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Sample records for broiler parent stock

  1. Susceptibility of broiler chickens to hemorrhages in muscles: the effect of stock and rearing temperature regimen.

    PubMed

    Kranen, R W; Scheele, C W; Veerkamp, C H; Lambooy, E; van Kuppevelt, T H; Veerkamp, J H

    1998-02-01

    In this study, the effect of genetic constitution (stock) and rearing temperature on the occurrence of hemorrhages in thighs and breasts of water bath stunned broilers was investigated. Particular attention was given to the relation between the susceptibility for hemorrhages, body composition, and adaptations in blood variables induced by low rearing temperatures. A factorial experiment was performed with five parental stocks, differing with respect to growth rate, feed conversion, and body composition, and two temperature regimens (thermoneutral and below the zone of thermoneutrality). Hemorrhage scores in thighs were dependent on rearing temperature, not on stock, and were highest in broilers reared at low temperatures. In all stocks, high scores in the thighs were accompanied by an increased carbon dioxide pressure and bicarbonate and triiodothyronine concentration of the venous blood, and by an increased relative heart weight, hematocrit, and blood loss at slaughter. Hemorrhage scores in breasts were dependent on stock, confounded with day of scoring. An effect of rearing temperature was present only for the leanest, slow-growing stock having the lowest feed conversion ratio at thermoneutral rearing conditions. Scores in breasts were related neither to body composition nor to metabolic and hemodynamic adaptations to low rearing temperatures. It is concluded that high hemorrhage scores in thighs are related to hemodynamic and metabolic adaptations to an increased need for energy and oxygen caused by low rearing temperatures. Hemorrhage scores are not related to stock-dependent differences.

  2. Effects of stocking density, light and perches on broiler growth.

    PubMed

    Velo, Ramón; Ceular, Angel

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of stocking density, light intensity and light color on broiler growth. The experiment consisted of four 35-day phases during each of which 320 chickens were surveyed. The research was performed at stocking densities of four and six birds/m(2) . Illuminances of 15 and 30 lx were obtained through commercial lamps with 4000 K and 6000 K color temperatures. Lighting was used 17 h a day, between 06.00 and 23.00 hours (17 L:7 D). The results showed a decrease in body, carcass, breast and thighs weight (P < 0.05) with the increase in stocking density. Body weight decreased by 10.5% and carcass weight decreased by 9.4% at six birds/m(2) stocking density. Contrastingly, no differences were found for the tested light colors. Increasing illuminance from 15 to 30 lx caused a 1.9% decrease in body weight. The analysis of the effect of perches revealed that using perches significantly increased body (2.5%) and breast weight (11.8%). The interactions between light intensity or color and stocking density and between light intensity and light color were analyzed.

  3. Effect of genotype and stocking density on broiler performance during two subtropical seasons.

    PubMed

    Benyi, Kow; Netshipale, Avhafunani Justice; Mahlako, Kgabo Tryphina; Gwata, Eastonce Tendai

    2015-06-01

    Ross 308 and Cobb Avian48 broilers were raised at stocking densities of 30, 40, and 50 kg BW/m(2) during 49-day production period in winter and summer. The effect of season, genotype, and stocking density on growth performance and carcass characteristics was investigated. Ross 308 consumed more feed, gained more body weight, and was heavier than Cobb at slaughter age. Chickens raised in winter consumed more feed, gained more body weight and were heavier at slaughter age but had a higher mortality rate than those raised in summer. Broilers raised at the stocking density of 30 kg BW/m(2) gained more body weight and were heavier at 49 days than those raised at 40 and 50 kg BW/m(2). There was a progressive reduction in feed intake with increasing stocking density but neither season, genotype nor stocking density influenced feed conversion ratio. There was a genotype effect on the percentage gizzard weight, while stocking density influenced the percentage weights of carcass, breast, gizzard, heart and abdominal fat. There were genotype × stocking density interaction effects on feed consumption during the grower and finisher stages as well as the relative weights of breast, gizzard and heart. It is suggested that for profitable broiler production in the tropics and subtropics Ross 308 reared at stocking density of 30 kg BW/m(2) preferably in winter be considered.

  4. Stocking density affects the growth performance of broilers in a sex-dependent fashion.

    PubMed

    Zuowei, S; Yan, L; Yuan, L; Jiao, H; Song, Z; Guo, Y; Lin, H

    2011-07-01

    The effects of stocking density, sex, and dietary ME concentration on live performance, footpad burns, and leg weakness of broilers were investigated. A total of 876 male and 1,020 female 1-d-old chicks were placed in 24 pens to simulate final stocking density treatments of 26 kg (LSD; 10 males or 12 females/m(2)) and 42 kg (HSD; 16 males or 18 females/m(2)) of BW/m(2) floor space. Two series of experimental diets with a 150 kcal/kg difference in ME concentration (2,800, 2,900, and 3,000 or 2,950, 3,050, and 3,150 kcal of ME/kg) were compared in a 3-phase feeding program. The HSD treatment significantly decreased BW gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The HSD chickens consumed less feed by 35 d of age; thereafter, the reverse was true. Male chickens had significantly higher feed intake (FI), BW gain, and FCR compared with females. A significant interaction was found of stocking density and age for FI, BW gain, and FCR. Compared with LSD treatment, HSD broilers had a higher FI and a lower FCR from 36 to 42 d of age. Stocking density, sex, and age had a significant interaction for BW gain and FCR. Female broilers had worse BW gain and FCR when stocked at high density from 36 to 42 d of age. Stocking density had no significant influence on breast, thigh, or abdominal fat yield. Female broilers had significantly higher breast yield and abdominal fat. Male broilers and HSD treatment had high footpad burn and gait scores. A low ME diet increased footpad burn score but had no effect on gait score. The result indicated that stocking density had a more severe effect on the growth of male broilers before 35 d of age. Female broilers need more space than males at similar BW per square meter near marketing age. The incidence and severity of leg weakness are associated with sex, diet, and stocking density. This result suggests that the deteriorated effect of high stocking density is sex and age dependent.

  5. Economic impact of decreasing stocking densities in broiler production in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Verspecht, A; Vanhonacker, F; Verbeke, W; Zoons, J; Van Huylenbroeck, G

    2011-08-01

    Stocking density is a prominent topic in public debates on animal welfare and was one of the reasons for the European Commission to set limits to the stocking density on broiler farms. The objective of this paper was to calculate in detail the financial impact of changes in technical and management variables due to decreasing stocking densities in line with new European Union (EU) regulations. Therefore, the productive performance indicators such as BW, mortality, or feed conversion and farm technical data such as water consumption and heating of 3 independent experiments conducted at a poultry research station in Flanders (Belgium) were combined. Using the partial budget technique only those elements that change with stocking density have been taken into account. Reducing stocking density implies a recalculation of all costs on a reduced number of birds. This yields an economic situation that leaves hardly any profit margin for most of the broiler producers under the present market conditions. It was found that the critical threshold of stocking density for maintaining profitability under the present market and technical conditions is around 46 kg/m(2), thus well above the EU maximum of 42 kg/m(2). It is shown, however, that with changing broiler feed and meat prices, the impact might be less negative in economic terms.

  6. High stocking density as a predisposing factor for necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Tsiouris, V; Georgopoulou, I; Batzios, C; Pappaioannou, N; Ducatelle, R; Fortomaris, P

    2015-01-01

    Stocking density is a management factor which has critical implications for the poultry industry. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of high stocking density as a predisposing factor in an experimental model of necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks. The experimental challenge model included an oral inoculation with 10-fold dose of attenuated anticoccidial vaccine and multiple oral inoculations with a specific strain of Clostridium perfringens. Two hundred and forty as hatched day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated to four treatment groups according to the following experimental design: group N, with normal stocking density (15 birds/m(2)) and no challenge; group D, with high stocking density (30 birds/m(2)) and no challenge; group P, with normal stocking density and positive challenge; and group DP, with high stocking density and positive challenge. From each bird, the intestine, gizzard and liver were collected and scored for gross lesions. The intestinal digesta was collected for pH and viscosity determination. One caecum from each bird was taken for microbiological analysis. The statistical analysis and evaluation of the experimental data revealed significant interaction effects between "stocking density" and "challenge", regarding gross lesion scores in intestine and liver, pH values in jejunum, ileum and caeca as well as C. perfringens counts in the caeca (P ≤ 0.05). High stocking density in challenged birds increased the gross lesion score in the intestine (P ≤ 0.05), contrary to unchallenged birds. It can be concluded that high stocking density affects unfavourably the welfare and gut health of broiler chicks, predisposes to necrotic enteritis in a subclinical experimental model and increases further its importance as a management factor for the poultry industry.

  7. Effects of prebiotic, protein level, and stocking density on performance, immunity, and stress indicators of broilers.

    PubMed

    Houshmand, M; Azhar, K; Zulkifli, I; Bejo, M H; Kamyab, A

    2012-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of period on the performance, immunity, and some stress indicators of broilers fed 2 levels of protein and stocked at a normal or high stocking density. Experimental treatments consisted of a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 2 levels of prebiotic (with or without prebiotic), 2 levels of dietary CP [NRC-recommended or low CP level (85% of NRC-recommended level)], and 2 levels of stocking density (10 birds/m(2) as the normal density or 16 birds/m(2) as the high density), for a total of 8 treatments. Each treatment had 5 replicates (cages). Birds were reared in 3-tiered battery cages with wire floors in an open-sided housing system under natural tropical conditions. Housing and general management practices were similar for all treatment groups. Starter and finisher diets in mash form were fed from 1 to 21 d and 22 to 42 d of age, respectively. Supplementation with a prebiotic had no significant effect on performance, immunity, and stress indicators (blood glucose, cholesterol, corticosterone, and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio). Protein level significantly influenced broiler performance but did not affect immunity or stress indicators (except for cholesterol level). The normal stocking density resulted in better FCR and also higher antibody titer against Newcastle disease compared with the high stocking density. However, density had no significant effect on blood levels of glucose, cholesterol, corticosterone, and the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio. Significant interactions between protein level and stocking density were observed for BW gain and final BW. The results indicated that, under the conditions of this experiment, dietary addition of a prebiotic had no significant effect on the performance, immunity, and stress indicators of broilers.

  8. Cool perches improve the growth performance and welfare status of broiler chickens reared at different stocking densities and high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J P; Jiao, H C; Jiang, Y B; Song, Z G; Wang, X J; Lin, H

    2013-08-01

    The present study investigated the interaction of stocking density and cool perch availability on broiler chickens raised at high ambient temperature (>30.8°C). Behavior, live performance, and the incidence of footpad and hock burns and abdominal plumage damage were investigated over a 4-wk experimental period. A total of 1,152 one-day-old Arbor Acres chicks were subjected to a 2 (cool perches) × 3 (stocking densities) factorial arrangement of treatments. From 1 d of age, birds were provided with or without cool perches at each of 3 stocking densities (12, 16, or 20 birds/m(2); low, medium, or high stocking density, respectively) and corresponded to 48, 64, and 80 birds per pen. The perch design provided 380 cm of linear perching space in each treatment pen. The results showed that high stocking density decreased the growth (P < 0.05) and welfare (P < 0.01) of broilers. Cool perch availability increased BW gain and feed conversion efficiency of broilers (P < 0.05) regardless of stocking density. The birds' use of cool perches increased with age (P < 0.01) and decreased with higher stocking density (P < 0.05). The accessibility of cool perches changed birds' behavior patterns (P < 0.01) and reduced footpad or hock burns and damage to abdominal plumage (P < 0.05). These results suggest that cool perches have a favorable effect on the performance and welfare of broilers.

  9. Effects of stocking density on the growth performance and digestive microbiota of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Guardia, S; Konsak, B; Combes, S; Levenez, F; Cauquil, L; Guillot, J-F; Moreau-Vauzelle, C; Lessire, M; Juin, H; Gabriel, I

    2011-09-01

    Increased stocking densities are frequently reported to depress chicken growth performance, but the mechanisms behind this are not fully understood. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of stocking density on growth performance and digestive microbiota, known to be sensitive to environmental factors. Chickens were reared at 2 stocking densities, 12 or 17 birds/m(2). Growth performance was recorded between d 1 and 39, and litter was scored for quality on d 25, 31, and 37. Digestive microbiota was analyzed along the digestive tract (crop, ileum, ceca) of 3- and 6-wk-old chickens by using 2 molecular approaches: a qualitative method (fingerprinting by temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis) and a quantitative method (real-time PCR). An increase in stocking density was found to negatively affect the feed conversion ratio (+3.1%) and depress the daily BW gain of broilers (-5.5%) during the period from d 32 to 39 (P ≤ 0.05). Litter quality was reduced with the high stocking density as early as d 25. At 3 wk of age, stocking density strongly affected the fingerprint profiles of the bacterial community, with the highest modifications observed in the crop and ceca (R analysis of similarity = 0.77 and 0.69, respectively, P ≤ 0.05). At 6 wk of age, significant differences in the fingerprint profiles between the stocking densities appeared in the crop and ceca (R analysis of similarity = 0.52 and 0.27, respectively, P ≤ 0.05). The abundance of bacterial groups targeted by real-time PCR was affected by stocking density, but only to a limited extent. Because digestive microbiota may have consequences on the physiology of the digestive tract, its modification by an increase in stocking density may be involved in the reduced growth performance of the bird.

  10. [Effects of stocking density on the behaviour and bodily state of broilers fattened with a target liveweight of 2 kg].

    PubMed

    Knierim, Ute

    2013-01-01

    The current investigation is a contribution to the animal welfare debate on acceptable stocking densities in broiler chickens. Two stocking densities on similar levels as currently legally regulated (35 kg/m2 und 40 kg/m2) and two cleary lower stocking densities (18 kg/m2 und 25 kg/m2) were investigated in groups of 18 to 42 Lohmann broiler chickens (B) in three batches with each time one replication of all stocking densities. Target weight of the broiler chickens was 2 kg at 39 or 40 days of age. Mortality, final live weights and activity levels were not significantly different between stocking densities. The proportion of time birds were sitting/lying increased in general with age from about 56% to 82%, probably due to their rapid growth. Nevertheless, at the lower stocking densities there was only in single cases. Moreover, significantly more footpads showed medium grade alterations under higher density conditions; high grade alterations were also different between 35 kg/m2 and 40 kg/m2. Walking ability was only different between the lowest and the two higher densities. Altogether results reflect behavioural restriction at the higher stocking densities with increased risks for footpad alterations and lameness. In order to reach clear animal welfare improvements, e. g. in the framework of animal welfare labeling, a considerable lowering of the stocking density is consequently one important measure. However, this recommendation should be further validated under commercial conditions.

  11. Effect of dietary probiotic and high stocking density on the performance, carcass yield, gut microflora, and stress indicators of broilers.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Özcan; Köksal, Bekir H; Tatlı, Onur; Sevim, Ömer; Ahsan, Umair; Üner, Aykut G; Ulutaş, Pınar A; Beyaz, Devrim; Büyükyörük, Sadık; Yakan, Akın; Önol, Ahmet G

    2015-10-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary probiotic supplementation and stocking density on the performance, relative carcass yield, gut microflora, and stress markers of broilers. One-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chickens (n = 480) were allocated to 4 experimental groups for 42 d. Each treatment had 8 replicates of 15 chicks each. Two groups were subjected to a high stocking density (HSD) of 20 birds/m² and the other 2 groups were kept at low stocking density (LSD) of 10 birds/m². A basal diet supplemented with probiotic 1 and 0.5 g/kg of diet (in starter and finisher diets, respectively) was fed to 2 treatments, one with HSD and the other with LSD, thereby making a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. There was no interaction between stocking density (LSD and HSD) and dietary probiotic (supplemented and unsupplemented) for all the variables. Feed intake and weight gain were significantly low and feed conversion ratio was poor in broilers at HSD. Dietary probiotic significantly enhanced the feed intake and weight gain in starter phase only. Dietary probiotic supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on total aerobs, Salmonella sp., and Lactobacilli populations in the intestines of broilers. However, HSD reduced the Lactobacilli population only (P < 0.05). Relative breast yields were significantly higher in broilers reared at LSD than HSD. Thigh meat yield was higher in broilers in HSD group compared to LSD. Dietary probiotic did not affect the relative carcass yield and weight of lymphoid organs. Serum malondialdehyde, corticosterone, nitric oxide, and plasma heterophil:lymphocyte ratio were not affected either by stocking density or dietary probiotic supplementation. In conclusion, HSD negatively affected the performance and intestinal Lactobacilli population of broilers only, whereas probiotic supplementation enhanced the performance of broilers during the starter phase only. Total aerobes, Salmonella, Lactobacilli carcass yield, and stress indicators

  12. Effects of dietary tryptophan and stocking density on the performance, meat quality, and metabolic status of broilers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Highly automated cage-rearing systems are becoming increasingly popular in China. However, a high stocking density can cause oxidative stress and decrease broiler performance. The tryptophan (TRP) derivative 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HT) has been shown to preserve membrane fluidity in birds suffering from oxidative stress. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary TRP supplementation on performance, breast meat quality and oxidative stress in broilers reared in cages with a high or low stocking density. Methods Female Arbor Acres broilers (25-d-old, n = 144) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatments. The birds were fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, cottonseed meal and corn gluten meal containing either 0.18 or 0.27% TRP and were housed with stocking densities of 11 or 15.4 birds/m2 in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment. Broiler performance was evaluated from d 25 to 42. Eight birds from each treatment were slaughtered on d 42 and plasma and breast muscle samples were collected to measure biochemical indices. Results A higher stocking density tended to be associated with reduced weight gain (P < 0.10), and significantly increased plasma glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activity (P < 0.001). Increased dietary TRP significantly reduced the activities of lactic dehydrogenase and GPT while increasing total cholesterol in the plasma (P < 0.01), reducing drip loss of breast muscle (P < 0.10) and improving feed efficiency (P < 0.10). Conclusions An increase in dietary TRP, 1.5-fold higher than the standard supplementation level, can alleviate oxidative stress as well as improve welfare and feed efficiency in broilers reared in cages with a high stocking density. PMID:25705377

  13. Effects of dietary tryptophan and stocking density on the performance, meat quality, and metabolic status of broilers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Min, Zhizhi; Yuan, Jianmin; Zhang, Bingkun; Guo, Yuming

    2014-01-01

    Highly automated cage-rearing systems are becoming increasingly popular in China. However, a high stocking density can cause oxidative stress and decrease broiler performance. The tryptophan (TRP) derivative 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HT) has been shown to preserve membrane fluidity in birds suffering from oxidative stress. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary TRP supplementation on performance, breast meat quality and oxidative stress in broilers reared in cages with a high or low stocking density. Female Arbor Acres broilers (25-d-old, n = 144) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatments. The birds were fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, cottonseed meal and corn gluten meal containing either 0.18 or 0.27% TRP and were housed with stocking densities of 11 or 15.4 birds/m(2) in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment. Broiler performance was evaluated from d 25 to 42. Eight birds from each treatment were slaughtered on d 42 and plasma and breast muscle samples were collected to measure biochemical indices. A higher stocking density tended to be associated with reduced weight gain (P < 0.10), and significantly increased plasma glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activity (P < 0.001). Increased dietary TRP significantly reduced the activities of lactic dehydrogenase and GPT while increasing total cholesterol in the plasma (P < 0.01), reducing drip loss of breast muscle (P < 0.10) and improving feed efficiency (P < 0.10). An increase in dietary TRP, 1.5-fold higher than the standard supplementation level, can alleviate oxidative stress as well as improve welfare and feed efficiency in broilers reared in cages with a high stocking density.

  14. Effects of genotype and stocking density on broiler performance under three feeding regimes.

    PubMed

    Ligaraba, Tshililo Joyce; Benyi, Kow; Baloyi, Joseph Jumu

    2016-08-01

    Ross 308 and Cobb Avian 48 broilers were used in a 49-day study. The effects of genotype, stocking density, and limited-time feeding on growth performance and carcass characteristics were investigated. Overall, Ross consumed more feed, gained more body weight, and was heavier at marketing age than Cobb. Ross also had a higher drumstick percentage, but the percentages of the other carcass parts were similar in the two genotypes. Birds reared at the stocking density of 30 kg BW/m(2) gained more body weight and were heavier at marketing than those raised at 40 kg BW/m(2), but both groups consumed similar quantities of feed and had similar carcass percentages. Neither genotype nor stocking density influenced feed conversion ratio and mortality rate, but genotype x stocking density interaction significantly affected feed consumption and mortality rate. The feed-restricted birds consumed less feed, gained less weight, were lighter at market age, and had lower percentages of breast, neck, and heart than the full-fed birds. Feed restriction also significantly lowered mortality rate but had insignificant effects on feed conversion ratio and percentages of carcass, breast, back, drumstick, neck, wing, gizzard, heart, liver, and abdominal fat. For profitable poultry production in the tropics and subtropics, it is recommended that Ross 308 raised at the stocking density of 30 kg BW/m(2) and subjected to 10-h daily feed removal from 7 to 35 days of age in a 49-day production period be considered.

  15. Stocking density effects on broiler welfare: identifying sensitive ranges for different indicators.

    PubMed

    Buijs, S; Keeling, L; Rettenbacher, S; Van Poucke, E; Tuyttens, F A M

    2009-08-01

    Although stocking density is perceived as a topic of major importance, no consensus has been reached on what density would allow for good welfare. In the present study, the welfare of 4 replicates of birds stocked at 8, 19, 29, 40, 45, 51, 61, and 72 broilers per pen (or 6, 15, 23, 33, 35, 41, 47, and 56 kg actually achieved BW/m(2)) was studied using 6 welfare indicators. Density did not affect bursa weight, mortality, or concentrations of corticosterone metabolites in droppings but did influence leg health (P = 0.015) and footpad and hock dermatitis (P < 0.001) and tended to influence fearfulness (P = 0.078). However, not every increase in density or group size, or both, led to poorer welfare for the affected indicators: leg health and fearfulness showed unexpected peaks at intermediate densities. Furthermore, the indicators were influenced at different densities: leg strength showed a steep decrease from 6 to 23 kg/m(2), hock dermatitis rose from 35 to 56 kg/m(2), and footpad dermatitis and fearfulness were only significantly higher at the highest density of 56 kg/m(2). No threshold stocking density above which all aspects of welfare were suddenly altered was found in this study. Instead, different aspects of welfare were influenced at different densities or group sizes, or both. Thus, evaluating the effects of stocking density on welfare as a whole would require either identification of acceptable levels for each separate indicator or a weighting of the indicators in an integrated welfare score. A tentative attempt to such an integration, made using equal weights for all parameters, showed a decrease in welfare as density increased (P < 0.001). The lowest 2 densities (6 and 15 kg/m(2)) scored better than most middle densities (23, 33, 35, and 47 kg/m(2)), whereas all densities scored better than the highest density (56 kg/m(2)).

  16. Effects of stocking density and daily feed withdrawal periods on the performance of broiler chickens in a semi-arid environment.

    PubMed

    Rambau, Mashudu Daniel; Mudau, Mulanga Lenticia; Makhanya, Sibusiso David; Benyi, Kow

    2016-12-01

    Unsexed Ross 308 broilers were raised under three stocking densities (30, 35, and 40 kg BW/m(2)) and three daily feed withdrawal periods (0, 8, and 12 h daily) during a 42-day production period. The effects of stocking density and feed withdrawal on growth performance and carcass characteristics were investigated. The feed intake of broilers raised at the stocking density of 30 kg BW/m(2) was higher than those of broilers reared at 35 and 40 kg BW/m(2), but broilers raised under the different stocking densities did not differ significantly in 42-day body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and mortality rate. Forty-two-day body weight, body weight gain, and feed intake were reduced as the duration of feed withdrawal increased, but feeding program affected neither feed conversion ratio nor mortality rate. There was a stocking density effect on thigh percentage while feeding program influenced breast, back, wing, neck, liver, gizzard, and heart percentages. There were stocking density × feed withdrawal interaction effects on feed intake during the starter and grower periods. It is suggested that for profitable broiler production in the tropics stocking density of 40 kg BW/m(2) and daily feed withdrawal for 8 h from 7 to 35 days of age be considered.

  17. Floor space covered by broiler chickens kept at stocking densities according to Council Directive 2007/43/EC.

    PubMed

    Giersberg, M F; Hartung, J; Kemper, N; Spindler, B

    2016-07-30

    It is controversially discussed whether the stocking densities set by the EU Directive 2007/43/EC allow a species-appropriate housing of broiler chickens. To calculate the exact area broilers occupy due to their physical size and shape, planimetric measurements using a colour-contrast method were carried out. In total, 1949 photographs of standing and 1482 of squatting chickens, taken from a top view, were analysed. A computer program counted the pixels representing the previously weighed animal in the photograph and calculated the animal area. The average area covered by chickens with 400 g live weight was 116.64±13.12 cm(2) in a standing and 138.61±12.92 cm(2) in a squatting position. These areas increased linearly as a function of live weight to 452.57±58.89 cm(2) (R(2)=0.90 standing) and 513.54±42.70 cm(2) (R(2)=0.82 squatting) at the end of the study (3200 g live weight). Squatting chickens occupied more space compared with a standing position in most of the tested weight classes (P<0.05). Depending on target weights, stocking densities and body positions, broilers occupied 48.5-77.7 per cent of 1 m(2) Thus, from a physical point of view, simultaneous resting is possible at any stocking density provided by the EU Directive and at common target weights. British Veterinary Association.

  18. Association of Streptococcus pluranimalium with valvular endocarditis and septicaemia in adult broiler parents.

    PubMed

    Hedegaard, L; Christensen, H; Chadfield, M S; Christensen, J P; Bisgaard, M

    2009-04-01

    The genus Streptococcus consists of more than 60 species, but only Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus, Streptococcus gallolyticus ssp. gallolyticus, Streptococcus gallinaceus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus suis have been isolated from poultry. During investigations of the aetiology of increased mortality in broiler parent stock at the end of production, pure cultures of streptococcal-like organisms that could not be classified among these six species were obtained from 24 cases of septicaemia or valvular endocarditis and septicaemia. Phenotypic characterization using the API20 STREP kit identified the isolates as Aerococcus viridans (10), Aerococcus urinae (2), Leuconostoc species (4), Streptococcus salivarius (2), Streptococcus bovis II 3 (1), Enterococcus avium (3), Enterococcus faecium (1) or Gemella morbillorum (1). However, this identification was misleading as subsequent genetic investigations using pulse field gel electrophoresis and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed that 19 isolates were classified as Streptococcus pluranimalium, while the remaining isolates were E. avium (3), E. faecium (1) or Lactobacillus species (1). Misidentification by API20 STREP was related to the database provided by the manufacturer, as the phenotypic characteristics could identify these organisms as S. pluranimalium. The isolates of S. pluranimalium belonged to at least three different clones as determined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis of SmaI-digested genomic DNA. The capacity that these isolates had to colonize the valvular endothelium was suggested by the occurrence of valvular endocarditis in 12 of 19 cases. Demonstration of the same clone in all four houses on a farm suggested the pathogenic potential of this organism.

  19. Increasing dietary vitamin D3 improves the walking ability and welfare status of broiler chickens reared at high stocking densities.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z W; Yan, L; G, Y Y; Zhao, J P; Lin, H; Guo, Y M

    2013-12-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of varying dietary vitamin D3 and stocking density on growing performance, carcass characteristics, bone biomechanical properties, and welfare responses in Ross (308) broilers. Experimental diets, containing 1, 10, or 20 times the NRC recommended level of vitamin D3 (200 IU/kg), were formulated with low, medium, or high vitamin D3 levels for 3 growing phases. Two stocking densities were 10 and 16 birds/m(2). One-day-old hatchlings (1,872 males) were randomly assigned to 6 pens in each treatment. Results showed that high stocking density decreased the feed intake, BW gain (P < 0.01), breast muscle yield (P = 0.010), and tibial development (P < 0.01), whereas increasing feed conversion ratio (P < 0.001), and the scores of gait, footpad and hock burn, and abdominal plumage damage (P < 0.01), particularly toward the age when birds attained their market size. Increasing dietary vitamin D3 improved the birds' walking ability and tibial quality (P < 0.05), and reduced the development of footpad or hock dermatitis and abdominal plumage damage (P < 0.01), some aspects of which were age-dependent and appeared to vary with stocking density. These data indicate that increasing supplemental vitamin D3 has a favorable effect on walking ability and welfare status of high stocking density birds, but not on performance.

  20. A voluntary Salmonella control programme for the broiler industry, implemented by the Danish Poultry Council.

    PubMed

    Bisgaard, M

    1992-01-01

    In the light of data and experience gained over the last two decades, initiatives made to combat and control Salmonella in the Danish broiler industry are described and the results obtained so far are discussed. The main elements include evaluation of the establishments, procedures and processes used, including bacteriological assessment, advice and guidance, routine bacteriological monitoring, and also research. Results obtained are used in the control of breeding stock, parent stock, hatcheries, broiler farms, slaughterhouses, feedmills and transport systems.

  1. Environmental temperature and stocking density effects on acute phase proteins, heat shock protein 70, circulating corticosterone and performance in broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi, Pardis; Zulkifli, Idrus; Amat Jajuli, Nurfarahin; Farjam, Abdoreza Soleimani; Ramiah, Suriya Kumari; Amir, Anna Aryani; O'Reily, Emily; Eckersall, David

    2015-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different stocking densities on serum corticosterone (CORT), ovotransferrin (OVT), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and ceruloplasmin (CP) concentrations, brain heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression and performance in broiler chickens exposed to unheated and heated conditions. Day-old chicks were stocked at 0.100 m2/bird (low density (LD)) or 0.063 m2/bird (high density (HD)), in battery cages and housed in environmentally controlled rooms. From 21 to 35 days of age, birds from each stocking density group were exposed to either 24 or 32 °C. Growth performance was recorded during the heat treatment period, and blood and brain samples were collected to determine CORT, OVT, AGP, CP and HSP 70 levels on day 35. Heat treatment but not stocking density was detrimental to growth performance. There were significant temperature × density interactions for CORT, CP and OVT on day 35. Although HD elevated CORT, CP and OVT when compared to LD, the effects of the former were more obvious under heated condition. Both temperature and density had significant effect on AGP and HSP 70. In conclusion, irrespective of temperature, high stocking density was physiologically stressful to broiler chickens, as indicated by CORT, AGP, CP, OVT and HSP 70, but not detrimental to growth performance and survivability. As it was shown in the present study, AGP, CP and OVT could be useful biomarkers to determine the effect of overcrowding and high temperature on the welfare of broiler chickens.

  2. Dynamics of CMY-2 producing E. coli in a broiler parent flock.

    PubMed

    Dame-Korevaar, Anita; Fischer, Egil A J; Stegeman, Arjan; Mevius, Dik; van Essen-Zandbergen, Alieda; Velkers, Francisca; van der Goot, Jeanet

    2017-05-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase and plasmid mediated AmpC β-lactamase (ESBL/pAmpC) producing bacteria are resistant to Extended Spectrum Cephalosporins (ESC), and are present in all levels of the broiler production chain. We determined the prevalence, concentration, and persistence of ESBL/pAmpC-Escherichia coli in a broiler parent flock during the rearing and laying period. One-day old chickens were housed in four separate pens. Until week 33 no antibiotics or coccidiostatics were used. During rearing 57 chickens in each pen (n=228), and in the laying period two groups of 33 chickens were individually sampled (n=66). Environmental samples were taken from week 16 onwards. ESBL/pAmpC-E. coli presence was determined by selective culturing. In the samples of week 16-19 the concentration of ESBL/pAmpC-E. coli was determined. All ESC-resistant isolates found were positive for pAmpC gene blaCMY-2 located on IncA/C plasmids, in several E. coli MLST types. CMY-2-E. coli prevalence decreased from 91% (95%CI 86-94%) at day 7 (week 1) to 0% (95%CI 0-5%) in week 21. However, CMY-2-E. coli remained present in the environmental samples during the whole study. CMY-2-E. coli concentration varied between detection limit (<10^3) and 2·10^4 cfu/g faeces. The sharp reduction of CMY-2-E. coli in this broiler parent flock in absence of antibiotics suggests a selective disadvantage of blaCMY-2 on IncA/C plasmids on animal level. The underlying mechanism should be studied further as this may provide new insights on how to reduce ESBL/pAmpC prevalence and transmission in the broiler production chain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 26 CFR 1.367(b)-14T - Acquisition of parent stock for property in triangular reorganizations (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... market value of which is $100x. FS purchases $100x of P stock on the open market for cash. Pursuant to... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acquisition of parent stock for property in... § 1.367(b)-14T Acquisition of parent stock for property in triangular reorganizations (temporary). (a...

  4. Influence of light-dark schedules and stocking density on behaviour, risk of leg problems and occurrence of chronic fear in broilers.

    PubMed

    Sanotra, G S; Lund, J Damkjer; Vestergaard, K S

    2002-07-01

    1. The aims of this study were to determine (1) the effect of light-dark schedules on the walking ability, the risk of tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) as well as the duration of tonic immobility (TI) reactions in commercial broiler flocks and (2) the effect of a daily dark period and reduced density on the behaviour of broiler chickens. 2. Experiment 1. Group 1 had a 2 to 8 h daily dark period from 2 to 26 d of age (light-dark programme A) at a stocking density of 28.4 chicks/m2. Group 2 had 8 h of darkness daily from 2 to 38 d of age (light-dark programme B) at 24 chicks/m2. The control group had 24 h continuous light at 28.4 chicks/m2. 3. Experiment 2. Behaviour was studied with and without a daily 8 h dark period and at high (30 chicks/m2) and low (18 chicks/m2) stocking densities. 4. Programme B reduced the prevalence of impaired walking ability, corresponding to gait score > 2, when compared with controls. The effect on walking ability corresponding to gait score > 0 approached significance. 5. Both light-dark programmes reduced the occurrence of TD. Programme B (combined with reduced stocking density), however, had the greater effect. 6. Both light-dark programmes reduced the duration of TI, compared with controls (mean = 426 s) Programme B resulted in a larger reduction (alpha = -156.9 s) than programme A (alpha = -117.0). 7. The proportions of chicks drinking, eating, pecking, scratching, standing and performing vertical wing-shakes increased--both when the 8 h dark period and the reduced stocking density were applied separately and in combination (experiment 2). 8. For all behaviours, except standing, the effect of the dark period was largest in broilers kept at the high stocking density (d 40).

  5. Environmental temperature and stocking density effects on acute phase proteins, heat shock protein 70, circulating corticosterone and performance in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Pardis; Zulkifli, Idrus; Jajuli, Nurfarahin Amat; Farjam, Abdoreza Soleimani; Ramiah, Suriya Kumari; Amir, Anna Aryani; O'Reily, Emily; Eckersall, David

    2015-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different stocking densities on serum corticosterone (CORT), ovotransferrin (OVT), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and ceruloplasmin (CP) concentrations, brain heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression and performance in broiler chickens exposed to unheated and heated conditions. Day-old chicks were stocked at 0.100 m(2)/bird (low density (LD)) or 0.063 m(2)/bird (high density (HD)), in battery cages and housed in environmentally controlled rooms. From 21 to 35 days of age, birds from each stocking density group were exposed to either 24 or 32 °C. Growth performance was recorded during the heat treatment period, and blood and brain samples were collected to determine CORT, OVT, AGP, CP and HSP 70 levels on day 35. Heat treatment but not stocking density was detrimental to growth performance. There were significant temperature × density interactions for CORT, CP and OVT on day 35. Although HD elevated CORT, CP and OVT when compared to LD, the effects of the former were more obvious under heated condition. Both temperature and density had significant effect on AGP and HSP 70. In conclusion, irrespective of temperature, high stocking density was physiologically stressful to broiler chickens, as indicated by CORT, AGP, CP, OVT and HSP 70, but not detrimental to growth performance and survivability. As it was shown in the present study, AGP, CP and OVT could be useful biomarkers to determine the effect of overcrowding and high temperature on the welfare of broiler chickens.

  6. High dietary biotin levels affect the footpad and hock health of broiler chickens reared at different stocking densities and litter conditions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z W; Fan, Q H; Wang, X X; Guo, Y M; Wang, H J; Dong, X

    2017-06-01

    Responses to stocking density (SD), dietary biotin concentration and litter condition were evaluated on 2016 Ross 308 male broilers in the fattening period (day 22-day 42). The birds were placed in 48 pens with either dry or wet litter to simulate the final stocking density of 30 kg (12 broilers/m(2) ; normal stocking density, NSD) and 40 kg (16 broilers/m(2) ; high stocking density, HSD) of body weight (BW)/m(2) floor space. A corn-soybean meal-based diet was supplemented with biotin to provide a normal (NB; 155 μg/kg) or high (HB, 1521 μg/kg) level of dietary biotin. There were six repetitions per treatment. The inappropriate moisture content of litter associated with HSD was avoided (p < 0.05) by good management (SD difference: dry litter, 6.65% vs. wet litter, 13.23%; 42 days), which made it advantageous (p < 0.01) for footpad (SD difference: dry litter, 0.118 vs. wet litter, 0.312; weekly average value) and hock health (SD difference: dry litter, 0.090 vs. wet litter, 0.303; weekly average value) of HSD birds, but not (p > 0.05) for growth and processing yield. In HSD, the biotin effect (gains, FCR) was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than in NSD. The similar response of HSD birds to supplemental biotin was observed (p < 0.05) for lesion scores of footpad and hock in particularly finishing chickens, and a significant interaction (p < 0.01) among stocking density, biotin supplementation and litter condition existed from 35 to 42 days of age. Taken together, increasing dietary biotin improves the performance and well-being of broiler chickens stocked at high densities in litter-independent and litter-dependent manners respectively. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Meat quality traits of four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds and one commercial broiler stock*

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Rong-fa; Lyu, Fei; Chen, Xiao-qiang; Ma, Jie-qing; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Chao-geng

    2013-01-01

    Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5′-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P<0.05). In the indigenous genotypes, NC and FC had significantly shorter fiber diameters and lower shear forces than XC and LC (P<0.05), and NC and XC had a higher IMP content than FC and LC (P<0.05). Moreover, the indigenous genotype of LC significantly displayed the highest protein content (P<0.05) in the five genotypes of birds, and no significant differences of protein content were found between the other genotypes of NC, FC, XC, and AAB (P>0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (P<0.05). Significant differences of pH, color values of L* and a*, and drip loss for the five genotypes of birds were also observed. In conclusion, there were significant differences in the meat quality traits of the bird breeds selected in this study, and the indigenous chickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned. PMID:24101206

  8. Meat quality traits of four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds and one commercial broiler stock.

    PubMed

    Guan, Rong-fa; Lyu, Fei; Chen, Xiao-qiang; Ma, Jie-qing; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Chao-geng

    2013-10-01

    Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P<0.05). In the indigenous genotypes, NC and FC had significantly shorter fiber diameters and lower shear forces than XC and LC (P<0.05), and NC and XC had a higher IMP content than FC and LC (P<0.05). Moreover, the indigenous genotype of LC significantly displayed the highest protein content (P<0.05) in the five genotypes of birds, and no significant differences of protein content were found between the other genotypes of NC, FC, XC, and AAB (P>0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (P<0.05). Significant differences of pH, color values of L* and a*, and drip loss for the five genotypes of birds were also observed. In conclusion, there were significant differences in the meat quality traits of the bird breeds selected in this study, and the indigenous chickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned.

  9. Response to dietary supplementation of L-glutamine and L-glutamate in broiler chickens reared at different stocking densities under hot, humid tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, M; Zulkifli, I; Soleimani, A F; O'Reilly, E L; Eckersall, P D; Anna, A A; Kumari, S; Abdullah, F F J

    2014-11-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether supplementing AminoGut (a commercial dietary supplement containing a mixture of l-glutamine and l-glutamic acid) to broiler chickens stocked at 2 different densities affected performance, physiological stress responses, foot pad dermatitis incidence, and intestinal morphology and microflora. A randomized design in a factorial arrangement with 4 diets [basal diet, basal diet + 0.5% AminoGut from d 1 to 21, basal diet + 0.5% AminoGut from d 1 to 42, and basal diet + virginiamycin (0.02%) for d 1 to 42] and 2 stocking densities [0.100 m(2)/bird (23 birds/pen; LD) or 0.067 m(2)/bird (35 birds/pen; HD)]. Results showed that villi length and crypt depth were not changed by different dietary treatments. However, birds in the HD group had smaller villi (P = 0.03) compared with those of the LD group. Regardless of diet, HD consistently increased the serum concentrations of ceruloplasmin, α-1 acid glycoprotein, ovotransferin, and corticosterone (P = 0.0007), and elevated heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (0.0005). Neither AminoGut supplementation nor stocking density affected cecal microflora counts. In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, dietary supplementation of AminoGut, irrespective of stocking density, had no beneficial effect on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and physiological adaptive responses of broiler chickens raised under hot and humid tropical conditions. However, AminoGut supplementation from d 1 to 42 was beneficial in reducing mortality rate. Also, the increased serum concentrations of a wide range of acute phase proteins together with elevated corticosterone and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio suggested that high stocking density induced an acute phase response either indirectly as a result of increased incidence of inflammatory diseases such as foot pad dermatitis or possibly as a direct physiological response to the stress of high stocking density.

  10. 26 CFR 1.367(b)-14T - Acquisition of parent stock for property in triangular reorganizations (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acquisition of parent stock for property in triangular reorganizations (temporary). 1.367(b)-14T Section 1.367(b)-14T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... § 1.367(b)-14T Acquisition of parent stock for property in triangular reorganizations (temporary)....

  11. Prevalence of salmonellae in broiler, layer and breeder flocks in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sasipreeyajan, J; Jerngklinchan, J; Koowatananukul, C; Saitanu, K

    1996-05-01

    Salmonellae were detected in thirteen broiler flocks, 15 layer flocks and 7 parent breeder flocks in Thailand from October 1991 to August 1992. Salmonellae were isolated from samples of feed, drinking water, cloacal swabs, faeces and litter from all broiler and breeder flocks, and 87% of the layer flocks. From broiler flocks, litter samples were more frequently contaminated than other samples, while feed left over in the layer house and drinking water in the parent breeder house were the most commonly contaminated. Of the total of 1,488 samples examined from all flocks, salmonellae were recovered from samples of litter (42%), water in drinking troughs (36%), feed left over in the feed trays (28%), water in the main tanks (17%), cloacal swabs (13%) and stock feed (8%). The most common serovars associated with the broiler, layer and parent breeder flocks were Salmonella blockley, S. weltevreden and S. amsterdam respectively.

  12. Presence of ESBL/AmpC -Producing Escherichia coli in the Broiler Production Pyramid: A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Dierikx, Cindy M.; van der Goot, Jeanet A.; Smith, Hilde E.; Kant, Arie; Mevius, Dik J.

    2013-01-01

    Broilers and broiler meat products are highly contaminated with extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) or plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli and are considered to be a source for human infections. Both horizontal and vertical transmission might play a role in the presence of these strains in broilers. As not much is known about the presence of these strains in the whole production pyramid, the epidemiology of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in the Dutch broiler production pyramid was examined. Cloacal swabs of Grandparent stock (GPS) birds (one−/two-days (breed A and B), 18 and 31 weeks old (breed A)), one-day old Parent stock birds (breed A and B) and broiler chickens of increasing age (breed A) were selectively cultured to detect ESBL/AmpC-producing isolates. ESBL/AmpC-producing isolates were found at all levels in the broiler production pyramid in both broiler breeds examined. Prevalence was already relatively high at the top of the broiler production pyramid. At broiler farms ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli were still present in the environment of the poultry house after cleaning and disinfection. Feed samples taken in the poultry house also became contaminated with ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli after one or more production weeks. The prevalence of ESBL/AmpC-positive birds at broiler farms increased within the first week from 0–24% to 96–100% independent of the use of antibiotics and stayed 100% until slaughter. In GPS breed A, prevalence at 2 days, 18 weeks and 31 weeks stayed below 50% except when beta-lactam antibiotics were administered. In that case prevalence increased to 100%. Interventions minimizing ESBL/AmpC contamination in broilers should focus on preventing horizontal and vertical spread, especially in relation to broiler production farms. PMID:24244401

  13. Presence of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in the broiler production pyramid: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Dierikx, Cindy M; van der Goot, Jeanet A; Smith, Hilde E; Kant, Arie; Mevius, Dik J

    2013-01-01

    Broilers and broiler meat products are highly contaminated with extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) or plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli and are considered to be a source for human infections. Both horizontal and vertical transmission might play a role in the presence of these strains in broilers. As not much is known about the presence of these strains in the whole production pyramid, the epidemiology of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in the Dutch broiler production pyramid was examined. Cloacal swabs of Grandparent stock (GPS) birds (one-/two-days (breed A and B), 18 and 31 weeks old (breed A)), one-day old Parent stock birds (breed A and B) and broiler chickens of increasing age (breed A) were selectively cultured to detect ESBL/AmpC-producing isolates. ESBL/AmpC-producing isolates were found at all levels in the broiler production pyramid in both broiler breeds examined. Prevalence was already relatively high at the top of the broiler production pyramid. At broiler farms ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli were still present in the environment of the poultry house after cleaning and disinfection. Feed samples taken in the poultry house also became contaminated with ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli after one or more production weeks. The prevalence of ESBL/AmpC-positive birds at broiler farms increased within the first week from 0-24% to 96-100% independent of the use of antibiotics and stayed 100% until slaughter. In GPS breed A, prevalence at 2 days, 18 weeks and 31 weeks stayed below 50% except when beta-lactam antibiotics were administered. In that case prevalence increased to 100%. Interventions minimizing ESBL/AmpC contamination in broilers should focus on preventing horizontal and vertical spread, especially in relation to broiler production farms.

  14. Effect of post-hatch transportation duration and parental age on broiler chicken quality, welfare, and productivity

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Leonie; Delezie, Evelyne; Duchateau, Luc; Goethals, Klara; Ampe, Bart; Lambrecht, Evelien; Gellynck, Xavier; Tuyttens, Frank A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Broiler chicks are transported to production sites within one to 2 d post-hatch. Possible effects of this transportation are poorly understood and could vary among chicks from breeder flocks of different ages. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of transportation duration and parental flock age on chick welfare, productivity, and quality. After hatch in a commercial hatchery, 1,620 mixed-sex chicks from 29-wk old (young) and 1,620 chicks from 60-wk old (old) breeders were subjected to transportation of 1.5 h or 11 h duration. After transportation, 2,800 chicks were divided among 100 pens, with each pen containing 28 chicks from one transportation crate (2 or 3 pens per crate). From the remaining chicks, on average 6 chicks (min 4, max 8) per crate (n = 228) were randomly selected and assessed for chick quality, weighed, and culled for yolk sac weighing (one d). Chicks that had not been assigned to pens or were not used for post-transportation measurements, were removed from the experiment (n = 212). Mortality, ADG, BW, and feed conversion (FC) of the experimental chicks were recorded until 41 d. Meat quality was measured for breast fillets (n = 47). No interaction effect of parental age and transportation duration was found for any variables. BW and yolk sac weight at one d were lower for chicks transported 11 h than 1.5 h and for chicks from young versus old breeders. The effect of parental flock age on BW persisted until slaughter. Additionally, parental age positively affected ADG until slaughter. Chick quality was lower in chicks from old versus young breeders. Chick quality and productivity were not affected by transportation duration. Mortality and meat quality were not affected by either parental age or transportation duration. To conclude, no long-term detrimental effects were found from long post-hatch transportation in chicks from young or old parent flocks. Based on these results, we suggest that 11 h post

  15. Effect of post-hatch transportation duration and parental age on broiler chicken quality, welfare, and productivity.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Leonie; Delezie, Evelyne; Duchateau, Luc; Goethals, Klara; Ampe, Bart; Lambrecht, Evelien; Gellynck, Xavier; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2016-09-01

    Broiler chicks are transported to production sites within one to 2 d post-hatch. Possible effects of this transportation are poorly understood and could vary among chicks from breeder flocks of different ages. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of transportation duration and parental flock age on chick welfare, productivity, and quality. After hatch in a commercial hatchery, 1,620 mixed-sex chicks from 29-wk old (young) and 1,620 chicks from 60-wk old (old) breeders were subjected to transportation of 1.5 h or 11 h duration. After transportation, 2,800 chicks were divided among 100 pens, with each pen containing 28 chicks from one transportation crate (2 or 3 pens per crate). From the remaining chicks, on average 6 chicks (min 4, max 8) per crate (n = 228) were randomly selected and assessed for chick quality, weighed, and culled for yolk sac weighing (one d). Chicks that had not been assigned to pens or were not used for post-transportation measurements, were removed from the experiment (n = 212). Mortality, ADG, BW, and feed conversion ( FC: ) of the experimental chicks were recorded until 41 d. Meat quality was measured for breast fillets (n = 47). No interaction effect of parental age and transportation duration was found for any variables. BW and yolk sac weight at one d were lower for chicks transported 11 h than 1.5 h and for chicks from young versus old breeders. The effect of parental flock age on BW persisted until slaughter. Additionally, parental age positively affected ADG until slaughter. Chick quality was lower in chicks from old versus young breeders. Chick quality and productivity were not affected by transportation duration. Mortality and meat quality were not affected by either parental age or transportation duration. To conclude, no long-term detrimental effects were found from long post-hatch transportation in chicks from young or old parent flocks. Based on these results, we suggest that 11 h post

  16. Parental genetic diversity of brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario) brood stock affects offspring susceptibility to whirling disease.

    PubMed

    Eszterbauer, Edit; Forró, Barbara; Tolnai, Zoltán; Guti, Csaba Ferenc; Zsigmond, Gergely; Hoitsy, György; Kallert, Dennis Marc

    2015-03-03

    Whirling disease, caused by the myxozoan parasite Myxobolus cerebralis, has high economical and ecological importance worldwide. Susceptibility to the disease varies considerably among salmonid species. In brown trout (Salmo trutta) the infection is usually subclinical with low mortality, which increases the risk of parasite dissemination, especially when farm fish are used for stocking natural habitats. The influence of intraspecific genetic differences (especially the level of homozygosity) on susceptibility is unknown. Therefore, we examined the possible correlations between parental genetic diversity and offspring susceptibility of brown trout stocks to whirling disease. Two brown trout brood stocks from a German and a Hungarian fish farm were genetically characterized using microsatellite and lineage-specific genetic markers. The individual inbreeding coefficient f and pairwise relatedness factor r were estimated based on eight microsatellite markers. Brood stock populations were divided into groups according to low and high f and r value estimates and subjected to selective fertilization. The offspring from these separate groups were exposed to M. cerebralis actinospores, and the infection prevalence and intensity was measured and statistically analysed. The analysis of phylogeographic lineage heritage revealed high heterogeneity in the Hungarian brood stock since > 50% of individuals were Atlantic-Danubian hybrids, while only pure Atlantic-descending specimens were detected in the German population. Based on f msat and r msat estimations, classified non-inbred (NIB), inbred (IB) and a group of closely related fish (REL) were created. The susceptibility of their offspring varied considerably. Although there was no significant difference in the prevalence of M. cerebralis infection, the mean intensity of infection differed significantly between NIB and IB groups. In REL and IB groups, a high variability was observed in infection intensity. No external

  17. Taking Stock of Parent Education in the Family Courts: Envisioning a Public Health Model

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Peter; Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene

    2012-01-01

    The paper reviewed the development and current status of the parent education movement in the Family Courts. Parent education programs are now being implemented in courts throughout the United States and have a high level of public acceptance; however, a stronger research methodology to evaluate the effects and continued work to align the goals with the content and teaching strategies of these programs are needed. A new conceptual framework is proposed for parent education, which views divorce as a public health problem for children as well as a legal issue. The three-level framework uses concepts from public health to align the goals, content and format of parent education programs and to enable rigorous evaluations of the outcomes achieved by these programs. PMID:23641191

  18. Selecting white oaks as parent stock for growing high-quality logs

    Treesearch

    Stephen G. Boyce

    1963-01-01

    One of the major objectives of the tree-improvement program of the Central States Forest Experiment Station of the U.S. Forest Service is to select and breed hardwood trees that are inherently capable of producing wood of high quality. To begin this program we must select from natural stands and plantations the best possible parent trees. In recent years we have...

  19. Longitudinal study of transmission of Escherichia coli from broiler breeders to broilers.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Louise Ladefoged; Thøfner, Ida; Bisgaard, Magne; Christensen, Jens Peter; Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Christensen, Henrik

    2017-08-01

    Escherichia coli is of major importance in industrial broiler production as the main cause of salpingitis and peritonitis in broiler breeders. Furthermore E. coli is the most common cause of first week mortality in broiler chickens. The aim of the present study was to investigate the transmission of E. coli, isolated from broiler breeders with salpingitis, to the progeny and the possibility of subsequent first week mortality. Four parent flocks were followed during the whole production period (20-60 weeks) by post mortem and bacteriological examination of randomly selected dead birds. Newly hatched chickens from each flock were swabbed in the cloaca on four occasions (parent age 30, 40, 50, 60 weeks) and E. coli was isolated. Causes of first week mortality were determined pathologically and bacteriologically. E. coli isolates from parents, newly hatched chickens and first week mortality were selected for Pulsed-Field-Gel-Electrophoresis (PFGE) and Multi-Locus-Sequence-Typing (MLST) to determine their clonal relationships. E. coli was the main cause of both salpingitis in parents and first week mortality in broilers, and E. coli dominated the bacterial flora of the cloaca of newly hatched chickens. PFGE of E. coli showed identical band patterns in isolates from the three different sources indicating a transmission of E. coli from parent birds to chickens. In conclusion, E. coli isolated from salpingitis in broiler parents were found to be transmitted to broilers in which some sequence types contributed to the first week mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Reduction of campylobacter infections in broiler flocks by application of hygiene measures.

    PubMed Central

    van de Giessen, A. W.; Tilburg, J. J.; Ritmeester, W. S.; van der Plas, J.

    1998-01-01

    Transmission routes of Campylobacter spp. in broilers and possibilities for prevention of infections were studied on two Dutch broiler farms. The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. was studied in successive broiler flocks, in the environment of the farms and in some of the parent flocks involved. Isolates of Campylobacter spp. were typed by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The results indicate that broiler flocks become infected from environmental sources. The typing results suggest that on one farm transmission of Campylobacter spp. occurred from cattle to broilers via the farmer's footwear. After several campylobacter positive broiler cycles hygiene measures, including thorough cleaning and disinfection procedures, change of footwear at the entrance of each broiler house, control of vermin and other hygienic precautions, were introduced on both farms in order to prevent transmission of Campylobacter spp. from the farm environment to the broilers. The results indicate that the application of hygiene measures significantly reduced campylobacter infections of broiler flocks on both farms. PMID:9747756

  1. 26 CFR 1.367(b)-10 - Acquisition of parent stock or securities for property in triangular reorganizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... distribution shall equal the sum of the amount of money transferred by S, the amount of any liabilities that... is $100x, such that there is a no built-in gain or loss in the FT stock. FS has earnings and profits... distribution to P as a dividend from the earnings and profits of S, return of stock basis, or gain from...

  2. Parenting

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  3. Vertical transmission and clinical signs in broiler breeders and broilers experiencing adenoviral gizzard erosion.

    PubMed

    Grafl, Beatrice; Aigner, Franz; Liebhart, Dieter; Marek, Ana; Prokofieva, Irina; Bachmeier, Josef; Hess, Michael

    2012-12-01

    The present report documents an outbreak of adenoviral gizzard erosion in 22 broiler flocks in Germany. The clinical picture was characterized by uneven growth of affected broilers that resulted in considerably lower than average weight at slaughtering. Fowl adenovirus serotype 1 (FAdV-1) was isolated from gizzard lesions and histological examinations demonstrated FAdV-1-positive intranuclear inclusion bodies in gizzard epithelial cells of affected broilers by in-situ hybridization. Birds from all affected flocks originated from one broiler breeder farm. During production of affected birds, broiler breeders were between 27 and 32 weeks old. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and specific virus neutralization assay of sera from parent birds demonstrated an acute FAdV-1 infection within the first 5 weeks of the production cycle. Clinically, broiler breeders exhibited a moderate fall in the hatchability of their chicks, while egg production remained normal. No further clinical signs could be observed. Genetically identical FAdV-1 strains were isolated from gizzards of embryos at the lowest point of hatchability and from affected broiler flocks raised on independent farms. For the first time, direct detection of viable FAdV-1 from gizzards of embryos and progenies of one FAdV-1-seropositive broiler breeder farm in the course of an outbreak of adenoviral gizzard erosion could be demonstrated, highlighting the importance of vertical transmission of this disease. Additionally, growth retardation and subsequent reduced average weight at the time of slaughter of broiler chickens underline the economic impact of adenoviral gizzard erosion for poultry production.

  4. Risk factors for occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli in Norwegian broiler flocks.

    PubMed

    Mo, Solveig Sølverød; Kristoffersen, Anja Bråthen; Sunde, Marianne; Nødtvedt, Ane; Norström, Madelaine

    2016-08-01

    A longitudinal study of 27 broiler farms including 182 broiler flocks was performed to determine risk factors for occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli in Norwegian broiler flocks. Information regarding possible risk factors was collected by an online questionnaire and by samples obtained from broiler and parent flocks during the study period. Additional information was provided by the broiler production company. The prevalence of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli in parent flocks and broiler flocks sampled in the study was estimated. Cephalosporin-resistant E. coli was detected in 13.8% of the parent flocks and 22.5% of the broiler flocks included in the study. A multivariable generalized linear model was used to estimate risk factors. The risk for occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli was associated with the status of the previous flock in the broiler house (odds ratio=12.7), number of parent flocks supplying the broiler flock with day-old chickens (odds ratio=6.3), routines for disinfection of floor between production cycles (odds ratio=0.1), and transport personnel entering the room where the broilers are raised (odds ratio=9.3). Our findings highlights that implementation of a high level of biosecurity with a minimal number of people entering the broiler house during production cycles, as well as rigorous cleaning and disinfection routines between production cycles will contribute to a decrease in the occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli in broiler flocks provided that there is no selection pressure from antimicrobial use in the broiler production. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The viability and performance under hot conditions of featherless broilers versus fully feathered broilers.

    PubMed

    Azoulay, Y; Druyan, S; Yadgary, L; Hadad, Y; Cahaner, A

    2011-01-01

    results confirmed that being featherless improved the livability and performance of fast-growing broilers in hot conditions and suggests that introduction of the featherless phenotype into commercial broiler stocks would facilitate highly efficient yet low-cost production of broiler meat under hot conditions.

  6. Effect of low doses of gamma irradiation before incubation on hatchability and body weight of broiler chickens hatched under commercial conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zakaria, A.H. )

    1989-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the effect of low doses of gamma irradiation before incubation on hatchability of eggs and body weight of chick at hatching. Commercial broiler parent stocks in their first laying year were used to supply hatching eggs. Five, four, and three independent trials of each dose were conducted at weekly intervals for a total of 10, 12, and 15 units for Experiments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. A unit was an incubation tray of 150 eggs each. Experiments 1 and 2 used eggs from Strain 1 of high (greater than 90%) or medium (80 to 84%) fertility. Eggs of medium fertility from Strain 2 were used in Experiment 3. About 22,000 settable eggs of the commercial broiler parent stocks were treated with doses of 0 to 1.2 Gray (Gy) of gamma irradiation before incubation with a medical 60Co-machine at a dose rate of about .12 Gy/min. In all three experiments there were no significant differences in hatchability of eggs and body weight of chick at hatching among treatments.

  7. Association of Chicken Growth Hormones and Insulin-like Growth Factor Gene Polymorphisms with Growth Performance and Carcass Traits in Thai Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Anh, Nguyen Thi Lan; Kunhareang, Sajee; Duangjinda, Monchai

    2015-01-01

    Molecular marker selection has been an acceptable tool in the acceleration of the genetic response of desired traits to improve production performance in chickens. The crossbreds from commercial parent stock (PS) broilers with four Thai synthetic breeds; Kaen Thong (KT), Khai Mook Esarn (KM), Soi Nin (SN), and Soi Pet (SP) were used to study the association among chicken growth hormones (cGH) and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) genes for growth and carcass traits; for the purpose of developing a suitable terminal breeding program for Thai broilers. A total of 408 chickens of four Thai broiler lines were genotyped, using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. The cGH gene was significantly associated with body weight at hatching; at 4, 6, 8, 10 weeks of age and with average daily gain (ADG); during 2 to 4, 4 to 6, 0 to 6, 0 to 8, and 0 to 10 weeks of age in PS×KM chickens. For PS×KT populations, cGH gene showed significant association with body weight at hatching, and ADG; during 8 to 10 weeks of age. The single nucleotide polymorphism variant confirmed that allele G has positive effects for body weight and ADG. Within carcass traits, cGH revealed a tentative association within the dressing percentage. For the IGF-I gene polymorphism, there were significant associations with body weight at hatching; at 2, 4, and 6 weeks of age and ADG; during 0 to 2, 4 to 6, and 0 to 6 weeks of age; in all of four Thai broiler populations. There were tentative associations of the IGF-I gene within the percentages of breast muscles and wings. Thus, cGH gene may be used as a candidate gene, to improve growth traits of Thai broilers. PMID:26580435

  8. Locomotion of broiler chickens in floor pens.

    PubMed

    Lewis, N J; Hurnik, J F

    1990-07-01

    Locomotion has a major effect on production and animal welfare as it relates to feed and water acquisition, feed utilization, carcass quality, health, and physical vigor. The locomotor abilities of the broiler are also important considerations in pen design and placement of feed and water dispensers. To study the locomotion of broiler chickens and the effect stocking density has on locomotion, eight groups of broiler chickens were observed in an experimental floor pen (1.2 by 1.7 m). A Videomex V Image Motion Computer was used to determine the distance traveled and the frame-by-frame (30 frames per s) location of a focal bird. Four densities (660, 790, 990, and 1320 cm2 per bird) were tested, one on each day of the 4-day recording period for each group of birds. Broiler chickens were active throughout the day and traveled an average distance of 8.8 m per h or 212 m per day. Increasing housing density reduced the distance traveled (10, 8.8, 8.5, and 8.1 m per h for 1,320, 990, 790, and 660 cm2 per bird, respectively) but did not affect the average number of visits to the feeders (4 per h) and water cups (2 per h). The focal birds used the total space provided during the day, indicating that they were not consistently socially restricted to certain areas of the pen.

  9. Compression stockings

    MedlinePlus

    ... knee bend. Compression Stockings Can Be Hard to Put on If it's hard for you to put on the stockings, try these tips: Apply lotion ... your legs, but let it dry before you put on the stockings. Use a little baby powder ...

  10. Featherless and feathered broilers under control versus hot conditions. 1. Breast meat yield and quality.

    PubMed

    Hadad, Yair; Halevy, Orna; Cahaner, Avigdor

    2014-05-01

    The improved genetic potential of contemporary commercial broilers cannot be fully expressed under hot conditions that depress growth rate, decrease breast meat yield, and reduce meat quality. The negative heat effects are attributed to the insulating feather coverage, which, under high ambient temperatures (AT), hinders dissipation of the excessive internally produced heat. Accordingly, featherless broilers (sc/sc), their feathered sibs (+/sc), and contemporary broilers (+/+) were subjected to control AT (26°C) and hot AT (32°C) to test the hypothesis that lack of feathers contributes to higher breast muscle yield and better meat quality, especially under hot conditions, and that differences related to lack of feathers are related to cardiovascular capacity. In 2 similar trials, the superior genetic background of the contemporary broilers was manifested under control conditions; their mean BW was about 15% higher than the means of the featherless broilers and their feathered sibs. The hot conditions depressed BW of the 2 feathered groups by approximately 25%, with hardly any effect on featherless broiler BW. Breast meat yield (% of BW) in the featherless broilers was higher than in those with feathers, especially under the hot AT. Furthermore, the featherless broilers were characterized by superior meat quality as indicated by lower drip loss, lower lightness, and higher redness. The superior meat quality of the featherless broilers could be explained by their larger hearts and higher hematocrit values, suggesting superior cardiovascular capacity to supply oxygen and nutrients to the breast muscles. On the practical side, the results clearly indicate that modern featherless broilers can reach normal BW, as well as yield and quality of breast meat, under hot conditions as well. It appears that broiler meat production in hot regions and climates can be substantially improved by introducing the featherless gene into contemporary commercial broiler stocks. This has

  11. Fear, stress, and feather pecking in commercial white and brown laying hen parent-stock flocks and their relationships with production parameters.

    PubMed

    de Haas, E N; Kemp, B; Bolhuis, J E; Groothuis, T; Rodenburg, T B

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about the relationship between welfare traits and production in laying hen parent stock (PS). In commercial laying hens and pure lines, it is known that aspects associated with reduced welfare such as high fear, stress, and feather pecking can have negative effects on production. Because PS hens are housed under different conditions than commercial laying hens, the relationship between welfare traits and production may differ. We therefore studied the fear response to a stationary person (SP) and novel object (NO), basal plasma corticosterone (CORT) and whole-blood serotonin levels (5-HT), and feather damage as a proxy for feather pecking in 10 Dekalb White (DW) and 10 ISA Brown (ISA) commercial PS flocks and related these to production data. Because the relationship between welfare traits and production may differ by genetic origin and group size, we also assessed genotype and group size effects. Dekalb White birds were more fearful of a SP, and had more feather damage and lower 5-HT levels than ISA birds. Genotypes did not differ in CORT. A large group size (n > 5,000) was associated with low feed intake and better feed conversion for ISA flocks. For DW flocks, high fear of the NO was associated with low BW, low egg weight, and low feed intake. For ISA flocks, high fear of the SP was associated with high mortality. For both lines, high CORT was related to low egg weight. This is the first study to associate levels of fear and CORT to production in commercial PS flocks. Management of PS flocks should take into account breed differences, group size effects, and effects of human-bird interactions. Further research is needed to determine the effects of fear, CORT, 5-HT, and feather damage in commercial PS flocks on the development of their offspring.

  12. Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…

  13. Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziff, Barry, Ed.; Hostettler, Karen, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The newsletter of the California Association for the Gifted includes the following brief articles on parenting: "Your Challenge, Their Lives" (Barry Ziff); "Courage to Be Who I Am, Unafraid" (Elizabeth Meckstroth); "Attribution: A Key to Encouraging More Responsible Behavior in the Gifted" (Saundra Sparling); "A Parent's Perspective" (Carolyn…

  14. Selection of broilers with improved innate immune responsiveness to reduce on-farm infection by foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Swaggerty, Christina L; Pevzner, Igal Y; He, Haiqi; Genovese, Kenneth J; Nisbet, David J; Kaiser, Pete; Kogut, Michael H

    2009-09-01

    Economic pressure on the modern poultry industry has directed the selection process towards fast-growing broilers that have a reduced feed conversion ratio. Selection based heavily on growth characteristics could adversely affect immune competence leaving chickens more susceptible to disease. Since the innate immune response directs the acquired immune response, efforts to select poultry with an efficient innate immune response would be beneficial. Our laboratories have been evaluating the innate immune system of two parental broiler lines to assess their capacity to protect against multiple infections. We have shown increased in vitro heterophil function corresponds with increased in vivo resistance to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial infections. Additionally, there are increased mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in heterophils isolated from resistant lines compared to susceptible lines. Collectively, all data indicate there are measurable differences in innate responsiveness under genetic control. Recently, a small-scale selection trial was begun. We identified sires within a broiler population with higher and/or lower-than-average pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine mRNA expression levels and subsequently utilized small numbers of high-expressing and low-expressing sires to produce progeny with increased or decreased, respectively, pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine profiles. This novel approach should allow us to improve breeding stock by improving the overall immunological responsiveness. This will produce a line of chickens with an effective pro-inflammatory innate immune response that should improve resistance against diverse pathogens, improve responses to vaccines, and increase livability. Ongoing work from this project is providing fundamental information for the development of poultry lines that will be inherently resistant to colonization by pathogenic and food-poisoning microorganisms. Utilization of pathogen

  15. The effect of low-density broiler breeder diets on performance and immune status of their offspring.

    PubMed

    Enting, H; Boersma, W J A; Cornelissen, J B W J; van Winden, S C L; Verstegen, M W A; van der Aar, P J

    2007-02-01

    Effects of low-density broiler breeder diets on offspring performance and mortality were studied using 2,100 female and 210 male Cobb 500 breeders. Breeder treatments involved 4 experimental groups and a control group with normal density diets (ND, 2,600 kcal of AME/kg during rearing and 2,800 kcal of AME/kg during laying). In treatment 2, nutrient densities were decreased by 12% (LD12) and 11% (LD11) during the rearing and laying periods, respectively, whereas in treatment 3, nutrient densities were decreased by 23% (LD23) and 21% (LD21) during the rearing and laying periods, respectively. The nutrient density in these treatments was decreased through inclusion of palm kernel meal, wheat bran, wheat gluten feed, and sunflower seed meal in the diets. Treatment 4 included diets with the same nutrient densities as in treatment 2 but included oats and sugar beet pulp (LD12(OP) and LD11(OP)). In treatment 5, the same low-density diet was given to the breeders as in treatment 2 during the rearing period, but it was followed by a normal density diet during the laying period (LD12-ND). Treatments were applied from 4 to 60 wk of age. On low-density diets, offspring showed an increased 1-d-old weight. As compared with offspring of breeders that received ND, the d 38 live weight of chickens from 29-wk-old breeders fed LD11 was improved. Mortality was reduced in offspring from 60-wk-old parent stock given low-density diets. The IgM titers in 35-d-old offspring from eggs with a lower-than-average weight were reduced when 29-wk-old broiler breeders were fed low-density diets. In offspring from eggs with a higher-than-average weight from 60-wk-old parent stock given LD11 or LD21 diets, IgM titers were higher compared with ND. It was concluded that low-density broiler breeder diets can improve offspring growth rates, reduce mortality, and reduce or increase immune responses, depending on breeder age and egg weight.

  16. Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jochim, Lisa; Mueller, Andrea

    This guide contains 15 learning activities that can be used in parenting classes, especially for adults with limited literacy skills. Activities include quotations for discussion and suggestions for conducting group discussions and writing lessons. The following activities are included: interpreting quotations about raising children; positive…

  17. Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spock, Benjamin; And Others

    Various aspects of child-rearing are covered in this transcript of a program broadcast in the National Public Radio weekly series, "Options in Education." Authors of current popular books on parenting are interviewed. Benjamin Spock discusses changes (including sex role revisions) in his "Baby and Child Care" since the 1946…

  18. Effects of different rearing systems on growth, small intestinal morphology and selected indices of fermentation status in broilers.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianhui; Miao, Zhiqiang; Tian, Wenxia; Yang, Yu; Wang, Jundong; Yang, Ying

    2017-06-01

    A 3×2 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of rearing system and stocking density on the growth performance, intestinal morphology and fermentation status of broilers. Broilers were kept on three rearing systems: floor litter rearing (FRS), plastic net rearing (NRS) and multilayer cage rearing system (CRS), each with two stocking densities (normal and high stocking densities). Results showed that on 7 to 28 days of age, body weight gain appeared as FRS > NRS > CRS. Whereas, CRS significantly enhanced the weight gain of broilers compared with the other systems subsequently. Broilers on FRS had higher counts of cecum Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli at 28 days of age but had more Escherichia coli and less Bifidobacteria than CRS at 42 days of age. The FRS also decreased volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration and jejunal villus height-to-crypt depth ratio at all ages. In conclusion, FRS appeared to benefit gut microorganisms during the early growing period along with high body weight gain of broilers, whereas this system might have a harmful effect on subsequent intestinal growth, as indicated by high E. coli, low Bifidobacteria count, low VFA concentration and villus height-to-crypt depth ratio along with low weight gain of broilers. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Growth, efficiency, and yield of commercial broilers from 1957, 1978, and 20051

    PubMed Central

    Zuidhof, M. J.; Schneider, B. L.; Carney, V. L.; Korver, D. R.; Robinson, F. E.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of commercial selection on the growth, efficiency, and yield of broilers was studied using 2 University of Alberta Meat Control strains unselected since 1957 and 1978, and a commercial Ross 308 strain (2005). Mixed-sex chicks (n = 180 per strain) were placed into 4 replicate pens per strain, and grown on a current nutritional program to 56 d of age. Weekly front and side profile photographs of 8 birds per strain were collected. Growth rate, feed intake, and measures of feed efficiency including feed conversion ratio, residual feed intake, and residual maintenance energy requirements were characterized. A nonlinear mixed Gompertz growth model was used to predict BW and BW variation, useful for subsequent stochastic growth simulation. Dissections were conducted on 8 birds per strain semiweekly from 21 to 56 d of age to characterize allometric growth of pectoralis muscles, leg meat, abdominal fat pad, liver, gut, and heart. A novel nonlinear analysis of covariance was used to test the hypothesis that allometric growth patterns have changed as a result of commercial selection pressure. From 1957 to 2005, broiler growth increased by over 400%, with a concurrent 50% reduction in feed conversion ratio, corresponding to a compound annual rate of increase in 42 d live BW of 3.30%. Forty-two-day FCR decreased by 2.55% each year over the same 48-yr period. Pectoralis major growth potential increased, whereas abdominal fat decreased due to genetic selection pressure over the same time period. From 1957 to 2005, pectoralis minor yield at 42 d of age was 30% higher in males and 37% higher in females; pectoralis major yield increased by 79% in males and 85% in females. Over almost 50 yr of commercial quantitative genetic selection pressure, intended beneficial changes have been achieved. Unintended changes such as enhanced sexual dimorphism are likely inconsequential, though musculoskeletal, immune function, and parent stock management challenges may require additional

  20. Acclimation to heat during incubation: 4. Blood hormones and metabolites in broilers exposed to daily high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, S; Bruggeman, V; Buyse, J; Decuypere, E; Cabuk, M; Siegel, P B

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the present experiment was to study the effects of parental age and heat acclimation of embryos on blood metabolites and hormones of broilers exposed to daily cyclic ambient temperatures from d 21 to 42. Eggs obtained from 32 (younger), 42 (middle-aged), and 65 wk (older) breeders were divided into 2 groups. One group of eggs was incubated at control incubation temperature (ITCONT), whereas the second group was heat-acclimated at 38.5 degrees C for 6 h/d from d 10 to 18 of incubation (ITHA). Chicks were reared at standard brooding temperatures from 1 to 21 d. From d 21 to 42, half of broilers/incubation temperature/parental age was kept as the control (ATCONT), whereas the other half was exposed to daily cyclic heat treatment (ATHIGH) to impose a stress response. There was a reduction in plasma triiodothyronine (T3) levels in ITHA broilers. On d 28, plasma T3 levels were similar regardless of parental age of eggs incubated at ITCONT, whereas ITHA resulted in lower levels of T3 in broilers from 65 wk parents. At the same age, ATHIGH reduced plasma triglycerides with the effect greater for ITHA than ITCONT broilers. Plasma uric acid was also lower for ITHA than ITCONT broilers for the offspring of 65 wk parents on d 28. There was an increase in plasma creatine kinase activity on d 42 in ATHIGH broilers regardless of parental age and incubation temperature. Plasma corticosterone was consistently lower for the ITHA than ITCONT treatment, being significant on d 21 and 42. It was concluded that these changes in blood metabolites and hormones may enhance the thermoregulatory ability of ITHA broilers when exposed posthatch to daily high temperatures.

  1. Anaemia-dermatitis of broilers: field observations on its occurrence, transmission and prevention.

    PubMed

    Vielitz, E; Landgraf, H

    1988-01-01

    Anaemia-dermatitis was first observed in German broiler flocks in 1977. Its frequency has increased in the past six years. Atrophy of thymus, bursa and bone marrow occur and are affected by a severe anaemia and immunosuppression. Secondary bacterial infections of the skin cause gangrenous dermatitis. Systematic investigations of outbreaks in two broiler integrations showed the syndrome to occur only in the offspring of young broiler breeders during the first 3 to 9 weeks of production. Anaemia could be reproduced experimentally in CAA-antibody negative SPF birds by injecting a bacteria-free filtrate of organ homogenates of diseased birds; birds kept in contact with the inoculated chicks remained healthy. It is concluded that anaemia-dermatitis is primarily caused by the chicken anaemia agent (CAA). Vertical transmission via hatching egg predominates with no evidence of horizontal transmission. In order to prevent egg transmission of CAA immunisation during rearing is indicated for breeder stocks.

  2. Animal Welfare and Food Safety Aspects of Confining Broiler Chickens to Cages

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Sara; Greger, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In commercial chicken meat production, broiler chickens are usually kept on the floor in ware-house like buildings, but the use of cages is becoming more common. Confining chickens to cages is a welfare problem, as has been thoroughly demonstrated for laying hens used for egg production. Caged broiler chickens may suffer from poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, feather loss, and restriction of natural behavior. There are also potential food safety concerns associated with the use of cages. While cages may provide an economic advantage in some geographical regions of the world, the severe, inherent disadvantages should also be considered before cages are more widely adopted in the global broiler chicken industry. Abstract In most areas of the world, broiler chickens are raised in floor systems, but cage confinement is becoming more common. The welfare of broiler chickens in cages is affected by movement restriction, poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, and prevention of key behavioral patterns such as dustbathing and ground scratching. Cages for broiler chickens also have a long history of causing skin and leg conditions that could further compromise welfare, but a lack of controlled studies makes it difficult to draw conclusions about newer cage designs. Cage environments are usually stocked at a higher density than open floor systems, and the limited studies available suggest that caging may lead to increased levels of fear and stress in the birds. Further, birds reared on the floor appear less likely to harbor and shed Salmonella, as litter may serve as a seeding agent for competitive exclusion by other microorganisms. Cages for laying hens used in egg production have met with substantial opposition due to welfare concerns and caging broiler chickens will likely be subject to the same kinds of social disapproval. PMID:26487409

  3. 26 CFR 1.338-8 - Asset and stock consistency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... following facts apply: S is the common parent of a consolidated group that includes T, T1, T2, and T3; S owns all of the stock of T and T3; and T owns all of the stock of T1, which owns all of the stock of T2... reorganization. (a) On February 1 of Year 1, T3 sells an asset to P1 and recognizes gain. On March 1 of Year 1,...

  4. Stock Market Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Distel, Brenda D.

    This project is designed to teach students the process of buying stocks and to tracking their investments over the course of a semester. The goals of the course are to teach students about the relationships between conditions in the economy and the stock market; to predict the effect of an economic event on a specific stock or industry; to relate…

  5. Stock Market Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Distel, Brenda D.

    This project is designed to teach students the process of buying stocks and to tracking their investments over the course of a semester. The goals of the course are to teach students about the relationships between conditions in the economy and the stock market; to predict the effect of an economic event on a specific stock or industry; to relate…

  6. Fractured fibulae in broiler fowls.

    PubMed

    Duff, S R

    1985-10-01

    Fibular diaphyseal fractures were identified bilaterally or unilaterally in 15 broilers aged between 13 and 105 days. Incomplete cortical defects were also identified on radiographs in a further 8 birds. Fractures and incomplete defects always occurred at the Tuberculum M. iliofibularis of fibulae. The character of bone at this site differed from bone elsewhere in the diaphysis. Following fracture, cartilaginous callus united the diaphyseal segments and pseudarthrosis or fibrous non-union were common sequelae. The concept that fibular fractures in broilers are always a consequence of abnormal proximal tibiotarsal curvature is not supported by this study. It is suggested that differential growth of the paired crural bones is of primary importance.

  7. Coping with an Alcoholic Parent

    MedlinePlus

    ... a problem." Lots of people fall into the trap of thinking that a parent's drinking is only ... Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com

  8. Animal Welfare and Food Safety Aspects of Confining Broiler Chickens to Cages.

    PubMed

    Shields, Sara; Greger, Michael

    2013-05-13

    In most areas of the world, broiler chickens are raised in floor systems, but cage confinement is becoming more common. The welfare of broiler chickens in cages is affected by movement restriction, poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, and prevention of key behavioral patterns such as dustbathing and ground scratching. Cages for broiler chickens also have a long history of causing skin and leg conditions that could further compromise welfare, but a lack of controlled studies makes it difficult to draw conclusions about newer cage designs. Cage environments are usually stocked at a higher density than open floor systems, and the limited studies available suggest that caging may lead to increased levels of fear and stress in the birds. Further, birds reared on the floor appear less likely to harbor and shed Salmonella, as litter may serve as a seeding agent for competitive exclusion by other microorganisms. Cages for laying hens used in egg production have met with substantial opposition due to welfare concerns and caging broiler chickens will likely be subject to the same kinds of social disapproval.

  9. Growth rate of ascites-resistant versus ascites-susceptible broilers in commercial and experimental lines.

    PubMed

    Druyan, S; Hadad, Y; Cahaner, A

    2008-05-01

    The high growth rate (GR) of contemporary broilers is driven by high rate of feed intake and metabolism. Because of the consequent high oxygen demand, especially when coupled with exposure to high altitude or low temperatures, some broilers fail to regulate oxygen supply and develop the ascites syndrome (AS), which leads to mortality and economic losses. Because of the association between high GR, oxygen demand, and AS, it has been suggested that AS is induced by high GR. If true, further GR enhancement should be avoided because it will increase the proportion of AS-susceptible individuals in contemporary stocks. An alternative hypothesis claims that AS is associated with high actual GR only because the latter increases oxygen demand and that there are genetically AS-resistant broilers that do not develop AS, even when exhibiting high GR. These hypotheses were tested in trials in the years 2002 and 2006, with broilers differing in potential GR: contemporary fast-growing commercial lines and an experimental line derived from commercial broilers in 1986, and (in 2002 only) divergently selected AS-susceptible and AS-resistant lines. A protocol of high-challenge ascites-inducing conditions (AIC) from d 19 was used to distinguish between AS-susceptible and AS-resistant individuals and to determine their GR up to this age. The difference in AS incidence between the divergent lines (93.9 vs. 9.5%) was not explained by the 5% difference in their GR, thus indicating a lack of genetic correlation. In the broiler lines, AS incidence was 31 and 47% in 2002 and 2006, respectively, and 32% in the 1986 slow-growing line. Most broilers that remained healthy under the high-challenge AIC exhibited the same early GR and BW as those that later developed AS. These results, and the relatively high incidence of AS in the slow-growing line, indicate that there is very little, if any, direct genetic association between AS and genetic differences in potential GR, and suggest that AS

  10. Belgian citizens' and broiler producers' perceptions of broiler chicken welfare in Belgium versus Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vanhonacker, F; Tuyttens, F A M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-07-01

    New EU regulations require more stringent country-of-origin labeling, while imports of broiler meat from non-EU countries are increasing. In light of these trends, we have studied citizens' and producers' perceptions of broiler meat originating from Belgium versus Brazil and their perception of broiler production in Belgium versus Brazil. A particular focus was the association between country of origin and perceived level of animal welfare. We also investigated the perception of scaling-up and outdoor access in terms of perceived level of animal welfare. Cross-sectional survey data was collected among Flemish citizens (n = 541) and broiler producers (n = 114). In accordance with literature on general farm animal welfare, both stakeholder types claimed to allocate great importance to broiler welfare and generally agreed with the Welfare Quality model of broiler welfare. Citizens disagreed with the producers that 1) consumers are not willing to pay more for higher welfare products, 2) that broilers suffer little, 3) that broiler welfare in current Belgian production units is generally non-problematic, 4) that scaling-up production units would not have a positive impact on profitability nor a profoundly negative impact on broiler welfare, and 5) that the impact of providing broilers with outdoor access is negative for consumers, farmers, and broilers. Country of origin had a strong influence on the perception of both broiler production and broiler meat. Belgian citizens, and producers (much more than citizens) considered nearly all aspects related to broiler production and broiler meat to be significantly superior for chicken produced in Belgium compared to Brazil. Further research should focus on how these perceptions influence purchase intentions and production decisions. Future avenues for research are to quantify market opportunities for country-of-origin labeling and to investigate to which extent stakeholders' perceptions correspond with reality. © 2016 Poultry

  11. A Stock Market Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Christine; Cook, Stan

    1990-01-01

    Offers a field-tested stock market unit designed to develop mathematical skills involving fractions and decimals, basic understanding of the stock market, and hypothesis testing skills in real world situations. Includes tables displaying questions, tally sheets, and instructions, as well as a list of related activities. (MDH)

  12. A Stock Market Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Christine; Cook, Stan

    1990-01-01

    Offers a field-tested stock market unit designed to develop mathematical skills involving fractions and decimals, basic understanding of the stock market, and hypothesis testing skills in real world situations. Includes tables displaying questions, tally sheets, and instructions, as well as a list of related activities. (MDH)

  13. Access to Barrier Perches Improves Behavior Repertoire in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Beth A.; Siewerdt, Frank; Estevez, Inma

    2012-01-01

    Restriction of behavioral opportunities and uneven use of space are considerable welfare concerns in modern broiler production, particularly when birds are kept at high densities. We hypothesized that increased environmental complexity by provision of barrier perches would help address these issues by encouraging perching and enhancing use of the pen space across a range of stocking densities. 2,088 day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of the following barrier and density treatment combinations over four replications: simple barrier, complex barrier, or control (no barrier) and low (8 birds/m2), moderate (13 birds/m2), or high (18 birds/m2) density. Data were collected on focal birds via instantaneous scan sampling from 2 to 6 weeks of age. Mean estimates per pen for percent of observations seen performing each behavior, as well as percent of observations in the pen periphery vs. center, were quantified and submitted to an analysis of variance with week as the repeated measure. Barrier perches, density and age affected the behavioral time budget of broilers. Both simple and complex barrier perches effectively stimulated high perching rates. Aggression and disturbances were lower in both barrier treatments compared to controls (P<0.05). Increasing density to 18 birds/m2 compared to the lower densities suppressed activity levels, with lower foraging (P<0.005), decreased perching (P<0.0001) and increased sitting (P = 0.001) earlier in the rearing period. Disturbances also increased at higher densities (P<0.05). Use of the central pen area was higher in simple barrier pens compared to controls (P<0.001), while increasing density above 8 birds/m2 suppressed use of the central space (P<0.05). This work confirms some negative effects of increasing density and suggests that barrier perches have the potential to improve broiler welfare by encouraging activity (notably by providing accessible opportunities to perch), decreasing aggression and disturbances

  14. Targeted stock identification using multilocus genotype 'familyprinting'

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Letcher, B.H.; King, T.L.

    1999-01-01

    We present an approach to stock identification of small, targeted populations that uses multilocus microsatellite genotypes of individual mating adults to uniquely identify first- and second-generation offspring in a mixture. We call the approach 'familyprinting'; unlike DNA fingerprinting where tissue samples of individuals are matched, offspring from various families are assigned to pairs of parents or sets of four grandparents with known genotypes. The basic unit of identification is the family, but families can be nested within a variety of stock units ranging from naturally reproducing groups of fish in a small tributary or pond from which mating adults can be sampled to large or small collections of families produced in hatcheries and stocked in specific locations. We show that, with as few as seven alleles per locus using four loci without error, first-generation offspring can be uniquely assigned to the correct family. For second-generation applications in a hatchery more alleles per locus (10) and loci (10) are required for correct assignment of all offspring to the correct set of grandparents. Using microsatellite DNA variation from an Atlantic salmon (Salmo solar) restoration river (Connecticut River, USA), we also show that this population contains sufficient genetic diversity in sea-run returns for 100% correct first, generation assignment and 97% correct second-generation assignment using 14 loci. We are currently using first- and second-generation familyprinting in this population with the ultimate goal of identifying stocking tributary. In addition to within-river familyprinting, there also appears to be sufficient genetic diversity within and between Atlantic salmon populations for identification of 'familyprinted' fish in a mixture of multiple populations. We also suggest that second-generation familyprinting with multiple populations may also provide a tool for examining stock structure. Familyprinting with microsatellite DNA markers is a viable

  15. Stock markets are not what we think they are: the key roles of cross-ownership and corporate treasury stock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2005-03-01

    We describe, document and statistically test three mechanisms by which corporations can influence or even control stock prices: (i) Parent and holding companies wield control over other publicly traded companies. (ii) Through clever management of treasury stock based on buyback programs and stock issuance, stock price fluctuations can be amplified or curbed. The shock of September 11, 2001 is used to test this effect. (iii) Finally, historical evidence shows that there is a close interdependence between the level of stock prices on the one hand and merger and acquisition activity on the other hand: on average, a 10% increase in the number of mergers brings about a 3% increase in the overall level of stock prices. If one adds up buybacks, initial public offerings and takeover transactions, all of which depend upon strategic decisions taken by corporate management, they represent on average 7.2% of the trade on the New York Stock Exchange over the period 1987-2003 (as much as 12% in specific years such as 1988). This perspective, in which the Boards of Directors of major companies “shepherd” the market, offers a natural interpretation of the so-called “herd behavior” observed in stock markets. The traditional view holds that, by driving profit expectations, corporations have an indirect role in shaping the market. In this paper, we suggest that over the last decades they became more and more the direct moving force of stock markets.

  16. Breast muscle tissue characteristics in growing broilers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Muscle cell development in broilers influences growth rate, breast meat yield, and meat quality. The objective of this study was to characterize muscle tissue changes in breast muscles from two commercial lines of broilers from 21 to 56 days of age. The experiment was designed as a 2×2×6 factorial...

  17. Broiler Growers. People on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes the daily life of the Maurice Layton family, broiler (chicken) growers in Mississippi. Beginning with early morning chores, the booklet traces the family's activities through a typical day while explaining how a broiler farm operates. Although the booklet focuses on broiler…

  18. Immunotherapy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Recipes En Español Teachers - Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  19. Transmission and genetic diversity of Enterococcus faecalis during hatch of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Christensen, Henrik; Bisgaard, Magne

    2012-11-09

    The normal gastrointestinal flora of poultry includes Enterococcus faecalis. E. faecalis is also associated with first week mortality of chickens, but it is not clear whether this is due to vertical or horizontal transmission. Aims of the present study were to investigate transmission and genetic diversity of E. faecalis during hatching of broiler chicks. When hatching started, 15% of the chicks were colonized with E. faecalis. This colonization was interpreted as vertical transmission and was higher than previously reported. Transmission of E. faecalis from parents older than 42 weeks was five times greater than transmission of E. faecalis from younger parents. Seventy percent of broiler chicks were colonized with E. faecalis within 24 h after hatch started, which was interpreted as horizontal transmission. Twenty-one sequence types (STs) were demonstrated among 322 isolates of E. faecalis obtained from newly hatched chicks representing 11 different broiler parent flocks. Furthermore, three STs (ST59, ST82, ST174) made up 50.6% of the isolates, indicating that these STs have adapted successfully to the avian niche. All STs, except those novel to this study, have previously been associated with lesions in poultry, underlining the importance of controlling these particular STs.

  20. Trading Network Predicts Stock Price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  1. Trading Network Predicts Stock Price

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices. PMID:24429767

  2. Trading network predicts stock price.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-16

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  3. An explicit solution for calculating optimum spawning stock size from Ricker's stock recruitment model.

    PubMed

    Scheuerell, Mark D

    2016-01-01

    Stock-recruitment models have been used for decades in fisheries management as a means of formalizing the expected number of offspring that recruit to a fishery based on the number of parents. In particular, Ricker's stock recruitment model is widely used due to its flexibility and ease with which the parameters can be estimated. After model fitting, the spawning stock size that produces the maximum sustainable yield (S MSY) to a fishery, and the harvest corresponding to it (U MSY), are two of the most common biological reference points of interest to fisheries managers. However, to date there has been no explicit solution for either reference point because of the transcendental nature of the equation needed to solve for them. Therefore, numerical or statistical approximations have been used for more than 30 years. Here I provide explicit formulae for calculating both S MSY and U MSY in terms of the productivity and density-dependent parameters of Ricker's model.

  4. Acclimation to heat during incubation: 3. Body weight, cloacal temperatures, and blood acid-base balance in broilers exposed to daily high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, S; Cabuk, M; Bruggeman, V; Babacanoglu, E; Buyse, J; Decuypere, E; Siegel, P B

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of parental age and heat acclimation during incubation on BW, cloacal temperature, and blood acid-base balance in fast-growing broilers exposed to daily cyclic high ambient temperatures from 21 to 42 d posthatch. Eggs obtained from 32- (younger), 42- (middle-aged), and 65-wk-old (older) breeders were divided into 2 groups. One group of eggs was incubated at the control incubation temperature (IT(CONT)) and the second group was heat acclimated at 38.5 degrees C for 6 h/d from d 10 to 18 of incubation (IT(HA)). Chicks were reared at standard brooding temperatures from d 1 to 21. From d 21 to 42, half of the broilers per incubation temperature and parental age were kept as controls (AT(CONT)) and the other half were exposed to daily cyclic heat treatment (AT(HIGH)) to impose a stress response. The reduction in BW at AT(HIGH) was more pronounced for progeny from older compared with younger parents. However, this reduction in BW was more or less abolished for broilers from eggs incubated at IT(HIGH), implying an increased tolerance to heat stress. Compared with IT(CONT,) IT(HA) reduced BW of broilers from 32- and 42-wk-old parents while having no effect on those from 65-wk-old parents when reared at AT(CONT). Higher blood pH, and lower partial pressure CO(2) and HCO(3)(-) at AT(HIGH) were associated with greater cloacal temperatures throughout the heat stress from d 21 to 42. Increases in cloacal temperature by AT(HIGH) were greater for IT(CONT) than for IT(HA) broilers. The AT(HIGH) and IT(HA) broilers had lesser blood partial pressure CO(2) concentrations than AT(CONT) and IT(CONT), respectively. Although at AT(HIGH), blood HCO(3)(-) was lower for broilers from all parental ages, it was more pronounced for those from 65-wk-old parents. It is concluded that these changes in blood acid-base balance reflected adaptive responses to heat stress, and incubating eggs at IT(HA) improved thermotolerance of fast

  5. The effects of welfare-enhancing system changes on the environmental impacts of broiler and egg production.

    PubMed

    Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Kyriazakis, I

    2014-02-01

    The environmental impacts of 2 alternative UK broiler production systems that aim to improve bird welfare (a lower stocking density indoor system and the same system combined with heat exchangers for ventilation air) were compared with the baseline standard indoor system of broiler production. Furthermore, the environmental impacts of egg production in the conventional battery cage system (banned in the European Union in 2012) and its replacement, the enriched colony cage system, were compared. All comparisons were based on data obtained from the UK poultry industry, and the life cycle assessment method from cradle to farm gate was applied in the analyses. The results show that the lower density system slightly increased the global warming potential (GWP) of broiler production (by 2%), compared with the standard indoor system, due to increased heating requirements. However, when combined with the heat exchanger, the GWP was actually reduced by 3% when compared with the standard system. Both alternative systems for broilers resulted in a reduction in the eutrophication potential (by up to 8%) and acidification potential (by up to 10%). The results also showed that the colony cage system had 8% lower primary energy use and 3% lower GWP than the baseline cage system, due to better energy use efficiency and slightly improved productivity. There were only minor differences in the eutrophication and acidification potentials between different egg production systems. The results suggest that welfare-friendly changes in chicken systems can be achieved without a compromise in their environmental impacts.

  6. Childhood Diseases - What Parents Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Childhood Diseases - What Parents Need to Know Past Issues / ... centers is continuing to improve the outlook for childhood diseases every day. Photo: iStock When the Eunice ...

  7. Characterization of broiler poultry production system in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Mbuza, Francis; Manishimwe, Rosine; Mahoro, Janvier; Simbankabo, Thomas; Nishimwe, Kizito

    2017-01-01

    A study was conducted on 37 randomly selected broiler poultry farmers in Rwanda to characterize the production system using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaires. The data were processed in SPSS and presented as means, percentages and ranges in tables and text. All respondents kept Cobb breed and young stock was mainly (73 %) imported from abroad. The majority of respondents were males (68 %) and most farmers had attended only primary level of education (40.5 %). Most of the farms were in the peri-urban (48.6 %) and urban (37.8 %) areas and hired male youth (62.2 %) mainly aged 19-35 years. The majority of respondents (68 %) kept less than 500 birds per batch. Recordkeeping was well practiced (91.9 %) and (62.6 %) had permanent poultry houses and all farmers used deep litter system. Purchased feedstuffs were reportedly (92 %) mixed at farm level as the main feed resource. Maize bran was reported (97.06 %) the main, basal feedstuff. The mortality rates of chick and growers were 12.3 and 9.4 %, respectively. The slaughter age was reportedly 60 days with an average dressing percentage of 75.67 %. The main challenges reported were scarcity and unaffordability of quality feeds (59.5 %), lack of market access (45 %) and lack of credit (21 %). The farmers had various views on improving broiler production in Rwanda ranging from establishing feed processing industries 62.2 %, improving marketing facilities 35.1 %, increasing availability of day-old chick and access credit 27 %, to intensification of farmer training 16.2 %.

  8. Performance of an animal-based test of thirst in commercial broiler chicken farms.

    PubMed

    Vanderhasselt, R F; Goethals, K; Buijs, S; Federici, J F; Sans, E C O; Molento, C F M; Duchateau, L; Tuyttens, F A M

    2014-06-01

    Animal-based measures of thirst are currently absent from animal welfare monitoring schemes due to the lack of a well-validated indicator applicable for on-farm use. In the present study, an on-farm test based on voluntary water consumption from an unfamiliar open drinker was validated in a (semi-)commercial setting. To investigate the effect of thirst on water consumption, we subjected 4 flocks of 1,500 broilers to either 0 or 12 h of water deprivation and subsequently measured the amount of water that small subgroups consumed after the deprivation period (first experiment). Broilers that were water deprived before the test drank more than control broilers (P < 0.001). In a second experiment, a similar test was performed using 20 commercial broiler flocks in Belgium and Brazil. After a pretreatment water consumption test, the birds were subjected to 0 or 6 h of water deprivation, and a posttreatment water consumption test was conducted. Only in Brazil, deprived birds drank significantly more than controls in the posttreatment water consumption test (P < 0.001). A tendency for a difference was found in Belgium (P = 0.083). Pre- and posttreatment water consumption was higher in Brazil than in Belgium (P < 0.001). Stocking density and temperature influenced, respectively, the pretreatment and the control's posttreatment water consumption in Brazil, but not in Belgium. These results indicate that the water consumption test is sufficiently sensitive to discriminate between control and 12 h deprived flocks, and in Brazil even between control and 6 h deprived birds. The location of the test within the house did not affect the amount of water consumed in either experiment, suggesting that this variable does not have to be standardized. However, the amount of water consumed by broilers able to drink freely for a long period depended on indoor climatic variables (in Brazil only) and possibly genotype. This suggests that these variables need to be considered when

  9. 26 CFR 1.1036-1 - Stock for stock of the same corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stock for stock of the same corporation. 1.1036...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1036-1 Stock for stock of..., of common stock for common stock, or of preferred stock for preferred stock, in the same...

  10. 26 CFR 1.1036-1 - Stock for stock of the same corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stock for stock of the same corporation. 1.1036...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1036-1 Stock for stock of..., of common stock for common stock, or of preferred stock for preferred stock, in the same...

  11. 26 CFR 1.1036-1 - Stock for stock of the same corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stock for stock of the same corporation. 1.1036...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1036-1 Stock for stock of..., of common stock for common stock, or of preferred stock for preferred stock, in the same...

  12. 26 CFR 1.1036-1 - Stock for stock of the same corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stock for stock of the same corporation. 1.1036...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1036-1 Stock for stock of..., of common stock for common stock, or of preferred stock for preferred stock, in the same...

  13. Occurrence and characterization of Salmonella from chicken nuggets, strips, and pelleted broiler feed.

    PubMed

    Bucher, O; Holley, R A; Ahmed, R; Tabor, H; Nadon, C; Ng, L K; D'Aoust, J Y

    2007-10-01

    Raw, frozen chicken nuggets and strips have been identified as a significant risk factor in contracting foodborne salmonellosis. Cases of salmonellosis as a result of consuming partly cooked chicken nuggets may be due in part to Salmonella strains originating in broiler feed. This study was undertaken to determine the occurrence and characterize the strains of Salmonella contaminating chicken nuggets, strips, and pelleted feeds, in an attempt to demonstrate whether the same Salmonella strains present in broiler feed could be isolated from raw, frozen chicken nuggets and strips available for human consumption. Salmonellae were recovered using the Health Canada MFHPB-20 method for the isolation and identification of Salmonella from foods. Strains were characterized by serotyping, phage typing, antimicrobial resistance typing (R-typing), and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Salmonellae were isolated from 25-g samples in 27% (n=92) of nugget and strip samples, 95% (n=20) of chicken nugget meat samples, and from 9% (n=111) of pelleted feed samples. Salmonella Heidelberg, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Orion were the most commonly isolated serovars from chicken nuggets and strips, nugget and strip meat, and pelleted broiler feeds, respectively. Salmonella Enteritidis phage type (PT) 13a with PFGE pattern SENXAI.0006 and R-type sensitive as well as Salmonella Enteritidis PT13a with PFGE pattern SENXAI.0068 and R-type sensitive were isolated from pelleted feed, and chicken nugget and strip meat in two separate instances. Data showed that Salmonella strains isolated from broiler feed were indistinguishable from strains isolated from packaged raw, frozen chicken nuggets and strips. However, results did not rule out the possibility that breeding stock or contamination during processing may have contributed to chicken meat contamination by Salmonella.

  14. Broiler litter ammonia emissions near sidewalls, feeders and waterers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ammonia (NH3) volatilized from broiler litter diminishes indoor air quality which can potentially decrease bird productivity. Emissions of NH3 exhausted from broiler houses pose environmental concerns for ecosystem biodiversity, aquatic nutrient enrichment and particulate formation in the atmospher...

  15. Introduction of quinolone resistant Escherichia coli to Swedish broiler population by imported breeding animals.

    PubMed

    Börjesson, Stefan; Guillard, Thomas; Landén, Annica; Bengtsson, Björn; Nilsson, Oskar

    2016-10-15

    During recent years a rapid increase of quinolone resistant Escherichia coli have been noted in the Swedish broiler population, despite the lack of a known selective pressure. The current study wanted to investigate if imported breeding birds could be a source for the quinolone resistant E. coli. The occurrence of quinolone resistant E. coli was investigated, using selective cultivation with nalidixic acid, in grand-parent birds on arrival to Sweden and their progeny. In addition, sampling in hatcheries and empty cleaned poultry houses was performed. Clonality of isolates was investigated using a 10-loci multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). To identify the genetic basis for the resistance isolates were also analysed for occurrence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants and characterization of chromosomal mutations. E. coli resistant to nalidixic acid occurred in grandparent birds imported to Sweden for breeding purposes. Four predominant MLVA types were identified in isolates from grandparent birds, parent birds and broilers. However, resistant E. coli with identical MLVA patterns were also present in hatcheries and poultry houses suggesting that the environment plays a role in the occurrence. Nalidixic acid resistance was due to a mutation in the gyrA gene and no PMQR could be identified. The occurrence of identical clones in all levels of the production pyramid points to that quinolone resistant E. coli can be introduced through imported breeding birds and spread by vertical transmission to all levels of the broiler production pyramid.

  16. Predicting stocking improvement in reproduction stands of Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    George R. Staebler

    1948-01-01

    Some cut or burned-over Douglas-fir areas restocked promptly and fully. Others do not and seemingly never will restock adequately without the help of artificial seeding or planting. On some areas widely scattered seedlings become established and grow; filling-in is by second generation trees from the seed of these scattered parents. On still other areas stocking...

  17. How To Stock a Home Library Inexpensively. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jane A.

    Having a home library benefits children and parents alike, by allowing immediate access to literature and reference information and by encouraging reading. The cost of stocking a home library can be prohibitive to forming a substantial collection. This book provides a guide to purchasing books at a discount, including suggestions on essential…

  18. Echocardiographic study of pulmonary hypertension syndrome in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Lemus, L A; Miller, M W; Jeffrey, J S; Odom, T W

    2000-01-01

    Echocardiography was used to study cardiovascular structure and function during the development of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS) in broiler chickens. Body weight-normalized right and left ventricular diameters at both end-diastole (RVDD, LVDD) and end-systole (RVDS, LVDS) were determined weekly in broilers reared under either normobaric (altitude, 96.7 m) or hypobaric conditions (simulated altitude, 2900 m) until 5 wk of age. Hypobaric-exposed broilers had larger RVDD at 3 and 4 wk of age and larger RVDS at 3, 4, and 5 wk of age. Hypobaric-exposed broilers also had larger LVDD at 2, 3, 4, and 5 wk of age and larger LVDS at 4 wk of age. Right (RVFS) and left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS) were smaller in hypobaric- vs. normobaric-exposed broilers at 3, 4, and 5 wk of age and at 4 wk of age, respectively. Among hypobaric-exposed birds, PHS-positive (+) broilers had larger RVDD and RVDS than PHS-negative (-) broilers on week 3 and on weeks 1 and 3 after hypobaric exposure, respectively. PHS-positive (+) broilers also had smaller RVFS on week 1 after hypobaric exposure. Electrocardiographic and post-mortem data indicated that PHS+ broilers also developed right ventricular hypertrophy when compared with PHS-negative (-) broilers. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that PHS develops as a result of pulmonary hypertension and cardiac overload and suggest that PHS+ broilers have a greater and more persistent reaction to hypoxia than PHS- broilers.

  19. Geo-pedological control of soil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks at the landscape scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barré, Pierre; Durand, Hermine; Chenu, Claire; Meunier, Patrick; Montagne, David; Castel, Géraldine; Billiou, Daniel; Cécillon, Lauric

    2015-04-01

    Geo-pedology, here defined as soil type (or Reference Soil Group) and parent material, can have a major impact on ecosystem (vegetation and soil) functioning. Geo-pedology can therefore deeply influence soil organic matter (SOM) stock. Nonetheless, the effect of geo-pedology on soil organic C (SOC) and N stocks has seldom been investigated. Indeed, factors known to influence SOM stocks such as land use and climate frequently co-vary with geo-pedology, so that testing the influence on SOM stocks of the factor "geo-pedology" alone is challenging. In this work, we studied SOM stocks of forest and cropland soils in a small landscape (17 km²) of the Paris basin (AgroParisTech domain, Thiverval-Grignon, France). We collected soil samples (0-30 cm) in 50 forest and cropland plots, located in five geo-pedological contexts: Luvisols developed on loess deposit, Cambisols developed on hard limestone, Cambisols developed on shelly limestone, Cambisols developed on chalk and Cambisols developed on calcareous clay deposits. We then determined SOM stocks (organic C and total N) and SOM distribution across different particle size fractions (coarse sand, fine sand and silt-clay). As expected, SOC stocks were much higher in forests (~ 83 tC ha-1) than in cultivated soils (~ 49 tC ha-1). Interestingly, Cambisols had higher SOC stocks than Luvisols (69 vs 56 tC ha-1) and the difference between SOC stocks in forest and cultivated soils was much higher for Cambisols compared to Luvisols. Within Cambisols, parent material did not influence SOC stocks but the interaction between parent material and land use was significant, indicating that the effect of land use on SOC stocks was modulated by parent material. Similar trends were observed for soil N stocks. Conversely, soil type and parent material did not control SOM distribution in soil size fractions, while forest soils showed a higher distribution of SOC and N in the sand-size fraction than cropland soils. Overall, our study evidenced

  20. Stockings for the Artists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goebel, Kim

    2009-01-01

    During each of the holiday seasons, the author tries to come up with a lesson that will incorporate art history and have a holiday theme. One recent winter-holiday season, the author was thumbing through a catalog and saw a picture of note cards that had famous artists' stockings hanging on a mantel. This triggered an idea for the author's…

  1. Stock Market Savvy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okula, Susan

    2003-01-01

    This issue of Keying In, the newsletter of the National Business Education Association, focuses upon teaching young adults how to develop both investment strategies and an understanding of the stock market. The first article, "Sound Investing Know-How: A Must for Today's Young Adults," describes how young adults can plan for their own…

  2. Stock Market Savvy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okula, Susan

    2003-01-01

    This issue of Keying In, the newsletter of the National Business Education Association, focuses upon teaching young adults how to develop both investment strategies and an understanding of the stock market. The first article, "Sound Investing Know-How: A Must for Today's Young Adults," describes how young adults can plan for their own…

  3. Focus on Compression Stockings

    MedlinePlus

    ... soap. Do not use Woolite™ detergent. Use warm water and wash by hand or in the gentle cycle in the washing machine. After rinsing the compression stocking completely, remove excess water by rolling it in a ... the dryer on the deli- cate cycle at a cool temperature. It may be convenient ...

  4. Comparable Stocks, Boundedly Rational Stock Markets and IPO Entry Rates

    PubMed Central

    Chok, Jay; Qian, Jifeng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examine how initial public offerings (IPO) entry rates are affected when stock markets are boundedly rational and IPO firms infer information from their counterparts in the market. We hypothesize a curvilinear relationship between the number of comparable stocks and initial public offerings (IPO) entry rates into the NASDAQ Stock Exchange. Furthermore, we argue that trading volume and changes in stock returns partially mediates the relationship between the number of comparable stocks and IPO entry rates. The statistical evidence provides strong support for the hypotheses. PMID:23690924

  5. Comparable stocks, boundedly rational stock markets and IPO entry rates.

    PubMed

    Chok, Jay; Qian, Jifeng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examine how initial public offerings (IPO) entry rates are affected when stock markets are boundedly rational and IPO firms infer information from their counterparts in the market. We hypothesize a curvilinear relationship between the number of comparable stocks and initial public offerings (IPO) entry rates into the NASDAQ Stock Exchange. Furthermore, we argue that trading volume and changes in stock returns partially mediates the relationship between the number of comparable stocks and IPO entry rates. The statistical evidence provides strong support for the hypotheses.

  6. Effect of Salmonella vaccination of breeder chickens on contamination of broiler chicken carcasses in integrated poultry operations.

    PubMed

    Dórea, Fernanda C; Cole, Dana J; Hofacre, Charles; Zamperini, Katherine; Mathis, Demetrius; Doyle, Michael P; Lee, Margie D; Maurer, John J

    2010-12-01

    While measures to control carcass contamination with Salmonella at the processing plant have been implemented with some success, on-farm interventions that reduce Salmonella prevalence in meat birds entering the processing plant have not translated well on a commercial scale. We determined the impact of Salmonella vaccination on commercial poultry operations by monitoring four vaccinated and four nonvaccinated breeder (parental) chicken flocks and comparing Salmonella prevalences in these flocks and their broiler, meat bird progeny. For one poultry company, their young breeders were vaccinated by using a live-attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine (Megan VAC-1) followed by a killed Salmonella bacterin consisting of S. enterica serovar Berta and S. enterica serovar Kentucky. The other participating poultry company did not vaccinate their breeders or broilers. The analysis revealed that vaccinated hens had a lower prevalence of Salmonella in the ceca (38.3% versus 64.2%; P < 0.001) and the reproductive tracts (14.22% versus 51.7%; P < 0.001). We also observed a lower Salmonella prevalence in broiler chicks (18.1% versus 33.5%; P < 0.001), acquired from vaccinated breeders, when placed at the broiler farms contracted with the poultry company. Broiler chicken farms populated with chicks from vaccinated breeders also tended to have fewer environmental samples containing Salmonella (14.4% versus 30.1%; P < 0.001). There was a lower Salmonella prevalence in broilers entering the processing plants (23.4% versus 33.5%; P < 0.001) for the poultry company that utilized this Salmonella vaccination program for its breeders. Investigation of other company-associated factors did not indicate that the difference between companies could be attributed to measures other than the vaccination program.

  7. Effect of Salmonella Vaccination of Breeder Chickens on Contamination of Broiler Chicken Carcasses in Integrated Poultry Operations ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Dórea, Fernanda C.; Cole, Dana J.; Hofacre, Charles; Zamperini, Katherine; Mathis, Demetrius; Doyle, Michael P.; Lee, Margie D.; Maurer, John J.

    2010-01-01

    While measures to control carcass contamination with Salmonella at the processing plant have been implemented with some success, on-farm interventions that reduce Salmonella prevalence in meat birds entering the processing plant have not translated well on a commercial scale. We determined the impact of Salmonella vaccination on commercial poultry operations by monitoring four vaccinated and four nonvaccinated breeder (parental) chicken flocks and comparing Salmonella prevalences in these flocks and their broiler, meat bird progeny. For one poultry company, their young breeders were vaccinated by using a live-attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine (Megan VAC-1) followed by a killed Salmonella bacterin consisting of S. enterica serovar Berta and S. enterica serovar Kentucky. The other participating poultry company did not vaccinate their breeders or broilers. The analysis revealed that vaccinated hens had a lower prevalence of Salmonella in the ceca (38.3% versus 64.2%; P < 0.001) and the reproductive tracts (14.22% versus 51.7%; P < 0.001). We also observed a lower Salmonella prevalence in broiler chicks (18.1% versus 33.5%; P < 0.001), acquired from vaccinated breeders, when placed at the broiler farms contracted with the poultry company. Broiler chicken farms populated with chicks from vaccinated breeders also tended to have fewer environmental samples containing Salmonella (14.4% versus 30.1%; P < 0.001). There was a lower Salmonella prevalence in broilers entering the processing plants (23.4% versus 33.5%; P < 0.001) for the poultry company that utilized this Salmonella vaccination program for its breeders. Investigation of other company-associated factors did not indicate that the difference between companies could be attributed to measures other than the vaccination program. PMID:20889797

  8. Effect of dietary nucleotide supplementation on performance and development of the gastrointestinal tract of broilers.

    PubMed

    Jung, B; Batal, A B

    2012-01-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary nucleotide supplementation on broiler performance, and physical and morphological development of the gastrointestinal tract. 2. Experiment 1: A total of 180 one-d-old male chicks were placed in battery brooders in 3 × 6 replicate pens containing 10 chicks each. Chicks were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments; a maize-soyabean meal based diet supplemented with 0, 0·25, and 0·50% Torula yeast RNA (as a source of nucleotides) from 0 to 16 d of age. 3. Experiment 2: A total of 1344 one-d-old male chicks were placed in floor pens and reared on recycled wood shavings (two flocks) under a high stocking density (0·068 m(2)/bird). Chicks were randomly assigned to one of the 4 dietary treatments (0, 0·25% Torula yeast RNA, 2% and 6% Nupro®) for the starter period (0 to 14 d of age) with 6 replicate pens containing 56 chicks each. All the birds were fed on the same common grower diet with no supplementation of nucleotides from 15 to 32 d of age. 4. Experiment 1: Supplementing the diets with up to 0·50% Torula yeast RNA did not affect broiler performance, or relative intestinal tract weight and length of broilers at any periods measured. 5. Experiment 2: From 0 to 14 d of age, broilers fed on the diets supplemented with 0·25% Torula yeast RNA and 2 and 6% Nupro® were significantly heavier and had improved feed conversion (feed:gain) ratios as compared with the birds fed on the control diet. Supplementing the starter diet only with 2% Nupro® supplementation significantly improved body weight (BW) gain as compared with the control diet over the entire experiment (0 to 32 d of age). Broilers fed on the diets supplemented with 2 and 6% Nupro® from 0 to 14 d of age had better feed conversion (feed:gain) ratios over the entire experiment (0 to 32 d of age) as compared with the birds fed on the control diet, even though the birds were only fed on the diets

  9. Feather corticosterone evaluated by ELISA in broilers: a potential tool to evaluate broiler welfare.

    PubMed

    Carbajal, A; Tallo-Parra, O; Sabes-Alsina, M; Mular, I; Lopez-Bejar, M

    2014-11-01

    The measure of corticosterone (CORT) in feathers has been recently recognized as a valid and easily obtainable measure of chronic glucocorticoids secretion in avian species. This measure provides meaningful interpretations of how individuals respond to environmental perturbations. The growing interest of the public toward animal-food production welfare shows the need for improving and expanding objective tools to evaluate this issue. The present study evaluates whether it is possible to detect CORT in broiler feathers, and thus, assess if it would be a useful measure to study broiler welfare. Twenty-two broilers were randomly selected from an intensive farm. Four to 6 dorsal feathers were collected from each bird, and sex, weight, and morphological aspects of feather status were recorded. We tested the feasibility for detecting CORT in broiler feathers by ELISA, which had never been done before, and an assay validation test was performed. No significant relationships were found between feather CORT concentrations and physiological variables such as sex, weight, and fault bars in broilers. To our knowledge, this is the first study that uses broiler feathers as a matrix that provides a retrospective record of their hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity. Results indicate that ELISA is a valid tool to detect feather CORT levels in broilers.

  10. Keratoglobus lesions in the eyes of rearing broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Landman, W J; Boeve, M H; Dwars, R M; Gruys, E

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the occurrence of keratoglobus lesions in a rearing flock of broiler breeder grandparent stock (female line), and its ophthalmological and ocular pathomorphological features. Keratoglobus is known as a recessive sex-linked (Z chromosome) trait in some lines of chickens. The first cases were encountered at 5 weeks of age. At the end of the rearing period a total of 1.5% of the flock was affected. In the flock and affected birds, no signs of any other disease were detected. Compared to eyes of healthy flock mates, the most prominent symptom was ocular protrusion due to bulging and thinning of the cornea, and increase in anterior chamber depth. In addition, there were mononuclear, granulocytic and plasma cell infiltrates in the iris and corpus ciliare, and mild to minimal exudate in the anterior chamber in all cases examined. Although the corneal epithelium and collagen bundles appeared normal on electron microscopy, the corneal endothelium showed some loss of cells and the keratocytes some degenerative changes. The cornea had not lost its transparency and did not show any signs of inflammation, whereas the conjunctiva contained mononuclear infiltrations. Other eye structures did not show any clinical or pathological changes. The pathogenesis of keratoglobus lesions in chickens is unknown. Although a hereditary origin seems probable, it is not known whether the inflammatory changes found caused the presented pathology or were secondary to the extreme corneal bulging.

  11. Stabilities of Stock States in Chinese Stock Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Gyuchang; Seo, Kyungho; Kim, Soo Yong; Kim, Kyungsik

    We study the evolution of the correlation-based clusters of stocks, which usually accord with business groups. By segmenting the whole time series into several overlapping segments, we trace the dynamical evolution of each business sectors in terms of the multi-factor model and especially treat the stock prices of Shanghai composites that are not incorporated into developed markets of the financial time stock exchange index.

  12. Relations between the occurrence of resistance to antimicrobial growth promoters among Enterococcus faecium isolated from broilers and broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Emborg, H-D; Andersen, J S; Seyfarth, A M; Andersen, S R; Boel, J; Wegener, H C

    2003-08-01

    From 1995 to 2001, Enterococcus faecium isolates were collected from broiler flocks at slaughter and broiler meat products at retail outlets and were tested for susceptibility to classes of antimicrobials used for growth promotion in broilers in Denmark, namely: evernimicin, glycopeptide, macrolide and streptogramin. By February 1998, all antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) were withdrawn from the Danish broiler production. The present study investigates, by logistic regression analyses, the (1) changes in the occurrence of AGP resistance among E. faecium from broilers and broiler meat from the fourth quarter of 1995 to the fourth quarter of 2001 and (2) relations between the occurrence of AGP resistance among E. faecium isolates from Danish broilers and AGP resistance among E. faecium isolates from the broiler meat of Danish and unknown origin collected in the same quarter within the year. In the present study, we showed that after the AGP withdrawal, a significant decline in resistance to avilamycin, erythromycin, vancomycin and virginiamycin was observed among E. faecium from broilers and broiler meat. In addition, a decline in the occurrence of AGP resistance among E. faecium from Danish broilers was associated with a decrease in the predicted probability of isolating an AGP-resistant E. faecium isolate from a randomly selected broiler meat product. In the analyses "relations between the occurrence of AGP resistance among E. faecium isolated from broilers and broiler meat collected in the same quarter" errors in the explanatory variable were expected. Therefore, a simulation study was performed to validate the results from logistic regression analyses. The results obtained by the two methods were similar.

  13. Suitability of Soybean Meal from Insect-Resistant Soybeans for Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Ortega, María A; Davis, Adam J; Boerma, H Roger; Parrott, Wayne A

    2016-03-23

    Benning(M) and Benning(MGH) are near-isogenic lines (NILs) of the soybean cultivar Benning, which contain insect-resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from the soybean accession PI 229358. Benning(M) contains QTL-M, which confers antibiosis and antixenosis. In addition to QTL-M, Benning(MGH) contains QTL-G, which confers antibiosis, and QTL-H, which confers antixenosis. Soybean meal was produced from Benning and the NILs. Nutritional composition, digestible amino acid content, and nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEN) were equivalent among soybean meals. A 21-day broiler feeding trial was carried out to determine if the QTLs affect soybean meal quality. Weight gain and feed-to-gain ratio were evaluated. No biologically significant differences were detected for broilers fed Benning, Benning(M), and Benning(MGH). This demonstrates that soybean meal produced from the insect-resistant NILs is equivalent to soybean meal produced from their non-insect-resistant parent cultivar for broiler weight gain.

  14. Unexpected consequences of genetic selection in broilers and turkeys: problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Hocking, P M

    2014-02-01

    1. Genetic theory leads to the expectation that unexpected consequences of genetic selection for production traits will inevitably occur and that these changes are likely to be undesirable. 2. Both artificial selection for production efficiency and "natural" selection for adaptation to the production environment result in selection sweeps that increase the frequencies of rare recessive alleles that have a negative effect on fitness. 3. Fitness is broadly defined as any trait that affects the ability to survive, reproduce and contribute to the next generation, such as musculoskeletal disease in growing broiler chickens and multiple ovulation in adult broiler parents. 4. Welfare concerns about the negative effects of genetic selection on bird welfare are sometimes exaggerated but are nevertheless real. Breeders have paid increasing attention to these traits over several decades and have demonstrated improvement in pedigree flocks. There is an urgent need to monitor changes in commercial flocks to ensure that genetic change is accompanied by improvements in that target population. 5. New technologies for trait measurement, whole genome selection and targeted genetic modification hold out the promise of efficient and rapid improvement of welfare traits in future breeding of broiler chickens and turkeys. The potential of targeted genetic modification for enhancing welfare traits is considerable, but the goal of achieving public acceptability for the progeny of transgenic poultry will be politically challenging.

  15. Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase- and Plasmid-Encoded Cephamycinase-Producing Enterobacteria in the Broiler Hatchery as a Potential Mode of Pseudo-Vertical Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Daehre, Katrin; Roesler, Uwe; Friese, Anika

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antimicrobial resistance through extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and transferable (plasmid-encoded) cephamycinases (pAmpCs) represents an increasing problem in human and veterinary medicine. The presence of ESBL-/pAmpC-producing commensal enterobacteria in farm animals, such as broiler chickens, is considered one possible source of food contamination and could therefore also be relevant for human colonization. Studies on transmission routes along the broiler production chain showed that 1-day-old hatchlings are already affected. In this study, ESBL-/pAmpC-positive broiler parent flocks and their corresponding eggs, as well as various environmental and air samples from the hatchery, were analyzed. The eggs were investigated concerning ESBL-/pAmpC-producing enterobacteria on the outer eggshell surface (before/after disinfection), the inner eggshell surface, and the egg content. Isolates were analyzed concerning their species, their phylogroup in the case of Escherichia coli strains, the respective resistance genes, and the phenotypical antibiotic resistance. Of the tested eggs, 0.9% (n = 560) were contaminated on their outer shell surface. Further analyses using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed a relationship of these strains to those isolated from the corresponding parent flocks, which demonstrates a pseudo-vertical transfer of ESBL-/pAmpC-producing enterobacteria into the hatchery. Resistant enterobacteria were also found in environmental samples from the hatchery, such as dust or surfaces which could pose as a possible contamination source for the hatchlings. All 1-day-old chicks tested negative directly after hatching. The results show a possible entry of ESBL-/pAmpC-producing enterobacteria from the parent flocks into the hatchery; however, the impact of the hatchery on colonization of the hatchlings seems to be low. IMPORTANCE ESBL-/pAmpC-producing enterobacteria occur frequently in broiler-fattening farms. Recent studies investigated

  16. Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase- and Plasmid-Encoded Cephamycinase-Producing Enterobacteria in the Broiler Hatchery as a Potential Mode of Pseudo-Vertical Transmission.

    PubMed

    Projahn, Michaela; Daehre, Katrin; Roesler, Uwe; Friese, Anika

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance through extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and transferable (plasmid-encoded) cephamycinases (pAmpCs) represents an increasing problem in human and veterinary medicine. The presence of ESBL-/pAmpC-producing commensal enterobacteria in farm animals, such as broiler chickens, is considered one possible source of food contamination and could therefore also be relevant for human colonization. Studies on transmission routes along the broiler production chain showed that 1-day-old hatchlings are already affected. In this study, ESBL-/pAmpC-positive broiler parent flocks and their corresponding eggs, as well as various environmental and air samples from the hatchery, were analyzed. The eggs were investigated concerning ESBL-/pAmpC-producing enterobacteria on the outer eggshell surface (before/after disinfection), the inner eggshell surface, and the egg content. Isolates were analyzed concerning their species, their phylogroup in the case of Escherichia coli strains, the respective resistance genes, and the phenotypical antibiotic resistance. Of the tested eggs, 0.9% (n = 560) were contaminated on their outer shell surface. Further analyses using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed a relationship of these strains to those isolated from the corresponding parent flocks, which demonstrates a pseudo-vertical transfer of ESBL-/pAmpC-producing enterobacteria into the hatchery. Resistant enterobacteria were also found in environmental samples from the hatchery, such as dust or surfaces which could pose as a possible contamination source for the hatchlings. All 1-day-old chicks tested negative directly after hatching. The results show a possible entry of ESBL-/pAmpC-producing enterobacteria from the parent flocks into the hatchery; however, the impact of the hatchery on colonization of the hatchlings seems to be low. ESBL-/pAmpC-producing enterobacteria occur frequently in broiler-fattening farms. Recent studies investigated the prevalence and

  17. Evolutionary model of stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaldasch, Joachim

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents an evolutionary economic model for the price evolution of stocks. Treating a stock market as a self-organized system governed by a fast purchase process and slow variations of demand and supply the model suggests that the short term price distribution has the form a logistic (Laplace) distribution. The long term return can be described by Laplace-Gaussian mixture distributions. The long term mean price evolution is governed by a Walrus equation, which can be transformed into a replicator equation. This allows quantifying the evolutionary price competition between stocks. The theory suggests that stock prices scaled by the price over all stocks can be used to investigate long-term trends in a Fisher-Pry plot. The price competition that follows from the model is illustrated by examining the empirical long-term price trends of two stocks.

  18. Effects of a diet containing genetically modified rice expressing the Cry1Ab/1Ac protein (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) on broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Zeyang; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Minhong; Feng, Jinghai; Xiong, Yandan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice expressing the Cry1Ab/1Ac protein on broiler chicken. The genetically modified (GM) Bt rice was compared with the corresponding non-GM rice regarding performance of feeding groups, their health status, relative organ weights, biochemical serum parameters and occurrence of Cry1Ab/1Ac gene fragments. One hundred and eighty day-old Arbor Acres female broilers with the same health condition were randomly allocated to the two treatments (6 replicate cages with 15 broilers in each cage per treatment). They received diets containing GM rice (GM group) or its parental non-GM rice (non-GM group) at 52-57% of the air-dried diet for 42 days. The results show that the transgenic rice had a similar nutrient composition as the non-GM rice and had no adverse effects on chicken growth, biochemical serum parameters and necropsy during the 42-day feeding period. In birds fed the GM rice, no transgenic gene fragments were detected in the samples of blood, liver, kidneys, spleen, jejunum, ileum, duodenum and muscle tissue. In conclusion, the results suggest that Bt rice expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac protein has no adverse effects on broiler chicken. Therefore, it can be considered as safe and used as feed source for broiler chicken.

  19. 76 FR 7236 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Stock Clearing Corporation of Philadelphia; Boston Stock Exchange...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Stock Clearing Corporation of Philadelphia; Boston Stock Exchange... is hereby given that on January 19, 2011, Stock Clearing Corporation of Philadelphia, Inc. (``SCCP'') and Boston Stock Exchange Clearing Corporation (``BSECC'') filed with the Securities and...

  20. Making and diluting stock solutions.

    PubMed

    Adams, Dany Spencer

    2008-05-01

    INTRODUCTIONFor particular experiments, certain solutions are used frequently and are therefore made up in large quantities. To minimize the volume actually occupied by these solutions, they are often made at a higher concentration than that which will be used. These concentrated solutions are referred to as stock solutions. Stock solutions save time in addition to space; when you need a solution of a given concentration, you need only dilute the stock rather than starting from scratch. This article describes the steps necessary to make and dilute stock solutions appropriately.

  1. 12 CFR 925.20 - Stock purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stock purchase. 925.20 Section 925.20 Banks and... BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.20 Stock purchase. (a) Minimum stock purchase. Each member shall purchase stock in the Bank in which it is a member in an amount equal to the greater of: (1) $500; (2) 1...

  2. 12 CFR 925.23 - Excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess stock. 925.23 Section 925.23 Banks and... BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.23 Excess stock. (a) Sale of excess stock. Subject to the restriction in paragraph (b) of this section, a member may purchase excess stock as long as the purchase is approved by...

  3. 12 CFR 1263.20 - Stock purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Requirements § 1263.20 Stock purchase. (a) Minimum stock purchase. Each member shall purchase stock in the Bank... outstanding advances. (b) Timing of minimum stock purchase. (1) Within 60 calendar days after an institution is approved for membership in a Bank, the institution shall purchase its minimum stock requirement as...

  4. 12 CFR 1263.20 - Stock purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Requirements § 1263.20 Stock purchase. (a) Minimum stock purchase. Each member shall purchase stock in the Bank... outstanding advances. (b) Timing of minimum stock purchase. (1) Within 60 calendar days after an institution is approved for membership in a Bank, the institution shall purchase its minimum stock requirement as...

  5. 12 CFR 1263.20 - Stock purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Requirements § 1263.20 Stock purchase. (a) Minimum stock purchase. Each member shall purchase stock in the Bank... outstanding advances. (b) Timing of minimum stock purchase. (1) Within 60 calendar days after an institution is approved for membership in a Bank, the institution shall purchase its minimum stock requirement as...

  6. 12 CFR 1263.20 - Stock purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stock purchase. 1263.20 Section 1263.20 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 1263.20 Stock purchase. (a) Minimum stock purchase. Each member shall purchase stock in the...

  7. Parent-to-Parent Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Sue; Doyle, Phyllis

    1984-01-01

    A parent-to-parent support program was begun to provide early support for parents of handicapped children. New parents are carefully matched with helping parents, who have been trained in communication, resource finding, and referral making. (CL)

  8. Prevalence, quantitative load, and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. from broiler ceca and broiler skin samples in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chokboonmongkol, C; Patchanee, P; Gölz, G; Zessin, K-H; Alter, T

    2013-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in broiler flocks by testing cecal contents at slaughter and to detect and quantify Campylobacter on broiler carcass skin samples of the corresponding slaughter batches, to determine antimicrobial resistance patterns of the Campylobacter isolates, and to genotype selected Campylobacter jejuni isolates using multilocus sequence typing analysis. Ninety-eight broiler flocks were included in the study. Intact ceca were randomly taken at the time of evisceration throughout a slaughter batch to detect Campylobacter spp. at the broiler flock level and one whole carcass per slaughter batch was taken for the detection of Campylobacter spp. on broiler skin. The prevalences of Campylobacter spp. in broiler ceca and broiler skin samples were 11.2% (11/98) and 51% (50/98), respectively. Even though most Campylobacter-positive broiler skin samples were contaminated with only up to 230 most probable number per gram, a substantial share (13.3%) showed very high Campylobacter numbers on the broiler skin samples (most probable number = ∞; lower confidence limit T(0) 580/g). From 32 C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates tested, the highest antimicrobial resistance rates were found for ciprofloxacin (81.2%), followed by tetracycline (40.6%), ampicillin (31.2%), and erythromycin (9.4%). All tested strains were sensitive to gentamicin. By multilocus sequence typing analysis, a total of 9 different sequence types were identified among 16 C. jejuni isolates. Campylobacter jejuni isolated from cecal content and carcass skin of the same farm or slaughter batch showed corresponding allelic profiles. Our data suggest that intense cross-contamination during the slaughter process led to a strong increase of Campylobacter prevalence on broiler skin compared with the prevalence in broiler ceca. To reduce Campylobacter prevalences on broiler skin, on-farm biosecurity measures need to be accompanied by control measures

  9. 17 CFR 240.16a-9 - Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stock splits, stock dividends... Government Securities Dealers § 240.16a-9 Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights. The following... held as a result of a stock split or stock dividend applying equally to all securities of a...

  10. 17 CFR 240.16a-9 - Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stock splits, stock dividends... Government Securities Dealers § 240.16a-9 Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights. The following... held as a result of a stock split or stock dividend applying equally to all securities of a...

  11. 17 CFR 240.16a-9 - Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stock splits, stock dividends... Government Securities Dealers § 240.16a-9 Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights. The following... held as a result of a stock split or stock dividend applying equally to all securities of a...

  12. 17 CFR 240.16a-9 - Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stock splits, stock dividends... Government Securities Dealers § 240.16a-9 Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights. The following... held as a result of a stock split or stock dividend applying equally to all securities of a...

  13. 17 CFR 240.16a-9 - Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stock splits, stock dividends... Government Securities Dealers § 240.16a-9 Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights. The following... held as a result of a stock split or stock dividend applying equally to all securities of a...

  14. Stochastic dynamical model for stock-stock correlations.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wen-Jong; Hu, Chin-Kun; Amritkar, Ravindra E

    2004-08-01

    We propose a model of coupled random walks for stock-stock correlations. The walks in the model are coupled via a mechanism that the displacement (price change) of each walk (stock) is activated by the price gradients over some underlying network. We assume that the network has two underlying structures, describing the correlations among the stocks of the whole market and among those within individual groups, respectively, each with a coupling parameter controlling the degree of correlation. The model provides the interpretation of the features displayed in the distribution of the eigenvalues for the correlation matrix of real market on the level of time sequences. We verify that such modeling indeed gives good fitting for the market data of US stocks.

  15. Evaluation of ammonia emissions from broiler litter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ammonia emissions from poultry litter results in air pollution and can cause high levels of ammonia in poultry houses, which negatively impacts bird performance. The objectives of this study were to: (1) conduct a nitrogen (N) mass balance in broiler houses by measuring the N inputs (bedding, chick...

  16. Broiler house litter sampling: the final frontier

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Today, the sustainability of broiler operations reaches beyond the need for litter nutrient management plans that came to the forefront of the industry’s attention in the last fifteen years. Thorough characterization of litter within houses provides the basis for emission models to benefit growers,...

  17. Broiler Contamination and Human Campylobacteriosis in Iceland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To examine whether there is a relationship between the degree of Campylobacter contamination observed in product lots of retail Icelandic broiler chicken carcasses and human disease, isolates from individual product lots were genetically matched (using flaA Short Variable Region) to isolates from ca...

  18. Effects of broiler feed medications on Salmonella

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This pilot analysis was conducted with data from 52 conventional grow-out broiler flocks in a prospective field observational study in the Southeastern U.S. from 2003-2006. Each flock was sampled for Salmonella one week before the end of grow-out, upon arrival at the processing plant, and during pr...

  19. Use of NGS in Commercial Broiler Production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With the development and evolution of next generation sequencing technologies, these powerful tools can be applied to a variety of aspect of commercial broiler production, especially in respect to food safety issues. NGS technologies allow for a deeper understanding of the complex microbiota inhere...

  20. Dietary balanced protein in broiler chickens. 2. An economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Eits, R M; Giesen, G W J; Kwakkel, R P; Verstegen, M W A; Den Hartog, L A

    2005-06-01

    An economic model was developed that calculates economic optimal dietary balanced protein (DBP) contents for broiler chickens, based on performance input and prices of meat and feed. Input on broiler responses to DBP content (growth rate, feed conversion, carcase yield and breast meat yield) was obtained from the model described by Eits et al. (2005). Changes in broiler age, price of protein-rich raw materials and large changes (40%) in meat prices resulted in economic relevant differences in DBP content for maximum profit. Effects of changes in sex or feed price on DBP content for maximum profit were negligible. Formulating diets for maximum profit instead of maximum broiler performance can strongly increase the profitability of a broiler production enterprise. DBP content for maximum profitability depends on how the broilers are marketed; as whole birds, carcase or portions.

  1. [Use of elastic compression stockings].

    PubMed

    Kallestrup, Lisbeth; Søgaard, Tine; Schjødt, Inge; Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2014-08-04

    Post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) is caused by venous insufficiency and is a frequent complication of deep venous thrombosis. Patients with PTS have reduced quality of life and an increased risk of recurrent deep venous thrombosis. Importantly, the risk of PTS is halved by the use of elastic compression stockings. This review outlines important practical aspects related to correct clinical use of these stockings.

  2. Capital Structure and Stock Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Ivo

    2004-01-01

    U.S. corporations do not issue and repurchase debt and equity to counteract the mechanistic effects of stock returns on their debt-equity ratios. Thus over one- to five-year horizons, stock returns can explain about 40 percent of debt ratio dynamics. Although corporate net issuing activity is lively and although it can explain 60 percent of debt…

  3. Scaling analysis of stock markets.

    PubMed

    Bu, Luping; Shang, Pengjian

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we apply the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), local scaling detrended fluctuation analysis (LSDFA), and detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) to investigate correlations of several stock markets. DFA method is for the detection of long-range correlations used in time series. LSDFA method is to show more local properties by using local scale exponents. DCCA method is a developed method to quantify the cross-correlation of two non-stationary time series. We report the results of auto-correlation and cross-correlation behaviors in three western countries and three Chinese stock markets in periods 2004-2006 (before the global financial crisis), 2007-2009 (during the global financial crisis), and 2010-2012 (after the global financial crisis) by using DFA, LSDFA, and DCCA method. The findings are that correlations of stocks are influenced by the economic systems of different countries and the financial crisis. The results indicate that there are stronger auto-correlations in Chinese stocks than western stocks in any period and stronger auto-correlations after the global financial crisis for every stock except Shen Cheng; The LSDFA shows more comprehensive and detailed features than traditional DFA method and the integration of China and the world in economy after the global financial crisis; When it turns to cross-correlations, it shows different properties for six stock markets, while for three Chinese stocks, it reaches the weakest cross-correlations during the global financial crisis.

  4. Scaling analysis of stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Luping; Shang, Pengjian

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we apply the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), local scaling detrended fluctuation analysis (LSDFA), and detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) to investigate correlations of several stock markets. DFA method is for the detection of long-range correlations used in time series. LSDFA method is to show more local properties by using local scale exponents. DCCA method is a developed method to quantify the cross-correlation of two non-stationary time series. We report the results of auto-correlation and cross-correlation behaviors in three western countries and three Chinese stock markets in periods 2004-2006 (before the global financial crisis), 2007-2009 (during the global financial crisis), and 2010-2012 (after the global financial crisis) by using DFA, LSDFA, and DCCA method. The findings are that correlations of stocks are influenced by the economic systems of different countries and the financial crisis. The results indicate that there are stronger auto-correlations in Chinese stocks than western stocks in any period and stronger auto-correlations after the global financial crisis for every stock except Shen Cheng; The LSDFA shows more comprehensive and detailed features than traditional DFA method and the integration of China and the world in economy after the global financial crisis; When it turns to cross-correlations, it shows different properties for six stock markets, while for three Chinese stocks, it reaches the weakest cross-correlations during the global financial crisis.

  5. A quantitative risk assessment of the public health impact of the Finnish Salmonella control program for broilers.

    PubMed

    Maijala, R; Ranta, J; Seuna, E; Pelkonen, S; Johansson, T

    2005-06-25

    In order to study the public health effects of the Finnish Salmonella control program (FSCP), a quantitative risk assessment model of Salmonella from slaughtered broiler flocks to consumers was developed. Based on the model, approximately 0.21% of domestically produced broiler meat mass was contaminated with Salmonella (95% probability interval 0.05-0.48%). This model was combined to the model on primary production of broilers. By this way, the effect of eliminating breeder flocks from production which have tested positive for Salmonella and heat-treating the meat of detected positive broiler flocks on public health could be simulated. Based on the whole model, if detected positive breeder flocks were not removed this would result in 1.0-2.5 more reported human cases compared to the expected number of cases under current FSCP (95% predictive interval). Without heat treatment of meat the increase would be 2.9-5.4-fold and without both interventions 3.8-9.0-fold. In scenarios with one grandparent or five parent flocks infected, the combined effect of these two interventions was 9.3-25.8-fold and 4.9-11.7-fold compared to the baseline level under each scenario, respectively. The scenario analyses suggest that with a higher infection level, inclusion of both interventions will be more effective than either of the interventions alone. Replacement of half of the current retail broiler meat by meat with 20-40% contamination could result in 33-93 times more human cases compared to the expected value under current situations. On the basis of the model, the interventions applied in FSCP clearly protect the public health.

  6. Epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. at two Dutch broiler farms.

    PubMed

    Jacobs-Reitsma, W F; van de Giessen, A W; Bolder, N M; Mulder, R W

    1995-06-01

    Broiler flocks on two Dutch poultry farms were screened weekly for the presence of campylobacter in fresh caecal droppings during eight consecutive production cycles. Hatchery and fresh litter samples were taken at the start of each new cycle. Water, feed, insects, and faeces of domestic animals, present on the farms were also included in the sampling. Penner serotyping of isolates was used to identify epidemiological factors that contribute to campylobacter colonization in the broiler flocks. Generally, broiler flocks became colonized with campylobacter at about 3-4 weeks of age with isolation percentages of 100%, and stayed colonized up to slaughter. A similar pattern of serotypes was found within the various broiler houses on one farm during one production cycle. New flocks generally showed also a new pattern of serotypes. Most serotypes isolated from the laying hens, pigs, sheep and cattle were different from those isolated from the broilers at the same time. Campylobacter serotypes from darkling beetles inside the broiler houses were identical to the ones isolated from the broilers. No campylobacter was isolated from any of the hatchery, water, feed or fresh litter samples. Conclusive evidence of transmission routes was not found, but results certainly point towards horizontal transmission from the environment. Horizontal transmission from one broiler flock to the next one via a persistent contamination within the broiler house, as well as vertical transmission from breeder flocks via the hatchery to progeny, did not seem to be very likely.

  7. Distribution characteristics of stock market liquidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jiawen; Chen, Langnan; Liu, Hao

    2013-12-01

    We examine the distribution characteristics of stock market liquidity by employing the generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) model and three-minute frequency data from Chinese stock markets. We find that the BCPE distribution within the GAMLSS framework fits the distributions of stock market liquidity well with the diagnosis test. We also find that the stock market index exhibits a significant impact on the distributions of stock market liquidity. The stock market liquidity usually exhibits a positive skewness, but a normal distribution at a low level of stock market index and a high-peak and fat-tail shape at a high level of stock market index.

  8. Basics for Parents: Parent to Parent Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelli, Betsy

    This information brief describes the Parent to Parent Program, which provides information and one-to-one emotional support to parents of children who have special needs. In the program, trained and experienced parents are carefully matched in one-to-one relationships with parents who are new to the program. The matches are based upon similarities…

  9. Metal stocks and sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, R. B.; Bertram, M.; Graedel, T. E.

    2006-01-01

    The relative proportions of metal residing in ore in the lithosphere, in use in products providing services, and in waste deposits measure our progress from exclusive use of virgin ore toward full dependence on sustained use of recycled metal. In the U.S. at present, the copper contents of these three repositories are roughly equivalent, but metal in service continues to increase. Providing today's developed-country level of services for copper worldwide (as well as for zinc and, perhaps, platinum) would appear to require conversion of essentially all of the ore in the lithosphere to stock-in-use plus near-complete recycling of the metals from that point forward. PMID:16432205

  10. Comparison of serum biochemical profiles of male broilers with female broilers and White Leghorn chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Bowes, V A; Julian, R J; Stirtzinger, T

    1989-01-01

    Male broiler chickens were compared to female broiler chickens and male White Leghorns with respect to a 15-parameter serum biochemical profile at 9, 20, 30 and 42 days of age in order to determine which, if any, of the parameters tested might be useful in the identification of birds susceptible to sudden death syndrome. In comparison to female broilers, male broilers had significantly lower (p less than 0.01) total protein levels at 20 days of age and significantly higher (p less than 0.01) cholesterol levels at 30 days of age. Compared to male White Leghorns, in which sudden death syndrome has not been reported, male broilers had significantly lower (p less than 0.01) levels of cholesterol and creatinine at nine days of age, total protein at 9 and 20 days of age and albumin at 20 days of age and significantly higher (p less than 0.01) levels of potassium at nine days, uric acid at 9, 20 and 30 days, lactate dehydrogenase at 20, 30 and 42 days and cholesterol at 30 days of age. PMID:2914228

  11. Experimental toxoplasmosis in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Kaneto, C N; Costa, A J; Paulillo, A C; Moraes, F R; Murakami, T O; Meireles, M V

    1997-05-01

    To evaluate chicken toxoplasmosis both as an economic and a public health subject, 84 broiler chicks of a commercial strain, 30 days old, were distributed into seven groups of 12 birds (three replications of four chicks) experimentally infected with three developing T. gondii stages of the P strain as follows: tachyzoites, intravenous (two groups: 5.0 x 10(5) and 5.0 x 10(6)), cysts, per os (two groups: 1.0 x 10(2) and 1.0 x 10(3)) and oocysts, per os (three groups: 5.0 x 10(2), 5.0 x 10(3) and 5.0 x 10(4)). Twelve chicks received only a placebo (control group). During the next 30 days the following parameters were estimated: productivity (weight gain and feed conversion), clinical signs, including rectal temperature and parasitemia (bioassay). No clinical signs suggesting toxoplasmosis were seen and no statistical differences on productivity standards were found in comparison between inoculated and control chicks. However, fowls inoculated with tachyzoites and oocysts occasionally showed hyperthermia. Some haematological changes were detected in fowls inoculated with T. gondii. Anatomo-histopathological changes were not observed. From 14 parasitemias detected, 35.7% appeared on the 5th day after inoculation and 57.1% of them resulted from oocysts inoculation. After 30-35 days all birds were slaughtered: fragments from 12 organs or tissues from each of them were subjected to artificial peptic digestion and after that injected into T. gondii antibody-free mice (IIFR). T. gondii was detected in brain (12), pancreas (five), spleen (five), retina (five), kidney (two), heart (four), proventriculus (three), liver (two), intestine (two), lung (one), and skeletal muscle (one). Similar to observations with parasitemia, from 42 T. gondii isolations, 59.5% came from chicks which had received oocysts. It can thus be inferred that the developing form, expelled by cats, is the most important for T. gondii chicken infection and that brain is the most infected organ in birds

  12. Silicon in broiler drinking water promotes bone development in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sgavioli, S; de Faria Domingues, C H; Castiblanco, D M C; Praes, M F F M; Andrade-Garcia, Giuliana M; Santos, E T; Baraldi-Artoni, S M; Garcia, R G; Junqueira, O M

    2016-10-01

    Skeletal abnormalities, bone deformities and fractures cause significant losses in broiler production during both rearing and processing. Silicon is an essential mineral for bone and connective tissue synthesis and for calcium absorption during the early stages of bone formation. Performance was not affected by the addition of silicon. However, broilers receiving silicon showed a significant increase of phosphorus, zinc, copper, manganese and ash in the tibia. In conclusion, broiler performance was not impaired by adding the tested silicon product to the drinking water. In addition, bone development improved, as demonstrated by higher mineral and ash content. Further studies are required to determine the optimal concentration of silicon, including heat stress simulations, to better understand the effects of silicon on bone development.

  13. 12 CFR 725.5 - Capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital stock. 725.5 Section 725.5 Banks and... ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.5 Capital stock. (a) The capital stock of the Facility is divided... or hypothecated except to the Facility. (b) The capital stock subscriptions provided for in §§...

  14. 12 CFR 1263.23 - Excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excess stock. 1263.23 Section 1263.23 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 1263.23 Excess stock. (a) Sale of excess stock. Subject to the restriction in paragraph (b) of...

  15. 12 CFR 1263.23 - Excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excess stock. 1263.23 Section 1263.23 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 1263.23 Excess stock. (a) Sale of excess stock. Subject to the restriction in paragraph (b) of...

  16. 12 CFR 725.5 - Capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Capital stock. 725.5 Section 725.5 Banks and... ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.5 Capital stock. (a) The capital stock of the Facility is divided... or hypothecated except to the Facility. (b) The capital stock subscriptions provided for in §§...

  17. 12 CFR 1263.23 - Excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excess stock. 1263.23 Section 1263.23 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 1263.23 Excess stock. (a) Sale of excess stock. Subject to the restriction in paragraph (b)...

  18. 12 CFR 725.5 - Capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Capital stock. 725.5 Section 725.5 Banks and... ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.5 Capital stock. (a) The capital stock of the Facility is divided... or hypothecated except to the Facility. (b) The capital stock subscriptions provided for in §§...

  19. 12 CFR 725.5 - Capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Capital stock. 725.5 Section 725.5 Banks and... ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.5 Capital stock. (a) The capital stock of the Facility is divided... or hypothecated except to the Facility. (b) The capital stock subscriptions provided for in §§...

  20. 12 CFR 725.5 - Capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Capital stock. 725.5 Section 725.5 Banks and... ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.5 Capital stock. (a) The capital stock of the Facility is divided... or hypothecated except to the Facility. (b) The capital stock subscriptions provided for in §§...

  1. 12 CFR 1263.23 - Excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excess stock. 1263.23 Section 1263.23 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 1263.23 Excess stock. (a) Sale of excess stock. Subject to the restriction in paragraph (b) of...

  2. Effect of dietary antimicrobials on immune status in broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary antimicrobials (anticoccidials plus antibiotic growth promoters) on the development of post-hatch immune systems in commercial broiler chickens. One hundred and five day-old broiler chicks were raised on the used litter and provi...

  3. Assessing Thermal Comfort of Broiler Chicks During Brooding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proper management of the thermal environment during brooding is essential to performance in broilers. Brooding programs used in the broiler industry are prescriptive, but little information exists about thermal comfort in chicks. Identifying thermal conditions that chicks prefer would allow for be...

  4. Colonization of broilers by Campylobacter jejuni internalized within Acanthamoeba castellanii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We present the first report that Campylobacter jejuni, internalized within Acanthamoeba castellanii, colonized broilers. After 1, 3, 7 and 14 days post challenge none of the broilers challenged with negative controls were colonized, but were with internalized C. jejuni. The biology of protozoa-Cam...

  5. Lighting during grow-out and Salmonella in broiler flocks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lighting is used during broiler grow-out to modify bird behavior to reach the goals of production. The protocols for lighting intensity vary. In a field project, we evaluated if the lighting protocol impacts the burden of Salmonella in grow-out broiler flocks. Conventional grow-out flocks reared ...

  6. Exudate protein composition and meat tenderness of broiler breast fillets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The relationship between meat tenderness and the protein composition of muscle exudates collected from broiler breast fillets deboned at different postmortem times was investigated. A total of 85 broilers were processed and breast fillets from each carcass were deboned at either 2 h (early-deboned,...

  7. Serotyping of Salmonella Isolates from Broiler Vertical Integrations in Colombia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study analyzed 106 Salmonella isolates from different points in broiler vertical integrations of two important poultry areas of Colombia. It was possible to identify the presence of Salmonella in five categories: breeder farm (17.9%), hatchery (6.6 %), broiler farm (38.7 %), processing plant (9...

  8. Soil Organic Carbon Stocks in Depositional Landscapes of Bavaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriegs, Stefanie; Schwindt, Daniel; Völkel, Jörg; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2016-04-01

    Erosion leads to redistribution and accumulation of soil organic matter (SOM) within agricultural landscapes. These fluvic and colluvic deposits are characterized by a highly diverse vertical structure and can contain high amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC) over the whole soil profile. Depositional landscapes are therefore not only productive sites for agricultural use but also influence carbon dynamics which is of great interest with regard on the recent climate change debate. The aim of our study is to elucidate the spatial distribution of organic carbon stocks, as well as its depth function and the role of these landscapes as a reservoir for SOM. Therefore we compare two representative depositional landscapes in Bavaria composed of different parent materials (carbonate vs. granitic). We hypothesize that the soils associated with different depositional processes (fluvial vs. colluvial) differ in SOC contents and stocks, also because of different hydromorphic regimes in fluvic versus colluvic soil profiles. Sampling sites are located in the Alpine Foreland (quaternary moraines with carbonatic parent material) and the foothills of the Bavarian Forest (Granite with Loess) with the main soil types Fluvisols, Gleysols and Luvisols. At both sites we sampled twelve soil profiles up to 150 cm depth, six in the floodplain and six along a vertical slope transect. We took undisturbed soil samples from each horizon and analyzed them for bulk density, total Carbon (OC and IC) and total Nitrogen (N) concentrations. This approach allows to calculate total OC contents and OC stocks and to investigate vertical and horizontal distribution of OC stocks. It will also reveal differences in OC stocks due to the location of the soil profile in fluvic or colluvic deposition scenarios.

  9. Stock Market Index Computer Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Eric

    1986-01-01

    Provides two computer programs, written in BASIC, to calculate average stock market price levels. The programs allow students to work directly from the raw price data that appear daily in the financial news. Teaching suggestions are provided. (JDH)

  10. Stock Market Index Computer Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Eric

    1986-01-01

    Provides two computer programs, written in BASIC, to calculate average stock market price levels. The programs allow students to work directly from the raw price data that appear daily in the financial news. Teaching suggestions are provided. (JDH)

  11. Evaluation of nutrient specifications for broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Wilson, H R; Harms, R H

    1984-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if previously suggested nutrient requirements of broiler breeders (23 g protein, 850 mg sulfur amino acids, 4.5 g calcium, and 750 mg phosphorus/bird/day) are in excess and could be reduced during the laying period. In Experiment 1, Cobb color-sex broiler breeders were fed daily nutrient allowances that were 100.0, 96.3, 92.5, 89.4, and 86.6% of the suggested requirements. In Experiment 2, Cobb feather-sex breeders were fed daily allowances that were 92.5, 89.4, 86.6, 83.4, and 80.9% of the suggested requirements. Birds on all diets were fed the same energy level; however, energy varied with season to maintain body weight. Egg production, fertility, hatchability, egg weight, and shell quality were not significantly affected by the reductions in nutrient intake in either experiment. The diet with the lowest nutrient level (80.9% of the suggested requirement) was adequate, indicating a considerable margin of safety for the stated requirements. Body weight was quite variable but tended to decrease with nutrient restriction. Weights of broilers hatched from treated breeders were not significantly affected at 49 days of age by the breeder dietary treatments. These results indicate that broiler breeder diets formulated to meet presently suggested requirements have a large margin of safety and a reduction of specifications by approximately 10% is suggested. The revised daily intakes recommended are: 20.6 g protein, 754 mg sulfur amino acids, 400 mg methionine, 938 mg lysine, 1379 mg arginine, 256 mg tryptophan, 4.07 g calcium, 683 mg total phosphorus, and 170 mg sodium.

  12. Persistent collective trend in stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogh, Emeric; Simonsen, Ingve; Nagy, Bálint Zs.; Néda, Zoltán

    2010-12-01

    Empirical evidence is given for a significant difference in the collective trend of the share prices during the stock index rising and falling periods. Data on the Dow Jones Industrial Average and its stock components are studied between 1991 and 2008. Pearson-type correlations are computed between the stocks and averaged over stock pairs and time. The results indicate a general trend: whenever the stock index is falling the stock prices are changing in a more correlated manner than in case the stock index is ascending. A thorough statistical analysis of the data shows that the observed difference is significant, suggesting a constant fear factor among stockholders.

  13. 12 CFR 221.121 - Extension of credit in certain stock option and stock purchase plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extension of credit in certain stock option and... Extension of credit in certain stock option and stock purchase plans. Questions have been raised as to whether certain stock option and stock purchase plans involve extensions of credit subject to this...

  14. [Helminths in broiler geese fattened in runs].

    PubMed

    Busta, J

    1980-12-01

    The occurrence of helminths in broiler geese was studied in the rapid-fattening technological system in 1974-1978. The birds were kept on grassy run adjacent to water. Helminthological examination was performed in 1065 broilers and the following 16 helminth species were revealed: Notocotylus attenuatus (0.3%), Apatemon gracilis (1.5%), Cotyrulus cornutus (0.1%), Hypoderaeum conoideum (0.1%), Retinometra longicirrosa (3.2%), Drepanidotaenia lanceolata (3.1%), Sobolevicanthus fragilis (0.7%), Diorchis stefanskii (0.8%), Microsomacanthus microsoma (0.9%), Dilepis undula (0.1%), Capillaria caudinflata (0.2%), Capillaria obsignata (7.7%), Amidostomum anseris (3.7%), Trichostrongylus tenuis (0.2%), Ganguleterakis dispar (16.8%), and Heterakis gallinarum (0.4%). Seven of these species were found for the first time in geese in Czechoslovakia (A. gracilis, C. cornutus, H. conoideum, M. microsoma, D. undula, C. caudinflata, and H. gallinarum). The species Dilepis undula has not been recorded in this host species ever before. The extensity and intensity of the invasions, the frequency of monoinvasions and mixed invasions, and the relation of invasion extensity and intensity to the age of the broilers examined were evaluated during the study.

  15. Total radioactive residues and residues of [36Cl]chlorate in market size broilers.

    PubMed

    Smith, David J; Byrd, James A; Anderson, Robin C

    2007-07-11

    The oral administration of chlorate salts reduces the numbers of Gram-negative pathogens in gastrointestinal tracts of live food animals. Although the efficacy of chlorate salts has been demonstrated repeatedly, the technology cannot be introduced into commercial settings without first demonstrating that chlorate residues, and metabolites of chlorate remaining in edible tissues, represent a negligible risk to consumers. Typically, a first step in this risk assessment is to quantify the parent compound and to identify metabolites remaining in edible tissues of animals treated with the experimental compound. The objectives of this study were to determine the pathway(s) of chlorate metabolism in market broilers and to determine the magnitude of chlorate residues remaining in edible tissues. To this end, 12 broilers (6 weeks; 2.70+/-0.34 kg) were randomly assigned to three treatments of 7.4, 15.0, and 22.5 mM sodium [36Cl]chlorate dissolved in drinking water (n=4 broilers per treatment). Exposure to chlorate, dissolved in drinking water, occurred at 0 and 24 h (250 mL per exposure), feed was withdrawn at hour 38, water was removed at hour 48, and birds were slaughtered at hour 54 (16 h after feed removal and 8 h after water removal). The radioactivity was rapidly eliminated in excreta with 69-78% of the total administered radioactivity being excreted by slaughter. Total radioactive residues were proportional to dose in all edible tissues with chloride ion comprising greater than 98.5% of the radioactive residue for the tissue (9.4-97.8 ppm chlorate equivalents). Chlorate residues were typically greatest in the skin (0.33-0.82 ppm), gizzard (0.1-0.137 ppm), and dark muscle (0.05-0.14 ppm). Adipose, liver, and white muscle tissue contained chlorate concentrations from 0.03 to 0.13 ppm. In contrast, chlorate concentrations in excreta eliminated during the 6 h period prior to slaughter ranged from 53 to 71 ppm. Collectively, these data indicate that broilers rapidly

  16. Campylobacter contamination and the relative risk of illness from organic broiler meat in comparison with conventional broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Boysen, Louise; Krogh, Anne Louise; Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Nauta, Maarten

    2013-04-01

    Danish organic broiler meat, represented by carcasses sampled at the end of processing after chilling, was more frequently contaminated with thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. than conventional broiler carcasses; the yearly mean prevalence being 54.2% (CI: 40.9-67.5) for organic and 19.7% (CI: 14.8-24.7) for conventional carcasses. Campylobacter jejuni was the most frequently isolated species. The difference in prevalence was obvious in all quarters of the year. Contamination of organic and conventional broiler carcasses was more likely to occur in the warmer summer months, in this case in the third quarter, as also documented for conventional broiler flocks. When contaminated, the mean concentration of Campylobacter on neck skin samples of organic and conventional carcasses was not significantly different (P=0.428); 2.0±0.65 log 10 cfu/g and 2.1±0.93 log 10 cfu/g, respectively. Assessing the relative risk of becoming ill following exposure to Campylobacter on conventional or organic broiler meat indicated that the risk per serving from organic carcasses was 1.7 times higher than that of conventional carcasses. The higher risk of illness from organic broiler carcasses compared with conventional broiler carcasses emphasizes the importance of implementing control measures in organic broiler production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mapping organic carbon stocks of Swiss forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaum, M.; Papritz, A.; Baltensweiler, A.; Walthert, L.

    2012-04-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration into forest sinks offsets greenhouse gas emissions under the Kyoto protocol. Therefore, quantifying C stocks and fluxes in forest ecosystems is of interest for reporting greenhouse gas emissions. In Switzerland, the National Forest Inventory offers comprehensive data to quantify the above ground forest biomass and its change in time. Estimating stocks of soil organic C (SOC) in forests is more difficult because of its high spatial variability. To date the greenhouse gas inventory relies only on sparse data and regionally differentiated predictions of SOC stocks in forest soils are currently not possible. Recently, more soil data and new explanatory variables for statistical modeling like high resolution elevation data and satellite images became available. Based on data from 1'033 sites, we modeled SOC stocks to a depth of 1 m including the organic layer for the Swiss forested area. We used a novel robust restricted maximum likelihood method to fit a linear regression model with spatially correlated errors to the C stock data. For the regression analysis we used a broad range of covariates derived from climate data (precipitation, temperature, radiation), two elevation models (resolutions 25 and 2 m) and spectral variables representing vegetation. Furthermore, the main cartographic categories of an overview soil map were used to broadly represent the parent material. The numerous covariates, that partly correlated strongly, were reduced to a first subset using LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator). This subset of covariates was then further reduced based on cross validation of the robustly fitted spatial model. The levels of categorical covariates were partly aggregated during this process and interactions between covariates were explored to account for nonlinear dependence of C stocks on the covariates. Using the final model, robust kriging prediction and error maps were computed with a resolution of one hectare.

  18. Oxygenated drinking water enhances immune activity in broiler chicks and increases survivability against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Lee, Jin-A; Nam, Kyoung-Woo; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2012-03-01

    It has been suggested that drinking oxygenated water may improve oxygen availability, which may increase vitality and improving immune activity. The present study evaluated the immune enhancing effects of oxygenated drinking water in broiler chicks and demonstrated the protective efficacy of oxygenated drinking water against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks. Continuous drinking of oxygenated water markedly increased serum lysozyme activity, peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and the CD4(+)/CD8(+) splenocyte ratio in broiler chicks. In the chicks experimentally infected with S. Gallinarum, oxygenated drinking water alleviated symptoms and increased survival. These findings suggest that oxygenated drinking water enhances immune activity in broiler chicks, and increases survivability against S. Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks.

  19. Thermal manipulations during broiler incubation alter performance of broilers to 70 days of age.

    PubMed

    Piestun, Y; Druyan, S; Brake, J; Yahav, S

    2013-05-01

    Recent decades have seen significant progress in the genetic selection of fast-growing broiler chickens. Whereas in many countries the average marketing age is 5 to 6 wk, the US, French, and other markets demand heavier broilers (~4 kg) that require a longer posthatching growing period. With greater age and greater BW, the ability to cope with hot weather conditions deteriorates, which can result in increased economic losses during periods of hot weather. Recent studies have demonstrated a long-lasting effect of intermittent thermal manipulation (TM) during embryogenesis, when it was applied for 12 h/d between embryonic (E) days E7 and E16, which was shown by improved thermotolerance during acute posthatching heat stress as well as improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) and breast muscle yield. The present study was designed to elucidate the effect of TM during embryogenesis on Cobb 500 broiler performance up to 70 d of age. Hatchability and male BW were not affected by TM, but TM females demonstrated a lower (P = 0.024) BW during the entire 70-d posthatching study. However, following embryonic TM, both sexes exhibited lower (P = 0.028 and P = 0.018 for males and females, respectively) feed intake and body temperature accompanied by improved FCR and greater breast muscle weight. In light of the present and previous studies, it was concluded that intermittent TM during broiler embryonic development had a long-lasting effect on energy balance that led to improved FCR and breast muscle yield.

  20. Performance and physiological variables in broiler chicken lines differing in susceptibility to the ascites syndrome: 1. Changes in blood gases as a function of ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Buys, N; Scheele, C W; Kwakernaak, C; van der Klis, J D; Decuypere, E

    1999-03-01

    1. Male broilers of 5 genetic stocks (A, B, C, D, E) selected in different ways for fast growth and low food conversion ratio (FCR) and differing in ascites sensitivity were subjected to 2 different ambient temperature step down regimens: high temperature (HT: 33 to 20 degrees C over 33 d) and low temperature (LT: 30 to 15 degrees C over 17 d). 2. Ascites incidence was recorded daily. Food intake and body weight gain were measured weekly and FCR was calculated. Heat production (Hp) was calculated using the comparative slaughter method. At 28 d venous samples were taken for blood gas analysis and haematocrit and relative heart, lung and liver weights were recorded. 3. Populations A and C showed the highest growth rates combined with a low FCR and a higher ascites incidence. A low FCR in these stocks was attributable to low values for Hp. These stocks also had low PO2 and high pCO2 in venous blood at low ambient temperature compared with other stocks. Stock B, which exhibited the slowest growth rate and the highest FCR, was not susceptible to ascites and showed higher Hp and PO2 and pCO2 at low ambient temperature. Populations D and E were intermediate for almost all variables. Heart and lung weights were both increased at LT, while liver weight did not differ between temperature regimes. 4. Our results show that a high haematocrit is not necessarily linked with an increased susceptibility to ascites.

  1. Stock Market Fluctuations and Self-Harm among Children and Adolescents in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Lee, James Chun-Yin; Ho, Frederick Ka-Wing; Li, Tim Man-Ho; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun-Bong

    2017-06-09

    Although a few studies investigated the impact of stock market fluctuations on population health, the question of whether stock market fluctuations have an impact on self-harm in children and adolescents remain unanswered. This study therefore investigated the association between stock market fluctuations and self-harm among children and adolescents in Hong Kong. Daily self-harm attendance records were retrieved from all 18 local Accident and Emergency Departments (AED) from 2001 to 2012. 4931 children and adolescents who committed self-harm were included. The results indicated positive correlation between daily change in stock market index, Hang Seng Index (∇HSI, per 300 points), and daily self-harm incident risk of children and adolescents, without time lag between the two. The incident risk ratio for ∇HSI was 1.09 (p = 0.0339) in children and 1.06 (p = 0.0246) in adolescents. Importantly, non-trading days were found to impose significant protective effect in both groups against self-harm risk. Our results showed that stock market fluctuations were related to self-harm behaviors in children and adolescents. Parents and professionals should be educated about the potential harm of stock market fluctuations and the importance of effective parenting in reducing self-harm among children and adolescents.

  2. Stock Market Fluctuations and Self-Harm among Children and Adolescents in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Lee, James Chun-Yin; Ho, Frederick Ka-Wing; Li, Tim Man-Ho; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun-Bong

    2017-01-01

    Although a few studies investigated the impact of stock market fluctuations on population health, the question of whether stock market fluctuations have an impact on self-harm in children and adolescents remain unanswered. This study therefore investigated the association between stock market fluctuations and self-harm among children and adolescents in Hong Kong. Daily self-harm attendance records were retrieved from all 18 local Accident and Emergency Departments (AED) from 2001 to 2012. 4931 children and adolescents who committed self-harm were included. The results indicated positive correlation between daily change in stock market index, Hang Seng Index (∇HSI, per 300 points), and daily self-harm incident risk of children and adolescents, without time lag between the two. The incident risk ratio for ∇HSI was 1.09 (p = 0.0339) in children and 1.06 (p = 0.0246) in adolescents. Importantly, non-trading days were found to impose significant protective effect in both groups against self-harm risk. Our results showed that stock market fluctuations were related to self-harm behaviors in children and adolescents. Parents and professionals should be educated about the potential harm of stock market fluctuations and the importance of effective parenting in reducing self-harm among children and adolescents. PMID:28598378

  3. Dissemination and tracking of Salmonella spp. in integrated broiler operation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Aeran; Kang, Min Su; Kwag, Sang Ick; Cho, Jae Keun

    2007-01-01

    Controlling Salmonella in integrated broiler operation is complicated because there are numerous potential sources of Salmonella contamination, including chicks, feed, rodents, wild poultry operations, and the processing plant. The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution of Salmonella through all phases of two integrated broiler operations and to determine the key areas related to the control of all known sources of infection. Two different Salmonella serotypes were observed at integrated broiler chicken company A. S. enteritidis, the predominant company A isolate, was consistently found in the breeder farm, hatcheries, broiler farms, and chicken slaughterhouse. At company B, a total of six different serotypes, S. heidelberg, S. senftenberg, S. enteritidis, S. blockley, S. gallinarum, and S. virchow, were detected. Although S. heidelberg was not found in the broiler farms, it was consistently found in the breeder farm, hatcheries, and chicken slaughterhouse. In addition, S. enteritidis was found in the hatcheries, broiler farm, and chicken slaughterhouse. In order to obtain the genetic clonality, 22 S. enteritidis isolates were digested with XbaI and analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrohporesis (PFGE). A difference in the PFGE pattern was found to be related to the origin of the integrated broiler operation. These data support the critical need to control Salmonella in breeder farms and hatcheries, and demonstrate important points related to the control of infection in large-scale poultry operations of Korea. PMID:17519569

  4. Do Earthquakes Shake Stock Markets?

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Susana; Karali, Berna

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how major earthquakes affected the returns and volatility of aggregate stock market indices in thirty-five financial markets over the last twenty years. Results show that global financial markets are resilient to shocks caused by earthquakes even if these are domestic. Our analysis reveals that, in a few instances, some macroeconomic variables and earthquake characteristics (gross domestic product per capita, trade openness, bilateral trade flows, earthquake magnitude, a tsunami indicator, distance to the epicenter, and number of fatalities) mediate the impact of earthquakes on stock market returns, resulting in a zero net effect. However, the influence of these variables is market-specific, indicating no systematic pattern across global capital markets. Results also demonstrate that stock market volatility is unaffected by earthquakes, except for Japan.

  5. Do Earthquakes Shake Stock Markets?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how major earthquakes affected the returns and volatility of aggregate stock market indices in thirty-five financial markets over the last twenty years. Results show that global financial markets are resilient to shocks caused by earthquakes even if these are domestic. Our analysis reveals that, in a few instances, some macroeconomic variables and earthquake characteristics (gross domestic product per capita, trade openness, bilateral trade flows, earthquake magnitude, a tsunami indicator, distance to the epicenter, and number of fatalities) mediate the impact of earthquakes on stock market returns, resulting in a zero net effect. However, the influence of these variables is market-specific, indicating no systematic pattern across global capital markets. Results also demonstrate that stock market volatility is unaffected by earthquakes, except for Japan. PMID:26197482

  6. Trace mineral interactions in broiler chicken diets.

    PubMed

    Bao, Y M; Choct, M; Iji, P A; Bruerton, K

    2010-02-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate trace mineral interactions among organic copper, iron, manganese and zinc (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in broiler chickens. 2. Three experiments were conducted using a control diet which was deficient in Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. 3. In experiment 1, the control diet, supplemental organic Cu, Fe alone and combined diets, were randomly fed to 4 groups of one-day-old Cobb broilers (each group had 6 replicates of 4 birds). 4. In experiment 2, the control diet, supplemental organic Mn and Zn alone or combined with Cu, Fe diets and corresponding inorganic combined diet, were randomly fed to 6 groups (each group had 8 replicates of 6 birds). 5. In experiment 3, the depletion of organic Zn, the depletion of inorganic Zn and normal Zn treatments were carried out in three groups of one-day-old Cobb broilers (each group had 8 replicates of 6 birds). 6. Adding organic Cu, Fe and Mn alone or combined to Zn deficient diets did not significantly improve bird performance and were mostly excreted. Supplemental organic Zn alone or combined with other elements significantly increased feed intake, body weight gain and tibia bone length. However, supplemental organic Fe alone or combined with Cu significantly increased feed intake but had no obvious effect on body weight gain. The organic Fe supplementation resulted in a wider tibia. 7. Depletion of organic and inorganic Zn resulted in decreased feed intake, body weight gain and total tibia bone Zn content. Zinc deficiency did not affect the uptake of organic Fe by tibia bone but reduced its total Fe content. 8. Zinc is the first limiting element among these 4 trace minerals. Adding Mn, Cu and Fe to Zn deficient diets did not stimulate bird performance. Surplus organic Fe and Cu resulted in increased feed intake and increased tibia bone Fe content but did not contribute to bird performance.

  7. Bacterial Succession in the Broiler Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Lawley, Blair; Tannock, Gerald; Engberg, Ricarda M.

    2016-01-01

    A feeding trial was performed with broilers receiving a diet of wheat-based feed (WBF), maize-based feed (MBF), or maize-based concentrates supplemented with 15% or 30% crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS-15 or CKMS-30, respectively). The aim of the study was to investigate the bacterial community compositions of the crop, gizzard, ileum, and cecum contents in relation to the feeding strategy and age (8, 15, 22, 25, 29, or 36 days). Among the four dietary treatments, bacterial diversity was analyzed for MBF and CKMS-30 by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Since the diets had no significant influence on bacterial diversity, data were pooled for downstream analysis. With increasing age, a clear succession of bacterial communities and increased bacterial diversity were observed. Lactobacillaceae (belonging mainly to the genus Lactobacillus) represented most of the Firmicutes at all ages and in all segments of the gut except the cecum. The development of a “mature” microbiota in broilers occurred during the period from days 15 to 22. Striking increases in the relative abundances of Lactobacillus salivarius (17 to 36%) and clostridia (11 to 18%), and a concomitant decrease in the relative abundance of Lactobacillus reuteri, were found in the ileum after day 15. The concentration of deconjugated bile salts increased in association with the increased populations of L. salivarius and clostridia. Both L. salivarius and clostridia deconjugate bile acids, and increases in the abundances of these bacteria might be associated with growth reduction and gastrointestinal (GI) disorders occurring in the critical period of broiler life between days 20 and 30. PMID:26873323

  8. Effects of genotype and population density on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and cost-benefits of broiler chickens in north central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Yakubu, Abdulmojeed; Ayoade, John A; Dahiru, Yakubu M

    2010-04-01

    The influence of genotype and stocking densities on growth performance, carcass qualities, and cost-benefits of broilers were examined in a 28-day trial. Two hundred and seven 4-week-old birds each of Anak Titan and Arbor Acre hybrid broiler types were randomly assigned to three stocking density treatments of 8.3, 11.1, and 14.3 birds/m(2) in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement. Final body weight, average weekly body weight and average weekly feed intake were affected (P < 0.05) by strain, with higher means recorded for Arbor Acres. However, average weekly body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were similar (P > 0.05) in both genetic groups. The effect of placement density on some growth parameters did not follow a linear trend. Arbor Acres had significantly (P < 0.05) higher relative (%) fasted body, carcass, back, neck, and wing weights compared to Anak Titans. Housing density effect (P < 0.05) was observed for relative (%) fasted body, shank, and wing weights of birds. However, the relative weights of visceral organs of birds were not significantly (P > 0.05) influenced by genotype and housing density. The economic analysis revealed that higher gross margin was recorded for Arbor Acres compared to Anak Titans (euro 2.76 versus euro 2.19; P < 0.05, respectively). Conversely, stocking rate did not exert any influence (P > 0.05) on profit margin. Genotype x stocking density interaction effect was significant for some of the carcass indices investigated. It is concluded that under sub-humid conditions of a tropical environment, the use of Arbor Acre genetic type as well as a placement density of 14.3 birds/m(2) appeared to be more profitable.

  9. 78 FR 3482 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Stock Clearing Corporation of Philadelphia; Notice of Filing of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Stock Clearing Corporation of Philadelphia; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change With Respect to the Amendment of the By-Laws of Its Parent Corporation, The NASDAQ...

  10. Compassionate Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stosny, Steven

    Noting that parents' response to their children is essentially emotional and keyed almost exclusively to inferences about their children's emotions, this program for parents teaches compassionate parenting, an approach that provides a secure emotional base from which children explore and interact with their environment as parents develop the…

  11. Arbitrage and Volatility in Chinese Stock's Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shu Quan; Ito, Takao; Zhang, Jianbo

    From the point of view of no-arbitrage pricing, what matters is how much volatility the stock has, for volatility measures the amount of profit that can be made from shorting stocks and purchasing options. With the short-sales constraints or in the absence of options, however, high volatility is likely to mean arbitrage from stock market. As emerging stock markets for China, investors are increasingly concerned about volatilities of Chinese two stock markets. We estimate volatility's models for Chinese stock markets' indexes using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method and GARCH. We find that estimated values of volatility parameters are very high for all data frequencies. It suggests that stock returns are extremely volatile even at long term intervals in Chinese markets. Furthermore, this result could be considered that there seems to be arbitrage opportunities in Chinese stock markets.

  12. Stock Market Expectations of Dutch Households

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Michael; van Rooij, Maarten; Winter, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Despite its importance for the analysis of life-cycle behavior and, in particular, retirement planning, stock ownership by private households is poorly understood. Among other approaches to investigate this puzzle, recent research has started to elicit private households’ expectations of stock market returns. This paper reports findings from a study that collected data over a two-year period both on households’ stock market expectations (subjective probabilities of gains or losses) and on whether they own stocks. We document substantial heterogeneity in financial market expectations. Expectations are correlated with stock ownership. Over the two years of our data, stock market prices increased, and expectations of future stock market price changes also increased, lending support to the view that expectations are influenced by recent stock gains or losses. PMID:23997423

  13. Stock Market Expectations of Dutch Households.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Michael; van Rooij, Maarten; Winter, Joachim

    2011-04-01

    Despite its importance for the analysis of life-cycle behavior and, in particular, retirement planning, stock ownership by private households is poorly understood. Among other approaches to investigate this puzzle, recent research has started to elicit private households' expectations of stock market returns. This paper reports findings from a study that collected data over a two-year period both on households' stock market expectations (subjective probabilities of gains or losses) and on whether they own stocks. We document substantial heterogeneity in financial market expectations. Expectations are correlated with stock ownership. Over the two years of our data, stock market prices increased, and expectations of future stock market price changes also increased, lending support to the view that expectations are influenced by recent stock gains or losses.

  14. 25 CFR 173.6 - Stock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... WITHDRAWN OR ACQUIRED IN CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 173.6 Stock grazing. Permittees may graze upon lands covered by such permits, such stock as may be required in connection with the purposes... the project engineer. ...

  15. 26 CFR 1.1036-1 - Stock for stock of the same corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Stock for stock of the same corporation. 1.1036...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1036-1 Stock for stock of the same corporation. (a) Section 1036 permits the exchange, without the recognition of gain or loss, of common...

  16. 26 CFR 1.1081-3 - Exchanges of stock or securities solely for stock or securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exchanges of stock or securities solely for stock or securities. 1.1081-3 Section 1.1081-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 1.1081-3 Exchanges of stock or securities solely for stock or securities. The exchange, without...

  17. 12 CFR 1266.11 - Capital stock requirements; redemption of excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Capital stock requirements; redemption of excess stock. 1266.11 Section 1266.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS ADVANCES Advances to Members § 1266.11 Capital stock requirements; redemption of excess stock....

  18. 26 CFR 1.1081-3 - Exchanges of stock or securities solely for stock or securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exchanges of stock or securities solely for stock or securities. 1.1081-3 Section 1.1081-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF....c. Orders § 1.1081-3 Exchanges of stock or securities solely for stock or securities. The...

  19. 12 CFR 1266.11 - Capital stock requirements; redemption of excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Capital stock requirements; redemption of excess stock. 1266.11 Section 1266.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS ADVANCES Advances to Members § 1266.11 Capital stock requirements; redemption of excess stock....

  20. 26 CFR 1.1081-3 - Exchanges of stock or securities solely for stock or securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exchanges of stock or securities solely for stock or securities. 1.1081-3 Section 1.1081-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF....c. Orders § 1.1081-3 Exchanges of stock or securities solely for stock or securities. The...

  1. 26 CFR 1.1081-3 - Exchanges of stock or securities solely for stock or securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exchanges of stock or securities solely for stock or securities. 1.1081-3 Section 1.1081-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF....c. Orders § 1.1081-3 Exchanges of stock or securities solely for stock or securities. The...

  2. 26 CFR 1.1081-3 - Exchanges of stock or securities solely for stock or securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exchanges of stock or securities solely for stock or securities. 1.1081-3 Section 1.1081-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF....c. Orders § 1.1081-3 Exchanges of stock or securities solely for stock or securities. The...

  3. 12 CFR 1266.11 - Capital stock requirements; redemption of excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Capital stock requirements; redemption of excess stock. 1266.11 Section 1266.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS ADVANCES Advances to Members § 1266.11 Capital stock requirements; redemption of excess stock....

  4. 12 CFR 950.11 - Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock. 950.11 Section 950.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL... Housing Associates § 950.11 Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock. (a)...

  5. Microclimate measuring and fluid‑dynamic simulation in an industrial broiler house: testing of an experimental ventilation system.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Biagio; Giametta, Ferruccio; La Fianza, Giovanna; Gentile, Andrea; Catalano, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    The environment in the broiler house is a combination of physical and biological factors generating a complex dynamic system of interactions between birds, husbandry system, light, temperature, and the aerial environment. Ventilation plays a key role in this scenario. It is pivotal to remove carbon dioxide and water vapor from the air of the hen house. Adequate ventilation rates provide the most effective method of controlling temperature within the hen house. They allow for controlling the relative humidity and can play a key role in alleviating the negative effects of high stocking density and of wet litter. In the present study the results of experimental tests performed in a breeding broiler farm are shown. In particular the efficiency of a semi transversal ventilation system was studied against the use of a pure transversal one. In order to verify the efficiency of the systems, fluid dynamic simulations were carried out using the software Comsol multiphysics. The results of this study show that a correct architectural and structural design of the building must be supported by a design of the ventilation system able to maintain the environmental parameters within the limits of the thermo‑neutral and welfare conditions and to achieve the highest levels of productivity.

  6. 47 CFR 32.4530 - Treasury stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treasury stock. 32.4530 Section 32.4530... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4530 Treasury stock. This account shall include the cost of the company's own capital stock which has been issued...

  7. 25 CFR 173.6 - Stock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stock grazing. 173.6 Section 173.6 Indians BUREAU OF... WITHDRAWN OR ACQUIRED IN CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 173.6 Stock grazing. Permittees may graze upon lands covered by such permits, such stock as may be required in connection with the...

  8. 47 CFR 32.4510 - Capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capital stock. 32.4510 Section 32.4510... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4510 Capital stock. (a) This account shall include the par value, stated amount, or in the case of no-par stock, the...

  9. A stocking guide for eastern white pine

    Treesearch

    James S. Philbrook; James P. Barrett; William B. Leak

    1973-01-01

    A stocking chart for eastern white pine is presented and described. The chart shows basal areas and numbers of trees by mean stand diameter, representing the upper limit in stocking for practical management (A curve) and minimum stocking for full site utilization (B curve).

  10. Stocking, growth, and yield of oak stands

    Treesearch

    Samuel F. Gingrich

    1971-01-01

    An appraisal of stocking in even-aged upland oak stands is a prerequisite for determining the cultural needs of a given stand. Most oak stands have sufficient stocking to utilize the site, but are deficient in high-quality trees. Thinning such stands offers a good opportunity to upgrade the relative quality of the growing stock and enhance the growth and yield...

  11. 25 CFR 700.717 - Stocking rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stocking rate. 700.717 Section 700.717 Indians THE OFFICE... Grazing § 700.717 Stocking rate. The Commissioner will determine livestock carrying capacity for each range unit and set the stocking rate and adjust that rate as conditions warrant. The Commissioner may...

  12. Stocking chart for upland central hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Martin E. Dale; Donald E. Hilt

    1989-01-01

    The upland hardwoods stocking chart, introduced by Gingrich in 1967, has become one of the forest manager's most useful tools. The chart allows you to determine the condition of the present stand in relation to a stocking standard. The stocking of a stand is extremely helpful in prescribing various silvicultural treatments such as intermediate thinnings,...

  13. 47 CFR 32.4530 - Treasury stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Treasury stock. 32.4530 Section 32.4530... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4530 Treasury stock. This account shall include the cost of the company's own capital stock which has been issued...

  14. 47 CFR 32.4510 - Capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Capital stock. 32.4510 Section 32.4510... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4510 Capital stock. (a) This account shall include the par value, stated amount, or in the case of no-par stock, the...

  15. 47 CFR 32.4510 - Capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Capital stock. 32.4510 Section 32.4510... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4510 Capital stock. (a) This account shall include the par value, stated amount, or in the case of no-par stock, the...

  16. 47 CFR 32.4530 - Treasury stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Treasury stock. 32.4530 Section 32.4530... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4530 Treasury stock. This account shall include the cost of the company's own capital stock which has been issued...

  17. 25 CFR 173.6 - Stock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Stock grazing. 173.6 Section 173.6 Indians BUREAU OF... WITHDRAWN OR ACQUIRED IN CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 173.6 Stock grazing. Permittees may graze upon lands covered by such permits, such stock as may be required in connection with the...

  18. 25 CFR 173.6 - Stock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stock grazing. 173.6 Section 173.6 Indians BUREAU OF... WITHDRAWN OR ACQUIRED IN CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 173.6 Stock grazing. Permittees may graze upon lands covered by such permits, such stock as may be required in connection with the...

  19. 47 CFR 32.4510 - Capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Capital stock. 32.4510 Section 32.4510... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4510 Capital stock. (a) This account shall include the par value, stated amount, or in the case of no-par stock, the...

  20. 47 CFR 32.4510 - Capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Capital stock. 32.4510 Section 32.4510... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4510 Capital stock. (a) This account shall include the par value, stated amount, or in the case of no-par stock, the...

  1. 47 CFR 32.4530 - Treasury stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Treasury stock. 32.4530 Section 32.4530... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4530 Treasury stock. This account shall include the cost of the company's own capital stock which has been issued...

  2. 47 CFR 32.4530 - Treasury stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Treasury stock. 32.4530 Section 32.4530... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4530 Treasury stock. This account shall include the cost of the company's own capital stock which has been issued...

  3. 27 CFR 24.217 - Vinegar stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vinegar stock. 24.217... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.217 Vinegar stock. Vinegar... commercial standards for the production of vinegar. Vinegar stock may be made only by the addition of...

  4. 27 CFR 24.217 - Vinegar stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vinegar stock. 24.217... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.217 Vinegar stock. Vinegar... commercial standards for the production of vinegar. Vinegar stock may be made only by the addition of...

  5. 27 CFR 24.217 - Vinegar stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vinegar stock. 24.217... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.217 Vinegar stock. Vinegar... commercial standards for the production of vinegar. Vinegar stock may be made only by the addition of...

  6. 27 CFR 24.217 - Vinegar stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vinegar stock. 24.217... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.217 Vinegar stock. Vinegar... commercial standards for the production of vinegar. Vinegar stock may be made only by the addition of...

  7. 27 CFR 24.217 - Vinegar stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vinegar stock. 24.217... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.217 Vinegar stock. Vinegar... commercial standards for the production of vinegar. Vinegar stock may be made only by the addition of...

  8. Online Stock Market Games for High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopus, Jane; Placone, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    Identifies a Web site providing information about stock market simulations for high school economics courses. Divides the information into two tables: (1) the structure of online stock market games; and (2) the determination of portfolio values of online stock market games. States that changes and updates are available at Web sites. (JEH)

  9. Students Invest in the Stock Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, George O.

    1977-01-01

    How one teacher motivated students to learn about the stock market by allowing them to actually invest money. Class discussion covered inexpensive ways to buy stock, choosing securities, and buying and selling stock. Suggestions are offered for adapting this project for use at the secondary level. (TA)

  10. 25 CFR 173.6 - Stock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stock grazing. 173.6 Section 173.6 Indians BUREAU OF... WITHDRAWN OR ACQUIRED IN CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 173.6 Stock grazing. Permittees may graze upon lands covered by such permits, such stock as may be required in connection with the...

  11. Online Stock Market Games for High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopus, Jane; Placone, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    Identifies a Web site providing information about stock market simulations for high school economics courses. Divides the information into two tables: (1) the structure of online stock market games; and (2) the determination of portfolio values of online stock market games. States that changes and updates are available at Web sites. (JEH)

  12. Students Invest in the Stock Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, George O.

    1977-01-01

    How one teacher motivated students to learn about the stock market by allowing them to actually invest money. Class discussion covered inexpensive ways to buy stock, choosing securities, and buying and selling stock. Suggestions are offered for adapting this project for use at the secondary level. (TA)

  13. Skeletal development and performance of broilers

    SciTech Connect

    El-Deeb, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of high dietary copper supplementation has been shown to promote growth rate. The results of the experiments reported herein indicated that copper supplementation of 100 ppm with zinc at the requirement level had no effect on growth rate or bone mineralization. However, when various levels of copper and zinc were added to the diet, significant changes in bone mineralization and liver zinc and copper concentrations occurred. In further studies, the effect of dietary supplementation with vitamin D{sub 3} or its metabolite 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} on the incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia and related bone abnormalities in broiler chicks was investigated. The results indicated that feeding 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} at 5ug/Kg diet as the sole source of vitamin D{sub 3} steroid was sufficient to maintain a calcium homeostasis in the chicks. The effect of growth hormone (GH) injections on the metabolism of tibial epiphyseal growth plant (EGP) in broiler chicks either genetically susceptible or resistant to tibial dyschondroplasia (HTD and LTD respectively) was investigated. GH injection increased {sup 3}H-thymidine uptake, indicating a direct effect of GH on cell replication in EGP.

  14. Genetic variation of contact dermatitis in broilers.

    PubMed

    Ask, B

    2010-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the presence of genetic variation in footpad dermatitis (FPD) and hock burns (HB) and the possibility to genetically select against these. A field trial including 10 commercial broiler lines (n = 102 to 265) was carried out at 2 Dutch farms. Footpad dermatitis and HB were subjectively scored at approximately 4, 5, and 7 wk on a scale from 0 through 5. Genetic parameters were estimated in 2 lines based on a larger data set. The overall agreement of repeated FPD and HB scores was high (0.66 to 0.86) and the scoring system was, therefore, considered reliable. Kendall's tau between left and right scores was lower than 1 (FPD: 0.73 and HB: 0.57), and both left and right FPD and HB must, therefore, be evaluated. High prevalences of FPD, but also HB, were achieved in the field trial, but lower prevalences may be sufficient for genetic evaluations and would be less detrimental to welfare. Genetic variation between and within lines was present for both FPD and HB as indicated by between-line differences and heritabilities, and selection against FPD and HB is, therefore, possible. It is important that selection is done against both FPD and HB, and such selection should not have a negative influence on the genetic improvement in BW. In contrast, continued selection for increased BW while ignoring FPD in the breeding goal is likely to lead to an increased propensity to develop FPD in broilers.

  15. Residue depletion of ivermectin in broiler poultry.

    PubMed

    Mestorino, Nora; Buldain, Daniel; Buchamer, Andrea; Gortari, Lihuel; Daniele, Martín; Marchetti, María Laura

    2017-04-01

    Helminth infections are widespread in the poultry industry. There is evidence of extra-label use of some drugs, such as ivermectin (IVM), in broiler poultry. Pharmacokinetic and residual studies of IVM in poultry, however, are rather scarce. Our aim was to determine time restrictions for broiler chickens fed with balanced feed mixed with IVM for 21 days, and thus achieve acceptable residual levels for consumption as established by the European Union. Sixty 1-day-old chicks were fed with food supplemented with IVM at 5 mg kg(-1) feed for 21 days. Groups of six treated animals were sacrificed at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 15, 20 and 28 days after treatment. Liver, skin/fat, kidney and muscle samples were obtained. IVM were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection after automatic solid-phase extraction with SPE C18 cartridges. The highest concentrations were measured in the liver, which is logical given that IVM is a drug that undergoes extensive hepatic metabolism. The optimal withdrawal time for edible tissues of these animals to stay within the permitted residual levels were: 12 days for liver, 8 days for skin/fat, 0 days for muscle and 10 days for kidney.

  16. Evaluation of potential disinfectants for preslaughter broiler crop decontamination.

    PubMed

    Barnhart, E T; Sarlin, L L; Caldwell, D J; Byrd, J A; Corrier, D E; Hargis, B M

    1999-01-01

    The broiler crop has recently been implicated as a major source of Salmonella contamination at commercial processing. Furthermore, feed withdrawal has been positively correlated with increased Salmonella incidence in the crop, probably due to coprophagy. In the present study, a rapid screening assay was developed to evaluate several potential disinfectants in the presence of large quantities of organic matter, simulating the crop environment. An apparent synergistic combination of d-Limonene (DL) and citric acid (CA) was observed when evaluating the potential to eliminate Salmonella in the presence of organic material. A method of encapsulation of DL and CA was developed for voluntary consumption by broilers during feed withdrawal. During an 8-h feed withdrawal individual 8-wk-old broilers voluntarily consumed an average of 21.5 capsules (total of 3.44 g material). When eight capsules were force-administered to Salmonella-challenged 8-wk-old broilers during an abbreviated 4 h feed withdrawal, Salmonella was not recovered using selective enrichment. To evaluate the effect of voluntary capsule consumption, 8-wk-old broilers were challenged with 1 x 108 cfu of Salmonella 5 d prior to an 8 h feed withdrawal. When these broilers were allowed unlimited continuous access to capsules containing DL/CA during an 8 h feed withdrawal, 24.8 capsules per broiler were ingested without affecting Salmonella recovery from crops. When access to capsules containing DL/CA was limited to the final 45 min of an 8 h feed withdrawal in a similar experiment, an average of 22.2 capsules were consumed by each broiler, resulting in a significant decrease in the number of Salmonella-positive crops. Although a number of practical questions and considerations remain, these data suggest that appropriate disinfectants could be administered during preslaughter feed withdrawal for the purpose of reducing foodborne pathogens in crops.

  17. Interventions to reduce the bacterial load in recycled broiler litter.

    PubMed

    Vaz, C S L; Voss-Rech, D; de Avila, V S; Coldebella, A; Silva, V S

    2017-03-23

    Two experiments were undertaken to evaluate the bacterial load in recycled litter between broiler flocks following addition of quicklime (T1), windrowing (T2), shallow fermentation (T3), and control (no intervention, T4). The first experiment was developed in field conditions in which the broiler houses were accompanied by 6 consecutive flocks and the effect of the treatments was assessed on enterobacteria and aerobic mesophiles. The second experiment was conducted in an experimental broiler house with recycled litter for assessment of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 (SE PT4). In the field study, T3 presented the best results in reducing enterobacteria in broiler litter in relation to the other treatments, with the highest reduction occurring in the first 3 flocks, tending to stabilization from the fourth flock onward for all the treatments assessed. From the third to sixth flocks, enterobacteria level at the end of the treatments (d 12) was lower than the average in the fresh litter, except in T4. All treatments reduced aerobic mesophiles throughout the flocks, where T2 showed the highest reduction. The percentage of dry matter in the broiler litter diminished in T4 and increased in T3 over the course of the flocks. In the second experiment, the drop in the SE PT4 level in the broiler litter first occurred in T2 and T3. However, all the treatments except for T4 eliminated SE PT4 within 12 d. The temperature of the broiler litter in T2 was higher in relation to the other treatments. The results show that litter treatment prior to reutilization by the successive broiler flock is required to reduce the level of residual bacteria. The fermentative treatments (T2 and T3) were found to be superior to the others in terms of reducing the bacterial load, with shallow fermentation standing out with the highest reduction of enterobacteria and equivalent SE PT4 elimination when compared to windrowing.

  18. Research note: the effects of darkling beetles on broiler performance.

    PubMed

    Skewes, P A; Monroe, J L

    1991-04-01

    Six polyvinylchlorine pipe darkling beetle traps were placed in 20 commercial broiler production facilities, and the relative level of beetle infestation was determined from weekly sampling during 4 wk of the growout period. The average number of beetles found at each facility was compared with the following production parameters: mortality, feed conversion, condemnation rate, and production cost. In the 20 commercial broiler flocks evaluated, the level of darkling beetles within the facility was not related to any of the production parameters measured.

  19. Study on price transmission in China's broiler industry chain based on MCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shiwei; Dong, Xiaoxia; Li, Zhemin; Cui, Liguo; Kong, Fantao; Li, Ganqiong; Yu, Haipeng

    This paper studies price transmission mechanism of China's broiler industry chain with Market-chain Cooperated Model (MCM), according to the monthly price data of corn, broiler compound feed, broiler chicks, live chicken and eviscerated chicken from 1994 June to 2011 October. The result shows that the price system of China's broiler industry chain exists price transmission relationship, the price of representative products from upstream and midstream conducts obviously to downstream, and broiler compound feed price plays an important role in the price system. The result also indicates that the interior adjusting of broiler industry chain cannot guarantee that the entire price system recover to balance quickly. Therefore, the government needs to regulate timely the price system of broiler industry chain, especially the price change of feed and live broiler to maintain the price system relative stable.

  20. Effect of commercial broiler processing on prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of salmonellae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Broiler processing includes interventions specifically designed to lessen bacterial contamination of carcasses. Purpose: This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, serotype and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella on broiler carcasses collected from commercial pr...

  1. Vertical transmission of Escherichia coli carrying plasmid-mediated AmpC (pAmpC) through the broiler production pyramid.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Oskar; Börjesson, Stefan; Landén, Annica; Bengtsson, Björn

    2014-06-01

    In Sweden the prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae with transferable resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) is low. However, in broilers ESC-resistant Escherichia coli is common, with a clear dominance of blaCMY-2. Antimicrobials are rarely used in broiler production in Sweden and cephalosporins are never used. Introduction through imported breeding stock and subsequent vertical transmission of the bacteria through the production pyramid could be one explanation for this high prevalence. To test this hypothesis, paper linings from imported flocks of grandparent animals were screened for the presence of ESC-resistant E. coli and a positive flock, together with its progeny, was followed longitudinally through the production pyramid using boot swabs. The relationship of isolated ESC-resistant E. coli was investigated using multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). ESC-resistant E. coli carrying blaCMY-2 was isolated from six out of eight imported flocks of grandparent animals. One clone of E. coli carrying blaCMY-2 occurred in all levels of the production pyramid and in flocks of imported grandparent animals. E. coli carrying blaCMY-2 is frequently present among grandparent animals imported to Sweden for breeding purposes. The occurrence of one clone in all levels of the production pyramid indicates that its introduction through imported breeding stock and vertical transmission through the production pyramid could be one explanation for the high proportion of Swedish broilers colonized with ESC-resistant E. coli. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Putting a Class I Stocking over a Class I Stocking Does Not Make a Class II Stocking.

    PubMed

    Suehiro, Kotaro; Morikage, Noriyasu; Murakami, Masanori; Yamashita, Osamu; Samura, Makoto; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the interface pressures (IP) obtained by double compression stockings. Ten healthy volunteers with legs fitting size S stockings wore single and double class I stockings, sizes S to 4L. We measured IPs with the patient wearing each stocking standing and supine. IPs obtained wearing double S size stockings, standing and supine, were 1.7 times and 20 mmHg higher than those obtained by a single S size stocking (52.1 ± 4.7 and 46.4 ± 4.5 mmHg vs. 31.5 ± 3.3 and 27.3 ± 2.3 mmHg, respectively). Despite the decreasing IP with increased stocking sizes, all IPs obtained by double stockings, standing and supine, even with size 4L (43.2 ± 5.1 and 37.3 ± 5.5 mmHg respectively), were significantly higher than those obtained by a single S stocking. Significantly higher IPs were achieved standing and supine, by doubling stockings. We should rather be aware that double stockings in the supine position can result in excessively high IPs.

  3. C-Lines of Stocking for Southern Bottomland Hardwoods: A Guide to Identifying Insuffiecient Stocking

    Treesearch

    J.C.G. Goelz

    1997-01-01

    A B-line on a stocking chart represents suggested residual stocking after thinning, or minimum full stocking. A stand at the C-line on a stocking chart will achieve the B-line after a period of growth usually specified as 10 years. Four C-lines that reflect insufficient stocking of southern bottomland hardwoods are presented. These C-lines represent 10,15,20, and 25...

  4. [Probiotics in broilers' rearing: A strategy for intensive production models].

    PubMed

    Blajman, Jesica E; Zbrun, María V; Astesana, Diego M; Berisvil, Ayelén P; Romero Scharpen, Analía; Fusari, Marcia L; Soto, Lorena P; Signorini, Marcelo L; Rosmini, Marcelo R; Frizzo, Laureano S

    2015-01-01

    The broiler industry has become an important economic activity in Argentina. Global production of broiler meat has been growing in Argentina faster than for any other meats, possibly due to declining poultry prices and increasing incomes. Modern rearing systems can produce broilers ready to slaughter in 50 days, with the required 2.7kg of weight and a feed conversion of about 1.6kg feed/kg of meat. Nevertheless, broilers raised under these intensive conditions are exposed to various stressors every day. For many years, feed supplementation with antibiotics was widely used to stabilize the gut flora, improve general parameters and prevent avian diseases. However, the utility of antibiotics has been questioned because of the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in meat. Therefore, there is a renewed interest in finding viable alternatives to antibiotics. One potential method is the supplementation of broiler diets with probiotics. This review provides an updated summary of the use of probiotics to improve sanitary conditions and enhance performance in broilers, demonstrating the role of probiotics as a reliable option to replace antimicrobial growth promoters.

  5. Effect of intestinal content contamination on broiler carcass Campylobacter counts.

    PubMed

    Berrang, M E; Smith, D P; Windham, W R; Feldner, P W

    2004-02-01

    Intestinal contents may contaminate broiler carcasses during processing. The objective of this study was to determine what effect various levels of intestinal contents had on the numbers of Campylobacter detected in broiler carcass rinse samples. Eviscerated broiler carcasses were collected from the shackle line in a commercial processing plant immediately after passing through an inside/outside washer. Broiler carcasses were cut longitudinally into contralateral halves using a sanitized saw. Cecal contents from the same flock were collected, pooled, homogenized, and used to contaminate carcass halves. Paired carcass halves were divided into groups of eight each, and then cecal contents (2, 5, 10, 50, or 100 mg) were placed onto one randomly selected half of each carcass, while the corresponding half of the same broiler carcass received no cecal contents. Campylobacter counts from carcass halves with cecal contamination were compared to the uncontaminated halves of the same carcasses using a paired t test. Carcass halves with 5 mg or more of surface cecal contamination had significantly higher numbers of Campylobacter than those without (P < 0.01). Carcass halves contaminated with only 5 mg of cecal contents had an average of 3.3 log CFU Campylobacter per ml of rinse, while corresponding uncontaminated carcass halves had 2.6 log CFU Campylobacter per ml of rinse. These data indicate that even small (5 mg) amounts of cecal contents can cause a significant increase in the numbers of Campylobacter on eviscerated broiler carcasses. Therefore, it is important to keep such contamination to a minimum during processing.

  6. Underestimation of boreal soil carbon stocks by mathematical soil carbon models linked to soil nutrient status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ťupek, Boris; Ortiz, Carina A.; Hashimoto, Shoji; Stendahl, Johan; Dahlgren, Jonas; Karltun, Erik; Lehtonen, Aleksi

    2016-08-01

    Inaccurate estimate of the largest terrestrial carbon pool, soil organic carbon (SOC) stock, is the major source of uncertainty in simulating feedback of climate warming on ecosystem-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchange by process-based ecosystem and soil carbon models. Although the models need to simplify complex environmental processes of soil carbon sequestration, in a large mosaic of environments a missing key driver could lead to a modeling bias in predictions of SOC stock change.We aimed to evaluate SOC stock estimates of process-based models (Yasso07, Q, and CENTURY soil sub-model v4) against a massive Swedish forest soil inventory data set (3230 samples) organized by a recursive partitioning method into distinct soil groups with underlying SOC stock development linked to physicochemical conditions.For two-thirds of measurements all models predicted accurate SOC stock levels regardless of the detail of input data, e.g., whether they ignored or included soil properties. However, in fertile sites with high N deposition, high cation exchange capacity, or moderately increased soil water content, Yasso07 and Q models underestimated SOC stocks. In comparison to Yasso07 and Q, accounting for the site-specific soil characteristics (e. g. clay content and topsoil mineral N) by CENTURY improved SOC stock estimates for sites with high clay content, but not for sites with high N deposition.Our analysis suggested that the soils with poorly predicted SOC stocks, as characterized by the high nutrient status and well-sorted parent material, indeed have had other predominant drivers of SOC stabilization lacking in the models, presumably the mycorrhizal organic uptake and organo-mineral stabilization processes. Our results imply that the role of soil nutrient status as regulator of organic matter mineralization has to be re-evaluated, since correct SOC stocks are decisive for predicting future SOC change and soil CO2 efflux.

  7. Lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes: stock-size criteria for natural reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selgeby, James H.; Bronte, Charles R.; Brown, Edward H.; Hansen, Michael J.; Holey, Mark E.; VanAmberg, Jan P.; Muth, Kenneth M.; Makauskas, Daniel B.; Mckee, Patrick; Anderson, David M.; Ferreri, C. Paola; Schram, Stephen T.

    1995-01-01

    We examined the question of whether the lake trout restoration program in the Great Lakes has developed brood stocks of adequate size to sustain natural reproduction. Stock size criteria were developed from areas of the Great Lakes where natural reproduction has been successful (defined as detection of age-1 or older recruits by assessment fishing). We contrasted them with stocks in areas with no natural reproduction. Based on the relative abundance of spawners measured in the fall and the presence or absence of natural reproduction in 24 areas of the Great Lakes, we found three distinct sets of lake trout populations. In seven areas of successful natural reproduction, the catch-per-unit-effort (CPE) of spawners ranged from 17 to 135 fish/305 m of gillnet. Stock sizes in these areas were used as a gauge against which stocks in other areas were contrasted. We conclude that stock densities of 17-135 fish/305 m of gill net are adequate for natural reproduction, provided that all other requirements are met. No natural reproduction has been detected in seven other areas, where CPEs of spawners ranged from only 3 to 5 fish/305 m. We conclude that spawning stocks of only 3-5 fish/305 m of net are inadequate to develop measurable natural reproduction. Natural reproduction has also not been detected in ten areas where CPEs of spawners ranged from 43 to 195 fish/305 m of net. We conclude that spawning stocks in these ten areas were adequate to sustain natural reproduction, but that some factor other than parental stock size prevented recruitment of wild lake trout.

  8. Stock market dynamics: Before and after stock market crashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siokis, Fotios M.

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents a brief analysis on the distribution of magnitude of major stock market shocks. Based on the Gutenberg-Richter law in geophysics, we model the dynamics of market index returns prior and after major crashes in search of statistical regularities. For a large number of market crashes, our analysis suggests that the distribution of market volatility before and after the stock market crash is described well by the Gutenberg-Richter law, which reflects the scale-invariance and self-similarity of the underlying dynamics by a robust power-law relation. In addition, the rate of the decay of the aftershock sequence is well described by another power law, which is known as the Omori law. Power law relaxation seems to be a common behavior observed in complex systems such as the financial markets.

  9. What Does Stock Ownership Breadth Measure?*

    PubMed Central

    Choi, James J.; Jin, Li; Yan, Hongjun

    2013-01-01

    Using holdings data on a representative sample of all Shanghai Stock Exchange investors, we show that increases in ownership breadth (the fraction of market participants who own a stock) predict low returns: highest change quintile stocks underperform lowest quintile stocks by 23% per year. Small retail investors drive this result. Retail ownership breadth increases appear to be correlated with overpricing. Among institutional investors, however, the opposite holds: Stocks in the top decile of wealth-weighted institutional breadth change outperform the bottom decile by 8% per year, consistent with prior work that interprets breadth as a measure of short-sales constraints. PMID:24764801

  10. What Does Stock Ownership Breadth Measure?

    PubMed

    Choi, James J; Jin, Li; Yan, Hongjun

    2013-07-01

    Using holdings data on a representative sample of all Shanghai Stock Exchange investors, we show that increases in ownership breadth (the fraction of market participants who own a stock) predict low returns: highest change quintile stocks underperform lowest quintile stocks by 23% per year. Small retail investors drive this result. Retail ownership breadth increases appear to be correlated with overpricing. Among institutional investors, however, the opposite holds: Stocks in the top decile of wealth-weighted institutional breadth change outperform the bottom decile by 8% per year, consistent with prior work that interprets breadth as a measure of short-sales constraints.

  11. [Enzymatic utilization of cotton soap stock].

    PubMed

    Davranov, K D; Guliamova, K A; Alimova, B Kh; Turapova, N M

    2000-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of neutral fat of cotton oil soap stock with a nonspecific lipase produced by Oospora lactis F-500 was designed. The culture liquid and a preparation of enzyme obtained by precipitation with isopropanol from a filtrate of the culture liquid were used. Utilization of cotton oil soap stock as the only source of carbon during cultivation of the fungus was studied. The rate of hydrolysis of soap stock fat strongly depended on the way of biological conversion of cotton oil soap stock. The most effective utilization was observed during cultivation of the fungus in the medium containing soap stock.

  12. Surface transport of nutrients from surface broadcast and subsurface-banded broiler litter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Broiler chicken litter is commonly used as a fertilizer on pastures and cropland in major broiler-producing states. However, phosphorus (P) loss from fields fertilized with broiler litter contributes to eutrophication and growth of toxic algae in surface waters. Recently, to reduce surface transpo...

  13. Recovery of consciousness in broilers following combined dc and ac stunning

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Broilers in the United States are typically electrically stunned using low voltage-high frequency pulsed DC water bath stunners and in the European Union broilers are electrocuted using high voltage-low frequency AC. DC stunned broilers regain consciousness in the absence of exsanguination and AC st...

  14. House-Level Risk Factors for the Occurrence of Campylobacter in Broilers in Iceland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction Horizontal transmission from the environment is thought to be an important source of Campylobacter to broilers. Our objective was to identify broiler house characteristics and house-level management practices associated with the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter in Icel...

  15. Effect of wooden breast condition on water-holding capacity of broiler breast pectoralis major

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wooden breast condition (WBC) is an emerging muscle abnormality with broiler breast meat. Limited studies have shown that WBC significantly affects meat quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of WBC on water-holding capacity (WHC) of broiler breast pectoralis major. Broiler...

  16. Efficacy of Activated Carbon from Broiler Litter in the Removal of Litter Generated Ammonia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over the past 10 years, the production of broilers has increased by 29 percent to approximately 9 billion in 2005. Ammonia (NH3) pollution from broiler excreta is a primary concern for industry viability which requires innovative treatment options. This research focused on the use of broiler litter ...

  17. Do stock prices drive people crazy?

    PubMed

    Lin, Chung-Liang; Chen, Chin-Shyan; Liu, Tsai-Ching

    2015-03-01

    This is the first research to examine a potential relation between stock market volatility and mental disorders. Using data on daily incidences of mental disorders in Taiwan over 4000 days from 1998 through 2009 to assess the time-series relation between stock price movements and mental disorders, we observe that stock price fluctuation clearly affects the hospitalization of mental disorders. We find that during a 12-year follow-up period, a low stock price index, a daily fall in the stock price index and consecutive daily falls in the stock price index are all associated with greater of mental disorders hospitalizations. A 1000-point fall in the TAIEX (Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index) increases the number of daily mental disorders hospitalizations by 4.71%. A 1% fall in the TAIEX in one single day increases daily hospitalizations for mental disorders by 0.36%. When the stock price index falls one consecutive day, it causes a daily increase of approximately 0.32% hospitalizations due to mental disorders on that day. Stock price index is found to be significant for both gender and all age groups. In addition, daily change is significant for both gender and middle-age groups, whereas accumulated change is significant for males and people aged 45-64. Stockholdings can help people accumulate wealth, but they can also increase mental disorders hospitalizations. In other words, stock price fluctuations do drive people crazy.

  18. Development of ascites-resistant and ascites-susceptible broiler lines.

    PubMed

    Druyan, S; Ben-David, A; Cahaner, A

    2007-05-01

    The rapid growth of modern broilers is associated with enhanced appetite and high metabolic rate and, consequently, high O(2) demand. Ascites syndrome (AS) develops in individuals that fail to fully supply the increasing demand for O(2) in their bodies under ascites-inducing conditions (AIC) such as high altitude or low temperatures. The tendency of broilers to develop AS is heritable, but efficacious selection against AS susceptibility (without affecting the normal expression of other important traits) requires identification of indirect selection criteria. In the present study, divergent AS-susceptible (AS-S) and AS-resistant (AS-R) lines were developed to confirm the heritability of AS and to facilitate future detection of criteria for indirect selection against AS susceptibility. The base population consisted of 85 sire families with a mean of 73 progeny per sire, reared in a commercial broiler house under low-challenge AIC (cold environment and pelleted feed). Chicks dying with AS manifestations were designated AS-susceptible, whereas the surviving birds were designated AS-resistant. By the end of the trial (d 48), AS mortality had accumulated to 17.2%, but AS incidence per family (%ASF) ranged from 0 to 49%, with a high heritability (0.57). Parents of 7 families with very high %ASF produced the first generation (S(1)) of the AS-S line, and parents of 7 families with very low %ASF produced the S(1) of the AS-R line. The S(1) males and females reproduced generation S(2) of the selected lines, whereas additional S(1) males were tested under high-challenge AIC (individual cages, cool wind, and pelleted feed). Progeny testing under this high-challenge AIC, followed by sib selection, was repeated in generations S(2) and S(3), resulting in a divergence of 86.6% in the incidence of AS between the AS-S (91.3%) and AS-R (4.7%) lines. The rapid genetic divergence, and family analysis of %ASF suggested that a single or few major genes are responsible for the difference

  19. Effective Parenting

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Effective Parenting Page Content Article Body Now that our children ... school play and his soccer games. Your Current Parenting Experiences Spend some time thinking about how you ...

  20. Is the stock market efficient?

    PubMed

    Malkiel, B G

    1989-03-10

    A stock market is said to be efficient if it accurately reflects all relevant information in determining security prices. Critics have asserted that share prices are far too volatile to be explained by changes in objective economic events-the October 1987 crash being a case in point. Although the evidence is not unambiguous, reports of the death of the efficient market hypothesis appear premature.

  1. Taxonomy of stock market indices

    PubMed

    Bonanno; Vandewalle; Mantegna

    2000-12-01

    We investigate sets of financial nonredundant and nonsynchronously recorded time series. The sets are composed by a number of stock market indices located all over the world in five continents. By properly selecting the time horizon of returns and by using a reference currency we find a meaningful taxonomy. The detection of such a taxonomy proves that interpretable information can be stored in a set of nonsynchronously recorded time series.

  2. Tick size and stock returns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Töyli, Juuso; Kaski, Kimmo

    2009-02-01

    Tick size is an important aspect of the micro-structural level organization of financial markets. It is the smallest institutionally allowed price increment, has a direct bearing on the bid-ask spread, influences the strategy of trading order placement in electronic markets, affects the price formation mechanism, and appears to be related to the long-term memory of volatility clustering. In this paper we investigate the impact of tick size on stock returns. We start with a simple simulation to demonstrate how continuous returns become distorted after confining the price to a discrete grid governed by the tick size. We then move on to a novel experimental set-up that combines decimalization pilot programs and cross-listed stocks in New York and Toronto. This allows us to observe a set of stocks traded simultaneously under two different ticks while holding all security-specific characteristics fixed. We then study the normality of the return distributions and carry out fits to the chosen distribution models. Our empirical findings are somewhat mixed and in some cases appear to challenge the simulation results.

  3. Parenting Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.

    2005-01-01

    Parenting is a subject about which people typically hold strong opinions, but about which too little solid information or considered reflection exists. And clearly critical questions about parenting abound. Moreover, the family generally, and parenting specifically, are today in a greater state of flux, question, and re-definition than perhaps…

  4. Parenting Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.

    2005-01-01

    Parenting is a subject about which people typically hold strong opinions, but about which too little solid information or considered reflection exists. And clearly critical questions about parenting abound. Moreover, the family generally, and parenting specifically, are today in a greater state of flux, question, and re-definition than perhaps…

  5. The behaviour of broiler chickens and its modification by lameness.

    PubMed

    Weeks; Danbury; Davies; Hunt; Kestin

    2000-03-22

    The behaviour of six replicates of broilers obtained from commercial farms, fed ad-libitum and housed on 23-h light:1-h dark schedule at 20 lx was observed using scan sampling. Comparisons were made between sound birds and those of varying degrees of lameness between 39 and 49 days of age. Sound broilers averaged 76% of their time lying and this increased significantly to 86% in lame birds (gait score 3). Lying also increased with age. Although sound broilers spent only a minor part of the day on their feet, they spent significantly more time standing idle (7%), standing preening (3.5%) and standing eating (4.7%) than lame birds. Walking declined with age, but occupied an average 3.3% of the time of a slaughter-weight broiler. Again, lameness significantly reduced this to a minimal 1.5% in the worst affected birds. Sound birds predominantly chose the usual standing posture for eating, whereas, lame birds lay down to eat for almost half their feeding time. Detailed observations using video records revealed that lameness altered the feeding strategy of broilers. Whereas sound birds fed over 50 times in 24 h, the number of visits to the feeder was reduced with increasing lameness to an average of around 30 in the lamest broilers. However, meal duration was adjusted to give no overall differences in time spent feeding per day. Time spent drinking was also the same for all birds, averaging 3% of the day. The alterations of the time budget, in particular the reductions in activities performed whilst standing, and the different feeding strategies adopted, are consistent with lameness imposing a cost on the affected broilers to the detriment of their welfare.

  6. Staphylococcus-induced gangrenous dermatitis in broilers.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, H M; Munger, L L; Ley, D H; Ficken, M D

    1988-01-01

    An infectious bursal disease (IBD)-vaccinated flock of 23,900 broilers, 17 days of age, experienced sudden onset of depression, dermatitis, and mortality. Postmortem examination showed extensive subcutaneous serosanguineous fluid accumulation over the pectoral muscles, discrete hepatic whitish foci, fluid-filled intestines, and small, flaccid bursae of Fabricius. Gram-stained impression smears from the affected areas revealed numerous gram-positive cocci. Aerobic culture of liver and subcutaneous tissue consistently produced heavy growth of penicillin-sensitive Staphyloccus aureus. Histopathologically, subcutaneous tissue showed diffuse hemorrhage and large numbers of gram-positive cocci with severe congestion and hemorrhage of the underlying skeletal muscle. Liver sections showed multiple, randomly scattered areas of acute coagulation necrosis with numerous gram-positive cocci. Bursal lesions were characterized by extensive follicular necrosis and collapse. A diagnosis of staphylococcal gangrenous dermatitis secondary to IBD was made. Mortality returned to preinfection levels within 72 hours after penicillin was added to the drinking water.

  7. Susceptibility of progeny from crosses among three stocks of coho salmon to infection by Ceratomyxa shasta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemmingsen, A.R.; McIntyre, J.D.; Fryer, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Crossbred coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were produced from all possible crosses among three stocks. The relative susceptibility of the progeny to infection by the myxosporean parasite Ceratomyxa shasta was determined by exposure of juvenile fish to Willamette River water that contained the infective stage of the parasite. Susceptibility of coho salmon native to the Columbia River basin to the disease ceratomyxosis was relatively low whereas that of coho salmon from remote locations was relatively high. Susceptibility of crossbred progeny nearly always was intermediate between the susceptibilities of fish from the parental stocks.

  8. Analysis of metabolic pools in broilers chicks.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Maria Márcia Pereira; Denadai, Juliana Célia; Sartori, José Roberto; Campos, Daniel; Macari, Marcos; Pezzato, Antônio Celso; Ducatti, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows the possibility of obtaining new parameters for the mathematical modelling of data on stable isotopes in biological systems and its application in obtaining data on metabolic pools of blood plasma, blood serum, liver and muscle of broilers. This theory states that the modelling of turnover used for studies of isotopic incorporation when the metabolism has a single metabolic pool is feasible by the technique of setting an exponential. However, when the metabolism has more than one metabolic pool, it is necessary to apply the linearization technique, linear regression adjustment and evaluation of the assumptions of regression to obtain the kinetic parameters such as half-life (T1/2) and isotope exchange rate (k). The application of this technique on carbon-13 data from 100 one-day-old chicks, with the change of diet composed of grains of the photosynthetic cycle of plants from C4 to C3, in broilers has enabled the discovery that the liver, blood plasma and blood serum have a single metabolic pool; however, the pectoral muscle has two metabolic pools. For the liver, blood plasma and blood serum, the half-life values were found by the exponential fit being T1/2 = 1.4 days with the rate of exchange of k = 0.502, T1/2 = 2.4 days with k = 0.293 and T1/2 = 2.0 days with k = 0.348, respectively. For the pectoral muscle, after linearization, the half-life values were found for T1/2(1) = 1.7 and T1/2(2) = 3 days, with exchange rates of k1 = 0.405 and k2 = 0.235, representing approximately 66 and 34%, respectively.

  9. Polytetrafluoroethylene gas intoxication in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Boucher, M; Ehmler, T J; Bermudez, A J

    2000-01-01

    A poultry research facility that housed 2400 Peterson x Hubbard cross broilers (48 pens of 50 chicks each) experienced 4% mortality within 24 hr of chick placement. Mortality started within 4 hr of placement, and within 72 hr, cumulative mortality had reached 52%. Mild dyspnea was the only clinical sign noted in some chicks prior to death. The primary gross lesion noted in the chicks submitted was moderate to severe pulmonary congestion. The lungs of four of these chicks sank in formalin, and blood-tinged fluid was noted in the mouth and nares of two chicks. The microscopic lesions noted in the affected chicks were moderate to severe pulmonary edema and congestion. The diagnosis indicated to the submitter was that pulmonary edema caused by exposure to an unidentified noxious gas caused the death of the chicks. The poultry house environment was tested for sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and volatile organic compounds (as produced by combustion engines); all tests were negative for significant levels of these compounds. A second broiler flock was placed in the same facility and the mortality at 6 wk was 11%, which was greater than the 2.5%-4.7% mortality seen in the previous four flocks on the farm. Further investigation revealed that the only change in management practice in this facility prior to the onset of the severe mortality problem was the replacement of 48 heat lamp bulbs (one for each pen). The new heat lamp bulbs were polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coated. PTFE gas intoxication has been reported in several exotic avian species, but this intoxication has not been previously reported in a poultry flock.

  10. The past and future of food stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Human societies rely on food reserves and the importation of agricultural goods as means to cope with crop failures and associated food shortage. While food trade has been the subject of intensive investigations in recent years, food reserves remain poorly quantified. It is unclear how food stocks are changing and whether they are declining. In this study we use food stock records for 92 products to reconstruct 50 years of aggregated food reserves, expressed in caloric equivalent (kcal), at the regional and global scales. A detailed statistical analysis demonstrates that the overall regional and global per-capita food stocks are stationary, challenging a widespread impression that food reserves are shrinking. We develop a statistically-sound stochastic representation of stock dynamics and take the stock-halving probability as a measure of the natural variability of the process. We find that there is a 20% probability that the global per-capita stocks will be halved by 2050. There are, however, some strong regional differences: Western Europe and the region encompassing North Africa and the Middle East have smaller halving probabilities and smaller per-capita stocks, while North America and Oceania have greater halving probabilities and greater per-capita stocks than the global average. Africa exhibits low per-capita stocks and relatively high probability of stock halving by 2050, which reflects a state of higher food insecurity in this continent.

  11. Effect of Dietary Beta-Glucan on the Performance of Broilers and the Quality of Broiler Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sun Hee; Lee, Inyoung; Feng, Xi; Lee, Hyun Yong; Kim, Jihee; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-01-01

    A total of 400, one day-old commercial broiler chicks were divided into five diet groups (negative control, positive control group with 55 ppm Zn-bacitracin, 15 ppm β-glucan, 30 ppm β-glucan, and 60 ppm β-glucan) and fed for six weeks. Ten broilers were allotted to each of 40 floor pens. Eight floor pens were randomly assigned to one of the 5 diets. Each diet was fed to the broilers for 6 weeks with free access to water and diet. The survival rate, growth rate, feed efficiency, and feed conversion rate of the broilers were calculated. At the end of the feeding trial, the birds were slaughtered, breast muscles deboned, and quality parameters of the breast meat during storage were determined. The high level of dietary β-glucan (60 ppm) showed better feed conversion ratio and survival rate than the negative control. The survival rate of 60 ppm β-glucan-treated group was the same as that of the antibiotic-treated group, which showed the highest survival rate among the treatments. There was no significant difference in carcass yield, water holding capacity, pH, color, and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values of chicken breast meat among the 5 treatment groups. Supplementation of 60 ppm β-glucan to broiler diet improved the survival rate and feed conversion rate of broilers to the same level as 55 ppm Zn-bacitracin group. The result indicated that use of β-glucan (60 ppm) can be a potential alternative to antibiotics to improve the survival and performance of broilers. However, dietary β-glucan showed no effects on the quality parameters of chicken breast meat. PMID:26950870

  12. Pathological features in dead on arrival broilers with special reference to heart disorders.

    PubMed

    Nijdam, E; Zailan, A R M; van Eck, J H H; Decuypere, E; Stegeman, J A

    2006-07-01

    A gross postmortem investigation was done on 302 broilers that died between catching and slaughter to establish predisposing factors for dying in this period. Special attention was paid to heart disorders, which were established by determining the ratio of the right ventricle mass to the total ventricle mass (RV:TV) and to postmortem changes in hearts and lungs of broilers that were dead on arrival (DOA). Macroscopic pathologic lesions were found in 89.4% of DOA broilers. Signs of infectious diseases appeared to be most frequent (64.9%), followed by heart and circulation disorders (42.4%), and trauma (29.5%). The RV:TV was significantly higher for DOA broilers in comparison with slaughtered broilers. The prevalence of hearts with an abnormal RV:TV in DOA broilers was 34.4 vs. 4.1% in slaughtered broilers. The DOA broilers with an abnormal heart ratio more frequently showed ascites and hydropericardium. Postmortem changes in lungs depend on the position of the carcass the first several hours after death. Broilers, which remain in dorsal recumbency for several hours after death, develop engorged lungs. A good health status as well as more attention for the catching and crating process is crucial in decreasing the percentage of DOA broilers. Prevention of an increased heart ratio and of ascites will improve the livability in the broiler house and also decrease the DOA rate enormously.

  13. Composting and gypsum amendment of broiler litter to reduce nutrient leaching loss.

    PubMed

    Adeli, Ardeshir; Sheng, J; Jenkins, J N; Feng, G

    2015-03-01

    The effect of composted litter relative to fresh litter on leaching losses of nutrients has not been well documented. Fresh and composted broiler litter was surface-applied to bermudagrass (hay) [ (L.) Pers.] established in undisturbed soil columns based on N need of the grass in the presence or absence of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum to evaluate an approach to reduce broiler litter nutrient leaching potential. Columns were periodically leached and biomass was harvested during the 60-d experiment. Total N applied to bermudagrass from broiler litter was 320 kg ha. Gypsum was mixed with fresh and composted litter at the rate based on 20% of litter weight. For composted broiler litter, NO-N, P, K, Cu, and Zn contents in the leachate obtained from the first leaching event were 58, 50, 40, 32, and 38% less than fresh broiler litter, respectively. Significant decreases in NO-N (13%), P (53%), Cu (17%), and Zn (28%) in leachate were obtained when gypsum was mixed with fresh broiler litter. Fresh broiler litter and composted broiler litter applications increased bermudagrass growth compared with the control and gypsum significantly increased yields when mixed with broiler litter. Composted broiler litter application significantly increased N and organic C in the soil compared with fresh litter. Results demonstrate that coapplication of composted broiler litter with FGD gypsum provide the most effective management option for minimizing leaching losses of nutrients while sustaining crop productivity.

  14. Valine needs in starting and growing Cobb (500) broilers.

    PubMed

    Tavernari, F C; Lelis, G R; Vieira, R A; Rostagno, H S; Albino, L F T; Oliveira Neto, A R

    2013-01-01

    Two independent experiments were conducted with male Cobb × Cobb 500 broilers to determine the optimal valine-to-digestible-lysine ratio for broiler development. We conducted a randomized block experiment with 7 treatments, each with 8 replicates of 25 starter birds (8 to 21 d of age) and 20 finisher (30 to 43 d of age) birds. To prevent any excess of digestible lysine, 93% of the recommended level of digestible lysine was used to evaluate the valine-to-lysine ratio. The utilized levels of dietary digestible lysine were 10.7 and 9.40 g/kg for the starting and growing phases, respectively. A control diet with 100% of the recommended level of lysine and an adequate valine-to-lysine ratio was also used. The feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and carcass parameters were evaluated. The treatments had no significant effect on the feed intakes or carcass parameters in the starter and finisher phases. However, during both of the studied phases, we observed a quadratic effect on weight gain and the feed conversion ratio. The broilers of both phases that were fed test diets with the lower valine-to-lysine (Val/Lys) ratio had poorer performance compared with those broilers fed control diets. However, when higher Val/Lys ratios were used for the starting and growing broilers that were fed test diets, the 2 groups had similar performance. During the starting phase, in broilers that were fed a higher Val/Lys ratio, weight gain, and the feed conversion ratio improved by 5.5% compared with broilers fed the basal diets. The broilers in the growing phase also had improved performance (by 7 to 8%) when the test diets had higher Val/Lys ratios. Based on the analysis of the starter phase data, we concluded that the optimal digestible Val/Lys ratio for Cobb × Cobb 500 broilers is 77%, whereas for birds in the finisher phase (30 to 43 d of age), a digestible Val/Lys ratio of 76% is suggested.

  15. Peroneal nerve palsy after compression stockings application

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Hyun; Kim, Won Il; Kim, Ji Yeon; Choe, Won Joo

    2016-01-01

    Peroneal nerve palsy can be caused by various etiology. We report unilateral peroneal nerve palsy after compression stockings application. A 64-year-old man underwent off-pump coronary bypass graft. Surgeon did not use saphenous vein for the bypass graft. Sedation was stopped after 3 h postoperative. After 16 h, for prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis, knee-high elastic stocking was applied. After 1 h, he took off right stocking because of numbness but left stocking was kept. After 24 h postoperative, (8 h after stocking application) patient complained suddenly left foot drop. Manual muscle test revealed 0/5 of ankle dorsiflexion, ankle eversion, and toe extension. Sensory was decreased to 70% in lower half of anterolateral aspect of tibia, foot dorsum, and toes. Foot drop and sensory abnormality decreased in 3 weeks. Cardiac surgery patients already have many risk factors for peripheral neuropathy. Clinicians should be careful when applying stockings on those patients. PMID:27833497

  16. Peroneal nerve palsy after compression stockings application.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Hyun; Kim, Won Il; Kim, Ji Yeon; Choe, Won Joo

    2016-01-01

    Peroneal nerve palsy can be caused by various etiology. We report unilateral peroneal nerve palsy after compression stockings application. A 64-year-old man underwent off-pump coronary bypass graft. Surgeon did not use saphenous vein for the bypass graft. Sedation was stopped after 3 h postoperative. After 16 h, for prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis, knee-high elastic stocking was applied. After 1 h, he took off right stocking because of numbness but left stocking was kept. After 24 h postoperative, (8 h after stocking application) patient complained suddenly left foot drop. Manual muscle test revealed 0/5 of ankle dorsiflexion, ankle eversion, and toe extension. Sensory was decreased to 70% in lower half of anterolateral aspect of tibia, foot dorsum, and toes. Foot drop and sensory abnormality decreased in 3 weeks. Cardiac surgery patients already have many risk factors for peripheral neuropathy. Clinicians should be careful when applying stockings on those patients.

  17. Visualization of a stock market correlation matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea, Alethea; Rea, William

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a novel application of Neighbor-Net, a clustering algorithm developed for constructing a phylogenetic network in the field of evolutionary biology, to visualizing a correlation matrix. We apply Neighbor-Net as implemented in the SplitsTree software package to 48 stocks listed on the New Zealand Stock Exchange. We show that by visualizing the correlation matrix using a Neighbor-Net splits graph and its associated circular ordering of the stocks that some of the problems associated with understanding the large number of correlations between the individual stocks can be overcome. We compare the visualization of Neighbor-Net with that provided by hierarchical clustering trees and minimum spanning trees. The use of Neighbor-Net networks, or splits graphs, yields greater insight into how closely individual stocks are related to each other in terms of their correlations and suggests new avenues of research into how to construct small diversified stock portfolios.

  18. Human risk from thermotolerant Campylobacter on broiler meat in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Boysen, Louise; Nauta, Maarten; Duarte, Ana Sofia Ribeiro; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2013-03-15

    This paper describes a new approach by which changes over time in the relative risk of human campylobacteriosis from broiler meat are evaluated through quantitative microbiological risk assessment modelling. Danish surveillance data collected at retail from 2001 to 2010 on numbers of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. on Danish produced and imported chilled and frozen broiler meat were the basis for the investigation. The aim was to explore if the risk from the different meat categories had changed over time as a consequence of implemented intervention strategies. The results showed a slight decrease from 2005 to 2008 in the human risk from Danish produced broiler meat, and a decrease from 2005 to 2010 in the risk from imported chilled meat. This risk reduction coincides with control measures implemented to reduce Campylobacter in Danish and imported chilled broiler meat. The human risk of campylobacteriosis from Danish frozen meat increased but remained lower compared to chilled meat. In total, the relative risk from broiler meat available for sale in Denmark increased from 2001 to 2005 after which the risk decreased to a level similar to the period 2001-2002. The use of QMRA in the evaluation of intervention strategies based on monitoring data provided an added value, compared to the traditional approach of only using changes in prevalence. The estimated human health risk is a function of prevalence and the distribution of concentrations, and therefore takes best usage of the available data, while providing the most relevant outcome for food safety risk managers.

  19. Nutritional properties of dried salmon silage for broiler feeding.

    PubMed

    Dale, Nick; Valenzuela, Carolina

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, energy and amino acid profile of dried salmon silage (DSS) for broilers. The DSS was obtained by acid digestion of salmon mortalities and subsequently co-dried with wheat bran in a 70:30 ratio (70 parts silage and 30 parts wheat bran). Samples of DSS were evaluated for chemical composition, gross energy, nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn ), mineral content, total and digestible amino acids for broilers, and amino acid score. The chemical composition of DSS was (mean ± SD): moisture (12.3 ± 0.8%), crude protein (44.0 ± 1.1%), ether extract (5.0 ± 2.4%), crude fiber (3.3 ± 0.4%) and ash (9.4 ± 0.6%). The gross energy and TMEn for broilers were 4 069 kcal/kg and 2 613 kcal/kg, respectively. The DSS mineral composition showed a high content of calcium (1.01%) and phosphorus (1.08%). The DSS had high levels of digestible methionine (0.74%), lysine (2.27%), and threonine (1.16%), and did not present limiting amino acids for broilers. Nutritional composition of DSS showed high protein content with an amino acid profile considered to be suitable as a protein source for broiler feeding.

  20. From waste to energy -- Catalytic steam gasification of broiler litter

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.A.; Sheth, A.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1996, the production of broiler chickens in the US was approximately 7.60 billion head. The quantity of litter generated is enormous. In 1992, the Southeast region alone produced over five million tons of broiler litter. The litter removed from the broiler houses is rich in nutrients and often spread over land as a fertilizer. Without careful management, the associated agricultural runoff can cause severe environmental damage. With increasing broiler litter production, the implementation of alternative disposal technologies is essential to the sustainable development of the poultry industry. A process originally developed for the conversion of coals to clean gaseous fuel may provide an answer. Catalytic steam gasification utilities an alkali salt catalyst and steam to convert a carbonaceous feedstock to a gas mixture composed primarily of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and methane. The low to medium energy content gas produced may be utilized as an energy source or chemical feedstock. Broiler litter is an attractive candidate for catalytic steam gasification due to its high potassium content. Experiments conducted in UTSI's bench-scale high-pressure fixed bed gasifier have provided data for technical and economic feasibility studies of the process. Experiments have also been performed to examine the effects of temperature, pressure, and additional catalysts on the gasification rate.

  1. LETTER: Synchronization model for stock market asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donangelo, Raul; Jensen, Mogens H.; Simonsen, Ingve; Sneppen, Kim

    2006-11-01

    The waiting time needed for a stock market index to undergo a given percentage change in its value is found to have an up down asymmetry, which, surprisingly, is not observed for the individual stocks composing that index. To explain this, we introduce a market model consisting of randomly fluctuating stocks that occasionally synchronize their short term draw-downs. These synchronous events are parametrized by a 'fear factor', that reflects the occurrence of dramatic external events which affect the financial market.

  2. Analysis of Naval Ammunition Stock Positioning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    a solution for the allocation of the stock 8 between bases, the goal of this model is not to find an optimal solution , but to simulate the...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT ANALYSIS OF NAVAL AMMUNITION STOCK POSITIONING...professional report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ANALYSIS OF NAVAL AMMUNITION STOCK POSITIONING 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) David Sharp and Eric

  3. Material Stock Demographics: Cars in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Cabrera Serrenho, André; Allwood, Julian M

    2016-03-15

    Recent literature on material flow analysis has been focused on quantitative characterization of past material flows. Fewer analyses exist on past and prospective quantification of stocks of materials in-use. Some of these analyses explore the composition of products' stocks, but a focus on the characterization of material stocks and its relation with service delivery is often neglected. We propose the use of the methods of human demography to characterize material stocks, defined herein as stock demographics, exploring the insights that this approach could provide for the sustainable management of materials. We exemplify an application of stock demographics by characterizing the composition and service delivery of iron, steel, and aluminum stocks of cars in Great Britain, 2002-2012. The results show that in this period the stock has become heavier, it is traveling less, and it is idle for more time. The visualization of material stocks' dynamics demonstrates the pace of product replacement as a function of its usefulness and enables the formulation of policy interventions and the exploration of future trends.

  4. 26 CFR 1.1563-2 - Excluded stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... stock in Y for sale he will first offer the stock to X at a price equal to the fair market value of the... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Excluded stock. 1.1563-2 Section 1.1563-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Controlled Corporations § 1.1563-2 Excluded stock. (a) Certain stock...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1563-2 - Excluded stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... stock in Y for sale he will first offer the stock to X at a price equal to the fair market value of the... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Excluded stock. 1.1563-2 Section 1.1563-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Controlled Corporations § 1.1563-2 Excluded stock. (a) Certain stock...

  6. 26 CFR 1.422-2 - Incentive stock options defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incentive stock options defined. 1.422-2 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Certain Stock Options § 1.422-2 Incentive stock options defined. (a) Incentive stock option defined—(1) In general. The term incentive stock option means an option that meets...

  7. 12 CFR 931.1 - Classes of capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classes of capital stock. 931.1 Section 931.1... STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.1 Classes of capital stock. The authorized capital stock of a Bank shall consist of the following instruments: (a) Class A stock, which shall: (1) Have...

  8. 41 CFR 109-27.5003 - Stock control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stock control. 109-27... control. (a) Stock control shall be maintained on the basis of stock record accounts of inventories on... property under stock control for greater than 90 days shall be maintained in stock record accounts. ...

  9. 41 CFR 109-27.5003 - Stock control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stock control. 109-27... control. (a) Stock control shall be maintained on the basis of stock record accounts of inventories on... property under stock control for greater than 90 days shall be maintained in stock record accounts. ...

  10. 41 CFR 109-27.5003 - Stock control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stock control. 109-27... control. (a) Stock control shall be maintained on the basis of stock record accounts of inventories on... property under stock control for greater than 90 days shall be maintained in stock record accounts. ...

  11. 26 CFR 1.422-2 - Incentive stock options defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Incentive stock options defined. 1.422-2 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Stock Options § 1.422-2 Incentive stock options defined. (a) Incentive stock option defined—(1) In general. The term incentive stock option means an option that...

  12. 12 CFR 1263.21 - Issuance and form of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Issuance and form of stock. 1263.21 Section... Stock Requirements § 1263.21 Issuance and form of stock. (a) A Bank shall issue to each new member, as of the effective date of membership, stock in the member's name for the amount of stock purchased...

  13. 12 CFR 1263.21 - Issuance and form of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Issuance and form of stock. 1263.21 Section... Stock Requirements § 1263.21 Issuance and form of stock. (a) A Bank shall issue to each new member, as of the effective date of membership, stock in the member's name for the amount of stock purchased...

  14. 26 CFR 1.422-2 - Incentive stock options defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Incentive stock options defined. 1.422-2 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Stock Options § 1.422-2 Incentive stock options defined. (a) Incentive stock option defined—(1) In general. The term incentive stock option means an option that...

  15. 12 CFR 1263.21 - Issuance and form of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Issuance and form of stock. 1263.21 Section... Stock Requirements § 1263.21 Issuance and form of stock. (a) A Bank shall issue to each new member, as of the effective date of membership, stock in the member's name for the amount of stock purchased...

  16. 26 CFR 1.422-2 - Incentive stock options defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Incentive stock options defined. 1.422-2 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Stock Options § 1.422-2 Incentive stock options defined. (a) Incentive stock option defined—(1) In general. The term incentive stock option means an option that...

  17. 12 CFR 931.1 - Classes of capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classes of capital stock. 931.1 Section 931.1... STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.1 Classes of capital stock. The authorized capital stock of a Bank shall consist of the following instruments: (a) Class A stock, which shall: (1) Have...

  18. 26 CFR 1.422-2 - Incentive stock options defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Incentive stock options defined. 1.422-2 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Stock Options § 1.422-2 Incentive stock options defined. (a) Incentive stock option defined—(1) In general. The term incentive stock option means an option that...

  19. 12 CFR 931.1 - Classes of capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classes of capital stock. 931.1 Section 931.1... STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.1 Classes of capital stock. The authorized capital stock of a Bank shall consist of the following instruments: (a) Class A stock, which shall: (1) Have...

  20. 12 CFR 1263.21 - Issuance and form of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Issuance and form of stock. 1263.21 Section... Stock Requirements § 1263.21 Issuance and form of stock. (a) A Bank shall issue to each new member, as of the effective date of membership, stock in the member's name for the amount of stock purchased...

  1. 12 CFR 931.1 - Classes of capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classes of capital stock. 931.1 Section 931.1... STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.1 Classes of capital stock. The authorized capital stock of a Bank shall consist of the following instruments: (a) Class A stock, which shall: (1) Have...

  2. Sensory profiles of breast meat from broilers reared in an organic niche production system and conventional standard broilers.

    PubMed

    Horsted, Klaus; Allesen-Holm, Bodil H; Hermansen, John E; Kongsted, Anne G

    2012-01-30

    Breast meat from broilers produced in very different production systems may vary considerable in sensory profile, which may affect consumer interests. In this study the aim was to evaluate differences in the sensory profiles of breast meat from five broiler products: two conventional standard products (A and B) and three organic niche genotypes (I657, L40 and K8) reared in an apple orchard. Thirteen out of 22 sensory attributes differed significantly between the products. The aroma attributes 'chicken', 'bouillon' and 'fat' scored highest and the 'iron/liver' aroma lowest for the niche products. The meat was more 'tender', 'short' and 'crumbly' and less 'hard' and 'stringy' in the standard products than in one or more of the niche products. Product 'I 657' was less 'juicy' than the rest. Products 'I 657' and 'L 40' were more 'cohesive' and tasted more 'sourish' and less of 'sweet/maize' than the standard products. The 'overall liking' score was significantly higher for the 'K 8' product than for the 'Standard A' and 'L 40' products. The 'overall liking' score was significantly correlated with the scores for aroma and taste of 'chicken', 'umami/bouillon', 'iron/liver' and 'fat' aroma. The sensory profiles differed particularly between conventional standard broilers and organic niche broilers, although differences were also found between breeds. The present study indicates that aroma and taste attributes were more important for the assessors than meat 'tenderness' for the overall liking of broiler meat. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. 12 CFR 221.121 - Extension of credit in certain stock option and stock purchase plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... related to the market price of the stock, but in others, there may be no such relationship. In either of... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Extension of credit in certain stock option and stock purchase plans. 221.121 Section 221.121 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD...

  4. 12 CFR 221.121 - Extension of credit in certain stock option and stock purchase plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Extension of credit in certain stock option and stock purchase plans. 221.121 Section 221.121 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD... FOR THE PURPOSE OF PURCHASING OR CARRYING MARGIN STOCK (REGULATION U) Interpretations § 221.121...

  5. 12 CFR 552.2-6 - Conversion from stock form depository institution to Federal stock association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion from stock form depository institution to Federal stock association. 552.2-6 Section 552.2-6 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL STOCK ASSOCIATIONS-INCORPORATION, ORGANIZATION, AND...

  6. 12 CFR 552.2-6 - Conversion from stock form depository institution to Federal stock association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Conversion from stock form depository institution to Federal stock association. 552.2-6 Section 552.2-6 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL STOCK ASSOCIATIONS-INCORPORATION, ORGANIZATION, AND...

  7. 12 CFR 552.2-6 - Conversion from stock form depository institution to Federal stock association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Conversion from stock form depository institution to Federal stock association. 552.2-6 Section 552.2-6 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL STOCK ASSOCIATIONS-INCORPORATION, ORGANIZATION, AND...

  8. 12 CFR 152.18 - Conversion from stock form depository institution to Federal stock association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conversion from stock form depository institution to Federal stock association. 152.18 Section 152.18 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL STOCK ASSOCIATIONS-INCORPORATION, ORGANIZATION, AND CONVERSION §...

  9. 12 CFR 552.2-6 - Conversion from stock form depository institution to Federal stock association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conversion from stock form depository institution to Federal stock association. 552.2-6 Section 552.2-6 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL STOCK ASSOCIATIONS-INCORPORATION, ORGANIZATION, AND...

  10. 12 CFR 152.18 - Conversion from stock form depository institution to Federal stock association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conversion from stock form depository institution to Federal stock association. 152.18 Section 152.18 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL STOCK ASSOCIATIONS-INCORPORATION, ORGANIZATION, AND CONVERSION §...

  11. 12 CFR 552.2-6 - Conversion from stock form depository institution to Federal stock association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conversion from stock form depository institution to Federal stock association. 552.2-6 Section 552.2-6 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL STOCK ASSOCIATIONS-INCORPORATION, ORGANIZATION, AND...

  12. 12 CFR 152.18 - Conversion from stock form depository institution to Federal stock association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conversion from stock form depository institution to Federal stock association. 152.18 Section 152.18 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL STOCK ASSOCIATIONS-INCORPORATION, ORGANIZATION, AND CONVERSION §...

  13. The Stock Market Game: A Simulation of Stock Market Trading. Grades 5-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draze, Dianne

    This guide to a unit on a simulation game about the stock market contains an instructional text and two separate simulations. Through directed lessons and reproducible worksheets, the unit teaches students about business ownership, stock exchanges, benchmarks, commissions, why prices change, the logistics of buying and selling stocks, and how to…

  14. The Stock Market Game: A Simulation of Stock Market Trading. Grades 5-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draze, Dianne

    This guide to a unit on a simulation game about the stock market contains an instructional text and two separate simulations. Through directed lessons and reproducible worksheets, the unit teaches students about business ownership, stock exchanges, benchmarks, commissions, why prices change, the logistics of buying and selling stocks, and how to…

  15. Adoptive parenting.

    PubMed

    Grotevant, Harold D; Lo, Albert Yh

    2017-06-01

    Challenges in adoptive parenting continue to emerge as adoption policies and practices evolve. We review three areas of research in adoptive parenting that reflect contemporary shifts in adoption. First, we highlight recent findings concerning openness in adoption contact arrangements, or contact between a child's families of birth and rearing. Second, we examine research regarding racial and cultural socialization in transracial and international adoptions. Finally, we review investigations of parenting experiences of lesbian and gay adoptive parents. Overall, parenting processes (e.g., supportive vs. problematic family interaction) are better predictors of child adjustment than are group differences (e.g., open vs. closed adoptions; adoption by heterosexual vs. same-sex parents). The distinctive needs of adopted children call for preparation of adoption-competent mental health, casework, education, and health care professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Degradation of veterinary antibiotics and hormone during broiler manure composting.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yu Bin; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Latif, Puziah Abdul; Saari, Nazamid

    2013-03-01

    The fate of nine veterinary antibiotics and one hormone in broiler manure during 40 days of composting was investigated. Results showed that composting can significantly reduce the concentration of veterinary antibiotics and hormone in broiler manure, making application of the post-compost manure safer for soil application. More than 99% of the nine antibiotics and one hormone involved in this study were removed from the manure during 40 days of composting. The target antibiotics and hormone showed short half-life in broiler manure composting, ranging from 1.3 to 3.8 days. The relationship between the physico-chemical properties of soil, manure and manure compost and its veterinary antibiotic and hormone concentration was statistically evaluated by Pearson correlation matrix. The concentration of veterinary antibiotics and hormone in manure compost was suggested to be affected by physico-chemical properties such as pH, temperature, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and metal contents.

  17. Spatio-temporal patterns of Campylobacter colonization in Danish broilers.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, S; Themudo, G E; Sandberg, M; Ersbøll, A K

    2013-05-01

    Despite a number of risk-factor studies in different countries, the epidemiology of Campylobacter colonization in broilers, particularly spatial dependencies, is still not well understood. A series of analyses (visualization and exploratory) were therefore conducted in order to obtain a better understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of Campylobacter in the Danish broiler population. In this study, we observed a non-random temporal occurrence of Campylobacter, with high prevalence during summer and low during winter. Significant spatio-temporal clusters were identified in the same areas in the summer months from 2007 to 2009. Range of influence between broiler farms were estimated at distances of 9.6 km and 13.5 km in different years. Identification of areas and time with greater risk indicates variable presence of risk factors with space and time. Implementation of safety measures on farms within high-risk clusters during summer could have an impact in reducing prevalence.

  18. 12 CFR 221.119 - Applicability of plan-lender provisions to financing of stock options and stock purchase rights...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... financing of stock options and stock purchase rights qualified or restricted under Internal Revenue Code... provisions to financing of stock options and stock purchase rights qualified or restricted under Internal... intended to apply to the financing of stock options restricted or qualified under the Internal Revenue...

  19. Behavioral responses of broilers to different gaseous atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Gerritzen, M A; Lambooij, E; Hillebrand, S J; Lankhaar, J A; Pieterse, C

    2000-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the differences in behavioral response of broilers when they come into contact for the first time with gas mixtures that can be used for stunning. The six test groups were divided into four experimental groups that were exposed to gas mixtures used for stunning and two control groups that were exposed to atmospheric air. The different gas mixtures and their concentrations were a) air, no flow (control-); b) circulating air, flowing (control+); c) >90% Ar in air; d) 60% CO2 in air; e) 40% CO2 and 30% O2 in air; and f) 70% Ar and 30% CO2 in air. The behavior of the broilers before entering the gas tunnel, the number of birds that moved into the gas mixture, and the behavior in the gas mixture were recorded on video and analyzed afterward. No differences among the groups were observed in the number of broilers that walked into the gas tunnel or in the number of birds that tried to return to the cage. Exposure of broilers to the 70% Ar and 30% CO2 mixture resulted in the fastest loss of posture. The number of broilers exhibiting headshaking and gasping was least in the >90% Ar in air mixture. Convulsions were rarely seen in the 40% CO2 and 30% O2 mixture; the other gas mixtures resulted in severe convulsions. The experiment did not indicate that broilers could detect or avoid increased CO2 or decreased O2 levels when they come into contact with such atmospheres for the first time.

  20. Epidemiology of fowl cholera in free range broilers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Reema; Remington, Bruce; Blackall, Pat; Turni, Conny

    2014-03-01

    Fowl cholera, caused by Pasteurella multocida, remains a major problem of poultry worldwide. In the current report, we describe an outbreak in free range organic broilers. In addition to culturing samples from dead broilers, we attempted to isolate P. multocida from feral cats trapped on the farm. The isolates were identified by PCR as P. multocida and then serotyped using the Heddleston scheme and genotyped using both a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method and an enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR method. A total of 123 isolates of P. multocida were recovered from 12 broilers. All 123 isolates were examined by ERIC-PCR, and only one pattern was identified. A subset of seven broiler isolates were examined by MLST and all were typed as sequence type (ST) 20. A total of 28 isolates of P. multocida were recovered from 17 cats, and five ERIC-PCR genotypes were identified, with one genotype (E-1, shared by 19 isolates) being the same as the ERIC-PCR pattern associated with the broilers. One representative cat strain for each ERIC-PCR pattern was subjected to MLST. The cat isolate with the same ERIC-PCR genotype as the broiler isolates was confirmed as having the same MLST result, ST 20. The other five cat ERIC-PCR patterns were allocated to four STs: E-2 and E-5 to ST 265, E-3 to ST 30, E-4 to ST 20, and E-6 to ST 264. Both genotyping methods confirmed that isolates of P. multocida were common between the feral cats and the chickens. It was not clear whether the strain was transmitted from the cats to the chicken or whether the cats obtained the strain preying on chicken. The study has shown that cats can harbor P. multocida strains with the same genotype found in chickens affected with fowl cholera.

  1. U.S. broiler housing ammonia emissions inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, R. S.; Casey, K. D.; Wheeler, E. F.; Xin, H.; Pescatore, A. J.

    Using recently published baseline ammonia emissions data for U.S. broiler chicken housing, we present a method of estimating their contribution to an annual ammonia budget that is different from that used by USEPA. Emission rate increases in a linear relationship with flock age from near zero at the start of the flock to a maximum at the end of the flock, 28-65 days later. Market weight of chickens raised for meat varies from "broilers" weighing about 2 kg to "roasters" weighing about 3 kg. Multiple flocks of birds are grown in a single house annually, with variable downtime to prepare the house between flocks. The method takes into account weight and number of chickens marketed. Uncertainty in baseline emissions estimates is used so that inventory estimates are provided with error estimates. The method also incorporates the condition of litter that birds are raised upon and the varying market weight of birds grown. Using 2003 USDA data on broiler production numbers, broiler housing is estimated to contribute 8.8-11.7 kT ammonia for new and built-up litter, respectively, in Kentucky and 240-324 kT ammonia for new and built-up litter, respectively, nationally. Results suggest that a 10% uncertainty in annual emission rate is expected for the market weight categories of broilers, heavy broilers, and roasters. A 27-47% reduction in annual housing emission rate is predicted if new rather than built-up litter were used for every flock. The estimating method can be adapted to other meat bird building emissions and future ammonia emission strategies, with suitable insertion of an age-dependent emission factor or slope into a predictive model equation. The method can be readily applied and is an alternative to that used by USEPA.

  2. The alarming decline of Mediterranean fish stocks.

    PubMed

    Vasilakopoulos, Paraskevas; Maravelias, Christos D; Tserpes, George

    2014-07-21

    In recent years, fisheries management has succeeded in stabilizing and even improving the state of many global fisheries resources [1-5]. This is particularly evident in areas where stocks are exploited in compliance with scientific advice and strong institutional structures are in place [1, 5]. In Europe, the well-managed northeast (NE) Atlantic fish stocks have been recovering in response to decreasing fishing pressure over the past decade [3-6], albeit with a long way to go for a universal stock rebuild [3, 7]. Meanwhile, little is known about the temporal development of the European Mediterranean stocks, whose management relies on input controls that are often poorly enforced. Here, we perform a meta-analysis of 42 European Mediterranean stocks of nine species in 1990-2010, showing that exploitation rate has been steadily increasing, selectivity (proportional exploitation of juveniles) has been deteriorating, and stocks have been shrinking. We implement species-specific simulation models to quantify changes in exploitation rate and selectivity that would maximize long-term yields and halt stock depletion. We show that stocks would be more resilient to fishing and produce higher long-term yields if harvested a few years after maturation because current selectivity is far from optimal, especially for demersal stocks. The European Common Fisheries Policy that has assisted in improving the state of NE Atlantic fish stocks in the past 10 years has failed to deliver similar results for Mediterranean stocks managed under the same policy. Limiting juvenile exploitation, advancing management plans, and strengthening compliance, control, and enforcement could promote fisheries sustainability in the Mediterranean.

  3. Organic carbon stocks and sequestration rates of forest soils in Germany.

    PubMed

    Grüneberg, Erik; Ziche, Daniel; Wellbrock, Nicole

    2014-08-01

    The National Forest Soil Inventory (NFSI) provides the Greenhouse Gas Reporting in Germany with a quantitative assessment of organic carbon (C) stocks and changes in forest soils. Carbon stocks of the organic layer and the mineral topsoil (30 cm) were estimated on the basis of ca. 1.800 plots sampled from 1987 to 1992 and resampled from 2006 to 2008 on a nationwide grid of 8 × 8 km. Organic layer C stock estimates were attributed to surveyed forest stands and CORINE land cover data. Mineral soil C stock estimates were linked with the distribution of dominant soil types according to the Soil Map of Germany (1 : 1 000 000) and subsequently related to the forest area. It appears that the C pool of the organic layer was largely depending on tree species and parent material, whereas the C pool of the mineral soil varied among soil groups. We identified the organic layer C pool as stable although C was significantly sequestered under coniferous forest at lowland sites. The mineral soils, however, sequestered 0.41 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) . Carbon pool changes were supposed to depend on stand age and forest transformation as well as an enhanced biomass input. Carbon stock changes were clearly attributed to parent material and soil groups as sandy soils sequestered higher amounts of C, whereas clayey and calcareous soils showed small gains and in some cases even losses of soil C. We further showed that the largest part of the overall sample variance was not explained by fine-earth stock variances, rather by the C concentrations variance. The applied uncertainty analyses in this study link the variability of strata with measurement errors. In accordance to other studies for Central Europe, the results showed that the applied method enabled a reliable nationwide quantification of the soil C pool development for a certain period. © 2014 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Organic carbon stocks and sequestration rates of forest soils in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Grüneberg, Erik; Ziche, Daniel; Wellbrock, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    The National Forest Soil Inventory (NFSI) provides the Greenhouse Gas Reporting in Germany with a quantitative assessment of organic carbon (C) stocks and changes in forest soils. Carbon stocks of the organic layer and the mineral topsoil (30 cm) were estimated on the basis of ca. 1.800 plots sampled from 1987 to 1992 and resampled from 2006 to 2008 on a nationwide grid of 8 × 8 km. Organic layer C stock estimates were attributed to surveyed forest stands and CORINE land cover data. Mineral soil C stock estimates were linked with the distribution of dominant soil types according to the Soil Map of Germany (1 : 1 000 000) and subsequently related to the forest area. It appears that the C pool of the organic layer was largely depending on tree species and parent material, whereas the C pool of the mineral soil varied among soil groups. We identified the organic layer C pool as stable although C was significantly sequestered under coniferous forest at lowland sites. The mineral soils, however, sequestered 0.41 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. Carbon pool changes were supposed to depend on stand age and forest transformation as well as an enhanced biomass input. Carbon stock changes were clearly attributed to parent material and soil groups as sandy soils sequestered higher amounts of C, whereas clayey and calcareous soils showed small gains and in some cases even losses of soil C. We further showed that the largest part of the overall sample variance was not explained by fine-earth stock variances, rather by the C concentrations variance. The applied uncertainty analyses in this study link the variability of strata with measurement errors. In accordance to other studies for Central Europe, the results showed that the applied method enabled a reliable nationwide quantification of the soil C pool development for a certain period. PMID:24616061

  5. Divergent selection for muscle color in broilers.

    PubMed

    Harford, I D; Pavlidis, H O; Anthony, N B

    2014-05-01

    One consumer-related physiological abnormality that is a recent concern for the poultry industry is atypical meat quality. Currently in the processing plant, meat is characterized on appearance such as tears, bruises, discoloration, or missing parts. Unfortunately, this method ignores physical properties such as palatability, texture, tenderness, taste, color, pH, and water-holding capacity (WHC). The growing demand for a convenient, economical, and palatable product has shifted the market toward value-added poultry products. The effect of a meat's physical properties on its marketability and versatility has become apparent to processors attempting to utilize poor quality meat. After 8 generations of divergent selection for muscle color or lightness (L*) in broilers, muscle quality parameters were investigated. The 2 broiler lines divergently selected for high (HMC) and low (LMC) muscle color along with their randombred control line (RBC) were included in the study. Heritability estimates for L* were 0.47 ± 0.05 and 0.51 ± 0.05 in the HMC and LMC lines, respectively. For generation 8, the mean L* for the HMC, RBC, and LMC lines were 53.91, 49.70, and 46.86, respectively. Selection for increased L* was found to result in increased breast fillet yellowness (b*), whereas selection for decreased L* resulted in an increase in breast fillet redness (a*). Selection for increased L* has resulted in increased rate of pH decline over time, whereas selection for decreased L* has resulted in a decreased rate of pH decline. The HMC line exhibited a higher percentage fillet drip loss than both the LMC and RBC lines, which did not differ from each other. Overall selection for L* was effective in modifying breast muscle color as well as correlated responses associated with atypical poultry meat such as drip loss and postmortem muscle pH. These selected lines can serve as resource populations for the study of PSE and DFD-like meat in poultry and demonstrate that L* selection

  6. Chlorpyrifos chronic toxicity in broilers and effect of vitamin C

    PubMed Central

    Kammon, A.M.; Brar, R.S.; Sodhi, S.; Banga, H.S.; Singh, J.; Nagra, N.S.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study chlorpyrifos chronic toxicity in broilers and the protective effect of vitamin C. Oral administration of 0.8 mg/kg body weight (bw) (1/50 LD50) chlorpyrifos (Radar®), produced mild diarrhea and gross lesions comprised of paleness, flaccid consistency and slightly enlargement of liver. Histopathologically, chlorpyrifos produced degenerative changes in various organs. Oral administration of 100 mg/kg bw vitamin C partially ameliorated the degenerative changes in kidney and heart. There was insignificant alteration in biochemical and haematological profiles. It is concluded that supplementation of vitamin C reduced the severity of lesions induced by chronic chlorpyrifos toxicity in broilers. PMID:26623275

  7. Avian hepatitis E virus infection and possible associated clinical disease in broiler breeder flocks in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Chris J; Samu, Gyozo; Mátrai, Eszter; Klausz, Akos; Wood, Alasdair M; Richter, Susanne; Jaskulska, Barbara; Hess, Michael

    2008-10-01

    In broiler breeder flocks in one broiler integration in Hungary, a new syndrome appeared in January 2005 with initially four successive post-peak flocks experiencing significant decreases in egg production. Clinically birds became depressed and there was a small increase in the mortality rate. Postmortem examinations revealed enlarged livers in up to 19% of birds dying, and enlarged spleens in some. Also observed were birds with either clotted blood or serosanguineous fluid in the abdomen and subcapsular haemorrhages of the liver. Histopathology and polymerase chain reaction excluded tumours and the presence of common tumour-associated viruses. Chronic bacterial infections (especially causing hepatitis, peritonitis and airsacculitis) were common but many enlarged livers had no obvious bacterial involvement. After a 9-month period during which a majority of flocks became affected, no newly affected flocks occurred. Investigations showed that all tested affected flocks were seropositive in the big liver and spleen (BLS) Agar Gel Immunodiffusion test. Subsequent flocks without post-peak egg-production drops were shown to be seronegative in the BLS AGID test, as were all the parent flocks contributing to the affected flocks. Liver samples and cloacal swabs were positive by polymerase chain reaction (aHEV helicase target), and calicivirus-like particles were demonstrated in bile samples from affected birds. These observations are similar to hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome as described in North America and BLS syndrome as described in Australia. Histopathological features were a non-specific chronic hepatitis similar to those described in BLS and hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome. Immunohistochemistry using a BLS-specific monoclonal antibody confirmed the presence of avian hepatitis E virus antigen in livers and spleen.

  8. Comparison between broilers and layers for growth and protein use by embryos.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Y; Yoshida, T; Tsushima, N

    2004-05-01

    Three experiments were conducted to compare the growth and protein utilization of embryo between broilers and layers. In experiments 1 and 2, the average weight of eggs was the same for broilers and layers. Nothing or an amino acid (AA) solution was injected into the eggs of broilers at d 7 of incubation, and the plasma AA concentration of newly hatched chicks was determined in broilers in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the same treatments as experiment 1 were used on layer breeder eggs. Plasma Tau, Thr, and Lys concentrations of hatched chicks increased when AA solution was injected in broilers breeder eggs (P < 0.05) but not in layers (P > 0.05). The AA ratio to Lys was reduced by AA injection in broilers but not in layers. In experiment 3, weights of embryos and egg were recorded, and CP contents were analyzed over time during incubation (d 0, 7, 14, and 19 of incubation) in broilers and layers using eggs of the same weight. There were no differences in the weights and CP contents of embryos and eggs from broilers and layers. On d 14 and 19 of incubation, weights and CP contents of embryo were higher in broilers than layers (P < 0.05). These results suggested that the egg protein content might be adequate for hatching but insufficient for maximum growth of embryos from broilers.

  9. Does Stock Market Performance Influence Retirement Intentions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goda, Gopi Shah; Shoven, John B.; Slavov, Sita Nataraj

    2012-01-01

    Media reports predicted that the stock market decline in October 2008 would cause changes in retirement intentions, due to declines in retirement assets. We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study to investigate the relationship between stock market performance and retirement intentions during 1998-2008, a period that includes the…

  10. A Tale of Two Stock Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Michelle Hine; Piercey, Victor I.; Greene-Hunley, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This article describes two different projects using the stock market as a context for learning. For both projects, students "bought" shares in individual companies, tracked stock prices for a period of time, and then "sold" their shares at a gain or loss. The projects are adaptable for students in late elementary school through…

  11. Does Stock Market Performance Influence Retirement Intentions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goda, Gopi Shah; Shoven, John B.; Slavov, Sita Nataraj

    2012-01-01

    Media reports predicted that the stock market decline in October 2008 would cause changes in retirement intentions, due to declines in retirement assets. We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study to investigate the relationship between stock market performance and retirement intentions during 1998-2008, a period that includes the…

  12. A user's guide to nursery stock types

    Treesearch

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Peyton W. Owston

    2003-01-01

    Foresters must consider many factors when selecting nursery stock types for their planting projects. Forest nurseries can now produce a vast array of stock types to meet any challenge in the field - these target seedlings can be defined for particular sites. It is important that foresters work with a nursery that is known from experience or reputation to provide a...

  13. Distinguishing manipulated stocks via trading network analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Cheng, Xue-Qi; Shen, Hua-Wei; Wang, Zhao-Yang

    2011-10-01

    Manipulation is an important issue for both developed and emerging stock markets. For the study of manipulation, it is critical to analyze investor behavior in the stock market. In this paper, an analysis of the full transaction records of over a hundred stocks in a one-year period is conducted. For each stock, a trading network is constructed to characterize the relations among its investors. In trading networks, nodes represent investors and a directed link connects a stock seller to a buyer with the total trade size as the weight of the link, and the node strength is the sum of all edge weights of a node. For all these trading networks, we find that the node degree and node strength both have tails following a power-law distribution. Compared with non-manipulated stocks, manipulated stocks have a high lower bound of the power-law tail, a high average degree of the trading network and a low correlation between the price return and the seller-buyer ratio. These findings may help us to detect manipulated stocks.

  14. Genetic Stock Identification of Russian Honey Bees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A genetic stock certification assay was developed to distinguish Russian honey bees from other European stocks that are commercially produced in the United States. A total of 11 microsatellite and 5 SNP loci were used. Loci were selected for relatively high levels of homogeneity within each group an...

  15. Looking Forward to the Stock Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickneider, William

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of using the stock market to add new dimensions to social studies classes. Suggests that changes in society will make knowledge of financial markets essential for students. Includes two lesson plans with handouts that use the Disney company and changes in the operation of the stock market to capture student interest. (DK)

  16. A Tale of Two Stock Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Michelle Hine; Piercey, Victor I.; Greene-Hunley, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This article describes two different projects using the stock market as a context for learning. For both projects, students "bought" shares in individual companies, tracked stock prices for a period of time, and then "sold" their shares at a gain or loss. The projects are adaptable for students in late elementary school through…

  17. 25 CFR 700.717 - Stocking rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stocking rate. 700.717 Section 700.717 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.717 Stocking rate. The Commissioner will determine livestock carrying capacity for...

  18. 25 CFR 700.717 - Stocking rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stocking rate. 700.717 Section 700.717 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.717 Stocking rate. The Commissioner will determine livestock carrying capacity for...

  19. 25 CFR 700.717 - Stocking rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stocking rate. 700.717 Section 700.717 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.717 Stocking rate. The Commissioner will determine livestock carrying capacity for...

  20. 25 CFR 700.717 - Stocking rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stocking rate. 700.717 Section 700.717 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.717 Stocking rate. The Commissioner will determine livestock carrying capacity for...

  1. Stock market stability: Diffusion entropy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shouwei; Zhuang, Yangyang; He, Jianmin

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we propose a method to analyze the stock market stability based on diffusion entropy, and conduct an empirical analysis of Dow Jones Industrial Average. Empirical results show that this method can reflect the volatility and extreme cases of the stock market.

  2. Looking Forward to the Stock Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickneider, William

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of using the stock market to add new dimensions to social studies classes. Suggests that changes in society will make knowledge of financial markets essential for students. Includes two lesson plans with handouts that use the Disney company and changes in the operation of the stock market to capture student interest. (DK)

  3. Parent Express.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanjian, Elise, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Intended for use by parents of infants and toddlers, this series of 27 8-page month-by-month newsletters provides research-based information on infant and child development and care from 0 to 36 months. Topics in the series for infants include: becoming a parent; getting ready for child birth; the newborn child; and characteristics of the child at…

  4. Valuing Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Eugenia Proctor

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a young faculty member commented that e-mail and inexpensive long distance rates were hampering her first-year students' development by making it too easy for them to stay in touch with their parents. Similarly, Judith Shapiro, president of Barnard College, argued in her August 22, 2002, New York Times op-ed piece, "Keeping Parents Off…

  5. Parental Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Kevin

    1976-01-01

    The perceived parental attitudes toward higher education and the grade point averages of Anglo, Black and Mexican-American students were correlated. Only the correlation of the two factors for the Mexican-American group was significant. Differing parent and child dynamics in different groups was said to be responsible for the results found. (SE)

  6. Valuing Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Eugenia Proctor

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a young faculty member commented that e-mail and inexpensive long distance rates were hampering her first-year students' development by making it too easy for them to stay in touch with their parents. Similarly, Judith Shapiro, president of Barnard College, argued in her August 22, 2002, New York Times op-ed piece, "Keeping Parents Off…

  7. A quantum mechanical model for the relationship between stock price and stock ownership

    SciTech Connect

    Cotfas, Liviu-Adrian

    2012-11-01

    The trade of a fixed stock can be regarded as the basic process that measures its momentary price. The stock price is exactly known only at the time of sale when the stock is between traders, that is, only in the case when the owner is unknown. We show that the stock price can be better described by a function indicating at any moment of time the probabilities for the possible values of price if a transaction takes place. This more general description contains partial information on the stock price, but it also contains partial information on the stock owner. By following the analogy with quantum mechanics, we assume that the time evolution of the function describing the stock price can be described by a Schroedinger type equation.

  8. A quantum mechanical model for the relationship between stock price and stock ownership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotfas, Liviu-Adrian

    2012-11-01

    The trade of a fixed stock can be regarded as the basic process that measures its momentary price. The stock price is exactly known only at the time of sale when the stock is between traders, that is, only in the case when the owner is unknown. We show that the stock price can be better described by a function indicating at any moment of time the probabilities for the possible values of price if a transaction takes place. This more general description contains partial information on the stock price, but it also contains partial information on the stock owner. By following the analogy with quantum mechanics, we assume that the time evolution of the function describing the stock price can be described by a Schrödinger type equation.

  9. Recurrence quantification analysis of global stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, João A.; Caiado, Jorge

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates the presence of deterministic dependencies in international stock markets using recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis (RQA). The results are based on a large set of free float-adjusted market capitalization stock indices, covering a period of 15 years. The statistical tests suggest that the dynamics of stock prices in emerging markets is characterized by higher values of RQA measures when compared to their developed counterparts. The behavior of stock markets during critical financial events, such as the burst of the technology bubble, the Asian currency crisis, and the recent subprime mortgage crisis, is analyzed by performing RQA in sliding windows. It is shown that during these events stock markets exhibit a distinctive behavior that is characterized by temporary decreases in the fraction of recurrence points contained in diagonal and vertical structures.

  10. An Unusual Necrotizing cholangiohepatitis in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Janet L.; Julian, Richard J.; Hampson, Robert J.; Trenton, Ron G.; Yo, Ignatius H.

    1988-01-01

    A diagnosis of toxic necrotizing cholangiohepatitis was made in approximately 35% of a flock of 23,000 commercial broiler chickens. Affected chickens were small, and had discrete green foci throughout the liver. Seven to twelve days prior to shipping the flock to slaughter, premixes containing oxytetracycline, monensin, and 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid had been added to the ration because the birds had wet droppings and were growing slowly. The 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid had been inadvertently incorporated at ten times the recommended level. Liver and kidney of affected birds had elevated levels of total arsenic, and special strains demonstrated arsenic in necrotic foci in liver. Histologically there was marked dilation of intrahepatic bile ducts, and patchy necrosis and hyperplasia of the bile duct epithelium. Damage to bile ducts may have been a toxic manifestation of altered metabolism and excretion of the three drugs being fed to birds suffering from intercurrent diarrhea and/or undefined interactions among the drugs. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:17423098

  11. Landscape patterns and soil organic carbon stocks in agricultural bocage landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viaud, Valérie; Lacoste, Marine; Michot, Didier; Walter, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) has a crucial impact on global carbon storage at world scale. SOC spatial variability is controlled by the landscape patterns resulting from the continuous interactions between the physical environment and the society. Natural and anthropogenic processes occurring and interplaying at the landscape scale, such as soil redistribution in the lateral and vertical dimensions by tillage and water erosion processes or spatial differentiation of land-use and land-management practices, strongly affect SOC dynamics. Inventories of SOC stocks, reflecting their spatial distribution, are thus key elements to develop relevant management strategies to improving carbon sequestration and mitigating climate change and soil degradation. This study aims to quantify SOC stocks and their spatial distribution in a 1,000-ha agricultural bocage landscape with dairy production as dominant farming system (Zone Atelier Armorique, LTER Europe, NW France). The site is characterized by high heterogeneity on short distance due to a high diversity of soils with varying waterlogging, soil parent material, topography, land-use and hedgerow density. SOC content and stocks were measured up to 105-cm depth in 200 sampling locations selected using conditioned Latin hypercube sampling. Additive sampling was designed to specifically explore SOC distribution near to hedges: 112 points were sampled at fixed distance on 14 transects perpendicular from hedges. We illustrate the heterogeneity of spatial and vertical distribution of SOC stocks at landscape scale, and quantify SOC stocks in the various landscape components. Using multivariate statistics, we discuss the variability and co-variability of existing spatial organization of cropping systems, environmental factors, and SOM stocks, over landscape. Ultimately, our results may contribute to improving regional or national digital soil mapping approaches, by considering the distribution of SOC stocks within each modeling unit and

  12. Movement of reservoir-stocked riverine fish between tailwaters and rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spoelstra, J.A.; Stein, R.A.; Royle, J. Andrew; Marschall, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    The movement of fish from onstream impoundments into connected streams and rivers has traditionally been overlooked in fish stocking decisions but is critical to the ultimate impact of stocking riverine species into reservoirs. Hybrid saugeyes (female walleye Sander vitreus x male sauger S. canadensis) stocked into Deer Creek Reservoir, Ohio, readily move from the reservoir to the tailwater below. Downstream movement of these saugeyes from the tailwater may have consequences for native prey species and parental stocks downstream. We used fixed-station radiotelemetry to quantify the temporal movement patterns of 203 reservoir-stocked saugeyes from the tailwater of the reservoir, the stream flowing from the tailwater, and the river into which the stream flowed. From October 1998 through July 2000, most (75%) saugeyes never left the tailwater, and those that left returned 75% of the time. Overall, saugeyes spent 90% of their time in the tailwater, 7-8% of their time downstream in small streams, and 2-3% of their time farther downstream in the Scioto River (45 km downstream). No radio-tagged saugeyes moved to the Ohio River (155 km downstream). The probability of downstream movement generally increased with increasing flow and when dissolved oxygen dropped to lethal levels in summer. The probability of movement was highest in winter and spring, when it was probably related to spawning, and low in summer (except when dissolved oxygen was low) and fall. The patterns of movement seemed to reflect the relative suitability of tailwater over stream habitat. The predominant use of and return to tailwater habitat after downstream movement limited overall stream and river residence time. Although the daily movement probability for an individual was low, when we apply these rates to all of the stocked saugeyes in the Ohio River drainage, we cannot safely conclude that only small numbers move from reservoir tailwaters to downstream river systems. We recommend that managers

  13. Systematic analysis of group identification in stock markets.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Jeong, Hawoong

    2005-10-01

    We propose improved methods to identify stock groups using the correlation matrix of stock price changes. By filtering out the market-wide effect and the random noise, we construct the correlation matrix of stock groups in which nontrivial high correlations between stocks are found. Using the filtered correlation matrix, we successfully identify the multiple stock groups without any extra knowledge of the stocks by the optimization of the matrix representation and the percolation approach to the correlation-based network of stocks. These methods drastically reduce the ambiguities while finding stock groups using the eigenvectors of the correlation matrix.

  14. Viscoelastic behavior of stock indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gündüz, Güngör; Gündüz, Yalin

    2010-12-01

    The scattering diagram of a stock index results in a complex network structure, which can be used to analyze the viscoelastic properties of the index. The change along x- or y-direction of the diagram corresponds to purely elastic (or spring like) movement whereas the diagonal change at an angle of 45° corresponds to purely viscous (or dashpot like) movement. The viscous component pushes the price from its current value to any other value, while the elastic component acts like a restoring force. Four indices, namely, DJI, S&P-500, NASDAQ-100, and NASDAQ-composite were studied for the period of 2001-2009. NASDAQ-composite displayed very high elasticity while NASDAQ-100 displayed the highest fluidity in the time period considered. The fluidity of DJI and S&P-500 came out to be close to each other, and they are almost the same in the second half of the period.

  15. Impact of Feeding Systems and Vaccination Programs on Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization and Clearance of E. Coli In Broiler Broiler Breeders Pullets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Broiler breeder pullets from a single grandparent flock were in ovo-vaccinated with Marek's vaccines herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) + chicken herpesvirus (SB1) or a vector HVT + Infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine+SB1. The chicks were placed in an experimental broiler breeder facility at the Univer...

  16. Physiological parameters in broiler lines divergently selected for the incidence of ascites.

    PubMed

    Druyan, S; Shinder, D; Shlosberg, A; Cahaner, A; Yahav, S

    2009-09-01

    Ascites syndrome (AS) is manifested in flocks of contemporary broilers that are allowed to fully manifest their genetic potential for rapid growth. After successful selection, a pair of divergent lines was established, AS-susceptible (AS-S) and AS-resistant (AS-R). These lines facilitate comparisons between genetically resistant and susceptible healthy young broilers when reared under standard brooding conditions (SBC). The aim of the present study was to look for predictive indicators for AS susceptibility by comparing relevant physiological parameters in the AS-S and AS-R lines under SBC and after exposure to extreme ascites-inducing conditions (AIC). In this design, a trait differing significantly between the 2 lines under SBC is expected to be a reliable indicator for selection against AS susceptibility in breeding stocks when reared under noninducing conditions. Males from the AS-S and AS-R lines were reared together under SBC to 19 d of age, then under the AIC protocol. Cumulative incidence of AS mortality was 93.2% in the AS-S line and only 9% in the AS-R line, confirming the genetic divergence between the lines. Exposure to AIC enhanced the imbalance between oxygen demands and supply in the AS-S birds and induced differences in blood parameter level between the 2 lines. The AS-S birds exhibited elevated hematocrit and red blood cell counts and a decline in oxygen saturation in the arterial blood. No difference in hemoglobin concentration was found, but calculation of hemoglobin content per 1,000 red blood cells revealed a significant reduction in hemoglobin content in the AS-S birds. Under SBC, there were no significant differences between the lines for hematocrit, red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin count per 1,000 red cells, and blood oxygen saturation. However, heart rate during the first week of life was significantly higher in the AS-S birds than in the AS-R birds on d 1 and 7, suggesting that high heart rate may potentially

  17. Effect of cold stress on broilers selected for resistance or susceptibility to ascites syndrome.

    PubMed

    Balog, J M; Kidd, B D; Huff, W E; Huff, G R; Rath, N C; Anthony, N B

    2003-09-01

    Genetic selection for an ascites-resistant line of broilers is seen as a permanent solution to the ascites problem. Ascites-resistant and ascites-susceptible lines have been developed using sire family selection based on mortality data taken from siblings reared in a hypobaric chamber (simulated 2,900 m above sea level). The relaxed line is representative of the original commercial pureline stock randomly mated with no artificial selection pressure. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the differences between the lines when reared in floor pens and subjected to an ascites-inducing cold stress. Seven hundred eighty three straight run broilers were reared in floor pens at local elevation (390 m above sea level). Feed and water were available ad libitum. Birds were brooded at 32 C during the first week. The second week birds were maintained at 30 degrees C. Cold stress was applied for the remaining 4 wk at 14 degrees C. Mortalities were necropsied daily to determine cause of death. Birds and feed were weighed weekly. At 6 wk, five birds per pen were bled, and half the survivors in each pen (8 to 15 birds) were killed, necropsied, and scored for ascites. Blood gases, clinical chemistries, and blood cell counts were taken. Liver, spleen, split heart, and lung weights were recorded. Body weights were not different among the resistant, susceptible, and relaxed lines (P < 0.05). Feed conversion was better in the resistant line when compared to the susceptible and relaxed lines (P < 0.05). Ascites incidence, as measured by mortality and lesion score at necropsy, was higher in the susceptible and relaxed lines when compared to the resistant line; 18.8, 12.7, and 1.6% respectively (P < 0.001). Susceptible and relaxed lines showed more right ventricular hypertrophy when compared with the resistant line (P < 0.05). The results show that under severe cold stress at local altitude (390 m above sea level), the ascites-resistant line was growing as rapidly as the other

  18. Forsythia suspensa extract attenuates corticosterone-induced growth inhibition, oxidative injury, and immune depression in broilers.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Z K; Li, Q Y; Piao, X S; Liu, J D; Zhao, P F; Xu, X; Zhang, S; Niu, S

    2014-07-01

    Forsythia suspensa extract (FSE) has been demonstrated to attenuate physiological stress induced by high temperature or high stocking density. This experiment was conducted with 144 male Arbor Acre broilers (1-d-old, weighing 42.7 ± 1.7 g) to determine the effects of FSE on performance, nutrient digestibility, antioxidant activities, serum metabolites, and immune parameters for birds treated with corticosterone (CS). The birds were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement that included FSE supplementation (0 or 100 mg/kg) and CS administration (0 or 20 mg/kg of diet for 7 consecutive days starting on d 14). The feeding program consisted of a starter diet from d 1 to 21 and a finisher diet from d 22 to 42. Corticosterone administration decreased (P < 0.01) ADG and impaired (P < 0.01) feed conversion ratio in both phases and overall, which were alleviated (P < 0.01) by dietary FSE supplementation in the finisher phase and overall. At d 21, CS administration caused decreases (P < 0.05) in the apparent digestibility of energy, relative weight of bursa and thymus, total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and antibody titers to Newcastle disease virus (NDV); however, serum malondialdehyde and uric acid were increased. All of these changes were attenuated (P < 0.05) by dietary FSE supplementation. At d 42, FSE supplementation improved (P < 0.05) the apparent digestibility of DM and CP, relative weights of bursa, SOD activity, and antibody titers to NDV, which were impaired by CS administration. Interactions (P < 0.05) were noted between CS and FSE for ADG and feed conversion ratio in the finisher phase and overall, as well as total antioxidant capacity, SOD activity, uric acid, and antibody titers to NDV at d 21, as well as relative weights of thymus at d 42. In conclusion, dietary FSE supplementation enhanced nutrient digestibility and performance of broiler possibly by reducing oxidative stress and immune

  19. Effects of broiler litter application on nutrient accumulation in soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Excessive nutrient accumulation in soils due to land application of broiler litter is a growing environmental concern. A four-year study was conducted on a Pembroke silt loam soil (Mollic Paleudalf) cropped to orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) to evaluate accumulation of soil nutrients from broil...

  20. Effects of broiler litter application on nutrient accumulations in soil.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Excessive nutrient accumulation in soils due to land application of broiler litter is a growing environmental concern. A four year study was conducted on a Pembroke silt loam soil (Mollic Paleudalf) cropped to orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) to evaluate accumulation of soil nutrients from broil...

  1. Serologic incidence of Cryptosporidium in Delmarva broiler flocks.

    PubMed

    Snyder, D B; Current, W L; Russek-Cohen, E; Gorham, S L; Mallinson, E T; Marquardt, W W; Savage, P K

    1988-05-01

    Banked serum samples collected from an industry-wide serologic survey of eighteen Delmarva broiler flocks conducted in 1985 were evaluated for the presence of Cryptosporidium- specific antibodies in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Evaluation of sera collected at 49-days posthatch showed that 38% of the broiler flocks were serologically positive, whereas 50% of samples obtained from flocks at 63-days during an extended growout were positive. From a performance standpoint, the top nine flocks in the study were essentially negative at the 49-day sampling. In order to more firmly establish the serologic prevalence of Cryptosporidium in Delmarva broiler flocks, a second serologic survey was conducted early in 1987. In this study, an estimated 22% of the 454 broiler flocks sampled at approximately 49 days of age were positive for Cryptosporidium. The negative Cryptosporidium serology in the top 25% of these flocks was associated with better performance, but positive Cryptosporidium serology was not clearly correlated with poor performance. Remarkable differences between Cryptosporidium serologic exposure rates of the growout companies were observed, with some companies having exposure rates as high as 40%, and others rates of less than 3%.

  2. Subsurface Banded Broiler Litter Improves Cotton Yield and Quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Broiler litter is typically land-applied as a fertilizer by surface broadcasting, a practice that results in volatilization loss of N as NH3. This loss may be drastically reduced or eliminated by the use of a newly developed precision litter implement designed to apply the litter in bands just belo...

  3. Temporary feed restriction partially protects broilers from necrotic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Tsiouris, V; Georgopoulou, I; Batzios, Chr; Pappaioannou, N; Ducatelle, R; Fortomaris, P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feed restriction on the intestinal ecosystem and on the pathogenesis of experimental necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks. To induce subclinical necrotic enteritis, an experimental challenge model using a specific diet formulation, Gumboro vaccination, oral inoculation of broilers with a 10-fold dose of attenuated anticoccidial vaccine and multiple oral inoculations with a specific strain of Clostridium perfringens was adopted. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Cobb 500 broilers were randomly allocated to four groups: feed restricted, challenged, both feed restricted and challenged, and negative control. At 21, 22, 23 and 24 days of age, the intestines, gizzard and liver were collected from 15 birds in each group and scored for gross lesions. The intestinal digesta was collected for pH and viscosity determination. One caecum from each bird was taken for microbiological analysis. The application of feed restriction in birds challenged with C. perfringens reduced the necrotic enteritis lesion score significantly (P ≤ 0.05) and feed restriction significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) pH in the small intestine, the viscosity of the jejunum digesta as well as the C. perfringens counts in the caeca compared with the controls. In conclusion, feed restriction of broilers has a positive effect on the intestinal ecosystem and a significant protective effect against necrotic enteritis in the subclinical experimental model.

  4. Broiler litter effects on forage quality in tall fescue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Land application of broiler chicken (Gallus gallus) litter to forage crops is one of the most obvious methods of recycling nutrients. However, manure management remains one of the greatest challenges for livestock producers, particularly where animals are produced on relatively small land areas. Tal...

  5. Vertical stratification of ammonia in a broiler house

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The broiler industry is not immune to the problematic nature of ammonia production in animal rearing facilities. Though today’s headlines focus on environmental impact considerations, the detrimental effects of the house air quality on farmers and birds remain considerable for industry viability. Th...

  6. Air velocity distribution in a commercial broiler house

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increasing air velocity during tunnel ventilation in commercial broiler production facilities improves production efficiency, and many housing design specifications require a minimum air velocity. Air velocities are typically assessed with a hand-held velocity meter at random locations, rather than ...

  7. Salmonella-positive broiler carcasses contaminated by multiple serotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many laboratories that routinely sample broiler carcasses for Salmonella are primarily interested only in determining the presence or absence of Salmonella, so only one colony-forming unit may be selected. The objective of this study was to select several colonies from each of four selective plates...

  8. Visible/NIR spectroscopy for Identifying Salmonella Infected Broilers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Visible/NIR spectroscopy has the potential to determine key wavelengths for bile detection on droppings. These wavelengths can be used for further development with hyperspectral and/or multispectral imaging methods for real-time monitoring broilers infected by Salmonella. From the preliminary test ...

  9. Aerobic and anaerobic cecal bacterial flora of commercially processed broilers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Differences in the bacterial flora of aerobic and anaerobic cultures of broiler ceca collected from a commercial poultry processing facility were determined. Bacterial isolates from cecal cultures were selected based on the ability of the bacteria to grow in media supplemented with lactate and succ...

  10. Efficiency of sepiolite in broilers diet as uranium adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Mitrović, Branislava M; Jovanović, Milijan; Lazarević-Macanović, Mirjana; Janaćković, Djordje; Krstić, Nikola; Stojanović, Mirjana; Mirilović, Milorad

    2015-05-01

    The use of phosphate mineral products in animal nutrition, as a major source of phosphor and calcium, can lead to uranium entering the food chain. The aim of the present study was to determine the protective effect of natural sepiolite and sepiolite treated with acid for broilers after oral intake of uranium. The broilers were contaminated for 7 days with 25 mg/uranyl nitrate per day. Two different adsorbents (natural sepiolite and sepiolite treated with acid) were given via gastric tube immediately after the oral administration of uranium. Natural sepiolite reduced uranium distribution by 57% in kidney, 80% in liver, 42% in brain, and 56% in muscle. A lower protective effect was observed after the administration of sepiolite treated with acid, resulting in significant damage of intestinal villi in the form of shortening, fragmentation, and necrosis, and histopathological lesions on kidney in the form of edema and abruption of epithelial cells in tubules. When broilers received only sepiolite treated with acid (no uranyl nitrate), shortening of intestinal villi occurred. Kidney injuries were evident when uranium concentrations in kidney were 0.88 and 1.25 µg/g dry weight. It is concluded that adding of natural sepiolite to the diets of broilers can reduce uranium distribution in organs by significant amount without adverse side effects.

  11. Salmonella in broiler flocks in the republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Montserrat; Fanning, June; Murphy, Anne; Murray, Gerardine; Griffin, Margaret; Flack, Alma; Leonard, Nola; Egan, John

    2009-01-01

    In order to obtain an estimation of the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in flocks of broilers in the Republic of Ireland, a study was conducted in 2006 in a total of 362 broiler flocks associated with four integrated companies. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 27.3% of flocks, and eight Salmonella serovars were identified, none of which were Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Typhimurium. The most prevalent serovar was Salmonella Mbandaka, followed by Salmonella Kentucky, which respectively accounted for 61.6% and 27.0% of positive samples. Notable differences were observed among the flocks associated with different integrated companies, both in the Salmonella spp. prevalence and in the serovar distribution. Results from routine official Salmonella testing in broiler production in 2006 showed similar serovar distribution within each integrated company from the associated hatchery and factory samples. In our study, differences in the prevalence of Salmonella at farm level did not correlate with differences in the percentages of positive chicken carcasses officially tested, which were low, for all the four companies investigated. Given the high prevalence of Salmonella Mbandaka, all human isolates obtained in the Republic of Ireland from 2003 to 2006 were compared to a subset of poultry isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, but an epidemiological link between the animal and the human strains could not be established. Finally the antimicrobial resistance analysis indicated a low proportion of resistant strains among the broiler flock isolates.

  12. Quality and safety of broiler meat in various chilling systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chilling is a critical step in poultry processing to attain high quality meat and to meet the USDA-FSIS temperature standards. This study was conducted to determine the effects of commercially available chilling systems on quality and safety of broiler meat. A total of 300 carcasses in two replica...

  13. Effectiveness and efficiency of controlling Campylobacter on broiler chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Havelaar, Arie H; Mangen, Marie-Josee J; de Koeijer, Aline A; Bogaardt, Marc-Jeroen; Evers, Eric G; Jacobs-Reitsma, Wilma F; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Wagenaar, Jaap A; de Wit, G Ardine; van der Zee, Henk; Nauta, Maarten J

    2007-08-01

    Campylobacter bacteria are an important cause of foodborne infections. We estimated the potential costs and benefits of a large number of possible interventions to decrease human exposure to Campylobacter by consumption of chicken meat, which accounts for 20-40% of all cases of human campylobacteriosis in the Netherlands. For this purpose, a farm-to-fork risk assessment model was combined with economic analysis and epidemiological data. Reduction of contamination at broiler farms could be efficient in theory. However, it is unclear which hygienic measures need to be taken and the costs can be very high. The experimental treatment of colonized broiler flocks with bacteriophages has proven to be effective and could also be cost efficient, if confirmed in practice. Since a major decrease of infections at the broiler farm is not expected in the short term, additional measures in the processing plant were also considered. At this moment, guaranteed Campylobacter-free chicken meat at the retail level is not realistic. The most promising interventions in the processing plant are limiting fecal leakage during processing and separation of contaminated and noncontaminated flocks (scheduling), followed by decontamination of the contaminated flock. New (faster and more sensitive) test methods to detect Campylobacter colonization in broilers flocks are a prerequisite for successful scheduling scenarios. Other methods to decrease the contamination of meat of colonized flocks such as freezing and heat treatment are more expensive and/or less effective than chemical decontamination.

  14. A survey of commercially available broilers marketed as organic, free-range, and conventional broilers for cooked meat yields, meat composition, and relative value.

    PubMed

    Husak, R L; Sebranek, J G; Bregendahl, K

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this survey was to investigate qualitative and quantitative properties of meat from organic, free-range, and conventional broilers as currently provided to consumers. Fifteen broilers from 4 suppliers of each type were evaluated for raw meat yield, cooked meat yield, proximate composition, pH, color, lipid oxidation, fatty acid composition, and sensory attributes. Organic broilers yielded more dark (thigh) meat (P < 0.05) than free-range or conventional, when compared on a raw-meat basis, but conventional and free-range broilers yielded more (P < 0.05) cooked light (breast) meat than organic. Protein content of organic breast and thigh meat was greater (P < 0.05) than conventional in the raw and the cooked meat comparisons. The pH of breast meat from organic broilers was higher (P < 0.05) than free-range or conventional. Organic breast and thigh meat was less yellow (P < 0.05) than free-range or conventional. Fatty acid analysis showed that organic breasts and thighs were lower (P < 0.05) in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and higher (P < 0.05) in polyunsaturated fatty acids than free-range and conventional broilers. Shear force measurements were less (P < 0.05) for both breast and thigh meat from conventional broilers relative to free-range and organic broilers. Sensory panel results indicated that thighs from conventional broilers were more tender (P < 0.05) and less chewy (P < 0.05) than thighs from free-range and organic broilers, whereas other sensory properties did not differ. At the time of the study, March through May of 2006, the average retail prices for US broilers were USD 3.19, USD 2.78, and USD 1.29 per pound (USD 7.03, USD 6.13, and USD 2.84/kg) for organic, free-range, and conventional, respectively. Whereas a difference in the fatty acid composition was the largest difference observed between retail broilers in this survey, it is important to note that diets and production environments within the study were not controlled

  15. Increased calcium deposits and decreased Ca2+ -ATPase in erythrocytes of ascitic broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Zhao, Lihong; Geng, Guangrui; Ma, Liqin; Dong, Shishan; Xu, Tong; Wang, Jianlin; Wang, Huiyu; Tian, Yong; Qiao, Jian

    2011-06-01

    The decrease of erythrocyte deformability may be one of the predisposing factors for pulmonary hypertension and ascites in broiler chickens. In mammals, the cytoplasmic calcium is a major regulator of erythrocyte deformability. In this study, the erythrocyte deformability was measured, and the precise locations of Ca2+ and Ca2+ -ATPase in the erythrocytes were investigated in chickens with ascites syndrome induced by low ambient temperature. The results showed that ascitic broilers had higher filtration index of erythrocyte compared with control groups, indicating a decrease in erythrocyte deformability in ascitic broilers. The more calcium deposits were observed in the erythrocytes of ascitic broilers compared with those of the age-matched control birds. The Ca2+ -ATPase reactive grains were significantly decreased on the erythrocyte membranes of ascitic broilers. Our data suggest that accumulation of intracellular calcium and inhibition of Ca2+ -ATPase might be important factors for the reduced deformability of the erythrocytes of ascitic broilers.

  16. The dependence of Islamic and conventional stocks: A copula approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Ismail, Noriszura

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have found that Islamic stocks are dependent on conventional stocks and they appear to be more risky. In Asia, particularly in Islamic countries, research on dependence involving Islamic and non-Islamic stock markets is limited. The objective of this study is to investigate the dependence between financial times stock exchange Hijrah Shariah index and conventional stocks (EMAS and KLCI indices). Using the copula approach and a time series model for each marginal distribution function, the copula parameters were estimated. The Elliptical copula was selected to present the dependence structure of each pairing of the Islamic stock and conventional stock. Specifically, the Islamic versus conventional stocks (Shariah-EMAS and Shariah-KLCI) had lower dependence compared to conventional versus conventional stocks (EMAS-KLCI). These findings suggest that the occurrence of shocks in a conventional stock will not have strong impact on the Islamic stock.

  17. Power law models of stock indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, Man Kit

    Viewing the stock market as a self-organized system, Sornette and Johansen introduced physics-based models to study the dynamics of stock market crashes from the perspective of complex systems. This involved modeling stock market Indices using a mathematical power law exhibiting log-periodicity as the system approaches a market crash, which acts like a critical point in a thermodynamic system. In this dissertation, I aim to investigate stock indices to determine whether or not they exhibit log-periodic oscillations, according to the models proposed by Sornette, as they approach a crash. In addition to analyzing stock market crashes in the frequency domain using the discrete Fourier transform and the Lomb-Scargle periodogram, I perform a detailed analysis of the stock market crash models through parameter estimation and model testing. I find that the probability landscapes have a complex topography and that there is very little evidence that these phase transition-based models accurately describe stock market crashes.

  18. Asymmetric conditional volatility in international stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Nuno B.; Menezes, Rui; Mendes, Diana A.

    2007-08-01

    Recent studies show that a negative shock in stock prices will generate more volatility than a positive shock of similar magnitude. The aim of this paper is to appraise the hypothesis under which the conditional mean and the conditional variance of stock returns are asymmetric functions of past information. We compare the results for the Portuguese Stock Market Index PSI 20 with six other Stock Market Indices, namely the SP 500, FTSE 100, DAX 30, CAC 40, ASE 20, and IBEX 35. In order to assess asymmetric volatility we use autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity specifications known as TARCH and EGARCH. We also test for asymmetry after controlling for the effect of macroeconomic factors on stock market returns using TAR and M-TAR specifications within a VAR framework. Our results show that the conditional variance is an asymmetric function of past innovations raising proportionately more during market declines, a phenomenon known as the leverage effect. However, when we control for the effect of changes in macroeconomic variables, we find no significant evidence of asymmetric behaviour of the stock market returns. There are some signs that the Portuguese Stock Market tends to show somewhat less market efficiency than other markets since the effect of the shocks appear to take a longer time to dissipate.

  19. Protective roles of sodium selenite against aflatoxin B1-induced apoptosis of jejunum in broilers.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xi; Zhang, Shengqiang; Fang, Jing; Cui, Hengmin; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang

    2014-12-01

    The effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure and sodium selenite supplementation on cell apoptosis of jejunum in broilers were studied. A total of 240 one-day-old male AA broilers were randomly assigned four dietary treatments containing 0 mg/kg of AFB1 (control), 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 (AFB1), 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (+ Se) and 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (AFB1 + Se), respectively. Compared with the control broilers, the number of apoptotic cells, the expression of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA were significantly increased, while the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio were significantly decreased in AFB1 broilers. The number of apoptotic cells and the expression of Caspase-3 mRNA in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly higher than those in the control broilers, but significantly lower than those in AFB1 broilers. There were no significant changes in the expression of Bax mRNA between AFB1 + Se and control broilers; the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly lower than those in the control broilers, but significantly higher than those in AFB1 broilers. In conclusion, 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 in the diet can increase cell apoptosis, decrease Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and increase of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression in broiler's jejunum. However, supplementation of dietary sodium selenite at the concentration of 0.4 mg/kg Se may ameliorate AFB1-induced apoptosis by increasing Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and decreasing Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression.

  20. Pathogenesis of ascites in broilers raised at low altitude: aetiological considerations based on echocardiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Olkowski, A A; Abbott, J A; Classen, H L

    2005-05-01

    This study reports novel insight into the aetiology of pulmonary hypertension and ascites in broiler chickens. The scope of measurements was focused on anatomical and functional parameters, and blood flow patterns in leghorns (resistant to ascites), fast-growing broilers (susceptible to ascites), broilers developing ascites, and ascitic broilers evaluated in vivo using echocardiography, and further examined in the context of postmortem findings. Both, in vivo observed features and postmortem findings, showed clear differences between broilers and leghorns, and between normal and ascitic broilers. Abnormalities in the heart chamber geometry and blood flow patterns were detected upon echocardiographic examination in all ascitic broilers. Right and left atrio-ventricular (AV) valve regurgitation were common findings in ascitic broilers and some apparently normal broilers, with left AV valve insufficiency being a predominant feature with respect to degree and frequency of occurrence. Blood flow disturbances were not detected in leghorns. Left ventricular fractional shortening (functional parameter) was considerably reduced (P < 0.01) in ascitic birds (mean: 21.7 +/- 2.0 SE) in comparison with normal broilers (mean: 39.1 +/- 3.6 SE), or leghorns (mean: 43.3 +/- 2.4 SE). The presented findings indicate that pathological and functional changes in the left ventricle and atrium play a significant role in the pathogenesis of ascites in broilers. Severe dilation of the left atrium and pulmonary veins seen on postmortem examination, as well as regurgitant blood flow in the left atrium, demonstrated by Doppler study in ascitic birds, provide evidence that chronically elevated pressure in the left atrium is involved in the aetiology of pulmonary hypertension and ascites in fast-growing broilers.

  1. A comparison of post-mortem findings in broilers dead-on-farm and broilers dead-on-arrival at the abattoir.

    PubMed

    Kittelsen, K E; Granquist, E G; Kolbjørnsen, Ø; Nafstad, O; Moe, R O

    2015-11-01

    Broiler mortality during transport to abattoirs (dead-on-arrival/DOA) evokes concern due to compromised animal welfare and associated economic losses. The general aim of this study was to characterize pathological lesions associated with mortality in broilers close to slaughter. The specific aim was to investigate whether disease at the end of the growth period may be a predisposing factor for DOA by describing and comparing the pathological findings in broilers dead-on-farm (DOF) in the final days of the production cycle and in broilers DOA from the same flocks. Gross post-mortem examinations were performed on 607 broilers from 32 flocks, either DOF (371) or DOA (236). In DOF broilers, the most common pathological lesions were lung congestion (37.7%), endocarditis (29.4%), and ascites (24.0%), whereas the most common findings in broilers DOA were lung congestion (57.2%) and trauma (24.6%). Lung congestion was more prevalent among DOA broilers compared to DOF broilers (P-value of > 0.001). A possible cause behind the pathological finding lung congestion is sudden death syndrome (SDS). The study indicates that steps in the transportation process per se cause the majority of pathological lesions such as lung congestion and trauma that may have led to the mortalities registered. Pre-existing diseases such as ascites and osteomyelitis may also predispose for DOA. Thus, factors relating to on-farm health, catching, and transportation are all areas of future investigation in order to reduce transport mortalities and to enhance welfare in broilers.

  2. Effect of Chitosan on Salmonella Typhimurium in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Menconi, Anita; Pumford, Neil R.; Morgan, Marion J.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Kallapura, Gopala; Latorre, Juan D.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Public concern with the incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly among foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, has been challenging the poultry industry to find alternative means of control. The purposes of the present study were to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effects of chitosan on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) infection in broiler chicks. For in vitro crop assay experiments, tubes containing feed, water, and ST were treated with either saline as a control or 0.2% chitosan. The entire assay was repeated in three trials. In two independent in vivo trials, 40 broiler chicks were assigned to an untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 7 days (20 broiler chicks/treatment). At day 4, chicks were challenged with 2×105 colony-forming units (CFU) ST/bird. In a third in vivo trial, 100 broiler chicks were assigned to untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 10 days (50 broiler chicks/treatment) to evaluate ST horizontal transmission. At day 3, 10 birds were challenged with 105 CFU ST/bird, and the remaining nonchallenged birds (n=40) were kept in the same floor pen. In all three in vitro trials, 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of ST at 0.5 and 6 h postinoculation compared with control (p<0.05). In two in vivo trials, at 7 days, dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of recovered ST in the ceca in both experiments. Dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total ST CFU recovered in the ceca of horizontally challenged birds in the third in vivo trial. Chitosan at 0.2% significantly reduced the CFU of recovered ST in vitro and in vivo, proving to be an alternative tool to reduce crop, ceca, and consequently carcass ST contamination as well as decreasing the amount of ST shed to the environment. PMID:24237042

  3. Lighting during grow-out and Salmonella in broiler flocks.

    PubMed

    Volkova, Victoriya V; Byrd, J Allen; Hubbard, Sue Ann; Magee, Danny; Bailey, Richard H; Wills, Robert W

    2010-06-29

    Lighting is used during conventional broiler grow-out to modify bird behaviour to reach the goals of production and improve bird welfare. The protocols for lighting intensity vary. In a field study, we evaluated if the lighting practices impact the burden of Salmonella in broiler flocks. Conventional grow-out flocks reared in the states of Alabama, Mississippi and Texas, USA in 2003 to 2006 were sampled 1 week before harvest (n = 58) and upon arrival for processing (n = 56) by collecting feathered carcass rinsate, crop and one cecum from each of 30 birds, and during processing by collecting rinsate of 30 carcasses at pre-chilling (n = 56) and post-chilling points (n = 54). Litter samples and drag swabs of litter were collected from the grow-out houses after bird harvest (n = 56). Lighting practices for these flocks were obtained with a questionnaire completed by the growers. Associations between the lighting practices and the burden of Salmonella in the flocks were tested while accounting for variation between the grow-out farms, their production complexes and companies. Longer relative duration of reduced lights during the grow-out period was associated with reduced detection of Salmonella on the exterior of birds 1 week before harvest and on the broiler carcasses at the post-chilling point of processing. In addition, starting reduced lights for > or = 18 hours per day later in the grow-out period was associated with decreased detection of Salmonella on the exterior of broilers arriving for processing and in the post-harvest drag swabs of litter from the grow-out house. The results of this field study show that lighting practices implemented during broiler rearing can impact the burden of Salmonella in the flock. The underlying mechanisms are likely to be interactive.

  4. Reduction of ascites mortality in broilers by coenzyme Q10.

    PubMed

    Geng, A L; Guo, Y M; Yang, Y

    2004-09-01

    Effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation on growth performance and ascites were studied in broilers. One hundred eighty 1-d-old Arbor Acre male broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 3 groups with 6 replicates each. From d 8, the diets were supplemented with CoQ10 at levels of 0, 20, and 40 mg/kg, respectively. From d 15 to 21, all the chicks were exposed to low ambient temperature (15 to 18 degrees C) to induce ascites. Average feed intake, BW gain, and feed conversion ratio of the broilers during 0 to 3 wk, 3 to 6 wk, and 0 to 6 wk were measured. The results showed that there were no influences observed on broilers' growth performance, but the mortality due to ascites was reduced by CoQ10 supplementation (P < or = 0.05). Erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) was significantly decreased by 40 mg/kg CoQ10 compared with the control, but no significant changes were observed on blood packed cell volume (PCV) among the treatments. Pulmonary arterial diastolic pressure was significantly decreased on d 36, but no significant changes were observed on right ventricular pressure (RVP), pulmonary arterial systolic pressure, and the maximum change ratio of right intraventricular pressure (+/- dp/ dtmax). Ascites heart index (AHI) was significantly decreased by 40 mg/kg CoQ10 supplementation (P < or = 0.05). The results of this study suggested that CoQ10 has a beneficial effect in reducing ascites mortality in broilers, and 40 mg/kg CoQ10 seems to be more effective than 20 mg/ kg CoQ10.

  5. Effect of light source and regimen on growing broilers.

    PubMed

    Rozenboim, I; Robinzon, B; Rosenstrauch, A

    1999-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different light sources and light schedules on the growth and quality of commercial broilers. In each experiment 810 broiler chicks were divided into 3 groups, 3 replicates per group. All were reared at 20 lux. Body weight and food consumption were recorded weekly. Experiment 1. Birds were reared under 3 light sources: incandescent light bulb, warm-white fluorescent light tube or warm-white mini-fluorescent light bulb. Experiment 2. Birds were reared on 3 light schedules. 23 h light and 1 h dark (23L: 1D) throughout; an increasing light schedule with initial 23L:1D then 8L: 16D increasing daylight gradually to 16L:8D or an intermittently increasing daylight schedule (16:8P) where light and dark periods were shorter but portioned to achieve the same total hours per day up to 16L:8D. Broilers reared under mini-fluorescent light bulb were heavier than those under fluorescent tubes or incandescent bulbs by 49 d. Until 42 d of age, photoperiod had no effect on growth. However, at 49 d broilers reared under 16:8P and 16L:8D regimens were heavier than those or 23L:1D. At 42 d, female broilers on 23L:1D, were heavier than those on 16L:8D and 16:8P. Mortality was higher in groups on 23L:1D than on 16L:8D on 16:8P. At 49 d incidence of leg condemnation was higher in the 16:8P group. However, skin damage was lower in this group than in those on 23L: 1D and 16L:8D.

  6. An l-Arginine supplement improves broiler hypertensive response and gut function in broiler chickens reared at high altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajali, Fariborz; Moghaddam, Maryam Heydary; Hassanpour, Hossein

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of supplemental dietary arginine (ARG) on growth, hypertensive response, and gut function in broilers reared at high altitude (2,100 m). A total of 120 day-old male broilers (Cobb 500) were divided equally into two treatment groups. Treatments included a control basal diet composed of corn and soybean meal and an experimental diet to which an l-ARG supplement was added at 10 g/kg. The trial lasted for 42 days. There were no treatment differences with regard to feed intake, body weight gain, or feed conversion ratio. However ARG supplementation did increase the plasma concentration of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator ( P < 0.05), and attenuated indices of pulmonary hypertension as reflected by reductions in the hematocrit and the right to total ventricular weight ratio ( P < 0.05). Significantly enhanced intestinal mucosal development was observed in broilers receiving ARG supplement when compared with controls ( P < 0.05), suggesting that ARG supplementation increased the absorptive surface area of the jejunum and ileum. In conclusion, broiler diets supplemented with ARG beneficially improved pulmonary hemodynamics and appeared to enhance gut function.

  7. An L-Arginine supplement improves broiler hypertensive response and gut function in broiler chickens reared at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Khajali, Fariborz; Moghaddam, Maryam Heydary; Hassanpour, Hossein

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of supplemental dietary arginine (ARG) on growth, hypertensive response, and gut function in broilers reared at high altitude (2,100 m). A total of 120 day-old male broilers (Cobb 500) were divided equally into two treatment groups. Treatments included a control basal diet composed of corn and soybean meal and an experimental diet to which an L-ARG supplement was added at 10 g/kg. The trial lasted for 42 days. There were no treatment differences with regard to feed intake, body weight gain, or feed conversion ratio. However ARG supplementation did increase the plasma concentration of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator (P<0.05), and attenuated indices of pulmonary hypertension as reflected by reductions in the hematocrit and the right to total ventricular weight ratio (P<0.05). Significantly enhanced intestinal mucosal development was observed in broilers receiving ARG supplement when compared with controls (P<0.05), suggesting that ARG supplementation increased the absorptive surface area of the jejunum and ileum. In conclusion, broiler diets supplemented with ARG beneficially improved pulmonary hemodynamics and appeared to enhance gut function.

  8. Navy Stock Account (NSA) Material Expenditure Errors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    AD-A241 855 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California ,.V ST A C -,. S ’GR t- D TIQ : 0T.281 " THESIS & NAVY STOCK ACCOUNT (NSA: ATEP.AL...Stock Account (NSA) Material Expenditure Errors 12, PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Magsombol, Anacleto M. 13a TYPE OF REPORT 13b TIME COVERED 14 DATE OF REPORT (Year...Continue on reverse if necessary andl identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Expenditures, Navy Stock Account (NSA), Recon- ciliation Process

  9. Total parenting.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, Richard Smith observes that being a parent, like so much else in our late-modern world, is required to become ever more efficient and effective, and is increasingly monitored by the agencies of the state, often with good reason given the many recorded instances of child abuse and cruelty. However, Smith goes on to argue, this begins to cast being a parent as a matter of "parenting," a technological deployment of skills and techniques, with the loss of older, more spontaneous and intuitive relations between parents and children. Smith examines this phenomenon further through a discussion of how it is captured to some extent in Hannah Arendt's notion of "natality" and how it is illuminated by Charles Dickens in his classic novel, Dombey and Son.

  10. Parenting Multiples

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents. It's important for caretakers to spend time speaking directly to each child, as well as reading to them and encouraging language. Social skills can come earlier for multiples, simply because they' ...

  11. Parenting Conflicts

    MedlinePlus

    ... her strength, so the decision-making responsibilities are divided within the family. Overt Conflict Too often, parents ... think, "The kids require so much of our attention now; once they're grown, we'll have ...

  12. Parenting Multiples

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be particularly vulnerable to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) , a flu-like illness that can be highly ... is very aware of the difference already. As kids get older it's important that parents look at ...

  13. Arginine requirement of starting broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Cuca, M; Jensen, L S

    1990-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to estimate the arginine requirement of male broiler chicks from 0 to 3 wk of age. The experiments were conducted in battery brooders with wires floors, and the birds received water and feed ad libitum. In the first experiment, chicks were fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, casein, and corn-gluten meal containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg and either 20 or 23% crude protein. Regression analysis indicated an arginine requirement of 1.22% for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency with the 20% protein diet. For chicks fed the 23% protein diet, neither growth rate nor feed efficiency was significantly different among the diets containing arginine ranging from 1.13 to 1.43%. In the second experiment, a basal diet was used containing 17.5% casein and 22.5% protein with arginine ranging from 1.03 to 1.43%. An arginine requirement of 1.18% for maximum body weight gain was estimated by regression analysis, but no significant response to arginine above the basal level was observed for feed efficiency. Performance of chicks fed the basal diet was somewhat reduced because of a difficulty with adherence of feed to the beaks. In a third experiment, three basal diets containing 21, 22, or 23% protein were formulated from practical ingredients without use of casein. The requirement for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency was estimated to be 1.24 to 1.28% for the three diets. The results of these investigations indicate that the arginine requirement for starting chicks suggested by the National Research Council in 1984 of 1.44% in diets containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg is too high for practical diets. The data presented here support an arginine requirement of 1.25%.

  14. Pharmacokinetic of sulfaclozine in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sentepe, Ismail; Eraslan, Gökhan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 30-day-old, 14 male broiler chickens were used. Two groups, each comprising 7 animals, were established. While each animal included in the first group was administered sulfaclozine at a dose of 60 mg/kg bw by intravenous route (IV), group 2 was administered sulfaclozine at the same dose but by intracrop route (IC). In group 1, serum sulfaclozine concentrations at 0.083, 0.50, 2, 6, 24 and 72h were determined to be 99.62+/-3.31, 83.50+/-4.22, 72.68+/-5.02, 58.43+/-5.39, 38.66+/-4.04 and 13.14+/-1.64 microg/ml, respectively, via HPLC. In group 2, serum drug concentrations at 0.083, 0.50, 2, 6, 24 and 72h were determined as 4.33+/-0.45, 7.95+/-0.72, 16.46+/-2.68, 22.88+/-3.00, 16.03+/-3.53 and 5.74+/-0.98 microg/ml, respectively. Statistical analyses revealed that, of all the parameters studied, only A(1)( *), A(2)( *), alpha, beta, t(1/2)(alpha), t(1/2)(beta), MRT, Vd(area), k(12), k(21), AUC(0-->72) and AUC(0-->infinity) differed significantly between the groups (p<0.05). Compared to intravenous administration, significant increase in t(1/2)(alpha), t(1/2)(beta), MRT and Vd(area), and significant decrease in A(1)( *), A(2)( *), alpha, beta, k(12), k(21), AUC(0-->72) and AUC(0-->infinity) were observed in the group, which was administered sulfaclozine by intracrop route. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of Longleaf Pine Seedlings Under Parent Trees

    Treesearch

    William D. Boyer

    1963-01-01

    In southwest Alabama, unburned seedlings under overstories ranging up to 90 square feet of basal area per acre survived as well as those with no tree competition. After 7 years, milacre stocking averaged 99 percent and survival 72 percent. Growth, but not survival, improved with distance from parent trees. Seedlings under tree crowns had less brown spot than those in...

  16. Stock or stroke? Stock market movement and stroke incidence in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Chih; Chen, Chin-Shyan; Liu, Tsai-Ching; Lin, Ying-Tzu

    2012-12-01

    This paper investigates the impact of stock market movement on incidences of stroke utilizing population-based aggregate data in Taiwan. Using the daily data from the Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index and from the National Health Insurance Research Database during 2001/1/1-2007/12/31, which consist of 2556 observations, we examine the effects of stock market on stroke incidence - the level effect and the daily change effects. In general, we find that both a low stock index level and a daily fall in the stock index are associated with greater incidences of stroke. We further partition the data on sex and age. The level effect is found to be significant for either gender, in the 45-64 and 65 ≥ age groups. In addition, two daily change effects are found to be significant for males and the elderly. Although stockholdings can increase wealth, they can also increase stroke incidence, thereby representing a cost to health.

  17. 41 CFR 101-27.406 - Disposition of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposition of stock. 101...-Elimination of Items From Inventory § 101-27.406 Disposition of stock. Stocks of slow-moving items which are... this section, shall be taken, as necessary, to remove stocks of inactive items from inventory....

  18. 26 CFR 1.1296-2 - Definition of marketable stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definition of marketable stock. 1.1296-2 Section... Definition of marketable stock. (a) General rule. For purposes of section 1296, the term marketable stock means— (1) Passive foreign investment company (PFIC) stock that is regularly traded, as defined...

  19. 12 CFR 552.13 - Combinations involving Federal stock associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combinations involving Federal stock... FEDERAL STOCK ASSOCIATIONS-INCORPORATION, ORGANIZATION, AND CONVERSION § 552.13 Combinations involving Federal stock associations. (a) Scope and authority. Federal stock associations may enter...

  20. 26 CFR 1.306-3 - Section 306 stock defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Section 306 stock defined. 1.306-3 Section 1.306... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Recipients § 1.306-3 Section 306 stock defined. (a) For the purpose of subchapter C, chapter 1 of the code, the term section 306 stock means stock which meets the requirements...

  1. 26 CFR 1.305-1 - Stock dividends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stock dividends. 1.305-1 Section 1.305-1...) INCOME TAXES Effects on Recipients § 1.305-1 Stock dividends. (a) In general. Under section 305, a distribution made by a corporation to its shareholders in its stock or in rights to acquire its stock is...

  2. Another Look at the Volatility of Stock Prices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruszewski, Richard F., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Investors are interested in the volatility of a stock for various reasons. One investor may desire to purchase a low volatility stock for peace of mind. Another may be interested in a high volatility stock in order to have the opportunity to buy low and sell high as the price of the stock oscillates. This author had the fortunate timing of reading…

  3. 12 CFR 7.2023 - Reverse stock splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reverse stock splits. 7.2023 Section 7.2023... Corporate Practices § 7.2023 Reverse stock splits. (a) Authority to engage in reverse stock splits. A national bank may engage in a reverse stock split if the transaction serves a legitimate corporate...

  4. 41 CFR 109-27.5003 - Stock control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stock control. 109-27...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.50-Inventory Management Policies, Procedures, and Guidelines § 109-27.5003 Stock control. (a) Stock control shall be maintained on the basis of stock record accounts of inventories...

  5. 12 CFR 931.3 - Minimum investment in capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a) A Bank shall require each member to maintain a minimum investment in the capital stock of the Bank,...

  6. 12 CFR 925.21 - Issuance and form of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issuance and form of stock. 925.21 Section 925... ASSOCIATES MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.21 Issuance and form of stock. (a) A Bank shall issue to each new member, as of the effective date of membership, stock in the member's name for...

  7. 43 CFR 3815.5 - Access to stock watering places.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Access to stock watering places. 3815.5... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.5 Access to stock watering places. No watering places shall be inclosed, nor proper and lawful access of stock thereto prevented, nor the watering...

  8. 43 CFR 3815.4 - Protection of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Protection of stock. 3815.4 Section 3815.4... Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.4 Protection of stock. All excavations and other mining work... prevent the same from being a menace to stock on the land....

  9. 12 CFR 152.13 - Combinations involving Federal stock associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Combinations involving Federal stock... FEDERAL STOCK ASSOCIATIONS-INCORPORATION, ORGANIZATION, AND CONVERSION § 152.13 Combinations involving Federal stock associations. (a) Scope and authority. Federal stock associations may enter...

  10. 12 CFR 552.13 - Combinations involving Federal stock associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Combinations involving Federal stock... FEDERAL STOCK ASSOCIATIONS-INCORPORATION, ORGANIZATION, AND CONVERSION § 552.13 Combinations involving Federal stock associations. (a) Scope and authority. Federal stock associations may enter...

  11. 12 CFR 552.13 - Combinations involving Federal stock associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Combinations involving Federal stock... FEDERAL STOCK ASSOCIATIONS-INCORPORATION, ORGANIZATION, AND CONVERSION § 552.13 Combinations involving Federal stock associations. (a) Scope and authority. Federal stock associations may enter...

  12. 12 CFR 931.2 - Issuance of capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Issuance of capital stock. 931.2 Section 931.2... STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.2 Issuance of capital stock. (a) In general. A Bank may issue either one or both classes of its capital stock (including subclasses), as authorized by §...

  13. 12 CFR 7.2023 - Reverse stock splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reverse stock splits. 7.2023 Section 7.2023... Corporate Practices § 7.2023 Reverse stock splits. (a) Authority to engage in reverse stock splits. A national bank may engage in a reverse stock split if the transaction serves a legitimate corporate...

  14. 12 CFR 1263.22 - Adjustments in stock holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustments in stock holdings. 1263.22 Section... Stock Requirements § 1263.22 Adjustments in stock holdings. (a) Adjustment in general. A Bank may from time to time increase or decrease the amount of stock any member is required to hold. (b)(1)...

  15. 12 CFR 931.2 - Issuance of capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Issuance of capital stock. 931.2 Section 931.2... STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.2 Issuance of capital stock. (a) In general. A Bank may issue either one or both classes of its capital stock (including subclasses), as authorized by §...

  16. 43 CFR 3815.4 - Protection of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection of stock. 3815.4 Section 3815.4... Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.4 Protection of stock. All excavations and other mining work... prevent the same from being a menace to stock on the land....

  17. 12 CFR 552.13 - Combinations involving Federal stock associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Combinations involving Federal stock... FEDERAL STOCK ASSOCIATIONS-INCORPORATION, ORGANIZATION, AND CONVERSION § 552.13 Combinations involving Federal stock associations. (a) Scope and authority. Federal stock associations may enter...

  18. 43 CFR 3815.5 - Access to stock watering places.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Access to stock watering places. 3815.5... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.5 Access to stock watering places. No watering places shall be inclosed, nor proper and lawful access of stock thereto prevented, nor the watering...

  19. 47 CFR 65.303 - Cost of preferred stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost of preferred stock. 65.303 Section 65.303... stock. The formula for determining the cost of preferred stock is: ER01JN95.001 Where: “Total Annual Preferred Dividends” is the total dividends on preferred stock for the most recent two years for all...

  20. 12 CFR 552.13 - Combinations involving Federal stock associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Combinations involving Federal stock... FEDERAL STOCK ASSOCIATIONS-INCORPORATION, ORGANIZATION, AND CONVERSION § 552.13 Combinations involving Federal stock associations. (a) Scope and authority. Federal stock associations may enter...

  1. 12 CFR 931.3 - Minimum investment in capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a) A Bank shall require each member to maintain a minimum investment in the capital stock of the Bank,...

  2. 41 CFR 101-27.406 - Disposition of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Disposition of stock. 101...-Elimination of Items From Inventory § 101-27.406 Disposition of stock. Stocks of slow-moving items which are... this section, shall be taken, as necessary, to remove stocks of inactive items from inventory....

  3. 12 CFR 1263.22 - Adjustments in stock holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adjustments in stock holdings. 1263.22 Section... Stock Requirements § 1263.22 Adjustments in stock holdings. (a) Adjustment in general. A Bank may from time to time increase or decrease the amount of stock any member is required to hold. (b)(1)...

  4. 43 CFR 3815.4 - Protection of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Protection of stock. 3815.4 Section 3815.4... Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.4 Protection of stock. All excavations and other mining work... prevent the same from being a menace to stock on the land....

  5. 12 CFR 7.2023 - Reverse stock splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reverse stock splits. 7.2023 Section 7.2023... Corporate Practices § 7.2023 Reverse stock splits. (a) Authority to engage in reverse stock splits. A national bank may engage in a reverse stock split if the transaction serves a legitimate corporate...

  6. 43 CFR 3815.5 - Access to stock watering places.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Access to stock watering places. 3815.5... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.5 Access to stock watering places. No watering places shall be inclosed, nor proper and lawful access of stock thereto prevented, nor the watering...

  7. 26 CFR 1.306-3 - Section 306 stock defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Section 306 stock defined. 1.306-3 Section 1.306... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Effects on Recipients § 1.306-3 Section 306 stock defined. (a) For the purpose of subchapter C, chapter 1 of the code, the term section 306 stock means stock which meets...

  8. 26 CFR 1.306-3 - Section 306 stock defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Section 306 stock defined. 1.306-3 Section 1.306... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (Continued) Effects on Recipients § 1.306-3 Section 306 stock defined. (a) For the purpose of subchapter C, chapter 1 of the code, the term section 306 stock means stock which meets...

  9. 47 CFR 65.303 - Cost of preferred stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost of preferred stock. 65.303 Section 65.303... stock. The formula for determining the cost of preferred stock is: ER01JN95.001 Where: “Total Annual Preferred Dividends” is the total dividends on preferred stock for the most recent two years for all...

  10. 26 CFR 1.306-3 - Section 306 stock defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Section 306 stock defined. 1.306-3 Section 1.306... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Recipients § 1.306-3 Section 306 stock defined. (a) For the purpose of subchapter C, chapter 1 of the code, the term section 306 stock means stock which meets the requirements...

  11. 47 CFR 65.303 - Cost of preferred stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost of preferred stock. 65.303 Section 65.303... stock. The formula for determining the cost of preferred stock is: ER01JN95.001 Where: “Total Annual Preferred Dividends” is the total dividends on preferred stock for the most recent two years for all...

  12. 41 CFR 101-27.406 - Disposition of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Disposition of stock. 101...-Elimination of Items From Inventory § 101-27.406 Disposition of stock. Stocks of slow-moving items which are... this section, shall be taken, as necessary, to remove stocks of inactive items from inventory....

  13. 41 CFR 101-27.406 - Disposition of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Disposition of stock. 101...-Elimination of Items From Inventory § 101-27.406 Disposition of stock. Stocks of slow-moving items which are... this section, shall be taken, as necessary, to remove stocks of inactive items from inventory....

  14. 12 CFR 931.2 - Issuance of capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Issuance of capital stock. 931.2 Section 931.2... STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.2 Issuance of capital stock. (a) In general. A Bank may issue either one or both classes of its capital stock (including subclasses), as authorized by §...

  15. 12 CFR 152.13 - Combinations involving Federal stock associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Combinations involving Federal stock... FEDERAL STOCK ASSOCIATIONS-INCORPORATION, ORGANIZATION, AND CONVERSION § 152.13 Combinations involving Federal stock associations. (a) Scope and authority. Federal stock associations may enter...

  16. 43 CFR 3815.5 - Access to stock watering places.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Access to stock watering places. 3815.5... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.5 Access to stock watering places. No watering places shall be inclosed, nor proper and lawful access of stock thereto prevented, nor the watering...

  17. 12 CFR 931.3 - Minimum investment in capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a) A Bank shall require each member to maintain a minimum investment in the capital stock of the Bank,...

  18. 41 CFR 101-27.406 - Disposition of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposition of stock...-Elimination of Items From Inventory § 101-27.406 Disposition of stock. Stocks of slow-moving items which are... this section, shall be taken, as necessary, to remove stocks of inactive items from inventory....

  19. 12 CFR 1263.22 - Adjustments in stock holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adjustments in stock holdings. 1263.22 Section... Stock Requirements § 1263.22 Adjustments in stock holdings. (a) Adjustment in general. A Bank may from time to time increase or decrease the amount of stock any member is required to hold. (b)(1)...

  20. 47 CFR 65.303 - Cost of preferred stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost of preferred stock. 65.303 Section 65.303... stock. The formula for determining the cost of preferred stock is: ER01JN95.001 Where: “Total Annual Preferred Dividends” is the total dividends on preferred stock for the most recent two years for all...

  1. 12 CFR 152.13 - Combinations involving Federal stock associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Combinations involving Federal stock... FEDERAL STOCK ASSOCIATIONS-INCORPORATION, ORGANIZATION, AND CONVERSION § 152.13 Combinations involving Federal stock associations. (a) Scope and authority. Federal stock associations may enter...

  2. 12 CFR 931.3 - Minimum investment in capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a) A Bank shall require each member to maintain a minimum investment in the capital stock of the Bank,...

  3. 41 CFR 109-27.5003 - Stock control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stock control. 109-27...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.50-Inventory Management Policies, Procedures, and Guidelines § 109-27.5003 Stock control. (a) Stock control shall be maintained on the basis of stock record accounts of inventories...

  4. 12 CFR 7.2023 - Reverse stock splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reverse stock splits. 7.2023 Section 7.2023... Corporate Practices § 7.2023 Reverse stock splits. (a) Authority to engage in reverse stock splits. A national bank may engage in a reverse stock split if the transaction serves a legitimate corporate...

  5. 43 CFR 3815.4 - Protection of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protection of stock. 3815.4 Section 3815.4... Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.4 Protection of stock. All excavations and other mining work... prevent the same from being a menace to stock on the land....

  6. Another Look at the Volatility of Stock Prices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruszewski, Richard F., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Investors are interested in the volatility of a stock for various reasons. One investor may desire to purchase a low volatility stock for peace of mind. Another may be interested in a high volatility stock in order to have the opportunity to buy low and sell high as the price of the stock oscillates. This author had the fortunate timing of reading…

  7. Increasing market efficiency in the stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jae-Suk; Kwak, Wooseop; Kaizoji, Taisei; Kim, In-Mook

    2008-01-01

    We study the temporal evolutions of three stock markets; Standard and Poor's 500 index, Nikkei 225 Stock Average, and the Korea Composite Stock Price Index. We observe that the probability density function of the log-return has a fat tail but the tail index has been increasing continuously in recent years. We have also found that the variance of the autocorrelation function, the scaling exponent of the standard deviation, and the statistical complexity decrease, but that the entropy density increases as time goes over time. We introduce a modified microscopic spin model and simulate the model to confirm such increasing and decreasing tendencies in statistical quantities. These findings indicate that these three stock markets are becoming more efficient.

  8. What distinguishes individual stocks from the index?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, F.; Milaković, M.; Alfarano, S.

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic volatility models decompose the time series of financial returns into the product of a volatility factor and an iid noise factor. Assuming a slow dynamic for the volatility factor, we show via nonparametric tests that both the index as well as its individual stocks share a common volatility factor. While the noise component is Gaussian for the index, individual stock returns turn out to require a leptokurtic noise. Thus we propose a two-component model for stocks, given by the sum of Gaussian noise, which reflects market-wide fluctuations, and Laplacian noise, which incorporates firm-specific factors such as firm profitability or growth performance, both of which are known to be Laplacian distributed. In the case of purely Gaussian noise, the chi-squared probability for the density of individual stock returns is typically on the order of 10-20, while it increases to values of O(1) by adding the Laplace component.

  9. Policy on Existing Stocks of Pesticide Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This statement establishes general principles the Agency generally will apply in determining whether and under what conditions to allow the sale and use of existing stocks of pesticides for which the registration has been amended, canceled, or suspended.

  10. Manufacture of lube base stock oil

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, B.M.; Sarli, M.S.; Smith, K.W.

    1980-01-01

    Lube base stock oil of low pour point and excellent stability is produced from a waxy crude oil fraction by solvent refining, catalytic dewaxing over a zeolite catalyst in the nature of zeolite ZSM-5 and hydrotreating under specified conditions.

  11. The volatility of stock market prices.

    PubMed

    Shiller, R J

    1987-01-02

    If the volatility of stock market prices is to be understood in terms of the efficient markets hypothesis, then there should be evidence that true investment value changes through time sufficiently to justify the price changes. Three indicators of change in true investment value of the aggregate stock market in the United States from 1871 to 1986 are considered: changes in dividends, in real interest rates, and in a direct measure of intertemporal marginal rates of substitution. Although there are some ambiguities in interpreting the evidence, dividend changes appear to contribute very little toward justifying the observed historical volatility of stock prices. The other indicators contribute some, but still most of the volatility of stock market prices appears unexplained.

  12. Synergistic effect of FGD by-product and broiler litter application on cotton yield, N utilization and soil nutrient concentrations in a no-till field

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the Southeastern USA where much of the poultry litter is generated, cotton farmers are recognizing broiler litter’s value and are utilizing broiler litter in both tillage and no-till systems. However, surface application of broiler litter to no-till cotton without incorporation exposes broiler li...

  13. Effect of air deflectors on fan performance in tunnel-ventilated broiler houses with a dropped ceiling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Air velocity is a critical design parameter for modern commercial broiler houses, owing to the beneficial effects of increased cooling on live performance and thermal comfort in broiler chickens. As a result, design velocities have increased over the last 15 years and broiler growers have installed ...

  14. Spatial and temporal analysis of microbial populations in production broiler house litter in the southeastern U.S.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Broiler production is one of the leading agricultural enterprises in the United States. In Mississippi the economic impact from broiler production and processing exceeds that of any other agricultural commodity. Reducing mortality rates is critical in broiler production; therefore, it is vital to re...

  15. Flue-Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Effects on Urea-Degrading Bacteria and Ammonia Volatilization From Broiler Litter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A major concern of the broiler industry is the volatilization of ammonia (NH3) from the mixture of bedding material and broiler excretion that covers the floor of broiler houses. Gypsum has been proposed as a litter amendment to reduce NH3 volatilization, but reports of NH3 abatement vary among stu...

  16. 17 CFR 240.15g-2 - Penny stock disclosure document relating to the penny stock market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penny stock disclosure document relating to the penny stock market. 240.15g-2 Section 240.15g-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Section 15(d) of the Act § 240.15g-2 Penny stock disclosure document relating to the penny stock market...

  17. 17 CFR 240.15g-2 - Penny stock disclosure document relating to the penny stock market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penny stock disclosure document relating to the penny stock market. 240.15g-2 Section 240.15g-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Section 15(d) of the Act § 240.15g-2 Penny stock disclosure document relating to the penny stock market...

  18. 17 CFR 240.15g-2 - Penny stock disclosure document relating to the penny stock market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Penny stock disclosure document relating to the penny stock market. 240.15g-2 Section 240.15g-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Section 15(d) of the Act § 240.15g-2 Penny stock disclosure document relating to the penny stock market...

  19. 12 CFR 220.11 - Requirements for the list of marginable OTC stocks and the list of foreign margin stocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... dealers stand willing to, and do in fact, make a market in such stock and regularly submit bona fide bids... fact, make a market in such stock and regularly submit bona fide bids and offers to an automated... stocks and the list of foreign margin stocks. 220.11 Section 220.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE...

  20. 12 CFR 220.11 - Requirements for the list of marginable OTC stocks and the list of foreign margin stocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... dealers stand willing to, and do in fact, make a market in such stock and regularly submit bona fide bids... fact, make a market in such stock and regularly submit bona fide bids and offers to an automated... stocks and the list of foreign margin stocks. 220.11 Section 220.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE...

  1. 17 CFR 240.15g-2 - Penny stock disclosure document relating to the penny stock market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Penny stock disclosure document relating to the penny stock market. 240.15g-2 Section 240.15g-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Section 15(d) of the Act § 240.15g-2 Penny stock disclosure document relating to the penny stock market...

  2. 17 CFR 240.15g-2 - Penny stock disclosure document relating to the penny stock market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penny stock disclosure document relating to the penny stock market. 240.15g-2 Section 240.15g-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Section 15(d) of the Act § 240.15g-2 Penny stock disclosure document relating to the penny stock...

  3. Converting partially-stocked aspen stands to fully-stocked stands in the Lake States: an economic analysis.

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey T. Olson; Allen L. Lundgren

    1978-01-01

    The 1968 Wisconsin Forest Survey showed large areas of aspen type that are not considered fully stocked. The economic feasibility of converting partially-stocked stands to full stocking is examined, and a rule presented for determining when a partially-stocked stand should be harvested to maximize its present value.

  4. 12 CFR 225.103 - Bank holding company acquiring stock by dividends, stock splits or exercise of rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... dividends, stock splits or exercise of rights. 225.103 Section 225.103 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE... holding company acquiring stock by dividends, stock splits or exercise of rights. (a) The Board of... bank stock splits without the Board's prior approval, and whether such a company may exercise,...

  5. 12 CFR 225.103 - Bank holding company acquiring stock by dividends, stock splits or exercise of rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... dividends, stock splits or exercise of rights. 225.103 Section 225.103 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE... § 225.103 Bank holding company acquiring stock by dividends, stock splits or exercise of rights. (a) The... participate in bank stock splits without the Board's prior approval, and whether such a company may...

  6. 12 CFR 225.103 - Bank holding company acquiring stock by dividends, stock splits or exercise of rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... dividends, stock splits or exercise of rights. 225.103 Section 225.103 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE... § 225.103 Bank holding company acquiring stock by dividends, stock splits or exercise of rights. (a) The... participate in bank stock splits without the Board's prior approval, and whether such a company may...

  7. 12 CFR 225.103 - Bank holding company acquiring stock by dividends, stock splits or exercise of rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... dividends, stock splits or exercise of rights. 225.103 Section 225.103 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE... holding company acquiring stock by dividends, stock splits or exercise of rights. (a) The Board of... bank stock splits without the Board's prior approval, and whether such a company may exercise,...

  8. 12 CFR 225.103 - Bank holding company acquiring stock by dividends, stock splits or exercise of rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... dividends, stock splits or exercise of rights. 225.103 Section 225.103 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE... holding company acquiring stock by dividends, stock splits or exercise of rights. (a) The Board of... bank stock splits without the Board's prior approval, and whether such a company may exercise,...

  9. 12 CFR 150.340 - May I exercise rights to purchase additional stock or fractional shares of my stock or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false May I exercise rights to purchase additional... § 150.340 May I exercise rights to purchase additional stock or fractional shares of my stock or obligations or the stock or obligations of my affiliates? If the retention of investments in your stock or...

  10. 12 CFR 550.340 - May I exercise rights to purchase additional stock or fractional shares of my stock or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true May I exercise rights to purchase additional... May I exercise rights to purchase additional stock or fractional shares of my stock or obligations or the stock or obligations of my affiliates? If the retention of investments in your stock or...

  11. 12 CFR 150.340 - May I exercise rights to purchase additional stock or fractional shares of my stock or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false May I exercise rights to purchase additional... § 150.340 May I exercise rights to purchase additional stock or fractional shares of my stock or obligations or the stock or obligations of my affiliates? If the retention of investments in your stock or...

  12. 12 CFR 550.340 - May I exercise rights to purchase additional stock or fractional shares of my stock or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true May I exercise rights to purchase additional... May I exercise rights to purchase additional stock or fractional shares of my stock or obligations or the stock or obligations of my affiliates? If the retention of investments in your stock or...

  13. 12 CFR 550.340 - May I exercise rights to purchase additional stock or fractional shares of my stock or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false May I exercise rights to purchase additional... May I exercise rights to purchase additional stock or fractional shares of my stock or obligations or the stock or obligations of my affiliates? If the retention of investments in your stock or...

  14. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (ascites syndrome) in broilers: a review.

    PubMed

    Wideman, R F; Rhoads, D D; Erf, G F; Anthony, N B

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) syndrome in broilers (also known as ascites syndrome and pulmonary hypertension syndrome) can be attributed to imbalances between cardiac output and the anatomical capacity of the pulmonary vasculature to accommodate ever-increasing rates of blood flow, as well as to an inappropriately elevated tone (degree of constriction) maintained by the pulmonary arterioles. Comparisons of PAH-susceptible and PAH-resistant broilers do not consistently reveal differences in cardiac output, but PAH-susceptible broilers consistently have higher pulmonary arterial pressures and pulmonary vascular resistances compared with PAH-resistant broilers. Efforts clarify the causes of excessive pulmonary vascular resistance have focused on evaluating the roles of chemical mediators of vasoconstriction and vasodilation, as well as on pathological (structural) changes occurring within the pulmonary arterioles (e.g., vascular remodeling and pathology) during the pathogenesis of PAH. The objectives of this review are to (1) summarize the pathophysiological progression initiated by the onset of pulmonary hypertension and culminating in terminal ascites; (2) review recent information regarding the factors contributing to excessively elevated resistance to blood flow through the lungs; (3) assess the role of the immune system during the pathogenesis of PAH; and (4) present new insights into the genetic basis of PAH. The cumulative evidence attributes the elevated pulmonary vascular resistance in PAH-susceptible broilers to an anatomically inadequate pulmonary vascular capacity, to excessive vascular tone reflecting the dominance of pulmonary vasoconstrictors over vasodilators, and to vascular pathology elicited by excessive hemodynamic stress. Emerging evidence also demonstrates that the pathogenesis of PAH includes characteristics of an inflammatory/autoimmune disease involving multifactorial genetic, environmental, and immune system components. Pulmonary

  15. Protective Roles of Sodium Selenite against Aflatoxin B1-Induced Apoptosis of Jejunum in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xi; Zhang, Shengqiang; Fang, Jing; Cui, Hengmin; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang

    2014-01-01

    The effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure and sodium selenite supplementation on cell apoptosis of jejunum in broilers were studied. A total of 240 one-day-old male AA broilers were randomly assigned four dietary treatments containing 0 mg/kg of AFB1 (control), 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 (AFB1), 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (+ Se) and 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (AFB1 + Se), respectively. Compared with the control broilers, the number of apoptotic cells, the expression of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA were significantly increased, while the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio were significantly decreased in AFB1 broilers. The number of apoptotic cells and the expression of Caspase-3 mRNA in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly higher than those in the control broilers, but significantly lower than those in AFB1 broilers. There were no significant changes in the expression of Bax mRNA between AFB1 + Se and control broilers; the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly lower than those in the control broilers, but significantly higher than those in AFB1 broilers. In conclusion, 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 in the diet can increase cell apoptosis, decrease Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and increase of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression in broiler’s jejunum. However, supplementation of dietary sodium selenite at the concentration of 0.4 mg/kg Se may ameliorate AFB1-induced apoptosis by increasing Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and decreasing Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression. PMID:25526081

  16. Changes of hepatic biochemical parameters and proteomics in broilers with cold-induced ascites

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ascites syndrome is still a problem for chicken industry in various parts of the world. Despite the intensive investigations of this syndrome for many years, its pathogenesis remains unclear. The objective of this study was to analyze the difference in hepatic proteomics between ascites and healthy broilers by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Changes of biochemical parameters of liver and blood were also determined. The results indicated that red blood cell counts (RBC), hematocrit (HCT) and haemoglobin (HGB) of ascites broilers were significantly greater than healthy broilers. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) level of ascites broilers was significantly increased, and the activity of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) was significantly decreased. Hepatic lactic acid (LD) level of ascitic broilers were significantly lower than healthy ones. Serum glucose and cholesterol level of ascites broilers were significantly increased, and serum globulin level was significantly decreased in ascites broilers. There was no significant difference in triglyceride (TG) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level. The activity of liver hexokinase (HK) and succinodehydrogenase (SDH) in ascites broilers was significantly decreased, and there was no significant difference in the activity of liver pyruvate kinase (PK) and Na+-K+-ATPase. The hepatic proteomics analysis showed that 18 proteins expression difference were identified between ascites and healthy broilers. These proteins were mainly involved in: 1) cytoskeleton; 2) glucose, lipids and amino acid metabolism; 3) cell secretion; 4) cell apoptosis; 5) signal transduction; 6) immune and inflammatory response; and 7) cellular redox homeostasis. Mitochondrial isoform phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (M-PEPCK) mainly participates in gluconeogenesis of chicken liver. In conclusion, liver oxidative damage was significantly aggravated, but

  17. Changes of hepatic biochemical parameters and proteomics in broilers with cold-induced ascites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongwei; Guo, Yuming; Ning, Dong; Peng, Yunzhi; Cai, Hong; Tan, Jianzhuang; Yang, Ying; Liu, Dan

    2012-12-11

    Ascites syndrome is still a problem for chicken industry in various parts of the world. Despite the intensive investigations of this syndrome for many years, its pathogenesis remains unclear. The objective of this study was to analyze the difference in hepatic proteomics between ascites and healthy broilers by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Changes of biochemical parameters of liver and blood were also determined. The results indicated that red blood cell counts (RBC), hematocrit (HCT) and haemoglobin (HGB) of ascites broilers were significantly greater than healthy broilers. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) level of ascites broilers was significantly increased, and the activity of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) was significantly decreased. Hepatic lactic acid (LD) level of ascitic broilers were significantly lower than healthy ones. Serum glucose and cholesterol level of ascites broilers were significantly increased, and serum globulin level was significantly decreased in ascites broilers. There was no significant difference in triglyceride (TG) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level. The activity of liver hexokinase (HK) and succinodehydrogenase (SDH) in ascites broilers was significantly decreased, and there was no significant difference in the activity of liver pyruvate kinase (PK) and Na+-K+-ATPase. The hepatic proteomics analysis showed that 18 proteins expression difference were identified between ascites and healthy broilers. These proteins were mainly involved in: 1) cytoskeleton; 2) glucose, lipids and amino acid metabolism; 3) cell secretion; 4) cell apoptosis; 5) signal transduction; 6) immune and inflammatory response; and 7) cellular redox homeostasis. Mitochondrial isoform phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (M-PEPCK) mainly participates in gluconeogenesis of chicken liver. In conclusion, liver oxidative damage was significantly aggravated, but

  18. Soil carbon stocks and their variability across the woodlands of peninsular Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doblas-Miranda, E.; Rovira, P.; Brotons, L.; Martínez-Vilalta, J.; Retana, J.; Pla, M.; Vayreda, J.

    2013-07-01

    Global warming effects in our ecosystems could be offset by reducing carbon emissions and protecting and increasing carbon stocks. Accurate estimates of carbon stocks and fluxes of soil organic carbon (SOC) are thus needed to asses the impact of climate and land-use change on soil C uptake and soil C emissions to the atmosphere. Here, we present an assessment of SOC stocks in woodlands (forest, shrublands and grasslands) of peninsular Spain based on field measurements in more than 900 soil profiles. Estimations of soil C stocks for the 7 796 306 plots of the Spanish Forest Map (24.3 × 106 ha.) were carried out using a statistical model that included, as explanatory variables, vegetation cover, parent material, soil consistency, mean annual temperature, total annual precipitation and elevation, and the influence of spatial correlation. We present what we believe is the most reliable estimation of current SOC in woodlands of peninsular Spain thus far, based on the considered predictors, the high number of profiles and the validity and refinement of the data layers employed. Mean concentration of SOC was 8.8 kg m-2, which is slightly higher than that presented in previous studies. This value corresponds to a total stock of 2574 Tg SOC, which is four times the amount of carbon estimated to be stored in the biomass of Spanish forests. Climate and vegetation cover were the main variables influencing SOC, with important ecological implications for peninsular Spanish ecosystems in the face of global change. The fact that SOC was positively related to annual precipitation and negatively related to mean annual temperature suggests that future climate change may strongly reduce the potential of Spanish soils as carbon sinks. However, this may be mediated by changes in vegetation cover (e.g., by favouring the development of forests associated to higher SOC values) and threatened by perturbations such as fire. The estimations presented here should improve our capacity to

  19. Which stocks are profitable? A network method to investigate the effects of network structure on stock returns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kun; Luo, Peng; Sun, Bianxia; Wang, Huaiqing

    2015-10-01

    According to asset pricing theory, a stock's expected returns are determined by its exposure to systematic risk. In this paper, we propose a new method for analyzing the interaction effects among industries and stocks on stock returns. We construct a complex network based on correlations of abnormal stock returns and use centrality and modularity, two popular measures in social science, to determine the effect of interconnections on industry and stock returns. Supported by previous studies, our findings indicate that a relationship exists between inter-industry closeness and industry returns and between stock centrality and stock returns. The theoretical and practical contributions of these findings are discussed.

  20. Dehydration indicators for broiler chickens at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Vanderhasselt, R F; Buijs, S; Sprenger, M; Goethals, K; Willemsen, H; Duchateau, L; Tuyttens, F A M

    2013-03-01

    Freedom of (prolonged) thirst is considered to be of paramount importance for animal welfare. This emotion normally results from dehydration, which can be measured using physiological indicators. Because no reliable physiological indicator for thirst was available for broilers, we aimed to identify such a measure in this study. This indicator would ideally be integrated into quality control systems in commercial slaughter plants. In the first experiment, water deprivation was manipulated systematically by withdrawing water for different durations (total water withdrawal for 0 (control), 24, 36, or 48 h, or a 10-d period with restricted access to water for 2 times 10 min per day). A significant decrease in drained blood content and BW occurred from 36 h of total water deprivation onward (both P = 0.03), whereas long-term restricted access tended to decrease drained blood content (P = 0.05). No effect of water deprivation or restriction on skin turgor was found. In the second experiment, water was withdrawn for 0 (control), 6, 12, 24, or 48 h. Plasma chloride concentration was increased after 6 h of water withdrawal, but did not rise further with longer withdrawal. If assessed at slaughter, chloride will thus mainly reflect the catching-to-slaughter interval. In contrast, plasma creatinine and hematocrit levels showed a numerical decrease after 6 h of water withdrawal, but rose again after prolonged withdrawal. Plasma creatinine values were significantly higher in 24-h-deprived birds than in 6-h-deprived birds (P < 0.01), allowing for discernment between water withdrawal during catching and transport from dehydration that had occurred on the farm. Blood sodium concentrations and plasma osmolality showed a steady increment between 0 and 24 h of water deprivation (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001 for both), and may thus be used to assess the combined effects of water deprivation on farm and during the catching-to-slaughter interval. These findings may form the basis of an on

  1. Like Parent, Like Child

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Lisa A.; Beavers, Daniel P.; Kupper, Lawrence L.; Bernhardt, Amy M.; Heatherton, Todd; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine food and beverage choices of preschool-aged children. Design Semistructured observational study. While pretending to be adults during a role-play scenario, children selected food and beverage items from a miniature grocery store stocked with 73 different products, of which 47 foods and beverages were examined in this analysis. Parents self-reported how frequently they purchased specific grocery items. Setting A behavioral laboratory. Participants One hundred twenty children, aged 2 to 6 years, and 1 parent for each child. Main Outcome Measure Children’s total purchases were classified according to the number of healthier and less healthy products they selected as least healthy, somewhat healthy, and most healthy choices. The same categories were used to classify parents’ self-reported purchases. Results Most of the children (70.8%) purchased foods that were categorized as least healthy choices. Only 13 children (10.8%) had shopping baskets consisting of the healthiest choices. On average, children in the group with the least healthy choices purchased the same number of healthier and less healthy products, whereas children in the group with most healthy choices purchased 5 healthier products for each less healthy product selected. The healthfulness of children’s total purchases were significantly (P=.02) predicted by their parents’ purchasing categorization. Conclusions When presented with a wide array of food products, young children chose combinations of healthier and less healthy foods and beverages. The data suggest that children begin to assimilate and mimic their parents’ food choices at a very young age, even before they are able to fully appreciate the implications of these choices. PMID:18981355

  2. Confidence in Parenting: Is Parent Education Working?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanberry, J. Phillip; Stanberry, Anne M.

    This study examined parents' feelings of confidence in their parenting ability among 56 individuals enrolled in 5 parent education programs in Mississippi, hypothesizing that there would be significant correlations between personal authority in the family system and a parent's confidence in performing the various roles of parenting. Based on…

  3. Can the Single Parent Parent As Well?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanzer, Jerry P.

    The question of whether single parents are able to parent as well as those in two-parent families, as well as the differences between attitudes and practices of single mothers and fathers toward child rearing, were investigated. Members (N=179) of the Southeastern Wisconsin Parents Without Partners group completed the Single Parent Questionnaire,…

  4. 78 FR 17066 - Indirect Stock Transfers and Coordination Rule Exceptions; Transfers of Stock or Securities in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ...; Transfers of Stock or Securities in Outbound Asset Reorganizations AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS... between asset transfers and indirect stock transfers for certain outbound asset reorganizations. The... that it is consistent with the remaining asset reorganization exception. In addition, the regulations...

  5. 12 CFR 950.11 - Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock. 950.11 Section 950.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS ADVANCES Advances to Members § 950.11 Capital...

  6. Postural evaluation in a poultry farm for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Kong, Yong-Ku; Jung, Myung-Chul

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate working postures in 9 operations of poultry farming for broiler chickens for 14 body segments with 4 categories, and for fingers with 14 categories. Overall, the farmers commonly bent almost all their body segments and used power grips. The operations of cleaning with water wand and inspecting chickens seemed light work because the farmers walked around most of their working time. The operations of detaching base from hanging feeder and attaching base to hanging feeder had the farmers continue squatting to handle the feeders close to the floor. The farmers also repeatedly bent their trunks in shoveling feces, unloading a box of chicks, and releasing chicks. A power grip was frequently observed due to using tools with round handles. Workplace design to raise working height would be necessary for a better working environment for broiler farmers.

  7. Laboratory study of methane production from broiler-chicken litter

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, J.C.H.; Huang, J.J.H.

    1980-01-01

    North Carolina is one of the largest poultry-production states in the United States. Although a considerable amount of work has been done on methane production from livestock, brewery, and municipal wastes, little is known concerning poultry waste. Consequently, a laboratory study was conducted to delineate the potential for thermophilic (60/sup 0/C) methane generation from broiler litter. Broiler litter was chosen as the substrate for the following reasons: first, it is the most abundant waste of poultry production in North Carolina; second, wood chips which are used as the bedding material could be a potential source of carbon for methane biosynthesis; and third, it has a desirable nitrogen content of 3 to 4%, a level similar to that of the cattle waste..

  8. Carnitine prolongs the half-life of ethanol in broilers.

    PubMed

    Smith, M O; Cha, Y S; Sachan, D S

    1994-09-01

    The object was to determine if carnitine attenuated ethanol metabolism in broilers similar to that reported in the rats. Two groups (n = 5) of 5-week-old broilers were given for 10 days the feed with or without 0.5% L-carnitine supplement. A single oral dose of ethanol on day 8 was followed by serial blood samples which were analysed for ethanol. Another dose of ethanol was given on day 10 and 2 hr later, plasma and liver were collected and analysed for ethanol, total lipid, triglycerides and carnitine. The carnitine supplemented diet prolonged the half-life of ethanol due to attenuation of ethanol metabolism which is similar to that reported earlier in rodents. The increases in plasma and hepatic acylcarnitines indicate that supplementary carnitine lessens the load of free acyl groups in the liver by eventual oxidation or excretion.

  9. Wooden breast condition results in reduced thaw loss in frozen-thawed broiler breast fillets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wooden breast condition (WBC) is an emerging quality issue with broiler breast meat that significantly affects both raw and cooked meat properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of WBC on meat water-holding capacity (WHC) estimated with different methods. Broiler breast ...

  10. Survival of naturally occurring Campylobacter in refrigerated and frozen rinsate from a broiler carcass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine if naturally occurring Campylobacter in a broiler rinsate could survive in cold storage. Ten commercial broiler carcasses were each rinsed with 500 ml of Butterfield’s buffer and all carcasses tested positive for the presence of 104-105/ml naturally occu...

  11. Performance, blood parameters and meat yield in broiler chickens supplemented with Mexican oregano oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to evaluate the inclusion of Mexican oregano oil (MOO) Lippia berlandieri Schauer in broiler diets during grow-out on performance, blood parameters, and meat yield. One hundred and sixty-two one-day-old broilers, randomly divided into three equal groups (treatments): CON =...

  12. Performance in broiler chickens supplemented with Mexican oregano oil Lippia berlandieri Schauer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the inclusion of two qualities of Mexican oregano oil (MOO) in the broiler diet on broiler weight, feed intake, feed efficiency, average daily gain, and water intake. The qualities were MOO1 (4% thymol, 60% carvacrol) and MOO2 (40% thymol, 20% carvacro...

  13. Darkling Beetles as a Potential Transmission Source of Salmonella in Broiler Flocks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The adult and larval darkling beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer) are common insect pests of commercial broiler operations. High populations of darkling beetles in commercial broiler operations can have a negative impact finanacially due to structural and insulation damage within the house, red...

  14. Effect of surface incorporation of broiler litter applied to no-till cotton on runoff quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A 2-yr field study was conducted on an Atwood silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, thermic Typic Paleudalfs) marginal upland soil to evaluate if incorporation of broiler litter into the soil surface in a no-till cotton affect runoff nutrient concentrations. The treatments consisted of 7.8 Mg ha-1 broiler l...

  15. Instrumental texture characteristics of broiler pectoralis major with the woody breast condition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective was to characterize texture properties of raw and cooked broiler fillets (pectoralis major) with the woody breast condition (WBC) using instrumental texture techniques Meullenet-Owens Razor Shear (MORS) and texture profile analysis (TPA). Deboned (3 h postmortem) broiler fillets were c...

  16. Impact of extended stun duration and voltage on the recovery of consciousness in broilers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Typical electrical stun duration for broilers in the United States is from 5 to 15 s (depending on voltage), but would be considerably longer if and when the kill-line stopped. The welfare and conscious/unconscious status of broilers within the stunner cabinet is a concern while the line is stopped...

  17. Temperature-Related Risk Factors for the Occurrence of Campylobacter in Broilers in Iceland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction A summertime increased risk of Campylobacter is well-established in humans and broilers. Our objective was to identify temperature-related risk factors for the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter in Iceland, with an assumption that flies play a role in the epidemiology an...

  18. Survival of naturally occurring Campylobacter in refrigerated and frozen rinsate from a broiler carcass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine if naturally occurring Campylobacter in a broiler carcass rinsate could survive in cold or frozen storage. Ten commercial broiler carcasses were each rinsed with 500 ml of Butterfield’s buffer and all carcasses tested positive for the presence of 104-105...

  19. Impact of broiler processing scalding and chilling profiles on carcass and breast meat yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The impact of scalding and chilling procedures was evaluated on carcass and breast meat yield in broilers. On 4 separate weeks, broilers were subjected to feed withdrawal, weighed, and then stunned and bled in sequential batches (n=16/batch). Breast skin was collected before scalding, after scaldi...

  20. Texture properties of raw and cooked broiler breast fillets with the wooden breast condition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study evaluated the effects of the wooden breast condition (WBC) on the texture properties of raw and cooked broiler breast fillets (Pectoralis major). Breast fillets (deboned at 3 h postmortem) were collected from a commercial broiler processing plant based on the wooden breast condition (norm...