facility in JAEA. Considering the tritium release characteristics, the optimum grain size after sintering is <5 μm. From the results of the optimization of granulation conditions, prototype Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles with optimum grain size (<5 μm) were successfully fabricated. The Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles exhibited good tritium release properties similar to the Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles. In particular, the released amount of HT gas for easier tritium handling was higher than that of HTO water. (authors)

  4. Deployment Scenario of Heavy Water Cooled Thorium Breeder Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mardiansah, Deby; Takaki, Naoyuki

    2010-06-22

    Deployment scenario of heavy water cooled thorium breeder reactor has been studied. We have assumed to use plutonium and thorium oxide fuel in water cooled reactor to produce {sup 233}U which will be used in thorium breeder reactor. The objective is to analysis the potential of water cooled Th-Pu reactor for replacing all of current LWRs especially in Japan. In this paper, the standard Pressurize Water Reactor (PWR) has been designed to produce 3423 MWt; (i) Th-Pu PWR, (ii) Th-Pu HWR (MFR = 1.0) and (iii) Th-Pu HWR (MFR 1.2). The properties and performance of the core were investigated by using cell and core calculation code. Th-Pu PWR or HWR produces {sup 233}U to introduce thorium breeder reactor. The result showed that to replace all (60 GWe) LWR by thorium breeder reactor within a period of one century, Th-Pu oxide fueled PWR has insufficient capability to produce necessary amount of {sup 233}U and Th-Pu oxide fueled HWR has almost enough potential to produce {sup 233}U but shows positive void reactivity coefficient.

  5. Nuclear breeder reactor fuel element with silicon carbide getter

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    An improved cesium getter 28 is provided in a breeder reactor fuel element or pin in the form of an extended surface area, low density element formed in one embodiment as a helically wound foil 30 located with silicon carbide, and located at the upper end of the fertile material upper blanket 20.

  6. Modeling the flocking propensity of passerine birds in two Neotropical habitats.

    PubMed

    Pomara, Lars Y; Cooper, Robert J; Petit, Lisa J

    2007-08-01

    We examined the importance of mixed-species flock abundance, individual bird home range size, foraging height, and foraging patch characteristics in predicting the propensity for five Neotropical passerine bird species (Slaty Antwren, Myrmotherula schisticolor; Golden-crowned Warbler, Basileuterus culicivorus; Slate-throated Redstart, Myioborus miniatus; Wilson's Warbler, Wilsonia pusilla; and Black-and-white Warbler, Mniotilta varia) to forage within flocks, rather than solitarily. We used study plots in primary mid-elevation forest and in shade coffee fields in western Panama. We expected that all species would spend as much time as possible flocking, but that the social and environmental factors listed above would limit compatibility between flock movements and individual bird movements, explaining variability in flocking propensity both within and among species. Flocking propensity was well predicted by home range size and flock abundance together, for four of the five species. While flock abundance was uniform across plots, home range sizes varied among species and plots, so that home range size appeared to be the principle factor limiting flocking propensity. Estimates of flock abundance were still required, however, for calculating flocking propensity values. Foraging height and patch characteristics slightly improved predictive ability for the remaining species, M. miniatus. In general, individual birds tended to join flocks whenever one was available inside their home range, regardless of a flock's specific location within the home range. Flocking propensities of individual species were lower in shade coffee fields than in forests, and probably vary across landscapes with variations in habitat. This variability affects the stability and species composition of flocks, and may affect survival rates of individual species.

  7. Speed Determines Leadership and Leadership Determines Learning during Pigeon Flocking.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Benjamin; Ákos, Zsuzsa; Vicsek, Tamás; Biro, Dora

    2015-12-07

    A key question in collective behavior is how individual differences structure animal groups, affect the flow of information, and give some group members greater weight in decisions. Depending on what factors contribute to leadership, despotic decisions could either improve decision accuracy or interfere with swarm intelligence. The mechanisms behind leadership are therefore important for understanding its functional significance. In this study, we compared pigeons' relative influence over flock direction to their solo flight characteristics. A pigeon's degree of leadership was predicted by its ground speeds from earlier solo flights, but not by the straightness of its previous solo route. By testing the birds individually after a series of flock flights, we found that leaders had learned straighter homing routes than followers, as we would expect if followers attended less to the landscape and more to conspecifics. We repeated the experiment from three homing sites using multiple independent flocks and found individual consistency in leadership and speed. Our results suggest that the leadership hierarchies observed in previous studies could arise from differences in the birds' typical speeds. Rather than reflecting social preferences that optimize group decisions, leadership may be an inevitable consequence of heterogeneous flight characteristics within self-organized flocks. We also found that leaders learn faster and become better navigators, even if leadership is not initially due to navigational ability. The roles that individuals fall into during collective motion might therefore have far-reaching effects on how they learn about the environment and use social information.

  8. How many dissenters does it take to disorder a flock?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yllanes, David; Marchetti, M. Cristina

    Minimal models of active particles have had much success in the study of flocking behavior. Typically one considers a system of self-propelled particles with noisy aligning interactions. By varying the density of the system or the intensity of the noise one can switch between a disordered phase where the particles move randomly and independently and a flocking state where the velocities of the particles are aligned. In this work we consider what happens if a fraction p of the particles does not experience the aligning interaction. This is an interesting problem from a statistical mechanics point of view, with applications to collective behavior of living systems, where not all the members of a community (a flock of birds, a herd of sheep, etc.) behave in the same way. By carrying out extensive molecular dynamics simulations we show that even a very small fraction of such ''individualistic'' particles can have a dramatic effect on the whole system and, indeed, that the flocking can be destroyed for a very low value of p. We acknowledge support from NSF-DMR-305184 and the Syracuse Soft Matter Program.

  9. Two-level leader-follower organization in pigeon flocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiyong; Zhang, Hai-Tao; Chen, Xi; Chen, Duxin; Zhou, Tao

    2015-10-01

    The most attractive trait of collective animal behavior is the emergence of highly ordered structures (Cavagna A., Giardina I. and Ginelli F., Phys. Rev. Lett., 110 (2013) 168107). It has been conjectured that the interaction mechanism in pigeon flock dynamics follows a hierarchical leader-follower influential network (Nagy M., Ákos Z., Biro D. and Vicsek T., Nature, 464 (2010) 890). In this paper, a new observation is reported that shows that pigeon flocks actually adopt a much simpler two-level interactive network composed of one leader and some followers. By statistically analyzing the same experimental dataset, we show that for a certain period of time a sole leader determines the motion of the flock while the remaining birds are all followers directly copying the leader's direction with specific time delays. This simple two-level despotic organization is expected to save both motional energy and communication cost, while retaining agility and robustness of the whole group. From an evolutionary perspective, our results suggest that a two-level organization of group flight may be more efficient than a multilevel topology for small pigeon flocks.

  10. The art in getting flocks and herds to flerds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flerds (small ruminants that consistently stay near cattle under free-ranging conditions) offer four distinct advantages over stocking simply flocks and herds to carry out mixed species stocking. One of the main advantages flerds offer is added protection from canine predation, reduced time in loca...

  11. Integrating UAS Flocking Operations with Formation Drag Reduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    S., and Carl A. Shollenberger. "Formation Flight of Birds." Science, 1970: 1003-1005. Marks, Paul. "Aviation - The Shape of Wings to Come." New...34Autonomous Flight Control and Software Literatire Review." Presentation, 2005. Nathan, Andre , and Valmir C. Barbosa. "V-like Formations in Flocks of

  12. Squamous cell carcinoma-like and pox lesions occurring simultaneously in chorioallantoic membranes of chicken embryos inoculated with materials from squamous cell carcinoma and pox lesions in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Fallavena, L C; Rodrigues, N C; Moraes, H L; Salle, C T; da Silva, A B; Nascimento, V P; Rodrigues, O

    1997-01-01

    The finding of closely associated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)-like lesions and pox lesions in chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs) inoculated with skin and palate samples taken from broilers is described. The samples were obtained from two broilers coming from different flocks that were not vaccinated against fowl pox. Both birds presented skin lesions, which were diagnosed in one bird as fowl pox, and in the other as SCC. After inoculation of CAMs with fresh tissues from both birds, histologic examination revealed, in all CAMs, lesions that were characteristic of fowl pox together with lesions consistent with those seen in the skin of broilers affected with SCC. This finding was unexpected and may shed some light on the etiology of SCC.

  13. Organic Turkey Flocks: A Reservoir of Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Jochen; Dumke, Jessika; Hinse, Dennis; Dreier, Jens; Habig, Christin; Kemper, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus) can colonise the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals and is known to cause similar infections in both humans and animals. Data about the spread or prevalence in farm animals are missing. In this study, Trypton Soya Agar was modified to a selective medium enabling the isolation and quantification of S. gallolyticus from faecal samples. The bacterium was observed in 82 out of 91 faecal samples obtained from 18 different organic turkey flocks. The prevalence of shedding birds was estimated by the number of positive fresh droppings and reached up to 100% on most farms. Furthermore, for the first time S. gallolyticus was quantified in faeces from poultry flocks. The median of colony forming units (CFU) per gramme faeces was 3.6 x 105CFU/g. Typing of one isolate from each positive faecal sample by multilocus sequence typing delivered 24 sequence types (STs). Most of the isolates belonged to the clonal complex CC58. The same STs of this complex were detected in up to six different flocks. Partly, these flocks were located in various regions and stocked with varying breeding lines. Regarding the biochemical profiles of the same STs from different farms, the results did not contradict a spread of specific STs in the organic turkey production. Moreover, checking the pubMLST database revealed that STs found in this study were also found in other animal species and in humans. The high detection rate and the number of S. gallolyticus in turkey faeces indicate that this bacterium probably belongs to the common microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract of turkeys from organic flocks. Furthermore, the findings of this study support the suggestion of a possible interspecies transmission. PMID:26657757

  14. The respiratory effects of occupational polypropylene flock exposure.

    PubMed

    Atis, S; Tutluoglu, B; Levent, E; Ozturk, C; Tunaci, A; Sahin, K; Saral, A; Oktay, I; Kanik, A; Nemery, B

    2005-01-01

    The present study evaluated the possible effects of exposure to polypropylene flock on respiratory health and serum cytokines in a cross-sectional study of workers from a plant in Turkey. A total of 50 polypropylene flocking workers were compared to a control group of 45 subjects. All subjects filled out a respiratory questionnaire and underwent a physical examination, a chest radiograph and pulmonary function testing, including single breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DL,CO). Serum interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were measured. Additionally, high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest was performed in 10 exposed workers with low DL,CO. Work-related respiratory symptoms were reported in 26% of the exposed subjects and in 13.3% of the controls. Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of respiratory symptoms increased 3.6 fold in polypropylene flocking workers when compared to controls. Parameters of the study group, including per cent predicted: forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, forced mid-expiratory flow 25-75% and DL,CO, were significantly lower than in controls. Multivariate analyses showed that being a polypropylene flocking worker was a predictive factor for impairment of pulmonary function. Serum IL-8 and TNF-alpha levels were increased in the study group compared with the controls. HRCT revealed peribronchial thickening and diffuse ground glass attenuation in some subjects. The present study suggests the presence of subtle or the beginning of interstitial lung disease in these polypropylene flocking workers.

  15. Organic Turkey Flocks: A Reservoir of Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Jochen; Dumke, Jessika; Hinse, Dennis; Dreier, Jens; Habig, Christin; Kemper, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus) can colonise the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals and is known to cause similar infections in both humans and animals. Data about the spread or prevalence in farm animals are missing. In this study, Trypton Soya Agar was modified to a selective medium enabling the isolation and quantification of S. gallolyticus from faecal samples. The bacterium was observed in 82 out of 91 faecal samples obtained from 18 different organic turkey flocks. The prevalence of shedding birds was estimated by the number of positive fresh droppings and reached up to 100% on most farms. Furthermore, for the first time S. gallolyticus was quantified in faeces from poultry flocks. The median of colony forming units (CFU) per gramme faeces was 3.6 x 10(5) CFU/g. Typing of one isolate from each positive faecal sample by multilocus sequence typing delivered 24 sequence types (STs). Most of the isolates belonged to the clonal complex CC58. The same STs of this complex were detected in up to six different flocks. Partly, these flocks were located in various regions and stocked with varying breeding lines. Regarding the biochemical profiles of the same STs from different farms, the results did not contradict a spread of specific STs in the organic turkey production. Moreover, checking the pubMLST database revealed that STs found in this study were also found in other animal species and in humans. The high detection rate and the number of S. gallolyticus in turkey faeces indicate that this bacterium probably belongs to the common microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract of turkeys from organic flocks. Furthermore, the findings of this study support the suggestion of a possible interspecies transmission.

  16. Cyclic and Coherent States in Flocks with Topological Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacherjee, Biplab; Bhattacharya, Kunal; Manna, Subhrangshu

    A simple model of the two dimensional collective motion of a group of mobile agents have been studied. Like birds, these agents travel in open free space where each of them interacts with the first n neighbors determined by the topological distance with a free boundary condition. Using the same prescription for interactions used in the Vicsek model with scalar noise it has been observed that the flock, in absence of the noise, arrives at a number of interesting stationary states. One of the two most prominent states is the `single sink state' where the entire flock travels along the same direction maintaining perfect cohesion and coherence. The other state is the `cyclic state' where every individual agent executes a uniform circular motion, and the correlation among the agents guarantees that the entire flock executes a pulsating dynamics i.e., expands and contracts periodically between a minimum and a maximum size of the flock. We have studied another limiting situation when refreshing rate of the interaction zone is the fastest. In this case the entire flock gets fragmented into smaller clusters of different sizes. On introduction of scalar noise a crossover is observed when the agents cross over from a ballistic motion to a diffusive motion. Expectedly the crossover time is dependent on the strength of the noise eta and diverges as eta -> 0. An even more simpler version of this model has been studied by suppressing the translational degrees of freedom of the agents but retaining their angular motion. Here agents are the spins, placed at the sites of a square lattice with periodic boundary condition. Every spin interacts with its n = 2, 3 or 4 nearest neighbors. In the stationary state the entire spin pattern moves as a whole when interactions are anisotropic with n = 2 and 3; but it is completely frozen when the interaction is isotropic with n=4. These spin configu

  17. Cyclic and Coherent States in Flocks with Topological Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacherjee, Biplab; Bhattacharya, Kunal; Manna, Subhrangshu

    2014-01-01

    A simple model of the two dimensional collective motion of a group of mobile agents have been studied. Like birds, these agents travel in open free space where each of them interacts with the first n neighbors determined by the topological distance with a free boundary condition. Using the same prescription for interactions used in the Vicsek model with scalar noise it has been observed that the flock, in absence of the noise, arrives at a number of interesting stationary states. One of the two most prominent states is the `single sink state' where the entire flock travels along the same direction maintaining perfect cohesion and coherence. The other state is the `cyclic state' where every individual agent executes a uniform circular motion, and the correlation among the agents guarantees that the entire flock executes a pulsating dynamics i.e., expands and contracts periodically between a minimum and a maximum size of the flock. We have studied another limiting situation when refreshing rate of the interaction zone is the fastest. In this case the entire flock gets fragmented into smaller clusters of different sizes. On introduction of scalar noise a crossover is observed when the agents cross over from a ballistic motion to a diffusive motion. Expectedly the crossover time is dependent on the strength of the noise η and diverges as η → 0. An even more simpler version of this model has been studied by suppressing the translational degrees of freedom of the agents but retaining their angular motion. Here agents are the spins, placed at the sites of a square lattice with periodic boundary condition. Every spin interacts with its n = 2, 3 or 4 nearest neighbors. In the stationary state the entire spin pattern moves as a whole when interactions are anisotropic with n = 2 and 3; but it is completely frozen when the interaction is isotropic with n=4$. These spin configu

  18. Poultry litter and the environment: Physiochemical properties of litter and soil during successive flock rotations and after remote site deposition.

    PubMed

    Crippen, Tawni L; Sheffield, Cynthia L; Byrd, J Allen; Esquivel, Jesus F; Beier, Ross C; Yeater, Kathleen

    2016-05-15

    The U.S. broiler meat market has grown over the past 16 years and destinations for U.S. broiler meat exports expanded to over 150 countries. This market opportunity has spurred a corresponding increase in industrialized poultry production, which due to the confined space in which high numbers of animals are housed, risks accumulating nutrients and pollutants. The purpose of this research was to determine the level of pollutants within poultry litter and the underlying soil within a production facility; and to explore the impact of spent litter deposition into the environment. The study follows a production facility for the first 2.5 years of production. It monitors the effects of successive flocks and management practices on 15 physiochemical parameters: Ca, Cu, electrical conductivity, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, moisture, Na, NO3(-)/N, organic matter, P, pH, S, and Zn. Litter samples were collected in-house, after clean-outs and during stockpiling. The soil before house placement, after the clean-outs and following litter stockpiling was monitored. Management practices markedly altered the physiochemical profiles of the litter in-house. A canonical discriminant analysis was used to describe the relationship between the parameters and sampling times. The litter profiles grouped into five clusters corresponding to time and management practices. The soil in-house exhibited mean increases in all physiochemical parameters (2-297 fold) except Fe, Mg, %M, and pH. The spent litter was followed after deposition onto a field for use as fertilizer. After 20 weeks, the soil beneath the litter exhibited increases in EC, Cu, K, Na, NO3(-)/N, %OM, P, S and Zn; while %M decreased. Understanding the impacts of industrialized poultry farms on the environment is vital as the cumulative ecological impact of this land usage could be substantial if not properly managed to reduce the risk of potential pollutant infiltration into the environment.

  19. Investigation of a Simple Model for Within-Flock Transmission of Scrapie

    PubMed Central

    Hagenaars, Thomas J.; Windig, Jack J.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic control programs for scrapie in sheep build on solid knowledge of how susceptibility to scrapie is modulated by the prion protein genotype at the level of an individual sheep. In order to satisfactorily analyze the effectivity of control programs at the population level, insight is needed at the flock level, i.e., how the grouping of sheep in flocks affects the population-level transmission risk. In particular, one would like to understand how this risk is affected by between-flock differences in genotype frequency distribution. A first step is to model the scrapie transmission risk within a flock as a function of the flock genotype profile. Here we do so by estimating parameters for a model of within-flock transmission using genotyping data on Dutch flocks affected by scrapie. We show that the data are consistent with a relatively simple transmission model assuming horizontal transmission and homogeneous mixing between animals. The model expresses the basic reproduction number for within-flock scrapie as a weighted average of genotype-specific susceptibilities, multiplied by a single overall transmission parameter. The value of the overall transmission parameter may vary between flocks to account for random between-flock variation in non-genetic determinants such as management practice. Here we provide an estimate of its mean value and variation for Dutch flocks. PMID:26426269

  20. Investigation of a Simple Model for Within-Flock Transmission of Scrapie.

    PubMed

    Hagenaars, Thomas J; Windig, Jack J

    2015-01-01

    Genetic control programs for scrapie in sheep build on solid knowledge of how susceptibility to scrapie is modulated by the prion protein genotype at the level of an individual sheep. In order to satisfactorily analyze the effectivity of control programs at the population level, insight is needed at the flock level, i.e., how the grouping of sheep in flocks affects the population-level transmission risk. In particular, one would like to understand how this risk is affected by between-flock differences in genotype frequency distribution. A first step is to model the scrapie transmission risk within a flock as a function of the flock genotype profile. Here we do so by estimating parameters for a model of within-flock transmission using genotyping data on Dutch flocks affected by scrapie. We show that the data are consistent with a relatively simple transmission model assuming horizontal transmission and homogeneous mixing between animals. The model expresses the basic reproduction number for within-flock scrapie as a weighted average of genotype-specific susceptibilities, multiplied by a single overall transmission parameter. The value of the overall transmission parameter may vary between flocks to account for random between-flock variation in non-genetic determinants such as management practice. Here we provide an estimate of its mean value and variation for Dutch flocks.

  1. High-resolution melt curve analysis to confirm the presence of co-circulating isolates of avian nephritis virus in commercial chicken flocks.

    PubMed

    Chamings, A; Hewson, K A; O'Rourke, D; Ignjatovic, J; Noormohammadi, A H

    2015-01-01

    Avian Nephritis Virus (ANV) has been implicated in poor growth and renal disease of young chickens. This paper describes the development of a reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for the detection of ANV in commercial meat chickens and the use of high-resolution melt curves to detect the presence of genetically different ANVs. Pooled cloacal swabs from both healthy and ill commercial chicken broiler flocks were tested for the presence of ANV using a combination of polymerase chain reaction, molecular cloning, high-resolution melt curve analysis and sequencing. Except for one, all specimens were found to contain two genetically different ANVs. Phylogenetic analysis of the capsid amino acid sequences revealed the presence of four of six groups of ANV identified previously in other countries as well as in two novel groups of ANV. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences of partial polymerase, capsid and 3' untranslated regions reveal that the genes of individual ANV virus isolates have different ancestors. This was shown to be due to a template-switching event in the capsid gene that resulted in the 3' end of the capsid gene and the 3' untranslated region of one ANV isolate being transferred to another ANV. These results reveal that infection of chicken flocks with multiple ANV isolates is common and this needs to be taken into consideration in diagnosis of ANV using molecular techniques and in future epidemiological investigations.

  2. Fractured fibulae in broiler fowls.

    PubMed

    Duff, S R

    1985-10-01

    Fibular diaphyseal fractures were identified bilaterally or unilaterally in 15 broilers aged between 13 and 105 days. Incomplete cortical defects were also identified on radiographs in a further 8 birds. Fractures and incomplete defects always occurred at the Tuberculum M. iliofibularis of fibulae. The character of bone at this site differed from bone elsewhere in the diaphysis. Following fracture, cartilaginous callus united the diaphyseal segments and pseudarthrosis or fibrous non-union were common sequelae. The concept that fibular fractures in broilers are always a consequence of abnormal proximal tibiotarsal curvature is not supported by this study. It is suggested that differential growth of the paired crural bones is of primary importance.

  3. Charge breeder for the SPIRAL1 upgrade: Preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Maunoury, L. Delahaye, P.; Dubois, M.; Bajeat, O.; Frigot, R.; Jeanne, A.; Jardin, P.; Kamalou, O.; Lecomte, P.; Osmond, B.; Peschard, G.; Savalle, A.; Angot, J.; Sole, P.; Lamy, T.

    2016-02-15

    In the framework of the SPIRAL1 upgrade under progress at the GANIL lab, the charge breeder based on a LPSC Phoenix ECRIS, first tested at ISOLDE has been modified to benefit of the last enhancements of this device from the 1+/n+ community. The modifications mainly concern the 1 + optics, vacuum techniques, and the RF—buffer gas injection into the charge breeder. Prior to its installation in the midst of the low energy beam line of the SPIRAL1 facility, it has been decided to qualify its performances and several operation modes at the test bench of LPSC lab. This contribution shall present preliminary results of experiments conducted at LPSC concerning the 1 + to n+ conversion efficiencies for noble gases as well as for alkali elements and the corresponding transformation times.

  4. Fuel Summary Report: Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor - Rev. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Gail Lynn; Mc Cardell, Richard Keith; Illum, Douglas Brent

    2002-09-01

    The Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was developed by Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory to demonstrate the potential of a water-cooled, thorium oxide fuel cycle breeder reactor. The LWBR core operated from 1977-82 without major incident. The fuel and fuel components suffered minimal damage during operation, and the reactor testing was deemed successful. Extensive destructive and nondestructive postirradiation examinations confirmed that the fuel was in good condition with minimal amounts of cladding deformities and fuel pellet cracks. Fuel was placed in wet storage upon arrival at the Expended Core Facility, then dried and sent to the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center for underground dry storage. It is likely that the fuel remains in good condition at its current underground dry storage location at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. Reports show no indication of damage to the core associated with shipping, loading, or storage.

  5. Role of the breeder in long-term energy economics

    SciTech Connect

    Kosobud, R.F.; Daly, T.A.; Chang, Y.I.

    1982-01-01

    Private and public decisions affecting the use of nuclear and other energy technologies over a long-run time horizon were studied using the ETA-MACRO model which provides for economic- and energy-sector interactions. The impact on the use of competing energy technologies of a public decision to apply benefit-cost analysis to the production of carbon dioxide that enters the atmosphere is considered. Assuming the public choice is to impose an appropriate penalty tax on those technologies which generate CO/sub 2/ and to allow decentralized private decisions to choose the optimal mix of energy technologies that maximize a nonlinear objective function subject to constraints, the study showed that breeder technology provides a much-larger share of domestically consumed energy. Having the breeder technology available as a substitute permits control of CO/sub 2/ without significant reductions in consumption or gross national product growth paths.

  6. Testing needs and experiments for solid breeder blankets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierszewski, P.; Puigh, R.

    1986-11-01

    Most of the critical issues for solid breeder blankets are related to the tritium and thermomechanical behavior of the solid breeder and multiplier. A major contributor to this uncertainty is the lack of definition of a preferred material, microstructure and form. Material selection and development is particularly cost-effective at present since much of the important blanket behavior is driven by local conditions rather than the overall blanket design, and since the choice of material affects the nature of the later and larger experiments. This stage of testing is also the most appropriate time to consider basic material choices such as sphere-pac or sintered pellet, and the incorporation of multiplier material into the blanket. The major testing needs and experiments are characterized here.

  7. Feasibility study on the thorium fueled boiling water breeder reactor

    SciTech Connect

    PetrusTakaki, N.

    2012-07-01

    The feasibility of (Th,U)O 2 fueled, boiling water breeder reactor based on conventional BWR technology has been studied. In order to determine the potential use of water cooled thorium reactor as a competitive breeder, this study evaluated criticality, breeding and void reactivity coefficient in response to changes made in MFR and fissile enrichments. The result of the study shows that while using light water as moderator, low moderator to fuel volume ratio (MFR=0.5), it was possible to breed fissile fuel in negative void reactivity condition. However the burnup value was lower than the value of the current LWR. On the other hand, heavy water cooled reactor shows relatively wider feasible breeding region, which lead into possibility of designing a core having better neutronic and economic performance than light water with negative void reactivity coefficient. (authors)

  8. Steam generator for liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, James E.; Garner, Daniel C.; Wineman, Arthur L.; Robey, Robert M.

    1985-01-01

    Improvements in the design of internal components of J-shaped steam generators for liquid metal fast breeder reactors. Complex design improvements have been made to the internals of J-shaped steam generators which improvements are intended to reduce tube vibration, tube jamming, flow problems in the upper portion of the steam generator, manufacturing complexities in tube spacer attachments, thermal stripping potentials and difficulties in the weld fabrication of certain components.

  9. Solid breeder/structure mechanical interaction and thermal stability

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.Y.; Billone, M.C.; Taghavi, K.

    1985-04-01

    Solid breeder/structure mechanical interaction (BSMI) during fusion reactor blanket operation is a potential failure mode which could limit the lifetime of the blanket. The severity of BSMI will generally depend on the materials, specific blanket designs, and blanket operating conditions. Thermomechanical analyses performed for a helium-cooled blanket employing Li/sub 2/O/HT-9 plates indicate that BSMI could be a serious concern for this blanket.

  10. Lithium ceramics as the solid breeder material in fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenberg, G. W.; Reuther, T. C.; Johnson, C. E.

    1982-03-01

    Fusion blanket designs have for almost a decade considered the use of a solid breeder relying on available data and assumed performance. The conclusion from these studies is that acceptable neutronic and thermal hydraulic performance can be achieved. In the future, it will be necessary to establish that a particular material can tolerate the thermal and irradiation environment of the fusion blanket while still providing the required functions of tritium recovery, power production and neutron shielding.

  11. High frequency of chlamydial co-infections in clinically healthy sheep flocks

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The epidemiological situation of ovine chlamydial infections in continental Europe, especially Germany is poorly characterised. Using the German state of Thuringia as a model example, the chlamydial sero- and antigen prevalence was estimated in thirty-two randomly selected sheep flocks with an average abortion rate lower than 1%. Seven vaccinated flocks were reviewed separately. Results A wide range of samples from 32 flocks were examined. Assumption of a seroprevalence of 10% (CI 95%) at flock level, revealed that 94% of the tested flocks were serologically positive with ongoing infection (i.e. animals with seroconversion) in nearly half (47%) of the flocks. On the basis of an estimated 25% antigen prevalence (CI 95%), PCR and DNA microarray testing, together with sequencing revealed the presence of chlamydiae in 78% of the flocks. The species most frequently found was Chlamydophila (C.) abortus (50%) followed by C. pecorum (47%) and C. psittaci genotype A (25%). Mixed infections occurred in 25% of the tested flocks. Samples obtained from the vaccinated flocks revealed the presence of C. abortus field samples in 4/7 flocks. C. pecorum was isolated from 2/7 flocks and the presence of seroconversion was determined in 3/7 flocks. Conclusions The results imply that chlamydial infections occur frequently in German sheep flocks, even in the absence of elevated abortion rates. The fact that C. pecorum and the potentially zoonotic C. psittaci were found alongside the classical abortifacient agent C. abortus, raise questions about the significance of this reservoir for animal and human health and underline the necessity for regular monitoring. Further studies are needed to identify the possible role of C. psittaci infections in sheep. PMID:21679409

  12. Molecular typing and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens from broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Saad; Al Rifai, Rami; Al-Majali, Ahmad

    2010-12-01

    Clostridium perfringens (Cp) causes necrotic enteritis disease in commercial poultry. Antimicrobials are used to control and treat this disease and sometimes clinical outbreaks do not respond well to certain treatments. This study was designed to isolate Cp from clinical cases, type these isolates by multiplex PCR, and determine their antimicrobial susceptibility by micro-dilution method. A total of 67 Cp isolates were obtained from 155 broiler chicken flocks. All isolates were classified as type A and non-enterotoxin producers. Lincomycin, erythromycins, and tilmicosin showed very high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 50 of ≥256 μg/ml. However, tylosin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, penicillin, florfenicol, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, and oxytetracycline had variable MIC₅₀ of 64, 0.5, 1, 1, 8, 4, 8, 4, 8, 0.5 μg/ml, respectively. It is recommended that Cp infections in Jordan be treated with either penicillins or tetracyclines especially amoxicillin and oxytetracycline.

  13. Spatio-temporal structure of hooded gull flocks.

    PubMed

    Yomosa, Makoto; Mizuguchi, Tsuyoshi; Hayakawa, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the spatio-temporal structure of hooded gull flocks with a portable stereo camera system. The 3-dimensional positions of individuals were reconstructed from pairs of videos. The motions of each individual were analyzed, and both gliding and flapping motions were quantified based on the velocity time series. We analyzed the distributions of the nearest neighbor's position in terms of coordinates based on each individual's motion. The obtained results were consistent with the aerodynamic interaction between individuals. We characterized the leader-follower relationship between individuals by a delay time to mimic the direction of a motion. A relation between the delay time and a relative position was analyzed quantitatively, which suggested the basic properties of the formation flight that maintains order in the flock.

  14. Overview of EU activities on DEMO liquid metal breeder blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Giancarli, L.; Proust, E.

    1994-12-31

    The European test-blanket development programme, started in 1988, is aiming at the selection by 1995 of two DEMO-relevant blanket lines to be tested in ITER. At present, four lines of blanket are under development, two of them using solid and the other two liquid breeder materials. As far as liquid breeders are concerned, two lines of blankets have been selected within the European Union, the water-cooled lithium-lead (the eutectic Pb-17Li) blankets and the dual-coolant Pb-17Li blankets. Designs have been developed considering an agreed set of DEMO specifications, such as, for instance, a fusion power of 2,200 MW, a neutron wall-loading of 2MW/m{sup 2}, a life-time of 20,000 hours, and the use of martensitic steel as a structural material. Moreover, an experimental program has been set up in order to address the main critical issues for each line. The present paper gives an overview of both design and experimental activities within the European Union concerning these two lines of liquid breeder blankets.

  15. Gas core reactors for actinide transmutation and breeder applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    This work consists of design power plant studies for four types of reactor systems: uranium plasma core breeder, uranium plasma core actinide transmuter, UF6 breeder and UF6 actinide transmuter. The plasma core systems can be coupled to MHD generators to obtain high efficiency electrical power generation. A 1074 MWt UF6 breeder reactor was designed with a breeding ratio of 1.002 to guard against diversion of fuel. Using molten salt technology and a superheated steam cycle, an efficiency of 39.2% was obtained for the plant and the U233 inventory in the core and heat exchangers was limited to 105 Kg. It was found that the UF6 reactor can produce high fluxes (10 to the 14th power n/sq cm-sec) necessary for efficient burnup of actinide. However, the buildup of fissile isotopes posed severe heat transfer problems. Therefore, the flux in the actinide region must be decreased with time. Consequently, only beginning-of-life conditions were considered for the power plant design. A 577 MWt UF6 actinide transmutation reactor power plant was designed to operate with 39.3% efficiency and 102 Kg of U233 in the core and heat exchanger for beginning-of-life conditions.

  16. Progress in tritium retention and release modeling for ceramic breeders

    SciTech Connect

    Raffray, A.R.; Federici, G.; Billone, M.C.; Tanaka, S.

    1994-07-11

    Tritium behavior in ceramic breeder blankets is a key design issue for this class of blanket because of its impact on safety and fuel self-sufficiency. Over the past 10-15 years, substantial theoretical and experimental efforts have been dedicated world-wide to develop a better understanding of tritium transport in ceramic breeders. Models that are available today seem to cover reasonably well all the key physical transport and trapping mechanisms. They have allowed for reasonable interpretation and reproduction of experimental data and have helped in pointing out deficiencies in material property data base, in providing guidance for future experiments, and in analyzing blanket tritium behavior. This paper highlights the progress in tritium modeling over the last decade. Key tritium transport mechanisms are briefly described along with the more recent and sophisticated models developed to help understand them. Recent experimental data are highlighted and model calibration and validation discussed. Finally, example applications to blanket cases are shown as illustration of progress in the prediction of ceramic breeder blanket tritium inventory.

  17. Breeding nuclear fuels with accelerators: replacement for breeder reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Grand, P.; Takahashi, H.

    1984-01-01

    One application of high energy particle accelerators has been, and still is, the production of nuclear fuel for the nuclear energy industry; tantalizing because it would create a whole new industry. This approach to producing fissile from fertile material was first considered in the early 1950's in the context of the nuclear weapons program. A considerable development effort was expended before discovery of uranium ore in New Mexico put an end to the project. Later, US commitment to the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR) killed any further interest in pursuing accelerator breeder technology. Interest in the application of accelerators to breed nuclear fuels, and possibly burn nuclear wastes, revived in the late 1970's, when the LMFBR came under attack during the Carter administration. This period gave the opportunity to revisit the concept in view of the present state of the technology. This evaluation and the extensive calculational modeling of target designs that have been carried out are promising. In fact, a nuclear fuel cycle of Light Water Reactors and Accelerator Breeders is competitive to that of the LMFBR. At this time, however, the relative abundance of uranium reserves vs electricity demand and projected growth rate render this study purely academic. It will be for the next generation of accelerator builders to demonstate the competitiveness of this technology versus that of other nuclear fuel cycles, such as LMFBR's or Fusion Hybrid systems. 22 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  18. Diagnosis and treatment of copper poisoning caused by accidental feeding on poultry litter in a sheep flock.

    PubMed

    Christodoulopoulos, G; Roubies, N

    2007-11-01

    We report a case of chronic copper poisoning in a flock of 182 grazing dairy sheep in Thessaly, Central Greece. Five ewes were found dead during the course of a week. The diagnosis of copper poisoning was confirmed by necropsy examination, blood test results, and abnormally high copper levels in liver and kidney samples. A field investigation revealed the source of copper as a litter heap from a broiler farm to which the sheep had accidental access during their movement between the milking parlour and the grazing area. Access to the litter was subsequently blocked and all sheep were provided with 50 g of a salt/gypsum/sodium molybdate mixture (90.0: 9.8: 0.2, w/w) mixed in 500 g of concentrate feed daily, for a period of 5 weeks. Follow-up blood samples were taken 3 and 8 wk after the initial diagnosis. A reduction in aspartate aminotransferase activity indicated the source of copper had been eliminated and the subsequent treatment was successful.

  19. Flocking-based Document Clustering on the Graphics Processing Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Xiaohui; Potok, Thomas E; Patton, Robert M; ST Charles, Jesse Lee

    2008-01-01

    Abstract?Analyzing and grouping documents by content is a complex problem. One explored method of solving this problem borrows from nature, imitating the flocking behavior of birds. Each bird represents a single document and flies toward other documents that are similar to it. One limitation of this method of document clustering is its complexity O(n2). As the number of documents grows, it becomes increasingly difficult to receive results in a reasonable amount of time. However, flocking behavior, along with most naturally inspired algorithms such as ant colony optimization and particle swarm optimization, are highly parallel and have found increased performance on expensive cluster computers. In the last few years, the graphics processing unit (GPU) has received attention for its ability to solve highly-parallel and semi-parallel problems much faster than the traditional sequential processor. Some applications see a huge increase in performance on this new platform. The cost of these high-performance devices is also marginal when compared with the price of cluster machines. In this paper, we have conducted research to exploit this architecture and apply its strengths to the document flocking problem. Our results highlight the potential benefit the GPU brings to all naturally inspired algorithms. Using the CUDA platform from NIVIDA? we developed a document flocking implementation to be run on the NIVIDA?GEFORCE 8800. Additionally, we developed a similar but sequential implementation of the same algorithm to be run on a desktop CPU. We tested the performance of each on groups of news articles ranging in size from 200 to 3000 documents. The results of these tests were very significant. Performance gains ranged from three to nearly five times improvement of the GPU over the CPU implementation. This dramatic improvement in runtime makes the GPU a potentially revolutionary platform for document clustering algorithms.

  20. Kinetic theory of flocking: Derivation of hydrodynamic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihle, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    It is shown how to explicitly coarse-grain the microscopic dynamics of the rule-based Vicsek model for self-propelled agents. The hydrodynamic equations are derived by means of an Enskog-type kinetic theory. Expressions for all transport coefficients are given. The transition from a disordered to a flocking state, which at large particle speeds appears to be a fluctuation-induced first-order phase transition, is studied numerically and analytically.

  1. Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance profiles of escherichia coli isolates of broiler chickens at slaughter in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Chunu; McFall, Margaret; King, Robin; Irwin, Rebecca

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial resistance profiles of Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chickens in Alberta, Canada. Cecal contents of broiler chickens from 24 flocks were collected at slaughter between January and March 2005 for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing against a panel of 15 antimicrobials using a broth microdilution technique. Of 600 E. coli isolates tested, 475 (79.2%) were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, 326 (54.3%) were resistant to three or more antimicrobials, 65 (10.8%) were resistant to five or more antimicrobials, and 15 (2.5%) were resistant to seven or more antimicrobials. The most common resistance was to tetracycline (69.2%), followed by streptomycin (48.2%), kanamycin (40.3%), and sulfisoxazole (38.0%). None of the E. coli isolates were resistant to amikacin, ceftriaxone, or ciprofloxacin. Of the isolates that were resistant to two or more antimicrobials, the most common multidrug resistance patterns were streptomycinte-tracycline (44.0%), streptomycin-sulfisoxazole-tetracycline (30.7%), and kanamycin-streptomycin-sulfisoxazole-tetracycline (23.5%). Resistance to tetracycline and kanamycin (odds ratio = 46.7, P = 0.0001) was highly associated, followed by resistance to streptomycin and sulfisoxazole (odds ratio = 12.0, P = 0.0001), and streptomycin and tetracycline (odds ratio = 10.3, P = 0.0001). The flock level prevalence of resistance varied from 16.7% for chloramphenicol to 100.0% for ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline. The results of this study provided baseline information on antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli isolates of broiler chickens at slaughter in Alberta, which can serve as a bench mark for future research.

  2. Survey of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) infection in German goat flocks.

    PubMed

    Helmer, C; Eibach, R; Tegtmeyer, P C; Humann-Ziehank, E; Ganter, M

    2013-11-01

    Animal losses due to abortion and malformed offspring during the lambing period 2011/2012 amounted to 50% in ruminants in Europe. A new arthropod-borne virus, called Schmallenberg virus (SBV), was identified as the cause of these losses. Blood samples were obtained from 40 goat flocks and tested for antibodies against SBV by ELISA, with 95% being seropositive. The calculated intra-herd seroprevalence (median 36·7%, min-max 0-93·3%) was smaller than in cattle or sheep flocks. Only 25% of the farmers reported malformations in kids. Statistical analysis revealed a significantly lower risk of goats housed indoors all year-round to be infected by SBV than for goats kept outside day and night. The low intra-herd seroprevalence demonstrates that German goat flocks are still at risk of SBV infection. Therefore, they must be protected during the next lambing seasons by rescheduling the mating period, implementing indoor housing, and continuous treatment with repellents or vaccination.

  3. Spontaneous fluctuations in a zero-noise model of flocking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Abhijit; Bhattacharya, Kunal

    2016-11-01

    Investigations into the complex structure and dynamics of collectively moving groups of living organisms have provided valuable insights. Understanding the emergent features, especially, the origin of fluctuations, appears to be challenging in the current scheme of models. It has been argued that flocks are poised at criticality. We present a two-dimensional self-propelled particle model where neighbourhoods and forces are defined through topology-based rules. The attractive forces are modeled in order to maintain cohesion in the flock in open-boundary conditions. We find that fluctuations occur spontaneously in the absence of any external noise. For certain values of the parameters the flock shows a high degree of order as well as scale-free decay of spatial correlations in velocity and speed. We characterize the dynamical behaviour of the system using the Lyapunov spectrum. Largest exponents being positive but small in magnitude suggest that the apparent high susceptibility may result from the system operating near the borderline of order and chaos.

  4. Silent Flocks: Constraints on Signal Propagation Across Biological Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Grigera, Tomas S.; Jelic, Asja; Levine, Dov; Ramaswamy, Sriram; Viale, Massimiliano

    2015-05-01

    Experiments find coherent information transfer through biological groups on length and time scales distinctly below those on which asymptotically correct hydrodynamic theories apply. We present here a new continuum theory of collective motion coupling the velocity and density fields of Toner and Tu to the inertial spin field recently introduced to describe information propagation in natural flocks of birds. The long-wavelength limit of the new equations reproduces the Toner-Tu theory, while at shorter wavelengths (or, equivalently, smaller damping), spin fluctuations dominate over density fluctuations, and second-sound propagation of the kind observed in real flocks emerges. We study the dispersion relation of the new theory and find that when the speed of second sound is large, a gap in momentum space sharply separates first- from second-sound modes. This gap implies the existence of silent flocks, namely, of medium-sized systems across which information cannot propagate in a linear and underdamped way, either under the form of orientational fluctuations or under that of density fluctuations, making it hard for the group to achieve coordination.

  5. Predictive protocol of flocks with small-world connection pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Tao; Chen, Michael Z. Q.; Zhou, Tao

    2009-01-01

    By introducing a predictive mechanism with small-world connections, we propose a new motion protocol for self-driven flocks. The small-world connections are implemented by randomly adding long-range interactions from the leader to a few distant agents, namely, pseudoleaders. The leader can directly affect the pseudoleaders, thereby influencing all the other agents through them efficiently. Moreover, these pseudoleaders are able to predict the leader’s motion several steps ahead and use this information in decision making towards coherent flocking with more stable formation. It is shown that drastic improvement can be achieved in terms of both the consensus performance and the communication cost. From the engineering point of view, the current protocol allows for a significant improvement in the cohesion and rigidity of the formation at a fairly low cost of adding a few long-range links embedded with predictive capabilities. Significantly, this work uncovers an important feature of flocks that predictive capability and long-range links can compensate for the insufficiency of each other. These conclusions are valid for both the attractive and repulsive swarm model and the Vicsek model.

  6. Risk based microbiological criteria for Campylobacter in broiler meat in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Nauta, Maarten J; Sanaa, Moez; Havelaar, Arie H

    2012-09-03

    Quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) allows evaluating the public health impact of food safety targets to support the control of foodborne pathogens. We estimate the risk reduction of setting microbiological criteria (MCs) for Campylobacter on broiler meat in 25 European countries, applying quantitative data from the 2008 EU baseline survey. We demonstrate that risk based MCs can be derived without explicit consideration of Food Safety Objectives or Performance Objectives. Published QMRA models for the consumer phase and dose response provide a relation between Campylobacter concentration on skin samples and the attending probability of illness for the consumer. Probabilistic modelling is used to evaluate a set of potential MCs. We present the percentage of batches not complying with the potential criteria, in relation to the risk reduction attending totally efficient treatment of these batches. We find different risk estimates and different impacts of MCs in different countries, which offers a practical and flexible tool for risk managers to select the most appropriate MC by weighing the costs (i.e. non-compliant batches) and the benefits (i.e. reduction in public health risk). Our analyses show that the estimated percentage of batches not complying with the MC is better correlated with the risk estimate than surrogate risk measures like the flock prevalence or the arithmetic mean concentration of bacteria on carcasses, and would therefore be a good measure for the risk of Campylobacter on broiler meat in a particular country. Two uncertain parameters in the model are the ratio of within- and between-flock variances in concentrations, and the transition factor of skin sample concentrations to concentrations on the meat. Sensitivity analyses show that these parameters have a considerable effect on our results, but the impact of their uncertainty is small compared to that of the parameters defining the Microbiological Criterion and the concentration

  7. 21 CFR 520.2184 - Sodium sulfachloropyrazine monohydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2184 Sodium sulfachloropyrazine monohydrate. (a) Chemical name. 2-Sulfamido-6-chloroxyrazine, sodium. (b) Sponsor. See Nos. 053501...) Conditions of use. It is used in the drinking water of broilers, breeder flocks, and replacement chickens...

  8. Operational experience with the Argonne National Laboratory Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade facility and electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondrasek, R.; Clark, J.; Levand, A.; Palchan, T.; Pardo, R.; Savard, G.; Scott, R.

    2014-02-01

    The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) facility provides low-energy and accelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams to address key nuclear physics and astrophysics questions. A 350 mCi 252Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The ECR charge breeder has achieved stable beam charge breeding efficiencies of 10.1% for 23Na7+, 17.9% for 39K10+, 15.6% for 84Kr17+, and 12.4% for 133Cs27+. For the radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for 143Cs27+ and 14.7% for 143Ba27+. The typical breeding times are 10 ms/charge state, but the source can be tuned such that this value increases to 100 ms/charge state with the best breeding efficiency corresponding to the longest breeding times—the variation of efficiencies with breeding time will be discussed. Efforts have been made to characterize and reduce the background contaminants present in the ion beam through judicious choice of q/m combinations. Methods of background reduction are being investigated based upon plasma chamber cleaning and vacuum practices.

  9. Operational experience with the Argonne National Laboratory Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade facility and electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder.

    PubMed

    Vondrasek, R; Clark, J; Levand, A; Palchan, T; Pardo, R; Savard, G; Scott, R

    2014-02-01

    The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) facility provides low-energy and accelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams to address key nuclear physics and astrophysics questions. A 350 mCi (252)Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The ECR charge breeder has achieved stable beam charge breeding efficiencies of 10.1% for (23)Na(7+), 17.9% for (39)K(10+), 15.6% for (84)Kr(17+), and 12.4% for (133)Cs(27+). For the radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for (143)Cs(27+) and 14.7% for (143)Ba(27+). The typical breeding times are 10 ms/charge state, but the source can be tuned such that this value increases to 100 ms/charge state with the best breeding efficiency corresponding to the longest breeding times-the variation of efficiencies with breeding time will be discussed. Efforts have been made to characterize and reduce the background contaminants present in the ion beam through judicious choice of q/m combinations. Methods of background reduction are being investigated based upon plasma chamber cleaning and vacuum practices.

  10. Can Bacteriotherapy Using Commercially Available Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Organic Acids Ameliorate the Symptoms Associated With Runting-Stunting Syndrome in Broiler Chickens?

    PubMed

    Mundt, E; Collett, S R; Berghaus, R; Pedroso, A A; Lee, M D; Maurer, J J

    2015-06-01

    Runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) in poultry has been known for more than 40 years, but the precise etiology remains unknown and a licensed vaccine is consequently not currently available. In order to mitigate the symptoms associated with RSS, a series of experiments was performed to investigate whether a combined bacteriotherapeutic treatment consisting of probiotics, prebiotics, and organic acids could influence the outcome of this disease. Initially two groups of commercial broiler chickens were either left uninoculated or inoculated with filtrate from homogenized intestines of RSS-affected broiler chickens. One group from each of these two challenge groups was treated, with a bacteriotherapeutic regimen. After 12 days chickens were euthanatized, the body weight was measured, and duodenal lesions were enumerated. Five consecutive broiler chicken flocks were then raised either on litter from RSS-affected birds or on fresh wood shavings. Treatment had no beneficial effect on the number and severity of intestinal lesions. There appeared to be a significant build-up of RSS agent(s) in poultry litter, with each consecutive flock placement, independent of bacteriotherapeutic treatment, as more individuals exhibited intestinal lesions on built-up litter in RSS-affected houses (28.9% vs. 44%). While treatment did not appear to consistently reduce intestinal lesions, it did significantly improve the mean body weights (P<0.05) and uniformity of 12-day-old chickens placed on reused litter in houses in which RSS-infected birds were previously raised. A combination of litter management and bacteriotherapy may be needed to ameliorate the adverse effects of RSS on intestinal health and body weight in broiler chickens.

  11. Questioning the activity of active matter: the case of bird flocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, Thierry; Walczak, Aleksandra; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Ginelli, Francesco; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Viale, Massimiliano; Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene

    Animal flocking is a natural instance of active matter. What makes flocks active is the rearrangement of neighborhoods, which constantly remodels the network of interactions between individuals in the group, keeping the system out of equilibrium. Despite the predicted importance of this reshuffling, its true impact for natural flocks is not well understood. Here we analyse films of flocks of startlings with a novel statistical inference technique based on dynamical maximum entropy to measure the parameters of flock alignment - alignment strength, interaction range, and noise. We show that birds align their flight orientations must faster than they change neighbors. In the statistical mechanics sense, this means that flocks remain adiabatically in equilibrium, allowing for a rigorous analogy with equilibrium systems of interacting spins, and we show that an inference method based on equilibrium assumptions gives fully consistent results.

  12. Linear response to leadership, effective temperature, and decision making in flocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Daniel J. G.; Giomi, Luca

    2016-08-01

    Large collections of autonomously moving agents, such as animals or micro-organisms, are able to flock coherently in space even in the absence of a central control mechanism. While the direction of the flock resulting from this critical behavior is random, this can be controlled by a small subset of informed individuals acting as leaders of the group. In this article we use the Vicsek model to investigate how flocks respond to leadership and make decisions. Using a combination of numerical simulations and continuous modeling we demonstrate that flocks display a linear response to leadership that can be cast in the framework of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, identifying an effective temperature reflecting how promptly the flock reacts to the initiative of the leaders. The linear response to leadership also holds in the presence of two groups of informed individuals with competing interests, indicating that the flock's behavioral decision is determined by both the number of leaders and their degree of influence.

  13. A quantitative trait locus for ascites on chromosome 9 in broiler chicken lines

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Smith, Candace D.; Al-Rubaye, Adnan A.; Erf, Gisela F.; Wideman, Robert F.; Anthony, Nicholas B.; Rhoads, Douglas D.

    2014-01-01

    A genome-wide SNP survey was used to identify chromosomal regions that showed linkage disequilibrium with respect to ascites susceptibility and ventricular hypertrophy in an F2 cross between previously described ascites-resistant and -susceptible lines. Variable number tandem repeats were used to obtain genotype data to further characterize these regions. A region on chromosome 9 (12 to 13 Mbp in 2011 assembly) shows association with ascites in the ascites lines and in several commercial broiler breeder lines with a significant sex effect. There are 2 candidate genes, AGTR1 (an angiotensin II type 1 receptor) and UTS2D (urotensin 2 domain containing), in this region that have been associated with hypertension and hypoxic response in mammals. PMID:24570451

  14. Impact of Solid Breeder Materials on Tritium Breeding in a Hybrid Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Übeyli, Mustafa

    2006-06-01

    Tritium breeding ratio (TBR) is one of the important parameters in design of a Deuterium-Tritium (DT) driven hybrid reactor. Therefore, selection of tritium breeder materials to be used in the blanket is very crucial. In this study, tritium breeding potential of the solid breeders, namely, or in a (DT) fusion driven hybrid reactor fuelled with or was investigated. For this purpose in addition to these solid breeders, different types of liquid breeders, namely natural lithium, Flibe, Flinabe and were used to examine the tritium breeding behavior of liquid-solid breeder couple combinations. Numerical calculations were carried out by using Scale 4.3. According to numerical results, the blanket with fuel using natural lithium as coolant and as solid breeder had the highest TBR value.

  15. Vigilance and feeding behaviour in large feeding flocks of laughing gulls, Larus atricilla, on Delaware Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    1991-02-01

    Laughing gulls ( Larus atricilla) forage on horseshoe crab ( Limulus polyphemus) eggs during May in Delaware Bay each year. They feed in dense flocks, and foraging rates vary with vigilance, bird density, number of steps and location in the flock, whereas time devoted to vigilance is explained by number of steps, density, location and feeding rates. The time devoted to vigilance decreases with increasing density, increasing foraging rates and decreasing aggression. Birds foraging on the edge of flocks take fewer pecks and more steps, and devote more time to vigilance than those in the intermediate or central parts of a flock.

  16. The effects of heat, water, acid, and alkali treatment of tomato cannery wastes on growth, metabolizable energy value, and nitrogen utilization of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Squires, M W; Naber, E C; Toelle, V D

    1992-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of heat, water, acid, and alkali treatment of tomato pomace on gain, feed to gain ratio, nitrogen utilization, and ME of diets for broiler chicks. In Experiment 1, both treated and untreated tomato pomace was included in broiler diets at a 10 or 20% level. Results indicated that the level or antinutritional factors present in untreated tomato cannery waste did not appreciably depress any measured production parameter. Hence, it appeared that untreated tomato cannery wastes might be used as a feed ingredient in low-energy poultry diets (broiler breeder and laying hen recycling rations), ruminant diets, and as a protein source in regions of the world where such feed ingredients are scarce. The second experiment was designed to test the effect of alkali concentration and treatment time of tomato pomace on the performance of broiler chicks. Alkali treatment of tomato cannery wastes increased gain and decreased feed to gain ratios of broiler chicks over those of untreated tomato waste controls. Results indicated that the increased gain and decreased feed to gain ratios of the chicks were due in part to the acid neutralization phase of the alkali treatment. Alkali treatment apparently affects the tomato cannery wastes almost instantaneously, as differences among actual treatment times and concentrations were small. However, only the highest alkali treatment increased the pH of the tomato cannery waste above 7, suggesting that a true alkali treatment might cause additional improvements in gain and feed to gain ratio when fed to broiler chicks.

  17. Partitioning of external and internal bacteria carried by broiler chickens before processing.

    PubMed

    Cason, J A; Hinton, A; Northcutt, J K; Buhr, R J; Ingram, K D; Smith, D P; Cox, N A

    2007-09-01

    Broiler chickens from the loading dock of a commercial processing plant were sampled to determine the incidence and counts of coliforms, Escherichia coli, and pathogenic bacteria. Feathers were removed by hand from ten 6-week-old chickens from each of seven different flocks and rinsed in 400 ml of 0.1% peptone water. Heads and feet were removed and rinsed, and the picked carcass was also rinsed, each in 200 ml. The ceca, colon, and crop were aseptically removed and stomached separately in 100 ml of peptone water. Campylobacter was present in six of the seven flocks. Salmonella was isolated from 50 of the 70 carcasses, with at least 2 positive carcasses in each flock, and five-tube most-probable-number (MPN) assays were performed on positive samples. Significantly (P < 0.05) more coliforms and E. coli were found in the ceca than in the feathers, which in turn carried more than the other samples, but total external and internal counts were roughly equivalent. Counts of Campylobacter were higher in the ceca and colon than in the other samples. Salmonella was isolated in external samples from 46 of the 50 positive carcasses compared with 26 positive internal samples or 17 positives in the ceca alone. The total MPN of Salmonella was approximately equivalent in all samples, indicating that contamination was distributed through all external and internal sampling locations. Salmonella-positive samples did not carry higher counts of coliforms or E. coli, and there were no significant correlations between the indicators and pathogens in any sample. Campylobacter numbers in the ceca were correlated with Campylobacter numbers in the feathers and colon, but Salmonella numbers in those samples were not correlated. The pattern of bacterial contamination before processing is complex and highly variable.

  18. Selection of Breeding Stock among Australian Purebred Dog Breeders, with Particular Emphasis on the Dam.

    PubMed

    Czerwinski, Veronika; McArthur, Michelle; Smith, Bradley; Hynd, Philip; Hazel, Susan

    2016-11-16

    Every year, thousands of purebred domestic dogs are bred by registered dog breeders. Yet, little is known about the rearing environment of these dogs, or the attitudes and priorities surrounding breeding practices of these dog breeders. The objective of this study was to explore some of the factors that dog breeders consider important for stock selection, with a particular emphasis on issues relating to the dam. Two-hundred and seventy-four Australian purebred dog breeders, covering 91 breeds across all Australian National Kennel Club breed groups, completed an online survey relating to breeding practices. Most breeders surveyed (76%) reported specialising in one breed of dog, the median number of dogs and bitches per breeder was two and three respectively, and most breeders bred two litters or less a year. We identified four components, relating to the dam, that were considered important to breeders. These were defined as Maternal Care, Offspring Potential, Dam Temperament, and Dam Genetics and Health. Overall, differences were observed in attitudes and beliefs across these components, showing that there is variation according to breed/breed groups. In particular, the importance of Maternal Care varied according to dog breed group. Breeders of brachycephalic breeds tended to differ the most in relation to Offspring Potential and Dam Genetics and Health. The number of breeding dogs/bitches influenced breeding priority, especially in relation to Dam Temperament, however no effect was found relating to the number of puppies bred each year. Only 24% of breeders used their own sire for breeding. The finding that some breeders did not test for diseases relevant to their breed, such as hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers and German Shepherds, provides important information on the need to educate some breeders, and also buyers of purebred puppies, that screening for significant diseases should occur. Further research into the selection of breeding dams and sires will

  19. Plant and soil intake by organic broilers reared in tree- or grass-covered plots as determined by means of n-alkanes and of acid-insoluble ash.

    PubMed

    Jurjanz, S; Germain, K; Juin, H; Jondreville, C

    2015-05-01

    Free-range birds such as organic broilers may ingest soil and plants during exploration. The estimation of such intakes is of great interest to quantify possible nutritional supplies and also to evaluate the risk of exposure to parasites or to environmental contaminants. Marker-based techniques are now available and would allow to quantify plant and, especially, soil intake in free-range birds, and this quantification was the aim of this study. Methodologically, the proportion of plants in diet intake was determined first using a method based on n-alkanes. Subsequently, the fraction of soil in the total intake was estimated with a second marker, acid-insoluble ash. This approach was carried out to estimate ingested amounts of plants and soil for five successive flocks of organic broilers, exploring grass-covered yards or those under trees, at two time points for each yard: 51 and 64 days of age. Each factor combination (yard type×period=flock number×age) was repeated on two different yards of 750 broilers each. The birds' plant intake varied widely, especially on grass-covered yards. The proportion of plant intake was significantly higher on grass-covered plots than under trees and was also affected, but to a lesser extent, by age or flock number. The ingestion of plants would generally not exceed 11 g of DM daily, except two extreme outliers of nearly 30 g. The daily plant intake under trees tended to be lower and never exceeded 7 g of DM. The amount of ingested plants increased significantly for spring flocks. It increased slightly but significantly with age. The proportion of ingested soil was significantly higher under trees than on grass-covered yards. Dry soil intake was generally low with not more than 3 g per day. Only in adverse conditions - that is, older birds exploring yards under trees in winter - soil intake reached the extreme value of nearly 5 g. Broilers on yards under trees ingested significantly more soil than on grass-covered yards with least

  20. Sensor-based monitoring of the prevalence and severity of foot pad dermatitis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, G; Ammon, C; Volkamer, L; Sürie, C; Radko, D

    2013-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of a dielectric measurement to evaluate the prevalence and severity of foot pad dermatitis (FPD) in broiler chickens. 2. The study focussed on surveying the occurrence of FPD during the growing period of one broiler chicken flock. A scoring system consisting of 5 categories was used to assess the prevalence and severity of FPD macroscopically. Additionally, the dielectric constant (DC) of both foot pads of 50 chickens was measured in a triple iteration with the MoistureMeter D (Delfin Technologies, Kuopio, Finland) on three different dates. 3. On all measurement days, DC and FPD score were negatively correlated. The severity of FPD increased during the growing period, and severe lesions occurred at an early stage. 4. Further research is necessary to develop an effective early warning system for FPD in poultry houses. However, the non-invasive measurement of DC provides a reliable method for the objective assessment of occurrence and severity of FPD.

  1. Campylobacter carcass contamination throughout the slaughter process of Campylobacter-positive broiler batches.

    PubMed

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Van Damme, Inge; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2015-02-02

    Campylobacter contamination on broiler carcasses of Campylobacter colonized flocks was quantified at seven sampling sites throughout the slaughter process. For this purpose, in four slaughterhouses samples were collected from twelve Campylobacter positive batches. Broilers from all visits carried high numbers of campylobacters in their caeca (≥7.9log10cfu/g). Campylobacter counts on feathers (up to 6.8log10cfu/g), positively associated with the breast skin contamination of incoming birds and carcasses after plucking, were identified as an additional source of carcass contamination. A high variability in Campylobacter carcass contamination on breast skin samples within batches and between batches in the same slaughterhouse and between slaughterhouses was observed. In slaughterhouses A, B, C and D Campylobacter counts exceeded a limit of 1000cfu/g on 50%, 56%, 78% and 11% of carcasses after chilling, respectively. This finding indicates that certain slaughterhouses are able to better control Campylobacter contamination than others. Overall, the present study focuses on the descriptive analysis of Campylobacter counts in different slaughterhouses, different batches within a slaughterhouse and within a batch at several sampling locations.

  2. Breeder design for enhanced performance and safety characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, G J; Atefi, B; Yang, J W; Galperin, A; Segev, M

    1980-01-01

    A fast breeder reactor design has been created which offers a considerably extended fuel cycle and excellent performance characteristics. An example of a core designed to operate on a ten-year fuel cycle is described in some detail. Use of metal fuel along with a moderator such as beryllium oxide dispersed throughout the core provides both design flexibility and safety advantages such as a strong Doppler feedback and limited sodium void reactivity gain. Local power variations are small for the entire cycle; control requirements are also modest, and fuel cycle costs are low.

  3. Instrumentation and control improvements at Experimental Breeder Reactor II

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, L.J.; Planchon, H.P.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe instrumentation and control (I C) system improvements at Experimental Breeder Reactor 11 (EBR-11). The improvements are focused on three objectives; to keep the reactor and balance of plant (BOP) I C systems at a high level of reliability, to provide diagnostic systems that can provide accurate information needed for analysis of fuel performance, and to provide systems that will be prototypic of I C systems of the next generation of liquid metal reactor (LMR) plants.

  4. Instrumentation and control improvements at Experimental Breeder Reactor II

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, L.J.; Planchon, H.P.

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe instrumentation and control (I&C) system improvements at Experimental Breeder Reactor 11 (EBR-11). The improvements are focused on three objectives; to keep the reactor and balance of plant (BOP) I&C systems at a high level of reliability, to provide diagnostic systems that can provide accurate information needed for analysis of fuel performance, and to provide systems that will be prototypic of I&C systems of the next generation of liquid metal reactor (LMR) plants.

  5. Results with the electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder for the 252Cf fission source project (Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade) at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System.

    PubMed

    Vondrasek, R; Kondrashev, S; Pardo, R; Scott, R; Zinkann, G P

    2010-02-01

    The construction of the Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade, a new radioactive beam facility for the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is nearing completion. The facility will use fission fragments from a 1 Ci (252)Cf source; thermalized and collected into a low-energy particle beam by a helium gas catcher. In order to reaccelerate these beams, an existing ATLAS electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source was redesigned to function as an ECR charge breeder. Thus far, the charge breeder has been tested with stable beams of rubidium and cesium achieving charge breeding efficiencies of 9.7% into (85)Rb(17+) and 2.9% into (133)Cs(20+).

  6. Validation of the nylon flocked swab for planetary protection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Probst, Alexander

    The major issue of planetary protection is to prevent the contamination of extraterrestrial en-vironments by terrestrial biomolecules and life forms. In order not to affect or even to confound future life detection missions on celestial bodies, which are of interest for their chemical and bi-ological evolution, spacecraft are constructed in clean rooms and are subject to severe cleaning processes and microbiological controls before launch. Microbiological assays are used to mea-sure and control the bioburden on spacecraft itself and spacecraft hardware during assembly. The current NASA standard assays have originally been developed for the Viking programme in the 70s. Due to the stringent contamination control constrains of the upcoming ESA Ex-oMars mission, these protocols cannot be used, in particular the application of cotton swabs with wooden applicators is no longer possible. Therefore, cotton swabs will be replaced by the novel nylon flocked swabs. In the study presented here, the nylon flocked swabs were validated for the usage for measuring and controling of the bioburden on spacecraft related surfaces. The absolute recovery efficiency was determined, following the guidelines of USP1223 in preci-sion, accuracy, robustness, specificity, linearity and limit of detection. As a standard surface, stainless steel coupons were used, whereas B. atrophaeus (spores) served as standard microbial strain. Additionally, the nylon flocked swab was used for experiments on different rough and smooth surfaces with seven different Bacillus spores and two different protocols. Further details will be given concerning the new ESA standard swab procedure for the microbial examination of flight hardware and clean rooms to be used for the upcoming ExoMars mission.

  7. Breast muscle tissue characteristics in growing broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muscle cell development in broilers influences growth rate, breast meat yield, and meat quality. The objective of this study was to characterize muscle tissue changes in breast muscles from two commercial lines of broilers from 21 to 56 days of age. The experiment was designed as a 2×2×6 factorial...

  8. Broiler Growers. People on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes the daily life of the Maurice Layton family, broiler (chicken) growers in Mississippi. Beginning with early morning chores, the booklet traces the family's activities through a typical day while explaining how a broiler farm operates. Although the booklet focuses on broiler…

  9. Collective motion with anticipation: Flocking, spinning, and swarming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, Alexandre; Caussin, Jean-Baptiste; Eloy, Christophe; Bartolo, Denis

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the collective dynamics of self-propelled particles able to probe and anticipate the orientation of their neighbors. We show that a simple anticipation strategy hinders the emergence of homogeneous flocking patterns. Yet anticipation promotes two other forms of self-organization: collective spinning and swarming. In the spinning phase, all particles follow synchronous circular orbits, while in the swarming phase, the population condensates into a single compact swarm that cruises coherently without requiring any cohesive interactions. We quantitatively characterize and rationalize these phases of polar active matter and discuss potential applications to the design of swarming robots.

  10. From Particles to Fluid Dynamics for Flocking Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toscani, G.

    2010-04-01

    We study the dynamics of groups of undistinguished agents, which, while interacting according to their relative positions, dissipate energy. These models are developed to mimic the collective motion of groups of living individuals such as bird flocks, fish schools or bacteria colonies. According to the Cucker and Smale model,7 binary interactions between agents are modelled by dissipative collisions in which the coefficient of restitution depends on their relative distance. Under the assumption of weak dissipation, it is shown that the consequent dynamics can be described at a fluid dynamic level by the Euler equation for compressible fluids, in which the equations for momentum and energy present a dissipative correction.

  11. Flocking of multi-agent systems with multiple groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Gangshan; Zheng, Yuanshi; Wang, Long

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we consider the flocking problem of multi-agent systems with multiple groups. First, some algorithms using local information are designed to divide the agents into any pre-assigned number of groups in fixed and switching heterogeneous networks, respectively. Based on algebraic graph theory and Barbalat's lemma, convergence criteria are established to ensure velocity alignment and cohesion of each subgroup as well as collision avoidance between any agents in the whole group. Second, an algorithm for homogeneous networks is studied. Simulation examples are finally presented to verify the effectiveness of our theoretical results.

  12. Ammonia emission factors from broiler litter in barns, in storage, and after land application.

    PubMed

    Moore, Philip A; Miles, Dana; Burns, Robert; Pote, Dan; Berg, Kess; Choi, In Hag

    2011-01-01

    We measured NH₃ emissions from litter in broiler houses, during storage, and after land application and conducted a mass balance of N in poultry houses. Four state-of-the-art tunnel-ventilated broiler houses in northwest Arkansas were equipped with NH₃ sensors, anemometers, and data loggers to continuously record NH₃ concentrations and ventilation for 1 yr. Gaseous fluxes of NH₃, N₂O, CH₄, and CO₂ from litter were measured. Nitrogen (N) inputs and outputs were quantified. Ammonia emissions during storage and after land application were measured. Ammonia emissions during the flock averaged approximately 15.2 kg per day-house (equivalent to 28.3 g NH₃per bird marketed). Emissions between flocks equaled 9.09 g NH₃ per bird. Hence, in-house NH₃ emissions were 37.5 g NH₃ per bird, or 14.5 g kg(-1) bird marketed (50-d-old birds). The mass balance study showed N inputs for the year to the four houses totaled 71,340 kg N, with inputs from bedding, chicks, and feed equal to 303, 602, and 70,435 kg, respectively (equivalent to 0.60, 1.19, and 139.56 g N per bird). Nitrogen outputs totaled 70,396 kg N. Annual N output from birds marketed, NH₃ emissions, litter or cake, mortality, and NO₂ emissions was 39,485, 15,571, 14,464, 635, and 241 kg N, respectively (equivalent to 78.2, 30.8, 28.7, 1.3, and 0.5 g N per bird). The percent N recovery for the N mass balance study was 98.8%. Ammonia emissions from stacked litter during a 16-d storage period were 172 g Mg(-1) litter, which is equivalent to 0.18 g NH₃ per bird. Ammonia losses from poultry litter broadcast to pastures were 34 kg N ha (equivalent to 15% of total N applied or 7.91 g NH₃ per bird). When the litter was incorporated into the pasture using a new knifing technique, NH₃ losses were virtually zero. The total NH₃ emission factor for broilers measured in this study, which includes losses in-house, during storage, and after land application, was 45.6 g NH₃ per bird marketed.

  13. Mechanical design of a light water breeder reactor

    DOEpatents

    Fauth, Jr., William L.; Jones, Daniel S.; Kolsun, George J.; Erbes, John G.; Brennan, John J.; Weissburg, James A.; Sharbaugh, John E.

    1976-01-01

    In a light water reactor system using the thorium-232 -- uranium-233 fuel system in a seed-blanket modular core configuration having the modules arranged in a symmetrical array surrounded by a reflector blanket region, the seed regions are disposed for a longitudinal movement between the fixed or stationary blanket region which surrounds each seed region. Control of the reactor is obtained by moving the inner seed region thus changing the geometry of the reactor, and thereby changing the leakage of neutrons from the relatively small seed region into the blanket region. The mechanical design of the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core includes means for axially positioning of movable fuel assemblies to achieve the neutron economy required of a breeder reactor, a structure necessary to adequately support the fuel modules without imposing penalties on the breeding capability, a structure necessary to support fuel rods in a closely packed array and a structure necessary to direct and control the flow of coolant to regions in the core in accordance with the heat transfer requirements.

  14. Design of a helium-cooled molten salt fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Fulton, F.J.; Huegel, F.; Neef, W.S. Jr.; Sherwood, A.E.; Berwald, D.H.; Whitley, R.H.; Wong, C.P.C.; DeVan, J.H.

    1985-02-01

    A new conceptual blanket design for a fusion reactor produces fissile material for fission power plants. Fission is suppressed by using beryllium, rather than uranium, to multiply neutrons and also by minimizing the fissile inventory. The molten-salt breeding media (LiF + BeF/sub 2/ + TghF/sub 4/) is circulated through the blanket and on to the online processing system where /sup 233/U and tritium are continuously removed. Helium cools the blanket including the steel pipes containing the molten salt. Austenitic steel was chosen because of its ease of fabrication, adequate radiation-damage lifetime, and low corrosion rate by molten salt. We estimate the breeder, having 3000 MW of fusion power, produces 6400 kg of /sup 233/U per year, which is enough to provide make up for 20 GWe of LWR per year (or 14 LWR plants of 4440 MWt) or twice that many HTGRs or CANDUs. Safety is enhanced because the afterheat is low and the blanket materials do not react with air or water. The fusion breeder based on a pre-MARS tandem mirror is estimated to cost $4.9B or 2.35 times an LWR of the same power. The estimated present value cost of the /sup 2/anumber/sup 3/U produced is $40/g if utility financed or $16/g if government financed.

  15. Emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from outdoor-stored broiler litter using tunable-diode laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wit, William Harrison

    Handling and storage of a variety of types of agricultural wastes results in the formation and release of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) gases to the atmosphere. These gases contribute to climate change through the greenhouse effect. Few studies have examined evolution of these gases from stored poultry litter in North America. Although N 2O is a by-product of nitrification, it is largely produced as an intermediate product of denitrification and is produced most intensely when both aerobic and anaerobic conditions are present. CH4 emissions, however, are typically associated with anaerobic reactions. Outdoor storage of broiler litter provides an excellent media for which both aerobic and anaerobic zones can coexist, particularly when the litter is of varying ages from multiple broiler flocks (cycles). It provides a large amount of nitrogen for bacterial nitrification/denitrification processes as well as Carbon to support anaerobic bacterial fermentation. The objective of the study was to quantify N 2O and CH4 emissions for broiler litter stored in an uncovered, outdoor bunker by conducting small-scale dynamic flux chamber studies and full-scale field experiments. The field experiments used a modified micrometeorological mass balance approach to monitor emissions from stored broiler litter in a three-walled concrete bunker. Atmospheric concentrations of N2O and CH4 were measured using tunable-diode laser spectroscopy. Field experiments over the course of approximately four months yielded average emission rates of 14+/-17mug m-2 s -1 and 84+/-61 mug m-2 s-1 for N2O and CH4 respectively that agreed well with the trends of emission rates observed in the dynamic flux chamber experiments. The primary drivers of emissions of both CH4 and N2O appeared to be temperature and moisture content while organic carbon and organic nitrogen (loss on ignition, nitrate concentrations) contents were also important factors.

  16. SEROVARS AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF Salmonella spp. ISOLATED FROM TURKEY AND BROILER CARCASSES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL BETWEEN 2004 AND 2006

    PubMed Central

    PALMEIRA, Andre; dos SANTOS, Luciana Ruschel; BORSOI, Anderlise; RODRIGUES, Laura Beatriz; CALASANS, Max; do NASCIMENTO, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella spp. causes diseases in fowls, when species-specific serovars (Salmonella Pullorum and S.Gallinarum) are present in flocks, and public health problems, when non-typhoid serovars are isolated, as well as possible bacterial resistance induced by the preventive and therapeutic use of antimicrobials in animal production. This study describes the serovars and bacterial resistance of 280Salmonella spp. strains isolated from turkey and broiler carcasses in Southern Brazil between 2004 and 2006. SalmonellaEnteritidis was the most prevalent serovar (55.7%), followed by Heidelberg (5.0%), Agona (4.3%), Bredeney (3.9%), Hadar (3.2%), and Typhimurium (2.9%). Tennessee and S. Enterica subspecies enterica(O: 4.5) were isolated only in turkeys, and Hadar (18.6%) was the most prevalent serovar in this species. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed in 178 isolates (43 from turkeys and 135 from broilers). All isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, polymyxin B, ciprofloxacin, and norfloxacin, and were resistant to bacitracin and penicillin. Broiler carcass isolates showed resistance to nalidixic acid (48.9%), nitrofurantoin (34.3%), neomycin (9.6%), tetracycline (5.2%), and kanamycin (8.9%); and turkey carcass isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid (62.8%), tetracycline (34.9%), and neomycin (30.2%), with a significant difference in turkeys when compared to broiler carcass isolates. These results indicate the need for judicious use of antimicrobials in livestock production, given that the serovars identified are potential causes of food poisoning. PMID:27007562

  17. SEROVARS AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF Salmonella spp. ISOLATED FROM TURKEY AND BROILER CARCASSES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL BETWEEN 2004 AND 2006.

    PubMed

    Palmeira, Andre; Santos, Luciana Ruschel dos; Borsoi, Anderlise; Rodrigues, Laura Beatriz; Calasans, Max; Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro do

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella spp. causes diseases in fowls, when species-specific serovars (Salmonella Pullorum and S.Gallinarum) are present in flocks, and public health problems, when non-typhoid serovars are isolated, as well as possible bacterial resistance induced by the preventive and therapeutic use of antimicrobials in animal production. This study describes the serovars and bacterial resistance of 280 Salmonella spp. strains isolated from turkey and broiler carcasses in Southern Brazil between 2004 and 2006. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most prevalent serovar (55.7%), followed by Heidelberg (5.0%), Agona (4.3%), Bredeney (3.9%), Hadar (3.2%), and Typhimurium (2.9%). Tennessee and S. Enterica subspecies enterica(O: 4.5) were isolated only in turkeys, and Hadar (18.6%) was the most prevalent serovar in this species. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed in 178 isolates (43 from turkeys and 135 from broilers). All isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, polymyxin B, ciprofloxacin, and norfloxacin, and were resistant to bacitracin and penicillin. Broiler carcass isolates showed resistance to nalidixic acid (48.9%), nitrofurantoin (34.3%), neomycin (9.6%), tetracycline (5.2%), and kanamycin (8.9%); and turkey carcass isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid (62.8%), tetracycline (34.9%), and neomycin (30.2%), with a significant difference in turkeys when compared to broiler carcass isolates. These results indicate the need for judicious use of antimicrobials in livestock production, given that the serovars identified are potential causes of food poisoning.

  18. A national survey to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella species among Canadian registered commercial turkey flocks.

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, R J; Poppe, C; Messier, S; Finley, G G; Oggel, J

    1994-01-01

    In 1990-1991, a national survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella species among Canadian commercial turkey flocks. Two hundred and seventy flocks were randomly selected across Canada. The proportion sampled from each province was selected according to each province's share of the national turkey market. Samples, consisting of 12 pooled litter and four pooled dust samples, were used to determine the Salmonella status of the environment of each flock. Additionally, a one kilogram sample of feed was taken from each flock premise. Salmonella was recovered from environmental samples in 234/270 (86.7%) of flocks and from feed samples in 26/266 (9.8%) of flocks. Forty-eight different Salmonella serovars were isolated from flock environmental samples. The most prevalent serovars were S. anatum, S. hadar, S. agona, S. heidelberg and S. saintpaul which were isolated from 53/270 (19.6%), 49/270 (18.1%), 49/270 (18.1%), 42/270 (15.6%) and 34/270 (12.6%) flocks, respectively. PMID:7889457

  19. Who Is Spreading Avian Influenza in the Moving Duck Flock Farming Network of Indonesia?

    PubMed

    Henning, Joerg; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Stevenson, Mark; Yulianto, Didik; Priyono, Walujo; Meers, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Duck populations are considered to be a reservoir of Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 in some agricultural production systems, as they are able to shed the virus for several days without clinical signs. Countries endemically affected with HPAI in Asia are characterised by production systems where ducks are fed on post-harvest spilled rice. During this scavenging process it is common for ducks to come into contact with other duck flocks or wild birds, thereby providing opportunities for virus spread. Effective risk management for HPAI has been significantly compromised by a limited understanding of management of moving duck flocks in these countries, despite of a small number of recent investigations. Here, for the first time, we described the management of moving duck flocks and the structure of the moving duck flock network in quantitative terms so that factors influencing the risk of HPAIV transmission can be identified. By following moving duck flock farmers over a period of 6 months in Java, Indonesia, we were able to describe the movement of flocks and to characterise the network of various types of actors associated with the production system. We used these data to estimate the basic reproductive number for HPAI virus spread. Our results suggest that focussing HPAI prevention measures on duck flocks alone will not be sufficient. Instead, the role of transporters of moving duck flocks, hatcheries and rice paddy owners, in the spread of the HPAI virus needs to be recognised.

  20. Who Is Spreading Avian Influenza in the Moving Duck Flock Farming Network of Indonesia?

    PubMed Central

    Henning, Joerg; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Stevenson, Mark; Yulianto, Didik; Priyono, Walujo; Meers, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Duck populations are considered to be a reservoir of Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 in some agricultural production systems, as they are able to shed the virus for several days without clinical signs. Countries endemically affected with HPAI in Asia are characterised by production systems where ducks are fed on post-harvest spilled rice. During this scavenging process it is common for ducks to come into contact with other duck flocks or wild birds, thereby providing opportunities for virus spread. Effective risk management for HPAI has been significantly compromised by a limited understanding of management of moving duck flocks in these countries, despite of a small number of recent investigations. Here, for the first time, we described the management of moving duck flocks and the structure of the moving duck flock network in quantitative terms so that factors influencing the risk of HPAIV transmission can be identified. By following moving duck flock farmers over a period of 6 months in Java, Indonesia, we were able to describe the movement of flocks and to characterise the network of various types of actors associated with the production system. We used these data to estimate the basic reproductive number for HPAI virus spread. Our results suggest that focussing HPAI prevention measures on duck flocks alone will not be sufficient. Instead, the role of transporters of moving duck flocks, hatcheries and rice paddy owners, in the spread of the HPAI virus needs to be recognised. PMID:27019344

  1. Characteristics of two duck farming systems in the Mekong Delta of Viet Nam: stationary flocks and moving flocks, and their potential relevance to the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Henning, Joerg; Henning, Kate A; Long, Ngo Thanh; Ha, Nguyen Truc; Vu, Le Tri; Meers, Joanne

    2013-03-01

    Ducks are considered to play a major role in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in Viet Nam, but detailed information on their management is limited. We distinguished two different systems (1) stationary duck flocks that are not commonly driven to rice fields beyond village boundaries and that are confined overnight on farms and (2) moving duck flocks that are intentionally driven to rice fields beyond village boundaries, that are not returning to home farms for extended periods and that are housed overnight in temporary enclosures in rice paddies. A total of 115 stationary and 22 moving flock farmers were interviewed in 2007 in the Mekong Delta of Viet Nam. Moving duck flocks are larger than stationary flocks, which is indicative of their more commercial production. Moving flock farmers apparently are more aware of HPAI risks than stationary flock farmers, as their flocks are more likely fully vaccinated and have less contact with chickens during scavenging. On the other hand, the spread of HPAI virus between birds might be promoted by moving duck flocks as they repeatedly use transport vehicles and numerous rice paddies for scavenging and are often visited by hatchery owners in the field for purchasing duck eggs. In addition, long distances travelled by moving duck flocks might also result in widespread dissemination of HPAI virus. Further studies are necessary to describe HPAI prevalence and travel patterns of moving duck flocks and to explore the moving duck flock network in detail.

  2. Dietary essential oils improve the hepatic antioxidative status of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Karadas, F; Pirgozliev, V; Rose, S P; Dimitrov, D; Oduguwa, O; Bravo, D

    2014-01-01

    1. A total of 200 male Ross 308 chickens were used to evaluate the effects of a standardised combination of essential oils including 5% carvacrol, 3% cinnamaldehyde and 2% capsicum oleoresin (XT 6930; Pancosma S.A., Geneva, Switzerland) on their performance, hepatic antioxidant concentration and caecal tonsils morphometry. 2. Two diets were offered to broiler chickens from d old to 21 d of age. The control diet (C) was slightly lower in metabolisable energy (12.13 MJ/kg ME) and crude protein (215 g/kg CP) than breeders' recommendation. The second diet, made as XT 6930, was added on the top of the control diet at 100 mg/kg. Each diet was offered ad libitum to birds housed in one of 10 floor pens in a randomised complete block design. The birds were housed in 20 floor pens, 10 birds in each pen, and were allocated to 10 replicates of the two dietary treatments. 3. The concentration of antioxidants in the liver of the birds was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at 21 d of age. Birds fed control diet only had lower weight and converted less efficiently feed to gain compared to birds fed essential oils-supplemented diet. Feed consumption was not affected by dietary treatments. The antioxidant data showed that supplemented essential oils improved the hepatic concentration of carotenoids and coenzyme Q10 when fed to broiler chickens. The morphometry of the caecal tonsils of the birds was not influenced by dietary treatments. 4. It can be concluded that that dietary combination of essential oils, including carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and capsicum oleoresin, improved growth, feed efficiency and the hepatic concentration of carotenoids and coenzyme Q10 when fed to broiler chickens.

  3. Campylobacter Colonization and Proliferation in the Broiler Chicken upon Natural Field Challenge Is Not Affected by the Bird Growth Rate or Breed

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Richard A.; Watson, Kellie A.; McAdam, Jim; Avendaño, Santiago; Stanley, William A.; Koerhuis, Alfons N. M.

    2014-01-01

    The zoonotic association between Campylobacter bacteria in poultry and humans has been characterized by decades of research which has attempted to elucidate the epidemiology of this complex relationship and to reduce carriage within poultry. While much work has focused on the mechanisms facilitating its success in contaminating chicken flocks (and other animal hosts), it remains difficult to consistently exclude Campylobacter under field conditions. Within the United Kingdom poultry industry, various bird genotypes with widely varying growth rates are available to meet market needs and consumer preferences. However, little is known about whether any differences in Campylobacter carriage exist across this modern broiler range. The aim of this study was to establish if a relationship exists between growth rate or breed and cecal Campylobacter concentration after natural commercial flock Campylobacter challenge. In one investigation, four pure line genotypes of various growth rates were grown together, while in the second, eight different commercial broiler genotypes were grown individually. In both studies, the Campylobacter concentration was measured in the ceca at 42 days of age, revealing no significant difference in cecal load between birds of different genotypes both in mixed- and single-genotype pens. This is important from a public health perspective and suggests that other underlying reasons beyond genotype are likely to control and affect Campylobacter colonization within chickens. Further studies to gain a better understanding of colonization dynamics and subsequent proliferation are needed, as are novel approaches to reduce the burden in poultry. PMID:25172857

  4. Effect of organic acids in drinking water for young broilers on Campylobacter infection, volatile fatty acid production, gut microflora and histological cell changes.

    PubMed

    Chaveerach, P; Keuzenkamp, D A; Lipman, L J A; Van Knapen, F

    2004-03-01

    Water is a prominent vehicle for Campylobacter spread throughout a chicken flock. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic acids administered through the drinking water, as a decontamination method, on gut microflora and the development of lesions in the gastrointestinal tracts of young broilers inoculated with 2 different doses of Campylobacter. The results revealed that most of the chickens were infected with Campylobacter at the end of the experiment. The drinking water was free of Campylobacter throughout the study. No difference of volatile fatty acid levels between treatment and control groups was observed in the crop and cecal contents. In the cecal contents, the total aerobic bacteria numbers were significantly higher in the treatment groups compared with the control groups (P < 0.01 and P < 0.04, respectively). Moreover, no damaged epithelial cells were observed in the chicken gut due to consumption of acidified drinking water. Acidified drinking water could therefore play a crucial role in a biosecurity strategy of preventing Campylobacter spread via drinking water in broiler flocks.

  5. Diphacinone and zinc phosphide toxicity in a flock of Peafowl.

    PubMed

    Shivaprasad, H L; Galey, F

    2001-12-01

    Toxicity probably due to a combination of diphacinone and zinc phosphide was diagnosed in a flock of peafowl, in which 35 birds in a flock of 80 died over a span of 10 days without any apparent clinical signs. Chickens and guinea fowl, 30 each on the same premises, were not affected. Plastic tubes containing diphacinone and zinc phosphide were used on the premises to control ground squirrels. Most of the six dead peafowl, which ranged in age from 6 months to 4 years, had an accumulation of serosanguinous fluid in the abdominal cavity, semi-clotted blood over the liver lobes, increased pericardial fluid, and enlarged and pale kidneys. Pellets of diphacinone and zinc phosphide were found in the crop and gizzard contents from most of the birds. Microscopically, most of the birds had mild to moderate centrolobular degeneration of hepatocytes and multifocal degeneration of myofibres in the heart with infiltration by a few mononuclear cells. Acute nephrosis and mucosal oedema in the oesophagus and crop were also observed. Toxicological analysis of the crop and gizzard contents revealed the presence of diphacinone and phosphine gas, and analysis of the crop contents from two birds for heavy metals revealed zinc levels of up to 6600 parts/10 6 . It was suspected that only the peafowl and not the chickens and guinea fowl were affected because peafowl, with their longer necks, were able to reach into the plastic tubes and eat the pellets.

  6. Effects of Agent's Repulsion in 2d Flocking Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Najem; Tarras, Iliass; Mazroui, M'hammed; Boughaleb, Yahya

    In nature many animal groups, such as fish schools or bird flocks, clearly display structural order and appear to move as a single coherent entity. In order to understand the complex behavior of these systems, many models have been proposed and tested so far. This paper deals with an extension of the Vicsek model, by including a second zone of repulsion, where each agent attempts to maintain a minimum distance from the others. The consideration of this zone in our study seems to play an important role during the travel of agents in the two-dimensional (2D) flocking models. Our numerical investigations show that depending on the basic ingredients such as repulsion radius (R1), effect of density of agents (ρ) and noise (η), our nonequilibrium system can undergo a kinetic phase transition from no transport to finite net transport. For different values of ρ, kinetic phase diagrams in the plane (η ,R1) are found. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. Mic Flocks in the Cloud: Harnessing Mobile Ubiquitous Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garces, M. A.; Christe, A.

    2015-12-01

    Smartphones provide a commercial, off-the-shelf solution to capture, store, analyze, and distribute infrasound using on-board or external microphones (mics) as well as on-board barometers. Free iOS infrasound apps can be readily downloaded from the Apple App Store, and Android versions are in progress. Infrasound propagates for great distances, has low sample rates, and provides a tractable pilot study scenario for open distributed sensor networks at regional and global scales using one of the most ubiquitous sensors on Earth - microphones. Data collection is no longer limited to selected vendors at exclusive prices: anybody on Earth can record and stream infrasound, and the diversity of recording systems and environments is rapidly expanding. Global deployment may be fast and easy (www.redvox.io), but comes with the cost of increasing data volume, velocity, variety, and complexity. Flocking - the collective motion of mobile agents - is a natural human response to threats or events of interest. Anticipating, modeling and harnessing flocking sensor topologies will be necessary for adaptive array and network processing. The increasing data quantity and complexity will exceed the processing capacity of human analysts and most research servers. We anticipate practical real-time applications will require the on-demand adaptive scalability and resources of the Cloud. Cloud architectures for such heterogeneous sensor networks will consider eventual integration into the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS).

  8. Information transfer and behavioural inertia in starling flocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attanasi, Alessandro; Cavagna, Andrea; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Giardina, Irene; Grigera, Tomas S.; Jelić, Asja; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Pohl, Oliver; Shen, Edward; Viale, Massimiliano

    2014-09-01

    Collective decision-making in biological systems requires all individuals in the group to go through a behavioural change of state. During this transition fast and robust transfer of information is essential to prevent cohesion loss. The mechanism by which natural groups achieve such robustness, however, is not clear. Here we present an experimental study of starling flocks performing collective turns. We find that information about direction changes propagates across the flock with a linear dispersion law and negligible attenuation, hence minimizing group decoherence. These results contrast starkly with present models of collective motion, which predict diffusive transport of information. Building on spontaneous symmetry breaking and conservation-law arguments, we formulate a theory that correctly reproduces linear and undamped propagation. Essential to this framework is the inclusion of the birds' behavioural inertia. The theory not only explains the data, but also predicts that information transfer must be faster the stronger the group's orientational order, a prediction accurately verified by the data. Our results suggest that swift decision-making may be the adaptive drive for the strong behavioural polarization observed in many living groups.

  9. A Distributed Flocking Approach for Information Stream Clustering Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Xiaohui; Potok, Thomas E

    2006-01-01

    Intelligence analysts are currently overwhelmed with the amount of information streams generated everyday. There is a lack of comprehensive tool that can real-time analyze the information streams. Document clustering analysis plays an important role in improving the accuracy of information retrieval. However, most clustering technologies can only be applied for analyzing the static document collection because they normally require a large amount of computation resource and long time to get accurate result. It is very difficult to cluster a dynamic changed text information streams on an individual computer. Our early research has resulted in a dynamic reactive flock clustering algorithm which can continually refine the clustering result and quickly react to the change of document contents. This character makes the algorithm suitable for cluster analyzing dynamic changed document information, such as text information stream. Because of the decentralized character of this algorithm, a distributed approach is a very natural way to increase the clustering speed of the algorithm. In this paper, we present a distributed multi-agent flocking approach for the text information stream clustering and discuss the decentralized architectures and communication schemes for load balance and status information synchronization in this approach.

  10. Effects of treating broiler breeder hatching eggs with removable coatings at four storage times on hatchability performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After treating hatching eggs with various removable coatings several formulations exhibited better hatchability than non-coated controls when eggs were stored for 1 or 21 d. The current study was designed to determine the interaction of 3 formulas with 4 storage times that approximate conditions fre...

  11. 9 CFR 147.10 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of egg-type breeding flocks...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the bacteriological examination of egg-type breeding flocks with salmonella enteritidis positive... examination of egg-type breeding flocks with salmonella enteritidis positive environments. Birds selected for bacteriological examination from egg-type breeding flocks positive for Salmonella enteritidis after...

  12. Impacts of breeder loss on social structure, reproduction and population growth in a social canid.

    PubMed

    Borg, Bridget L; Brainerd, Scott M; Meier, Thomas J; Prugh, Laura R

    2015-01-01

    The importance of individuals to the dynamics of populations may depend on reproductive status, especially for species with complex social structure. Loss of reproductive individuals in socially complex species could disproportionately affect population dynamics by destabilizing social structure and reducing population growth. Alternatively, compensatory mechanisms such as rapid replacement of breeders may result in little disruption. The impact of breeder loss on the population dynamics of social species remains poorly understood. We evaluated the effect of breeder loss on social stability, recruitment and population growth of grey wolves (Canis lupus) in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska using a 26-year dataset of 387 radiocollared wolves. Harvest of breeding wolves is a highly contentious conservation and management issue worldwide, with unknown population-level consequences. Breeder loss preceded 77% of cases (n = 53) of pack dissolution from 1986 to 2012. Packs were more likely to dissolve if a female or both breeders were lost and pack size was small. Harvest of breeders increased the probability of pack dissolution, likely because the timing of harvest coincided with the breeding season of wolves. Rates of denning and successful recruitment were uniformly high for packs that did not experience breeder loss; however, packs that lost breeders exhibited lower denning and recruitment rates. Breeder mortality and pack dissolution had no significant effects on immediate or longer term population dynamics. Our results indicate the importance of breeding individuals is context dependent. The impact of breeder loss on social group persistence, reproduction and population growth may be greatest when average group sizes are small and mortality occurs during the breeding season. This study highlights the importance of reproductive individuals in maintaining group cohesion in social species, but at the population level socially complex species may be resilient

  13. Campylobacter MLST Subtypes and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Broiler Cecal Isolates: A Two Year Study from 142 Commercial Flocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Campylobacter spp. are recognized as important agents of human foodborne gastroenteritis. To monitor trends in food safety and public health, antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Campylobacter derived from poultry products and infected patients has become common practice in both r...

  14. UF6 breeder reactor power plants for electric power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, J. H.; Clement, J. D.; Hohl, F.

    1976-01-01

    The reactor concept analyzed is a U-233F6 core surrounded by a molten salt (Li(7)F, BeF2, ThF4) blanket. Nuclear survey calculations were carried out for both spherical and cylindrical geometries. Thermodynamic cycle calculations were performed for a variety of Rankine cycles. A conceptual design is presented along with a system layout for a 1000 MW stationary power plant. Advantages of the gas core breeder reactor (GCBR) are as follows: (1) high efficiency; (2) simplified on-line reprocessing; (3) inherent safety considerations; (4) high breeding ratio; (5) possibility of burning all or most of the long-lived nuclear waste actinides; and (6) possibility of extrapolating the technology to higher temperatures and MHD direct conversion.

  15. Designing a SCADA system simulator for fast breeder reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugraha, E.; Abdullah, A. G.; Hakim, D. L.

    2016-04-01

    SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system simulator is a Human Machine Interface-based software that is able to visualize the process of a plant. This study describes the results of the process of designing a SCADA system simulator that aims to facilitate the operator in monitoring, controlling, handling the alarm, accessing historical data and historical trend in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) type Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR). This research used simulation to simulate NPP type FBR Kalpakkam in India. This simulator was developed using Wonderware Intouch software 10 and is equipped with main menu, plant overview, area graphics, control display, set point display, alarm system, real-time trending, historical trending and security system. This simulator can properly simulate the principle of energy flow and energy conversion process on NPP type FBR. This SCADA system simulator can be used as training media for NPP type FBR prospective operators.

  16. Seeking lower costs in small breeder recycle plants

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.; Burch, W.D.; Peishel, F.L.; Yarbro, O.O. )

    1992-01-01

    For the past l5 yr., design concepts for small oxide breeder reprocessing plants have been studied at Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a part of the U.S. Department of Energy Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP). These studies largely unpublished because of restrictions on such information, have sought through several major conceptual design studies to improve and reduce costs for these facilities. Recently, a brief study reassessed prior concepts and identified areas where further cost reductions might be possible using some innovative ideas as well as evaluating improvements on conventional concepts. This paper provides information on the size of these facilities and some of the latest ideas for further cost reductions. This may prove useful as other studies examine and compare alternative fuel cycles with this more conventional cycle.

  17. Light-water breeder reactor (LWBR Development Program)

    DOEpatents

    Beaudoin, B.R.; Cohen, J.D.; Jones, D.H.; Marier, L.J. Jr.; Raab, H.F.

    1972-06-20

    Described is a light-water-moderated and -cooled nuclear breeder reactor of the seed-blanket type characterized by core modules comprising loosely packed blanket zones enriched with fissile fuel and axial zoning in the seed and blanket regions within each core module. Reactivity control over lifetime is achieved by axial displacement of movable seed zones without the use of poison rods in the embodiment illustrated. The seed is further characterized by a hydrogen-to-uranium-233 atom ratio in the range 10 to 200 and a uranium-233-to-thorium-232 atom ratio ranging from 0.012 to 0.200. The seed occupies from 10 to 35 percent of the core volume in the form of one or more individual islands or annuli. (NSA 26: 55130)

  18. Impact of colistin sulfate treatment of broilers on the presence of resistant bacteria and resistance genes in stored or composted manure.

    PubMed

    Le Devendec, Laetitia; Mourand, Gwenaelle; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Léaustic, Julien; Jouy, Eric; Keita, Alassane; Couet, William; Rousset, Nathalie; Kempf, Isabelle

    2016-10-15

    The application of manure may result in contamination of the environment with antimicrobials, antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, resistance genes and plasmids. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the administration of colistin and of manure management on (i) the presence of colistin-resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and (ii) the prevalence of various antimicrobial resistance genes in feces and in composted or stored manure. One flock of chickens was treated with colistin at the recommended dosage and a second flock was kept as an untreated control. Samples of feces, litter and stored or composted manure from both flocks were collected for isolation and determination of the colistin-susceptibility of E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa and quantification of genes coding for resistance to different antimicrobials. The persistence of plasmids in stored or composted manure from colistin-treated broilers was also evaluated by plasmid capturing experiments. Results revealed that colistin administration to chickens had no apparent impact on the antimicrobial resistance of the dominant Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa populations in the chicken gut. Composting stimulated an apparently limited decrease in genes coding for resistance to different antimicrobial families. Importantly, it was shown that even after six weeks of composting or storage, plasmids carrying antimicrobial resistance genes could still be transferred to a recipient E. coli. In conclusion, composting is insufficient to completely eliminate the risk of spreading antimicrobial resistance through chicken manure.

  19. Fuel Summary Report: Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Illum, D.B.; Olson, G.L.; McCardell, R.K.

    1999-01-01

    The Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was a small water cooled, U-233/Th-232 cycle breeder reactor developed by the Pittsburgh Naval Reactors to improve utilization of the nation's nuclear fuel resources in light water reactors. The LWBR was operated at Shippingport Atomic Power Station (APS), which was a Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly Atomic Energy Commission)-owned reactor plant. Shippingport APS was the first large-scale, central-station nuclear power plant in the United States and the first plant of such size in the world operated solely to produce electric power. The Shippingport LWBR was operated successfully from 1977 to 1982 at the APS. During the five years of operation, the LWBR generated more than 29,000 effective full power hours (EFPH) of energy. After final shutdown, the 39 core modules of the LWBR were shipped to the Expended Core Facility (ECF) at Naval Reactors Facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). At ECF, 12 of the 39 modules were dismantled and about 1000 of more than 17,000 rods were removed from the modules of proof-of-breeding and fuel performance testing. Some of the removed rods were kept at ECF, some were sent to Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) in Idaho and some to ANL-East in Chicago for a variety of physical, chemical and radiological examinations. All rods and rod sections remaining after the experiments were shipped back to ECF, where modules and loose rods were repackaged in liners for dry storage. In a series of shipments, the liners were transported from ECF to Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC), formerly the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The 47 liners containing the fully-rodded and partially-derodded core modules, the loose rods, and the rod scraps, are now stored in underground dry wells at CPP-749.

  20. Helium-cooled molten-salt fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Fulton, F.J.; Huegel, F.; Neef, W.S. Jr.; Sherwood, A.E.; Berwald, D.H.; Whitley, R.H.; Wong, C.P.C.; Devan, J.H.

    1984-12-01

    We present a new conceptual design for a fusion reactor blanket that is intended to produce fissile material for fission power plants. Fast fission is suppressed by using beryllium instead of uranium to multiply neutrons. Thermal fission is suppressed by minimizing the fissile inventory. The molten-salt breeding medium (LiF + BeF/sub 2/ + ThF/sub 4/) is circulated through the blanket and to the on-line processing system where /sup 233/U and tritium are continuously removed. Helium cools the blanket and the austenitic steel tubes that contain the molten salt. Austenitic steel was chosen because of its ease of fabrication, adequate radiation-damage lifetime, and low corrosion by molten salt. We estimate that a breeder having 3000 MW of fusion power will produce 6500 kg of /sup 233/U per year. This amount is enough to provide makeup for 20 GWe of light-water reactors per year or twice that many high-temperature gas-cooled reactors or Canadian heavy-water reactors. Safety is enhanced because the afterheat is low and blanket materials do not react with air or water. The fusion breeder based on a pre-MARS tandem mirror is estimated to cost $4.9B or 2.35 times a light-water reactor of the same power. The estimated cost of the /sup 233/U produced is $40/g for fusion plants costing 2.35 times that of a light-water reactor if utility owned or $16/g if government owned.

  1. Sensitivity of two-stage sampling to detect sheep biting lice (Bovicola ovis) in infested flocks.

    PubMed

    James, P J; Garrett, J A; Moon, R D

    2002-01-03

    The sampling distribution of Bovicola ovis (Schrank) on sheep was examined in two flocks, one with a light and one with a heavy infestation of lice. The derived distributions were used to calculate the sensitivity of detecting lice on individual sheep and in flocks by fleece parting regimes that varied in number of parts per animal and number of sheep per flock, different scenarios of flock sizes, proportion infested and louse density were examined. Lice were aggregated among fleece partings in the heavily infested flock and described by a negative binomial distribution with k values between 0.3 and 1.92. The distribution was indistinguishable from Poisson in the lightly infested flock. The assumed distribution had little effect on sensitivity, except when only one fleece part per animal was examined. On individual sheep where louse density was 0.5 per 10 cm part or greater, there were only marginal gains from inspecting more than 10 parts per animal. Increasing the number of sheep inspected always increased sensitivity more than increasing number of parts per sheep by an equivalent amount. This advantage was greatest in situations where a low proportion of sheep in the flock were infested with a high density of lice, and less where a low proportion of sheep were infested with a low density of lice, or a high proportion of sheep were infested with a high density of lice.

  2. Structure and dynamics of mixed-species flocks in a Hawaiian rain forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, P.J.; Freed, L.A.

    2003-01-01

    Mixed-species flocks of native and introduced birds were studied for four years in an upper elevation Hawaiian rain forest. Those flocks were characterized by strong seasonality, large size, low species richness, high intraspecific abundance, a lack of migrants, and a general lack of territoriality or any sort of dominance hierarchy. There was high variability among years in patterns of occurrence at the species level, and high variability within years at the individual level. These flocks are loosely structured social groupings with apparently open membership. The fluid, unstable movement patterns, high degree of variability in size and composition, and lack of positive interspecific associations are not consistent with the "foraging enhancement" hypothesis for flocking. Two resident, endangered insectivores, the Akepa (Loxops coccineus) and Hawaii Creeper (Oreomystis mana) served as "nuclear" species. Flock composition was compared between two study sites that differed significantly in density of these two nuclear species. Flock size was similar at the two sites, primarily because the nuclear species were over-represented relative to their density. This observation suggests that birds are attempting to achieve a more optimal flock size at the lower density site.

  3. The dynamics of Salmonella occurrence in commercial laying hen flocks throughout a laying period.

    PubMed

    Schulz, J; Van Hoorebeke, S; Hald, B; Hartung, J; Van Immerseel, F; Radtke, I; Kabell, S; Dewulf, J

    2011-06-01

    Contaminated eggs and egg products have been recognized for many years as an important source of Salmonella infections in humans in the European Union and in the United States. Longitudinal studies can help to increase our knowledge about the dynamics of the occurrence of Salmonella in the course of a laying period. The total of 41 laying hen flocks-18 in Belgium, six in Denmark and 17 in Germany-were followed during an entire laying period. Samples taken from the empty cleaned and disinfected poultry houses were all negative for Salmonella. After hens arrived on the farms, five pooled faecal samples, one pooled dust sample and 40 cloacal swabs (Belgium and Germany) or 40 swabs from fresh droppings (Denmark) were taken four times from 18 flocks, three times from 21 flocks and two times from two flocks in the course of the laying period. Ten flocks (two Belgian and eight German flocks) tested up to three times positive for Salmonella. Forty-three out of 50 positive samples contained Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 (29 isolates) or phage type 8 (14 isolates). The probability of subsequent Salmonella-positive findings increased significantly in Salmonella-positive flocks (P<0.05, odds ratio = 6.4). However, the probability of finding Salmonella did not depend on the time of sampling in the laying period or the season.

  4. Effect of dietary nucleotide supplementation on performance and development of the gastrointestinal tract of broilers.

    PubMed

    Jung, B; Batal, A B

    2012-01-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary nucleotide supplementation on broiler performance, and physical and morphological development of the gastrointestinal tract. 2. Experiment 1: A total of 180 one-d-old male chicks were placed in battery brooders in 3 × 6 replicate pens containing 10 chicks each. Chicks were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments; a maize-soyabean meal based diet supplemented with 0, 0·25, and 0·50% Torula yeast RNA (as a source of nucleotides) from 0 to 16 d of age. 3. Experiment 2: A total of 1344 one-d-old male chicks were placed in floor pens and reared on recycled wood shavings (two flocks) under a high stocking density (0·068 m(2)/bird). Chicks were randomly assigned to one of the 4 dietary treatments (0, 0·25% Torula yeast RNA, 2% and 6% Nupro®) for the starter period (0 to 14 d of age) with 6 replicate pens containing 56 chicks each. All the birds were fed on the same common grower diet with no supplementation of nucleotides from 15 to 32 d of age. 4. Experiment 1: Supplementing the diets with up to 0·50% Torula yeast RNA did not affect broiler performance, or relative intestinal tract weight and length of broilers at any periods measured. 5. Experiment 2: From 0 to 14 d of age, broilers fed on the diets supplemented with 0·25% Torula yeast RNA and 2 and 6% Nupro® were significantly heavier and had improved feed conversion (feed:gain) ratios as compared with the birds fed on the control diet. Supplementing the starter diet only with 2% Nupro® supplementation significantly improved body weight (BW) gain as compared with the control diet over the entire experiment (0 to 32 d of age). Broilers fed on the diets supplemented with 2 and 6% Nupro® from 0 to 14 d of age had better feed conversion (feed:gain) ratios over the entire experiment (0 to 32 d of age) as compared with the birds fed on the control diet, even though the birds were only fed on the diets

  5. Competition in foraging flocks of migrating semipalmated sandpipers.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Guy

    2007-11-01

    I examined the effect of competitor density on foraging success in staging semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) foraging on a burrowing amphipod (Corophium volutator) in each of two study years. Little is known about the effect of competitor density when predation attempts disturb prey, causing a temporary decrease in food availability. Controlling for Corophium density and other potentially confounding factors such as temperature, pecking rate and capture rate increased linearly with sandpiper density. Success rate, the ratio of captures to pecks, was not influenced by sandpiper density. The effect of sandpiper density was similar in each of the two study years and was documented early and late in the low tide period. The increase in foraging rate is argued to be a response to increased competition for rapidly depleting prey at the temporal scale of exploitation by a flock. Potential fitness costs associated with higher foraging costs may include decreased ability to distinguish between the profitability of different prey and reduced vigilance against predators.

  6. A Density-Independent Flocking Transition in Confluent Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czajkowski, Michael; Bi, Dapeng; Manning, M. Lisa; Marchetti, M. Cristina

    Some of us recently demonstrated a density-independent solid-liquid transition in confluent tissues controlled by cell motility and a cell shape parameter measuring the interplay of cortical tension and cell-cell adhesion. An important insight of this work is that the rigidity and dynamics of cell layers depends sensitively on cell shape. To explore the influence of cell shape on collective states, we have constructed continuum equations that couple a scalar field describing cell-shape anisotropy to cell polarization. The model displays a density independent transition to a polarized state of elongated cells driven by a cellular ``shape-index'' parameter. We map out the phase diagram using linear stability analysis and numerical solution of the nonlinear hydrodynamic equations. The proposed transition constitutes a density-independent flocking transition. We acknowledge support from The Simons Foundation and NSF-DGE-1068780.

  7. Adaptive Flocking of Robot Swarms: Algorithms and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Geunho; Chong, Nak Young

    This paper presents a distributed approach for adaptive flocking of swarms of mobile robots that enables to navigate autonomously in complex environments populated with obstacles. Based on the observation of the swimming behavior of a school of fish, we propose an integrated algorithm that allows a swarm of robots to navigate in a coordinated manner, split into multiple swarms, or merge with other swarms according to the environment conditions. We prove the convergence of the proposed algorithm using Lyapunov stability theory. We also verify the effectiveness of the algorithm through extensive simulations, where a swarm of robots repeats the process of splitting and merging while passing around multiple stationary and moving obstacles. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is scalable, and robust to variations in the sensing capability of individual robots.

  8. Selection of Breeding Stock among Australian Purebred Dog Breeders, with Particular Emphasis on the Dam

    PubMed Central

    Czerwinski, Veronika; McArthur, Michelle; Smith, Bradley; Hynd, Philip; Hazel, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary One of the most important factors influencing the health and welfare of puppies is the decision made by the breeder on which dam and sire they will breed from. Unfortunately, our understanding of what dog breeders consider important when selecting their dogs, particularly the dam, is limited. In order to bridge this gap, we conducted an online survey of Australian purebred dog breeders. We identified four major factors that the breeder considered important in relation to the dam: Maternal Care; Offspring Potential; Dam Temperament; and Dam Genetics and Health. Overall, the priorities and practices of dog breeders surveyed were variable across breeds. Importantly, it seemed that not all breeders understood the importance of maternal care behaviour, despite the significant role it may play on future puppy behaviour. Abstract Every year, thousands of purebred domestic dogs are bred by registered dog breeders. Yet, little is known about the rearing environment of these dogs, or the attitudes and priorities surrounding breeding practices of these dog breeders. The objective of this study was to explore some of the factors that dog breeders consider important for stock selection, with a particular emphasis on issues relating to the dam. Two-hundred and seventy-four Australian purebred dog breeders, covering 91 breeds across all Australian National Kennel Club breed groups, completed an online survey relating to breeding practices. Most breeders surveyed (76%) reported specialising in one breed of dog, the median number of dogs and bitches per breeder was two and three respectively, and most breeders bred two litters or less a year. We identified four components, relating to the dam, that were considered important to breeders. These were defined as Maternal Care, Offspring Potential, Dam Temperament, and Dam Genetics and Health. Overall, differences were observed in attitudes and beliefs across these components, showing that there is variation according to

  9. Scale-Free Correlations, Influential Neighbours and Speed Control in Flocks of Birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemelrijk, Charlotte K.; Hildenbrandt, Hanno

    2015-02-01

    Coordination of birds in large flocks is amazing, especially, since individual birds only interact with a few neighbors (the so-called `influential neighbours'). Yet, empirical data show that fluctuations of velocity and speed of different birds are correlated beyond the influential neighbours and are correlated over a larger distance in a larger flock. This correlation between the correlation length of velocity or speed and flock size was found to be linear, called a scale-free correlation. It depends on the way individuals interact in the flock, for instance, on the number of influential neighbours and speed control. It is unknown however, how exactly the number of influential neighbours affects this scale-free correlation. Recent empirical data show that different degrees of control of speed affect the scale-free correlation for speed fluctuations. Theoretically, based on statistical mechanics, it is predicted that at very high speed control, the correlation is no longer scale-free but saturates at a certain correlation length and this hampers coordination in flocks. We study these issues in a model, called StarDisplay, because its behavioural rules are biologically inspired and many of its flocking patterns resemble empirical data. Our results show that the correlation length of fluctuations of velocity as well as speed correlate with flock size in a scale-free manner. A higher number of influential neighbours causes a diminishing increase of the slope of the scale-free correlation with velocity, resulting thus in flocks that coordinate more uniformly. Similar to recent empirical data higher speed control reduces the correlation length of speed fluctuations in our model. As predicted theoretically, at very high speed control the model generates a non-scale free correlation, and although there are still flocks, they are in the process of disintegrating.

  10. Thermomechanical analysis of solid breeders in sphere-pac, plate, and pellet configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, J.P.; Ghoniem, N.M.

    1986-02-01

    The first configuration studied is called sphere-pac. It features small breeder spheres of three different diameters, thus allowing efficient packing and minimal void fraction. The concept originated as an attempt to minimize thermal stresses in the breeder and improve the predictability of the breeder-structure interface heat conduction. In general the breeder is made as thin as possible, to maximize the breeding ratio, so the cladding's integrity will likely be the life-limiting issue of this concept. The third breeder configuration is in the form