Science.gov

Sample records for bromine isotopes

  1. Bromine and carbon isotope effects during photolysis of brominated phenols.

    PubMed

    Zakon, Yevgeni; Halicz, Ludwik; Gelman, Faina

    2013-12-17

    In the present study, carbon and bromine isotope effects during UV-photodegradation of bromophenols in aqueous and ethanolic solutions were determined. An anomalous relatively high inverse bromine isotope fractionation (εreactive position up to +5.1‰) along with normal carbon isotope effect (εreactive position of -12.6‰ to -23.4‰) observed in our study may be attributed to coexistence of both mass-dependent and mass-independent isotope fractionation of C-Br bond cleavage. Isotope effects of a similar scale were observed for all the studied reactions in ethanol, and for 4-bromophenol in aqueous solution. This may point out related radical mechanism for these processes. The lack of any carbon and bromine isotope effects during photodegradation of 2-bromophenol in aqueous solution possibly indicates that C-Br bond cleavage is not a rate-limiting step in the reaction. The bromine isotope fractionation, without any detectable carbon isotope effect, that was observed for 3-bromophenol photolysis in aqueous solution probably originates from mass-independent fractionation.

  2. Kinetic bromine isotope effect: example from the microbial debromination of brominated phenols.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Anat; Ronen, Zeev; Levin, Elena; Halicz, Ludwik; Gelman, Faina

    2013-03-01

    The increasing use of kinetic isotope effects for environmental studies has motivated the development of new compound-specific isotope analysis techniques for emerging pollutants. Recently, high-precision bromine isotope analysis in individual brominated organic compounds was proposed, by the coupling of gas chromatography to a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer using strontium as an external spike for instrumental bias correction. The present study, for the first time, demonstrates an application of this technique for determining bromine kinetic isotope effects during biological reaction, focusing on the reductive debromination of brominated phenols under anaerobic conditions. Results show bromine isotope enrichment factors (ε) of -0.76 ± 0.08, -0.46 ± 0.19, and -0.20 ± 0.06 ‰ for the debromination of 4-bromophenol, 2,4-dibromophenol, and 2,4,6-tribromophenol, respectively. These values are rather low, yet still high enough to be obtained with satisfying certainty. This further implies that the analytical method may be also appropriate for future environmental applications.

  3. Bromine isotope analysis - a tool for investigating biogeochemical cycle of bromine-containing organic and inorganic compounds in the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, F.; Bernstein, A.; Levin, E.; Ronen, Z.; Halicz, L.

    2012-04-01

    Bromine naturally occurs mainly in the form of bromide and is usually considered as a conservative tracer in the groundwater system. However, nowadays many synthetically produced organobromine compounds are introduced into the environment by humans. Due to a possible toxic effect of these compounds, investigation of their fate in the nature is of the utmost importance. In this sense, examination of isotopic composition of inorganic and organic bromine may serve as a powerful tool for understanding Br geochemical cycle. Due to a relatively small mass difference between the isotopes 81Br and 79Br, bromine isotope fractionation originating from biotic and abiotic processes is expected to be in the range of several permille. Therefore, a highly precise technique for the bromine isotope ratio analysis is required. This work presents a new methodology for the precise determination of bromine isotope ratio in inorganic bromides and individual organic compounds by MC-ICPMS. Attained external precision (2σ) up to 0.1‰ allowed employment of the developed technique for determination of the bromine isotope composition in organic and inorganic bromides and Br KIE in biogeochemical processes.

  4. Bromine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2011-01-01

    All U.S. production of bromine in 2010 came from underground brines in Arkansas. It was the leading mineral commodity produced in the state in terms of value. Albemarle Corp. and Chemtura Corp. recovered bromine.

  5. Bromine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    The element bromine is found principally as a dissolved species in seawater, evaporitic (salt) lakes and underground brines associated with petroleum deposits. Seawater contains about 65 parts per million of bromine or an estimated 907 Gt (100 trillion st). In the Middle East, the highly saline waters of the Dead Sea are estimated to contain 907 Mt (1 billion st) of bromine. Bromine also may be recovered from seawater as a coproduct during evaporation to produce salt.

  6. Bromine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2012-01-01

    The element bromine is found principally as a dissolved species in seawater, evaporitic (salt) lakes and underground brines associated with petroleum deposits. Seawater contains about 65 parts per million of bromine or an estimated 100 Tt (110 trillion st). In the Middle East, the highly saline waters of the Dead Sea are estimated to contain 1 Gt (1.1billion st) of bromine. Bromine is also recovered from seawater as a coproduct during evaporation to produce salt.

  7. High precision determination of bromine isotope ratio by GC-MC-ICPMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, Faina; Halicz, Ludwik

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a new methodology for the precise determination of bromine isotope ratio in individual organic compounds based on the simultaneous introduction of brominated organic compounds and strontium as an external spike into MC-ICPMS. Using the proposed methodology, an external precision (2[sigma]) up to 0.1[per mille sign] has been attained. The new approach for the bromine isotope ratio analysis could be applied for the investigating the fate of the organobromine compounds in the environment.

  8. Bromine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, Lori E.

    2010-01-01

    The entire U.S. production of bromine in 2009 came from underground brines in Arkansas, where it was the leading mineral commodity produced in terms of value. Two companies, Albermarle Corp. and Chemtura Corp., were responsible for bromine recovery. Worldwide, the United States is still the leading producer. However, U.S. dominance has decreased, as countries like China, Israel, Japan and Jordan have strengthened their positions as world producers of elemental bromine.

  9. Application of dual carbon-bromine isotope analysis for investigating abiotic transformations of tribromoneopentyl alcohol (TBNPA).

    PubMed

    Kozell, Anna; Yecheskel, Yinon; Balaban, Noa; Dror, Ishai; Halicz, Ludwik; Ronen, Zeev; Gelman, Faina

    2015-04-07

    Many of polybrominated organic compounds, used as flame retardant additives, belong to the group of persistent organic pollutants. Compound-specific isotope analysis is one of the potential analytical tools for investigating their fate in the environment. However, the isotope effects associated with transformations of brominated organic compounds are still poorly explored. In the present study, we investigated carbon and bromine isotope fractionation during degradation of tribromoneopentyl alcohol (TBNPA), one of the widely used flame retardant additives, in three different chemical processes: transformation in aqueous alkaline solution (pH 8); reductive dehalogenation by zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) in anoxic conditions; oxidative degradation by H2O2 in the presence of CuO nanoparticles (nCuO). Two-dimensional carbon-bromine isotope plots (δ(13)C/Δ(81)Br) for each reaction gave different process-dependent isotope slopes (Λ(C/Br)): 25.2 ± 2.5 for alkaline hydrolysis (pH 8); 3.8 ± 0.5 for debromination in the presence of nZVI in anoxic conditions; ∞ in the case of catalytic oxidation by H2O2 with nCuO. The obtained isotope effects for both elements were generally in agreement with the values expected for the suggested reaction mechanisms. The results of the present study support further applications of dual carbon-bromine isotope analysis as a tool for identification of reaction pathway during transformations of brominated organic compounds in the environment.

  10. Dual Carbon-Bromine Stable Isotope Analysis Allows Distinguishing Transformation Pathways of Ethylene Dibromide.

    PubMed

    Kuntze, Kevin; Kozell, Anna; Richnow, Hans H; Halicz, Ludwik; Nijenhuis, Ivonne; Gelman, Faina

    2016-09-20

    The present study investigated dual carbon-bromine isotope fractionation of the common groundwater contaminant ethylene dibromide (EDB) during chemical and biological transformations, including aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation, alkaline hydrolysis, Fenton-like degradation, debromination by Zn(0) and reduced corrinoids. Significantly different correlation of carbon and bromine isotope fractionation (ΛC/Br) was observed not only for the processes following different transformation pathways, but also for abiotic and biotic processes with, the presumed, same formal chemical degradation mechanism. The studied processes resulted in a wide range of ΛC/Br values: ΛC/Br = 30.1 was observed for hydrolysis of EDB in alkaline solution; ΛC/Br between 4.2 and 5.3 were determined for dibromoelimination pathway with reduced corrinoids and Zn(0) particles; EDB biodegradation by Ancylobacter aquaticus and Sulfurospirillum multivorans resulted in ΛC/Br = 10.7 and 2.4, respectively; Fenton-like degradation resulted in carbon isotope fractionation only, leading to ΛC/Br ∞. Calculated carbon apparent kinetic isotope effects ((13)C-AKIE) fell with 1.005 to 1.035 within expected ranges according to the theoretical KIE, however, biotic transformations resulted in weaker carbon isotope effects than respective abiotic transformations. Relatively large bromine isotope effects with (81)Br-AKIE of 1.0012-1.002 and 1.0021-1.004 were observed for nucleophilic substitution and dibromoelimination, respectively, and reveal so far underestimated strong bromine isotope effects.

  11. Identification of Novel Brominated Compounds in Flame Retarded Plastics Containing TBBPA by Combining Isotope Pattern and Mass Defect Cluster Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana; Ballesteros, Joaquín; Ortiz, Xavier; Jonker, Willem; Helmus, Rick; Jobst, Karl J; Parsons, John R; Reiner, Eric J

    2017-02-07

    The study of not only main flame retardants but also of related degradation products or impurities has gained attention in the last years and is relevant to assess the safety of our consumer products and the emission of potential contaminants into the environment. In this study, we show that plastics casings of electric/electronic devices containing TBBPA contain also a complex mixture of related brominated chemicals. These compounds were most probably coming from impurities, byproducts, or degradation products of TBBPA and TBBPA derivatives. A total of 14 brominated compounds were identified based on accurate mass measurements (formulas and tentative structures proposed). The formulas (or number of bromine elements) for 19 other brominated compounds of minor intensity are also provided. A new script for the recognition of halogenated compounds based on combining a simplified isotope pattern and mass defect cluster analysis was developed in R for the screening. The identified compounds could be relevant from an environmental and industrial point of view.

  12. Bromine isotopic signature facilitates de novo sequencing of peptides in free-radical-initiated peptide sequencing (FRIPS) mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nam, Jungjoo; Kwon, Hyuksu; Jang, Inae; Jeon, Aeran; Moon, Jingyu; Lee, Sun Young; Kang, Dukjin; Han, Sang Yun; Moon, Bongjin; Oh, Han Bin

    2015-02-01

    We recently showed that free-radical-initiated peptide sequencing mass spectrometry (FRIPS MS) assisted by the remarkable thermochemical stability of (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidin-1-yl)oxyl (TEMPO) is another attractive radical-driven peptide fragmentation MS tool. Facile homolytic cleavage of the bond between the benzylic carbon and the oxygen of the TEMPO moiety in o-TEMPO-Bz-C(O)-peptide and the high reactivity of the benzylic radical species generated in •Bz-C(O)-peptide are key elements leading to extensive radical-driven peptide backbone fragmentation. In the present study, we demonstrate that the incorporation of bromine into the benzene ring, i.e. o-TEMPO-Bz(Br)-C(O)-peptide, allows unambiguous distinction of the N-terminal peptide fragments from the C-terminal fragments through the unique bromine doublet isotopic signature. Furthermore, bromine substitution does not alter the overall radical-driven peptide backbone dissociation pathways of o-TEMPO-Bz-C(O)-peptide. From a practical perspective, the presence of the bromine isotopic signature in the N-terminal peptide fragments in TEMPO-assisted FRIPS MS represents a useful and cost-effective opportunity for de novo peptide sequencing.

  13. Compound Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA) for chlorine and bromine: a review of techniques and applications to elucidate environmental sources and processes.

    PubMed

    Cincinelli, Alessandra; Pieri, Francesca; Zhang, Yuan; Seed, Mike; Jones, Kevin C

    2012-10-01

    Chlorinated and brominated compounds belong to the class of organohalogen compounds that have received attention because of their widespread occurrence, use and applications. Understanding the sources and transformation processes of these contaminants in the environment enables assessment of their possible impact on humans and ecosystems. Recently new and innovative methods of Compound Specific Isotope Analysis have started to be applied to characterize the origin and fate of compounds, their breakdown products and degradation rates in different environmental compartments. Almost all studies have focussed on determination of isotopes of C and H, only recently new methodologies have been developed to measure isotopes of Cl and Br. This review firstly gives a brief description of chemistry properties and geochemical cycle of chlorine and bromine followed by a summary of their uses and applications. In the second section, an overview of CSIA techniques and new challenges and successful applications are also presented.

  14. Production of medically useful bromine isotopes via alpha-particle induced nuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breunig, Katharina; Scholten, Bernhard; Spahn, Ingo; Hermanne, Alex; Spellerberg, Stefan; Coenen, Heinz H.; Neumaier, Bernd

    2017-09-01

    The cross sections of α-particle induced reactions on arsenic leading to the formation of 76,77,78Br were measured from their respective thresholds up to 37 MeV. Thin sediments of elemental arsenic powder were irradiated together with Al degrader and Cu monitor foils using the established stacked-foil technique. For determination of the effective α-particle energies and of the effective beam current through the stacks the cross-section ratios of the monitor nuclides 67Ga/66Ga were used. This should help resolve discrepancies in existing literature data. Comparison of the data with the available excitation functions shows some slight energy shifts as well as some differences in curve shapes. The calculated thick target yields indicate, that 77Br can be produced in the energy range Eα = 25 → 17 MeV free of isotopic impurities in quantities sufficient for medical application.

  15. Brominated dibenzofurans

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Brominated dibenzofurans ; no CASRN Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  16. Rubberized, Brominated Epoxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilwee, W.; Kourtides, D.; Parker, J.; Nir, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Graphite/epoxy composite materials made with resins containing bromine and rubber additives. New composites tougher and more resistant to fire. Flame resistance increased by introducing bromine via commercial brominated flame-retartant polymeric additives.

  17. Bromine Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, B

    2001-04-09

    The production and handling in 1999 of about 200 million kilograms of bromine plus substantial derivatives thereof by Great Lakes Chemical Corp. and Albemarle Corporation in their southern Arkansas refineries gave OSHA Occupational Injury/Illness Rates (OIIR) in the range of 0.74 to 1.60 reportable OIIRs per 200,000 man hours. OIIRs for similar industries and a wide selection of other U.S. industries range from 1.6 to 23.9 in the most recent OSHA report. Occupational fatalities for the two companies in 1999 were zero compared to a range in the U.S.of zero for all computer manufacturing to 0.0445 percent for all of agriculture, forestry and fishing in the most recent OSHA report. These results show that bromine and its compounds can be considered as safe chemicals as a result of the bromine safety standards and practices at the two companies. The use of hydrobromic acid as an electrical energy storage medium in reversible PEM fuel cells is discussed. A study in 1979 of 20 megawatt halogen working fluid power plants by Oronzio de Nora Group found such energy to cost 2 to 2.5 times the prevailing base rate at that time. New conditions may reduce this relative cost. The energy storage aspect allows energy delivery at maximum demand times where the energy commands premium rates. The study also found marginal cost and performance advantages for hydrobromic acid over hydrochloric acid working fluid. Separate studies in the late 70s by General Electric also showed marginal performance advantages for hydrobromic acid.

  18. Bromination of Phenol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This "Science note" examines the bromination of phenol, a reaction that is commonly taught at A-level and IB (International Baccalaureate) as an example of electrophilic substitution. Phenol undergoes bromination with bromine or bromine water at room temperature. A white precipitate of 2,4,6-tribromophenol is rapidly formed. This…

  19. Bromination of Phenol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This "Science note" examines the bromination of phenol, a reaction that is commonly taught at A-level and IB (International Baccalaureate) as an example of electrophilic substitution. Phenol undergoes bromination with bromine or bromine water at room temperature. A white precipitate of 2,4,6-tribromophenol is rapidly formed. This…

  20. Isotope analysis of sulfur, bromine, and chlorine in individual anionic species by ion chromatography/multicollector-ICPMS.

    PubMed

    Zakon, Yevgeni; Halicz, Ludwik; Gelman, Faina

    2014-07-01

    We developed an analytical method for precise and accurate analysis of δ(34)S, δ(81)Br, and δ(37)Cl in individual anionic species by coupled ion chromatography (IC) and multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The method is based on the online separation and purification of ions by IC prior to their isotope analysis by MC-ICPMS. The developed technique significantly simplifies δ(34)S, δ(81)Br, and δ(37)Cl analysis in environmental samples. In cases when several anionic species of the same element are present in the sample, they might be analyzed in a single analytical run. Major isobaric interferences for the analyzed elements were reduced by using "dry" plasma conditions and applying sufficient mass resolution power. The sample-standard bracketing technique was used for instrumental drift correction. In the case of δ(34)S analysis, precisions up to 0.15‰ (1sd) have been achieved for analytes containing down to 5 nmol of S; for δ(81)Br, the attained precision was 0.1‰ (1sd) for analytes containing down to 0.6 nmol of Br. Precisions of 0.2‰ have been obtained for δ(37)Cl with analytes containing 0.7 μmol of Cl. Robustness of the developed analytical method, as well as high precisions and accuracies, has been demonstrated for the laboratory standard solutions and for environmental samples.

  1. 49 CFR 173.228 - Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride. 173... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.228 Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride. (a) Bromine pentafluoride and bromine trifluoride are authorized in packagings as follows: (1) Specification 3A150,...

  2. 49 CFR 173.228 - Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride. 173... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.228 Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride. (a) Bromine pentafluoride and bromine trifluoride are authorized in packagings as follows: (1) Specification 3A150,...

  3. 49 CFR 173.228 - Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride. 173... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.228 Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride. (a) Bromine pentafluoride and bromine trifluoride are authorized in packagings as follows: (1) Specification 3A150,...

  4. 49 CFR 173.228 - Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride. 173... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.228 Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride. (a) Bromine pentafluoride and bromine trifluoride are authorized in packagings as follows: (1) Specification 3A150,...

  5. 49 CFR 173.228 - Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride. 173... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.228 Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride. (a) Bromine pentafluoride and bromine trifluoride are authorized in packagings as follows: (1) Specification 3A150,...

  6. Speciation analysis of bromine-containing drug metabolites in feces samples from a human in vivo study by means of HPLC/ICP-MS combined with on-line isotope dilution.

    PubMed

    Meermann, Björn; Bockx, Marc; Laenen, Aline; Van Looveren, Cis; Cuyckens, Filip; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was speciation analysis of metabolites in feces samples collected within a clinical study during which a bromine-containing anti-tuberculosis drug (TMC207) was administered to patients with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis infection. Owing to slow elimination of the drug, no (14)C label was used within this study. Quantification of the bromine species was accomplished using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICP-MS) in combination with on-line isotope dilution (on-line ID), while structural elucidation of the species was performed using HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The ICP-MS-based method developed shows a good intra- and inter-day reproducibility (relative standard deviation = 3.5%, N = 9); the limit of detection (1.5 mg TMC207 L(-1)) is of the same order of magnitude as that for HPLC/radiodetection; the dynamic range of the method covers more than two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, the column recovery was demonstrated to be quantitative (recoveries between 90.6% and 99.5%). Based on the excellent figures of merit, the "cold" HPLC/ICP-MS approach could be deployed for the actual human in vivo metabolism study, such that exposure of the human volunteers to the (14)C radiolabel was avoided.

  7. Determination of Bromine Stable Isotope Ratios from Saline Solutions by "Wet Plasma" MC-ICPMS Including a Comparison between High- and Low-Resolution Modes, and Three Introduction Systems.

    PubMed

    Louvat, Pascale; Bonifacie, Magali; Giunta, Thomas; Michel, Agnès; Coleman, Max

    2016-04-05

    We describe a novel method for measuring stable bromine isotope compositions in saline solutions such as seawater, brines, and formation waters. Bromine is extracted from the samples by ion exchange chromatography on anion exchange resin AG 1-X4 with NH4NO3 and measured by MC-ICP-MS in wet plasma conditions. Sample introduction through a small spray chamber provided good sensitivity and stability of the Br signal compared to direct injection (d-DIHEN) and desolvation (APEX). NH4NO3 media allowed fast (<3 min) washing of the system. Despite Ar2H(+) spectral interference on (81)Br(+), for the first time low-resolution mode (with appropriate tuning of Ar2H(+)/(81)Br(+) sensitivity) gave higher precision (81)Br/(79)Br measurements than high-resolution (HR), due to the narrowness of the (81)Br(+) plateau in HR mode and to slight mass drifting with time. Additionally, 1 μg Br is the lower amount needed for a triplicate determination of δ(81)Br by MC-ICP-MS, with reproducibility often < ± 0.1‰ (2 SD). Four HBr solutions were prepared by evaporation/condensation in order to obtain in-house reference solutions with 3‰ variations in δ(81)Br and to assess the reproducibility and accuracy of the method. Long-term (>3 years) reproducibility between ± 0.11 and ± 0.27‰ (2 SD) was obtained for the four HBr solutions, the international standard reference material NIST SRM 977 (δ(81)BrSMOB = -0.65 ± 1.1‰, 1 SD), and seawaters (synthetic and natural). The accuracy of the MC-ICP-MS method was validated by comparing the δ(81)Br obtained for these solutions with dual-inlet IRMS measurements on CH3Br gas. Finally, the method was successfully applied to 22 natural samples.

  8. Recover bromine on site

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, P.; Mahajan, S.; Beatty, R.D.; Rostrup-Nielsen, T.; Schubert, D.W.; Lu, Phat Tan

    1993-04-01

    Chemists have long recognized the importance of recovering bromine from waste streams, and attempts to do so catalytically date back more than 50 years. Although the early interest in bromine recovery was driven primarily by economics, increased environmental pressures are providing additional incentives to recycle this element. As the acceptability of discharging wastes into the environment decreases, the cost of doing so increases, creating a need for alternative handling. The authors interest in waste bromine recovery was driven by both economic and environmental factors. In their evaluation of a research program that included a bromination step as part of a synthesis process, Catalytica researchers found that the process would be feasible commercially only if the waste HBr produced were recycled on site to bromine. A nonbromine route was eventually adopted for this particular research program, but the need for an economical and environmentally sound process for recycling HBr to bromine was recognized. The development of this process became a project in its own right. This process eliminates the need to form and ship aqueous sodium bromide offsite. It converts the waste HBr directly to bromine by catalytic oxidation.

  9. Measurements of stratospheric bromine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedlacek, W. A.; Lazrus, A. L.; Gandrud, B. W.

    1984-01-01

    From 1974 to 1977, molecules containing acidic bromine were sampled in the stratosphere by using tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide impregnated filters. Sampling was accomplished by WB-57F aircraft and high-altitude balloons, spanning latitudes from the equator to 75 deg N and altitudes up to 36.6 km. Analytical results are reported for 4 years of measurements and for laboratory simulations that determined the filter collection efficiencies for a number of brominated species. Mass mixing ratios for the collected bromine species in air average about 27 pptm in the stratosphere. Seasonal variability seems to be small.

  10. Measurements of stratospheric bromine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedlacek, W. A.; Lazrus, A. L.; Gandrud, B. W.

    1984-01-01

    From 1974 to 1977, molecules containing acidic bromine were sampled in the stratosphere by using tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide impregnated filters. Sampling was accomplished by WB-57F aircraft and high-altitude balloons, spanning latitudes from the equator to 75 deg N and altitudes up to 36.6 km. Analytical results are reported for 4 years of measurements and for laboratory simulations that determined the filter collection efficiencies for a number of brominated species. Mass mixing ratios for the collected bromine species in air average about 27 pptm in the stratosphere. Seasonal variability seems to be small.

  11. Solid bromine complexers

    DOEpatents

    Grimes, Patrick G.

    1987-01-20

    The cell of the invention comprises a housing, a zinc or cadmium anode, a chemically non-reactive counterelectrode and cathodic halogen. The cathodic halogen is selected from chlorine and bromine, and preferably is bromine. The cell also is provided with an aqueous metal halide containing electrolyte in which the metal ions are of the same metal as the metal of the anode and halide anions are of the same halogen as the cathodic halogen material. Importantly, in the present invention, anion exchange resins provide a convenient means for storing the halogen generated during charging of the cell and providing a source of halogen to be used in the discharge of the cell.

  12. Lithium/bromine cell systems

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, W.G.; Skarstad, P.M.; Hayes, T.G.; Owens, B.B.

    1980-01-01

    Bromine is attractive as a cathode material because cells with a high energy density and high cell voltage are theoretically possible. The addition of small amounts of certain salts or organic compounds results in bromine solutions of sufficient conductivity for cathode applications. However, given these highly conductive bromine cathodes, lithium/bromine cells are limited in rate and practical available capacity by the high resistivity of the discharge product. The rate of resistance increase for the best bromine cells in this study is more than one order of magnitude greater than that observed for corresponding lithium/iodine cells. Lithium/bromine cells can function at pacemaker rates and they may be superior to cells used in early pacemakers. However, the authors have not found the lithium/bromine cells described to be superior to existing lithium/iodine cells available for cardiac pacemakers. 17 refs.

  13. Brominated Flame Retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) belong to a large class of compounds known as organohalogens. BFRs are currently the largest marketed flame retardant group due to their high performance efficiency and low cost. In the commercial market, more than 75 different BFRs are recogniz...

  14. Brominated Flame Retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) belong to a large class of compounds known as organohalogens. BFRs are currently the largest marketed flame retardant group due to their high performance efficiency and low cost. In the commercial market, more than 75 different BFRs are recogniz...

  15. Bromine accumulations in pine trees growing around bromine production plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tainter, F.H.; Bailey, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    Soil and pine foliage samples were collected from 92 plots located around five bromine production plants in union and Columbia Counties, Arkansas, during January-February 1977. Analysis of pine tissues for the major salt components of brine showed that bromine was the only component accumulating in these tissues and that the amount of bromine decreases exponentially with the distance from the emission sources. Bromine content in plots closest to the sources ranged from 170-550 ppM in 1-year-old needles and from 140-1000 ppM in 2-year-old needles. Some visible injury was evident in trees growing closer than 0.48 km from the sources, but tissues with bromine contents of 800 to 1000 ppM from the closest plots exhibited no visible injury. Bromine did not accumulate in organic litter or in the soil.

  16. Bromine and thyroid hormone activity.

    PubMed Central

    Allain, P; Berre, S; Krari, N; Laine, P; Barbot, N; Rohmer, V; Bigorgne, J C

    1993-01-01

    AIMS--To examine the possible consequences of high plasma concentrations of bromine on thyroid hormone. METHODS--Bromine was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the plasma of 799 patients consulting for thyroid disorders. Because the mean (SD) bromine concentration in the plasma of healthy subjects is 4 (1) mg/l, concentrations above 6 mg/l were regarded as outside the normal range. Bromine, free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) values were compared. RESULTS--The percentage of patients with normal, low, and high FT4 and TSH plasma activities, measured separately, did not differ between patients with low and high bromine concentrations. The percentage of patients with high TSH but normal FT4 values was significantly higher in the group with bromine values of more than 6 mg/l than in the group with bromine concentrations below this (p < 0.02). CONCLUSION--An increase in plasma bromine could potentiate an increase in plasma TSH concentration, probably as a consequence of a minor inhibitory effect on thyroid activity. PMID:8320326

  17. Bromine function in halite geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Billo, S.M. )

    1991-06-01

    Of the halogens or salt formers, bromine is the only nonmetal which occurs naturally as a poisonous liquid much denser than water. The power of its atoms, expressed by a valence of 1 and 5, makes it unite directly with a large number of metallic elements to form salts. As a rare and strongly electronegative element of group VII in the periodic table, bromine exists in seawater and evaporitic brines as bromide with a ratio to chlorinity of 0.00348. Most water detains only about 1 ppm bromide for each 300 ppm of chloride. The most abundant source of bromine is ocean water (65 ppm Br), but richer peps occur in salt deposits and primarily in mineral brines. Atomic absorption spectrophotometric resolutions of Permian Castile halites exposed low values of bromine compared with its higher quantities in modern oceans like the Mediterranean. Bromine analyses of the two petrographically distinct forms of halite that characterize many ancient evaporite deposits, as in the Elk Point basin fields of Alberta, imply they crystallized from brines of noticeably different concentrations. Bromine in halite has been used as a paleosalinity indicator and a stratigraphic marker. Bromine liquid, with an atomic weight of 79.904 and atomic number 35, is used in producing gasoline antiknock mixtures, fumigants, photographic chemicals, drilling fluids, and fire retardants. It is also highly toxic and corrosive as bromine gas. Bromine contents greater than 1 ppm may be unsafe in the atmosphere, and a dose of 500 ppm can lead to death in less than an hour.

  18. INTRODUCTION TO BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are a large and diverse class of major industrial products used to provide fire safety. Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), Hexabromocylocodecane (HBCD), and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) are the major commercial compounds. TBBPA is a react...

  19. Zinc-bromine battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Lew; Vanschalwijk, Walter; Albert, George; Tarjanyi, Mike; Leo, Anthony; Lott, Stephen

    1990-05-01

    This report describes development activities on the zinc-bromine battery system conducted by Energy Research Corporation (ERC). The project was a cost-shared program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and managed through Sandia. The project began in September 1985 and ran through January 1990. The zinc-bromine battery has been identified as a promising alternative to conventional energy storage options for many applications. The low cost of the battery reactants and the potential for long life make the system an attractive candidate for bulk energy storage applications, such as utility load leveling. The battery stores energy by the electrolysis of an aqueous zinc bromide salt to zinc metal and dissolved bromine. Zinc is plated as a layer on the electrode surface while bromine is dissolved in the electrolyte and carried out of the stack. The bromine is then extracted from the electrolyte with an organic complexing agent in the positive electrolyte storage tank. On discharge the zinc and bromine are consumed, regenerating the zinc bromide salt.

  20. Mineral Resource of the Month: Bromine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schnebele, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Bromine, along with mercury, is one of only two elements that are liquid at room temperature. Bromine is a highly volatile and corrosive reddish-brown liquid that evaporates easily and converts to a metal at extreme pressures — above about 540,000 times atmospheric pressure. Bromine occurs in seawater, evaporitic (salt) lakes and underground brines associated with petroleum deposits. 

  1. 49 CFR 173.249 - Bromine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bromine. 173.249 Section 173.249 Transportation... PACKAGINGS Bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.249 Bromine. When... bromine service built prior to August 31, 1991, may continue in service under the requirements...

  2. 49 CFR 173.249 - Bromine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bromine. 173.249 Section 173.249 Transportation... PACKAGINGS Bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.249 Bromine. When... bromine service built prior to August 31, 1991, may continue in service under the requirements...

  3. 49 CFR 173.249 - Bromine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bromine. 173.249 Section 173.249 Transportation... PACKAGINGS Bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.249 Bromine. When... bromine service built prior to August 31, 1991, may continue in service under the requirements...

  4. 49 CFR 173.249 - Bromine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bromine. 173.249 Section 173.249 Transportation... PACKAGINGS Bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.249 Bromine. When... bromine service built prior to August 31, 1991, may continue in service under the requirements...

  5. Electronic properties of bromine-doped carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Louie, Steven G.; Cohen, Marvin L.

    2002-07-15

    Intercalation of bromine molecules (Br2) into single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) ropes is studied using the ab initio pseudopotential density functional method. Electronic and vibrational properties of the SWNT and Br2 are studied for various bromine concentrations. A drastic change in the charge transfer, bromine stretching-mode, and bromine bond-length is observed when the bromine-bromine distance decreases. Calculated electronic structures show that, at high bromine concentrations, the bromine ppsigma level broadens due to the interbromine interaction. These states overlap with the electronic bands of the SWNT near the Fermi level which results in a substantial charge transfer from carbon to bromine.

  6. Microbial degradation of the brominated flame retardant TBNPA by groundwater bacteria: laboratory and field study.

    PubMed

    Balaban, Noa; Bernstein, Anat; Gelman, Faina; Ronen, Zeev

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, the biodegradation of the brominated flame retardant tribromoneopentylalcohol (TBNPA) by a groundwater enrichment culture was investigated using a dual carbon ((13)C/(12)C)- bromine ((81)Br/(79)Br) stable isotope analysis. An indigenous aerobic bacterial consortium was enriched from the polluted groundwater underlying an industrial site in the northern Negev Desert, Israel, where TBNPA is an abundant pollutant. Aerobic biodegradation was shown to be rapid, with complete debromination within a few days, whereas anaerobic biodegradation was not observed. Biodegradation under aerobic conditions was accompanied by a significant carbon isotope effect with an isotopic enrichment factor of ɛCbulk = -8.8‰ ± 1.5‰, without any detectable bromine isotope fractionation. It was found that molecular oxygen is necessary for biodegradation to occur, suggesting an initial oxidative step. Based on these results, it was proposed that H abstraction from the C-H bond is the first step of TBNPA biodegradation under aerobic conditions, and that the C-H bond cleavage results in the formation of unstable intermediates, which are rapidly debrominated. A preliminary isotopic analysis of TBNPA in the groundwater underlying the industrial area revealed that there are no changes in the carbon and bromine isotope ratio values downstream of the contamination source. Considering that anoxic conditions prevail in the groundwater of the contaminated site, the lack of isotope shifts in TBNPA indicates the lack of TBNPA biodegradation in the groundwater, in accordance with our findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrogen-Bromine Secondary Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, C. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A secondary battery is described utilizing hydrogen and halogen as primary reactants. It comprises inert anode and cathode initially contacting an aqueous solution of an acid and an alkali metal bromide. The hydrogen generated during charging of the cell is stored as gas, while the bromine becomes dissolved predominantly in the lower layers of the acid electrolyte. Preferred components are phosphoric acid and lithium bromide.

  8. Stability of Bromine Intercalated Graphite Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Previous evidence suggested that bromine intercalation compounds of crystalline graphite spontaneously deintercalate when the bromine atmosphere is removed. However, results show that bromine intercalated P-100 graphite fibers are stable for long periods of time. They are stable under vacuum conditions, high humidity, and current densities up to 24,000 A/sq cm. They are thermally stable to 200 C, and at temperatures as high as 400 C still retain 80 percent of the conductivity gained by intercalation. At temperatures greater than 300 C, there is significant oxidative degradation of the fibers. The environmental stability shown by the bromine compound makes it a promising candidate for practical applications in aerospace technology.

  9. Mineral resource of the month: bromine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2009-01-01

    The article offers information on bromine, a natural element considered as a dissolved species in seawater, saltwater lakes and underground brines linked with petroleum deposits. Bromine belongs to the halogen group of elements and is characterized with brownish-red color and beach-like odor. It is commonly used in flame retardants, agriculture and drilling.

  10. Brominated carbon black: An EDXD study

    SciTech Connect

    Carbone, Marilena; Gontrani, Lorenzo

    2014-06-19

    An energy dispersive X-Ray study of pure and brominated carbon black was carried out. The analysis of the diffraction patterns reveals that the low bromine load (ca.1% mol) is trapped into the structure, without significantly modifying it. This allows the application of the difference methods, widely tested for electrolyte solutions, inorganic matrices containing metals and isomorphic substitutions.

  11. Bromination of olefins with HBr and DMSO.

    PubMed

    Karki, Megha; Magolan, Jakob

    2015-04-03

    A simple and inexpensive methodology is reported for the conversion of alkenes to 1,2-dibromo alkanes via oxidative bromination using HBr paired with dimethyl sulfoxide, which serves as the oxidant as well as cosolvent. The substrate scope includes 21 olefins brominated in good to excellent yields. Three of six styrene derivatives yielded bromohydrins under the reaction conditions.

  12. Interrupting the Nazarov Cyclization with Bromine.

    PubMed

    Schatz, Devon J; Kwon, Yonghoon; Scully, Thomas W; West, F G

    2016-12-16

    The generation of dibrominated cyclopentenones via an interrupted Nazarov cyclization is reported. The installation of two bromine atoms occurs at the α and α' positions of the cyclopentenyl scaffold via successive nucleophilic and electrophilic bromination of the 2-oxidocyclopentenyl cation and its resulting enolate. Notably, the reaction proceeds with good diastereoselectivity, favoring the symmetrical product.

  13. Enhanced water management using bromine chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Sergent, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper focuses on bromine chemistry and some of its unique properties, with regard to providing solutions to new and changing problems. Bromine Chemistry offers many unique properties for enhancing a water management program. Regardless of the method used to generate a residual, hypobromous acid delivers faster kill rates than an equimolar concentration of hypochlorous acid at an elevated pH or in the presence of ammonia or nitrogenous materials. In addition, the faster degradation of most bromine compounds relative to their chlorinated analogs increases the environmental acceptability of most brominated effluents relative to chlorination. Based on these advantages, the application of bromine chemistry to water treatment requirements has moved out of the speculative research phase and has moved into the sphere of a practical, commercial reality.

  14. Bromine and selenium in human aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Cross, J D; Raie, R M; Smith, H

    1981-01-01

    The bromine and selenium concentrations of healthy and atheromatous human aorta and of other organs are reported. No relation between age and concentration in the aorta is found. The selenium levels of the aorta are similar to those of other internal organs; the content of the three layers show no significant differences. The bromine concentrations of the media are higher than those of the other layers, which are similar to those of the internal organs. A possibly greater concentration of bromine in atheromatous medial tissue is indicated. PMID:7240426

  15. Penetration of polar brominated DBPs through the activated carbon columns during total organic bromine analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yao; Zhang, Xiangru; Krasner, Stuart W; Shang, Chii; Zhai, Hongyan; Liu, Jiaqi; Yang, Mengting

    2011-10-01

    Total organic bromine (TOBr) is a collective parameter representing all the brominated organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in water samples. TOBr can be measured using the adsorption-pyrolysis method according to Standard Method 5320B. This method involves that brominated organic DBPs are separated from inorganic halides and concentrated from aqueous solution by adsorption onto the activated carbon (AC). Previous studies have reported that some commonly known brominated DBPs can partially penetrate through the AC during this adsorption step. In this work, the penetration of polar brominated DBPs through AC and ozone-modified AC was explored with two simulated drinking water samples and one chlorinated wastewater effluent sample. Polar brominated DBPs were selectively detected with a novel precursor ion scan method using electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The results show that 3.4% and 10.4% of polar brominated DBPs (in terms of total ion intensity) in the chlorinated Suwannee River fulvic acid and humic acid samples, respectively, penetrated through the AC, and 19.6% of polar brominated DBPs in the chlorinated secondary wastewater effluent sample penetrated through the AC. The ozone-modification of AC minimized the penetration of polar brominated DBPs during the TOBr analysis.

  16. PCBs, PBBs and Brominated Flame Retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter introduces selected organohalogen chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB5), polychiorinated biphenyls (PBBs), and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) with emphasis on the background, physicochemical properties, environmental levels, health effects and possib...

  17. Brominated Flame Retardants and Perfluorinated Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) belong to a large class of chemicals known as organohalogens. It is believed that both BFRs and PFCs saved lives by reducing flammability of materials commonly used and bactericidal (biocidal) properties. Thes...

  18. Brominated Flame Retardants and Perfluorinated Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) belong to a large class of chemicals known as organohalogens. It is believed that both BFRs and PFCs saved lives by reducing flammability of materials commonly used and bactericidal (biocidal) properties. Thes...

  19. PCBs, PBBs and Brominated Flame Retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter introduces selected organohalogen chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB5), polychiorinated biphenyls (PBBs), and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) with emphasis on the background, physicochemical properties, environmental levels, health effects and possib...

  20. Systematic vibration thermodynamic properties of bromine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G. Y.; Sun, W. G.; Liao, B. T.

    2015-11-01

    Based on the analysis of the maturity and finiteness of vibrational levels of bromine molecule in ground state and evaluating the effect on statistical computation, according to the elementary principles of quantum statistical theorem, using the full set of bromine molecular vibrational levels determined with algebra method, the statistical contribution for bromine systematical macroscopic thermodynamic properties is discussed. Thermodynamic state functions Helmholtz free energy, entropy and observable vibration heat capacity are calculated. The results show that the determination of full set of vibrational levels and maximum vibrational quantum number is the key in the correct statistical analysis of bromine systematical thermodynamic property. Algebra method results are clearly different from data of simple harmonic oscillator and the related algebra method results are no longer analytical but numerical and are superior to simple harmonic oscillator results. Compared with simple harmonic oscillator's heat capacities, the algebra method's heat capacities are more consistent with the experimental data in the given temperature range of 600-2100 K.

  1. Stability and metastability of bromine clathrate polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Andrew H; Molinero, Valeria

    2013-05-23

    Clathrate hydrates are crystals in which water forms a network of fully hydrogen-bonded polyhedral cages that contain small guests. Clathrate hydrates occur mostly in two cubic crystal polymorphs, sI and sII. Bromine is one of two guests that yield a hydrate with the tetragonal structure (TS), the topological dual of the Frank-Kasper σ phase. There has been a long-standing disagreement on whether bromine hydrate also forms metastable sI and sII crystals. To date there are no data on the thermodynamic range of stability (e.g., the melting temperatures) of the metastable polymorphs. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations with the coarse-grained model of water mW to (i) investigate the thermodynamic stability of the empty and guest-filled the sI, sII, TS, and HS-I hydrate polymorphs, (ii) develop a coarse-grained model of bromine compatible with mW water, and (iii) evaluate the stability of the bromine hydrate polymorphs. The mW model predicts the same relative energy of the empty clathrate polymorphs and the same phase diagram as a function of water-guest interaction than the fully atomistic TIP4P water model. There is a narrow region in water-guest parameter space for which TS is marginally more stable than sI or sII. We parametrize a coarse-grained model of bromine compatible with mW water and use it to determine the order of stability of the bromine hydrate polymorphs. The melting temperatures of the bromine hydrate polymorphs predicted by the coarse-grained model are 281 ± 1 K for TS, 279 ± 1 K for sII, and 276 ± 1 K for sI. The closeness of the melting temperatures supports the plausibility of formation of metastable sII and sI bromine hydrates.

  2. 75 FR 16104 - Bromine Registration Review Final Decision; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... AGENCY Bromine Registration Review Final Decision; Notice of Availability AGENCY: Environmental... registration review decision for the pesticide Bromine, case 4015. Registration review is EPA's periodic review... registration review decision for bromine, case 4015. Bromine is a bromide releasing antimicrobial...

  3. Bromine accumulation in acidic black colluvial soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortizas, Antonio Martínez; Vázquez, Cruz Ferro; Kaal, Joeri; Biester, Harald; Casais, Manuela Costa; Rodríguez, Teresa Taboada; Lado, Luis Rodríguez

    2016-02-01

    Recent investigations showed that bromine is incorporated to soil organic matter (SOM), its content increasing with humification. But few research was done on its long-term accumulation and the role played by pedogenetic processes, as those involved in organic matter stabilization. We investigated bromine content and distribution in four deep, acidic, organic-rich, Holocene soils from an oceanic area of Western Europe. Bromine concentrations (93-778 μg g-1) in the silt + clay (<50 μm) fraction were on average 3-times higher than those (17-250 μg g-1) in the fine earth (<2 mm), the former containing almost all bromine (90 ± 5%). Inventories were between 148 and 314 g m-2, indicating a rather large variability in a small area, and total estimated retention was low (6-16%). The degree of SOM bromination, expressed as the Br/C molar ratio, varied between 0.03 and 1.20 mmol Br/mol C. The ratio was highly correlated (n = 23, r2 0.88, p < 0.01) with the age of the SOM for the last ∼12 ka. Partial least squares modeling indicates that bromine concentration depends on the amount of organic matter stabilized as aluminium-OM associations, and to a lesser extent on soil acidity (pH) and iron-OM associations. Thus, at scales of thousands of years, bromine accumulation in acidic soils is linked to the pool of metal-clay-stabilized organic matter.

  4. Abiotic Bromination of Soil Organic Matter.

    PubMed

    Leri, Alessandra C; Ravel, Bruce

    2015-11-17

    Biogeochemical transformations of plant-derived soil organic matter (SOM) involve complex abiotic and microbially mediated reactions. One such reaction is halogenation, which occurs naturally in the soil environment and has been associated with enzymatic activity of decomposer organisms. Building on a recent finding that naturally produced organobromine is ubiquitous in SOM, we hypothesized that inorganic bromide could be subject to abiotic oxidations resulting in bromination of SOM. Through lab-based degradation treatments of plant material and soil humus, we have shown that abiotic bromination of particulate organic matter occurs in the presence of a range of inorganic oxidants, including hydrogen peroxide and assorted forms of ferric iron, producing both aliphatic and aromatic forms of organobromine. Bromination of oak and pine litter is limited primarily by bromide concentration. Fresh plant material is more susceptible to bromination than decayed litter and soil humus, due to a labile pool of mainly aliphatic compounds that break down during early stages of SOM formation. As the first evidence of abiotic bromination of particulate SOM, this study identifies a mechanistic source of the natural organobromine in humic substances and the soil organic horizon. Formation of organobromine through oxidative treatments of plant material also provides insights into the relative stability of aromatic and aliphatic components of SOM.

  5. Abiotic Bromination of Soil Organic Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Leri, Alessandra C.; Ravel, Bruce

    2015-11-17

    Biogeochemical transformations of plant-derived soil organic matter (SOM) involve complex abiotic and microbially mediated reactions. One such reaction is halogenation, which occurs naturally in the soil environment and has been associated with enzymatic activity of decomposer organisms. Building on a recent finding that naturally produced organobromine is ubiquitous in SOM, we hypothesized that inorganic bromide could be subject to abiotic oxidations resulting in bromination of SOM. Through lab-based degradation treatments of plant material and soil humus, we have shown that abiotic bromination of particulate organic matter occurs in the presence of a range of inorganic oxidants, including hydrogen peroxide and assorted forms of ferric iron, producing both aliphatic and aromatic forms of organobromine. Bromination of oak and pine litter is limited primarily by bromide concentration. Fresh plant material is more susceptible to bromination than decayed litter and soil humus, due to a labile pool of mainly aliphatic compounds that break down during early stages of SOM formation. As the first evidence of abiotic bromination of particulate SOM, this study identifies a mechanistic source of the natural organobromine in humic substances and the soil organic horizon. Formation of organobromine through oxidative treatments of plant material also provides insights into the relative stability of aromatic and aliphatic components of SOM.

  6. The milling of pristine and brominated P-100 graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillehay, M. E.; Gaier, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques were developed for the ball milling of pristine and brominated P-100 graphite fibers. Because of the lubrication properties of graphite, large ball loads (50 percent by volume) were required. Use of 2-propanol as a milling medium enhanced the efficiency of the process. Milled brominated P-100 fibers had resistivities which were indistinguishable from milled pristine P-100 fibers. Apparent loss of bromine from the brominated fibers suggests that bromine would not be the intercalate of choice in applications where milled fibers of this type are required. Other intercalates which do not degas may be more appropriate for a milled fiber application. These same results, however, do provide evidence that bromine molecules leave the fiber surface when removed from overpressure of bromine. While exploring possible solvent media for milling purposes, it was found that brominated fibers are stable in a wide variety of organic solvents.

  7. 40 CFR 721.2925 - Brominated aromatic ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Brominated aromatic ester. 721.2925... Substances § 721.2925 Brominated aromatic ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a brominated aromatic ester (PMN P-95-1128...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3085 - Brominated phthalate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Brominated phthalate ester. 721.3085... Substances § 721.3085 Brominated phthalate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as brominated phthalate ester (PMN P-90-581) is...

  9. Numerical simulation of bromine crossover behavior in flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yaobin; Cheng, Shijian; Chu, Dandan; Li, Xin

    2017-03-01

    Br2 and HBr has its own series of advantages as the positive electrolyte solution, so some batteries select the Br2/Br- as the positive electrolyte solution, such as sodium polysulfide/bromine flow battery, zinc/bromine flow battery, vanadium/ bromine flow batteries and hydrogen/bromine flow batteries. But the crossover benavior of bromine occurs in these batteries too, resulting in cross-contamination, capacity loss and affecting battery's performance. In this work, we build numerical models to study the influence of bromine crossover phenomenon on the three forms of bromine crossover, the concentration of electrolyte on the cathode side and the flow rate of the negative side in the quinone bromine flow battery, to find the main models affecting the bromine crossover and the impact of bromine crossover on battery performance. It was found that the three ways of crossover through the membranes was mainly by diffusion. By reducing the concentration of positive electrolyte solution, the bromine crossover can be reduced and Coulomb Efficiency can be improved. Rising the flow rate of the electrolyte solution on the negative side and reducing the differential between positive side's pressure and negative side's pressure can also reduce the amount of bromine crossover to improve Coulomb efficiency in the battery.

  10. 21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30... Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with... used on an interim basis as a stabilizer for flavoring oils used in fruit-flavored beverages, for...

  11. 21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30... Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with... used on an interim basis as a stabilizer for flavoring oils used in fruit-flavored beverages, for...

  12. 21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30... Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with... used on an interim basis as a stabilizer for flavoring oils used in fruit-flavored beverages, for...

  13. 21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30... Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with... used on an interim basis as a stabilizer for flavoring oils used in fruit-flavored beverages, for...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10124 - Brominated polyaromatic compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Brominated polyaromatic compound... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10124 Brominated polyaromatic compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance... brominated polyaromatic compound (PMN P-06-617) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10124 - Brominated polyaromatic compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Brominated polyaromatic compound... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10124 Brominated polyaromatic compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance... brominated polyaromatic compound (PMN P-06-617) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10124 - Brominated polyaromatic compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Brominated polyaromatic compound... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10124 Brominated polyaromatic compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance... brominated polyaromatic compound (PMN P-06-617) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10124 - Brominated polyaromatic compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Brominated polyaromatic compound... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10124 Brominated polyaromatic compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance... brominated polyaromatic compound (PMN P-06-617) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3085 - Brominated phthalate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brominated phthalate ester. 721.3085... Substances § 721.3085 Brominated phthalate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as brominated phthalate ester (PMN P-90-581) is...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2925 - Brominated aromatic ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brominated aromatic ester. 721.2925... Substances § 721.2925 Brominated aromatic ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a brominated aromatic ester (PMN P-95-1128...

  20. 40 CFR 721.3085 - Brominated phthalate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Brominated phthalate ester. 721.3085... Substances § 721.3085 Brominated phthalate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as brominated phthalate ester (PMN P-90-581)...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3085 - Brominated phthalate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Brominated phthalate ester. 721.3085... Substances § 721.3085 Brominated phthalate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as brominated phthalate ester (PMN P-90-581)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.2925 - Brominated aromatic ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Brominated aromatic ester. 721.2925... Substances § 721.2925 Brominated aromatic ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a brominated aromatic ester (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.2925 - Brominated aromatic ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Brominated aromatic ester. 721.2925... Substances § 721.2925 Brominated aromatic ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a brominated aromatic ester (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3085 - Brominated phthalate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Brominated phthalate ester. 721.3085... Substances § 721.3085 Brominated phthalate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as brominated phthalate ester (PMN P-90-581)...

  5. Stable isotopes sales: Mound customer and shipment summaries, FY 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Flayler, K.A.

    1987-12-15

    A listing is given of Mound's sales of stable isotopes of noble gases, deuterium, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, bromine, and sulfur for fiscal year 1985. Purchasers are listed alphabetically and are divided into domestic and foreign groups. A cross-reference index by location is included for domestic and foreign customers. Cross-reference listings by isotope purchased are included for all customers.

  6. Optically pumped molecular bromine laser. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.W.

    1990-12-01

    An optically pumped molecular bromine laser was studied to investigate the quenching kinetics state of Br2. This included characterization of the pressure dependence of the laser output power. The approach was to excite molecular bromine in a sealed cell with a Nd:YAG pumped dye laser. Unresolved side fluorescence and amplified stimulated emission (ASE) spectra were recorded. ASE offered the advantage of a simpler optical system with no externally induced wavelength dependencies. Stimulated emission as a signal monitor offered greater resolution than side fluorescence spectra and facilitated spectroscopic assignment. (JS)

  7. Bromine and Chlorine Go Separate Ways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This graph shows the relative concentrations of bromine and chlorine at various locations on Earth and Mars. Typically, bromine and chlorine stick together in a fixed ratio, as in martian meteorites and Earth seawater. But sometimes the elements split apart and their relative quantities diverge. This separation is usually caused by evaporation processes, as in the Dead Sea on Earth. On Mars, at Meridiani Planum and Gusev Crater, this split has been observed to an even greater degree than seen on Earth. This puzzling result is currently being further explored by Mars Exploration Rover scientists. Data for the Mars locations were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

  8. Bromine and Chlorine Go Separate Ways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This graph shows the relative concentrations of bromine and chlorine at various locations on Earth and Mars. Typically, bromine and chlorine stick together in a fixed ratio, as in martian meteorites and Earth seawater. But sometimes the elements split apart and their relative quantities diverge. This separation is usually caused by evaporation processes, as in the Dead Sea on Earth. On Mars, at Meridiani Planum and Gusev Crater, this split has been observed to an even greater degree than seen on Earth. This puzzling result is currently being further explored by Mars Exploration Rover scientists. Data for the Mars locations were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

  9. Ninth Spectrum of Bromine: Br IX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Y. N.; van Kleef, Th A. M.

    1981-03-01

    The spectrum of bromine was photographed on a 6.60 m and a 10.7 m grazing incidence spectrograph in the region 300-90 Å. The source used was a triggered spark. The ninth spectrum of bromine was analysed on the basis of 3d9-3d84p transitions between 125-104 Å. Parametric level fitting calculations support the analysis. 44 lines are classified in this spectrum. Some Br VIII lines appearing in this region have been accurately measured.

  10. Process for recovering bromine from waste liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, M.; Mohri, A.; Ota, K.; Yamada, T.; Yokomichi, I.

    1982-04-13

    This is a process for recovering bromine from a waste liquid formed in the production of an aniline derivative by ammonolysis of a nuclear substituted bromobenzene derivative with a halogen atom or a functional group. The waste liquid is first subjected to chlorine treatment in alkaline region to remove most part of ammonia and aniline derivatives, and then it is subjected to chlorine treatment in acidic region to recover bromine. The process does not involve danger of explosion accidents and can be smoothly operated.

  11. Measurements of bromine containing organic compounds at the tropical tropopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauffler, S. M.; Atlas, E. L.; Flocke, F.; Lueb, R. A.; Stroud, V.; Travnicek, W.

    The amount of bromine entering the stratosphere from organic source gases is a primary factor involved in determining the magnitude of bromine catalyzed loss of ozone. Thirty two whole air samples were collected at the tropical tropopause during the NASA STRAT Campaign in Feb., Aug., and Dec., 1996 and were analyzed for brominated organic compounds. Total organic bromine was 17.4±0.9 ppt with 55% from methyl bromide, 38% from the Halons, 6% from dibromomethane, and 0.8% from bromochloromethane and dichlorobromomethane. One flight showed the presence of 0.42 ppt of additional organic bromine from bromoform and dibromochloromethane.

  12. Preparation of ionic membranes for zinc/bromine storage batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assink, R. A.; Arnold, C., Jr.

    Zinc/bromine flow batteries are being developed for vehicular and utility load leveling applications. During charge, an aqueous zinc bromide salt is electrolyzed to zinc metal and molecular bromine. During discharge, the zinc and bromine react to again form the zinc bromide salt. One serious disadvantage of the microporous separators presently used in the zinc/bromine battery is that modest amounts of bromine and negatively charged bromine moieties permeate through these materials and react with the zinc anode. This results in partial self-discharge of the battery and low coulombic efficiencies. Our approach to this problem is to impregnate the microporous separators with a soluble cationic polyelectrolyte. In laboratory screening tests a sulfonated polysulfone resin and fully fluorinated sulfonic acid polymer substantially reduced bromine permeation with only modest increases in the area resistance.

  13. Graphite fiber intercalation: Dynamics of the bromine intercalation process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Zinolabedini, R.

    1985-01-01

    The resistance of pitch-based graphite fibers was monitored, in situ, during a series of bromine intercalation experiments. The threshold pressure for the bromine intercalation of pitch-based fibers was estimated to be 102 torr. When the bromine atmosphere was removed from the reaction chamber, the resistivity of the intercalated graphite fibers increased consistently. This increase was attributed to loss of bromine from the perimeter of the fiber. The loss was confirmed by mapping the bromine concentration across the diameter of single intercalated fibers with either energy dispersive spectroscopy or scanning Auger microscopy. A statistical study comparing fibers intercalated in bromine vapor with fibers intercalated in bromine liquid showed that similar products were obtained with both methods of intercalation.

  14. Thermally dissociated chlorine and bromine molecular jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frick, J.

    1980-12-01

    High temperature nozzle sources producing thermal dissociation of chlorine and bromine are described. Scattering between molecular potential functions in nonelastic transfer of energy processes and chemical reactions was investigated by molecular beam technique. It is shown that the recombination freezes up faster when the nozzlehole duct is shorter.

  15. BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS: WHY DO WE CARE?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) save lives and property by preventing the spread of fires or delaying the time of flashover, enhancing the time people have to escape. The worldwide production of BFRs exceeded 200,000 metric tons in 2003 placing them in the high production vol...

  16. A Substitute Foe "Bromine in Carbon Tetrachloride"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Joshua M.; Landolt, Robert G.

    2005-01-01

    The addition of a dilute solution of bromine in carbon tetrachloride to a compound to test for carbon-carbon multiple bonds, which is one of the widely cited qualitative tests employed in organic chemistry is presented. Major advantages of this approach include the ease and rapidness of the procedure, the stability of the test solution over time,…

  17. HEALTH EFFECTS OF BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS (BFRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Brominated flame retardant use has increased dramatically in order to provide fire safety to consumers. However, there is growing concern about widespread environmental contamination and potential health risks from some of these products. The most used products...

  18. HEALTH ASPECTS OF BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS (BFRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to reduce the societal costs of fires, flammability standards have been set for consumer products and equipment. Flame retardants containing bromine have constituted the largest share of this market due both to their efficiency and cost. While there are at least 75 dif...

  19. Structure and functionality of bromine doped graphite.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Rashid; Kemper, A F; Cao, Chao; Cheng, H P

    2013-04-28

    First-principles calculations are used to study the enhanced in-plane conductivity observed experimentally in Br-doped graphite, and to study the effect of external stress on the structure and functionality of such systems. The model used in the numerical calculations is that of stage two doped graphite. The band structure near the Fermi surface of the doped systems with different bromine concentrations is compared to that of pure graphite, and the charge transfer between carbon and bromine atoms is analyzed to understand the conductivity change along different high symmetry directions. Our calculations show that, for large interlayer separation between doped graphite layers, bromine is stable in the molecular form (Br2). However, with increased compression (decreased layer-layer separation) Br2 molecules tend to dissociate. While in both forms, bromine is an electron acceptor. The charge exchange between the graphite layers and Br atoms is higher than that with Br2 molecules. Electron transfer to the Br atoms increases the number of hole carriers in the graphite sheets, resulting in an increase of conductivity.

  20. Structure and functionality of bromine doped graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdan, Rashid; Kemper, A. F.; Cao Chao; Cheng, H. P.

    2013-04-28

    First-principles calculations are used to study the enhanced in-plane conductivity observed experimentally in Br-doped graphite, and to study the effect of external stress on the structure and functionality of such systems. The model used in the numerical calculations is that of stage two doped graphite. The band structure near the Fermi surface of the doped systems with different bromine concentrations is compared to that of pure graphite, and the charge transfer between carbon and bromine atoms is analyzed to understand the conductivity change along different high symmetry directions. Our calculations show that, for large interlayer separation between doped graphite layers, bromine is stable in the molecular form (Br{sub 2}). However, with increased compression (decreased layer-layer separation) Br{sub 2} molecules tend to dissociate. While in both forms, bromine is an electron acceptor. The charge exchange between the graphite layers and Br atoms is higher than that with Br{sub 2} molecules. Electron transfer to the Br atoms increases the number of hole carriers in the graphite sheets, resulting in an increase of conductivity.

  1. HEALTH EFFECTS OF BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS (BFRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Brominated flame retardant use has increased dramatically in order to provide fire safety to consumers. However, there is growing concern about widespread environmental contamination and potential health risks from some of these products. The most used products...

  2. Bromination of selected pharmaceuticals in water matrices.

    PubMed

    Benitez, F Javier; Acero, Juan L; Real, Francisco J; Roldan, Gloria; Casas, Francisco

    2011-11-01

    The bromination of five selected pharmaceuticals (metoprolol, naproxen, amoxicillin, phenacetin, and hydrochlorothiazide) was studied with these compounds individually dissolved in ultra-pure water. The apparent rate constants for the bromination reaction were determined as a function of the pH, obtaining the sequence amoxicillin>naproxen>hydrochlorothiazide≈phenacetin≈metoprolol. A kinetic mechanism specifying the dissociation reactions and the species formed for each compound according to its pK(a) value and the pH allowed the intrinsic rate constants to be determined for each elementary reaction. There was fairly good agreement between the experimental and calculated values of the apparent rate constants, confirming the goodness of the proposed reaction mechanism. In a second stage, the bromination of the selected pharmaceuticals simultaneously dissolved in three water matrices (a groundwater, a surface water from a public reservoir, and a secondary effluent from a WWTP) was investigated. The pharmaceutical elimination trend agreed with the previously determined rate constants. The influence of the main operating conditions (pH, initial bromine dose, and characteristics of the water matrix) on the degradation of the pharmaceuticals was established. An elimination concentration profile for each pharmaceutical in the water matrices was proposed based on the use of the previously evaluated apparent rate constants, and the theoretical results agreed satisfactorily with experiment. Finally, chlorination experiments performed in the presence of bromide showed that low bromide concentrations slightly accelerate the oxidation of the selected pharmaceuticals during chlorine disinfection.

  3. A Substitute Foe "Bromine in Carbon Tetrachloride"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Joshua M.; Landolt, Robert G.

    2005-01-01

    The addition of a dilute solution of bromine in carbon tetrachloride to a compound to test for carbon-carbon multiple bonds, which is one of the widely cited qualitative tests employed in organic chemistry is presented. Major advantages of this approach include the ease and rapidness of the procedure, the stability of the test solution over time,…

  4. Brominated organic species in the arctic atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, W. W.; Heidt, L. E.; Pollock, W.; Sperry, P. D.; Cicerone, R. J.; Gladney, E. S.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements are reported of four gas-phase, brominated organic species found in the Arctic atmosphere during March and April 1983. Volume mixing ratios for CH3Br, CH2BrCH2Br, CHBr3, and CH2Br2 were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis from samples taken Arctic wide, including at the geographic North Pole and during a tropopause folding event over Baffin Bay near Thule, Greenland. Methyl bromide mixing ratios were reasonably constant at 11 plus or minus 4 pptv, while the other three brominated organics showed a high degree of variability. Bromoform (2 to 46 pptv) was found to be the dominant contributor to gaseous organic bromine to the Arctic troposphere at 38 plus or minus 10 percent followed by CH2Br2 (3 to 60 pptv) at 29 plus or minus 6 percent. Both CH3Br and CH2BrCH2Br (1 to 37 pptv) reservoirs contained less than 20 percent of the organically bound bromine. Stratospheric samples, taken during a tropopause folding event, showed mixing ratios for all four species at levels high enough to support a stratospheric total volume mixing ratio of 249 pptv Br (888 ngBr/SCM).

  5. HEALTH ASPECTS OF BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS (BFRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to reduce the societal costs of fires, flammability standards have been set for consumer products and equipment. Flame retardants containing bromine have constituted the largest share of this market due both to their efficiency and cost. While there are at least 75 dif...

  6. BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS: CAUSE FOR CONCERN?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have routinely been added to consumer products for several decades in a successful effort to reduce fire-related injury and property damage. Recently, concern for this emerging class of chemicals has risen due to the occurrence of several class...

  7. BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS: WHY DO WE CARE?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) save lives and property by preventing the spread of fires or delaying the time of flashover, enhancing the time people have to escape. The worldwide production of BFRs exceeded 200,000 metric tons in 2003 placing them in the high production vol...

  8. Brominated flame retardants as food contaminants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This book chapter reviews analytical methods for the three major brominated flame retardant (BFR) classes in use today, tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a "legacy" BFR no longer in use, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and a...

  9. Global Distribution of Organo-Bromine Gases.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawardena, Rohith

    Both man-made and natural trace organo-bromine gases are present in the atmosphere in minute quantities --in the order of a few parts per trillion by volume. The man-made species CBrF_3 and CBrClF _2 are believed to be an important source of bromine to the stratosphere where they act as catalysts in the chlorofluorocarbon-ozone-depletion hypothesis. A high resolution capillary column EC-GC method with and O_2 doped detector was developed, System V, to measure these and related organo -bromine gases in the atmosphere. It was developed from a packed column EC-GC method, System I, that was used to measure CH_3I at sub pptv levels but could measure only one organo-bromine gas, CBrClF _2. The development work to improve upon System I involved testing and matching different types of columns, carrier gases, make-up gases to the detector and detector temperatures to obtain operating conditions with optimum resolution, very high sensitivity and sufficiently stable baseline to measure atmospheric organo-bromine gases. During this development work, nine organo-bromine gases were identified in clean background air. The precision of analysis of each system used was sufficient to determine the distributions and time course behavior of the species studied. During the course of this study, samples collected weekly at 11 remote stations around the world spanning latitudes from 82^circN down to 42^circS were analyzed for these organo-bromine gases. In addition, samples collected for 10 years at Cape Meares - Oregon, Cape Matatula - American Samoa, Cape Grim - Tasmania and at the South Pole during the austral summer months were analyzed for long term trends of CBrF_3 and CBrClF_2 . Significant altitudinal differences, interhemispheric gradients and seasonal cycles were observed for certain gases. Long-term trends were observed for CBrF _3 and CBrClF_2. CBrF _3 showed an exponential increase. From 1979 to 1987, its northern and southern hemispheric concentrations have increased at

  10. Search for Possible Stratospheric Bromine Reservoir Species: Theoretical Study of the Photostability of Mono-, Tri-, and Pentacoordinated Bromine Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, TImothy J.; Mejia, Cesar N.; Beran, J. O.; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Previous work has shown that pentacoordinated bromine compounds have their lowest excited electronic states shifted to the blue relative to monocoordinated bromine molecules, and that this shift may be large enough to render them photostable in the lower stratosphere. Our earlier work has also shown that certain pentacoordinated bromine compounds are thermodynamically stable relative to their mono- or tricoordinated isomers, suggesting that if a bromine stratospheric reservoir species exists, then it is most likely a pentacoordinated compound. In this study we have examined the singlet excited electronic states of several bromine compounds in order to assess their photostability excited states in mono-, tri-, and pentacoordinated bromine molecules. Due to the strong spin-orbit mixing in bromine, we have also examined the lowest triplet excited state.

  11. Search for Possible Stratospheric Bromine Reservoir Species: Theoretical Study of the Photostability of Mono-, Tri-, and Pentacoordinated Bromine Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, TImothy J.; Mejia, Cesar N.; Beran, J. O.; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Previous work has shown that pentacoordinated bromine compounds have their lowest excited electronic states shifted to the blue relative to monocoordinated bromine molecules, and that this shift may be large enough to render them photostable in the lower stratosphere. Our earlier work has also shown that certain pentacoordinated bromine compounds are thermodynamically stable relative to their mono- or tricoordinated isomers, suggesting that if a bromine stratospheric reservoir species exists, then it is most likely a pentacoordinated compound. In this study we have examined the singlet excited electronic states of several bromine compounds in order to assess their photostability excited states in mono-, tri-, and pentacoordinated bromine molecules. Due to the strong spin-orbit mixing in bromine, we have also examined the lowest triplet excited state.

  12. Brominated flame retardants: cause for concern?

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Linda S; Staskal, Daniele F

    2004-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have routinely been added to consumer products for several decades in a successful effort to reduce fire-related injury and property damage. Recently, concern for this emerging class of chemicals has risen because of the occurrence of several classes of BFRs in the environment and in human biota. The widespread production and use of BFRs; strong evidence of increasing contamination of the environment, wildlife, and people; and limited knowledge of potential effects heighten the importance of identifying emerging issues associated with the use of BFRs. In this article, we briefly review scientific issues associated with the use of tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecane, and three commercial mixtures of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and discuss data gaps. Overall, the toxicology database is very limited; the current literature is incomplete and often conflicting. Available data, however, raise concern over the use of certain classes of brominated flame retardants. PMID:14698924

  13. Biodegradation of brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Waaijers, Susanne L; Parsons, John R

    2016-04-01

    Brominated flame retardants account for about 21% of the total production of flame retardants and many of these have been identified as persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic. Nevertheless, debromination of these chemicals under anaerobic conditions is well established, although this can increase their toxicity. Consequently, the production and use of these chemicals has been restricted and alternative products have been developed. Many of these are brominated compounds and share some of the disadvantages of the chemicals they are meant to replace. Therefore, other, nonbrominated, flame retardants such as organophosphorus compounds are also being used in increasing quantities, despite the fact that knowledge of their biodegradation and environmental fate is often lacking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Membrane-less hydrogen bromine flow battery.

    PubMed

    Braff, William A; Bazant, Martin Z; Buie, Cullen R

    2013-01-01

    In order for the widely discussed benefits of flow batteries for electrochemical energy storage to be applied at large scale, the cost of the electrochemical stack must come down substantially. One promising avenue for reducing stack cost is to increase the system power density while maintaining efficiency, enabling smaller stacks. Here we report on a membrane-less hydrogen bromine laminar flow battery as a potential high-power density solution. The membrane-less design enables power densities of 0.795 W cm(-2) at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, with a round-trip voltage efficiency of 92% at 25% of peak power. Theoretical solutions are also presented to guide the design of future laminar flow batteries. The high-power density achieved by the hydrogen bromine laminar flow battery, along with the potential for rechargeable operation, will translate into smaller, inexpensive systems that could revolutionize the fields of large-scale energy storage and portable power systems.

  15. Marine bacterial degradation of brominated methanes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodwin, K.D.; Lidstrom, M.E.; Oremland, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Brominated methanes are ozone-depleting compounds whose natural sources include marine algae such as kelp. Brominated methane degradation by bacteria was investigated to address whether bacterial processes might effect net emission of these compounds to the atmosphere. Bacteria in seawater collected from California kelp beds degraded CH2Br2 but not CHBr3. Specific inhibitors showed that methanotrophs and nitrifiers did not significantly contribute to CH2Br2 removal. A seawater enrichment culture oxidized 14CH2Br2 to 14CO2 as well as 14CH3Br to 14CO2. The rates of CH2Br2 degradation in laboratory experiments suggest that bacterial degradation of CH2Br2 in a kelp bed accounts for <1% of the CH2Br2 produced by the kelp. However, the half-life of CH2Br2 due to bacterial removal appears faster than hydrolysis and within an order of magnitude of volatilization to the atmosphere.Brominated methanes are ozone-depleting compounds whose natural sources include marine algae such as kelp. Brominated methane degradation by bacteria was investigated to address whether bacterial processes might effect net emission of these compounds to the atmosphere. Bacteria in seawater collected from California kelp beds degraded CH2Br2 but not CHBr3. Specific inhibitors showed that methanotrophs and nitrifiers did not significantly contribute to CH2Br2 removal. A seawater enrichment culture oxidized 14CH2Br2 to 14CO2 as well as 14CH3Br to 14CO2. The rates of CH2Br2 degradation in laboratory experiments suggest that bacterial degradation of CH2Br2 in a kelp bed accounts for <1% of the CH2Br2 produced by the kelp. However, the half-life of CH2Br2 due to bacterial removal appears faster than hydrolysis and within an order of magnitude of volatilization to the atmosphere.

  16. Catalytic bromine recovery from HBr waste

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, P.F.; Beatty, R.D.; Mahajan, S.

    1993-12-31

    Waste HBr is formed during the bromination of many organic molecules, such as flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, and agricultural chemicals. For over 50 years attempts to recover the bromine from waste HBr by catalytic oxidation have been unsuccessful due to low catalyst activity and stability. The discovery of a new high-activity catalysts with excellent long-term stability and life capable of high HBr conversion below 300{degrees}C has made catalytic oxidation of waste HBr commercially feasible. The oxidation of anhydrous HBr using oxygen is highly exothermic, giving an adiabatic temperature rise of 2000{degrees}C. Use of 48 wt% HBr in the oxidation reduces the adiabatic temperature rise to only 300{degrees}C. A multitubular heat exchanger type of reactor can then be used to manage the heat. A 5,000 kg/yr pilot plant was built to verify the performance of the catalyst, the suitability of the reactor materials of construction, and the multibular reactor concept. The pilot unit has a single full-scale reactor tube 4 m long and 2.54 cm in diameter with a hot oil jacket for heat management. Excellent catalyst stability was observed during a 600 h catalyst-life test. HBr conversion of 99% was maintained throughout the run, and over 360 kg of bromine was produced. The temperature at a localized hot spot near the reactor inlet was only 15-20{degrees}C above the reactor inlet temperature, indicating efficient heat management.

  17. Course of bromination of thiazole and 2-methylthiazole

    SciTech Connect

    Gol'dfarb, Ya. L.; Belen'kii, L.I.; Gromova, G.P.

    1986-12-01

    Bromination of thiazole by bromine in the presence of aluminum chloride in neutral solvent or without solvent takes place at the 2-position. Such an orientation contradicts the traditional addition-cleavage mechanism, and agrees with the ylid mechanism of electrophilic substitution. 2-Methylthiazole brominates at the 5-position, and the reaction is impeded in the presence of aluminum chloride; this is due to heterocycle deactivation by complexation with the Lewis acid at the nitrogen atom.

  18. Silver-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Bromination of Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xinqiang; Song, Tao; Wang, Zhentao; Chen, He; Cui, Lei; Li, Chaozhong

    2017-03-13

    The silver-catalyzed Hunsdiecker bromination of aliphatic carboxylic acids is described. With Ag(Phen)2OTf as the catalyst and dibromoisocyanuric acid as the brominating agent, various aliphatic carboxylic acids underwent decarboxylative bromination to provide the corresponding alkyl bromides under mild conditions. This method not only is efficient and general but also enjoys wide functional group compatibility. An oxidative radical mechanism involving Ag(II) intermediates is proposed.

  19. Oxidation of flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol a by aqueous permanganate: reaction kinetics, brominated products, and pathways.

    PubMed

    Pang, Su-Yan; Jiang, Jin; Gao, Yuan; Zhou, Yang; Huangfu, Xiaoliu; Liu, Yongze; Ma, Jun

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the most widely used brominated flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol A (TBrBPA) was shown to exhibit appreciable reactivity toward potassium permanganate [Mn(VII)] in water over a wide pH range of 5-10 with the maxima of second-order rate constants (kMn(VII) = 15-700 M(-1) s(-1)) at pH near its pKa values (7.5/8.5). A novel precursor ion scan (PIS) approach using negative electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (ESI-QqQMS) was adopted and further optimized for fast selective detection of brominated oxidation products of TBrBPA by Mn(VII). By setting PIS of m/z 79 and 81, two major products (i.e., 4-(2-hydroxyisopropyl)-2,6-dibromophenol and 4-isopropylene-2,6-dibromophenol) and five minor ones (including 2,6-dibromophenol, 2,6-dibromo-1,4-benzoquinone, and three dimers) were detected and suggested with chemical structures from their product ion spectra and bromine isotope patterns. Reaction pathways mainly involving the initial one-electron oxidation of TBrBPA and subsequent release and further reactions of 2,6-dibromo-4-isopropylphenol carbocation intermediate were proposed. The effectiveness of Mn(VII) for treatment of TBrBPA in real waters was confirmed. It is important to better understand the reactivity and toxicity of primary brominated products before Mn(VII) can be applied for treatment of TBrBPA-contaminated wastewater and source water.

  20. Tuning the structure of CsCaI3:Eu via substitution of bromine for iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyd, M.; Lindsey, A.; Stand, L.; Zhuravleva, M.; Melcher, C. L.; Koschan, M.

    2017-06-01

    CsCaI3:Eu is a promising scintillator material that can be grown from the melt, but undergoes a tetragonal to orthorhombic phase transition upon cooling at 255 °C, causing twinning and cloudiness. The purpose of this work is to suppress this solid to solid phase transition in the CsCaI3:Eu scintillator, which has a light yield of ∼40000 ph/MeV and energy resolution at 662 keV of ∼4%, by halide replacement to form the compound CsCaBrxI3-x. Crystals 8 cm3 in volume were grown using the vertical Bridgman method with varying bromine content from x = 0.2 to x = 1, resulting in improved transparency for crystals with bromine content x > 0.6. Powder X-ray diffraction data coupled with differential scanning calorimetry and radioluminescence measurements were used to investigate structural modifications, melting point dependence and spectral emission dependence on the bromine/iodine ratio. Partial replacement of iodine by bromine improves optical quality and scintillation properties by stabilizing the structure, rendering it useful for isotope identification for national security applications. The composition CsCaBr0.8I2.2:Eu was determined to be the best combination of improved structure and performance, and larger 22 and 38 mm Ø crystals were grown for further evaluation. Large size slabs of these crystals showed good crystal quality and improved performance over CsCaI3Eu with 8.4% and 9.5% energy resolution at 662 keV, respectively.

  1. Hydrogen-bromine fuel cell advance component development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charleston, Joann; Reed, James

    1988-01-01

    Advanced cell component development is performed by NASA Lewis to achieve improved performance and longer life for the hydrogen-bromine fuel cells system. The state-of-the-art hydrogen-bromine system utilizes the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) technology, similar to the SPE technology developed for the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell system. These studies are directed at exploring the potential for this system by assessing and evaluating various types of materials for cell parts and electrode materials for Bromine-hydrogen bromine environment and fabricating experimental membrane/electrode-catalysts by chemical deposition.

  2. NMR investigation of non-brominated and brominated epoxy ester prepolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žigon, M.; Osredkar, U.; Šebenik, A.

    1992-03-01

    1H, 13C and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy has been used to investigate the structure of epoxy ester prepolymers, based on non-brominated DGEBA-type or brominated DGETBBA-type epoxy resins, and on an oligomeric carboxylic acid. In the presence of a quaternary phosphonium salt, besides diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) or diglycidylether of tetrabromobisphenol A (DGETBBA) and their higher oligomers, monoesters with characteristic R-CH 2-CH(OH)-CH 2-OCOR' groups were detected in prevailing quantities. In dependence of the epoxy-carboxy ratio, isomeric monoesters with hydroxymethyl groups, diesters and diols might also be present.

  3. Horizontal and vertical structure of reactive bromine events probed by bromine monoxide MAX-DOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, William R.; Peterson, Peter K.; Frieß, Udo; Sihler, Holger; Lampel, Johannes; Platt, Ulrich; Moore, Chris; Pratt, Kerri; Shepson, Paul; Halfacre, John; Nghiem, Son V.

    2017-08-01

    Heterogeneous photochemistry converts bromide (Br-) to reactive bromine species (Br atoms and bromine monoxide, BrO) that dominate Arctic springtime chemistry. This phenomenon has many impacts such as boundary-layer ozone depletion, mercury oxidation and deposition, and modification of the fate of hydrocarbon species. To study environmental controls on reactive bromine events, the BRomine, Ozone, and Mercury EXperiment (BROMEX) was carried out from early March to mid-April 2012 near Barrow (Utqiaġvik), Alaska. We measured horizontal and vertical gradients in BrO with multiple-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instrumentation at three sites, two mobile and one fixed. During the campaign, a large crack in the sea ice (an open lead) formed pushing one instrument package ˜ 250 km downwind from Barrow (Utqiaġvik). Convection associated with the open lead converted the BrO vertical structure from a surface-based event to a lofted event downwind of the lead influence. The column abundance of BrO downwind of the re-freezing lead was comparable to upwind amounts, indicating direct reactions on frost flowers or open seawater was not a major reactive bromine source. When these three sites were separated by ˜ 30 km length scales of unbroken sea ice, the BrO amount and vertical distributions were highly correlated for most of the time, indicating the horizontal length scales of BrO events were typically larger than ˜ 30 km in the absence of sea ice features. Although BrO amount and vertical distribution were similar between sites most of the time, rapid changes in BrO with edges significantly smaller than this ˜ 30 km length scale episodically transported between the sites, indicating BrO events were large but with sharp edge contrasts. BrO was often found in shallow layers that recycled reactive bromine via heterogeneous reactions on snowpack. Episodically, these surface-based events propagated aloft when aerosol extinction was higher (> 0.1 km

  4. Stratospheric Inorganic Bromine Loading Inferred from CONTRAST BrO and Organic Bromine Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salawitch, R. J.; Wales, P.; Nicely, J. M.; Anderson, D. C.; Canty, T. P.; Atlas, E. L.; Schauffler, S.; Donets, V.; Lueb, R.; Navarro, M. A.; Apel, E. C.; Blake, N. J.; Hills, A. J.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Riemer, D. D.; Chen, D.; Huey, L. G.; Tanner, D.; Volkamer, R. M.; Koenig, T. K.; Baidar, S.; Dix, B. K.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Wolfe, G.; Hanisco, T. F.; Hall, S. R.; Ullmann, K.; Fernandez, R.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J. F.; Honomichl, S.; Pan, L.

    2016-12-01

    The CONvective TRansport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) and Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) aircraft campaigns sampled the tropical Western Pacific in the winter of 2014. In this region, strong convection provides an efficient pathway to transport very short lived (VSL) biogenic bromocarbons and their degradation products from the marine boundary layer to the stratosphere, where they contribute to ozone depletion. A stratospheric tracer-tracer relation will be developed based on CONTRAST and ATTREX whole air sampler observations of CFC-11, a commonly measured stratospheric tracer, and bromocarbons. This relation will be used to calculate the release of inorganic bromine both from VSL source gas injection and from long-lived bromocarbons as a function of CFC-11. Additionally, a photochemical box model will be used to infer inorganic bromine loading using CONTRAST BrO observations taken in the lower stratosphere using CIMS and DOAS instruments. The inferred inorganic bromine loading will be combined with the tracer-tracer relation to provide an estimate of VSL product gas injection. This work will provide an observations-based method for calculating stratospheric inorganic bromine loading from CFC-11 to be used in future modelling studies.

  5. The Addition of Bromine to 1,2-Diphenylethene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amburgey-Peters, Judith C.; Haynes, Leroy W.

    2005-01-01

    The bromination of 1,2-diphenylethene, using a variety of solvents and brominating agents, can be used in both introductory and advanced organic chemistry courses. The reactions can be used to illustrate the effects of changing solvents and reagents, as well as to reveal interesting aspects of organic reaction mechanisms.

  6. Potential hazards of brominated carbon sorbents for mercury emission control.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Teresa M; Xu, Zhenghe

    2015-02-17

    Mercury is a toxic air pollutant, emitted from the combustion of coal. Activated Carbon (AC) or other carbon sorbent (CS) injection into coal combustion flue gases can remove elemental mercury through an adsorption process. Recently, a brominated CS with biomass ash as the carbon source (Br-Ash) was developed as an alternative for costly AC-based sorbent for mercury capture. After mercury capture, these sorbents are disposed in landfill, and the stability of bromine and captured mercury is of paramount importance. The objective of this study is to determine the fate of mercury and bromine from Br-Ash and brominated AC after their service. Mercury and bromine leaching tests were conducted using the standard toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). The mercury was found to be stable on both the Br-Ash and commercial brominated AC sorbents, while the bromine leached into the aqueous phase considerably. Mercury pulse injection tests on the sorbent material after leaching indicate that both sorbents retain significant mercury capture capability even after the majority of bromine was removed. Testing of the Br-Ash sorbent over a wider range of pH and liquid:solid ratios resulted in leaching of <5% of mercury adsorbed on the Br-Ash. XPS analysis indicated more organically bound Br and less metal-Br bonds after leaching.

  7. 40 CFR 721.10534 - Brominated aliphatic alcohol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Brominated aliphatic alcohol (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10534 Brominated aliphatic alcohol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... aliphatic alcohol (PMN P-12-260) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10534 - Brominated aliphatic alcohol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Brominated aliphatic alcohol (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10534 Brominated aliphatic alcohol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... aliphatic alcohol (PMN P-12-260) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  9. The Addition of Bromine to 1,2-Diphenylethene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amburgey-Peters, Judith C.; Haynes, Leroy W.

    2005-01-01

    The bromination of 1,2-diphenylethene, using a variety of solvents and brominating agents, can be used in both introductory and advanced organic chemistry courses. The reactions can be used to illustrate the effects of changing solvents and reagents, as well as to reveal interesting aspects of organic reaction mechanisms.

  10. Fire-retardant coatings based on organic bromine/phenoxy or brominated epoxy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.M.; Chiu, Ing L.

    1989-06-01

    Thin phenoxy and brominated epoxy/curing agent films were prepared by solvent casting on Mylar and Kapton. Thicknesses were approximated assuming volume additivity. Important parameters were uniformity of thickness, distribution of the bromine-containing fire retardant, adhesion to carrier substrate (either Mylar or Kapton), and uniformity of the coating, i.e., absence of pinholes, blush, blistering, etc. Wetting behavior was modified using fluoro, silicone or polyurea surfactants. Several solvent systems were examined and a ternary solvent system was ultimately used. Distribution of fire-retardant bromine was analyzed using electron microprobe, x-ray fluorescence and wet chemical methods. Significant discrepancies in the /mu/m-scale analyses of the microprobe measurements have not been resolved. Some of the brominated fire retardants were insoluble in the resin systems and the phase separation was immediately obvious. Similarly, some of the crystallizable epoxies could not be cast easily into homogeneous, amorphous films. Castings were made on a standard 8'' /times/ 10'' aluminum vacuum plate polished with jeweler's rouge prior to every casting. Solvent was removed in a forced air or vacuum oven. Removal and/or curing was accelerated with temperature. The fire-retardant bromine was required to be stable in alcohol/salt solutions. Final formulation used after a significant amount of testing was phenoxy resin PKHC in a ternary solvent system composed of methylethyl ketone, cellosolve acetate and toluene. Tetrabromobisphenol A was used as the flame retardant with FC-430 as surfactant. The dying schedule was 30 minutes at 150/degree/C. 4 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Isotopic Effect on the Kinetics of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Federico; Rustici, Mauro; Rossi, Claudio; Tiezzi, Enzo

    2007-01-01

    In this work we present results about the deuterium isotope effect on the global kinetics of a Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction in batch conditions. A nonlinear dependence of the Induction Period upon the percentage of deuterated reactants was found. The isotopic effect on the bromination reaction of malonic acid was evaluated.

  12. Effects of milling brominated P-100 graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Dillehay, Michael E.; Hambourger, Paul D.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary procedures have been developed for the ball milling of pristine and brominated P-100 graphite fibers. Because of the lubricative properties of graphite, large ball loads (50 percent by volume) are required. Use of 2-propanol as a milling medium enhances the efficiency of the process. The fibers, when allowed to settle from the milling medium, tend to be preferentially aligned with rather few fibers standing up. Milled, brominated P-100 fibers have resistivities that are indistinguishable from their pristine counterparts, apparently because of loss of bromine. This suggests that bromine would not be the intercalate of choice in applications where milled fibers of this type are required. It was found that brominated graphite fibers are stable in a wide variety of organic solvents.

  13. Brominated flame retardants in US food.

    PubMed

    Schecter, Arnold; Harris, T Robert; Shah, Nirav; Musumba, Alice; Päpke, Olaf

    2008-02-01

    We and others recently began studying brominated flame retardant levels in various matrices in the US including human milk and other food. This paper reviews the food studies. In our studies, ten to thirteen polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were measured, usually including BDE 209. All US women's milk samples were contaminated with PBDEs from 6 to 419 ng/g, lipid, orders of magnitude higher than levels reported in European studies, and are the highest reported worldwide. We compared our market basket studies of meat, fish and dairy products with other US food studies of meat and fish. US studies showed somewhat higher levels of PBDEs than reported elsewhere. Fish were most highly contaminated (median 616 pg/g), then meat (median190 pg/g) and dairy products (median 32.2 pg/g). However, unlike some European countries where fish predominates, dietary intake of PBDEs in the US is mostly from meat, then fish and then dairy products. Broiling can decrease the amount of PBDEs per serving. We also measured levels of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), another brominated flame retardant, in human milk. The levels are lower than PBDEs, 0.16-1.2 ng/g, similar to European levels, unlike PBDEs where US levels are much higher than European levels.

  14. Are brominated flame retardants endocrine disruptors?

    PubMed

    Legler, Juliette; Brouwer, Abraham

    2003-09-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are a group of compounds that have received much attention recently due to their similarity with "old" classes of organohalogenated compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), in terms of their fate, stability in the environment and accumulation in humans and wildlife. Toxic effects, including teratogenicity, carcinogenicity and neurotoxicity, have been observed for some BFR congeners, in particular the brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs). This concise review focuses on the potency of BFRs and to disrupt endocrine systems, and attempts to answer the question whether or not BFRs are endocrine disruptors. Evidence is provided on the disruption of the thyroid hormone system by BFRs, with particular emphasis on the BDEs, as most recent data is available on this class of flame retardants. Similar to the hydroxylated PCBs, in vitro mechanistic studies as well as animal experiments have demonstrated the effects of BDEs on thyroid hormone transport and metabolism. An overview of possible effects of BFRs on the estrogen system is also provided. Research gaps are outlined, as well as ongoing and future studies in the European community aimed at contributing to comprehensive risk assessments based on the endocrine-disrupting effects of BFRs.

  15. New infrared spectroscopic database for bromine nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Georg; Birk, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    Fourier transform infrared measurements of bromine nitrate have been performed in the spectral region 675-1400 cm-1 at 0.014 cm-1 spectral resolution. Absorption cross sections were derived from 38 spectra covering the temperature range from 203 to 296 K and air pressure range from 0 to 190 mbar. For line-by-line analysis, further spectra were recorded at 0.00094 cm-1 spectral resolution at 223 and 293 K. The sample was synthesized from ClONO2 and Br2. Band strengths of the bands ν3 around 803 cm-1 and ν2 around 1286 cm-1 were determined from three pure BrONO2 measurements at different temperatures and pressures. Number densities in the absorption cell were derived from pressure measurements of the purified sample taking into account small amounts of impurities determined spectroscopically. Resulting band strengths are Sν3 = 2.872(52) × 10-17 cm2 molec-1 cm-1 and Sν2 = 3.63(15) × 10-17 cm2 molec-1 cm-1. Absorption cross sections of all measurements were scaled to these band strengths. Further data reduction was achieved with an interpolation scheme based on two-dimensional polynomials in ln(pressure) and temperature. The database is well-suited for remote-sensing application and should reduce the atmospheric bromine nitrate error budget substantially.

  16. 40 CFR 415.290 - Applicability; description of the bromine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... bromine production subcategory. 415.290 Section 415.290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Bromine Production Subcategory § 415.290 Applicability; description of the bromine production... bromine by the brine-mining process and by the Trona process....

  17. 40 CFR 415.290 - Applicability; description of the bromine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... bromine production subcategory. 415.290 Section 415.290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Bromine Production Subcategory § 415.290 Applicability; description of the bromine production... bromine by the brine-mining process and by the Trona process....

  18. 40 CFR 415.290 - Applicability; description of the bromine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... bromine production subcategory. 415.290 Section 415.290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Bromine Production Subcategory § 415.290 Applicability; description of the bromine production... bromine by the brine-mining process and by the Trona process....

  19. 40 CFR 415.290 - Applicability; description of the bromine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... bromine production subcategory. 415.290 Section 415.290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Bromine Production Subcategory § 415.290 Applicability; description of the bromine production... bromine by the brine-mining process and by the Trona process....

  20. 40 CFR 415.290 - Applicability; description of the bromine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... bromine production subcategory. 415.290 Section 415.290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Bromine Production Subcategory § 415.290 Applicability; description of the bromine production... bromine by the brine-mining process and by the Trona process....

  1. Use of Bromine and Bromo-Organic Compounds in Organic Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Indranirekha; Borah, Arun Jyoti; Phukan, Prodeep

    2016-06-22

    Bromination is one of the most important transformations in organic synthesis and can be carried out using bromine and many other bromo compounds. Use of molecular bromine in organic synthesis is well-known. However, due to the hazardous nature of bromine, enormous growth has been witnessed in the past several decades for the development of solid bromine carriers. This review outlines the use of bromine and different bromo-organic compounds in organic synthesis. The applications of bromine, a total of 107 bromo-organic compounds, 11 other brominating agents, and a few natural bromine sources were incorporated. The scope of these reagents for various organic transformations such as bromination, cohalogenation, oxidation, cyclization, ring-opening reactions, substitution, rearrangement, hydrolysis, catalysis, etc. has been described briefly to highlight important aspects of the bromo-organic compounds in organic synthesis.

  2. Bromine-Chlorine Coupling in the Antarctic Ozone Hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, Michael Y.; Sze, Nien-Dak; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Rodriquez, Jose M.; Prather, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    The contribution from the chlorine and bromine species in the formation of the Antarctic ozone hole is evaluated. Since chlorine and bromine compounds are of different industrial origin, it is desirable, from a policy point of view, to be able to attribute chlorine-catalyzed loss of ozone with those reactions directly involving chlorine species, and likewise for bromine-catalyzed loss. In the stratosphere, however, most of the chemical families are highly coupled, and, for example, changes in the chlorine abundance will alter the partitioninig in other families and thus the rate of ozone loss. This modeling study examines formation of the Antarctic ozone hole for a wide range of bromine concentrations (5 - 25 pptv) and for chlorine concentrations typical of the last two decades (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 ppbv). We follow the photochemical evolution of a single parcel of air, typical of the inner Antarctic vortex (50 mbar, 70 deg. S, NO(sub y) = 2 ppbv, with Polar Stratospheric Clouds(PSC)) from August 1 to November 1. For all of these ranges of chlorine and bromine loading, we would predict a substantial ozone hole (local depletion greater than 90%) within the de-nitrified, PSC- perturbed vortex. The contributions of the different catalytic cycles responsible for ozone loss are tabulated. The deep minimum in ozone is driven primarily by the chlorine abundance. As bromine levels decrease, the magnitude of the chlorine-catalyzed ozone loss increases to take up the slack. This is because bromine suppresses ClO by accelerating the conversion of ClO an Cl2O2 back to HCI. For this range of conditions, the local relative efficiency of ozone destruction per bromine atom to that per chlorine atom (alpha-factor) ranges from 33 to 55, decreasing with increase of bromine.

  3. Hydrogen-Bromine Flow Battery: Hydrogen Bromine Flow Batteries for Grid Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: LBNL is designing a flow battery for grid storage that relies on a hydrogen-bromine chemistry which could be more efficient, last longer and cost less than today’s lead-acid batteries. Flow batteries are fundamentally different from traditional lead-acid batteries because the chemical reactants that provide their energy are stored in external tanks instead of inside the battery. A flow battery can provide more energy because all that is required to increase its storage capacity is to increase the size of the external tanks. The hydrogen-bromine reactants used by LBNL in its flow battery are inexpensive, long lasting, and provide power quickly. The cost of the design could be well below $100 per kilowatt hour, which would rival conventional grid-scale battery technologies.

  4. Bromine content and brominated flame retardants in food and animal feed from the UK.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, A R; Mortimer, D; Rose, M; Smith, F; Panton, S; Garcia-Lopez, M

    2016-05-01

    Current occurrence data for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and hexa-bromocyclododecane (HBCD) measured in most commonly consumed foods (n = 156) and animal feeds (n = 51) sampled in the UK, demonstrates an ongoing ubiquity of these contaminants in human and animal diets. PBDE concentrations for the sum of 17 measured congeners ranged from 0.02 ng/g to 8.91 ng/g whole weight for food, and 0.11 ng/g to 9.63 ng/g whole weight for animal feeds. The highest concentration ranges, and mean values were detected in fish, processed foods and fish feeds. HBCD diastereomers (alpha-HBCD was the most commonly detected) generally occurred at lower concentrations (from <0.01 ng/g to 10.1 ng/g for food and <0.01 ng/g to 0.66 ng/g for animal feed) and less frequently than PBDEs, but tetrabromobisphenol A which was also measured, was rarely detected. The total bromine content of the samples was also determined in an attempt to use a mass balance approach to investigate some of these samples for the occurrence of novel and emerging BFRs. Although the approach was further refined by measuring organic bromine content, the concentrations of bromine were too high (in most cases by orders of magnitude) to allow use of the approach. A selected sub-set of samples was screened by GC-MS, for the presence of novel/emerging brominated flame retardants (PBT, TBX, PBEB, DBHCTD, HCTBPH and OBTMPI) but these were not detected at the higher limits of detection that result from full scan (GC-MS) screening. This data will contribute to the EU wide risk assessment on these contaminants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Snowmelt onset hinders bromine monoxide heterogeneous recycling in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burd, Justine A.; Peterson, Peter K.; Nghiem, Son V.; Perovich, Don K.; Simpson, William R.

    2017-08-01

    Reactive bromine radicals (bromine atoms, Br, and bromine monoxide, BrO) deplete ozone and alter tropospheric oxidation chemistry during the Arctic springtime (February-June). As spring transitions to summer (May-June) and snow begins to melt, reactive bromine events cease and BrO becomes low in summer. In this study, we explore the relationship between the end of the reactive bromine season and snowmelt timing. BrO was measured by Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer at Utqiaġvik (Barrow), AK, from 2012 to 2016 and on drifting buoys deployed in Arctic sea ice from 2011 to 2016, a total of 13 site and year combinations. The BrO seasonal end date (SED) was objectively determined and was compared to surface-air-temperature-derived melt onset date (MOD). The SED was highly correlated with the MOD (N = 13, R2 = 0.983, RMS = 1.9 days), and BrO is only observed at subfreezing temperatures. In subsets of these sites and years where ancillary data were available, we observed that snowpack depth reduced and rain precipitation occurred within a few days of the SED. These data are consistent with snowpack melting hindering BrO recycling, which is necessary to maintain enhanced BrO concentrations. With a projected warmer Arctic, a shift to earlier snowmelt seasons could alter the timing and role of halogen chemical reactions in the Arctic with impacts on ozone depletion and mercury deposition.Plain Language SummaryReactive <span class="hlt">bromine</span> events in the Arctic are common in spring and deplete ozone and cause mercury deposition. These events are affected by snow and ice, which are changing in the Arctic; therefore, we need to understand how environmental conditions affect reactive <span class="hlt">bromine</span> chemistry. We find that the reactive <span class="hlt">bromine</span> season ends when snowpack begins to melt. Through these full seasonal observations, we find that reactive <span class="hlt">bromine</span> events occur to warmer temperatures than previously reported</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6662814','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6662814"><span>The biosynthesis of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> pyrrolnitrin derivatives by Pseudomonas aureofaciens.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Pée, K H; Salcher, O; Fischer, P; Bokel, M; Lingens, F</p> <p>1983-12-01</p> <p>The mutant strain ACN of Pseudomonas aureofaciens ATCC 15926 produces several bromo derivatives of pyrrolnitrin. Five <span class="hlt">brominated</span> amino- and three <span class="hlt">brominated</span> nitrophenyl pyrrole compounds could be isolated, and their structures were established by 1H NMR, UV and mass spectroscopy. The isolated amino compounds showed no biological activity; the nitro derivatives inhibited the growth of Neurospora crassa ATCC 9276, though not as effective as pyrrolnitrin itself. 2-Carboxy-4-(2-amino-3-bromophenyl)pyrrole (X) is demonstrated to be an intermediate in the biosynthesis of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> pyrrolnitrin; the biosynthetic pathway to bromo derivatives of pyrrolnitrin is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=169763','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=169763"><span>Inactivation by <span class="hlt">bromine</span> of single poliovirus particles in water.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Floyd, R; Johnson, J D; Sharp, D G</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Quantitative electron microscopy shows that Freon-extracted poliovirus, velocity banded in a sucrose gradient, contains over 95% single particles. This well-dispersed virus reacts quite rapidly with <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in turbulent flowing water, losing plaque titer at the rate of one log10 unit in 10s at pH 7, 2 C, and at a <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentration of 2.2 muM. At 10 and 20 C the rate of disinfection (log10 plaque-forming units per second) is faster, and at both temperatures it increases in approximately linear fashion with increasing <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentration. At 2 C such a linear relationship is not observed. Images PMID:11745</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JQSRT.196..165N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JQSRT.196..165N"><span>Hyperfine structure constants of atomic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (Br I)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ni, Xue; Deng, Lunhua; Wang, Hailing</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>The absorption spectrum of the neutral <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (Br I), lying in the region from 11,300 cm-1 to 12,600 cm-1 has been investigated using concentration modulation absorption spectroscopy with a tunable Ti:Sapphire laser. The <span class="hlt">bromine</span> atoms were excited by discharging the mixture of Helium and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> vapour in a hollow discharge glass tube. The hyperfine structure spectra of 45 lines were analyzed. Hyperfine structure constants A and B were derived for 20 even and 27 odd levels amongst which constants for 12 even and 21 odd levels were newly reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6634477','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6634477"><span>(Development of <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>-77 from the LAMPF facility)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The objective of the work was to conduct the necessary studies required to evaluate the efficacy, potential benefit and role of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-77 labeled steroids in the detection and evaluation of treatment for hormone-dependent tumors. This report presents progress on the following tasks: An initial investigation concentrating on the radiobromination at carbon-6 or carbon-7 in selected simple steroids utilizing the nuclides, <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-82 and <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-77, analytical spectroscopy of radiolabeled compounds, and investigating the biodistribution, toxicology and tumor affinity of labeled agents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4678425','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4678425"><span>Ruthenium-Catalyzed meta-Selective C—H <span class="hlt">Bromination</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Teskey, Christopher J; Lui, Andrew Y W; Greaney, Michael F</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The first example of a transition-metal-catalyzed, meta-selective C–H <span class="hlt">bromination</span> procedure is reported. In the presence of catalytic [{Ru(p-cymene)Cl2}2], tetrabutylammonium tribromide can be used to functionalize the meta C–H bond of 2-phenylpyridine derivatives, thus affording difficult to access products which are highly predisposed to further derivatization. We demonstrate this utility with one-pot <span class="hlt">bromination</span>/arylation and <span class="hlt">bromination</span>/alkenylation procedures to deliver meta-arylated and meta-alkenylated products, respectively, in a single step. PMID:26288217</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19054543','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19054543"><span>Alkaline reforming of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> fire-retardant plastics: fate of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and antimony.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Onwudili, Jude A; Williams, Paul T</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>High-impact polystyrene (HIPS) flame retarded with decabromodiphenyl ether (DDE), has been reacted in supercritical water from 380 to 450 degrees C and 21.5 to 31.0 MPa pressure in a batch reactor. Different concentrations of sodium hydroxide additive were used in situ to neutralize the corrosive inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> species released during the reactions. It appeared that supercritical water conditions lowered the decomposition temperature of both the fire-retardant DDE and HIPS. The reaction products included oils (up to 76 wt%), char (up to 18 wt%) and gas (up to 2.4 wt%) which was mainly methane. The presence of the alkaline water led to up to 97 wt% debromination of the product oil, producing virtually <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-free oil feedstock. The removal of antimony from the oil product during processing was of the order of 98 wt%. The oil consisted of many single- and multiple-ringed aromatic compounds, many of which had alkyl substituents and/or aliphatic C(n)-bridges (n=1-4). The major single-ringed compounds included toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, propylbenzene and alpha-methylstyrene. Bibenzyl (diphenylethane), stilbene, diphenylmethane, diphenylpropane, diphenylcyclopropane, diphenylpropene, diphenylbutane, diphenylbutene and diphenylbuta-1,3-diene were the major C(n)-bridged compounds. Diphenyl ether and acetophenone were the major oxygenated compounds found. The process thus has the potential to produce <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-free and antimony-free oils from fire-retardant plastics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21764419','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21764419"><span>TG-MS investigation of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> products from the degradation of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants in high-impact polystyrene.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grause, Guido; Karakita, Daiki; Ishibashi, Jun; Kameda, Tomohito; Bhaskar, Thallada; Yoshioka, Toshiaki</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>The thermal degradation of flame retardant containing high-impact polystyrene (HIPS-Br), one of the most commonly employed plastics in electric and electronic appliances, was examined by thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectroscopy (TG-MS) in order to understand the threat that is posed by the release of hazardous <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compounds. The HIPS samples contained decabromodiphenylether (DPE) and decabromodibenzyl (DDB) as the flame retardants as well as Sb2O3 as the synergist. The largest number of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compounds was obtained in the presence of DPE and Sb2O3 and DDB without Sb2O3. From the degradation of DPE, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> benzenes, phenols, diphenylethers, and dibenzofurans were identified, and from the degradation of DDB, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> benzenes, dibenzyls, and phenanthrenes were formed. The interaction between the flame retardant and the polymer matrix resulted in α-bromoethylbenzene. The formation of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> dibenzodioxins was not observed, probably, due to the low phenol concentration in the polymer melt. No other report has, to our knowledge, ever reported on the formation of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> phenanthrenes from flame retardants. Because they share similar steric features, it may well be that <span class="hlt">brominated</span> phenanthrenes are similar in their carcinogen and mutagen potential to dibenzofurans and dibenzodioxins. A plausible mechanism for the formation of the observed compounds is presented, and the role of the synergist is considered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19350916','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19350916"><span>Existence state of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> as an indicator of the source of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants in indoor dust.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suzuki, Go; Kida, Akiko; Sakai, Shin-ichi; Takigami, Hidetaka</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>Indoor dust is an important medium for human exposure to <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). In this study, we used micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS), digital optical microscopy, and gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry to investigate the existence state of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> as an indicator of the source of BFRs in indoor dusts and in dusts from the interior of televisions collected in Japan. By means of micro XRFS <span class="hlt">bromine</span> mapping conducted at a 0.5-s dwell time, we were able to detect <span class="hlt">bromine</span> levels as low as about 0.1% at each point of about a beam diameter of 50 microm across. The presence of fragments containing 1.0% or more <span class="hlt">bromine</span> was confirmed in 27 of the 48 dust samples tested. Using magnified images of the fragments, we classified them roughly into particulates and fibrous substances. We analyzed PBDEs in the fragments containing high concentrations of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (> or = 0.1%) and confirmed that the fragments contained PBDEs, mainly BDE 209. Furthermore, to detect <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentrations < or = 0.1% in the dust samples, we analyzed the samples at a dwell time of 100 s to enhance the detection sensitivity of mapping; atthis dwell time, we confirmed the presence of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the dust coating. Our results suggest that <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is transferred from products to dust matrixes not only through miniaturization and subsequent direct migration into dust as plastic and textile fragments but also through other pathways such as vaporization and airborne transfer of microparticulates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12850089','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12850089"><span>Relevance of BFRs and thermal conditions on the formation pathways of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> and <span class="hlt">brominated</span>-chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weber, Roland; Kuch, Bertram</p> <p>2003-09-01</p> <p>The widespread use of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame-retarded products in the last two decades has resulted in an increasing presence of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in thermal processes such as waste combustion and accidental fires. <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> and <span class="hlt">brominated</span>-chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDDs/PBDFs, PXDDs/PXDFs) are micropollutants of concern arising from such processes. The present review aims to evaluate the relevance of these compound classes in actual thermal processes. Four categories of thermal processes are discussed in this respect according to their potential for PBDD/PBDF and PXDD/PXDF generation: thermal stress, pyrolysis/gasification, insufficient combustion conditions and controlled combustion conditions. Under thermal stress situations, as they may occur in production or recycling processes, PBDDs/PBDFs precursors like polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) can have a relevant potential for PBDD/PBDF formation via a simple elimination. Under insufficient combustion conditions as they are present in, e.g. accidental fires and uncontrolled burning as well as gasification/pyrolysis processes, considerable amounts of PBDDs/PBDFs can be formed from BFRs, preferably via the precursor pathway. In contrast, under controlled combustion conditions, BFRs and PBDDs/PBDFs can be destroyed with high efficiency. The relevance of de novo synthesis of PXDDs/PXDFs is discussed for this condition. Providing a basis for the understanding of PXDD/PXDF formation in actual thermal processes, the present paper also summarises the formation pathways of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> and <span class="hlt">brominated</span>-chlorinated PXDDs/PXDFs from <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) investigated during laboratory thermolysis experiments. Relevant mechanistic steps for PBDD/PBDF formation from <span class="hlt">brominated</span> precursors are discussed including elimination reactions, condensation steps and debromination/hydrogenation reactions. In addition, chlorination/<span class="hlt">bromination</span> and halogen exchange reactions are briefly discussed with respect for their</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24484005','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24484005"><span>Magnetic trapping of cold <span class="hlt">bromine</span> atoms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rennick, C J; Lam, J; Doherty, W G; Softley, T P</p> <p>2014-01-17</p> <p>Magnetic trapping of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> atoms at temperatures in the millikelvin regime is demonstrated for the first time. The atoms are produced by photodissociation of Br2 molecules in a molecular beam. The lab-frame velocity of Br atoms is controlled by the wavelength and polarization of the photodissociation laser. Careful selection of the wavelength results in one of the pair of atoms having sufficient velocity to exactly cancel that of the parent molecule, and it remains stationary in the lab frame. A trap is formed at the null point between two opposing neodymium permanent magnets. Dissociation of molecules at the field minimum results in the slowest fraction of photofragments remaining trapped. After the ballistic escape of the fastest atoms, the trapped slow atoms are lost only by elastic collisions with the chamber background gas. The measured loss rate is consistent with estimates of the total cross section for only those collisions transferring sufficient kinetic energy to overcome the trapping potential.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870007337','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870007337"><span>In search of stratospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> oxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lestrade, John Patrick</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The Imaging Spectrometric Observatory (ISO) is capable of recording spectra in the wavelength range of 200 to 12000 Angstroms. Data from a recent Spacelab 1 ATLAS mission has imaged the terrestrial airglow at tangent ray heights of 90 and 150 km. These data contain information about trace atmospheric constituents such as <span class="hlt">bromine</span> oxide (BrO), hydroxyl (OH), and chlorine dioxide (OClO). The abundances of these species are critical to stratospheric models of catalytic ozone destruction. Heretofore, very few observations were made especially for BrO. Software was developed to purge unwanted solar features from the airglow spectra. The next step is a measure of the strength of the emission features for BrO. The final analysis will yield the scale height of this important compound.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28458244','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28458244"><span>Cadmium, lead and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in beached microplastics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Massos, Angelo; Turner, Andrew</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Samples of microplastic (n = 924) from two beaches in south west England have been analysed by field-portable-x-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) spectrometry, configured in a low-density mode and with a small-spot facility, for the heavy metals, Cd and Pb, and the halogen, Br. Primary plastics in the form of pre-production pellets were the principal type of microplastic (>70%) on both beaches, with secondary, irregularly-shaped fragments representing the remainder of samples. Cadmium and Pb were detected in 6.9% and 7.5% of all microplastics, respectively, with concentrations of either metal that exceeded 10(3) μg g(-1) usually encountered in red and yellow pellets or fragments. Respective correlations of Cd and Pb with Se and Cr were attributed to the presence of the coloured, inorganic pigments, cadmium sulphoselenide and lead chromate. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>, detected in 10.4% of microplastics and up to concentrations of about 13,000 μg g(-1), was mainly encountered in neutrally-coloured pellets. Its strong correlation with Sb, whose oxides are effective fire suppressant synergists, suggests the presence of a variety of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants arising from the recycling of plastics originally used in casings for heat-generating electrical equipment. The maximum bioaccessible concentrations of Cd and Pb, evaluated using a physiological extraction based on the chemical characteristics of the proventriculus-gizzard of the northern fulmar, were about 50 μg g(-1) and 8 μg g(-1), respectively. These concentrations exceed those estimated for the diet of local seabirds by factors of about 50 and 4, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6545237','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6545237"><span>Development of <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>-77 from the LAMPF facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mettler, F.A. Jr.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The objective of the work is to conduct the necessary studies required to evaluate the efficacy, potential benefit and role of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-77 labelled steroids in the detection and evaluation of treatment for hormone-dependent tumors. The synthetic goals of the project are to prepose estradiol derivatives which are labelled with <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-77 at specific positions in the steroid nucleus. In addition, animal studies imaging studies, and cooperative studies are being conducted. (KJD)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=546609','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=546609"><span>Algicidal Effect of <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> and Chlorine on Chlorella pyrenoidosa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kott, Yehuda; Hershkovitz, Galila; Shemtob, A.; Sless, J. B.</p> <p>1966-01-01</p> <p>Chlorella pyrenoidosa was found to grow rapidly in tap water. Peak growth was reached after 2 to 3 days. Chlorine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, added to such water, were shown to be effective inhibitors of algal growth. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> and bromamine were primarily algicidal, whereas chlorine and chloramines were mainly algistatic. It is assumed that the mechanisms of action of these halogens on Chlorella are not the same. PMID:5914499</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991STIN...9217025R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991STIN...9217025R"><span>Gas transport in polybutadiene treated with aqueous <span class="hlt">bromine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rein, D. H.; Baddour, R. F.; Cohen, R. E.</p> <p>1991-10-01</p> <p>Diffusion, solubility and permeability coefficients were measured for He, CO2, Ar and CH4 in polybutadiene (PB) and in polybutadiene reacted in the solid state to various extents with aqueous <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. Analysis of the sorption curves and x ray emission spectra showed that the <span class="hlt">bromination</span> created a heterogeneous membrane with an outer <span class="hlt">brominated</span> skin and an unreacted core. At relatively low extent of <span class="hlt">bromination</span>, the diffusion and permeability coefficients for CO2, Ar and CH4 became immeasurably small after about 3 percent <span class="hlt">bromination</span>. The ideal separation factor for gas pairs with different molecular size increased with <span class="hlt">bromination</span>, suggesting applications in gas separation processes. Tailoring the structure of existing commodity polymers through chemical modification is an attractive approach to improving the properties of membranes for gas separation and barrier applications. Systematic alterations of the polymer structure also provide a convenient route for studying the effects of molecular architecture on the permeability. Substitutions to the backbone or side chains affect the intrasegmental mobility and intersegmental chain packing, resulting in changes in gas diffusivity, solubility and permeability coefficients.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C11D..05P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C11D..05P"><span>Airborne Observations of Reactive <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Transport in the Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peterson, P.; Sihler, H.; Pöhler, D.; Zielcke, J.; General, S.; Friess, U.; Platt, U.; Simpson, W. R.; Nghiem, S. V.; Shepson, P. B.; Stirm, B. H.; Wagner, T.; Caulton, D.; Fuentes, J. D.; Pratt, K.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The return of sunlight in the polar spring leads to production of reactive halogen species from surface snowpacks, altering the chemical composition of the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer. In particular, <span class="hlt">bromine</span> chemistry is implicated in boundary layer ozone depletion events (ODEs) and altered oxidation of atmospheric pollutants. Currently, many uncertainties exist regarding the vertical extent of this chemistry, as well as the transport and sustained recycling of these halogens aloft. Here, we present airborne BrO and aerosol particle measurements obtained during the 2012 <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Ozone Mercury EXperiment on 13 March near Barrow, AK. Airborne differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) observations showed a <span class="hlt">bromine</span> monoxide (BrO) plume, disconnected from the surface, moving with the wind. The amount of BrO observed in the lofted plume remained constant over the course of the three hour flight, indicating heterogeneous recycling of reactive <span class="hlt">bromine</span> was taking place. Concurrent in-situ measurements of size-resolved aerosol number concentrations, together with DOAS retrievals of aerosol particle extinction profiles, indicated this lofted <span class="hlt">bromine</span> plume was transported and maintained at elevated levels through reactions on supermicron aerosol particles, independently of surface snowpack <span class="hlt">bromine</span> chemistry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800041336&hterms=Bromine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DBromine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800041336&hterms=Bromine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DBromine"><span>Atmospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and ozone perturbations in the lower stratosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Yung, Y. L.; Pinto, J. P.; Watson, R. T.; Sander, S. P.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The role of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> compounds in the photochemistry of the natural and perturbed stratosphere has been reexamined using an expanded reaction scheme and the results of recent laboratory studies of several key reactions. The most important finding is that through the reaction BrO + ClO yielding Br + Cl + O2 there is a synergistic effect between <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and chlorine which results in an efficient catalytic destruction of ozone in the lower stratosphere. One-dimensional photochemical model results indicate that BrO is the major <span class="hlt">bromine</span> species throughout the stratosphere, followed by BrONO2, HBr, HOBr and Br. It is shown from the foregoing that <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is more efficient than chlorine as a catalyst for destroying ozone, and the implications for stratospheric ozone of possible future growth in the industrial and agricultural use of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> are discussed. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> concentrations of 20 pptv (2 x 10 to the -11th power), as suggested by recent observations, can decrease the present-day integrated ozone column density by 2.4%, and can enhance ozone depletion from steady-state chlorofluoromethane release at 1973 rates by a factor of 1.1-1.2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800041336&hterms=bromine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dbromine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800041336&hterms=bromine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dbromine"><span>Atmospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and ozone perturbations in the lower stratosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Yung, Y. L.; Pinto, J. P.; Watson, R. T.; Sander, S. P.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The role of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> compounds in the photochemistry of the natural and perturbed stratosphere has been reexamined using an expanded reaction scheme and the results of recent laboratory studies of several key reactions. The most important finding is that through the reaction BrO + ClO yielding Br + Cl + O2 there is a synergistic effect between <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and chlorine which results in an efficient catalytic destruction of ozone in the lower stratosphere. One-dimensional photochemical model results indicate that BrO is the major <span class="hlt">bromine</span> species throughout the stratosphere, followed by BrONO2, HBr, HOBr and Br. It is shown from the foregoing that <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is more efficient than chlorine as a catalyst for destroying ozone, and the implications for stratospheric ozone of possible future growth in the industrial and agricultural use of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> are discussed. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> concentrations of 20 pptv (2 x 10 to the -11th power), as suggested by recent observations, can decrease the present-day integrated ozone column density by 2.4%, and can enhance ozone depletion from steady-state chlorofluoromethane release at 1973 rates by a factor of 1.1-1.2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19..222N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19..222N"><span>Very-short-lived <span class="hlt">brominated</span> substances (VSLBr) and inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (Bry) in the Pacific tropical tropopause layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Navarro, Maria A.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Kinnison, Douglas; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone; Rodriguez-Lloveras, Xavier; Filus, Michal; Harris, Neil R. P.; Meneguz, Elena; Ashfold, Matthew J.; Manning, Alistair J.; Fernandez, Rafael P.; Schauffler, Sue; Donets, Valeria; Thornberry, Troy; Rollins, Andrew; Elkins, James W.; Hintsa, Eric J.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Organic very-short-lived <span class="hlt">brominated</span> substances (VSLBr) and inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> species (Bry) play an important role in the chemistry of upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) region. Their distribution, vertical structure, and variability provide information about sources and transport. In addition, an accurate quantification of the reactive and reservoirs species defines the halogen budget and assists in the assessment of the ozone depletion potential for <span class="hlt">brominated</span> trace gases. In the last decade, there have been efforts to better understand the chemical and physical processes that occur in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL), including convection, dehydration, and heterogeneous recycling reactions, which influence the partitioning of the trace gas species that enter the stratosphere. However, uncertainties in the estimation of the organic and inorganic partitioning of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and the input to the stratosphere still persist. Based on the measurements of samples collected by the Global Hawk Whole Air Sampler (GWAS) during the NASA-Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX), and chemistry climate simulations (using CAM-Chem along ATTREX flight tracks), we will examine the vertical distribution of selected organic species in the UT/LS of the Eastern and Western Pacific. We also will describe the budget and partitioning of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> at the tropical tropopause and evaluate the contribution of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> to ozone destruction in the lower stratosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16580706','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16580706"><span>Alkaline hydrothermal treatment of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> high impact polystyrene (HIPS-Br) for <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-free plastic recovery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brebu, Mihai; Bhaskar, Thallada; Muto, Akinori; Sakata, Yusaku</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>A method to recover both Br and Br-free plastic from <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardant high impact polystyrene (HIPS-Br) was proposed. HIPS-Br containing 15% Br was treated in autoclave at 280 degrees C using water or KOH solution of various amounts and concentrations. Hydrothermal treatment (30 ml water) leads to 90% debromination of 1g HIPS-Br but plastic is strongly degraded and could not be recovered. Alkaline hydrothermal treatment (45 ml or 60 ml KOH 1M) showed similar debromination for up to 12 g HIPS-Br and plastic was recovered as pellets with molecular weight distribution close to that of the initial material. Debromination occurs at melt plastic/KOH solution interface when liquid/vapour equilibrium is attained inside autoclave (280 degrees C and 7 MPa in our experimental conditions) and depends on the plastic amount/KOH volume ratio. The antimony oxide synergist from HIPS-Br remains in recovered plastic during treatment. A pictorial imagination of the proposed debromination process is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24745557','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24745557"><span><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardant exposure of aircraft personnel.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Strid, Anna; Smedje, Greta; Athanassiadis, Ioannis; Lindgren, Torsten; Lundgren, Håkan; Jakobsson, Kristina; Bergman, Åke</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The use of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aircraft is the result of high fire safety demands. Personnel working in or with aircraft might therefore be exposed to several BFRs. Previous studies have reported PBDE exposure in flight attendants and in passengers. One other group that may be subjected to significant BFR exposure via inhalation, are the aircraft maintenance workers. Personnel exposure both during flights and maintenance of aircraft, are investigated in the present study. Several BFRs were present in air and dust sampled during both the exposure scenarios; PBDEs, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis (2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane. PBDEs were also analyzed in serum from pilots/cabin crew, maintenance workers and from a control group of individuals without any occupational aircraft exposure. Significantly higher concentrations of PBDEs were found in maintenance workers compared to pilots/cabin crew and control subjects with median total PBDE concentrations of 19, 6.8 and 6.6 pmol g(-1) lipids, respectively. Pilots and cabin crew had similar concentrations of most PBDEs as the control group, except for BDE-153 and BDE-154 which were significantly higher. Results indicate higher concentrations among some of the pilots compared to the cabin crew. It is however, evident that the cabin personnel have lower BFR exposures compared to maintenance workers that are exposed to such a degree that their blood levels are significantly different from the control group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/assessing-and-managing-chemicals-under-tsca/tsca-work-plan-chemical-technical-supplement','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/assessing-and-managing-chemicals-under-tsca/tsca-work-plan-chemical-technical-supplement"><span>TSCA Work Plan Chemical Technical Supplement – Physicochemical Properties and Environmental Fate of the <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> Phthalates Cluster (BPC) Chemicals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>TSCA Work Plan Chemical Technical Supplement – Physicochemical Properties and Environmental Fate of the <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> Phthalates Cluster (BPC) Chemicals -- <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> Phthalates Cluster Flame Retardants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2612W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2612W"><span>Probing the tropical tropopause layer for organic and inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Werner, Bodo; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Atlas, Elliot; Cheung, Ross; Chipperfield, Martyn; Colosimo, Fedele; Deutschmann, Tim; Elkins, Jim; Fahey, David; Feng, Wu; Festa, James; Gao, Ru-Shan; Hossaini, Ryan; Navarro, Maria; Raecke, Rasmus; Scalone, Lisa; Spolaor, Max; Thornberry, Troy; Tsai, Catalina; Stutz, Jochen</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> chemistry impacts the levels of ozone in the upper troposphere and the stratosphere. An accurate quantitative understanding of the sources, sinks, and chemical transformation of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> species is thus important to understand the photochemistry and budget of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the tropical upper troposphere, tropopause layer and lowermost stratosphere (UT/TTL/LS). These regions are also known to serve as a gateway for delivery of ozone depleting gases to the stratosphere. CH3Br, halons, short-lived organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> precursors (VSLS), such as CHBr3, CH2Br2, and possibly inorganic product gases have been identified as the main <span class="hlt">bromine</span> gases delivered to the stratosphere. However, many important details of the transport and delivery of VSLS and inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> compounds through the TTL are still uncertain. Moreover, a number of chemical processes, including the transformation of the source gases and cycling of inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> species at low ambient temperature and on ice particles are also poorly understood. The presentation reports measurements of CH4, O3, NO2, and BrO performed by different instruments and techniques during the 2013 NASA-ATTREX flights in the TTL and LS. The interpretation of our measurements is supported by chemical transport model (SLIMCAT) simulations. SLIMCAT results, in conjunction with extensive radiative transfer calculations using the Monte Carlo model McArtim, also are used to improve retrieval of O3, NO2, and BrO concentrations from limb scattered sunlight measurements made with the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique during ATTREX. The chemical transport model also allows us to attribute observed concentration variations to transport and to photochemical processes. When properly accounting for the transport-related concentration variations in methane and ozone, we find that measured BrO mostly agrees with model simulations. An exception are regions where the contribution of the short-lived CH2Br2 or the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17310701','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17310701"><span>Fate of higher <span class="hlt">brominated</span> PBDEs in lactating cows.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kierkegaard, Amelie; Asplund, Lillemor; de Wit, Cynthia A; McLachlan, Michael S; Thomas, Gareth O; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C</p> <p>2007-01-15</p> <p>Dietary intake studies of lower <span class="hlt">brominated</span> diphenyl ethers (BDEs) have shown that fish and animal products are important vectors of human exposure, but almost no data exist for higher <span class="hlt">brominated</span> BDEs. Therefore, the fate of hepta- to decaBDEs was studied in lactating cows exposed to a naturally contaminated diet by analyzing feed, feces, and milk samples from a previous mass balance study of PCB. Tissue distribution was studied in one cow slaughtered after the experiment. BDE-209 was the dominant congener in feed, organs, adipose tissues, and feces, but not in milk. In contrast to PCBs and lower <span class="hlt">brominated</span> BDEs, concentrations of hepta- to decaBDEs in adipose tissue were 9-80 times higher than in milk fat and the difference increased with degree of <span class="hlt">bromination</span>/log K(OW). The congener profiles in adipose tissue and feed differed; BDE-207, BDE-196, BDE-197, and BDE-182 accumulated to a surprisingly greater extent in the fat compared to their isomers, suggesting metabolic debromination of BDE-209 to these BDEs. The results indicate that meat rather than dairy product consumption may be an important human exposure route to higher <span class="hlt">brominated</span> BDEs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19066481','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19066481"><span>Dietary iodine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> intakes in Ukrainian subjects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shiraishi, Kunio; Ko, Susumu; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Zamostyan, Pavlo V; Tsigankov, Nikolay Y</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Dietary iodine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> intakes in Ukrainian subjects were estimated in relation to the health effects on inhabitants after the Chernobyl accident. Two hundred and eighty-six total diets were collected from twenty-five regions for Ukrainians by a duplicate portion study. Iodine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> were rapidly determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after chemical separation. The range, median, and geometric mean of iodine intakes were 2.86-698, 44.7, and 48.1 microg per person per day, respectively. Those of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> were 0.627-16.9, 2.97, and 2.92 mg per person per day, respectively. Daily intakes of both elements in Ukrainians were lower than previously reported values. The iodine intake in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl accident was lower than that in non-contaminated areas. The low iodine intake in both areas would be related to the high prevalence of goiters throughout the whole country. The low <span class="hlt">bromine</span> intakes indicated Ukrainians were not exposed to <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-containing foods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol25/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol25-sec180-519.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol25/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol25-sec180-519.pdf"><span>40 CFR 180.519 - Bromide ion and residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span>; tolerances for residues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... checks of residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span> using a <span class="hlt">bromine</span> test kit. To assure safe use of the additives, the label and... bromide ion levels. (b) Section 18 emergency exemptions. (c) Tolerances with regional registrations....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol24-sec180-519.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol24-sec180-519.pdf"><span>40 CFR 180.519 - Bromide ion and residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span>; tolerances for residues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... checks of residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span> using a <span class="hlt">bromine</span> test kit. To assure safe use of the additives, the label and... bromide ion levels. (b) Section 18 emergency exemptions. (c) Tolerances with regional registrations....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol25/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol25-sec180-519.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol25/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol25-sec180-519.pdf"><span>40 CFR 180.519 - Bromide ion and residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span>; tolerances for residues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... checks of residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span> using a <span class="hlt">bromine</span> test kit. To assure safe use of the additives, the label and... bromide ion levels. (b) Section 18 emergency exemptions. (c) Tolerances with regional registrations....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol23/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol23-sec180-519.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol23/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol23-sec180-519.pdf"><span>40 CFR 180.519 - Bromide ion and residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span>; tolerances for residues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... checks of residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span> using a <span class="hlt">bromine</span> test kit. To assure safe use of the additives, the label and... bromide ion levels. (b) Section 18 emergency exemptions. (c) Tolerances with regional registrations....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5963541','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5963541"><span>Redox battery including a <span class="hlt">bromine</span> positive electrode and a chromium ion negative electrode and method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Giner, J.D.; Stark, H.H.</p> <p>1984-09-04</p> <p>A redox flow battery with a positive half-cell compartment containing bromide ion, <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and a complexing organic liquid for <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, and a negative electrode half-cell compartment containing chromium ion, and including electrolyte fluid communication therebetween.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3538V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3538V"><span>What can <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in ice cores tell us about Arctic sea ice in the past?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vallelonga, Paul; Spolaor, Andrea; Maffazzoli, Niccolo; Kjær, Helle; Barbante, Carlo; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> is of interest as a potential sea ice proxy due to its role in polar atmospheric chemistry, particularly the photochemical "<span class="hlt">bromine</span> explosion" events which occur over the seasonal sea ice surface. A growing body of literature has demonstrated that <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is reliably deposited and preserved in polar ice caps and can be used to investigate variability over timescales varying from seasonal to multimillenial. For sea ice reconstructions, <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and sodium are usually evaluated with respect to their relative abundances in seawater. Competing processes of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> enrichment due to the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> explosion, and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> depletion due to scavenging and deposition, must be taken into account when comparing results from coastal and inland sampling sites. We will review existing <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-based sea ice reconstructions and present new data for locations from Svalbard, Severnaya Zemlya, Northwest Greenland (NEEM ice core) and central East Greenland (Renland ice core).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22626891','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22626891"><span>Interference by metabolites and the corresponding troubleshooting during the LC-MS/MS bioanalysis of G004, a <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-containing hypoglycemic agent.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hu, Linlin; Ding, Li; Li, Xiaobing; Zhou, Na; Zhong, Shuisheng; Wu, Guanzhong; Zhang, Huibin</p> <p>2012-06-15</p> <p>The quantitative determination of drugs in bio-samples may be interfered by the drug-related metabolites during the high-throughput LC-MS/MS analysis. When quantifying <span class="hlt">bromine</span> or chlorine containing compounds, the ⁸¹Br/³⁷Cl <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> forms of their mono-hydroxylated metabolites after in-source dehydration could produce ions which are isobaric with the precursor ions of the parent compounds at the ⁷⁹Br/³⁵Cl <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> form. In this report, we described the identification of an interfering hydroxylated metabolite of G004, a novel <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-containing hypoglycemic agent, during LC-MS/MS analysis of plasma samples. Several different MRM transitions were tested and evaluated to minimize the metabolite influence on the quantification of G004. Furthermore, the standard addition method using incurred samples was used to evaluate the matrix effect caused by the interfering metabolite. The lower limit of quantitation of the established method was 0.2 ng/ml, which was 10 times lower than the existing one. The method was successfully applied to investigate the single-dosing pharmacokinetic profile of G004 in beagle dogs. The above results indicated that when quantifying chlorine or <span class="hlt">bromine</span> containing compounds, evaluation of the interference from mono-hydroxylation or dehydrogenation metabolites should be undertaken, and if such metabolites existed, their impact on quantification of the parent compounds could be eliminated by the proper selection of the MRM transitions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8029E..1JV','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8029E..1JV"><span>Environmental monitoring of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vagula, Mary C.; Kubeldis, Nathan; Nelatury, Charles F.</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) are synthetic organobromide compounds which inhibit ignition and combustion processes. Because of their immense ability to retard fire and save life and property, they have been extensively used in many products such as TVs, computers, foam, plastics etc. The five major classes of BFRs are tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), pentabromodiphenyl ether, octabromodiphenyl ether, and decabromodiphenyl ether. The last three are also commonly called PBDEs. BDE-85 and BDE-209 are the two prominent congeners of PBDEs and this study reports the adverse effects of these congeners in rodents. Exposure of rat sciatic nerves to 5 μg/mL and 20 μg/mL of BDE-85 and BDE-209 respectively lead to significant, concentration dependent reduction in nerve conduction function. Glucose absorption in the rat intestinal segments exposed to 5 μg/mL of BDE-85 and BDE-209 was significantly reduced for both the compounds tested. Lastly, mice when exposed to 0.25 mg/kg body weight for four days showed a disruption in oxidant and antioxidant equilibrium. The tissues namely liver and brain have shown increase in the levels of lipid hydroperoxides indicating oxidative stress. Moreover, all the protective enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, and glutathione S transferase (GST) have shown tissue specific alterations indicating the induction of damaging oxidative stress and setting in of lipid peroxidation in exposed animals. The results indicate monitoring of PBDEs in the environment is essential because levels as low as 5 μg/mL and 0.25 mg/kg body weight were able to cause damage to the functions of rodents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28377327','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28377327"><span><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardant: environmental and exposed individuals' health impact.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dufour, Patrice; Charlier, Corinne</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Since Antiquity, men have used chemicals to protect their goods against fire. Effective and easy to use, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants are used since decades massively in plastic industry. Such like other organohalogenated compounds, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants are very persistent in the environment and able to accumulate along the food chain. Many authors highlight their presence in the environment, in many animal species and in the human serum. Worryingly, man is exposed as soon as the pregnancy and then by the breastfeeding. This exposition may have consequence on our health. Many studies (in vitro, in vivo or epidemiologic) highlight <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardant negative effects on the endocrine system, mainly on the thyroid function but also on the reproduction, the neurodevelopment in the children and on the metabolism with increasing diabetes risk. If authorities and some big enterprises are aware about the problematic, new studies are needed to confirm previous results, elucidate endocrine disrupting mechanisms and highlight hypothetical synergies with other pollutants such like PCBs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991JOM....43l..35P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991JOM....43l..35P"><span>A rotating disk study of gold dissolution by <span class="hlt">bromine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pesic, Batric; Sergent, Rodney H.</p> <p>1991-12-01</p> <p>Gold dissolution with <span class="hlt">bromine</span> was studied using the rotating disk technique with Geobrom™ 3400 as a source of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. The parameters studied were speed of rotation, lixiviant concentration, pH, temperature, sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid concentrations, and the concentrations of various cations (i.e., copper, iron, zinc, aluminum, manganese, potassium, and sodium) and anions (i.e., chloride, bromide, sulfate, nitrate, and iodide). According to the Lavich plot and activation energy, gold dissolution is controlled by a chemical reaction rate. Copper, iron, and manganese in their highest oxidation states, as well as aluminum, zinc, sodium, and potassium, have no effect on the rate of gold dissolution. The presence of manganous ion substantially decreases the gold dissolution rate. The kinetic performance of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> was found to be dramatically better than the performance of cyanide and thiourea.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930051388&hterms=Bromine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBromine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930051388&hterms=Bromine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBromine"><span>The <span class="hlt">bromine</span> content of micrometeorites - Arguments for stratospheric contamination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bromine</span>-salt nanocrystals are associated with a porous chondritic micrometeorite (W7029E5) that was collected in the lower stratosphere. These salt nanocrystals occur together with volcanic Na and K salt nanocrystals embedded in sulfuric acid droplets that were originally adhered to the particle. These materials were concentrated during hexane rinsing as part of routine curation procedures at the NASA Johnson Space Center Cosmic Dust Curatorial Facility. This observation is fortuitous to the extent that the concentration of nanocrystals and sulfuric acid is an experimental artifact of curation. If <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is a stratospheric contaminant due to surface adsorption, there should be a positive linear relationship between the mass-normalized residence time and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> content of individual micrometeorites. I show that the predicted correlation exists using a new model to calculate the stratospheric residence time of individual nonspherical micrometeorites in the slow-settling Wilson-Huang regime of the stratosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750051367&hterms=bromine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dbromine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750051367&hterms=bromine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dbromine"><span>The chemistry of atmospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. [catalyst for ozone destruction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wofsy, S. C.; Mcelroy, M. B.; Yung, Y. L.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> may act as a catalyst for recombination of ozone and could be more efficient than either nitric oxide or chlorine. The lower atmosphere contains small concentrations of gaseous <span class="hlt">bromine</span> produced in part by marine activity and volatilization of particulate material released during the combustion of leaded gasoline, with an additional contribution due to the use of methyl bromide as an agricultural fumigant. Observations by Lazrus et al., (1975) indicate small concentrations of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, about 10 to the -11th power (v/v), in the contemporary stratosphere and appear to imply a reduction of approximately 0.3% in the global budget of O3. Estimates are given for future reductions in O3 which might occur if the use of CH3Br as an agricultural fumigant were to continue to grow at present rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930051388&hterms=bromine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dbromine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930051388&hterms=bromine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dbromine"><span>The <span class="hlt">bromine</span> content of micrometeorites - Arguments for stratospheric contamination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bromine</span>-salt nanocrystals are associated with a porous chondritic micrometeorite (W7029E5) that was collected in the lower stratosphere. These salt nanocrystals occur together with volcanic Na and K salt nanocrystals embedded in sulfuric acid droplets that were originally adhered to the particle. These materials were concentrated during hexane rinsing as part of routine curation procedures at the NASA Johnson Space Center Cosmic Dust Curatorial Facility. This observation is fortuitous to the extent that the concentration of nanocrystals and sulfuric acid is an experimental artifact of curation. If <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is a stratospheric contaminant due to surface adsorption, there should be a positive linear relationship between the mass-normalized residence time and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> content of individual micrometeorites. I show that the predicted correlation exists using a new model to calculate the stratospheric residence time of individual nonspherical micrometeorites in the slow-settling Wilson-Huang regime of the stratosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982JElS..129.1747K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982JElS..129.1747K"><span>Sessile drop studies on polybromide/zinc-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> battery electrolyte</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kinoshita, K.; Leach, S. C.</p> <p>1982-08-01</p> <p>The sessile drop method was employed to examine the interfacial tension and contact angle of polybromide oil drops. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> in equilibrium with an aqueous phase and a polybromide oil phase were added to a battery cell with a ruthenized titanium electrode with the electrode surface facing up. A polybromide oil drop was placed on the electrode surface while the height of the drop was measured with a cathetometer and 35 mm photographs were taken of the drop profiles. The sessile drop was analyzed to find the interfacial tension and contact angle of the drop. Interfacial tensions were calculated which were lower than reported for two-phase systems having organic and aqueous phases. The results are regarded as significant for applications of zinc-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> batteries, indicating that small polybromide oil phase drops can enhance the mass transfer of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> from a polybromide to the electrode.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JGR....98.7409R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JGR....98.7409R"><span>The <span class="hlt">bromine</span> content of micrometeorites - Arguments for stratospheric contamination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rietmeijer, F. J. M.</p> <p>1993-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bromine</span>-salt nanocrystals are associated with a porous chondritic micrometeorite (W7029E5) that was collected in the lower stratosphere. These salt nanocrystals occur together with volcanic Na and K salt nanocrystals embedded in sulfuric acid droplets that were originally adhered to the particle. These materials were concentrated during hexane rinsing as part of routine curation procedures at the NASA Johnson Space Center Cosmic Dust Curatorial Facility. This observation is fortuitous to the extent that the concentration of nanocrystals and sulfuric acid is an experimental artifact of curation. If <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is a stratospheric contaminant due to surface adsorption, there should be a positive linear relationship between the mass-normalized residence time and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> content of individual micrometeorites. I show that the predicted correlation exists using a new model to calculate the stratospheric residence time of individual nonspherical micrometeorites in the slow-settling Wilson-Huang regime of the stratosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6806699','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6806699"><span>Development of <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>-77 from the LAMPF facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mettler, F.A.; Hylarides, M.</p> <p>1982-12-03</p> <p>The objective of the work is to conduct the necessary studies required to evaluate the efficacy, potential benefit and role of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-77 labelled steroids in the detection and evaluation of treatment for hormone-dependent tumors. The synthetic goals of 1982-3 included the synthesis estradiol derivatives which were radiohalogenated in the A- or C-ring with <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-77 or <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-82. Estradiol derivatives in which the radiohalogen was incorporated into the C-ring were prepared and purified with high specific activity. Biodistribution studies of the resultant compounds will be performed on rats in the near future. Various synthetic approaches toward estradiol which is radiohalogenated in the 1-position are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol24-sec180-519.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol24-sec180-519.pdf"><span>40 CFR 180.519 - Bromide ion and residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span>; tolerances for residues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... polybrominated ion-exchange resin (as a source of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>) under the supervision of trained personnel. (2... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bromide ion and residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span>... Tolerances § 180.519 Bromide ion and residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span>; tolerances for residues. (a) General. The food...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865587','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865587"><span>Method and apparatus for maintaining the pH in zinc-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> battery systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Grimes, Patrick G.</p> <p>1985-09-10</p> <p>A method and apparatus for maintaining the pH level in a zinc-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> battery features reacting decomposition hydrogen with <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the presence of a catalyst. The catalyst encourages the formation of hydrogen and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> ions. The decomposition hydrogen is therefore consumed, alloying the pH of the system to remain substantially at a given value.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21231885','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21231885"><span>Temporal effects in porcine skin following <span class="hlt">bromine</span> vapor exposure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Price, Jennifer A; Rogers, James V; Wendling, Morgan Q S; Plahovinsak, Jennifer L; Perry, Mark R; Reid, Frances M; Kiser, Robyn C; Graham, John S</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> is an industrial chemical that causes severe cutaneous burns. When selecting or developing effective treatments for <span class="hlt">bromine</span> burns, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms of tissue damage and wound healing. This study investigated the effect of cutaneous <span class="hlt">bromine</span> vapor exposure on gene expression using a weanling swine burn model by microarray analysis. Ventral abdominal sites were exposed to a mean calculated <span class="hlt">bromine</span> vapor concentration of 0.51 g/L for 7 or 17 min. At 6 h, 48 h, and 7 days post-exposure, total RNA from skin samples was isolated, processed, and analyzed with Affymetrix GeneChip® Porcine Genome Arrays (N = 3 per experimental group). Differences in gene expression were observed with respect to exposure duration and sampling time. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) revealed four common biological functions (cancer, cellular movement, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, and tissue development) among the top ten functions of each experimental group, while canonical pathway analysis revealed 9 genes (ARG2, CCR1, HMOX1, ATF2, IL-8, TIMP1, ESR1, HSPAIL, and SELE) that were commonly shared among four significantly altered signaling pathways. Among these, the transcripts encoding HMOX1 and ESR1 were identified using IPA as common potential therapeutic targets for Phase II/III clinical trial or FDA-approved drugs. The present study describes the transcriptional responses to cutaneous <span class="hlt">bromine</span> vapor exposure identifying molecular networks and genes that could serve as targets for developing therapeutics for <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-induced skin injury.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10656411','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10656411"><span><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> anisoles and cresols in the red alga Polysiphonia sphaerocarpa.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Flodin, C; Whitfield, F B</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The red marine alga Polysiphonia sphaerocarpa was extracted by a simultaneous steam distillation-solvent extraction technique and several <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The compounds detected were 2,4-dibromoanisole, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole, 3-bromocresol, 3,5-dibromocresol, 3-bromo-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 2-bromophenol, 4-bromophenol, 2,4-dibromophenol, 2,6-dibromophenol and 2,4,6-tribromophenol. This is the first time <span class="hlt">brominated</span> anisoles and cresols have been detected in marine algae.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993GeoRL..20..201S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993GeoRL..20..201S"><span>Spring measurements of tropospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> at Barrow, Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sturges, William T.; Schnell, Russell C.; Dutton, Geoffrey S.; Garcia, Samuel R.; Lind, John A.</p> <p>1993-02-01</p> <p>The partitioning of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the lower troposphere between particulate, inorganic gaseous, and organic gaseous phases was measured during the arctic spring. Rapid photochemical production of particulate Br from organic gaseous Br was indicated by (1) an inverse correlation between particulate bromide and organic gaseous <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, (2) a diurnal cycle in the ratio of these two phases, and (3) a diurnal cycle in the ratio of organic gaseous Br to Cl. Organic gaseous Br and Cl were correlated indicating a common, possibly marine, source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17156788','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17156788"><span>Recent developments in the analysis of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> natural compounds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Covaci, Adrian; Voorspoels, Stefan; Ramos, Lourdes; Neels, Hugo; Blust, Ronny</p> <p>2007-06-15</p> <p>This article reviews recent literature on the analysis of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> natural compounds (BNCs). The main literature sources are reviews from the last five years and research articles reporting new analytical developments published between 2003 and 2006. Sample pretreatment, extraction, clean-up and fractionation, injection techniques, chromatographic separation, detection methods, quality control and method validation are discussed. Only few new techniques, such as solid-phase microextraction (SPME) or pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), have been investigated for their ability of combining the extraction and clean-up steps. With respect to the separation of BFRs, the most important developments were the use of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and the growing tendency for liquid-chromatographic techniques for hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) stereoisomers and of tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A). At the detection stage, mass spectrometry (MS) has been developed as well-established and reliable technology in the identification and quantification of BFRs. A growing attention has been paid to quality assurance. Interlaboratory exercises directed towards BFRs have grown in popularity and have enabled laboratories to validate analytical methods and to guarantee the quality of their results. The analytical procedures used for the identification and characterization of several classes of BNCs, such as methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) (also metabolites of PBDEs), halogenated methyl or dimethyl bipyrroles (DBPs), are reviewed here for the first time. These compounds were generally identified during the routine analysis of BFRs and have received little attention until recently. For each topic, an overview is presented of its current status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27087522','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27087522"><span>Sensing and inactivation of Bacillus anthracis Sterne by polymer-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> complexes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>D'Angelo, Paola A; Bromberg, Lev; Hatton, T Alan; Wilusz, Eugene</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We report on the performance of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP-Br), <span class="hlt">brominated</span> poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-Br), and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> poly(allylamine-co-4-aminopyridine) (PAAm-APy-Br) for their ability to decontaminate Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores in solution while also allowing for the sensing of the spores. The polymers were <span class="hlt">brominated</span> by <span class="hlt">bromine</span> using carbon tetrachloride or potassium tribromide as solvents, with <span class="hlt">bromine</span> loadings ranging from 1.6 to 4.2 mEq/g of polymer. B. anthracis Sterne spores were exposed to increasing concentrations of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> polymers for 5 min, while the kinetics of the sporicidal activity was assessed. All <span class="hlt">brominated</span> polymers demonstrated spore log-kills of 8 within 5 min of exposure at 12 mg/mL aqueous polymer concentration. Sensing of spores was accomplished by measuring the release of dipicolinic acid (DPA) from the spore using time-resolved fluorescence. Parent, non-<span class="hlt">brominated</span> polymers did not cause any release of DPA and the spores remained viable. In contrast, spores exposed to the <span class="hlt">brominated</span> polymers were inactivated and the release of DPA was observed within minutes of exposure. Also, this release of DPA continued for a long time after spore inactivation as in a controlled release process. The DPA release was more pronounced for spores exposed to <span class="hlt">brominated</span> PVP and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> PEG-8000 compared to <span class="hlt">brominated</span> PAAm-APy and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> PEG-400. Using time-resolved fluorescence, we detected as low as 2500 B. anthracis spores, with PEG-8000 being more sensitive to low spore numbers. Our results suggest that the <span class="hlt">brominated</span> polymers may be used effectively as decontamination agents against bacterial spores while also providing the sensing capability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992Metic..27Q.280R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992Metic..27Q.280R"><span><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> in Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs): Evidence for Stratospheric Contamination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rietmeijer, F. J. M.</p> <p>1992-07-01</p> <p>Chondritic IDPs that are collected in the lower stratosphere are enriched in <span class="hlt">bromine</span>: up to 40 x CI in an individual IDP [1]. The average enrichment is 19 x CI [2]. Volatile element enrichments in chondritic IDPs show a general increase with increased element volatility [1,2] which is consistent with solar nebula condensation models. However, the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> enrichment is markedly up from the general volatile element enrichment trend. Stratospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> derives from anthropogenic and volcanic activities and micrometeoroid ablation and evaporation [3]. It is possible that a portion or all <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in IDPs is stratospheric surface contamination. In this case there should be an inverse correlation between <span class="hlt">bromine</span> content and IDP size [1,4]. This correlation is not obvious because it may be complicated by the different ability of exposed IDP surfaces to adsorb volatile elements [1]. To evaluate this model it is important to know whether <span class="hlt">bromine</span> occurs in a distinct mineral phase [5] or in a surface layer that might not survive the curatorial rinsing procedure. Another factor is the IDP stratospheric residence time. In my continued AEM analyses of ultrathin CP IDP sections, I recently observed round Br-containing grains associated with CP IDP W7029E5. These grains (11.6-744 nm in diameter) have a volatile matrix with abundant nanocrystals. Their bulk composition shows the presence of Na, K, Br, Cl, and S. Polycrystalline rings in their diffraction patterns are consistent with KBrO(sub)3, KCl, Na(sub)2SO(sub)3 and Na(sub)2S(sub)2 [Gail Fraundorf, written comm., 1991]. These round grains resemble sulfuric acid droplets associated with silica grains in other CP IDPs [6]. The sulfuric acid was washed off the silica grain surface during curatorial hexane rinsing of IDPs. The AEM data confirm a Br-bearing layer on W7029E5. This study is the first, and so far only, observation of Br-bearing material associated with chondritic IDPs in support of a stratospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> surface</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26504212','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26504212"><span>Airborne measurements of organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> compounds in the Pacific tropical tropopause layer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Navarro, Maria A; Atlas, Elliot L; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Rodriguez-Lloveras, Xavier; Kinnison, Douglas E; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone; Filus, Michal; Harris, Neil R P; Meneguz, Elena; Ashfold, Matthew J; Manning, Alistair J; Cuevas, Carlos A; Schauffler, Sue M; Donets, Valeria</p> <p>2015-11-10</p> <p>Very short-lived <span class="hlt">brominated</span> substances (VSLBr) are an important source of stratospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, an effective ozone destruction catalyst. However, the accurate estimation of the organic and inorganic partitioning of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and the input to the stratosphere remains uncertain. Here, we report near-tropopause measurements of organic <span class="hlt">brominated</span> substances found over the tropical Pacific during the NASA Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment campaigns. We combine aircraft observations and a chemistry-climate model to quantify the total <span class="hlt">bromine</span> loading injected to the stratosphere. Surprisingly, despite differences in vertical transport between the Eastern and Western Pacific, VSLBr (organic + inorganic) contribute approximately similar amounts of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> [∼6 (4-9) parts per trillion] [corrected] to the stratospheric input at the tropical tropopause. These levels of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> cause substantial ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere, and any increases in future abundances (e.g., as a result of aquaculture) will lead to larger depletions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4653143','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4653143"><span>Airborne measurements of organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> compounds in the Pacific tropical tropopause layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Navarro, Maria A.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Rodriguez-Lloveras, Xavier; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone; Filus, Michal; Harris, Neil R. P.; Meneguz, Elena; Ashfold, Matthew J.; Manning, Alistair J.; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Schauffler, Sue M.; Donets, Valeria</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Very short-lived <span class="hlt">brominated</span> substances (VSLBr) are an important source of stratospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, an effective ozone destruction catalyst. However, the accurate estimation of the organic and inorganic partitioning of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and the input to the stratosphere remains uncertain. Here, we report near-tropopause measurements of organic <span class="hlt">brominated</span> substances found over the tropical Pacific during the NASA Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment campaigns. We combine aircraft observations and a chemistry−climate model to quantify the total <span class="hlt">bromine</span> loading injected to the stratosphere. Surprisingly, despite differences in vertical transport between the Eastern and Western Pacific, VSLBr (organic + inorganic) contribute approximately similar amounts of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> [∼6 (4−9) parts per thousand] to the stratospheric input at the tropical tropopause. These levels of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> cause substantial ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere, and any increases in future abundances (e.g., as a result of aquaculture) will lead to larger depletions. PMID:26504212</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25560260','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25560260"><span>Estimation of the residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentration after disinfection of cooling water by statistical evaluation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Megalopoulos, Fivos A; Ochsenkuehn-Petropoulou, Maria T</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A statistical model based on multiple linear regression is developed, to estimate the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> residual that can be expected after the <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of cooling water. Make-up water sampled from a power plant in the Greek territory was used for the creation of the various cooling water matrices under investigation. The amount of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> fed to the circuit, as well as other important operational parameters such as concentration at the cooling tower, temperature, organic load and contact time are taken as the independent variables. It is found that the highest contribution to the model's predictive ability comes from cooling water's organic load concentration, followed by the amount of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> fed to the circuit, the water's mean temperature, the duration of the <span class="hlt">bromination</span> period and finally its conductivity. Comparison of the model results with the experimental data confirms its ability to predict residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span> given specific <span class="hlt">bromination</span> conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AIPC..576..841M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AIPC..576..841M"><span>Non-standard <span class="hlt">isotope</span> production and applications at Washington University</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McCarthy, Timothy J.; McCarthy, Deborah W.; Laforest, Richard; Bigott, Heather M.; Wüst, Frank; Reichert, David E.; Lewis, Michael R.; Welch, Michael J.</p> <p>2001-07-01</p> <p>The positron emitting radionuclides, oxygen-15, nitrogen-13, carbon-11, and fluorine-18 have been produced at Washington University for many years utilizing two biomedical cyclotrons; a Cyclotron Corporation CS15 and a Japan Steel Works 16/8 cyclotron. In recent years we have become interested in the production of non-standard PET <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. We were initially interested in copper-64 production using the 64Ni(p,n)64Cu nuclear reaction, but now apply this technique to other positron emitting copper <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>, copper-60 and copper-61. Copper-64 is being produced routinely and made available to other institutions. In 1999 over ten Curies of copper-64 were produced, making copper available to thirteen institutions, as well as research groups at Washington University. We are currently developing methods for the routine productions of other PET radioisotopes of interest, these include; <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-76, <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-77, iodine-124, gallium-66, and technetium-94m.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4901998','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4901998"><span>Regiodefined synthesis of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> hydroxyanthraquinones related to proisocrinins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Roy, Joyeeta; Mal, Tanushree; Jana, Supriti</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Summary Dibromobenzoisofuranone 12, synthesized in six steps, was regiospecifically annulated with 5-substituted cyclohexenones 13/36 in the presence of LiOt-Bu to give <span class="hlt">brominated</span> anthraquinones 14/38 in good yields. Darzens condensation of 30 was shown to give chain-elongated anthraquinone 32. Alkaline hydrolysis of 38 furnished 39 representing desulfoproisocrinin F. PMID:27340445</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983erec.rept.....B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983erec.rept.....B"><span>Development of a circulating zinc-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> battery, phase 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bellows, R.; Einstein, H.; Grimes, P.; Kantner, E.; Malachesky, P. A.; Newby, K.; Tsien, H.; Young, A.</p> <p>1983-10-01</p> <p>This report summarizes Phase 2 of a multi-phase program aimed at developing Exxon's circulating zinc-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> battery into an advanced energy storage system. Previous work at Exxon had developed a basic zinc-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> battery system approach. This approach utilizes carbon-plastic electrodes in a bipolar stack design, a circulating electrolyte with separable <span class="hlt">bromine</span> complexes, and shunt current protection. Phase 2 was highlighted by the successful scale-up and demonstration of a 20 kWh zinc-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> battery module. Important technology improvements were demonstrated in the areas of extended life cycling, low cost stack technology, high power/high efficiency supported electrolytes, and system auxiliaries. The basic technology was augmented via increases in parametric testing, materials testing, and electrolyte studies. Production cost estimates from Phase 1 ($28/kWh in 1980) were projected to an OEM price of $37/kWh using the A.D. Little costing method. A design has been developed for a prototype 20 kWh energy storage system which will be delivered to Sandia National laboratories in 1983 near the completion of Phase 3.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=90525&keyword=Bromine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90718988&CFTOKEN=99248257','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=90525&keyword=Bromine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90718988&CFTOKEN=99248257"><span>ENHANCED FORMATION OF CHLORINATED PICS BY THE ADDITION OF <span class="hlt">BROMINE</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A systematic series of experiments were performed on a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator simulator in which liquid surrogate wastes containing varied levels of chlorine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> were burned. The surrogate wastes used were a series of mixtures of methylene chloride and methyl...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1008493','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1008493"><span><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> in blood, EEG and transaminases in methyl bromide workers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Verberk, M M; Rooyakkers-Beemster, T; de Vlieger, M; van Vliet, A G</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>In 33 methyl bromide users, slight electroencephalographic changes (in 10 subjects) and a small increase in serum transaminases were found which could be related to <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentration in blood. No relationship was found with subjective symptoms, general neurological examination or the results of serum protein electrophoresis. PMID:444442</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=90525&keyword=bromine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=90525&keyword=bromine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>ENHANCED FORMATION OF CHLORINATED PICS BY THE ADDITION OF <span class="hlt">BROMINE</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A systematic series of experiments were performed on a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator simulator in which liquid surrogate wastes containing varied levels of chlorine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> were burned. The surrogate wastes used were a series of mixtures of methylene chloride and methyl...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-3420.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-3420.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.3420 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> arylalkyl ether.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3420 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> arylalkyl ether. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34637, June 18, 2014. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol32-sec721-2925.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol32-sec721-2925.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.2925 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aromatic ester.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a <span class="hlt">brominated</span> aromatic ester (PMN P-95-1128... water. Requirements as specified in § 721.90 (a)(1), (b)(1), and (c)(1). (b) Specific requirements. The...) Recordkeeping. Recordkeeping requirements as specified in § 721.125 (a), (b), (c), (f), (g), (h), (i), and (k...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1489311','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1489311"><span>[Detection of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> uptake in cadavers from seawater].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Powitz, G</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Pieces of animal and human lungs were placed in seawater. The fluids pressed of it produced in X-ray fluorescence analysis <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentrations, which exceeded the physiological level. These experiments created the supposition to interpret correctly relevant findings in the victims of flight accidents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/8202','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/8202"><span>Electrophilic aromatic substitution of catechins: <span class="hlt">Bromination</span> and benzylation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>G.W. McGraw; Richard W. Hemingway</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Relative yields of C-6, C-8. and C-6 and C-8 substituted catechins obtained from the reaction of (+)-catechin or 3',4',5-7-tetra-O-methyl-(+)-catechin with pyridinium hydrobromide-perbromide, <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, or o-hydroxybenzyl alcohol showed differing selectivities depending upon the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol3-sec180-30.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol3-sec180-30.pdf"><span>21 CFR 180.30 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> vegetable oil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD OR IN CONTACT WITH FOOD ON AN INTERIM BASIS PENDING ADDITIONAL STUDY Specific...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850024876','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850024876"><span><span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> Biogeochemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hayes, J. M.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>An overview is provided of the biogeochemical research. The funding, productivity, personnel and facilities are reviewed. Some of the technical areas covered are: carbon <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> records; <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> studies of banded iron formations; <span class="hlt">isotope</span> effects in microbial systems; studies of organic compounds in ancient sediments; and development in <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> geochemistry and analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6280001','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6280001"><span><span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> separation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chen, C.</p> <p>1981-03-10</p> <p>Method and apparatus for separating <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> in an <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> mixture of atoms or molecules by increasing the mass differential among <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> species. The mixture containing a particular <span class="hlt">isotope</span> is selectively irradiated so as to selectively excite the <span class="hlt">isotope</span>. This preferentially excited species is then reacted rapidly with an additional preselected radiation, an electron or another chemical species so as to form a product containing the specific <span class="hlt">isotope</span>, but having a mass different than the original species initially containing the particular <span class="hlt">isotope</span>. The product and the remaining balance of the mixture is then caused to flow through a device which separates the product from the mixture based upon the increased mass differential.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.7069C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.7069C"><span>Sulfate production by reactive <span class="hlt">bromine</span>: Implications for the global sulfur and reactive <span class="hlt">bromine</span> budgets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Q.; Schmidt, J. A.; Shah, V.; Jaeglé, L.; Sherwen, T.; Alexander, B.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Sulfur and reactive <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (Br<fi>y</fi>) play important roles in tropospheric chemistry and the global radiation budget. The oxidation of dissolved SO2 (S(IV)) by HOBr increases sulfate aerosol abundance and may also impact the Br<fi>y</fi> budget, but is generally not included in global climate and chemistry models. In this study, we implement HOBr + S(IV) reactions into the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model and evaluate the global impacts on both sulfur and Br<fi>y</fi> budgets. Modeled HOBr mixing ratios on the order of 0.1-1.0 parts per trillion (ppt) lead to HOBr + S(IV) contributing to 8% of global sulfate production and up to 45% over some tropical ocean regions with high HOBr mixing ratios (0.6-0.9 ppt). Inclusion of HOBr + S(IV) in the model leads to a global Br<fi>y</fi> decrease of 50%, initiated by the decrease in bromide recycling in cloud droplets. Observations of HOBr are necessary to better understand the role of HOBr + S(IV) in tropospheric sulfur and Br<fi>y</fi> cycles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000115610','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000115610"><span>A Simulation of Bromoform's Contribution to Stratospheric <span class="hlt">Bromine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nielsen, J. Eric; Douglass, Anne R.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Many chlorinated and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compounds that are inert in the troposphere are destroyed in the stratosphere and act as an in-situ source of stratospheric reactive chlorine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. Other halogenated compounds that are reactive in the troposphere might contribute to the stratosphere's halogen budget in two ways. First, like their unreactive companions, rapid convective transport might carry them to the upper troposphere and make them available for subsequent advection by the mean circulation into the stratosphere before they are oxidized or photolyzed. Second, it is more likely that they are destroyed in the troposphere, and the chlorine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> that is released might then be transported to the stratosphere. We evaluate the relative influence of these processes on stratospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in a three-dimensional chemistry and transport model which simulates the distribution of bromoform (CHBr3). CHBr3 is parameterized as a short-lived, ocean-surface source gas whose destruction by photolysis and reaction with hydroxyl (OH) in the troposphere and stratosphere yields inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (Br(sub y)). Many of the observed features of CHBr3 are simulated well, and comparisons with observations are used to show that the model represents aspects of transport in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere that are critical to the evaluation. In particular, the model maintains the observed troposphere-stratosphere distinctness in transport pathways and reproduces the observed seasonal dependence of the mixture of air in the middle- and high-latitude lowermost stratosphere. We estimate that adding CHBr3 to models which already include the long-lived organic <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compounds (halons and methyl bromide) will increase the simulated stratospheric mass of Br(sub y) by about 15 percent. In-situ stratospheric destruction of CHBr3 produces Br(sub y) in amounts which are comparable to that transported into the stratosphere after photolysis and oxidation of CHBr3 in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6625966','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6625966"><span>Zinc-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> battery design for electric vehicles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bellows, R.; Grimes, P.; Einstein, H.; Kantner, E.; Malachesky, P.; Newby, K.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Design projections for zinc-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> batteries are attractive for electric vehicle applications in terms of low manufacturing costs ($28/kWh) and good performance characteristics. Zinc-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> batery projections (60 to 80 Wh/kg, 130 to 200 W/kg) compare favorably to both current lead acid batteries and proposed advanced battery candidates. The performance of recently developed battery components with 1200 cm/sup 2/ electrodes in a 120V, 10 kWh module is described. Similarly constructed smaller scale (600 cm/sup 2/) components have shown lifetimes exceeding 400 cycles and the ability to follow both regenerative braking (J227aD) and random cycling regimes. Initial dynamometer evaluations of full scale 20 kWh batteries is expected in early 1984.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27897055','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27897055"><span>Novel <span class="hlt">brominated</span> metabolites from Bryozoa: a functional analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maltseva, Arina L; Kotenko, Olga N; Kutyumov, Vladimir A; Matvienko, Darya A; Shavarda, Alexey L; Winson, Michael K; Ostrovsky, Andrew N</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Marine invertebrates are a promising source of novel natural products with biological activities. The phylum Bryozoa is relatively under-investigated in this context, although a number of compounds with medical potential has been discovered in recent years. Here, we report on the novel group of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> metabolites from the bryozoan Terminoflustra membranaceatruncata, including analysis of biological activities of the tribrominated terminoflustrindole A (Cm-1) and the structures of the related dibrominated variants terminoflustrindoles B and C. Terminoflustrindole A was previously shown to have fungicidal properties. Although they vary by just one <span class="hlt">bromine</span> group in each case from terminoflustrindole A, in this study, we report that terminoflustrindoles B and C exhibit no antimicrobial activity in the same assays. In addition to displaying antifungal activity, Terminoflustrindole A was also found to exhibit potent cytotoxic activity when tested against tumour cell lines. The gradient distribution of this compound within the bryozoan colony was demonstrated using LC-MS-analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013mss..confERD11S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013mss..confERD11S"><span>High Resolution Coherent 3d Spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">Bromine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Strangfeld, Benjamin R.; Wells, Thresa A.; House, Zuri R.; Chen, Peter C.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The high resolution gas phase electronic spectrum of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is rather congested due to many overlapping vibrational and rotational transitions with similar transition frequencies, and also due to isotopomeric effects. Expansion into the second dimension will remove some of this congestion; however through the implementation of High Resolution Coherent 3D Spectroscopy, the density of peaks is further reduced by at least two orders of magnitude. This allows for the selective examination of a small number of spatially resolved multidimensional bands, separated by vibrational quantum number and by isotopomer, which facilitates the fitting of many rovibrational peaks in <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. The ability to derive information about the molecular constants for the electronic states involved will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3177243','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3177243"><span>New Methods for Labeling RGD Peptides with <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>-76</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lang, Lixin; Li, Weihua; Jia, Hong-Mei; Fang, De-Cai; Zhang, Shushu; Sun, Xilin; Zhu, Lei; Ma, Ying; Shen, Baozhong; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Direct <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of the tyrosine residues of peptides and antibodies with <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-76, to create probes for PET imaging, has been reported. For peptides that do not contain tyrosine residues, however, a prosthetic group is required to achieve labeling via conjugation to other functional groups such as terminal α-amines or lysine ε-amines. The goal of this study was to develop new strategies for labeling small peptides with Br-76 using either a direct labeling method or a prosthetic group, depending on the available functional group on the peptides. A new labeling agent, N-succinimidyl-3-[76Br]bromo-2,6-dimethoxybenzoate ([76Br]SBDMB) was prepared for cyclic RGD peptide labeling. N-succinimidyl-2, 6-dimethoxybenzoate was also used to pre-attach a 2, 6-dimethoxybenzoyl (DMB) moiety to the peptide, which could then be labeled with Br-76. A competitive cell binding assay was performed to determine the binding affinity of the <span class="hlt">brominated</span> peptides. PET imaging of U87MG human glioblastoma xenografted mice was performed using [76Br]-BrE[c(RGDyK)]2 and [76Br]-BrDMB-E[c(RGDyK)]2. An ex vivo biodistribution assay was performed to confirm PET quantification. The mechanisms of <span class="hlt">bromination</span> reaction between DMB-c(RGDyK) and the <span class="hlt">brominating</span> agent CH3COOBr were investigated with the SCRF-B3LYP/6-31G* method with the Gaussian 09 program package. The yield for direct labeling of c(RGDyK) and E[c(RGDyK)]2 using chloramine-T and peracetic acid at ambient temperature was greater than 50%. The yield for [76Br]SBDMB was over 60% using peracetic acid. The conjugation yields for labeling c(RGDfK) and c(RGDyK) were over 70% using the prosthetic group at room temperature. Labeling yield for pre-conjugated peptides was over 60%. SDMB conjugation and <span class="hlt">bromination</span> did not affect the binding affinity of the peptides with integrin receptors. Both [76Br]Br-E[c(RGDyK)]2 and [76Br]BrDMB-E[c(RGDyK)]2 showed high tumor uptake in U87MG tumor bearing mice. The specificity of the imaging tracers was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21386233','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21386233"><span>The crystal structure and superconducting properties of monatomic <span class="hlt">bromine</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Duan, Defang; Meng, Xing; Tian, Fubo; Chen, Changbo; Wang, Liancheng; Ma, Yanming; Cui, Tian; Liu, Bingbing; He, Zhi; Zou, Guangtian</p> <p>2010-01-13</p> <p>The crystal structure and superconducting properties of monatomic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> under high pressure have been studied by first-principles calculations. We have found the following phase transition sequence with increasing pressure: from body-centered orthorhombic (bco, phase II) to body-centered tetragonal structure (bct, phase III) at 126 GPa, then to face-centered cubic structure (fcc, phase IV) at 157 GPa, which is stable at least up to 300 GPa. The calculated superconducting critical temperature T(c) = 1.46 K at 100 GPa is consistent with the experimental value of 1.5 K. In addition, our results of T(c) decrease with increasing pressure in all the monatomic phases of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, similar to monatomic iodine. Further calculations show that the decrease of λ with pressure in phase IV is mainly attributed to the weakening of the 'soft' vibrational mode caused by pressure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20579502','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20579502"><span>Single-run determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) di- to deca-<span class="hlt">brominated</span> in fish meal, fish oil and fish feed by <span class="hlt">isotope</span> dilution: application of automated sample purification and gas chromatography/ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC/ITMS).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Blanco, Sonia Lucía; Vieites, Juan M</p> <p>2010-07-05</p> <p>The present paper describes the application of automated cleanup and fractionation procedures of the Power Prep system (Fluid Management Systems) for the determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in feeding stuffs and fish meal and oil. Gas chromatography (GC) separation followed by ion trap tandem mass spectrometry detection in EI mode (ITMS) allowed the analysis of di- to deca-BDEs in the samples matrices used in fish aquaculture. The method developed enabled the determination of 26 native PBDE congeners and 11 (13)C(12)-labelled congeners, including deca-BDE 209, in a single-run analysis, using <span class="hlt">isotope</span> dilution. The automated cleanup, consisting of a succession of multilayer silica and basic alumina columns previously applied by Wyrzykowska et al. (2009) [28] in combustion flue gas, was successfully applied in our complex matrices. The method allowed an increase in productivity, i.e. lower time was required to process samples, and simultaneous purification of several samples was achieved at a time, reducing analyst dedication and human error input. Average recoveries of 43-96% were obtained. GC/ITMS can overcome the complexity originating from the sample matrix, eliminating matrix effects by tandem MS, to enable the detection of congeners penta- to nona-BDEs where interferent masses were present. The provisional detection limits, estimated in the samples, were 5-30 pg for di-, tri-, tetra-, and penta-BDEs, 20-65 pg for hexa-, hepta-, octa- and nona-BDEs, and 105 pg for deca-BDE. Reduction of deca-BDE 209 blank values is of concern to ongoing research. Good accuracy was obtained by application of the whole procedure, representing an efficient, low-cost and fast alternative for routine analyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Icar..293..114K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Icar..293..114K"><span>Search for HBr and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> photochemistry on Venus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.; Belyaev, Denis A.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>HBr (1-0) R2 2605.8/6.2 cm-1, the strongest line of the strongest band of HBr, was observed when searching for this species on Venus. The observation was conducted using the NASA IRTF and a high-resolution long-slit spectrograph CSHELL with resolving power of 4 × 104. 101 spectra of Venus were analyzed, and the retrieved HBr abundances varied from -8 to + 5 ppb. Their mean value is -1.2 ppb, standard deviation is 2.5 ppb, and uncertainty of the mean is 0.25 ppb. The negative value presumes a systematic error, and the estimated upper limit of the HBr mixing ratio at the cloud tops of Venus is ∼1 ppb. From the simultaneously retrieved CO2 abundances, this corresponds to an altitude of 78 km for the uniform distribution of HBr. A simplified version of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> photochemistry is included into the photochemical model (Krasnopolsky 2012, Icarus 218, 230-246). Photolysis of HBr and its reactions with O and H deplete the HBr mixing ratio at 70-80 km relative to that below 60 km by a factor of ≈300. Reanalysis of the observational data with the calculated profile of HBr gives an upper limit of 20-70 ppb for HBr below 60 km and the aerosol optical depth of 0.7 at 70 km and 3.84 μm. The <span class="hlt">bromine</span> chemistry may be effective on Venus even under the observed upper limit. However, if a Cl/Br ratio in the Venus atmosphere is similar to that in the Solar System, then HBr is ≈1 ppb in the lower atmosphere and the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> chemistry is insignificant. Thermodynamic calculations based on the chemical kinetic model (Krasnopolsky 2013, Icarus 225, 570-580) predict HBr as a major <span class="hlt">bromine</span> species in the lower atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15099731','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15099731"><span>Analysis of Ah receptor pathway activation by <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brown, David J; Van Overmeire, Ilse; Goeyens, Leo; Denison, Michael S; De Vito, Michael J; Clark, George C</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame-retardants (BFRs) are used as additives in plastics to decrease the rate of combustion of these materials, leading to greater consumer safety. As the use of plastics has increased, the production and use of flame-retardants has also grown. Many BFRs are persistent and have been detected in environmental samples, raising concerns about the biological/toxicological risk associated with their use. Most BFRs appear to be non-toxic, however there is still some concern that these compounds, or possible contaminants in BFRs mixtures could interact with cellular receptors. In this study we have examined the interaction of decabromodiphenyl ether, Firemaster BP4A (tetrabromobisphenol A), Firemaster PHT4 (tetrabromophthalic anhydride), hexabromobenzene, pentabromotoluene, decabromobiphenyl, Firemaster BP-6 (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl) and possible contaminants of BFR mixtures with the Ah receptor. Receptor binding and activation was examined using the Gel Retardation Assay and increased expression of dioxin responsive genes was detected using the reporter gene based CALUX assay. The results demonstrate the ability of BFRs to activate the AhR signal transduction pathway at moderate to high concentrations as assessed using both assays. AhR-dependent activation by BFRs may be due in part to contaminants present in commercial/technical mixtures. This was suggested by our comparative analysis of Firemaster BP-6 versus its primary component 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl. Some technical mixtures of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame-retardants contain <span class="hlt">brominated</span> biphenyls, dioxins or dibenzofurans as contaminants. When tested in the CALUX assay these compounds were found to be equivalent to, or more active than their chlorinated analogues. Relative effective potency values were determined from dose response curves for these <span class="hlt">brominated</span> HAHs.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.B12A0113B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.B12A0113B"><span>Budget of Methyl Bromide in the Atmosphere: <span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> Constraints</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bill, M.; Miller, L. G.; Rhew, R. C.; Goldstein, A. H.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> radicals contribute significantly to stratospheric ozone loss through coupled reactions with ClO, HO2, and NO2 radicals. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> is approximately 40-100 times more effective, atom for atom, at destroying ozone than chlorine. For instance, Br coupled reactions are responsible for 30 to 50% of the total ozone loss in the polar vortex. The largest source of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> to the stratosphere is methyl bromide (CH3Br). CH3Br has a concentration in the troposphere of about 10 pptv, a total estimated lifetime of 0.6 to 0.9 years, and has the highest concentration of any long lived organobromine. Unlike chlorofluorocarbons, which are produced entirely by humans, methyl bromide is produced by both anthropogenic and natural processes. We are developing the use of stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> to constrain the budget of CH3Br through quantification of the source signatures and the <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> fractionations associated with sinks. The largest natural sources appear to be biological production in oceans ( ~35%), biomass burning ( ~13%), and salt marshes ( ~10%). Thus far, the only natural emissions to be <span class="hlt">isotopically</span> characterized is from salt marsh plants. Carbon <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> ratios of CH3Br emitted from the salt marsh have a strong diurnal variation from -65\\permil during daytime when emission rates are highest to -12\\permil at night when emissions are ~13% of the daytime rates. The \\delta13C weighted mean of salt marsh emission is -43\\permil CH3Br. Anthropogenically produced CH3Br is used for fumigation of soils, harvested crops and structures, and represents approximately 30% of the total source flux. The fumigation of harvested crops and structures constitutes approximately one third of the anthropogenic source to the atmosphere and, because the release rate of applied CH3Br approaches 100%, it should have a mean <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> composition equal to industrially manufactured CH3Br, -54.4\\permil. However during soil fumigation, some of the CH3Br is consumed insitu causing <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> fractionation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070025102&hterms=stratosphere&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dstratosphere','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070025102&hterms=stratosphere&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dstratosphere"><span>Sensitivity of Ozone to <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> in the Lower Stratosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Salawitch, R. J.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Kovalenko, L. J.; Sioris, C. E.; Wennberg, P. O.; Chance, K.; Ko, M. K. W.; McLinden, C. A.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Measurements of BrO suggest that inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (Br(sub y)) at and above the tropopause is 4 to 8 ppt greater than assumed in models used in past ozone trend assessment studies. This additional <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is likely carried to the stratosphere by short-lived biogenic compounds and their decomposition products, including tropospheric BrO. Including this additional <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in an ozone trend simulation increases the computed ozone depletion over the past approx.25 years, leading to better agreement between measured and modeled ozone trends. This additional Br(sub y) (assumed constant over time) causes more ozone depletion because associated BrO provides a reaction partner for ClO, which increases due to anthropogenic sources. Enhanced Br(sub y) causes photochemical loss of ozone below approx.14 km to change from being controlled by HO(sub x) catalytic cycles (primarily HO2+O3) to a situation where loss by the BrO+HO2 cycle is also important.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=315470','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=315470"><span>Eosinophils generate <span class="hlt">brominating</span> oxidants in allergen-induced asthma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wu, Weijia; Samoszuk, Michael K.; Comhair, Suzy A.A.; Thomassen, Mary Jane; Farver, Carol F.; Dweik, Raed A.; Kavuru, Mani S.; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Hazen, Stanley L.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Eosinophils promote tissue injury and contribute to the pathogenesis of allergen-triggered diseases like asthma, but the chemical basis of damage to eosinophil targets is unknown. We now demonstrate that eosinophil activation in vivo results in oxidative damage of proteins through <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of tyrosine residues, a heretofore unrecognized pathway for covalent modification of biologic targets in human tissues. Mass spectrometric studies demonstrated that 3-bromotyrosine serves as a specific “molecular fingerprint” for proteins modified through the eosinophil peroxidase-H2O2 system in the presence of plasma levels of halides. We applied a localized allergen challenge to model the effects of eosinophils and <span class="hlt">brominating</span> oxidants in human lung injury. Endobronchial biopsy specimens from allergen-challenged lung segments of asthmatic, but not healthy control, subjects demonstrated significant enrichments in eosinophils and eosinophil peroxidase. Baseline levels of 3-bromotyrosine in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) proteins from mildly allergic asthmatic individuals were modestly but not statistically significantly elevated over those in control subjects. After exposure to segmental allergen challenge, lung segments of asthmatics, but not healthy control subjects, exhibited a >10-fold increase in BAL 3-bromotyrosine content, but only two- to threefold increases in 3-chlorotyrosine, a specific oxidation product formed by neutrophil- and monocyte-derived myeloperoxidase. These results identify reactive <span class="hlt">brominating</span> species produced by eosinophils as a distinct class of oxidants formed in vivo. They also reveal eosinophil peroxidase as a potential therapeutic target for allergen-triggered inflammatory tissue injury in humans. PMID:10811853</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070025102&hterms=Bromine&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DBromine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070025102&hterms=Bromine&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DBromine"><span>Sensitivity of Ozone to <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> in the Lower Stratosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Salawitch, R. J.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Kovalenko, L. J.; Sioris, C. E.; Wennberg, P. O.; Chance, K.; Ko, M. K. W.; McLinden, C. A.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Measurements of BrO suggest that inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (Br(sub y)) at and above the tropopause is 4 to 8 ppt greater than assumed in models used in past ozone trend assessment studies. This additional <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is likely carried to the stratosphere by short-lived biogenic compounds and their decomposition products, including tropospheric BrO. Including this additional <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in an ozone trend simulation increases the computed ozone depletion over the past approx.25 years, leading to better agreement between measured and modeled ozone trends. This additional Br(sub y) (assumed constant over time) causes more ozone depletion because associated BrO provides a reaction partner for ClO, which increases due to anthropogenic sources. Enhanced Br(sub y) causes photochemical loss of ozone below approx.14 km to change from being controlled by HO(sub x) catalytic cycles (primarily HO2+O3) to a situation where loss by the BrO+HO2 cycle is also important.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ACP....1711313F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ACP....1711313F"><span><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> VSLS and their influence on ozone under a changing climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Falk, Stefanie; Sinnhuber, Björn-Martin; Krysztofiak, Gisèle; Jöckel, Patrick; Graf, Phoebe; Lennartz, Sinikka T.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Very short-lived substances (VSLS) contribute as source gases significantly to the tropospheric and stratospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> loading. At present, an estimated 25 % of stratospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is of oceanic origin. In this study, we investigate how climate change may impact the ocean-atmosphere flux of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> VSLS, their atmospheric transport, and chemical transformations and evaluate how these changes will affect stratospheric ozone over the 21st century. Under the assumption of fixed ocean water concentrations and RCP6.0 scenario, we find an increase of the ocean-atmosphere flux of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> VSLS of about 8-10 % by the end of the 21st century compared to present day. A decrease in the tropospheric mixing ratios of VSLS and an increase in the lower stratosphere are attributed to changes in atmospheric chemistry and transport. Our model simulations reveal that this increase is counteracted by a corresponding reduction of inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. Therefore the total amount of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> from VSLS in the stratosphere will not be changed by an increase in upwelling. Part of the increase of VSLS in the tropical lower stratosphere results from an increase in the corresponding tropopause height. As the depletion of stratospheric ozone due to <span class="hlt">bromine</span> depends also on the availability of chlorine, we find the impact of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> on stratospheric ozone at the end of the 21st century reduced compared to present day. Thus, these studies highlight the different factors influencing the role of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> VSLS in a future climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3778398','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3778398"><span><span class="hlt">Bromination</span> of hydrocarbons with CBr4, initiated by light-emitting diode irradiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ohtani, Bunsho; Kikushima, Kotaro</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Summary The <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of hydrocarbons with CBr4 as a <span class="hlt">bromine</span> source, induced by light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation, has been developed. Monobromides were synthesized with high efficiency without the need for any additives, catalysts, heating, or inert conditions. Action and absorption spectra suggest that CBr4 absorbs light to give active species for the <span class="hlt">bromination</span>. The generation of CHBr3 was confirmed by NMR spectroscopy and GC–MS spectrometry analysis, indicating that the present <span class="hlt">bromination</span> involves the homolytic cleavage of a C–Br bond in CBr4 followed by radical abstraction of a hydrogen atom from a hydrocarbon. PMID:24062826</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27461437','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27461437"><span>Elemental <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Production by TiO2 Photocatalysis and/or Ozonation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Parrino, Francesco; Camera Roda, Giovanni; Loddo, Vittorio; Palmisano, Leonardo</p> <p>2016-08-22</p> <p>Significant production of elemental <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (Br2 ) was observed for the first time when treating bromide containing solutions at acidic pH, with TiO2 photocatalyst, ozone, or a combination thereof. Br2 selectivities up to approximately 85 % were obtained and the corresponding <span class="hlt">bromine</span> mass balance values satisfied. The process is general and may be applied at a laboratory scale for green <span class="hlt">bromination</span> reactions, or industrially as a cheap, safe, and environmentally sustainable alternative to the currently applied <span class="hlt">bromine</span> production methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880045626&hterms=specific+heat&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dspecific%2Bheat','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880045626&hterms=specific+heat&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dspecific%2Bheat"><span>Specific heat of pristine and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> graphite fibers, composites and HOPG. [Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hung, Ching-Chen; Maciag, Carolyn</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Differential scanning calorimetry was used to obtain specific heat values of pristine and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> P-100 graphite fibers and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> P-100/epoxy composite as well as pristine and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) for comparison. Based on the experimental results obtained, specific heat values are calculated for several different temperatures, with a standard deviation estimated at 1.4 percent of the average values. The data presented here are useful in designing heat transfer devices (such as airplane de-icing heaters) from <span class="hlt">bromine</span> fibers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17903468','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17903468"><span>Robust flow-batch coulometric/biamperometric titration system: determination of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> index and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> number of petrochemicals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pasquini, Celio; de Aquino, Emerson Vidal; das Virgens Reboucas, Marcio; Gonzaga, Fabiano Barbieri</p> <p>2007-09-26</p> <p>A flow-batch system was constructed and evaluated to perform coulometric titrations with biamperometric end point detection. The flow section of the system is employed for sampling by injecting a sample volume (50-300 microL) in a flow injection-like system. About 1.5 mL of a suitable carrier solution is delivered by a peristaltic pump in order to quantitatively transfer the sample to the system titration cell (2.0 mL total inner volume). The carrier contains the coulometric precursor for the titrant species. The cell contains two pairs of platinum electrodes used for coulometric generation of reagent and biamperometric detection and is actively stirred. The titrant species is generated and the titration is performed by the usual batch procedure with the excess of titrant being detected by biamperometry following the analysis of the titration curve. System operation is computer controlled and all operations are automated, including titration curve analysis and cell cleaning after the titration is ended. The system is characterized by its robustness because its operation does not depend on flow rates, and the work using coulometric methods which generate gases at the counter-electrode is not troublesome. The flow-batch system has been evaluated for determination of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> index and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> number (relative to the total reactive olefin content) in petrochemicals according to an ASTM procedure. Typical precision (R.S.D.) is between 0.5 and 6% for different petrochemicals whose <span class="hlt">bromine</span> number/index vary from 1000 to 10mg of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> per 100g of sample, respectively. Recoveries for standard additions are between 92 and 123% for 10mg of Br(2) per 100g increments and 98 to 101% for 100mg per 100g increments. Accuracy of the proposed system was evaluated against results obtained by the standard ASTM with no significant difference detected at 95% confidence level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ACPD....3.2963S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ACPD....3.2963S"><span>Inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the marine boundary layer: a critical review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sander, R.; Keene, W. C.; Pszenny, A. A. P.; Arimoto, R.; Ayers, G. P.; Baboukas, E.; Cainey, J. M.; Crutzen, P. J.; Duce, R. A.; Hönninger, G.; Huebert, B. J.; Maenhaut, W.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Turekian, V. C.; van Dingenen, R.</p> <p>2003-06-01</p> <p>The cycling of inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the marine boundary layer (mbl) has received increased attention in recent years. Bromide, a constituent of sea water, is injected into the atmosphere in association with sea-salt aerosol by breaking waves on the ocean surface. Measurements reveal that supermicrometer sea-salt aerosol is depleted in <span class="hlt">bromine</span> by about 50% relative to conservative tracers, whereas marine submicrometer aerosol is often enriched in <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. Model calculations, laboratory studies, and field observations strongly suggest that these depletions reflect the chemical transformation of particulate bromide to reactive inorganic gases that influence the processing of ozone and other important constituents of marine air. However, currently available techniques cannot reliably quantify many \\chem{Br}-containing compounds at ambient concentrations and, consequently, our understanding of inorganic Br cycling over the oceans and its global significance are uncertain. To provide a more coherent framework for future research, we have reviewed measurements in marine aerosol, the gas phase, and in rain. We also summarize sources and sinks, as well as model and laboratory studies of chemical transformations. The focus is on inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> over the open oceans, excluding the polar regions. The generation of sea-salt aerosol at the ocean surface is the major tropospheric source producing about 6.2 Tg/a of bromide. The transport of Br from continents (as mineral aerosol, and as products from biomass-burning and fossil-fuel combustion) can be of local importance. Transport of degradation products of long-lived Br-containing compounds from the stratosphere and other sources contribute lesser amounts. Available evidence suggests that, following aerosol acidification, sea-salt bromide reacts to form Br2 and BrCl that volatilize to the gas phase and photolyze in daylight to produce atomic Br and Cl. Subsequent transformations can destroy tropospheric ozone, oxidize</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ACP.....3.1301S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ACP.....3.1301S"><span>Inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the marine boundary layer: a critical review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sander, R.; Keene, W. C.; Pszenny, A. A. P.; Arimoto, R.; Ayers, G. P.; Baboukas, E.; Cainey, J. M.; Crutzen, P. J.; Duce, R. A.; Hönninger, G.; Huebert, B. J.; Maenhaut, W.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Turekian, V. C.; van Dingenen, R.</p> <p>2003-09-01</p> <p>The cycling of inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the marine boundary layer (mbl) has received increased attention in recent years. Bromide, a constituent of sea water, is injected into the atmosphere in association with sea-salt aerosol by breaking waves on the ocean surface. Measurements reveal that supermicrometer sea-salt aerosol is substantially depleted in <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (often exceeding 50%) relative to conservative tracers, whereas marine submicrometer aerosol is often enriched in <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. Model calculations, laboratory studies, and field observations strongly suggest that the supermicrometer depletions reflect the chemical transformation of particulate bromide to reactive inorganic gases that influence the processing of ozone and other important constituents of marine air. Mechanisms for the submicrometer enrichments are not well understood. Currently available techniques cannot reliably quantify many Br containing compounds at ambient concentrations and, consequently, our understanding of inorganic Br cycling over the oceans and its global significance are uncertain. To provide a more coherent framework for future research, we have reviewed measurements in marine aerosol, the gas phase, and in rain. We also summarize sources and sinks, as well as model and laboratory studies of chemical transformations. The focus is on inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> over the open oceans outside the polar regions. The generation of sea-salt aerosol at the ocean surface is the major tropospheric source producing about 6.2 Tg/a of bromide. The transport of Br from continents (as mineral aerosol, and as products from biomass-burning and fossil-fuel combustion) can be of local importance. Transport of degradation products of long-lived Br containing compounds from the stratosphere and other sources contribute lesser amounts. Available evidence suggests that, following aerosol acidification, sea-salt bromide reacts to form Br2 and BrCl that volatilize to the gas phase and photolyze in daylight to produce atomic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25649253','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25649253"><span>Detection of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> by ICP-oa-ToF-MS following photochemical vapor generation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sturgeon, Ralph E</p> <p>2015-03-03</p> <p>A unique flow-through photochemical reactor is utilized for the generation of volatile methyl bromide from aqueous solutions of bromide and bromate ions in a medium of 2% acetic acid containing 3000 μg/mL NH4Cl. The volatile product is transported to a thin-film gas-liquid phase separator and directed to an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) tine-of-flight mass spectrometer for detection and quantitation using either of the (79)Br or (81)Br <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. Utilizing a sample flow rate of 3.3 mL/min and a 13 s irradiation time, a detection limit of 0.14 ng/mL is achieved, yielding a 17-fold enhancement over conventional solution nebulization. The estimated generation efficiency of 95% provides for a significant increase in analyte transport efficiency to the ICP. Precision of replicate measurement is 2.5% (RSD) at 20 ng/mL. The methodology was validated by successful determination of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in reference materials, including IRMM (BCR-611) low level bromide in groundwater, NIST SRM 1568b Rice Flour, and SRM 1632 bituminous coal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/863152','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/863152"><span><span class="hlt">Isotope</span> separation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Bartlett, Rodney J.; Morrey, John R.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one <span class="hlt">isotope</span> of an element from gas molecules containing other <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Chemical+AND+bonds&pg=7&id=EJ1090646','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Chemical+AND+bonds&pg=7&id=EJ1090646"><span>Obtaining the Iodine Value of Various Oils via <span class="hlt">Bromination</span> with Pyridinium Tribromide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Simurdiak, Michael; Olukoga, Olushola; Hedberg, Kirk</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A laboratory exercise was devised that allows students to rapidly and fairly accurately determine the iodine value of oleic acid. This method utilizes the addition of elemental <span class="hlt">bromine</span> to the unsaturated bonds in oleic acid, due to <span class="hlt">bromine</span>'s relatively fast reaction rate compared to that of the traditional Wijs solution method. This method also…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=titration&pg=2&id=EJ1002584','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=titration&pg=2&id=EJ1002584"><span>A Multistep Synthesis Incorporating a Green <span class="hlt">Bromination</span> of an Aromatic Ring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cardinal, Pascal; Greer, Brandon; Luong, Horace; Tyagunova, Yevgeniya</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Electrophilic aromatic substitution is a fundamental topic taught in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum. A multistep synthesis that includes a safer and greener method for the <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of an aromatic ring than traditional <span class="hlt">bromination</span> methods is described. This experiment is multifaceted and can be used to teach students about…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Acids&pg=2&id=EJ1090646','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Acids&pg=2&id=EJ1090646"><span>Obtaining the Iodine Value of Various Oils via <span class="hlt">Bromination</span> with Pyridinium Tribromide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Simurdiak, Michael; Olukoga, Olushola; Hedberg, Kirk</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A laboratory exercise was devised that allows students to rapidly and fairly accurately determine the iodine value of oleic acid. This method utilizes the addition of elemental <span class="hlt">bromine</span> to the unsaturated bonds in oleic acid, due to <span class="hlt">bromine</span>'s relatively fast reaction rate compared to that of the traditional Wijs solution method. This method also…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20188948','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20188948"><span>Determination of iodine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in coal and atmospheric particles by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Mingxing; Gao, Yunchuan; Wei, Biwen; Wu, Xiaowei</p> <p>2010-04-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> and iodine in atmospheric particles or coal can cause environmental problems such as destruction of ozone in the atmosphere; therefore, the presence of these compounds has recently received increased attention. Here, a rapid and reliable method for the simultaneous determination of total <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and iodine using ICP-MS analysis is described. Samples were dissolved in mixtures of 5 mL of HNO(3) and 2 mL of H(2)O(2) in a high pressure microwave digester. The solution was then oxidized by per-sulfate (Na(2)S(2)O(8)) in addition to a small amount of silver nitrate, after which the total <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and iodine were measured simultaneously by ICP-MS. The signal memory effects of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and iodine during analysis were effectively decreased by washing with a new mixture agent (2% alcohol acidic solution, pH 1-2 adjusted with HCl). The detection limits for <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and iodine using this method were about 3.2 microg L(-1) and 1.1 microg L(-1), respectively. Additionally, the spike recoveries were between 78.7% and 121% for <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and iodine analysis, while the relative standard deviations ranged from 4.3% to 9.7%, and from 1.5% to 3.4% for <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and iodine, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the method described here is suitable for the analysis of micro-amounts of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and iodine in atmospheric particles and coal samples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-10416.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-10416.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10416 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyphenyl ether (generic) (P-11-264).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>...) (P-11-264). 721.10416 Section 721.10416 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10416 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyphenyl ether (generic) (P-11-264). (a) Chemical... as <span class="hlt">brominated</span> polyphenyl ether (PMN P-11-264) is subject to reporting under this section for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol32-sec721-10416.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol32-sec721-10416.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10416 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyphenyl ether (generic) (P-11-264).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>...) (P-11-264). 721.10416 Section 721.10416 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10416 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyphenyl ether (generic) (P-11-264). (a) Chemical... as <span class="hlt">brominated</span> polyphenyl ether (PMN P-11-264) is subject to reporting under this section for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20095529','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20095529"><span>Bayesian statistical modeling of disinfection byproduct (DBP) <span class="hlt">bromine</span> incorporation in the ICR database.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Francis, Royce A; Vanbriesen, Jeanne M; Small, Mitchell J</p> <p>2010-02-15</p> <p>Statistical models are developed for <span class="hlt">bromine</span> incorporation in the trihalomethane (THM), trihaloacetic acids (THAA), dihaloacetic acid (DHAA), and dihaloacetonitrile (DHAN) subclasses of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) using distribution system samples from plants applying only free chlorine as a primary or residual disinfectant in the Information Collection Rule (ICR) database. The objective of this study is to characterize the effect of water quality conditions before, during, and post-treatment on distribution system <span class="hlt">bromine</span> incorporation into DBP mixtures. Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are used to model individual DBP concentrations and estimate the coefficients of the linear models used to predict the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> incorporation fraction for distribution system DBP mixtures in each of the four priority DBP classes. The <span class="hlt">bromine</span> incorporation models achieve good agreement with the data. The most important predictors of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> incorporation fraction across DBP classes are alkalinity, specific UV absorption (SUVA), and the bromide to total organic carbon ratio (Br:TOC) at the first point of chlorine addition. Free chlorine residual in the distribution system, distribution system residence time, distribution system pH, turbidity, and temperature only slightly influence <span class="hlt">bromine</span> incorporation. The bromide to applied chlorine (Br:Cl) ratio is not a significant predictor of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> incorporation fraction (BIF) in any of the four classes studied. These results indicate that removal of natural organic matter and the location of chlorine addition are important treatment decisions that have substantial implications for <span class="hlt">bromine</span> incorporation into disinfection byproduct in drinking waters.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Stilbenes&id=EJ717320','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Stilbenes&id=EJ717320"><span>The Evolution of a Green Chemistry Laboratory Experiment: Greener <span class="hlt">Brominations</span> of Stilbene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McKenzie, Lallie C.; Huffman, Lauren M.; Hutchison, James E.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The use of green metrics to compare three <span class="hlt">bromination</span> laboratory procedures demonstrates the effectiveness of an incremental greening process for chemistry curricula. Due to this process, the <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of alkenes can be introduced to students through the use of a safe, effective, modern practice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21922838','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21922838"><span>[Study on modes of occurrence of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in coals using sequential chemical extraction procedure].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peng, Bing-Xian; Wu, Dai-She; Li, Ping</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>Modes of occurrence of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in eight coals from Sichuan and Chongqing were studied using inductively coupled plasma spectrometry and sequential chemical extraction. The results showed that the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> mainly occur the water-soluble, ion exchangeable, carbonate, Fe-Mn oxides and organic fraction in these coals, which average total extraction rate was 88.2%. In bituminous coal and anthracite, the mean relative amount was 22.3% and 20.0% for organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, 14.0% and 19.2% for the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> of carbonate bound and almost equal for the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> from water soluble and Fe-Mn oxidizes. The ion exchangeable <span class="hlt">bromine</span> may be mainly adsorbed to organic matter in these coals. The relative amount of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in various modes of occurrence may not be very closely related to its sedimentary environment during the formation of coal. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> in coals from Sichuan and Chongqing should be paid more attention because its potential leachable rate was 36.62% - 86.80% and potential leachable content was 7.092- 20.10 microg/g.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Titration&pg=2&id=EJ1002584','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Titration&pg=2&id=EJ1002584"><span>A Multistep Synthesis Incorporating a Green <span class="hlt">Bromination</span> of an Aromatic Ring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cardinal, Pascal; Greer, Brandon; Luong, Horace; Tyagunova, Yevgeniya</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Electrophilic aromatic substitution is a fundamental topic taught in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum. A multistep synthesis that includes a safer and greener method for the <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of an aromatic ring than traditional <span class="hlt">bromination</span> methods is described. This experiment is multifaceted and can be used to teach students about…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=alkene&pg=2&id=EJ717320','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=alkene&pg=2&id=EJ717320"><span>The Evolution of a Green Chemistry Laboratory Experiment: Greener <span class="hlt">Brominations</span> of Stilbene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McKenzie, Lallie C.; Huffman, Lauren M.; Hutchison, James E.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The use of green metrics to compare three <span class="hlt">bromination</span> laboratory procedures demonstrates the effectiveness of an incremental greening process for chemistry curricula. Due to this process, the <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of alkenes can be introduced to students through the use of a safe, effective, modern practice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22812492','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22812492"><span>Fundamental mechanisms of DNA radiosensitization: damage induced by low-energy electrons in <span class="hlt">brominated</span> oligonucleotide trimers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Park, Yeunsoo; Polska, Katarzyna; Rak, Janusz; Wagner, J Richard; Sanche, Léon</p> <p>2012-08-16</p> <p>The replacement of nucleobases with <span class="hlt">brominated</span> analogs enhances DNA radiosensitivity. We examine the chemistry of low-energy electrons (LEEs) in this sensitization process by experiments with thin films of the oligonucleotide trimers TBrXT, where BrX = 5-BrU (5-bromouracil), 5-BrC (5-bromocytosine), 8-BrA (8-bromoadenine), or 8-BrG (8-bromoguanine). The products induced from irradiation of thin (∼ 2.5 nm) oligonucleotide films, with 10 eV electrons, under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) are analyzed by HPLC-UV. The number of damaged <span class="hlt">brominated</span> trimers ranges from about 12 to 15 × 10(-3) molecules per incident electron, whereas under the identical conditions, these numbers drop to 4-7 × 10(-3) for the same, but nonbrominated oligonucleotides. The results of HPLC analysis show that the main degradation pathway of trinucleotides containing <span class="hlt">brominated</span> bases involve debromination (i.e., loss of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> atom and its replacement with a hydrogen atom). The electron-induced sum of products upon <span class="hlt">bromination</span> increases by factors of 2.1 for the pyrimidines and 3.2 for the purines. Thus, substitution of any native nucleobase with a <span class="hlt">brominated</span> one in simple models of DNA increases LEE-induced damage to DNA and hence its radiosensitivity. Furthermore, besides the <span class="hlt">brominated</span> pyrimidines that have already been tested in clinical trials, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> purines not only appear to be promising sensitizers for radiotherapy, but could provide a higher degree of radiosensitization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-10280.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-10280.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10280 - Benzene ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, <span class="hlt">brominated</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzene ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10280 Benzene ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, <span class="hlt">brominated</span>. (a... benzene ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> (PMN P-10-476; CAS No. 1195978-93-8)) is subject...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-10280.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-10280.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10280 - Benzene ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, <span class="hlt">brominated</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzene ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10280 Benzene ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, <span class="hlt">brominated</span>. (a... benzene ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> (PMN P-10-476; CAS No. 1195978-93-8)) is subject...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=194363&keyword=Bromine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90718988&CFTOKEN=99248257','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=194363&keyword=Bromine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90718988&CFTOKEN=99248257"><span>Levels of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> diphenylether, dibenzo-P-dioxin, and dibenzofuran in flue gases of a municipal waste combustor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Due to the extensive use of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs), including <span class="hlt">brominated</span> diphenylether (BDE) formulations, for various domestic and industrial applications, the presence of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> chemicals in the waste stream is to be expected for decades. As much as 40% to 50% o...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=194363&keyword=bromine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=194363&keyword=bromine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Levels of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> diphenylether, dibenzo-P-dioxin, and dibenzofuran in flue gases of a municipal waste combustor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Due to the extensive use of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs), including <span class="hlt">brominated</span> diphenylether (BDE) formulations, for various domestic and industrial applications, the presence of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> chemicals in the waste stream is to be expected for decades. As much as 40% to 50% o...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1612298S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1612298S"><span>Deriving an atmospheric budget of total organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> using airborne in-situ measurements of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> hydrocarbons in the Western Pacific during SHIVA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sala, Stephan; Bönisch, Harald; Keber, Timo; Oram, Dave; Mills, Graham; Engel, Andreas</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Halogenated hydrocarbons play a major role as precursors for stratospheric ozone depletion. Released from the surface in the troposphere, the halocarbons reach the stratosphere via transport through the tropical tropopause layer. The contribution of the so called very short lived species (VSLS), having atmospheric lifetimes of less than half a year as sources gases for stratospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is significant. Source gas observations of long-lived <span class="hlt">bromine</span> compounds and VSLS have so far not been able to explain the amount of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> derived in the stratosphere from observations of BrO and modeling of the ratio of BrO to total <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. Due to the short lifetimes and the high atmospheric variability, the representativeness of the available observations of VSLS source gases remains unclear, as these may vary with region and display seasonal variability. During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) project an extensive dataset with over 700 samples of ambient air of all halogen species relevant for the atmospheric budget of total organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (long lived halocarbons: H-1301, H-1211, H-1202, H-2402 and CH3Br, very short lived substances: CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CHBrCl) have been collected from onboard the FALCON aircraft in the West Pacific region. Measurements were performed with the newly developed fully-automated in-situ instrument GHOST-MS (Gas chromatograph for the Observation of Tracers - coupled with a Mass Spectrometer) by the Goethe University of Frankfurt and with the onboard whole-air sampler WASP with subsequent ground based state-of-the-art GC/MS analysis by the University of East Anglia. We will present the datasets, compare these to other observation, derive a <span class="hlt">bromine</span> budget for the West Pacific and derive an estimate of the amount of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> from VSLS reaching the stratosphere. Using the mean mixing ratios in the upper troposphere of the halocarbons mentioned above, the calculated budget of the total organic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988JPS....22..423S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988JPS....22..423S"><span>Theoretical performance of hydrogen-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> rechargeable SPE fuel cell</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Savinell, R. F.; Fritts, S. D.</p> <p>1988-04-01</p> <p>A mathematical model was formulated to describe the performance of a hydrogen-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> fuel cell. Porous electrode theory was applied to the carbon felt flow-by electrode and was coupled to theory describing the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) system. Parametric studies using the numerical solution to this model were performed to determine the effect of kinetic, mass transfer, and design parameters on the performance of the fuel cell. The results indicate that the cell performance is most sensitive to the transport properties of the SPE membrane. The model was also shown to be a useful tool for scale-up studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987sert.nasa..321S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987sert.nasa..321S"><span>Theoretical performance of hydrogen-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> rechargeable SPE fuel cell</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Savinell, Robert F.; Fritts, S. D.</p> <p>1987-09-01</p> <p>A mathematical model was formulated to describe the performance of a hydrogen-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> fuel cell. Porous electrode theory was applied to the carbon felt flow-by electrode and was coupled to theory describing the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) system. Parametric studies using the numerical solution to this model were performed to determine the effect of kinetic, mass transfer, and design parameters on the performance of the fuel cell. The results indicate that the cell performance is most sensitive to the transport properties of the SPE membrane. The model was also shown to be a useful tool for scale-up studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18539291','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18539291"><span>Environmental analysis of higher <span class="hlt">brominated</span> diphenyl ethers and decabromodiphenyl ethane.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kierkegaard, Amelie; Sellström, Ulla; McLachlan, Michael S</p> <p>2009-01-16</p> <p>Methods for environmental analysis of higher <span class="hlt">brominated</span> diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in particular decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209), and the recently discovered environmental contaminant decabromodiphenyl ethane (deBDethane) are reviewed. The extensive literature on analysis of BDE209 has identified several critical issues, including contamination of the sample, degradation of the analyte during sample preparation and GC analysis, and the selection of appropriate detection methods and surrogate standards. The limited experience with the analysis of deBDethane suggests that there are many commonalities with BDE209. The experience garnered from the analysis of BDE209 over the last 15 years will greatly facilitate progress in the analysis of deBDethane.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A41A0025S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A41A0025S"><span>OMI Observations of <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Monoxide Emissions from Volcanoes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Suleiman, R. M.; Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Kurosu, T. P.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>We analyze <span class="hlt">bromine</span> monoxide (BrO) data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for emissions from various volcanoes. We use OMI data from 2005 to 2014 to investigate BrO signatures from Galapagos, Kasatochi and Eyjafjallajökull volcanoes. Elevated signatures of BrO daily averages were found over Eyjafjallajökull. SO2 cross sections are updated in the operational BrO algorithm and their effect on the volcanic BrO signature is studied. Comparison between two different sets of SO2 cross sections is made and results still show BrO enhancement over the Eyjafjallajökull region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930001907','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930001907"><span>Future chlorine-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> loading and ozone depletion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Prather, Michael J.; Ibrahim, Abdel Moneim; Sasaki, Toru; Stordal, Frode; Visconti, Guido</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The prediction of future ozone requires three elements: (1) a scenario for the net emissions of chemically and radiatively active trace gases from the land and oceans; (2) a global atmospheric model that projects the accumulation of these gases; and (3) a chemical transport model that describes the distribution of ozone for a prescribed atmospheric composition and climate. This chapter, of necessity, presents models for all three elements and focuses on the following: (1) atmospheric abundance of chlorine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the form of halocarbons; and (2) the associated perturbations to stratospheric ozone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730007949','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730007949"><span>Dissociation rate of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> diatomics in an argon heat bath</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Razner, R.; Hopkins, D.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The evolution of a collection of 300 K <span class="hlt">bromine</span> diatomics embedded in a heat bath of argon atoms at 1800 K was studied by computer, and a dissociation-rate constant for the reaction Br2 + BR + Ar yields Br + Ar was determined. Previously published probability distributions for energy and angular momentum transfers in classical three-dimensional Br2-Ar collisions were used in conjunction with a newly developed Monte Carlo scheme for this purpose. Results are compared with experimental shock-tube data and the predictions of several other theoretical models. A departure from equilibrium is obtained which is significantly greater than that predicted by any of these other theories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870020512','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870020512"><span>Theoretical performance of hydrogen-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> rechargeable SPE fuel cell</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Savinell, Robert F.; Fritts, S. D.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A mathematical model was formulated to describe the performance of a hydrogen-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> fuel cell. Porous electrode theory was applied to the carbon felt flow-by electrode and was coupled to theory describing the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) system. Parametric studies using the numerical solution to this model were performed to determine the effect of kinetic, mass transfer, and design parameters on the performance of the fuel cell. The results indicate that the cell performance is most sensitive to the transport properties of the SPE membrane. The model was also shown to be a useful tool for scale-up studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988JPS....23..365C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988JPS....23..365C"><span>Performance of zinc/<span class="hlt">bromine</span> cells having a propionitrile electrolyte</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cathro, K. J.</p> <p>1988-07-01</p> <p>A study has been made of a small, zinc/<span class="hlt">bromine</span>, circulated-electrolyte cell having a propionitrile-based electrolyte on the positive side and an aqueous electrolyte on the negative. It has been shown that the faradaic efficiency is approximately 50 percent when using a microporous plastic separator, but that this increases to nearly 90 percent if the separator is changed to a filter paper/microporous plastic compound type. A small, further increase in faradaic efficiency can be obtained by incorporating a quaternary ammonium bromide into the propionitrile phase. In addition, some information is presented on cell resistance and the effect of temperature and discharge current density on cell performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900046277&hterms=Bromine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DBromine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900046277&hterms=Bromine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DBromine"><span>The effect of length and diameter on the resistivity of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> intercalated graphite fibers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gaier, James R.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The resistivity of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> intercalated graphite fibers has been shown to vary with both the diameter and the length of the fibers. This is due to <span class="hlt">bromine</span> depletion from the fiber surface. Model calculations assuming a 1.0 micron <span class="hlt">bromine</span> depletion zone for P-100, and 3.0 microns for vapor-grown graphite fibers fit the respective diameter dependence of their resistivities quite well. Length dependence data imply a <span class="hlt">bromine</span> depletion zone along the length of P-100 fibers which is also a few microns, but that of vapor grown fibers appears to be as large as 300 microns. Despite these values, microfilaments, which are much smaller than the expected depletion zones, do form residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span> intercalation compounds with resistivities about one-half of their pristine value.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18197369','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18197369"><span>New radiopaque acrylic bone cement. II. Acrylic bone cement with <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-containing monomer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rusu, M C; Ichim, I C; Popa, M; Rusu, M</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bromine</span>-containing methacrylate, 2-(2-bromopropionyloxy) ethyl methacrylate (BPEM), had been used in the formulation of acrylic radiopaque cements. The effect of this monomer incorporated into the liquid phase of acrylic bone cement, on the curing parameters, thermal properties, water absorption, density, compression tests and radiopacity was studied. A decrease of maximum temperature and an increase of the setting time were observed with the addition of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-containing monomer in the radiolucent cement composition. Adding BPEM in radiolucent acrylic bone cements composition results in the decrease of glass transition temperature and increase of its thermal stability. Acrylic bone cements modified with <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-containing comonomer are characterized by polymerization shrinkage lower than the radiolucent cement. Addition of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-containing comonomer in radiolucent acrylic bone cement composition determines the increase of compressive strength. Acrylic bone cements modified with <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-containing comonomer proved to be radiopaque.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900046277&hterms=bromine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dbromine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900046277&hterms=bromine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dbromine"><span>The effect of length and diameter on the resistivity of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> intercalated graphite fibers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gaier, James R.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The resistivity of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> intercalated graphite fibers has been shown to vary with both the diameter and the length of the fibers. This is due to <span class="hlt">bromine</span> depletion from the fiber surface. Model calculations assuming a 1.0 micron <span class="hlt">bromine</span> depletion zone for P-100, and 3.0 microns for vapor-grown graphite fibers fit the respective diameter dependence of their resistivities quite well. Length dependence data imply a <span class="hlt">bromine</span> depletion zone along the length of P-100 fibers which is also a few microns, but that of vapor grown fibers appears to be as large as 300 microns. Despite these values, microfilaments, which are much smaller than the expected depletion zones, do form residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span> intercalation compounds with resistivities about one-half of their pristine value.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16836430','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16836430"><span>Alkane <span class="hlt">bromination</span> revisited: "reproportionation" in gas-phase methane <span class="hlt">bromination</span> leads to higher selectivity for CH3Br at moderate temperatures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lorkovic, Ivan M; Sun, Shouli; Gadewar, Sagar; Breed, Ashley; Macala, Gerald S; Sardar, Amin; Cross, Sarah E; Sherman, Jeffrey H; Stucky, Galen D; Ford, Peter C</p> <p>2006-07-20</p> <p>The reaction of methane and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is a mildly exothermic and exergonic example of free radical alkane activation. We show here that the reaction of methane and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (CH4:Br2 > or = 1) may yield either a kinetically or a thermodynamically determined bromomethane product distribution and proceeds in two main phases between 450 and 550 degrees C under ambient pressure on the laboratory time scale. This is in contrast to the highly exothermic methane fluorination or chlorination reactions, which give kinetic product distributions, and to the endergonic iodination of methane, which yields an equilibrium distribution of iodomethanes. The first phase of reaction between methane and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is a relatively rapid consumption of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> to yield a kinetic methane <span class="hlt">bromination</span> product distribution characterized by low methane conversion, low methyl bromide selectivity, and higher polybromomethane selectivity. In the second slower phase CHxBr(4-x) reproportionation leads to significantly higher methane conversion and higher methyl bromide selectivity. For methane <span class="hlt">bromination</span> at 525 degrees C, CH4 conversion and CH3Br selectivity reach 73.5% and 69.5%, respectively, after ample (60 s) time for reproportionation. The high selectivity and simple configuration make this pathway an attractive candidate for scale-up in halogen-mediated methane partial oxidation processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18829288','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18829288"><span>Comparative environmental analysis of waste <span class="hlt">brominated</span> plastic thermal treatments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bientinesi, M; Petarca, L</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>The aim of this research activity is to investigate the environmental impact of different thermal treatments of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), applying a life cycle assessment methodology. Two scenarios were assessed, which both allow the recovery of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>: (A) the co-combustion of WEEE and green waste in a municipal solid waste combustion plant, and (B) the staged-gasification of WEEE and combustion of produced syngas in gas turbines. Mass and energy balances on the two scenarios were set and the analysis of the life cycle inventory and the life cycle impact assessment were conducted. Two impact assessment methods (Ecoindicator 99 and Impact 2002+) were slightly modified and then used with both scenarios. The results showed that scenario B (staged-gasification) had a potentially smaller environmental impact than scenario A (co-combustion). In particular, the thermal treatment of staged-gasification was more energy efficient than co-combustion, and therefore scenario B performed better than scenario A, mainly in the impact categories of "fossil fuels" and "climate change". Moreover, the results showed that scenario B allows a higher recovery of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> than scenario A; however, Br recovery leads to environmental benefits for both the scenarios. Finally the study demonstrates that WEEE thermal treatment for energy and matter recovery is an eco-efficient way to dispose of this kind of waste.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H33C1361D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H33C1361D"><span>Catalytic degradation of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants by copper oxide nanoparticles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dror, I.; Yecheskel, Y.; Berkowitz, B.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) have been added to various products like plastic, textile, electronics and synthetic polymers at growing rates. In spite of the clear advantages of reducing fire damages, many of these BFRs may be released to the environment after their beneficial use which may lead to contamination of water resources. In this work we present the catalytic degradation of two <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs), tribromoneopentyl alcohol (TBNPA) and 2,4 dibromophenol (2,4-DBP) by copper oxide nanoparticles (nCuO) in aqueous solution. The degradation kinetics, the debromination, and the formation of intermediates by nCuO catalysis are compared to Fenton oxidation and to reduction by nano zero-valent iron (nZVI). The two studied BFRs are shown to degrade fully by the nCuO system within hours to days. Shorter reaction times showed differences in reaction pathways and kinetics for the two compounds. The 2,4-DBP showed faster degradation than TBNPA, by nCuO catalysis. Relatively high resistance to degradation was recorded for 2,4-DBP with nZVI, yielding 20% degradation after 24 h, while the TBNPA was degraded by 85% within 12 hours. A catalytic mechanism for radical generation and BFR degradation by nCuO is proposed. It is further suggested that H2O2 plays an essential role in the activation of the catalyst.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21217148','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21217148"><span>Comparative environmental analysis of waste <span class="hlt">brominated</span> plastic thermal treatments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bientinesi, M. Petarca, L.</p> <p>2009-03-15</p> <p>The aim of this research activity is to investigate the environmental impact of different thermal treatments of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), applying a life cycle assessment methodology. Two scenarios were assessed, which both allow the recovery of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>: (A) the co-combustion of WEEE and green waste in a municipal solid waste combustion plant, and (B) the staged-gasification of WEEE and combustion of produced syngas in gas turbines. Mass and energy balances on the two scenarios were set and the analysis of the life cycle inventory and the life cycle impact assessment were conducted. Two impact assessment methods (Ecoindicator 99 and Impact 2002+) were slightly modified and then used with both scenarios. The results showed that scenario B (staged-gasification) had a potentially smaller environmental impact than scenario A (co-combustion). In particular, the thermal treatment of staged-gasification was more energy efficient than co-combustion, and therefore scenario B performed better than scenario A, mainly in the impact categories of 'fossil fuels' and 'climate change'. Moreover, the results showed that scenario B allows a higher recovery of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> than scenario A; however, Br recovery leads to environmental benefits for both the scenarios. Finally the study demonstrates that WEEE thermal treatment for energy and matter recovery is an eco-efficient way to dispose of this kind of waste.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27905993','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27905993"><span>Pregnant Women's perceptions of exposure to <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lane, A; Goodyer, C G; Rab, F; Ashley, J M; Sharma, S; Hodgson, A; Nisker, J</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Recent media reports on human studies associating <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) in household products in pregnancy with urogenital anomalies in boys and endocrine disruption in both sexes. We sought to explore the perceptions of pregnant women of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardant (BFR) exposure, in light of recent media reports on the adverse health effects of BFR exposure prenatally. Pregnant women were recruited for interviews through posters and pamphlets in prenatal clinics, prenatal fairs and community centres. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim for Charmaz-based qualitative analysis supported by NVIVO 10™. Theoretical sufficiency was reached after analyzing the interviews of 23 pregnant women. Themes co-constructed were: I-Lack of Awareness of BFRs; II-Factors Influencing BFR Exposure; III-Responsibility; IV-Informed Choice. Almost all participants felt it was difficult to make informed choices to avoid BFRs, and wanted communication from clinicians and regulation from governments regarding decreasing BFR exposure. Pregnant women in Canada may be unaware of the potential risks of exposure to BFRs. Professional organizations and governments should further study risk associated with BFR exposure in pregnancy and provide educational materials for pregnant women and clinicians regarding BFR exposure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1089782','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1089782"><span>Beta-decay study of neutron rich <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> of <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> and Krypton</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Miernik, Krzysztof A; Gross, Carl J; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz; Madurga, M; Mendez, II, Anthony J; Miller, D.; Padgett, S; Paulauskas, Stanley V; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Stracener, Daniel W; Wolinska-Cichocka, Marzena; Zganjar, E. F.; Batchelder, J. C.; Brewer, N.T.; Cartegni, L.; Fijalkowska, Aleksandra G; Hamilton, J. H.; Hwang, J. K.; Ilyushkin, S.; Jost, Carola U; Karny, M.; Korgul, A.; Krolas, W.; Liu, S.H.; Ramayya, A. V.; Surman, Rebecca; Winger, J. A.; Wolinska-Cichocka, M</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Short lived neutron rich nuclei including 93 Br, 93 Kr and 94 Kr were produced in proton induced fission of 238 U at the HRIBF in Oak Ridge. Their beta decay was studied by means of a high resolution on line mass separator and beta gamma spectroscopy methods. The half life of 93Br T1/2 = 152(8) ms and delayed branching ratio of Pn = 53-8+11 may be compared to the previously reported values of T1/2 = 102(10) ms and Pn = 68(7)%. At the same time the half life of 94Kr T1/2 = 227(14) ms and B delayed branching ratio of Pn = 1.9+0.6 0.2 % of 93Kr are in very good agreement with literature values. The decay properties of 93Br include four new gamma transitions following beta delayed neutron emission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3779W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3779W"><span><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Chemistry in the Tropical UTLS during the 2011, 2013 and 2014 ATTREX Experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Werner, Bodo; Stutz, Jochen; Spolaor, Max; Festa, James; Tsai, Catalina; Colosimo, Fedele; Cheung, Ross; Deutschmann, Tim; Raecke, Rasmus; Scalone, Lisa; Tricoli, Ugo; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Navarro, Maria; Atlas, Elliot; Chipperfield, Martyn; Hossaini, Ryan</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> plays an important role for the chemistry of ozone in the stratosphere and upper troposphere. An accurate quantitative understanding of the sources, sinks, and chemical transformation of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> species is thus important to understand the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> budget in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), which also serves as a gate to the stratosphere. Vertical transport of very short-lived organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> precursors and inorganic product gases has been identified as the main source of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the UTLS. However, the contribution of inorganic vs. organic compounds is not well quantified, particularly in the tropical UTLS. A limb scanning Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy instrument was deployed onboard NASA's UAV Global Hawk during the NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) during a series of flights into the eastern and western Pacific tropopause layer (flight altitudes up to 18 km), which is a gateway to the stratosphere. The measurement methodology to retrieve vertical trace gas concentration profiles will be briefly presented. Observations of BrO, NO2 and O3 and of other trace species, in particular of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> hydrocarbons are compared with simulations of the SLIMCAT CTM and interpreted with respect to photochemistry and the budget of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> within the tropical tropopause layer (TTL).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019118','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019118"><span>A method to remove intercalates from <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and iodine intercalated carbon fibers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hung, Ching-Cheh</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Upon exposure to room-temperature fluorine, intercalated carbon fibers (containing either <span class="hlt">bromine</span> alone or iodine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> together) become heavier and less stable. For Amoco P-100 graphitized carbon fibers which were intercalated with 18 percent <span class="hlt">bromine</span> by weight, 1 hr of fluorine exposure results in a large weight increase, but causes only a small decrease in thermal stability. More than l hr of fluorine exposure time results in small additional increases in fiber weight, but significant further decreases in fiber thermal stability. Such phenomena do not occur if the fluorine exposure is at 250 C. These observations suggest the mechanism that at room temperature, fluorine is absorbed quickly by the intercalated fibers and intercalated slowly into the fibers. Most of the original intercalates are replaced by fluorine in the process of fluorine intercalation. Under an inert environment, the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> intercalated fibers are much more thermally stable. After 800 C vacuum heating for two weeks, the <span class="hlt">brominated</span> fibers lost about 45 percent of their <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, and their resistivity increased from 64 omega-cm to a range of 95 to 170 micro omega-cm. This is still much lower than the 300 micro omega-cm value for pristine P-100. For practical purposes, in order to preserve their thermal stability, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> fibers need to be protected from exposure to fluorine at room temperature, or to any intercalate at a temperature where, upon direct contact to graphite, an intercalation compound can easily be formed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991iece.confR...3A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991iece.confR...3A"><span>Durability of polymeric materials used in zinc/<span class="hlt">bromine</span> flow batteries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arnold, C., Jr.</p> <p></p> <p>The lifetimes of zinc/<span class="hlt">bromine</span> flow batteries may be limited by the durability of components which are fabricated from thermoplastic materials and exposed to the <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-containing electrolyte. Examples of such components are flowframes and carbon-filled plastic electrodes. In early versions of the zinc/<span class="hlt">bromine</span> battery, flowframes and electrodes were made from polypropylene and copolymers of propylene and ethylene. In later versions of the zinc/<span class="hlt">bromine</span> battery, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was used as the material to fabricate flowframes and polyethylene was used as the material used to fabricate both flowframes and electrodes. We found that carbon-plastic electrodes made from polypropylene or polypropylene rich copolymers were swelled and chemically attacked by the <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-containing electrolytes. As a result, warpage occurred and the battery failed. On the basis of accelerated aging studies we estimated the lifetimes of the electrode and its polypropylene based component to be 96 and 10 months, respectively. The enhanced stability of the electrode was attributed to the presence of carbon which is known to be an antioxidant for thermoxidation. In accelerated exposure tests, <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-containing electrolytes were also found to attack and leach out the additives used in PVC flowframes. PVC itself was only slightly degraded by the electrolyte. A commercial fluorocarbon, Tefzel, which contains no additives, was determined to be stable in <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-containing electrolytes and is recommended as a replacement for PVC. Currently, aging studies on carbon-filled polyethylene electrodes are in progress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21145653','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21145653"><span>Conversion of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> during thermal decomposition of printed circuit boards at high temperature.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jin, Yu-qi; Tao, Lin; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jian-hua</p> <p>2011-02-15</p> <p>The conversion of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> during the thermal decomposition of printed circuit boards (PCBs) was investigated at isothermal temperatures ranging from 800°C to 1100°C by using a quartz tube furnace. The influence of temperature, oxygen concentrations (0%, 10% and 21% in the nitrogen-oxygen atmosphere) and content of steam on conversion of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> was studied. With the increment of temperature, the conversion from organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the PCBs to inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the gaseous fraction increased from 69.0% to 96.4%. The <span class="hlt">bromine</span> was mainly evolved as HBr and Br(2) in oxidizing condition and the Br(2)/HBr mass ratio increased at stronger oxidizing atmosphere. The experimental results also indicated that the existence of steam can reduce the formation of Br(2). Furthermore, co-combustion of PCBs with S and CaO, both as addition agents, was investigated, respectively. In the presence of SO(2), Br(2)/HBr mass ratio obviously decreased. Moreover, the utilization of calcium oxide can efficiently promote the conversion of organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> to inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. According to the experimental results, incinerating PCBs at high temperature can efficiently destroy the organobrominated compounds that are considered to be possible precursors of polybrominated dibenzeo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), but the Br(2) and HBr in flue gas should be efficiently controlled.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6891915','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6891915"><span>Characterization of poly(vinyl chloride) aged in a <span class="hlt">bromine</span> containing electrolyte</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Arnold, C. Jr.; Leo, A.; Tarjani, M.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is being considered for use as a flow frame material in a developmental zinc/<span class="hlt">bromine</span> battery. The choice of PVC was based on its low cost and the ease with which it can be molded into complex parts. The electrolyte used in this battery is a highly corrosive mixture of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, zinc bromide, zinc chloride, potassium bromide, potassium chloride and a quaternary amine salt. The quaternary salt serves to reduce the concentration of free <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the electrolyte by virtue of its complexing capability. It is well known that aqueous <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is capable of oxidizing organic compounds. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of a <span class="hlt">bromine</span> electrolyte on two PVC formulations, PVC-1 and PVC-4. PVC-1 is the designation given to one of B.F. Goodrich's commercial formulations and is the present baseline material for the flow frame. PVC-4 is an experimental B.F. Goodrich formulation that was developed especially for battery applications. We sought answers to such questions as (1) does oxidation and/or <span class="hlt">bromination</span> take place. (2) does <span class="hlt">bromine</span> penetrate into the sample and, if so, how far. (3) how are the mechanical and morphological properties affected. and (4) are there differences in stability between PVC-1 and PVC-4. To accelerate the aging processes we aged the PVC samples at an elevated temperature in an electrolyte which did not contain any complexing agent. 5 refs., 6 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5356948','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5356948"><span>A cross-fostering analysis of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> ion concentration in rats that inhaled 1-bromopropane vapor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ishidao, Toru; Fueta, Yukiko; Ueno, Susumu; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Hori, Hajime</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objective: Inhaled 1-bromopropane decomposes easily and releases <span class="hlt">bromine</span> ion. However, the kinetics and transfer of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> ion into the next generation have not been clarified. In this work, the kinetics of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> ion transfer to the next generation was investigated by using cross-fostering analysis and a one-compartment model. Methods: Pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to 700 ppm of 1-bromopropane vapor for 6 h per day during gestation days (GDs) 1-20. After birth, cross-fostering was performed between mother exposure groups and mother control groups, and the pups were subdivided into the following four groups: exposure group, postnatal exposure group, gestation exposure group, and control group. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> ion concentrations in the brain were measured temporally. Results: <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> ion concentrations in mother rats were lower than those in virgin rats, and the concentrations in fetuses were higher than those in mothers on GD20. In the postnatal period, the concentrations in the gestation exposure group decreased with time, and the biological half-life was 3.1 days. Conversely, <span class="hlt">bromine</span> ion concentration in the postnatal exposure group increased until postnatal day 4 and then decreased. This tendency was also observed in the exposure group. A one-compartment model was applied to analyze the behavior of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> ion concentration in the brain. By taking into account the increase of body weight and change in the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> ion uptake rate in pups, the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> ion concentrations in the brains of the rats could be estimated with acceptable precision. PMID:27108641</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A43M..06S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A43M..06S"><span><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Chemistry in the Tropical UTLS during the 2011, 2013 and 2014 ATTREX Experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stutz, J.; Spolaor, M.; Festa, J.; Tsai, J. Y.; Colosimo, S. F.; Cheung, R.; Werner, B.; Deutschmann, T.; Scalone, L.; Raecke, R.; Tricoli, U.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Navarro, M. A.; Atlas, E. L.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> chemistry impacts the levels of ozone in the upper troposphere and the stratosphere. An accurate quantitative understanding of the sources, sinks, and chemical transformation of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> species is thus important to understand the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> budget in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), which also serves as a gate to the stratosphere. Vertical transport of very short-lived organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> precursors, such as CHBr3, CH2Br2 and inorganic product gases has been identified as the main source of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the UTLS. However, the contribution of inorganic vs. organic compounds is not well quantified, particularly in the tropical UTLS. A number of chemical processes, including the role of ice particles for the transformation and cycling of inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> species are also poorly understood. A limb scanning Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy Instrument was deployed on-board NASA's unmanned high-altitude Global Hawk aircraft during the 2011, 2013, and 2014 NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX). Flights in the eastern and western Pacific were performed to study, among other topics, the chemistry of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and ozone in the subtropical and tropical UTLS. Here we will present observations of BrO, NO2 and other trace species made by this instrument at altitudes between 15 - 20 km. The measurement methodology as well as the procedure to retrieve vertical trace gas concentration profiles will be briefly presented. The combination of those observations with the measurements of organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> species from the University of Miami's Whole Air Sampler (GWAS) will be used to determine and interpret the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> budget in the UTLS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22092223','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22092223"><span><span class="hlt">Isotope</span> fractionation in aqua-gas systems: Cl(2)-HCl-Cl(-), Br(2)-HBr-Br(-) and H(2)S-S(2-).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Czarnacki, Maciej; Hałas, Stanisław</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We report calculated values of <span class="hlt">isotope</span> fractionation factors between chlorine, <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and sulphide hydrated anions and respective gaseous compounds: hydrogen chloride, hydrogen bromide, molecular chlorine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and hydrogen sulphide. For the calculation of the reduced partition function ratios (β-factors) of hydrated Cl(-), Br(-) and S(2-) anions, we used a model of a cluster composed of the considered ion surrounded by two shells of H(2)O molecules. Only the electrostatic interaction between ion and water molecules treated as electric dipoles was taken into account. The β-factors for the gaseous compounds (HCl, Cl(2), HBr, Br(2) and H(2)S) were calculated from vibrational frequencies reported by Urey and Greiff [<span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> Exchange Equilibria, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 57, 321 (1935)] and Schauble et al. [Theoretical Estimates Equilibrium Chlorine-<span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Fractionation, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 67, 3267 (2003)]. Low-temperature <span class="hlt">isotope</span> fractionation between chlorine-hydrated anion and hydrogen chloride attains 1.55-1.68‰ (this work), which is in good agreement with experimental data (1.4-1.8‰) [Z.D. Sharp, J.D. Barnes, T.P. Fischer and M. Halick, An Experimental Determination of Chlorine <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Fractionation in Acid Systems and Applications to Volcanic Fumaroles, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 264 (2010)]. The predicted <span class="hlt">isotope</span> fractionations for hydrated <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and HBr, Br(2) gases are very small, 1000 ln α, do not exceed 0.8‰; thus, the expected variations of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> <span class="hlt">isotope</span> composition in aqua-gas systems will require enhanced precision for their detection. In contrast, the sulphur <span class="hlt">isotope</span> fractionation between H(2)S( gas ) and S(2-) attains 6.0‰ at room temperature and drops nearly linearly to 3.1‰ at 350°C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.A13D0960W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.A13D0960W"><span>Chlorine Recovery and the Role of <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>: New Lessons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wilmouth, D. M.; Stimpfle, R. M.; Anderson, J. G.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>The first simultaneous, in situ atmospheric measurements of ClO, ClOOCl, ClONO2, and HCl, which together nearly comprise total inorganic chlorine, Cly, were obtained using the NASA ER-2 aircraft, deployed from Kiruna, Sweden, during the SOLVE/THESEO mission. These chlorine measurements, along with Cly inferred from in situ measurements of organic chlorine source gases, enable an examination of chlorine activation and recovery during a polar winter to an extent not previously possible. Moreover, this suite of measurements enables the first evaluation of the inorganic chlorine budget in the polar winter stratosphere, i.e., a test of the quantitative agreement between the sum of ClOx (ClO + 2×ClOOCl), ClONO2, and HCl with inferred Cly. Analysis of the late winter inorganic chlorine budget indicates that the budget does not agree for the majority of the data. This discrepancy is likely the result of an error in the ClONO2 and/or HCl measurement. Whenever the reservoir species comprise a more significant fraction of Cly, e.g., outside the Arctic vortex versus inside, the budget agreement is worse. Calculations of ClONO2 from a photochemical steady-state expression agree well with the measured values, implying that the budget discrepancy is due to the HCl measurements being biased low. A diurnal box model constructed to analyze chlorine recovery rates supports this result. For any realistic photochemical mechanism of HCl production, significant HCl formation necessarily accompanies net ClONO2 production. This is in stark contrast to the historic paradigm of the vortex recovering preferentially into ClONO2 before significant HCl production [e.g., Figure 3.1, WMO, 1995]. Moreover, recent results from the SOLVE/THESEO mission indicate that inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> levels are 3-4 ppt higher than Bry inferred from organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> measurements. This suggests that the inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> values used in ozone trend assessments may not be valid, consistent with the recent work of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880033051&hterms=graphene&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dgraphene','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880033051&hterms=graphene&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dgraphene"><span>A comparison of the <span class="hlt">bromination</span> dynamics of various carbon and graphite fibers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gaier, James R.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The electrical resistance of four grades of pitch-based graphite fibers and three experimental organic vapor-derived fibers was determined in situ during <span class="hlt">bromination</span> and subsequent exposure to ambient laboratory air. The results show that the least graphitic pitch-based fiber does not <span class="hlt">brominate</span> significantly, and that <span class="hlt">bromination</span> and debrominaton reactions proceed much slower for vapor-derived fibers than for pitch-based ones. It is suggested that this decreased reacton rate is primarily due to the differences in graphene plane orientation between the fiber types. The results also imply that the vapor-derived and pitch-based fibers produce true intercalation compounds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880033051&hterms=graphene&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dgraphene','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880033051&hterms=graphene&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dgraphene"><span>A comparison of the <span class="hlt">bromination</span> dynamics of various carbon and graphite fibers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gaier, James R.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The electrical resistance of four grades of pitch-based graphite fibers and three experimental organic vapor-derived fibers was determined in situ during <span class="hlt">bromination</span> and subsequent exposure to ambient laboratory air. The results show that the least graphitic pitch-based fiber does not <span class="hlt">brominate</span> significantly, and that <span class="hlt">bromination</span> and debrominaton reactions proceed much slower for vapor-derived fibers than for pitch-based ones. It is suggested that this decreased reacton rate is primarily due to the differences in graphene plane orientation between the fiber types. The results also imply that the vapor-derived and pitch-based fibers produce true intercalation compounds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5995152','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5995152"><span>Transuranium <span class="hlt">isotopes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hoffman, D.C.</p> <p>1985-12-01</p> <p>The needs of the research community for the production of transuranium <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>, the quantities required, the continuity of production desired, and what a new steady state neutron source would have to provide to satisfy these needs are discussed. Examples of past frontier research which need these <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> as well as an outline of the proposed Large Einsteinium Activation Program, LEAP, which requires roughly ten times the current production of /sup 254/Es are given. 15 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011honc.book..727B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011honc.book..727B"><span><span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> Paleoclimatology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bowen, R.</p> <p></p> <p>Paleotemperature scales were calculated by H. C. Urey and others in the 1950s to assess past temperatures, and later work using the stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> of oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon employed standards such as Peedee belemnite (PDB) and Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW). Subsequently, subjects as diverse as ice volume and paleotemperatures, oceanic ice and sediment cores, Pleistocene/Holocene climatic changes, and <span class="hlt">isotope</span> chronostratigraphy extending back to the Precambrian were investigated.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/83375','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/83375"><span><span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> chirality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Floss, H.G.</p> <p>1994-12-01</p> <p>This paper deals with compounds that are chiral-at least in part, due to <span class="hlt">isotope</span> substitution-and their use in tracing the steric course of enzyme reaction in vitro and in vivo. There are other applications of <span class="hlt">isotopically</span> chiral compounds (for example, in analyzing the steric course of nonenzymatic reactions and in probing the conformation of biomolecules) that are important but they will not be discussed in this context.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24746270','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24746270"><span>Mahorones, highly <span class="hlt">brominated</span> cyclopentenones from the red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Greff, Stéphane; Zubia, Mayalen; Genta-Jouve, Grégory; Massi, Lionel; Perez, Thierry; Thomas, Olivier P</p> <p>2014-05-23</p> <p>The red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis (Rhodophyta, Bonnemaisoniaceae) has been shown to produce a large diversity of halogenated volatile organic compounds, with one to four carbons. As the distribution of this alga may expand worldwide, we implemented a research program that aims to understand the functions of its specialized metabolome in marine ecosystems. Phytochemical investigations performed on A. taxiformis gametophyte stages from the Indian Ocean revealed two new highly <span class="hlt">brominated</span> cyclopentenones named mahorone (1) and 5-bromomahorone (2). They are the first examples of natural 2,3-dibromocyclopentenone derivatives. Their structure elucidation was achieved using spectrometric methods including NMR and MS. A standardized ecotoxicological assay was used as an assessment of their role in the environment, revealing high toxicities for both compounds (EC50 0.16 μM for 1 and 2). Additionally, both compounds were evaluated in antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxicity assays. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibit mild antibacterial activities against the human pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010mss..confEFE11P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010mss..confEFE11P"><span>Reaction Dynamics of the <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>-Bromoform Complex in Solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Preston, Thomas J.; Dutta, Maitreya; Crim, F. Fleming</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>We have followed the evolution of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> species that arise from the photolysis of bromoform in the condensed phase. Solvent caging promotes the formation of iso-bromoform (CHBr_2-Br), which can then release a Br atom by breaking the newly formed Br-Br bond. This ejected Br can form a van der Waals complex (Br-CHBr_3) with a nearby un-photolyzed bromoform molecule, which is stable during our 1 ns time-window. Using the van der Waals complex as a reservoir for Br atoms, we now proceed to drive hydrogen abstraction from CHBr_3 by Br. Estimates indicate that the barrier to this reaction is a few thousand wavenumbers. Our goal is to introduce excitation into the C-H stretching motion of a nearby solvent CHBr_3 to access the activated complex region of the bimolecular potential energy surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26845382','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26845382"><span>Diamagnetic Raman Optical Activity of Chlorine, <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>, and Iodine Gases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Šebestík, Jaroslav; Kapitán, Josef; Pačes, Ondřej; Bouř, Petr</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Magnetic Raman optical activity of gases provides unique information about their electric and magnetic properties. Magnetic Raman optical activity has recently been observed in a paramagnetic gas (Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 11058; Angew. Chem. 2012, 124, 11220). In diamagnetic molecules, it has been considered too weak to be measurable. However, in chlorine, <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and iodine vapors, we could detect a significant signal as well. Zeeman splitting of electronic ground-state energy levels cannot rationalize the observed circular intensity difference (CID) values of about 10(-4). These are explicable by participation of paramagnetic excited electronic states. Then a simple model including one electronic excited state provides reasonable spectral intensities. The results suggest that this kind of scattering by diamagnetic molecules is a general event observable under resonance conditions. The phenomenon sheds new light on the role of excited states in the Raman scattering, and may be used to probe molecular geometry and electronic structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPS...326..587G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPS...326..587G"><span>Enhancement of the carbon electrode capacitance by <span class="hlt">brominated</span> hydroquinones</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gastol, Dominika; Walkowiak, Jedrzej; Fic, Krzysztof; Frackowiak, Elzbieta</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>This paper presents supercapacitors utilizing new redox-active electrolytes with <span class="hlt">bromine</span> species. Two sources of Br specimen were investigated, i.e. dibromodihydroxybenzene dissolved in KOH and potassium bromide dissolved in KOH with hydroxybenzene additive. KOH-activated carbon, exhibiting a well-developed porosity, was incorporated as an electrode material. The tested systems revealed a capacitance enhancement explained by Br- and partial BrO3- redox activity. The optimisation of the electrolyte concentration resulted in a capacitance value of 314 F g-1 achieved at 1.1 V voltage range. Good cyclability performance (11% capacitance loss) combined with a high capacitance value (244 F g-1) were obtained for the system operating in 0.2 mol L- 1 C6H4Br2O2 in 2 mol L-1 KOH electrolytic solution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20957856','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20957856"><span>New Phase Transition of Solid <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> under High Pressure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>San-Miguel, A.; Libotte, H.; Gaspard, J.-P.; Gauthier, M.; Aquilanti, G.; Pascarelli, S.</p> <p>2007-07-06</p> <p>Solid <span class="hlt">bromine</span> has been studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments up to a maximum pressure of 75 GPa. The data analysis of the extended fine structure reveals that the intramolecular distance first increases, reaching its maximum value at 25{+-}5 GPa. From this value the intramolecular distance abruptly begins to decrease evidencing a nonpreviously observed phase transformation taking place at 25{+-}5 GPa. A maximum variation of 0.08 A ring is observed at 65{+-}5 GPa where again a phase transition occurs. This last transformation could correspond with the recently observed change to an incommensurate modulated phase. We discuss the possible generalization of the observed new phase transition at 25{+-}5 GPa to the case of the other halogens.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850017210','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850017210"><span>Homogeneity of pristine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> intercalated graphite fibers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gaier, J. R.; Marino, D.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Wide variations in the resistivity of intercalated graphite fibers and to use these materials for electrical applications, their bulk properties must be established. The homogeneity of the diameter, the resistivity, and the mass density of 50 graphite fibers, before and after <span class="hlt">bromine</span> intercalation was measured. Upon intercalation the diameter was found to expand by about 5%, the resistivity to decrease by a factor of five, and the density to increase by about 6%. Each individual fiber was found to have uniform diameter and resistivity over macroscopic regions for lengths as long as 7 cm. The ratio of pristine to intercalated resistivity increases as the pristine fiber diameter increases at a rate of 0.16 micron, but decreases with the increasing ratio of intercalated diameter to pristine diameter at a rate of 0.08.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25203650','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25203650"><span>Maternal exposure to <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants and infant Apgar scores.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Terrell, Metrecia L; Hartnett, Kathleen P; Lim, Hyeyeun; Wirth, Julie; Marcus, Michele</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) and other persistent organic pollutants have been associated with adverse health outcomes in humans and may be particularly toxic to the developing fetus. We investigated the association between in utero polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures and infant Apgar scores in a cohort of Michigan residents exposed to PBB through contaminated food after an industrial accident. PBB and PCB concentrations were measured in serum at the time the women were enrolled in the cohort. PBB concentrations were also estimated at the time of conception for each pregnancy using a validated elimination model. Apgar scores, a universal measure of infant health at birth, measured at 1 and 5min, were taken from birth certificates for 613 offspring born to 330 women. Maternal PCB concentrations at enrollment were not associated with below-median Apgar scores in this cohort. However, maternal PBB exposure was associated with a dose-related increase in the odds of a below-median Apgar score at 1min and 5min. Among infants whose mothers had an estimated PBB at conception above the limit of detection of 1 part per billion (ppb) to <2.5ppb, the odds ratio=2.32 (95% CI: 1.22-4.40); for those with PBB⩾2.5ppb the OR=2.62 (95% CI: 1.38-4.96; test for trend p<0.01). Likewise, the odds of a below-median 5min Apgar score increased with higher maternal PBB at conception. It remains critical that future studies examine possible relationships between in utero exposures to <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compounds and adverse health outcomes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4249940','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4249940"><span>Maternal exposure to <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants and infant Apgar Scores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Terrell, Metrecia L.; Hartnett, Kathleen P.; Lim, Hyeyeun; Wirth, Julie; Marcus, Michele</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) and other persistent organic pollutants have been associated with adverse health outcomes in humans and may be particularly toxic to the developing fetus. We investigated the association between in utero polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures and infant Apgar scores in a cohort of Michigan residents exposed to PBB through contaminated food after an industrial accident. PBB and PCB concentrations were measured in serum at the time the women were enrolled in the cohort. PBB concentrations were also estimated at the time of conception for each pregnancy using a validated elimination model. Apgar scores, a universal measure of infant health at birth, measured at 1 and 5 minutes, were taken from birth certificates for 613 offspring born to 330 women. Maternal PCB concentrations at enrollment were not associated with below–median Apgar scores in this cohort. However, maternal PBB exposure was associated with a dose–related increase in the odds of a below–median Apgar score at 1 minute and 5 minutes. Among infants whose mothers had an estimated PBB at conception above the limit of detection of 1 part per billion, the odds ratio was 2.32 (95 % CI: 1.22– 4.40); for those with PBB ≥ 2.5 ppb the OR=2.62 (95% CI: 1.38-4.96; test for trend p< 0.01). Likewise, the odds of a below–median 5–minute Apgar increased with higher maternal PBB at conception. It remains critical that future studies examine possible relationships between in utero exposures to <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compounds and adverse health outcomes. PMID:25203650</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21024776','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21024776"><span>Interactions between anionic and neutral <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and rare gas atoms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Buchachenko, Alexei A.; Grinev, Timur A.; Wright, Timothy G.; Viehland, Larry A.</p> <p>2008-02-14</p> <p>High-quality, ab initio potential energy functions are obtained for the interaction of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> atoms and anions with atoms of the six rare gases (Rg) from He to Rn. The potentials of the nonrelativistic {sup 2}{sigma}{sup +} and {sup 2}{pi} electronic states arising from the ground-state Br({sup 2}P)-Rg interactions are computed over a wide range of internuclear separations using a spin-restricted version of the coupled cluster method with single and double excitations and noniterative correction to triple excitations [RCCSD(T)] with an extrapolation to the complete basis set limit, from basis sets of d-aug-cc-pVQZ and d-aug-cc-pV5Z quality. These are compared with potentials derived previously from experimental measurements and ab initio calculations. The same approach is used also to refine the potentials of the Br{sup -}-Rg anions obtained previously [Buchachenko et al., J. Chem. Phys. 125, 064305 (2006)]. Spin-orbit coupling in the neutral species is included both ab initio and via an atomic approximation; deviations between two approaches that are large enough to affect the results significantly are observed only in the Br-Xe and Br-Rn systems. The resulting relativistic potentials are used to compute anion zero electron kinetic energy photoelectron spectra, differential scattering cross sections, and the transport coefficients of trace amounts of both anionic and neutral <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the rare gases. Comparison with available experimental data for all systems considered proves a very high precision of the present potentials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22711295','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22711295"><span><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> methanes as photoresponsive molecular storage of elemental Br2.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kawakami, Kazumitsu; Tsuda, Akihiko</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>The photochemical generation of elemental Br(2) from <span class="hlt">brominated</span> methanes is reported. Br(2) was generated by the vaporization of carbon oxides and HBr through oxidative photodecomposition of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> methanes under a 20 W low-pressure mercury lamp, wherein the amount and situations of Br(2) generation were photochemically controllable. Liquid CH(2)Br(2) can be used not only as an organic solvent but also for the photoresponsive molecular storage of Br(2), which is of great technical benefit in a variety of organic syntheses and in materials science. By taking advantage of the in situ generation of Br(2) from the organic solvent itself, many organobromine compounds were synthesized in high practical yields with or without the addition of a catalyst. Herein, Br(2) that was generated by the photodecomposition of CH(2)Br(2) retained its reactivity in solution to undergo essentially the same reactions as those that were carried out with solutions of Br(2) dissolved in CH(2)Br(2) that were prepared without photoirradiation. Furthermore, HBr, which was generated during the course of the photodecomposition of CH(2)Br(2), was also available for the substitution of the OH group for the Br group and for the preparation of the HBr salts of amines. Furthermore, the photochemical generation of Br(2) from CH(2)Br(2) was available for the area-selective photochemical bleaching of natural colored plants, such as red rose petals, wherein Br(2) that was generated photochemically from CH(2)Br(2) was painted onto the petal to cause radical oxidations of the chromophoric anthocyanin molecules. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28869101','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28869101"><span>Recycling of plastic waste: Screening for <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pivnenko, K; Granby, K; Eriksson, E; Astrup, T F</p> <p>2017-08-30</p> <p>Flame retardants are chemicals vital for reducing risks of fire and preventing human casualties and property losses. Due to the abundance, low cost and high performance of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) have had a significant share of the market for years. Physical stability on the other hand, has resulted in dispersion and accumulation of selected BFRs in the environment and receiving biota. A wide range of plastic products may contain BFRs. This affects the quality of waste plastics as secondary resource: material recycling may potentially reintroduce the BFRs into new plastic product cycles and lead to increased exposure levels, e.g. through use of plastic packaging materials. To provide quantitative and qualitative data on presence of BFRs in plastics, we analysed bromophenols (tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), dibromophenols (2,4- and 2,6-DBP) and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP)), hexabromocyclododecane stereoisomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCD), as well as selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in samples of household waste plastics, virgin and recycled plastics. A considerable number of samples contained BFRs, with highest concentrations associated with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS, up to 26,000,000ngTBBPA/g) and polystyrene (PS, up to 330,000ng∑HBCD/g). Abundancy in low concentrations of some BFRs in plastic samples suggested either unintended addition in plastic products or degradation of higher molecular weight BFRs. The presence of currently restricted flame retardants (PBDEs and HBCD) identified in the plastic samples illustrates that circular material flows may be contaminated for extended periods. The screening clearly showed a need for improved documentation and monitoring of the presence of BFRs in plastic waste routed to recycling. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A41K0229S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A41K0229S"><span>OMI observations of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> monoxide emissions from salt lakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Suleiman, R. M.; Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Kurosu, T. P.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In this study, we analyze <span class="hlt">bromine</span> monoxide (BrO) data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) over various salt lakes. We used OMI data from 2005 to 2014 to investigate BrO signatures from salt lakes. The salt lakes regions we cover include Dead Sea; Salt Lake City, US; Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia; and Namtso, Tibet. Elevated signatures of BrO was found in July and August BrO monthly averages over the Dead Sea. Similar results were found in the BrO monthly averages for August 2006 for the Bolivian Salt Flats. We present a detailed description of the retrieval algorithm for the OMI operational <span class="hlt">bromine</span> monoxide (BrO) product. The algorithm is based on direct fitting of radiances from 319.0-347.5 nm, within the UV-2 channel of OMI. Radiances are modeled from the solar irradiance, attenuated by contributions from the target gas and interfering gases, rotational Raman scattering, additive and multiplicative closure polynomials and a common mode spectrum. The common mode spectra (one per cross-track position, computed on-line) are the average of several hundred fitting residuals. They include any instrument effects that are unrelated to molecular scattering and absorption cross sections. The BrO retrieval uses albedo- and wavelength-dependent air mass factors (AMFs), which have been pre-computed using climatological BrO profiles. The wavelength-dependent AMF is applied pre-fit to the BrO cross-sections so that vertical column densities are retrieved directly. We validate OMI BrO with ground-based measurements from three stations (Harestua, Lauder, and Barrow) and with chemical transport model simulations. We analyze the global distribution and seasonal variation of BrO and investigate BrO emissions from volcanoes and salt lakes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..4210494G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..4210494G"><span>Oxidation of mercury by <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the subtropical Pacific free troposphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gratz, L. E.; Ambrose, J. L.; Jaffe, D. A.; Shah, V.; Jaeglé, L.; Stutz, J.; Festa, J.; Spolaor, M.; Tsai, C.; Selin, N. E.; Song, S.; Zhou, X.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Knapp, D. J.; Montzka, D. D.; Flocke, F. M.; Campos, T. L.; Apel, E.; Hornbrook, R.; Blake, N. J.; Hall, S.; Tyndall, G. S.; Reeves, M.; Stechman, D.; Stell, M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Mercury is a global toxin that can be introduced to ecosystems through atmospheric deposition. Mercury oxidation is thought to occur in the free troposphere by <span class="hlt">bromine</span> radicals, but direct observational evidence for this process is currently unavailable. During the 2013 Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury and Aerosol Distributions, Sources and Sinks campaign, we measured enhanced oxidized mercury and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> monoxide in a free tropospheric air mass over Texas. We use trace gas measurements, air mass back trajectories, and a chemical box model to confirm the origin and chemical history of the sampled air mass. We find the presence of elevated oxidized mercury to be consistent with oxidation of elemental mercury by <span class="hlt">bromine</span> atoms in this subsiding upper tropospheric air mass within the subtropical Pacific High, where dry atmospheric conditions are conducive to oxidized mercury accumulation. Our results support the role of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> as the dominant oxidant of mercury in the upper troposphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6167112','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6167112"><span>Chemically active components of a <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-ethanol etchant for semidconductor materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pinyacheva, T.M.; Komisarchik, M.Sh.; Orlov, Yu.F.</p> <p>1986-05-10</p> <p>The purpose of the present work was to determine the degree of chemical interaction between <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and ethanol in the etchant, and to investigate the influence of this interaction on etching of cadmium selenide single crystals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989acs..meet...10A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989acs..meet...10A"><span>Preparation and evaluation of composite membranes for zinc/<span class="hlt">bromine</span> storage batteries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arnold, Charles, Jr.; Assink, Roger A.</p> <p></p> <p>Low coulombic efficiencies of zinc/<span class="hlt">bromine</span> redox batteries were attributed to migration of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and negatively charged <span class="hlt">bromine</span> moieties through the microporous separator used to separate the catholyte from the anolyte. While it was demonstrated that improvements in coulombic efficiency can be achieved by replacing the microporous separator with a cationic ion exchange membrane, these membranes are expensive and/or not sufficiently conductive to be practicable. It was found that the rate of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> permeation can be reduced by two orders of magnitude with minimal decreases in conductivity by impregnating commercial microporous polyethylene type separators with sulfonated polysulfone, a cationic polyelectrolyte that was developed in earlier work for other redox storage batteries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=166763&keyword=deca&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78279288&CFTOKEN=25382363','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=166763&keyword=deca&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78279288&CFTOKEN=25382363"><span><span class="hlt">BROMINATED</span> FLAME RETARDANTS: WHAT WE KNOW, AND WHAT WE DON’T</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) represent a large and diverse class of high volume industrial chemicals which have been developed to provide fire safety. There are many other BFRs which have been used and are under development. Historically, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5861902','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5861902"><span>Preparation and evaluation of composite membranes for zinc/<span class="hlt">bromine</span> storage batteries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Arnold, C. Jr.; Assink, R.A.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Low coulombic efficiencies of zinc/<span class="hlt">bromine</span> redox batteries have been attributed to migration of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and negatively charged <span class="hlt">bromine</span> moieties through the microporous separator used to separate the catholyte from the anolyte. While it has been demonstrated that improvements in coulombic efficiency can be achieved by replacing the microporous separator with a cationic ion exchange membrane, these membranes are expensive and/or not sufficiently conductive to be practicable. We have found that the rate of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> permeation can be reduced by two orders of magnitude with minimal decreases in conductivity by impregnating commercial microporous polyethylene type separators with sulfonated polysulfone, a cationic polyelectrolyte that was developed in earlier work for other redox storage batteries. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=166763&keyword=high+AND+protein+AND+products&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=166763&keyword=high+AND+protein+AND+products&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span><span class="hlt">BROMINATED</span> FLAME RETARDANTS: WHAT WE KNOW, AND WHAT WE DON’T</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) represent a large and diverse class of high volume industrial chemicals which have been developed to provide fire safety. There are many other BFRs which have been used and are under development. Historically, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=105330&keyword=lean&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78802506&CFTOKEN=43101003','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=105330&keyword=lean&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78802506&CFTOKEN=43101003"><span>ENHANCED FORMATION OF DIOXINS AND FURANS FROM COMBUSTION DEVICES BY ADDITION OF TRACE QUANTITIES OF <span class="hlt">BROMINE</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Past pilot-scale experimental studies have shown a dramatic increase in the formation of certain chlorinated products of incomplete combustion (PICs) caused by the addition of trace amounts of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (Br). Emissions of trichloroethylene and tetrachloorethylene, generated as PICs...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=105330&keyword=lean+AND+management&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=105330&keyword=lean+AND+management&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>ENHANCED FORMATION OF DIOXINS AND FURANS FROM COMBUSTION DEVICES BY ADDITION OF TRACE QUANTITIES OF <span class="hlt">BROMINE</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Past pilot-scale experimental studies have shown a dramatic increase in the formation of certain chlorinated products of incomplete combustion (PICs) caused by the addition of trace amounts of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (Br). Emissions of trichloroethylene and tetrachloorethylene, generated as PICs...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20161797','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20161797"><span>Potent anti-inflammatory activity of novel microtubule-modulating <span class="hlt">brominated</span> noscapine analogs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zughaier, Susu; Karna, Prasanthi; Stephens, David; Aneja, Ritu</p> <p>2010-02-11</p> <p>Noscapine, a plant-derived, non-toxic, over-the-counter antitussive alkaloid has tubulin-binding properties. Based upon the structural resemblance of noscapine to colchicine, a tubulin-binding anti-inflammatory drug, noscapine and its semi-synthetic <span class="hlt">brominated</span> analogs were examined for in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> noscapine analogs were found to inhibit cytokine and chemokine release from macrophage cell lines but did not affect cell viability. <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> noscapine analogs demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties in both TLR- and non-TLR induced in vitro innate immune pathway inflammation models, mimicking septic and sterile infection respectively. In addition, electron microscopy and immunoblotting data indicated that these analogs induced robust autophagy in human macrophages. This study is the first report to identify <span class="hlt">brominated</span> noscapines as innate immune pathway anti-inflammatory molecules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/296657','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/296657"><span>Molecular dynamics simulations and thermochemistry of reactive ion etching of silicon by chlorine, chlorine dimer, <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> dimer cations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Valone, S.M.; Hanson, D.E.; Kress, J.D.</p> <p>1998-05-08</p> <p>Simulations of Cl plasma etch of Si surfaces with MD techniques agree reasonably well with the available experimental information on yields and surface morphologies. This information has been supplied to a Monte Carlo etch profile resulting in substantial agreement with comparable inputs provided through controlled experiments. To the extent that more recent measurements of etch rates are more reliable than older ones, preliminary MD simulations using bond-order corrections to the atomic interactions between neighboring Si atoms on the surface improves agreement with experiment through an increase in etch rate and improved agreement with XPS measurements of surface stoichiometry. Thermochemical and geometric analysis of small Si-Br molecules is consistent with the current notions of the effects of including <span class="hlt">brominated</span> species in etchant gases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.B53C0354M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.B53C0354M"><span>Release of Oxidized <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Species From Diatoms: Implication for the Polar Troposphere and Oceanic Polyhalomethane Production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Manley, S. L.; Hill, V. L.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Marine and ice diatoms are known producers of polybromomethanes. These trace gases produced from ice algae have been implicated as a source of photochemically active <span class="hlt">bromine</span> involved in polar surface ozone depletion events. A more dominant source of reactive <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, however, has been attributed to the reaction on ice particles and in sea spray aerosols of atmospherically derived HOBr with bromide and chloride to produce the dihalogens Br2 and BrCl. We have measured the release of oxidized <span class="hlt">bromine</span> species (Brox = HOBr, Br2, Br3-1) from polar and temperate diatoms. The highest rates were measured from Porosira glaciales (CCMP 651). Release rates are range from 0.84 to 180 fmoles <span class="hlt">bromine</span>/hour/cell depending on the species or an approximate maximum of 950 nmoles <span class="hlt">bromine</span>/mg chl a/hr (P. glaciales). The flux from the diatoms is 0.1 to 7.5 nmoles <span class="hlt">bromine</span>/cm2 diatom surface/hr. This release occurs from an extracellular bromoperoxidase when a suitable organic substrate is absent. At 0.84 mM bromide (average seawater concentration), the optimal pH for Brox release is 6.5, which is the putative pH of the apoplastic space, and the optimal H2O2 concentration is 250 nM. Based on these results, it is estimated that the amount of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> released from ice algae as Brox is 10 to 200 times greater than the release of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> as bromoform from ice algae. The Brox so produced could participate in the abiotic formation of dihalogens in sea ice. Also, Brox released from diatoms may react with specific components of DOC, if present, to indirectly produce polybromomethanes both in sea ice and seawater. The amount of polyhalomethanes produced is not only dependent on the algal species present but also on the composition of DOC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6027109','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6027109"><span>Acute toxicity of chlorine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> to fathead minnows and bluegills</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wilde, E.W.; Soracco, R.J.; Mayack, L.A.; Shealy, R.L.; Broadwell, T.L.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to compare the relative toxicity of chlorine and BCDMH to three types of fish in a freshwater system used for cooling a nuclear reactor. There are no previous studies comparing BCDMH toxicity with chlorine toxicity. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> chloride has been shown to be similar or slightly less toxic than chlorine. The results of this study indicate that chlorine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> produce similar residual halogen toxicity to fish. 19 references, 2 tables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1983/0726/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1983/0726/report.pdf"><span>Distribution of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in bedded halite in the Green River Formation, southwestern Wyoming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Higley, D.K.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The Wilkins Peak Member of the Eocene Green River Formation of southwestern Wyoming contains a series of halite-trona beds deposited in ancestral Lake Gosiute. X-ray fluorescence analysis of 311) salt samples from 10 core holes revealed <span class="hlt">bromine</span> contents ranging from 11 to 174 ppm. The average concentration, corrected to 100 percent sodium chloride, is approximately 80 ppm. The <span class="hlt">bromine</span> content of most halite beds increases from the base upward. Variations or 'spikes' in the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> profile and reversals of the upward increase in <span class="hlt">bromine</span> are evidenced within several salt beds. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> of bed 10 salt zones exhibits a high degree of correlation laterally. No increase in <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentration for correlated salt zones was noted from the basin margins to the depositional center in the northeastern part of the study area. A great disparity in salt thickness from the depositional center to the margins suggests stratified lake conditions in which denser, sodium-chloride-saturated bottom brines did not extend to the margins during part of the depositional history of bed 10. Paleosalinity trends of Lake Gosiute determined from the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> distribution include the following: (1) chemically stratified lake conditions with dense, highly saline bottom waters and a fresher water zone above during much of the depositional history of the halites, (2) gradual evaporation of lake waters in a closed basin with resultant upward increase in salinity for most intervals studied, and (3) absence of lateral lake-bottom salinity gradients or postdepositional salt alteration as determined by the lateral constancy of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentrations for correlated bed 10 halite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017TePhL..43..484S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017TePhL..43..484S"><span>Peculiarities of the optical properties of organometallic perovskites with variable content of iodine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sekerbayev, K. S.; Taurbayev, Ye. T.; Bazylenko, T. Yu.; Taurbayev, T. I.; Timoshenko, V. Yu.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>We have studied the optical properties of thin films of organometallic halide perovskites with variable content of iodine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, which were obtained by two-stage deposition from solution. The results are indicative of an increased contribution of excitons to light absorption at the bandgap edge in <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-containing perovskites as compared to the iodine-containing ones. The possibilities of using perovskites with preset halogen composition in cascade solar cells are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4247243','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4247243"><span>METHOD OF SEPARATING URANIUM, PLUTONIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS BY <span class="hlt">BROMINATION</span> AND DISTILLATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Jaffey, A.H.; Seaborg, G.T.</p> <p>1958-12-23</p> <p>The method for separation of plutonium from uranium and radioactive fission products obtained by neutron irradiation of uranlum consists of reacting the lrradiated material with either <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, hydrogen bromide, alumlnum bromide, or sulfur and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> at an elevated temperature to form the bromides of all the elements, then recovering substantlally pure plutonium bromide by dlstillatlon in combinatlon with selective condensatlon at prescribed temperature and pressure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16417984','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16417984"><span>Hyphenation of ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for fast analysis of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> containing preservatives.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bendahl, Lars; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Gammelgaard, Bente; Sturup, Stefan; Nielsen, Camilla</p> <p>2006-02-24</p> <p>Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) was coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for fast analysis of three <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-containing preservatives, monitoring the 79Br and 81Br <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> simultaneously. Due to the efficiency of the 1.7 microm column packing material, the resolution of the test substances was only slightly affected when the linear flow velocity was increased from 0.5 to 1.9 mm s(-1). However, the sensitivity of ICP-MS detection decreased when the linear flow velocity was increased from 0.5 to 1.9 mm s(-1). Analytical figures of merit were determined at an intermediate and at a high linear velocity. The precision was better than 2.2% R.S.D. and regression analysis showed that a linear response was achieved at both flow rates (R2 > 0.9993, n = 36). The analysis time was less than 4.5 min at a flow rate of 50 microL min(-1) and limits of detection and quantification were better than 3.3 and 11 microg BrL(-1), respectively. The analysis time was reduced to 2.7 min when the flow rate was increased to 90 microL min(-1) and limits of detection and quantification were better than 20 and 65 microg BrL(-1), respectively. The method was applied for quantitative analysis of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-containing preservatives in commercially available cosmetic products.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18924183','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18924183"><span>Electrophilic <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of alkenes: environmental, health and safety aspects of new alternative methods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eissen, Marco; Lenoir, Dieter</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>More than twenty new alternative methods for <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of alkenes have been evaluated taking into consideration their resource demands, waste production as well as environmental, health and safety aspects. The cost of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and the substances designated to circumvent the application of molecular <span class="hlt">bromine</span> have also been taken into account. As <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is only one of several problematic substances being used, its avoidance-by applying <span class="hlt">bromine</span> supported on solid material or by performing the in situ generation of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-does not significantly reduce the technological requirements. On the contrary, the resource demands and amount of waste produced by most new methods are significantly higher compared to the standard methods, especially if the recycling of a carrying agent is not efficient. The method using hydrobromic acid and hydrogen peroxide can be regarded as a competitive alternative to the standard method. The application of certain carrying agents could be interesting, because solvents such as carbon tetrachloride or chloroform used during synthesis could be replaced with less problematic ones during work-up. However, problems associated with these alternatives are not resolved as yet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22687526','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22687526"><span>Evaluation of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> substitution factors of DBPs during chlorination and chloramination.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hua, Guanghui; Reckhow, David A</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> substitution factor (BSF) was used to quantify the effects of disinfectant dose, reaction time, pH, and temperature on the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> substitution of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination and chloramination. The BSF is defined as the ratio of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> incorporated into a given class of DBPs to the total concentration of chlorine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in that class. Four classes of DBPs were evaluated: trihalomethanes (THMs), dihaloacetonitriles (DHANs), dihaloacetic acids (DHAAs) and trihaloacetic acids (THAAs). The results showed that the BSFs of the four classes of DBPs generally decreased with increasing reaction time and temperature during chlorination at neutral pH. The BSFs peaked at a low chlorine dose (1 mg/L) and decreased when the chlorine dose further increased. The BSFs of chlorination DBPs at neutral pH are in the order of DHAN > THM & DHAA > THAA. DHAAs formed by chloramines exhibited distinctly different <span class="hlt">bromine</span> substitution patterns compared to chlorination DHAAs. <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> DBP formation was generally less affected by the pH change compared to chlorinated DBP formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890005210','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890005210"><span>Springtime surface ozone fluctuations at high Arctic latitudes and their possible relationship to atmospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Oltmans, Samuel J.; Sheridan, Patrick J.; Schnell, Russell C.; Winchester, John W.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>At high Arctic stations such as Barrow, Alaska, springtime near-surface ozone amounts fluctuate between the highest and lowest values seen during the course of the year. Episodes when the surface ozone concentration is essentially zero last up to several days during this time of year. In the Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program (AGASP-I and AGASP-II) in 1983 and 1986, it was found that ozone concentrations often showed a very steep gradient in altitude with very low values near the surface. The cold temperatures, and snow-covered ground make it unlikely that the surface itself would rapidly destroy significant amounts of ozone. The AGASP aircraft measurements that found low ozone concentrations in the lowest layers of the troposphere also found that filterable excess <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (the amount of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in excess of the sea salt component) in samples collected wholly or partially beneath the temperature inversion had higher <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentrations than other tropospheric samples. Of the four lowest ozone minimum concentrations, three of them were associated with the highest <span class="hlt">bromine</span> enrichments. Surface measurements of excess filterable <span class="hlt">bromine</span> at Barrow show a strong seasonal dependence with values rising dramatically early in March, then declining in May. The concentration of organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> gases such as bromoform rise sharply during the winter and then begin to decline after March with winter and early spring values at least three times greater than the summer minimum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21391292','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21391292"><span>An assessment of transcriptional changes in porcine skin exposed to <span class="hlt">bromine</span> vapor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rogers, James V; Price, Jennifer A; Wendling, Morgan Q S; Perry, Mark R; Reid, Frances M; Kiser, Robyn C; Graham, John S</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> is an industrial chemical that can cause severe cutaneous burns. This study was a preliminary investigation into the effect of cutaneous exposure to <span class="hlt">bromine</span> vapor using a weanling swine burn model and microarray analysis. Ventral abdominal sites were exposed to a mean calculated <span class="hlt">bromine</span> vapor concentration of 0.69 g L(-1) for 10 or 20 min. At 48 h postexposure, total RNA from skin samples was isolated, processed, and hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip Porcine Genome Arrays. Expression analysis revealed that <span class="hlt">bromine</span> vapor exposure for 10 or 20 min promoted similar transcriptional changes in the number of significantly modulated probe sets. A minimum of 83% of the probe sets was similar for both exposure times. Ingenuity pathways analysis revealed eight common biological functions among the top 10 functions of each experimental group, in which 30 genes were commonly shared among 19 significantly altered signaling pathways. Transcripts encoding heme oxygenase 1, interleukin-1β, interleukin 2 receptor gamma chain, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were identified as common potential therapeutic targets for Phase II/III clinical trial or FDA-approved drugs. The present study is an initial assessment of the transcriptional responses to cutaneous <span class="hlt">bromine</span> vapor exposure identifying molecular networks and genes that could serve as targets for developing therapeutics for <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-induced skin injury.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NRL....12..146M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NRL....12..146M"><span>Surface Response of <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> Carbon Media on Laser and Thermal Excitation: Optical and Thermal Analysis Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Multian, Volodymyr V.; Kinzerskyi, Fillip E.; Vakaliuk, Anna V.; Grishchenko, Liudmyla M.; Diyuk, Vitaliy E.; Boldyrieva, Olga Yu.; Kozhanov, Vadim O.; Mischanchuk, Oleksandr V.; Lisnyak, Vladyslav V.; Gayvoronsky, Volodymyr Ya.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The present study is objected to develop an analytical remote optical diagnostics of the functionalized carbons surface. Carbon composites with up to 1 mmol g-1 of irreversibly adsorbed <span class="hlt">bromine</span> were produced by the room temperature plasma treatment of an activated carbon fabric (ACF) derived from polyacrylonitrile textile. The <span class="hlt">brominated</span> ACF (BrACF) was studied by elastic optical scattering indicatrix analysis at wavelength 532 nm. The obtained data were interpreted within results of the thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption mass spectrometry. The <span class="hlt">bromination</span> dramatically reduces the microporosity producing practically non-porous material, while the incorporated into the micropores <span class="hlt">bromine</span> induces the dielectric and structural impact on surface polarizability and conductivity due to the charging effect. We have found that the elastic optical scattering in proper solid angles in the forward and the backward hemispheres is sensitive to the kind of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> bonding, e.g., physical adsorption or chemisorption, and the <span class="hlt">bromination</span> level, respectively, that can be utilized for the express remote fabrication control of the nanoscale carbons with given interfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4303005','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4303005"><span><span class="hlt">ISOTOPE</span> SEPARATORS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Bacon, C.G.</p> <p>1958-08-26</p> <p>An improvement is presented in the structure of an <span class="hlt">isotope</span> separation apparatus and, in particular, is concerned with a magnetically operated shutter associated with a window which is provided for the purpose of enabling the operator to view the processes going on within the interior of the apparatus. The shutier is mounted to close under the force of gravity in the absence of any other force. By closing an electrical circuit to a coil mouated on the shutter the magnetic field of the <span class="hlt">isotope</span> separating apparatus coacts with the magnetic field of the coil to force the shutter to the open position.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24614155','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24614155"><span>Concentrations and trophic interactions of novel <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants, HBCD, and PBDEs in zooplankton and fish from Lake Maggiore (Northern Italy).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Poma, Giulia; Volta, Pietro; Roscioli, Claudio; Bettinetti, Roberta; Guzzella, Licia</p> <p>2014-05-15</p> <p>Following the release of the international regulations on PBDEs and HBCD, the aim of this study is to evaluate the concentrations of novel <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants (NBFRs), including 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB), and pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), in an Italian subalpine lake located in a populated and industrial area. The study investigated specifically the potential BFR biomagnification in a particular lake's pelagic food web, whose structure and dynamics were evaluated using the Stable <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Analysis. The potential BFR biomagnification was investigated by using the trophic-level adjusted BMFs and Trophic Magnification Factors (TMFs), confirming that HBCD and some PBDE congeners are able to biomagnify within food webs. Comparing the calculated values of BMFTL and TMF, a significant positive correlation was observed between the two factors, suggesting that the use of BMFTL to investigate the biomagnification potential of organic chemical compounds might be an appropriate approach when a simple food web is considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5949456','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5949456"><span><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> 2- and 4-methyl-1,3-phenylene diisocyanates (2,4- and 2,6-toluylene diisocyanates)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fetyukhin, V.N.; Kobrzhitskii, V.V.; Samarai, L.I.</p> <p>1988-03-20</p> <p>The conditions were found for the selective introduction of a <span class="hlt">bromine</span> atom into the ring and into the side chain of 2- and 4-methyl-1,3-phenylene diisocyanates. The effect of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> atom in the obtained <span class="hlt">bromine</span> derivatives on the reactivity of the NCO groups in reactions with nucleophilic reagents was determined. The reaction of the isocyanate with <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the presence of a catalyst (iodine, ferric chloride) led to the product from monobromination in the ring. The use of iodine or ferric chloride as catalyst reduces the reaction time by half, but the yield does not increase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6913J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6913J"><span><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> partitioning between olivine and melt at OIB source conditions: Indication for volatile recycling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Joachim, Bastian; Ruzié, Lorraine; Burgess, Ray; Pawley, Alison; Clay, Patricia L.; Ballentine, Christopher J.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Halogens play a key role in our understanding of volatile transport processes in the Earth's mantle. Their moderate (fluorine) to highly (iodine) incompatible and volatile behavior implies that their distribution is influenced by partial melting, fractionation and degassing processes as well as fluid mobilities. The heavy halogens, particularly <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and iodine, are far more depleted in the Earth's mantle than expected from their condensation temperature (Palme and O'Neill 2014), so that their very low abundances in basalts and peridotites (ppb-range) make it analytically challenging to investigate their concentrations in Earth's mantle reservoirs and their behavior during transport processes (Pyle and Mather, 2009). We used a new experimental technique, which combines the irradiation technique (Johnson et al. 2000), laser ablation and conventional mass spectrometry. This enables us to present the first experimentally derived <span class="hlt">bromine</span> partition coefficient between olivine and melt. Partitioning experiments were performed at 1500° C and 2.3 GPa, a P-T condition that is representative for partial melting processes in the OIB source region (Davis et al. 2011). The <span class="hlt">bromine</span> partition coefficient between olivine and silicate melt at this condition has been determined to DBrol/melt = 4.37•10-4± 1.96•10-4. Results show that <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is significantly more incompatible than chlorine (˜1.5 orders of magnitude) and fluorine (˜2 orders of magnitude) due to its larger ionic radius. We have used our <span class="hlt">bromine</span> partitioning data to estimate minimum <span class="hlt">bromine</span> abundances in EM1 and EM2 source regions. We used minimum <span class="hlt">bromine</span> bulk rock concentrations determined in an EM1 (Pitcairn: 1066 ppb) and EM2 (Society: 2063 ppb) basalt (Kendrick et al. 2012), together with an estimated minimum melt fraction of 0.01 in OIB source regions (Dasgupta et al. 2007). The almost perfect <span class="hlt">bromine</span> incompatibility results in minimum <span class="hlt">bromine</span> abundances in EM1 and EM2 OIB source regions of 11 ppb and 20</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3388886','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3388886"><span>On the <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene photo-/thermoswitch</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mazzanti, Virginia; Cacciarini, Martina; Broman, Søren L; Parker, Christian R; Schau-Magnussen, Magnus; Bond, Andrew D</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Summary Background: The dihydroazulene (DHA)/vinylheptafulvene (VHF) system (with two cyano groups at C1) functions as a photo-/thermoswitch. Direct ionic <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of DHA has previously furnished a regioselective route to a 7,8-dibromide, which by elimination was converted to a 7-bromo-substituted DHA. This compound has served as a central building block for functionalization of the DHA by palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. The current work explores another <span class="hlt">bromination</span> protocol for achieving the isomeric 3-bromo-DHA and also explores the outcome of additional <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of this compound as well as of the known 7-bromo-DHA. Results: Radical <span class="hlt">bromination</span> on two different VHFs by using N-bromosuccinimide/benzoyl peroxide and light, followed by a ring-closure reaction generated the corresponding 3-bromo-DHAs, as confirmed in one case by X-ray crystallography. According to a 1H NMR spectroscopic study, the ring closure of the <span class="hlt">brominated</span> VHF seemed to occur readily under the reaction conditions. A subsequent bromination–elimination protocol provided a 3,7-dibromo-DHA. In contrast, treating the known 7-bromo-DHA with <span class="hlt">bromine</span> generated a very labile species that was converted to a new 3,7-dibromoazulene, i.e., the fully unsaturated species. Azulenes were also found to form from <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compounds when left standing for a long time in the solid state. Kinetics measurements reveal that the 3-bromo substituent enhances the rate of the thermal conversion of the VHF to DHA, which is opposite to the effect exerted by a bromo substituent in the seven-membered ring. Conclusion: Two general procedures for functionalizing the DHA core with a bromo substituent (at positions 3 and 7, respectively) are now available with the DHA as starting material. PMID:23015846</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20878893','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20878893"><span>A sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of propranolol HCl based on oxidation <span class="hlt">bromination</span> reactions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>El-Didamony, Akram M</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Three new, simple, sensitive, rapid and economical spectrophotometric methods (A, B and C) have been developed for the determination of propranolol hydrochloride (PRO) in bulk drug and dosage forms. These methods are based on oxidation-<span class="hlt">bromination</span> reaction of PRO by <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, generated in situ by the action of acid on a bromate-bromide mixture, followed by determination of unreacted <span class="hlt">bromine</span> by three different reaction schemes. In method A, the determination of the residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is based on its ability to bleach the indigo carmine dye and by measuring the absorbance at 610 nm. The residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (in method B), is treated with excess of iron(II) and the resulting iron(III) is complexed with thiocyanate and the absorbance is measured at 480 nm. Method C involves treating the unreacted <span class="hlt">bromine</span> with a measured excess of iron(II) and the remaining iron(II) is complexed with 1,10-phenanthroline and the increase in absorbance is measured at 510 nm. In all three methods, the amount of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> reacted corresponds to the drug content. The different experimental parameters affecting the development and stability of the colour are carefully studied and optimized. Beer's Law is valid within a concentration range of 1-13, 4-12 and 2-9 µg ml⁻¹ for methods A, B, and C, respectively. The molar absorptivity, Sandell's sensitivity, detection and quantification limits are calculated. Common excipients used as additives in pharmaceutical preparations do not interfere in the proposed methods. The proposed methods have been successfully applied to the determination of PRO in pharmaceutical preparations and the results were statistically compared with those of the official method by applying the Student's t-test and F-test. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ACP....17.7567P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ACP....17.7567P"><span>Observations of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> monoxide transport in the Arctic sustained on aerosol particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peterson, Peter K.; Pöhler, Denis; Sihler, Holger; Zielcke, Johannes; General, Stephan; Frieß, Udo; Platt, Ulrich; Simpson, William R.; Nghiem, Son V.; Shepson, Paul B.; Stirm, Brian H.; Dhaniyala, Suresh; Wagner, Thomas; Caulton, Dana R.; Fuentes, Jose D.; Pratt, Kerri A.</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>The return of sunlight in the polar spring leads to the production of reactive halogen species from the surface snowpack, significantly altering the chemical composition of the Arctic near-surface atmosphere and the fate of long-range transported pollutants, including mercury. Recent work has shown the initial production of reactive <span class="hlt">bromine</span> at the Arctic surface snowpack; however, we have limited knowledge of the vertical extent of this chemistry, as well as the lifetime and possible transport of reactive <span class="hlt">bromine</span> aloft. Here, we present <span class="hlt">bromine</span> monoxide (BrO) and aerosol particle measurements obtained during the March 2012 <span class="hlt">BRomine</span> Ozone Mercury EXperiment (BROMEX) near Utqiaġvik (Barrow), AK. The airborne differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements provided an unprecedented level of spatial resolution, over 2 orders of magnitude greater than satellite observations and with vertical resolution unable to be achieved by satellite methods, for BrO in the Arctic. This novel method provided quantitative identification of a BrO plume, between 500 m and 1 km aloft, moving at the speed of the air mass. Concurrent aerosol particle measurements suggest that this lofted reactive <span class="hlt">bromine</span> plume was transported and maintained at elevated levels through heterogeneous reactions on colocated supermicron aerosol particles, independent of surface snowpack <span class="hlt">bromine</span> chemistry. This chemical transport mechanism explains the large spatial extents often observed for reactive <span class="hlt">bromine</span> chemistry, which impacts atmospheric composition and pollutant fate across the Arctic region, beyond areas of initial snowpack halogen production. The possibility of BrO enhancements disconnected from the surface potentially contributes to sustaining BrO in the free troposphere and must also be considered in the interpretation of satellite BrO column observations, particularly in the context of the rapidly changing Arctic sea ice and snowpack.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.1773B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.1773B"><span>An exemplary case of a <span class="hlt">bromine</span> explosion event linked to cyclone development in the Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blechschmidt, A.-M.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Kaleschke, L.; Strong, K.; Theys, N.; Weber, M.; Zhao, X.; Zien, A.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Intense, cyclone-like shaped plumes of tropospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> monoxide (BrO) are regularly observed by GOME-2 on board the MetOp-A satellite over Arctic sea ice in polar spring. These plumes are often transported by high-latitude cyclones, sometimes over several days despite the short atmospheric lifetime of BrO. However, only few studies have focused on the role of polar weather systems in the development, duration and transport of tropospheric BrO plumes during <span class="hlt">bromine</span> explosion events. The latter are caused by an autocatalytic chemical chain reaction associated with tropospheric ozone depletion and initiated by the release of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> from cold brine-covered ice or snow to the atmosphere. In this manuscript, a case study investigating a comma-shaped BrO plume which developed over the Beaufort Sea and was observed by GOME-2 for several days is presented. By making combined use of satellite data and numerical models, it is shown that the occurrence of the plume was closely linked to frontal lifting in a polar cyclone and that it most likely resided in the lowest 3 km of the troposphere. In contrast to previous case studies, we demonstrate that the dry conveyor belt, a potentially <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-rich stratospheric air stream which can complicate interpretation of satellite retrieved tropospheric BrO, is spatially separated from the observed BrO plume. It is concluded that weather conditions associated with the polar cyclone favoured the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> activation cycle and blowing snow production, which may have acted as a <span class="hlt">bromine</span> source during the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> explosion event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ACP....17.3401T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ACP....17.3401T"><span><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> atom production and chain propagation during springtime Arctic ozone depletion events in Barrow, Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thompson, Chelsea R.; Shepson, Paul B.; Liao, Jin; Huey, L. Greg; Cantrell, Chris; Flocke, Frank; Orlando, John</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Ozone depletion events (ODEs) in the Arctic are primarily controlled by a <span class="hlt">bromine</span> radical-catalyzed destruction mechanism that depends on the efficient production and recycling of Br atoms. Numerous laboratory and modeling studies have suggested the importance of heterogeneous recycling of Br through HOBr reaction with bromide on saline surfaces. On the other hand, the gas-phase regeneration of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> atoms through BrO-BrO radical reactions has been assumed to be an efficient, if not dominant, pathway for Br reformation and thus ozone destruction. Indeed, it has been estimated that the rate of ozone depletion is approximately equal to twice the rate of the BrO self-reaction. Here, we use a zero-dimensional, photochemical model, largely constrained to observations of stable atmospheric species from the 2009 Ocean-Atmosphere-Sea Ice-Snowpack (OASIS) campaign in Barrow, Alaska, to investigate gas-phase <span class="hlt">bromine</span> radical propagation and recycling mechanisms of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> atoms for a 7-day period during late March. This work is a continuation of that presented in Thompson et al. (2015) and utilizes the same model construct. Here, we use the gas-phase radical chain length as a metric for objectively quantifying the efficiency of gas-phase recycling of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> atoms. The gas-phase <span class="hlt">bromine</span> chain length is determined to be quite small, at < 1.5, and highly dependent on ambient O3 concentrations. Furthermore, we find that Br atom production from photolysis of Br2 and BrCl, which is predominately emitted from snow and/or aerosol surfaces, can account for between 30 and 90 % of total Br atom production. This analysis suggests that condensed-phase production of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is at least as important as, and at times greater than, gas-phase recycling for the occurrence of Arctic ODEs. Therefore, the rate of the BrO self-reaction is not a sufficient estimate for the rate of O3 depletion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27179429','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27179429"><span><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> and bromide content in soils: Analytical approach from total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gallardo, Helena; Queralt, Ignasi; Tapias, Josefina; Candela, Lucila; Margui, Eva</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Monitoring total <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and bromide concentrations in soils is significant in many environmental studies. Thus fast analytical methodologies that entail simple sample preparation and low-cost analyses are desired. In the present work, the possibilities and drawbacks of low-power total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) for the determination of total <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and bromide contents in soils were evaluated. The direct analysis of a solid suspension using 20 mg of fine ground soil (<63 μm) gave a 3.7 mg kg(-1) limit of detection for <span class="hlt">bromine</span> which, in most cases, was suitable for monitoring total <span class="hlt">bromine</span> content in soils (Br content range in soils = 5-40 mg kg(-1)). Information about bromide determination in soils is also possible by analyzing the Br content in water soil extracts. In this case, the TXRF analysis can be directly performed by depositing 10 μL of the internal standardized soil extract sample on a quartz glass reflector in a measuring time of 1500 s. The bromide limit of detection by this approach was 10 μg L(-1). Good agreement was obtained between the TXRF results for the total <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and bromide determinations in soils and those obtained by other popular analytical techniques, e.g. energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (total <span class="hlt">bromine</span>) and ionic chromatography (bromide). As a study case, the TXRF method was applied to study <span class="hlt">bromine</span> accumulation in two agricultural soils fumigated with a methyl bromide pesticide and irrigated with regenerated waste water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/88959','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/88959"><span>Correction factors for the determination of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> with NAA through the activation of {sup 79}Br</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Biegalski, S.R.; Landsberger, S.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>The study of environmental aerosol samples often includes analysis of the element <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. This element is found in most environments and has both anthropogenic and natural sources. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> is a trace element in the uncontrolled particulate emissions of oil combustion at utilities, industrial processes with iron and steel, and also a by-product of gypsum production. A major source for <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in urban areas has been auto emissions. In rural and remote areas, <span class="hlt">bromine</span> quite often emanates from marine origin. In fact Bottenheim et al. have examined the depletion of ozone during the Arctic sunrise and its correlation to the increase of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been used as an elemental detection method in aerosol and other environmental samples for many elements including <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. However, Tobler et al. indicated that corrections must be made in calculations of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentrations due to the {sup 79}Br(n, {gamma}){sup 80m}Br {yields} {sup 80}Br reaction. The {sup 80m}Br has a half-life of 4.2 h, while {sup 80}Br has a half-life of 17.7 min. Since for short-lived NAA, the irradiation, decay, and counting times vary, it is desirable to have an equation that will account for the additional {sup 80}Br resulting from {sup 80m}Br. This equation may then be used in any NAA irradiation/decay/counting scheme. The derivation of such an equation, discussion of errors, and validation using experimental results are discussed in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26001051','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26001051"><span>Naturally occurring marine <span class="hlt">brominated</span> indoles are aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands/agonists.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>DeGroot, Danica E; Franks, Diana G; Higa, Tatsuo; Tanaka, Junichi; Hahn, Mark E; Denison, Michael S</p> <p>2015-06-15</p> <p>The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates the toxic and biological effects of structurally diverse chemicals, including the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). As part of a larger effort to identify the full spectrum of chemicals that can bind to and activate the AhR, we have examined the ability of several naturally occurring marine-derived <span class="hlt">brominated</span> indoles and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> (methylthio)indoles (collectively referred to as <span class="hlt">brominated</span> indoles) to bind to the AhR and stimulate AhR-dependent gene expression. Incubation of mouse, rat, and guinea pig recombinant cell lines containing a stably transfected AhR-responsive luciferase reporter gene with eight <span class="hlt">brominated</span> indoles revealed that all compounds stimulated luciferase reporter gene activity, although some species-specific differences were observed. All compounds induced significantly more luciferase activity when incubated with cells for 4 h as compared to 24 h, demonstrating that these compounds are transient activators of the AhR signaling pathway. Three of the <span class="hlt">brominated</span> indoles induced CYP1A1 mRNA in human HepG2 cells in vitro and Cyp1a mRNA in zebrafish embryos in vivo. The identification of the <span class="hlt">brominated</span> indoles as direct ligands and activators/agonists of the AhR was confirmed by their ability to compete with [(3)H]TCDD for binding to the AhR and to stimulate AhR transformation and DNA binding in vitro. Taken together, these results indicate that marine-derived <span class="hlt">brominated</span> indoles are members of a new class of naturally occurring AhR agonists.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4469569','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4469569"><span>Naturally-Occurring Marine <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> Indoles are Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Ligands/Agonists</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>DeGroot, Danica E.; Franks, Diana G.; Higa, Tatsuo; Tanaka, Junichi; Hahn, Mark E.; Denison, Michael S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates the toxic and biological effects of structurally diverse chemicals, including the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). As part of a larger effort to identify the full spectrum of chemicals that can bind to and activate the AhR, we have examined the ability of several naturally-occurring marine-derived <span class="hlt">brominated</span> indoles and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> (methylthio)indoles (collectively referred to as “<span class="hlt">brominated</span> indoles”) to bind to the AhR and stimulate AhR-dependent gene expression. Incubation of mouse, rat and guinea pig recombinant cell lines containing a stably transfected AhR-responsive luciferase reporter gene with eight <span class="hlt">brominated</span> indoles revealed that all compounds stimulated luciferase reporter gene activity, although some species-specific differences were observed. All compounds induced significantly more luciferase activity when incubated with cells for 4 h as compared to 24 h, demonstrating that these compounds are transient activators of the AhR signaling pathway. Three of the <span class="hlt">brominated</span> indoles induced CYP1A1 mRNA in human HepG2 cells in vitro and Cyp1a mRNA in zebrafish embryos in vivo. The identification of the <span class="hlt">brominated</span> indoles as direct ligands and activators/agonists of the AhR was confirmed by their ability to compete with [3H]TCDD for binding to the AhR and to stimulate AhR transformation and DNA binding in vitro. Taken together, these marine-derived <span class="hlt">brominated</span> indoles are members of a new class of naturally-occurring AhR agonists. PMID:26001051</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1524955B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1524955B"><span>An exemplary case of a <span class="hlt">bromine</span> explosion event linked to cyclone development in the Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blechschmidt, A.-M.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Kaleschke, L.; Strong, K.; Theys, N.; Weber, M.; Zhao, X.; Zien, A.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Intense, cyclone-like shaped plumes of tropospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> monoxide (BrO) are regularly observed by GOME-2 on board the MetOp-A satellite over Arctic sea ice in polar spring. These plumes are often transported by high latitude cyclones, sometimes over several days despite the short atmospheric lifetime of BrO. However, only few studies have focused on the role of polar weather systems in the development, duration and transport of tropospheric BrO plumes during <span class="hlt">bromine</span> explosion events. The latter are caused by an autocatalytic chemical chain reaction associated with tropospheric ozone depletion and initiated by the release of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> from cold brine covered ice or snow to the atmosphere. In this manuscript, a case study investigating a comma-shaped BrO plume which developed over the Beaufort Sea and was observed by GOME-2 for several days is presented. By making combined use of satellite data and numerical models, it is shown that the occurrence of the plume was closely linked to frontal lifting in a polar cyclone and that it most likely resided in the lowest 3 km of the troposphere. In contrast to previous case studies, we demonstrate that the dry conveyor belt, a potentially <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-rich stratospheric air stream which can complicate interpretation of satellite retrieved tropospheric BrO, is spatially separated from the observed BrO plume. It is concluded that weather conditions associated with the polar cyclone favored the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> activation cycle and blowing snow production, which may have acted as a <span class="hlt">bromine</span> source during the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> explosion event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.145l4319L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.145l4319L"><span>High-pressure behavior of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> confined in the one-dimensional channels of zeolite AlPO4-5 single crystals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Zhaodong; Yao, Zhen; Yao, Mingguang; Lv, Jiayin; Chen, Shuanglong; Li, Quanjun; Lv, Hang; Wang, Tianyi; Lu, Shuangchen; Liu, Ran; Liu, Bo; Liu, Jing; Chen, Zhiqiang; Zou, Bo; Cui, Tian; Liu, Bingbing</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>We present a joint experimental and theoretical study on the high-pressure behavior of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> confined in the one-dimensional (1D) nanochannels of zeolite AlPO4-5 (AFI) single crystals. Raman scattering experiments indicate that loading <span class="hlt">bromine</span> into AFI single crystals can lead to the formation of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> molecular chains inside the nanochannels of the crystals. High-pressure Raman and X-ray diffraction studies demonstrate that high pressure can increase the length of the confined <span class="hlt">bromine</span> molecular chains and modify the inter- and intramolecular interactions of the molecules. The confined <span class="hlt">bromine</span> shows a considerably different high-pressure behavior to that of bulk <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. The pressure-elongated <span class="hlt">bromine</span> molecular chains can be preserved when the pressure is reduced to ambient pressure. Theoretical simulations explain the experimental results obtained from the Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. Furthermore, we find that the intermolecular distance between confined <span class="hlt">bromine</span> molecules gradually becomes comparable to the intramolecular bond length in <span class="hlt">bromine</span> molecules upon compression. This may result in the dissociation of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> molecules and the formation of 1D <span class="hlt">bromine</span> atomic chains at pressures above 24 GPa. Our study suggests that the unique nanoconfinement has a considerable effect on the high-pressure behavior of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, and the confined <span class="hlt">bromine</span> species concomitantly enhance the structural stability of the host AFI single crystals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25700249','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25700249"><span><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants and seafood safety: a review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cruz, Rebeca; Cunha, Sara C; Casal, Susana</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs), frequently applied to industrial and household products to make them less flammable, are highly persistent in the environment and cause multi-organ toxicity in human and wildlife. Based on the review of BFRs presence in seafood published from 2004 to 2014, it is clear that such pollutants are not ideally controlled as the surveys are too restricted, legislation inexistent for some classes, the analytical methodologies diversified, and several factors as food processing and eating habits are generally overlooked. Indeed, while a seafood rich diet presents plenty of nutritional benefits, it can also represent a potential source of these environmental contaminants. Since recent studies have shown that dietary intake constitutes a main route of human exposure to BFRs, it is of major importance to review and enhance these features, since seafood constitutes a chief pathway for human exposure and biomagnification of priority environmental contaminants. In particular, more objective studies focused on the variability factors behind contamination levels, and subsequent human exposure, are necessary to support the necessity for more restricted legislation worldwide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23356015','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23356015"><span>Formation and speciation characteristics of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> trihalomethanes in seawater chlorination.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Padhi, R K; Sowmya, M; Mohanty, A K; Bramha, S N; Satpathy, K K</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Formation character of <span class="hlt">brominated</span>-trihalomethanes (Br-THMs) in chlorinated seawater and its dependence on applied chlorine dose, reaction time, and temperature were investigated in the laboratory. Seawater was collected from the east coast of India and a chlorine dose of 1, 3, 5, and 10 ppm was each applied at a temperature of 20, 30, and 40 degrees C to investigate the yield and kinetics of Br-THMs formation. Qualitative and quantitative estimation of THM formation at various intervals of time ranging from 5 min to 168 h was determined by a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Chlorine dose, chlorine contact time, and reaction temperature positively affected the load of THMs. The ratio of chlorine dose to halogen incorporation decreased from 12% to 5% with increasing applied chlorine dose from 1 to 10 ppm. Significant levels of THMs were found to be formed within 0.5 h of reaction, followed by a very slow rate of formation. Elevated temperature favored both increased rate of formation and overall THM yield. The formation order of different trihalomethane species at all studied temperatures was observed to be bromodichloromethane (CHCl2Br) < dibromochloromethane (CHClBr2) < bromoform (CHBr3). Formation of chloroform was not observed, and bromoform was the dominant (96% to 98%) among the three THM species formed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JQSRT.147...86R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JQSRT.147...86R"><span>Extended analysis of fifth spectrum of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>: Br V</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Riyaz, A.; Tauheed, A.; Rahimullah, K.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The fifth spectrum of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (Br V) has been studied in the 200-2400 Å wavelength region. The spectrum was photographed on a 3-m normal incidence vacuum spectrograph at the St. Francis Xavier University, Antigonish (Canada) and 6.65-m grazing incidence spectrograph at the Zeeman laboratory (Amsterdam). The light sources used were a triggered spark and sliding spark. The ground configuration of Br V is 4s24p. The excited configurations 4s4p2+4s2(4d+5d+5s+6s+7s+5g+6g)+4s4p(5p+4f)+4p24d in the even parity system and the 4p3+4s2(5p+6p+7p+4f)+4s4p4d+4s4p5s configurations in the odd parity system have been studied. Relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) and least squares fitted (LSF) parametric calculations have been used to interpret the observed spectrum. 99 levels of Br V have now been established, 43 being new. Among 394 classified spectral lines, 181 are newly classified. The level 4s27s 2S1/2 is revised. We estimate the accuracy of our measured wavelengths for sharp and unblended lines to be±0.005 Å. The ionization limit is determined as 479,657±200 cm-1 (59.470±0.025 eV).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1213357','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1213357"><span>Compensation mechanism of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> dopants in cadmium telluride single crystals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bolotnikov, A. E.; Fochuk, P. M.; Verzhak, Ye. V.; Parashchuk, T. O.; Freik, D. M.; Panchuk, O. E.; James, R. B.; Gorichok, I. V.</p> <p>2015-01-02</p> <p>We grew single crystals of cadmium telluride, doped with <span class="hlt">bromine</span> by the Bridgman method, annealed them under a cadmium overpressure (P<sub>Cd</sub> = 10² - 10⁵ Pa) at 800-1100 K, and investigated their electrical properties at high- and low-temperature. The influence of impurities on the crystals' electrical properties were analyzed using the defect subsystem model; the model includes the possibility of the formation of point intrinsic defects (V²⁻<sub>Cd</sub>, Cd²⁺<sub>i</sub>, V²⁺<sub>Te</sub>, Te²⁻<sub>i</sub>), and substitutional ones (Br⁰<sub>Te</sub>, Br⁺<sub>Te</sub>), as well as complexes of point defects, i.e., (Br⁺<sub>Te </sub> V²⁻<sub>Cd</sub>)⁻ and (2Br⁺<sub>Te</sub> V²⁻<sub>Cd</sub>)⁰. We established the concentration dependence between free charge carriers and the parameters of the annealing process. Here, n(T) and n(P<sub>Cd</sub>) are determined by two dominant defects – Br⁺<sub>Te</sub> and (2Br⁺<sub>Te</sub> V²⁻<sub>Cd</sub>)⁰. Their content varies with the annealing temperature and the vapor pressure of the component; the concentration of other defects is much smaller and almost does not affect the electron density.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27244263','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27244263"><span>Role of heme in <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-induced lung injury.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lam, Adam; Vetal, Nilam; Matalon, Sadis; Aggarwal, Saurabh</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> (Br2 ) gas inhalation poses an environmental and occupational hazard resulting in high morbidity and mortality. In this review, we underline the acute lung pathology (within 24 h of exposure) and potential therapeutic interventions that may be utilized to mitigate Br2 -induced human toxicity. We discuss our latest published data, which suggest that an increase in heme-dependent tissue injury underlies the pathogenesis of Br2 toxicity. Our study was based on previous findings that demonstrated that Br2 upregulates the heme-degrading enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which converts toxic heme into bilverdin. Interestingly, following Br2 inhalation, heme levels were indeed elevated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, plasma, and whole lung tissue in C57BL/6 mice. High heme levels correlated with increased lung oxidative stress, lung inflammation, respiratory acidosis, lung edema, higher airway resistance, and mortality. However, therapeutic reduction of heme levels, by either scavenging with hemopexin or degradation by HO-1, improved lung function and survival. Therefore, heme attenuation may prove a useful adjuvant therapy to treat patients after Br2 exposure. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1213357-compensation-mechanism-bromine-dopants-cadmium-telluride-single-crystals','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1213357-compensation-mechanism-bromine-dopants-cadmium-telluride-single-crystals"><span>Compensation mechanism of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> dopants in cadmium telluride single crystals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Bolotnikov, A. E.; Fochuk, P. M.; Verzhak, Ye. V.; ...</p> <p>2015-01-02</p> <p>We grew single crystals of cadmium telluride, doped with <span class="hlt">bromine</span> by the Bridgman method, annealed them under a cadmium overpressure (PCd = 10² - 10⁵ Pa) at 800-1100 K, and investigated their electrical properties at high- and low-temperature. The influence of impurities on the crystals' electrical properties were analyzed using the defect subsystem model; the model includes the possibility of the formation of point intrinsic defects (V²⁻Cd, Cd²⁺i, V²⁺Te, Te²⁻i), and substitutional ones (Br⁰Te, Br⁺Te), as well as complexes of point defects, i.e., (Br⁺Te V²⁻Cd)⁻ and (2Br⁺Te V²⁻Cd)⁰. We established the concentration dependence between free charge carriers and themore » parameters of the annealing process. Here, n(T) and n(PCd) are determined by two dominant defects – Br⁺Te and (2Br⁺Te V²⁻Cd)⁰. Their content varies with the annealing temperature and the vapor pressure of the component; the concentration of other defects is much smaller and almost does not affect the electron density.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23786809','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23786809"><span>Catalytic degradation of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants by copper oxide nanoparticles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yecheskel, Yinon; Dror, Ishai; Berkowitz, Brian</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>The catalytic degradation of two <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs), tribromoneopentyl alcohol (TBNPA) and 2,4 dibromophenol (2,4-DBP) by copper oxide nanoparticles (nCuO) was investigated. The degradation kinetics, the debromination, and the formation of intermediates by nCuO catalysis were also compared to Fenton oxidation and nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) reduction methods. BFRs have been added to various products like plastic, textile, electronics and synthetic polymers at growing rates. In spite of the clear advantages of reducing fire damages, many of these BFRs may be released to the environment after their beneficial use and become contaminants. The two studied BFRs were fully degraded with sufficient time (hours to days) and oxidation agent (H2O2). Shorter reaction times showed differences in reaction pathway and kinetics. The 2,4-DBP showed faster degradation than TBNPA, by nCuO catalysis. Relatively high resistance to degradation was recorded for 2,4-DBP with nZVI, yielding 20% degradation after 24h, while the TBNPA was degraded by 85% within 12h. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) measurements show generation of both hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. In addition, inhibition of 2,4-DBP degradation in the presence of spin traps implies a radical degradation mechanism. A catalytic mechanism for radical generation and BFR degradation by nCuO is proposed. It is further suggested that H2O2 plays an essential role in the activation of the catalyst.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26220618','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26220618"><span>Antimicrobial N-<span class="hlt">brominated</span> hydantoin and uracil grafted polystyrene beads.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Farah, Shady; Aviv, Oren; Laout, Natalia; Ratner, Stanislav; Domb, Abraham J</p> <p>2015-10-28</p> <p>Hydantoin-N-halamine derivatives conjugated on polystyrene beads are promising disinfectants with broad antimicrobial activity affected by the gradual release of oxidizing halogen in water. The objective of this work was to identify and test of hydantoin-like molecules possessing urea moiety, which may provide N-haloamines releasing oxidizing halogens when exposed to water at different rates and release profiles for tailored antimicrobial agents. In this work, several hydantoin (five member ring) and for the first time reported, uracil (six member ring) derivatives have been conjugated to polystyrene beads and tested for their lasting antimicrobial activity. Four molecules of each series were conjugated onto polystyrene beads from the reaction of the N-potassium hydantoin or uracil derivatives onto chloromethylated polystyrene beads. A distinct difference in <span class="hlt">bromine</span> loading capacity and release profiles was found for the different conjugated derivatives. All tested materials exhibit strong antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and bacteriophages MS2 of 7 and ~4 log reduction, respectively. These results highlight the antimicrobial potential of halogenated cyclic molecules containing urea groups as water disinfection agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70185750','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70185750"><span><span class="hlt">Isotope</span>-abundance variations and atomic weights of selected elements: 2016 (IUPAC Technical Report)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Coplen, Tyler B.; Shrestha, Yesha</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>There are 63 chemical elements that have two or more <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> that are used to determine their standard atomic weights. The <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> abundances and atomic weights of these elements can vary in normal materials due to physical and chemical fractionation processes (not due to radioactive decay). These variations are well known for 12 elements (hydrogen, lithium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, magnesium, silicon, sulfur, chlorine, <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, and thallium), and the standard atomic weight of each of these elements is given by IUPAC as an interval with lower and upper bounds. Graphical plots of selected materials and compounds of each of these elements have been published previously. Herein and at the URL http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7GF0RN2, we provide <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> abundances, <span class="hlt">isotope</span>-delta values, and atomic weights for each of the upper and lower bounds of these materials and compounds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21166451','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21166451"><span>Regional contamination versus regional dietary differences: understanding geographic variation in <span class="hlt">brominated</span> and chlorinated contaminant levels in polar bears.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McKinney, Melissa A; Letcher, Robert J; Aars, Jon; Born, Erik W; Branigan, Marsha; Dietz, Rune; Evans, Thomas J; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Muir, Derek C G; Peacock, Elizabeth; Sonne, Christian</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>The relative contribution of regional contamination versus dietary differences to geographic variation in polar bear (Ursus maritimus) contaminant levels is unknown. Dietary variation between Alaska, Canada, East Greenland, and Svalbard subpopulations was assessed by muscle nitrogen and carbon stable <span class="hlt">isotope</span> (δ(15)N, δ(13)C) and adipose fatty acid (FA) signatures relative to their main prey (ringed seals). Western and southern Hudson Bay signatures were characterized by depleted δ(15)N and δ(13)C, lower proportions of C(20) and C(22) monounsaturated FAs and higher proportions of C(18) and longer chain polyunsaturated FAs. East Greenland and Svalbard signatures were reversed relative to Hudson Bay. Alaskan and Canadian Arctic signatures were intermediate. Between-subpopulation dietary differences predominated over interannual, seasonal, sex, or age variation. Among various <span class="hlt">brominated</span> and chlorinated contaminants, diet signatures significantly explained variation in adipose levels of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants (14-15%) and legacy PCBs (18-21%). However, dietary influence was contaminant class-specific, since only low or nonsignificant proportions of variation in organochlorine pesticide (e.g., chlordane) levels were explained by diet. Hudson Bay diet signatures were associated with lower PCB and PBDE levels, whereas East Greenland and Svalbard signatures were associated with higher levels. Understanding diet/food web factors is important to accurately interpret contaminant trends, particularly in a changing Arctic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23137556','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23137556"><span>Three decades (1983-2010) of contaminant trends in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Part 2: <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dietz, Rune; Rigét, Frank F; Sonne, Christian; Born, Erik W; Bechshøft, Thea; McKinney, Melissa A; Drimmie, Robert J; Muir, Derek C G; Letcher, Robert J</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants were determined in adipose tissues from 294 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) sampled in East Greenland in 23 of the 28years between 1983 and 2010. Significant linear increases were found for sum polybrominated diphenyl ether (ΣPBDE), BDE100, BDE153, and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). Average increases of 5.0% per year (range: 2.9-7.6%/year) were found for the subadult polar bears. BDE47 and BDE99 concentrations did not show a significant linear trend over time, but rather a significant non-linear trend peaking between 2000 and 2004. The average ΣPBDE concentrations increased 2.3 fold from 25.0ng/g lw (95% C.I.: 15.3-34.7ng/g lw) in 1983-1986 to 58.5ng/g lw (95% C.I.: 43.6-73.4ng/g lw) in 2006-2010. Similar but fewer statistically significant trends were found for adult females and adult males likely due to smaller sample size and years. Analyses of δ(15)N and δ(13)C stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> in hair revealed no clear linear temporal trends in trophic level or carbon source, respectively, and non-linear trends differed among sex and age groups. These increasing concentrations of organobromine contaminants contribute to complex organohalogen mixture, already causing health effects to the East Greenland polar bears. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24879366','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24879366"><span>The <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants, PBDEs and HBCD, in Canadian human milk samples collected from 1992 to 2005; concentrations and trends.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ryan, John Jake; Rawn, Dorothea F K</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Human milk samples were collected from individuals residing in various regions across Canada mostly in the years 1992 to 2005. These included five large cities in southern Canada as well as samples from Nunavik in northern Quebec. Comparative samples were also collected from residents of Austin, Texas, USA in 2002 and 2004. More than 300 milk samples were analysed for the <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs), PBDEs and HBCD, by extraction, purification and quantification using either <span class="hlt">isotope</span> dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-MS. The Canadian total PBDE values in the years 2002-2005 show median levels of about 20μg/kg on a lipid basis; a value significantly higher than in the 1980s and 1990s. Milk samples from Inuit donors in the northern region of Nunavik were slightly lower in PBDE concentrations than those from populated regions in the south of Quebec. Milk samples from Ontario contained slightly lower amounts of PBDEs in two time periods than those from Texas. HBCD levels in most milk samples were usually less than 1ppb milk lipid and dominated by the α-isomer. This large data set of BFRs in Canadian human milk demonstrates an increase in the last few decades in human exposure to BFRs which now appears to have stabilized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AcSpA..75.1138E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AcSpA..75.1138E"><span>Utilization of oxidation reactions for the spectrophotometric determination of captopril using <span class="hlt">brominating</span> agents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>El-Didamony, Akram M.; Erfan, Eman A. H.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Three simple, accurate and sensitive methods (A-C) for the spectrophotometric assay of captopril (CPL) in bulk drug, in dosage forms and in the presence of its oxidative degradates have been described. The methods are based on the <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of captopril with a solution of excess <span class="hlt">brominating</span> mixture in hydrochloric acid medium. After <span class="hlt">bromination</span>, the excess <span class="hlt">brominating</span> mixture is followed by the estimation of surplus <span class="hlt">bromine</span> by three different reaction schemes. In the first method (A), the determination of the residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is based on its ability to bleach the indigo carmine dye and measuring the absorbance at 610 nm. Method B, involves treating the unreacted <span class="hlt">bromine</span> with a measured excess of iron(II) and the remaining iron(II) is complexed with 1,10-phenanthroline and the increase in absorbance is measured at 510 nm. In method (C), the surplus <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is treated with excess of iron(II) and the resulting iron(III) is complexed with thiocyanate and the absorbance is measured at 478 nm. In all the methods, the amount of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> reacted corresponds to the drug content. The different experimental parameters affecting the development and stability of the color are carefully studied and optimized. Beer's law is valid within a concentration range of 0.4-6.0, 0.4-2.8 and 1.2-4.8 μg mL -1 for methods A, B and C, respectively. The calculated apparent molar absorptivity was found to be 5.16 × 10 4, 9.95 × 10 4 and 1.74 × 10 5 L mol -1 cm -1, for methods A, B and C, respectively. Sandell's sensitivity, correlation coefficients, detection and quantification limits are also reported. No interference was observed from common additives found in pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed methods are successfully applied to the determination of CPL in the tablet formulations with mean recoveries of 99.94-100.11% and the results were statistically compared with those of a reference method by applying Student's t- and F-test.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983EOSTr..64S.145B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983EOSTr..64S.145B"><span><span class="hlt">Isotope</span> fractionation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bell, Peter M.</p> <p></p> <p>A rash of new controversy has emerged around the subject of mass-independent <span class="hlt">isotope</span> fractionation effects, particularly in the case of the oxygen <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. To be sure, the controversy has been around for awhile, but it has been given new impetus by the results of a recent study by Mark H. Thiemens and John E. Heidenreich III of the University of California, San Diego (Science, March 4, 1983).Gustav Arrhenius has been trying to convince the planetary science community that chemical effects in <span class="hlt">isotope</span> fractionation processes could explain observations in meteorites that appear to be outside of the traditionally understood mass-dependent fractionations (G. Arrhenius, J . L. McCrumb, and N. F. Friedman, Astrophys. Space Sci, 65, 297, 1974). Robert Clayton had made the basic observations of oxygen in carbonaceous chondrites that the slope of the δ17 versus δ18 line was 1 instead of the slope of ½ characteristic of terrestrial rocks and lunar samples (Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci., 28, 501, 1978). The mass-independent effects were ascribed to the apparent contribution of an ancient presolar system component of O16.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.8489G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.8489G"><span>Sources of reactive <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in polar regions and its implications for ozone in the troposphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Griffiths, Paul; Archibald, Alex; Yang, Xin; Pyle, John</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>In the last two decades, significant depletion of boundary layer ozone (ozone depletion events, ODEs) has been observed in both Arctic and Antarctic spring. ODEs are attributed to catalytic destruction by <span class="hlt">bromine</span> radicals (Br plus BrO), especially during <span class="hlt">bromine</span> explosion events, when high concentrations of BrO periodically occur. The source of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and the mechanism that sustains the high BrO levels are still the subject of study, and there remains scope for improving our understanding of reactive <span class="hlt">bromine</span> budgets in polar regions. Yang et al. (2008) suggested snow could provide a source of (depleted) sea-salt aerosol if blown from the surface of ice, while recent work by Pratt et al. (2013) posits Br2 production within saline snow and sea ice. In this poster, we consider the production of sea-salt aerosol from a mixture of snow and sea ice during periods of strong wind. We use a combination of box models and the United Kingdom Chemistry and Aerosols scheme, run as a component of the UK Met Office Unified Model, to quantify the effect of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> release in the boundary layer and its effect on ozone at the regional scale. The importance of heterogeneous reactions is quantified and new data from the recent Polarstern cruise by members of the British Antarctic Survey as part of the NERC-funded BLOWSEA project will be considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3705403','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3705403"><span><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> Skeletal Components of the Marine Demosponges, Aplysina cavernicola and Ianthella basta: Analytical and Biochemical Investigations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kunze, Kurt; Niemann, Hendrik; Ueberlein, Susanne; Schulze, Renate; Ehrlich, Hermann; Brunner, Eike; Proksch, Peter; van Pée, Karl-Heinz</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Demosponges possess a skeleton made of a composite material with various organic constituents and/or siliceous spicules. Chitin is an integral part of the skeleton of different sponges of the order Verongida. Moreover, sponges of the order Verongida, such as Aplysina cavernicola or Ianthella basta, are well-known for the biosynthesis of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> tyrosine derivates, characteristic bioactive natural products. It has been unknown so far whether these compounds are exclusively present in the cellular matrix or whether they may also be incorporated into the chitin-based skeletons. In the present study, we therefore examined the skeletons of A. cavernicola and I. basta with respect to the presence of bromotyrosine metabolites. The chitin-based-skeletons isolated from these sponges indeed contain significant amounts of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compounds, which are not easily extractable from the skeletons by common solvents, such as MeOH, as shown by HPLC analyses in combination with NMR and IR spectroscopic measurements. Quantitative potentiometric analyses confirm that the skeleton-associated <span class="hlt">bromine</span> mainly withstands the MeOH-based extraction. This observation suggests that the respective, but yet unidentified, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compounds are strongly bound to the sponge skeletons, possibly by covalent bonding. Moreover, gene fragments of halogenases suggested to be responsible for the incorporation of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> into organic molecules could be amplified from DNA isolated from sponge samples enriched for sponge-associated bacteria. PMID:23595055</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23595055','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23595055"><span><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> skeletal components of the marine demosponges, Aplysina cavernicola and Ianthella basta: analytical and biochemical investigations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kunze, Kurt; Niemann, Hendrik; Ueberlein, Susanne; Schulze, Renate; Ehrlich, Hermann; Brunner, Eike; Proksch, Peter; van Pée, Karl-Heinz</p> <p>2013-04-17</p> <p>Demosponges possess a skeleton made of a composite material with various organic constituents and/or siliceous spicules. Chitin is an integral part of the skeleton of different sponges of the order Verongida. Moreover, sponges of the order Verongida, such as Aplysina cavernicola or Ianthella basta, are well-known for the biosynthesis of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> tyrosine derivates, characteristic bioactive natural products. It has been unknown so far whether these compounds are exclusively present in the cellular matrix or whether they may also be incorporated into the chitin-based skeletons. In the present study, we therefore examined the skeletons of A. cavernicola and I. basta with respect to the presence of bromotyrosine metabolites. The chitin-based-skeletons isolated from these sponges indeed contain significant amounts of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compounds, which are not easily extractable from the skeletons by common solvents, such as MeOH, as shown by HPLC analyses in combination with NMR and IR spectroscopic measurements. Quantitative potentiometric analyses confirm that the skeleton-associated <span class="hlt">bromine</span> mainly withstands the MeOH-based extraction. This observation suggests that the respective, but yet unidentified, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compounds are strongly bound to the sponge skeletons, possibly by covalent bonding. Moreover, gene fragments of halogenases suggested to be responsible for the incorporation of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> into organic molecules could be amplified from DNA isolated from sponge samples enriched for sponge-associated bacteria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25223840','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25223840"><span>A serial dual-electrode detector based on electrogenerated <span class="hlt">bromine</span> for capillary electrophoresis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Du, Fuying; Cao, Shunan; Fung, Ying-Sing</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>A new serial dual-electrode detector for CE has been designed and fabricated for postcolumn reaction detection based on electrogenerated <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. A coaxial postcolumn reactor was employed to introduce bromide reagent and facilitate the fabrication of upstream generation electrode by simply sputtering Pt film onto the outer surface of the separation capillary. Bromide introduced could be efficiently converted to <span class="hlt">bromine</span> at this Pt film electrode and subsequently detected by the downstream Pt microdisk detection electrode. Analytes that react with <span class="hlt">bromine</span> could be determined by the decrease of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> reduction current at the downstream electrode resulting from the reaction between analytes and <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. The effects of serial dual-electrode detector working conditions including electrode potentials, bromide flow rate, and bromide concentration on analytical performance were investigated using glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) as test analytes. Under the optimal conditions, detection limits down to 0.16 μM for GSH and 0.14 μM for GSSG (S/N = 3) as well as linear working ranges of two orders of magnitude for GSH and GSSG were achieved. Furthermore, the separation efficiency obtained by our dual-electrode detector design was greatly improved compared with previous reported design. The developed method has been successfully applied to determine the GSH and GSSG impurity in commercial GSH supplement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870014285','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870014285"><span>Electrochemical performance and transport properties of a Nafion membrane in a hydrogen-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> cell environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Baldwin, Richard S.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The overall energy conversion efficiency of a hydrogen-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> energy storage system is highly dependent upon the characteristics and performance of the ion-exchange membrane utilized as a half-cell separator. The electrochemical performance and transport properties of a duPont Nafion membrane in an aqueous HBr-Br2 environment were investigated. Membrane conductivity data are presented as a function of HBr concentration and temperature for the determination of ohmic voltage losses across the membrane in an operational cell. Diffusion-controlled <span class="hlt">bromine</span> permeation rates and permeabilities are presented as functions of solution composition and temperature. Relationships between the degree of membrane hydration and the membrane transport characteristics are discussed. The solution chemistry of an operational hydrogen-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> cell undergoing charge from 45% HBr to 5% HBr is discussed, and, based upon the experimentally observed <span class="hlt">bromine</span> permeation behavior, predicted cell coulombic losses due to <span class="hlt">bromine</span> diffusion through the membrane are presented as a function of the cell state-of-charge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CliPa..13...39M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CliPa..13...39M"><span>Sea ice and pollution-modulated changes in Greenland ice core methanesulfonate and <span class="hlt">bromine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maselli, Olivia J.; Chellman, Nathan J.; Grieman, Mackenzie; Layman, Lawrence; McConnell, Joseph R.; Pasteris, Daniel; Rhodes, Rachael H.; Saltzman, Eric; Sigl, Michael</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Reconstruction of past changes in Arctic sea ice extent may be critical for understanding its future evolution. Methanesulfonate (MSA) and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentrations preserved in ice cores have both been proposed as indicators of past sea ice conditions. In this study, two ice cores from central and north-eastern Greenland were analysed at sub-annual resolution for MSA (CH3SO3H) and <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, covering the time period 1750-2010. We examine correlations between ice core MSA and the HadISST1 ICE sea ice dataset and consult back trajectories to infer the likely source regions. A strong correlation between the low-frequency MSA and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> records during pre-industrial times indicates that both chemical species are likely linked to processes occurring on or near sea ice in the same source regions. The positive correlation between ice core MSA and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> persists until the mid-20th century, when the acidity of Greenland ice begins to increase markedly due to increased fossil fuel emissions. After that time, MSA levels decrease as a result of declining sea ice extent but <span class="hlt">bromine</span> levels increase. We consider several possible explanations and ultimately suggest that increased acidity, specifically nitric acid, of snow on sea ice stimulates the release of reactive Br from sea ice, resulting in increased transport and deposition on the Greenland ice sheet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/456710','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/456710"><span>The toxicity of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> and mixed-halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans: An overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Weber, L.W.D. |; Greim, H.</p> <p>1997-02-21</p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans can be formed under laboratory conditions by pyrolysis of flame retardants based on polybrominated biphenyls and biphenyl ethers. Their occurrence in the environment, however, is due to combustion processes such as municipal waste incineration and internal combustion engines. As these processes generally take place in the presence of an excess of chlorine, predominantly mixed <span class="hlt">brominated</span> and chlorinated compounds have been identified so far in environmental samples. <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> dibenzo-p-dioxins or dibenzofurans bind to the cytosolic Ah receptor about as avidly as their chlorinated congeners and induce hepatic microsomal enzymes with comparable potency. The same holds true for mixed <span class="hlt">brominated</span>-chlorinated compounds. Gross pathologic symptoms-hypothyroidism, thymic atrophy, wasting of body mass, lethality-also occur at doses that, on a molar concentration basis, are virtually identical to those seen with the chlorinated compounds. Their potency to induce malformations in mice following prenatal exposure is equivalent to that of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. Possible activities as (co)carcinogens and endocrine disrupters have not been evaluated, but are likely to exist. Considering the overall similarity in action of chlorinated and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, environmental and health assessment should be based on molar body burdens without discrimination for the nature of the halogen. 107 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=546668','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=546668"><span>Comparison of Chlorine, <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>, and Iodine as Disinfectants for Swimming Pool Water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Koski, T. A.; Stuart, L. S.; Ortenzio, L. F.</p> <p>1966-01-01</p> <p>Studies on the germicidal activity of chlorine, <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, and iodine were made by use of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists official first action method for determining effectiveness of swimming pool water disinfectants. In this procedure, 0.3 ppm of available chlorine as chlorine gas has activity equivalent to 0.6 ppm of available chlorine in the buffered sodium hypochlorite control when Escherichia coli is used as the test organism. With Streptococcus faecalis as the test organism, 0.45 ppm of available chlorine as gaseous chlorine gives activity equivalent to the control. Liquid <span class="hlt">bromine</span> at 1.0 ppm is as effective as the 0.6 ppm of available chlorine hypochlorite control with E. coli as the test organism, but 2.0 ppm of liquid <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is necessary to provide activity equivalent to the 0.6 ppm of available chlorine control when S. faecalis is employed. With iodine as metallic iodine, 2.0 ppm is necessary to provide a result equivalent to the 0.6 ppm of available chlorine control with both E. coli and S. faecalis. In the various systems tested, gaseous chlorine was the most active form of available chlorine; liquid <span class="hlt">bromine</span> provided the most active form of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, and metallic iodine provided the most active form of iodine. PMID:4959984</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA20847.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA20847.html"><span><span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> Clues to Mars Crust-Atmosphere Interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-09-29</p> <p>Chemistry that takes place in the surface material on Mars can explain why particular xenon (Xe) and krypton (Kr) <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> are more abundant in the Martian atmosphere than expected. The <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> -- variants that have different numbers of neutrons -- are formed in the loose rocks and material that make up the regolith -- the surface layer down to solid rock. The chemistry begins when cosmic rays penetrate into the surface material. If the cosmic rays strike an atom of barium (Ba), the barium can lose one or more of its neutrons (n0). Atoms of xenon can pick up some of those neutrons – a process called neutron capture – to form the <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> xenon-124 and xenon-126. In the same way, atoms of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (Br) can lose some of their neutrons to krypton, leading to the formation of krypton-80 and krypton-82 <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. These <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> can enter the atmosphere when the regolith is disturbed by impacts and abrasion, allowing gas to escape. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20847</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=63835&keyword=Bromine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90718988&CFTOKEN=99248257','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=63835&keyword=Bromine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90718988&CFTOKEN=99248257"><span>PILOT-SCALE STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF <span class="hlt">BROMINE</span> ADDITION ON THE EMISSIONS OF CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The paper reports on a study to evaluate organic combustion by-product emissions while feeding varying amounts of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (Br) and chlorine (Cl) into a pilot-scale incinerator burning surrogate waste materials. (NOTE: Adding <span class="hlt">brominated</span> organic compounds to a pilot-scale incinerat...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bromine&pg=2&id=EJ324441','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bromine&pg=2&id=EJ324441"><span>The NBS Reaction: A Simple Explanation for the Predominance of Allylic Substitution over Olefin Addition by <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> at Low Concentrations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wamser, Carl C.; Scott, Lawrence T.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Examines mechanisms related to use of N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) for <span class="hlt">bromination</span> at an allylic position. Also presents derived rate laws for three possible reactions of molecular <span class="hlt">bromine</span> with an alkene: (1) free radical substitution; (2) free radical addition; and (3) electrophilic addition. (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-10625.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-10625.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10625 - Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> and bromo diphenyl alkane (generic).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Distillation bottoms, alkylated... Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> and bromo diphenyl alkane (generic). (a... generically as distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> and bromo diphenyl alkane...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-10625.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-10625.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10625 - Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> and bromo diphenyl alkane (generic).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Distillation bottoms, alkylated... Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> and bromo diphenyl alkane (generic). (a... generically as distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> and bromo diphenyl alkane...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=alkene&pg=4&id=EJ324441','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=alkene&pg=4&id=EJ324441"><span>The NBS Reaction: A Simple Explanation for the Predominance of Allylic Substitution over Olefin Addition by <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> at Low Concentrations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wamser, Carl C.; Scott, Lawrence T.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Examines mechanisms related to use of N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) for <span class="hlt">bromination</span> at an allylic position. Also presents derived rate laws for three possible reactions of molecular <span class="hlt">bromine</span> with an alkene: (1) free radical substitution; (2) free radical addition; and (3) electrophilic addition. (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=63835&keyword=Waste+AND+paper+AND+burning&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=63835&keyword=Waste+AND+paper+AND+burning&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>PILOT-SCALE STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF <span class="hlt">BROMINE</span> ADDITION ON THE EMISSIONS OF CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The paper reports on a study to evaluate organic combustion by-product emissions while feeding varying amounts of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (Br) and chlorine (Cl) into a pilot-scale incinerator burning surrogate waste materials. (NOTE: Adding <span class="hlt">brominated</span> organic compounds to a pilot-scale incinerat...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26363216','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26363216"><span>Neurotoxicity and risk assessment of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> and alternative flame retardants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hendriks, Hester S; Westerink, Remco H S</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) are widely used chemicals that prevent or slow the onset and spreading of fire. Unfortunately, many of these compounds pose serious threats for human health and the environment, indicating an urgent need for safe(r) and less persistent alternative flame retardants (AFRs). As previous research identified the nervous system as a sensitive target organ, the neurotoxicity of past and present flame retardants is reviewed. First, an overview of the neurotoxicity of BFRs in humans and experimental animals is provided, and some common in vitro neurotoxic mechanisms of action are discussed. The combined epidemiological and toxicological studies clearly underline the need for replacing BFRs. Many potentially suitable AFRs are already in use, despite the absence of a full profile of their environmental behavior and toxicological properties. To prioritize the suitability of some selected halogenated and non-halogenated organophosphorous flame retardants and inorganic halogen-free flame retardants, the available neurotoxic data of these AFRs are discussed. The suitability of the AFRs is rank-ordered and combined with human exposure data (serum concentrations, breast milk concentrations and house dust concentrations) and physicochemical properties (useful to predict e.g. bioavailability and persistence in the environment) for a first semi-quantitative risk assessment of the AFRs. As can be concluded from the reviewed data, several BFRs and AFRs share some neurotoxic effects and modes of action. Moreover, the available neurotoxicity data indicate that some AFRs may be suitable substitutes for BFRs. However, proper risk assessment is hampered by an overall scarcity of data, particularly regarding environmental persistence, human exposure levels, and the formation of breakdown products and possible metabolites as well as their toxicity. Until these data gaps in environmental behavioral and toxicological profiles are filled, large scale use of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22214513','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22214513"><span><span class="hlt">Bromine</span>-sensitized solar photolysis of CO2.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Braiman, Mark S; Sailer-Kronlachner, Wilfried; Varjas, Christopher J</p> <p>2012-09-06</p> <p>Direct photochemical reduction of CO(2) has generally been accomplished by using transition-metal compounds as electron transfer reagents. Here, we show that elemental <span class="hlt">bromine</span> can function as an alternative photosensitizer. When sunlight is tightly focused on mixtures of CO(2) and Br(2), in the presence of a polar adsorbent such as silica gel, glass wool, alumina, or titania, a metastable red adduct is formed within seconds and concentrates at the point of illumination. Further illumination causes deposition of a stable black film on the polar adsorbent. Mass spectrometry of the cold-trapped red intermediate shows clusters of peaks corresponding to the expected distribution of isotopomers of C(2)O(4)Br(4)(+), as well as of C(2)O(4)Br(3)(+). DFT computations indicate that the lowest-energy species with the formula C(2)O(4)Br(4) is trans-2,4-dibromo-2,4-dihypobromo-1,3-dioxetane. Formation of this molecule from (2CO(2) + 2Br(2)) would require a minimum of 3 visible photons, two of which would hypothetically be used in formation of as-yet undetected CO(2)Br(2) and the third, in a subsequent photodimerization. By elemental analysis, the final amorphous solid product contains a C/Br atomic ratio >12, suggesting that Br(2) is acting photocatalytically. Even with a poorly optimized optical system, the reaction rate has reached as high as 1.6 mg reduced C with 40 s of solar collection using a 30 cm diameter paraboloid reflector. This rate is consistent with the storage of approximately 1% of incident solar energy.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25240235','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25240235"><span>Ecotoxicity and biodegradability of new <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants: a review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ezechiáš, M; Covino, S; Cajthaml, T</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) have been routinely used as additives in a number of consumer products for several decades in order to reduce the risk of fire accidents. Concerns about the massive use of these substances have increased due to their possible toxicity, endocrine disrupting properties and occurrence in almost all the environmental compartments, including humans and wildlife organisms. Several conventional BFRs (e.g. polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE)) have been included in the list of Persistent Organic Pollutants and their use has been restricted because of their established toxicity and environmental persistence. Over the past few years, these compounds have been replaced with "new" BFRs (NBFRs). Despite the fact that NBFRs are different chemical molecules than traditional BFRs, most of physical-chemical properties (e.g. aromatic moiety, halogen substitution, lipophilic character) are common to both groups; therefore, their fate in the environment is potentially similar to the banned BFRs. Therefore, this article has been compiled to summarize the published scientific data regarding the biodegradability of the most widely used NBFRs, a key factor in their potential persistency in the environment, and their ecotoxicological effects on humans and test organisms. The data reviewed here document that the mechanisms through NBFRs exibit their ecotoxicity and the processes leading to their biotransformation in the environment are still poorly understood. Thus emphasis is placed on the need for further research in these areas is therefore emphasized, in order to avoid the massive use of further potentially harmful and recalcitrant substances of anthropogenic origin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20821656','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20821656"><span>Toxicity of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> volatile organics to freshwater biota.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Binet, Monique T; Stauber, Jenny L; Adams, Merrin S; Rhodes, Stuart; Wech, Janine</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>As part of a larger study investigating the fate and effects of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in contaminated groundwaters discharging to surface waters, the toxicity of 1,2 dibromoethene (DBE) and 1,1,2-tribromoethene (TriBE) to freshwater aquatic biota was investigated. Their toxicity to bacteria (Microtox(R)), microalgae (Chlorella sp.), cladocerans (Ceriodaphnia dubia), duckweed (Lemna sp.) and midges (Chironomus tepperi) was determined after careful optimization of the test conditions to minimize chemical losses throughout the tests. In addition, concentrations of DBE and TriBE were carefully monitored throughout the bioassays to ensure accurate calculation of toxicity values. 1,2-Dibromoethene showed low toxicity to most species, with concentrations to cause 50% lethality or effect (LC/EC50 values) ranging from 28 to 420 mg/L, 10% lethality or effect (LC/EC10 values) ranging from 18 to 94 mg/L and no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) ranging from 22 to 82 mg/L. 1,1,2-Tribromoethene was more toxic than DBE, with LC/EC50 values of 2.4 to 18 mg/L, LC/EC10 values of 0.94 to 11 mg/L and NOECs of 0.29 to 13 mg/L. Using these limited data, together with data from the only other published study on TriBE, moderate-reliability water quality guidelines (WQGs) were estimated from species sensitivity distributions. The proposed guideline trigger values for 95% species protection with 50% confidence were 2 mg/L for DBE and 0.03 mg/L for TriBE. The maximum concentrations of DBE and TriBE in nearby surface waters (3 and 1 microg /L, respectively) were well below these WQGs, so the risk to the freshwater environment receiving contaminated groundwater inflows was considered to be low, with hazard quotients <1 for both VOCs. Environ.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3898673','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3898673"><span>Crystallographic Fragment Based Drug Discovery: Use of a <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> Fragment Library Targeting HIV Protease</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tiefenbrunn, Theresa; Forli, Stefano; Happer, Meaghan; Gonzalez, Ana; Tsai, Yingssu; Soltis, Michael; Elder, John H.; Olson, Arthur J.; Stout, C. David</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A library of 68 <span class="hlt">brominated</span> fragments was screened against a new crystal form of inhibited HIV-1 protease in order to probe surface sites in soaking experiments. Often fragments are weak binders with partial occupancy, resulting in weak, difficult-to-fit electron density. The use of a <span class="hlt">brominated</span> fragment library addresses this challenge, as <span class="hlt">bromine</span> can be located unequivocally via anomalous scattering. Data collection was carried out in an automated fashion using AutoDrug at SSRL. Novel hits were identified in the known surface sites: 3-bromo-2,6-dimethoxybenzoic acid (Br6) in the flap site, and 1-bromo-2-naphthoic acid (Br27) in the exosite, expanding the chemistry of known fragments for development of higher affinity potential allosteric inhibitors. At the same time, mapping the binding sites of a number of weaker binding Br-fragments provides further insight into the nature of these surface pockets. PMID:23998903</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860012212','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860012212"><span>A comparison of the <span class="hlt">bromination</span> dynamics of pitch-based and vapor-grown graphite fibers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gaier, J. R.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The electrical resistance of pitch based P-100 fibers and experimental organic vapor grown fibers was recorded in-situ during <span class="hlt">bromination</span> and subsequent exposure to ambient laboratory air. The results indicate that the <span class="hlt">bromination</span> and debromination reactions proceed much slower for vapor grown fibers than for pitch based. While this may be due in part to the larger diameter of the vapor grown fibers, the majority of the effect can probably be attributed to the differences in graphene plane orientation between the fiber types. Although the reactions are slower in the vapor grown than in the pitch based fibers, the extent of reaction as measured by the change in electrical resistance is essentially the same, with comparable (or larger) decreases in resistivity. The <span class="hlt">bromination</span> reaction proceeds with one or more plateaus in the resistance versus time curves, which suggests staging and strengthens the argument that these fibers produce true intercalation compounds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...639333K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...639333K"><span>Improved charge carrier lifetime in planar perovskite solar cells by <span class="hlt">bromine</span> doping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kiermasch, David; Rieder, Philipp; Tvingstedt, Kristofer; Baumann, Andreas; Dyakonov, Vladimir</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The charge carrier lifetime is an important parameter in solar cells as it defines, together with the mobility, the diffusion length of the charge carriers, thus directly determining the optimal active layer thickness of a device. Herein, we report on charge carrier lifetime values in <span class="hlt">bromine</span> doped planar methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) solar cells determined by transient photovoltage. The corresponding charge carrier density has been derived from charge carrier extraction. We found increased lifetime values in solar cells incorporating <span class="hlt">bromine</span> compared to pure MAPbI3 by a factor of ~2.75 at an illumination intensity corresponding to 1 sun. In the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> containing solar cells we additionally observe an anomalously high value of extracted charge, which we deduce to originate from mobile ions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7203036','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7203036"><span>Reactions of chlorine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> fluorosulfates with perfluoroalkyl halides in a strongly acidic medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fokin, A.V.; Rapkin, A.I.; Seryanov, Y.V.; Studnev, Y.N.; Tatarinov, A.S.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The authors find that in HSO/sub 3/F medium containing SbF/sub 5/ (preferably ca 20-40%), already at a temperature much lower than O C, ClOSO/sub 2/F exothermally substitutes <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in 1,2-dibromotetrafluoroethane, leading to 1,2-bis(fluorosulfonxyloxy)tetrafluoroethane (I) in a high yield (greater than 80%). <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> fluorosulfate BrOSO/sub 2/F was found to be less active than ClOSO/sub 2/F with respect to 1,2-dibromotetrafluoroethane in both the presence and in absence of the HSO/sub 3/F/SbF/sub 5/ mixture. In a fluorosulfonic acid medium containing antimony pentafluoride, the reaction with chlorine fluorosulfate leads to the substitution of the primary chlorine atom in perfluoroalkyl chlorides, and also the primary and secondary <span class="hlt">bromine</span> atoms in perfluoroalkyl bromides by the fluorosulfate group under mild conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23998903','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23998903"><span>Crystallographic fragment-based drug discovery: use of a <span class="hlt">brominated</span> fragment library targeting HIV protease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tiefenbrunn, Theresa; Forli, Stefano; Happer, Meaghan; Gonzalez, Ana; Tsai, Yingssu; Soltis, Michael; Elder, John H; Olson, Arthur J; Stout, Charles D</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>A library of 68 <span class="hlt">brominated</span> fragments was screened against a new crystal form of inhibited HIV-1 protease in order to probe surface sites in soaking experiments. Often, fragments are weak binders with partial occupancy, resulting in weak, difficult-to-fit electron density. The use of a <span class="hlt">brominated</span> fragment library addresses this challenge, as <span class="hlt">bromine</span> can be located unequivocally via anomalous scattering. Data collection was carried out in an automated fashion using AutoDrug at SSRL. Novel hits were identified in the known surface sites: 3-bromo-2,6-dimethoxybenzoic acid (Br6) in the flap site and 1-bromo-2-naphthoic acid (Br27) in the exosite, expanding the chemistry of known fragments for development of higher affinity potential allosteric inhibitors. At the same time, mapping the binding sites of a number of weaker binding Br-fragments provides further insight into the nature of these surface pockets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23177567','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23177567"><span>The separation of waste printed circuit board by dissolving <span class="hlt">bromine</span> epoxy resin using organic solvent.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhu, P; Chen, Y; Wang, L Y; Zhou, M; Zhou, J</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Separation of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) has been a bottleneck in WPCBs resource processing. In this study, the separation of WPCBs was performed using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a solvent. Various parameters, which included solid to liquid ratio, temperature, WPCB sizes, and time, were studied to understand the separation of WPCBs by dissolving <span class="hlt">bromine</span> epoxy resin using DMSO. Experimental results showed that the concentration of dissolving the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> epoxy resin increased with increasing various parameters. The optimum condition of complete separation of WPCBs was solid to liquid ratio of 1:7 and WPCB sizes of 16 mm(2) at 145°C for 60 min. The used DMSO was vapored under the decompression, which obtained the regenerated DMSO and dissolved <span class="hlt">bromine</span> epoxy resin. This clean and non-polluting technology offers a new way to separate valuable materials from WPCBs and prevent the environmental pollution of waste printed circuit boards effectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5159823','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5159823"><span>Improved charge carrier lifetime in planar perovskite solar cells by <span class="hlt">bromine</span> doping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kiermasch, David; Rieder, Philipp; Tvingstedt, Kristofer; Baumann, Andreas; Dyakonov, Vladimir</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The charge carrier lifetime is an important parameter in solar cells as it defines, together with the mobility, the diffusion length of the charge carriers, thus directly determining the optimal active layer thickness of a device. Herein, we report on charge carrier lifetime values in <span class="hlt">bromine</span> doped planar methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) solar cells determined by transient photovoltage. The corresponding charge carrier density has been derived from charge carrier extraction. We found increased lifetime values in solar cells incorporating <span class="hlt">bromine</span> compared to pure MAPbI3 by a factor of ~2.75 at an illumination intensity corresponding to 1 sun. In the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> containing solar cells we additionally observe an anomalously high value of extracted charge, which we deduce to originate from mobile ions. PMID:27982095</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840034339&hterms=nir&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dnir','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840034339&hterms=nir&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dnir"><span>Polyfunctional epoxies - Different molecular weights of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> polymeric additives as flame retardants in graphite composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nir, Z.; Gilwee, W. J.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The imparting of flame retardancy to graphite-reinforced composites without incurring mechanical property deterioration is investigated for the case of an experimental, trifunctional epoxy resin incorporating <span class="hlt">brominated</span> polymeric additives (BPAs) of the diglycidyl type. Such mechanical properties as flexural strength and modulus, and short beam shear strength, were measured in dry and in hot/wet conditions, and the glass transition temperature, flammability, and water absorption were measured and compared with nonbromilated systems. Another comparison was made with a tetrafunctional epoxy system. The results obtained are explained in terms of differences in the polymeric backbone length of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> carrier polymer. BPAs are found to be a reliable <span class="hlt">bromine</span> source for fire inhibition in carbon-reinforced composites without compromise of mechanical properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27982095','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27982095"><span>Improved charge carrier lifetime in planar perovskite solar cells by <span class="hlt">bromine</span> doping.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kiermasch, David; Rieder, Philipp; Tvingstedt, Kristofer; Baumann, Andreas; Dyakonov, Vladimir</p> <p>2016-12-16</p> <p>The charge carrier lifetime is an important parameter in solar cells as it defines, together with the mobility, the diffusion length of the charge carriers, thus directly determining the optimal active layer thickness of a device. Herein, we report on charge carrier lifetime values in <span class="hlt">bromine</span> doped planar methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) solar cells determined by transient photovoltage. The corresponding charge carrier density has been derived from charge carrier extraction. We found increased lifetime values in solar cells incorporating <span class="hlt">bromine</span> compared to pure MAPbI3 by a factor of ~2.75 at an illumination intensity corresponding to 1 sun. In the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> containing solar cells we additionally observe an anomalously high value of extracted charge, which we deduce to originate from mobile ions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26168359','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26168359"><span><span class="hlt">Bromination</span> of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter following Full Scale Electrochemical Ballast Water Disinfection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gonsior, Michael; Mitchelmore, Carys; Heyes, Andrew; Harir, Mourad; Richardson, Susan D; Petty, William Tyler; Wright, David A; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe</p> <p>2015-08-04</p> <p>An extensively diverse array of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> disinfection byproducts (DBPs) were generated following electrochemical disinfection of natural coastal/estuarine water, which is one of the main treatment methods currently under consideration for ballast water treatment. Ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed 462 distinct <span class="hlt">brominated</span> DBPs at a relative abundance in the mass spectra of more than 1%. A <span class="hlt">brominated</span> DBP with a relative abundance of almost 22% was identified as 2,2,4-tribromo-5-hydroxy-4-cyclopentene-1,3-dione, which is an analogue to several previously described 2,2,4-trihalo-5-hydroxy-4-cyclopentene-1,3-diones in drinking water. Several other <span class="hlt">brominated</span> molecular formulas matched those of other known <span class="hlt">brominated</span> DBPs, such as dibromomethane, which could be generated by decarboxylation of dibromoacetic acid during ionization, dibromophenol, dibromopropanoic acid, dibromobutanoic acid, bromohydroxybenzoic acid, bromophenylacetic acid, bromooxopentenoic acid, and dibromopentenedioic acid. Via comparison to previously described chlorine-containing analogues, bromophenylacetic acid, dibromooxopentenoic acid, and dibromopentenedioic acid were also identified. A novel compound at a 4% relative abundance was identified as tribromoethenesulfonate. This compound has not been previously described as a DBP, and its core structure of tribromoethene has been demonstrated to show toxicological implications. Here we show that electrochemical disinfection, suggested as a candidate for successful ballast water treatment, caused considerable production of some previously characterized DBPs in addition to novel <span class="hlt">brominated</span> DBPs, although several hundred compounds remain structurally uncharacterized. Our results clearly demonstrate that electrochemical and potentially direct chlorination of ballast water in estuarine and marine systems should be approached with caution and the concentrations, fate, and toxicity of DBP need to be further characterized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27050745','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27050745"><span>Bromide oxidation by ferrate(VI): The formation of active <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and bromate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jiang, Yanjun; Goodwill, Joseph E; Tobiason, John E; Reckhow, David A</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Ferrate (VI) (abbreviated as Fe(VI)) has long been considered as a green oxidant that does not produce any known hazardous byproducts. However, this work shows that Fe(VI) can slowly oxidize bromide forming active <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (HOBr/OBr(-)) and bromate, and in natural waters total organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (TOBr) can also be detected. Results showed that the highest levels of active <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and bromate were formed at lower pHs and in the absence of phosphate. Hydrogen peroxide, which forms from the reaction of Fe(VI) and water, plays an essential role in suppressing bromate formation by reducing active <span class="hlt">bromine</span> back to bromide. Fe(VI) decomposition products (assumed to be particulate phase Fe(III)) can catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by Fe(VI). Phosphate had a substantial inhibiting effect on the formation of active <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, but less so on bromate formation. The presence of the raw water matrix in natural water suppressed bromate formation. For a natural water spiked with 0.1 mg/L of bromide, the bromate and TOBr concentrations after Fe(VI) oxidation were below 3.0 and 15 μg/L, respectively. No consistent trend regarding the effect of pH or buffer ions on TOBr formation was observed due to the competition between Fe(VI), hydrogen peroxide, and natural organic matter (NOM) for reaction with active <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. Under environmentally relevant conditions, the formation of bromate and TOBr would not be a problem for Fe(VI) application as their concentration levels are quite low.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=106349','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=106349"><span>Complete Reductive Dehalogenation of <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> Biphenyls by Anaerobic Microorganisms in Sediment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bedard, Donna L.; Van Dort, Heidi M.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>We sought to determine whether microorganisms from the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sediment in Woods Pond (Lenox, Mass.) could dehalogenate <span class="hlt">brominated</span> biphenyls. The PCB dechlorination specificities for the microorganisms in this sediment have been well characterized. This allowed us to compare the dehalogenation specificities for <span class="hlt">brominated</span> biphenyls and chlorinated biphenyls within a single sediment. Anaerobic sediment microcosms were incubated separately at 25°C with 16 different mono- to tetrabrominated biphenyls (350 μM) and disodium malate (10 mM). Samples were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector and a mass spectrometer detector at various times for up to 54 weeks. All of the tested <span class="hlt">brominated</span> biphenyls were dehalogenated. For most congeners, including 2,6-dibromobiphenyl (26-BB) and 24-25-BB, the dehalogenation began within 1 to 2 weeks. However, for 246-BB and 2-2-BB, debromination was first observed at 7 and 14 weeks, respectively. Most intermediate products did not persist, but when 2-2-BB was produced as a dehalogenation product, it persisted for at least 15 weeks before it was dehalogenated to 2-BB and then to biphenyl. The dehalogenation specificities for <span class="hlt">brominated</span> and chlorinated biphenyls were similar: meta and para substituents were generally removed first, and ortho substituents were more recalcitrant. However, the <span class="hlt">brominated</span> biphenyls were better dehalogenation substrates than the chlorinated biphenyls. All of the tested bromobiphenyls, including those with ortho and unflanked meta and para substituents, were ultimately dehalogenated to biphenyl, whereas their chlorinated counterparts either were not dehalogenation substrates or were only partially dehalogenated. Our data suggest that PCB-dechlorinating microorganisms may be able to dehalogenate <span class="hlt">brominated</span> biphenyls and may exhibit a relaxed specificity for these substrates. PMID:16349530</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1058053','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1058053"><span>Killing of Chlorine-Resistant Bacteria by Chlorine-<span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Farkas-Himsley, H.</p> <p>1964-01-01</p> <p>The disinfective power of chlorine, <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, and mixtures of chlorine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> at different ratios was compared. The influence of pH was also studied. The experiments were carried out in “purified” water and in natural waters of swimming pools, river, and sea. In the presence of high amounts of nitrogenous growth-promoting material (at neutral pH), <span class="hlt">bromine</span> was more effective than chlorine; in waters containing low amounts of nitrogenous growth-promoting material, chlorine was found superior. Mixtures of chlorine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> at various ratios were found to increase in effectiveness inversely to the percentage of hypobromite generated, down to 10 or 5%. Such effectiveness was found at pH levels of 5.4 to 8.6 in both purified and natural water containing high and low amounts of nitrogenous growth-promoting material. Therefore, the above mixtures seem of practical value for the disinfection of various natural waters. Escherichia coli isolated in the presence of chlorine, either from swimming pools or after deliberate exposure to the halogen, were shown to be chlorine-resistant mutants. Their resistance was maintained for at least nine passages in the absence of the disinfectant, which accounts for the number of passages tested. Chlorine-resistant mutants were not affected by <span class="hlt">bromine</span> alone but did show a marked sensitivity to low concentrations of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> active in the presence of chlorine. This was achieved by admixing small amounts of bromide to hypochlorite. A hypothetical model is presented to explain the synergistic sequential block by the two disinfectants. Some chlorine-resistant mutants were found to have changed into relatively slow-growing organisms with a changed phase-sensitivity pattern. Images FIG. 2 PMID:14106934</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28774625','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28774625"><span>Halogen-specific total organic halogen analysis: Assessment by recovery of total <span class="hlt">bromine</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Langsa, Markus; Allard, Sebastien; Kristiana, Ina; Heitz, Anna; Joll, Cynthia A</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Determination of halogen-specific total organic halogen (TOX) is vital for studies of disinfection of waters containing bromide, since total organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (TOBr) is likely to be more problematic than total organic chlorine. Here, we present further halogen-specific TOX method optimisation and validation, focusing on measurement of TOBr. The optimised halogen-specific TOX method was validated based on the recovery of model compounds covering different classes of disinfection by-products (haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, halophenols and halogenated benzenes) and the recovery of total <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (mass balance of TOBr and bromide concentrations) during disinfection of waters containing dissolved organic matter and bromide. The validation of a halogen-specific TOX method based on the mass balance of total <span class="hlt">bromine</span> has not previously been reported. Very good recoveries of organic halogen from all model compounds were obtained, indicating high or complete conversion of all organic halogen in the model compound solution through to halide in the absorber solution for ion chromatography analysis. The method was also successfully applied to monitor conversion of bromide to TOBr in a groundwater treatment plant. An excellent recovery (101%) of total <span class="hlt">bromine</span> was observed from the raw water to the post-chlorination stage. Excellent recoveries of total <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (92%-95%) were also obtained from chlorination of a synthetic water containing dissolved organic matter and bromide, demonstrating the validity of the halogen-specific TOX method for TOBr measurement. The halogen-specific TOX method is an important tool to monitor and better understand the formation of halogenated organic compounds, in particular <span class="hlt">brominated</span> organic compounds, in drinking water systems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880045246&hterms=bro&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dbro','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880045246&hterms=bro&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dbro"><span>Chemistry of OClO in the Antarctic stratosphere - Implications for <span class="hlt">bromine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Salawitch, Ross J.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Mcelroy, Michael B.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Previous observations of OClO over the Antarctic obtained in 1986 are used to constrain the stratospheric abundance of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. The observed diurnal variation is consistent with the production of OClO via the reaction of ClO with BrO if the branching ratio to the BrCl channel is between 3.5 and 14 percent. Otherwise, an additional source in twilight is indicated. The present results suggest a stratospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentration of 16 + or - 4 pptv, a value which is consistent with independent measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880045246&hterms=Bromine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DBromine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880045246&hterms=Bromine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DBromine"><span>Chemistry of OClO in the Antarctic stratosphere - Implications for <span class="hlt">bromine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Salawitch, Ross J.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Mcelroy, Michael B.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Previous observations of OClO over the Antarctic obtained in 1986 are used to constrain the stratospheric abundance of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. The observed diurnal variation is consistent with the production of OClO via the reaction of ClO with BrO if the branching ratio to the BrCl channel is between 3.5 and 14 percent. Otherwise, an additional source in twilight is indicated. The present results suggest a stratospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentration of 16 + or - 4 pptv, a value which is consistent with independent measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870002408','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870002408"><span>Simultaneous electrical resistivity and mass uptake measurements in <span class="hlt">bromine</span> intercalated fibers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jaworske, D. A.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Changes in mass and electrical resistivity of several types of pitch-based and vapor-grown graphite fibers were monitored during reaction with <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. The observed threshold pressure dependent reaction suggested that the fibers were intercalated. In the fully <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compound, the mass was increased by 44 percent and the resistivity was improved by a factor of 17. In the residue compound, the mass was increased by 22 percent and the resistivity was improved by a factor of 5. Fibers possessing different degrees of graphitization had surprisingly similar changes in both mass and resistivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....13.1203A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....13.1203A"><span>Contribution of very short-lived substances to stratospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> loading: uncertainties and constraints</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aschmann, J.; Sinnhuber, B.-M.</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Very short-lived substances (VSLS) still represent a major factor of uncertainty in the quantification of stratospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> loading. One of the major obstacles for short-lived source gases in contributing to the stratosphere is generally thought to be loss of inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (Bry) in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) due to dehydration. We use sensitivity calculations with a three-dimensional chemistry transport model comprising a consistent parametrization of convective transport and a comprehensive chemistry scheme to investigate the associated processes. The model considers the two most important <span class="hlt">bromine</span> VSLS, bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2). The organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> source gases as well as the resulting profile of inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the model are consistent with available observations. In contrast to its organic precursors, Bry is assumed to have a significant sorption capacity regarding sedimenting liquid or frozen particles thus the fraction of intact source gases during their ascent through the TTL is a critical factor. We find that source gas injection is the dominant pathway into the stratosphere, about 50% of CHBr3 and 94% of CH2Br2 is able to overcome the cold point tropopause at approximately 17 km altitude, modulated by the interannual variability of the vertical transport efficiency. In fact, our sensitivity calculations indicate that the extent of source gas injection of CHBr3 is highly sensitive to the strength of convection and large-scale ascent; in contrast, modifying the photolysis or the destruction via OH yields a significantly smaller response. In principle, the same applies as well to CH2Br2, though it is considerably less responsive due to its longer lifetime. The next important aspect we identified is that the partitioning of available Bry from short-lived sources is clearly shifted away from HBr, according to our current state of knowledge the only member of the Bry family which is efficiently adsorbed on ice particles</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22748388','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22748388"><span><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants in the Australian population: 1993-2009.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Guerra, Paula; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Harden, Fiona A; Hobson, Peter; Sjodin, Andreas; Ryan, Elizabeth; Mueller, Jochen F</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants, including hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used to reduce the flammability of a multitude of electrical and electronic products, textiles and foams. The use of selected PBDEs has ceased, however, use of decaBDE and HBCD continues. While elevated concentrations of PBDEs in humans have been observed in Australia, no data is available on other BFRs such as HBCD. This study aimed to provide background HBCD concentrations from a representative sample of the Australian population and to assess temporal trends of HBCD and compare with PBDE concentrations over a 16 year period. Samples of human milk collected in Australia from 1993 to 2009, primarily from primiparae mothers were combined into 12 pools from 1993 (2 pools); 2001; 2002/2003 (4 pools); 2003/2004; 2006; 2007/2008 (2 pools); and 2009. Concentrations of ∑HBCD ranged from not quantified (nq) to 19 ng g(-1)lipid while α-HBCD and γ-HBCD ranged from nq to 10 ng g(-1)lipid and nq to 9.2 ng g(-1)lipid. β-HBCD was detected in only one sample at 3.6 ng g(-1)lipid while ∑(4)PBDE ranged from 2.5 to 15.8 ng g(-1)lipid. No temporal trend was apparent in HBCD concentrations in human milk collected in Australia from 1993 to 2009. In comparison, PBDE concentrations in human milk show a peak around 2002/03 (mean ∑(4)PBDEs=9.6 ng g(-1)lipid) and 2003/04 (12.4 ng g(-1)lipid) followed by a decrease in 2007/08 (2.7 ng g(-1)lipid) and 2009 (2.6 ng g(-1)lipid). In human blood serum samples collected from the Australian population, PBDE concentrations did not vary greatly (p=0.441) from 2002/03 to 2008/09. Continued monitoring including both human milk and serum for HBCD and PBDEs is required to observe trends in human body burden of HBCD and PBDEs body burden following changes to usage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010mss..confEWF06N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010mss..confEWF06N"><span>X-Ray Spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Compounds and Biomedical Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nahar, Sultana N.; Luo, Yi; Le, Linh; Pradhan, A. K.; Chowdhury, E.; Pitzer, R.; Montenegro, M.</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>In conventional biomedical applications intense and broadband high energy X-rays are used in therapy and diagnostics (theranostics) to ensure sufficient tissue penetration for imaging or treatment. To avoid damages incurred by these, our proposed method, Resonant Theranosticsb,c, aims to find narrow energy regions that corresponds to resonant absorption or emission. We show that such energy bands lie below the K-shell ionization energy, contrary to the research focus on the K-shell ionization energy itself. Targeting these energy bands, Auger processes can be initiated to produce a number of photons and electrons from each atomic/molecular species via photon fluorescence and electron ejections. We will report our study on the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> compound bromodeoxyuridyne (BUdR), widely used as radiological contrast agent in radiation imaging. The active system is Br^o-Br^+ combination, which can emit or absorb X-rays in the relative narrow energy range of 12 to 13.6 keV, through 1s-np transitions. We will present the oscillator strengths and transition probabilities for various Auger or K-shell 1s-np transitions. We will show that the corresponding cross sections and attenuation coefficients per unit mass, are orders of magnitude higher than the background and that at K-shell ionization energy. Employing these attenuation coefficients in the Monte Carlo simulation program Geant4, we study the intensities of photon and electron emission spectra. Acknowledgment: Partially support: Large Interdisciplinary Grant award of the Ohio State University and NASA (SNN). The computational work was carried out at the Ohio Supercomputer Center, Columbus Ohio. "Resonant X-Ray Enhancement of the Auger Effect in High-Z atoms, molecules, and Nanoparticles: Biomedical Applications", A. K. Pradhan, S. N. Nahar, M. Montenegro, Yan Yu, H. L. Zhang, C. Sur, M. Mrozik, R. M. Pitzer, J. of Phys. Chem. A, 113 (2009), 12356. "Monte Carlo Simulations and Atomic Calculations for Auger Processes in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26266691','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26266691"><span>Fate of PBDEs during food processing: Assessment of formation of mixed chlorinated/<span class="hlt">brominated</span> diphenyl ethers and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> dioxins/furans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of food processing on PBDE levels, in particular influence of heat treatment on degradation of PBDEs, including possible formation of chlorinated diphenyl ethers or <span class="hlt">brominated</span> dioxins/furans as degradation products. It was shown that PBDEs heated in the presence of chlorine (from either organic or inorganic sources) formed mixed chlorinated/<span class="hlt">brominated</span> diphenyl ethers. However, no PCDEs were formed in the presence of lipids. Lipid medium increased stability of PBDEs exposed to UV irradiation. Profile of congeners formed in result of the debromination reaction was significantly different than profiles observed by some other authors in aliphatic organic solvents. Grilling processes increased concentrations (calculated on the fresh product basis) of the studied compounds by 4-8/22-34% for electric/coal grill, respectively. Depending on the congener and on the applied heat treatment, PBDE mass in pork meat after grilling dropped by 26-53%. No detectable quantities of either <span class="hlt">brominated</span> dioxins or furans were formed during thermal processing of food containing typical levels of PBDEs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.A51F0129C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.A51F0129C"><span><span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> Composition of Marine-Derived Methyl Bromide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cottrell, L. D.; Mak, J. E.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>Methyl bromide (CH3Br) is the largest source of atmospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, which catalytically destroys stratospheric ozone 50-60 times more efficiently than chlorine. Despite much attention that has been focused on CH3Br in recent years, it has proven difficult to constrain its global budget. It is of particular interest to compare the magnitude of the anthropogenic source with that of the largest naturally occurring source, which is believed to be marine-derived. One way to estimate the relative strengths of these sources is to use stable carbon <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> as a tracer. The viability of this approach relies on the distinctiveness of the <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> composition of each source and, in the case of marine-derived CH3Br, on the extent to which <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> fracionation occurs during chemical degradation in the water column. Once produced in the water column, CH3Br undergoes ion exchange (CH3Br + Cl- \\rightarrow CH3Cl +Br-) and hydrolysis (CH3Br + H2O \\rightarrow CH3OH +HBr), which changes the <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> composition of the remaining CH3Br. In this study we measured the fractionation factor (k12/k13) for both ion exchange and hydrolysis of CH3Br in sea water, and then used a simple air-sea exchange model to determine the extent of fractionation that occurs in the water column. Using a range of 20-30 per mil for the <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> composition of marine biologically produced methyl bromide, the predicted <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> composition of CH3Br emitted to the atmosphere is significantly enriched and further distinguished from the average anthropogenic signature of -54.4 per mil. An <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> study may therefore prove to be a useful tool for constraining the methyl bromide budget.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/69716','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/69716"><span>Construction and performance of a high voltage zinc <span class="hlt">bromine</span> battery in an electric vehicle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Swan, D.H.; Dickinson, B.; Arikara, M.; Prabhu, M.</p> <p>1995-07-01</p> <p>This paper describes the design, construction, testing and installation of a 391 volt, 35 kWh zinc <span class="hlt">bromine</span> battery in an electric vehicle. This research project, was referred to as the Endura Project and it resulted in the construction of the highest voltage zinc <span class="hlt">bromine</span> battery ever to be used in an electric vehicle. The zinc <span class="hlt">bromine</span> battery is a high energy density battery that utilizes low cost materials (predominantly polyethylene plastic). It has a relatively high energy density (60 to 70 Wh/kg of battery weight) and is modular in its construction. It utilizes a water cooling loop and normally operates between 32 and 45 C. The Endura project constructed a state of the art zinc <span class="hlt">bromine</span> battery, used an advanced charging system, and an advanced AC propulsion system. These components were integrated in a Geo Prizm and used to compete in the APS Electric 500 in Phoenix, AZ (3rd place, 3/94), the World Clean Air Rally in LA (1st Place, 4/94) and the 1994 American Tour de Sol (2nd Place 5/94).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=333133&keyword=diabetes&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=91087896&CFTOKEN=35123832','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=333133&keyword=diabetes&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=91087896&CFTOKEN=35123832"><span>Using the parallelogram approach to estimate human percutaneous bioavailability for novel & legacy <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>(This is an extended abstract. The following text was taken from the Discussion and Conclusion section.) Humans are frequently exposed to <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs), especially via dermal contact with contaminated dust. Human and rat skin data were integrated using a pa...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26874310','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26874310"><span>Kinetics of aerobic cometabolic biodegradation of chlorinated and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> aliphatic hydrocarbons: A review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jesus, João; Frascari, Dario; Pozdniakova, Tatiana; Danko, Anthony S</p> <p>2016-05-15</p> <p>This review analyses kinetic studies of aerobic cometabolism (AC) of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) from 2001-2015 in order to (i) compare the different kinetic models proposed, (ii) analyse the estimated model parameters with a focus on novel HAHs and the identification of general trends, and (iii) identify further research needs. The results of this analysis show that aerobic cometabolism can degrade a wide range of HAHs, including HAHs that were not previously tested such as chlorinated propanes, highly chlorinated ethanes and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> methanes and ethanes. The degree of chlorine mineralization was very high for the chlorinated HAHs. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> mineralization was not determined for studies with <span class="hlt">brominated</span> aliphatics. The examined research period led to the identification of novel growth substrates of potentially high interest. Decreasing performance of aerobic cometabolism were found with increasing chlorination, indicating the high potential of aerobic cometabolism in the presence of medium- and low-halogenated HAHs. Further research is needed for the AC of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> aliphatic hydrocarbons, the potential for biofilm aerobic cometabolism processes, HAH-HAH mutual inhibition and the identification of the enzymes responsible for each aerobic cometabolism process. Lastly, some indications for a possible standardization of future kinetic studies of HAH aerobic cometabolism are provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27650478','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27650478"><span>Canadian Arctic sea ice reconstructed from <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the Greenland NEEM ice core.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Spolaor, Andrea; Vallelonga, Paul; Turetta, Clara; Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Cozzi, Giulio; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Barbante, Carlo; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Cuevas, Carlos A; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe</p> <p>2016-09-21</p> <p>Reconstructing the past variability of Arctic sea ice provides an essential context for recent multi-year sea ice decline, although few quantitative reconstructions cover the Holocene period prior to the earliest historical records 1,200 years ago. Photochemical recycling of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is observed over first-year, or seasonal, sea ice in so-called "<span class="hlt">bromine</span> explosions" and we employ a 1-D chemistry transport model to quantify processes of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> enrichment over first-year sea ice and depositional transport over multi-year sea ice and land ice. We report <span class="hlt">bromine</span> enrichment in the Northwest Greenland Eemian NEEM ice core since the end of the Eemian interglacial 120,000 years ago, finding the maximum extension of first-year sea ice occurred approximately 9,000 years ago during the Holocene climate optimum, when Greenland temperatures were 2 to 3 °C above present values. First-year sea ice extent was lowest during the glacial stadials suggesting complete coverage of the Arctic Ocean by multi-year sea ice. These findings demonstrate a clear relationship between temperature and first-year sea ice extent in the Arctic and suggest multi-year sea ice will continue to decline as polar amplification drives Arctic temperatures beyond the 2 °C global average warming target of the recent COP21 Paris climate agreement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5030631','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5030631"><span>Canadian Arctic sea ice reconstructed from <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the Greenland NEEM ice core</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Spolaor, Andrea; Vallelonga, Paul; Turetta, Clara; Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Cozzi, Giulio; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Barbante, Carlo; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Reconstructing the past variability of Arctic sea ice provides an essential context for recent multi-year sea ice decline, although few quantitative reconstructions cover the Holocene period prior to the earliest historical records 1,200 years ago. Photochemical recycling of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is observed over first-year, or seasonal, sea ice in so-called “<span class="hlt">bromine</span> explosions” and we employ a 1-D chemistry transport model to quantify processes of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> enrichment over first-year sea ice and depositional transport over multi-year sea ice and land ice. We report <span class="hlt">bromine</span> enrichment in the Northwest Greenland Eemian NEEM ice core since the end of the Eemian interglacial 120,000 years ago, finding the maximum extension of first-year sea ice occurred approximately 9,000 years ago during the Holocene climate optimum, when Greenland temperatures were 2 to 3 °C above present values. First-year sea ice extent was lowest during the glacial stadials suggesting complete coverage of the Arctic Ocean by multi-year sea ice. These findings demonstrate a clear relationship between temperature and first-year sea ice extent in the Arctic and suggest multi-year sea ice will continue to decline as polar amplification drives Arctic temperatures beyond the 2 °C global average warming target of the recent COP21 Paris climate agreement. PMID:27650478</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1566575','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1566575"><span>Reactive airways dysfunction and systemic complaints after mass exposure to <span class="hlt">bromine</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Woolf, A; Shannon, M</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Occasionally children are the victims of mass poisoning from an environmental contaminant that occurs due to an unexpected common point source of exposure. In many cases the contaminant is a widely used chemical generally considered to be safe. In the following case, members of a sports team visiting a community for an athletic event were exposed to chemicals while staying at a local motel. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>-based sanitizing agents and other chemicals such as hydrochloric acid, which were used in excess in the motel's swimming pool, may have accounted for symptoms experienced by the boy reported here and at least 16 other adolescents. Samples of pool water contained excess <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (8.2 microg/mL; ideal pool <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentration is 2-4 microg/mL). Symptoms and signs attributable to <span class="hlt">bromine</span> toxicity included irritative skin rashes; eye, nose, and throat irritation; bronchospasm; reduced exercise tolerance; fatigue; headache; gastrointestinal disturbances; and myalgias. While most of the victims recovered within a few days, the index case and several other adolescents had persistent or recurrent symptoms lasting weeks to months after the exposure. PMID:10339453</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=150287&keyword=foam+AND+fire&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=150287&keyword=foam+AND+fire&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span><span class="hlt">BROMINATED</span> FLAME RETARDANTS: WHAT WE KNOW, AND WHAT WE DON�T</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) represent a large and diverse class of high volume industrial chemicals which have been developed to provide fire safety. There are many other BFRs which have been used and are under development. Historically, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) w...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24792882','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24792882"><span>Formation of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> pollutants during the pyrolysis and combustion of tetrabromobisphenol A at different temperatures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ortuño, Nuria; Moltó, Julia; Conesa, Juan A; Font, Rafael</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is the most widely used <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardant worldwide. A detailed examination of the degradation products emitted during thermal decomposition of TBBPA is presented in the study. Runs were performed in a laboratory furnace at different temperatures (650 and 800 °C) and in different atmospheres (nitrogen and air). More than one hundred semivolatile compounds have been identified by GC/MS, with special interest in <span class="hlt">brominated</span> ones. Presence of HBr and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> light hydrocarbons increased with temperature and in the presence of oxygen. Maximum formation of PAHs is observed at pyrolytic condition at the higher temperature. High levels of 2,4-, 2,6- and 2,4,6- bromophenols were found. The levels of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans have been detected in the ppm range. The most abundant isomers are 2,4,6,8-TeBDF in pyrolysis and 1,2,3,7,8-PeBDF in combustion. These results should be considered in the assessment of thermal treatment of materials containing <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22455446','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22455446"><span>Detection and speciation of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants in high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) polymers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holbrook, R D; Davis, J M; Scott, K C K; Szakal, C</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Polymeric materials have been suggested as possible environmental sources of persistent organic pollutants such as flame retardants. In situ, micrometre-scale characterization techniques for polymer matrix containing flame retardants may provide some insight into the dominant environmental transfer mechanism(s) of these <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compounds. In this work, we demonstrate that micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (μXRF), focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) are promising techniques for the elemental and chemical identification of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> fire retardant compounds (such as the deca-congener of polybrominated diphenyl ether, BDE-209) within polymeric materials (e.g. high-impact polystyrene or HIPS). Data from μXRF demonstrated that <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (Br) inclusions were evenly distributed throughout the HIPS samples, whereas FIB SEM-EDS analysis revealed that small antimony (Sb) and Br inclusions are present, and regionally higher concentrations of Br surround the Sb inclusions (compared to the bulk material). Four prominent mass-to-charge ratio peaks (m/z 485, 487, 489 and 491) that correspond to BDE-209 were identified by ToF-SIMS and can be used to chemically distinguish this molecule on the surface of polymeric materials with respect to other <span class="hlt">brominated</span> organic molecules. These techniques can be important in any study that investigates the route of entry to the environmental surroundings of BDE-containing materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23919304','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23919304"><span>Asymmetric <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-lithium exchange: application toward the synthesis of natural product.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Graff, Julien; Debande, Thibaut; Praz, Jézabel; Guénée, Laure; Alexakis, Alexandre</p> <p>2013-08-16</p> <p>Asymmetric <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-lithium exchange has been successfully employed to synthesize bicoumarin chiral building blocks of (+)-isokotanin A and (-)-kotanin in good yields and with an excellent level of enantioselectivity. This is the first reported example of formal syntheses, using this direct methodology, leading to the single (M)-atropoisomer of (+)-isokotanin A and (-)-kotanin building blocks, without any resolution step.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23268727','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23268727"><span><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> radical-mediated sequential radical rearrangement and addition reaction of alkylidenecyclopropanes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kippo, Takashi; Hamaoka, Kanako; Ryu, Ilhyong</p> <p>2013-01-16</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> radical-mediated cyclopropylcarbinyl-homoallyl rearrangement of alkylidenecyclopropanes was effectively accomplished by C-C bond formation with allylic bromides, which led to the syntheses of 2-bromo-1,6-dienes. A three-component coupling reaction comprising alkylidenecyclopropanes, allylic bromides, and carbon monoxide also proceeded well to give 2-bromo-1,7-dien-5-ones in good yield.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1259626','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1259626"><span>Thermoelectric properties of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> filled CoSb<sub>3</sub> skutterudite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ortiz, Brenden R.; Crawford, Caitlin M.; McKinney, Robert W.; Parilla, Philip A.; Toberer, Eric S.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Historically, the improved thermoelectric performance of skutterudite compounds has largely been driven by the incorporation of electropositive donors on interstitial sites. These 'rattlers' serve to optimize both electronic and thermal properties by tuning the carrier concentration and scattering phonons. In this work, we show that interstitial <span class="hlt">bromine</span> can be incorporated into CoSb3 and assess the impact on electronic and thermal transport. In contrast to prior high pressure syntheses with iodine, interstitial <span class="hlt">bromine</span> incorporation is achieved at ambient pressure. Transport properties are stable up to at least 375 degrees C. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> serves as an electronegative acceptor and can induce degenerate (>5 x 1019 cm-3) hole densities. In contrast to other p-type skutterudite compositions, <span class="hlt">bromine</span> preserves the intrinsically high hole mobility of CoSb3 while significantly reducing the lattice thermal conductivity. The development of a stable p-type dopant for the interstitial filler site enables the development of skutterudites with both donor and acceptor interstitials to maximize phonon scattering while maintaining the high mobility of CoSb3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22054146','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22054146"><span>Electron stimulated desorption of anions from native and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> single stranded oligonucleotide trimers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Polska, Katarzyna; Rak, Janusz; Bass, Andrew D.; Cloutier, Pierre; Sanche, Leon</p> <p>2012-02-21</p> <p>We measured the low energy electron stimulated desorption (ESD) of anions from thin films of native (TXT) and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> monosubstituted (TBrXT) oligonucleotide trimers deposited on a gold surface (T = thymidine, X = T, deoxycytidine (C), deoxyadenosine (A) or deoxyguanosine (G), Br = <span class="hlt">bromine</span>). The desorption of H{sup -}, CH{sub 3}{sup -}/NH{sup -}, O{sup -}/NH{sub 2}{sup -}, OH{sup -}, CN{sup -}, and Br{sup -} was induced by 0 to 20 eV electrons. Dissociative electron attachment, below 12 eV, and dipolar dissociation, above 12 eV, are responsible for the formation of these anions. The comparison of the results obtained for the native and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> trimers suggests that the main pathways of TBrXT degradation correspond to the release of the hydride and bromide anions. Significantly, the presence of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in oligonucleotide trimers blocks the electron-induced degradation of nuclobases as evidenced by a dramatic decrease in CN{sup -} desorption. An increase in the yields of OH{sup -} is also observed. The debromination yield of particular oligonucleotides diminishes in the following order: BrdU > BrdA > BrdG > BrdC. Based on these results, 5-bromo-2{sup '}-deoxyuridine appears to be the best radiosensitizer among the studied bromonucleosides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/840929','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/840929"><span>Final Report, "Laboratory Studies of the Role of Sea Salt <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> in Determining Tropospheric Ozone"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>B. J. Finlayson-Pitts</p> <p>2005-06-20</p> <p>This document is a final report for the project DE-FG03-98ER62578, "Laboratory Studies of the Role of Sea Salt <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> in Determining Tropospheric Ozone". It includes a technical summary, collaborations, educational contributions and the peer-reviewed scientific publications that have resulted from this research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018136','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018136"><span><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> incorporation factors for trihalomethane formation for the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Rathbun, R.E.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">bromine</span> incorporation factor describes the distribution of the four trihalomethane compounds in the mixture formed when a natural water is chlorinated. This factor was determined for the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers by chlorinating water samples at three levels each of pH and free chlorine concentration. Samples were collected during the summer, fall, and spring seasons of the year at 12 sites on the Mississippi River from Minneapolis, MN, to New Orleans, LA, and on the Missouri and Ohio Rivers 1.6 kilometers upstream from their confluences with the Mississippi. The <span class="hlt">bromine</span> incorporation factor increased as the bromide concentration increased, and decreased as the pH, initial free-chlorine and dissolved organic-carbon concentrations increased. Variation of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> incorporation factor with distance along the Mississippi River approximately paralleled the variation of the bromide concentration with distance along the river, with the Missouri River samples having the highest <span class="hlt">bromine</span> incorporation factors for all combinations of pH and free-chlorine concentration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=181648&keyword=Animal+AND+Behavior&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=181648&keyword=Animal+AND+Behavior&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>ACUTE POSTNATAL EXPOSURE TO <span class="hlt">BROMINATED</span> DIPHENYLETHER 47 DELAYS NEUROMOTOR ONTOGENY AND ALTERS MOTOR ACTIVITY IN MICE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used commercial flame retardants that are accumulating in the environment. 2,2’,4,4’-<span class="hlt">Brominated</span> diphenyl ether (BDE 47) is a very stable congener of this group and has been shown to accumulate in humans. PBDEs may interfere with...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=150287&keyword=deca&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78279288&CFTOKEN=25382363','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=150287&keyword=deca&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78279288&CFTOKEN=25382363"><span><span class="hlt">BROMINATED</span> FLAME RETARDANTS: WHAT WE KNOW, AND WHAT WE DON�T</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) represent a large and diverse class of high volume industrial chemicals which have been developed to provide fire safety. There are many other BFRs which have been used and are under development. Historically, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) w...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-10670.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-10670.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10670 - <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>, manufacture of, by-products from, distillation residues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... from, distillation residues. 721.10670 Section 721.10670 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., distillation residues. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, manufacture of, by-products from, distillation residues (PMN...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-10670.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-10670.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10670 - <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>, manufacture of, by-products from, distillation residues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... from, distillation residues. 721.10670 Section 721.10670 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., distillation residues. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, manufacture of, by-products from, distillation residues (PMN...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22236948','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22236948"><span>Degradation of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardant in computer housing plastic by supercritical fluids.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Yanmin; Zhang, Fu-Shen</p> <p>2012-02-29</p> <p>The degradation process of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardant (BFR) and BFR-containing waste computer housing plastic in various supercritical fluids (water, methanol, isopropanol and acetone) was investigated. The results showed that the debromination and degradation efficiencies, final products were greatly affected by the solvent type. Among the four tested solvents, isopropanol was the most suitable solvent for the recovery of oil from BFR-containing plastic for its (1) excellent debromination effectiveness (debromination efficiency 95.7%), (2) high oil production (60.0%) and (3) mild temperature and pressure requirements. However, in this case, the removed <span class="hlt">bromine</span> mostly existed in the oil. Introduction of KOH into the sc-isopropanol could capture almost all the inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> from the oil thus <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-free oil could be obtained. Furthermore, KOH could enhance the depolymerization of the plastic. The obtained oil mainly consisted of single- and duplicate-ringed aromatic compounds in a carbon range of C9-C17, which had alkyl substituents or aliphatic bridges, such as butyl-benzene, (3-methylbutyl)-benzene, 1,1'-(1,3-propanediyl)bis benzene. Phenol, alkyl phenols and esters were the major oxygen-containing compounds in the oil. This study provides an efficient approach for debromination and simultaneous recovering valuable chemicals from BFR-containing plastic in e-waste. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18762319','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18762319"><span>Formation of estrogenic <span class="hlt">brominated</span> ethinylestradiol in drinking water: implications for aquatic toxicity testing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Flores, Anel; Hill, Elizabeth M</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>17alpha-Ethinylestradiol (EE2) is a synthetic estrogen which is thought to contribute the feminisation of fish exposed to wastewater effluents. During laboratory exposure studies of fish to EE2, it was observed that the estrogen in the aquarium water was rapidly transformed (within 10 min) to mono- and di-<span class="hlt">brominated</span> A-ring products. Exposure of roach (Rutilis rutilus) to 30 ng L(-1) EE2 resulted in accumulation of dibrominated EE2 in ovaries (apparent bioconcentration factor, BCF 130) and liver (apparent BCF 7894) at concentrations which were 18-67-fold greater than the test EE2 compound. The estrogenic activities of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> EE2 compounds were tested in an in vitro yeast recombinant estrogen receptor transcription screen (YES). All the <span class="hlt">brominated</span> products of EE2 were estrogenic, however monobrominated isomers of EE2 were 18-105-fold less estrogenic, and dibrominated EE2 2058-fold less active in the YES than EE2 itself. This study reveals the importance of using chemical methods to verify exposure concentrations of waterborne test chemicals and suggests that <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of estrogens may occur during water treatment, potentially resulting in the formation of bioavailable estrogenic environmental contaminants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26653245','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26653245"><span>[Determination of total <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> in urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Changmei; Zhu, Hangju; Liu, Deye; Miao, Rongming; Ying, Lihong; Zhu, Baoli</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>To establish a method to determine total <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in urine. Diluted urine samples were directly introduced into ICP-MS then quantized by standard curve. Total <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in urine was linear within 1.0~50 mg/L with r > 0.999, When spiked at a concentration of 0.020 mg/L, 0.050 mg/L, 0.150 mg/L, the recovery was 95%~98%, intra-assay precision was 1.4% 3.2%, inter-assay precision was 3.4% to 5.0%. Urine could store in -20 °C refrigerator 3 months without any <span class="hlt">bromine</span> loss. Using ICP-MS to determine the urinary total <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, the method is fast, accurate, wide linear range of features, could meet with the requirement of Part 5 of occupational health standards guide: Method determination of chemical substances in biological materials (GBZ/T 210.5-2008), a strong competitive advantage in a wide range of survey, suitable for promotion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=169744','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=169744"><span>Initial fast reaction of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> on reovirus in turbulent flowing water.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sharp, D G; Floyd, R; Johnson, J D</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>An apparatus is described for precise observation of the kinetics of the initial fast reaction of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> with reovirus in turbulent flowing water. When quantitative electron microscopy shows that virus suspensions are essentially all single particles, the loss of infectivity follows first-order kinetics, the plaque titer falling at the rate of 3 log10 units/s at pH 7, 2 C, and at a 3-muM <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentration. Virus suspensions containing small aggregates (2 to 10/clump) exhibit a constantly decreasing disinfection rate with <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. At a survival level of 10(-3) for single virions, the aggregated preparations have lost only 99% of their plaque titer and 10(-4) is reached only after 4 s of exposure. The disinfection rate does not appear to be a simple function of the size and frequency of aggregates in the virus suspension even when the aggregates contain no foreign material. Unpurified virus preparations (crude freeze-thaw lysates of infected cells) are shown, by zonal centrifugation, to contain 50% to over 90% of the infectivity in large, fast sedimenting aggregates. Such aggregates would strongly influence the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> resistance of virus in polluted water. PMID:11743</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...633925S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...633925S"><span>Canadian Arctic sea ice reconstructed from <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the Greenland NEEM ice core</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Spolaor, Andrea; Vallelonga, Paul; Turetta, Clara; Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Cozzi, Giulio; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Barbante, Carlo; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Reconstructing the past variability of Arctic sea ice provides an essential context for recent multi-year sea ice decline, although few quantitative reconstructions cover the Holocene period prior to the earliest historical records 1,200 years ago. Photochemical recycling of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is observed over first-year, or seasonal, sea ice in so-called “<span class="hlt">bromine</span> explosions” and we employ a 1-D chemistry transport model to quantify processes of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> enrichment over first-year sea ice and depositional transport over multi-year sea ice and land ice. We report <span class="hlt">bromine</span> enrichment in the Northwest Greenland Eemian NEEM ice core since the end of the Eemian interglacial 120,000 years ago, finding the maximum extension of first-year sea ice occurred approximately 9,000 years ago during the Holocene climate optimum, when Greenland temperatures were 2 to 3 °C above present values. First-year sea ice extent was lowest during the glacial stadials suggesting complete coverage of the Arctic Ocean by multi-year sea ice. These findings demonstrate a clear relationship between temperature and first-year sea ice extent in the Arctic and suggest multi-year sea ice will continue to decline as polar amplification drives Arctic temperatures beyond the 2 °C global average warming target of the recent COP21 Paris climate agreement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...1417857F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...1417857F"><span><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> partitioning in the tropical tropopause layer: implications for stratospheric injection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fernandez, R. P.; Salawitch, R. J.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Saiz-Lopez, A.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Very short-lived (VSL) bromocarbons are produced at a prodigious rate by ocean biology and these source compounds (SGVSL), together with their degradation inorganic products (PGVSL), are lofted by vigorous convection to the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Using a state-of-the-art photochemical mechanism within a global model, we calculate annual average stratospheric injection of total <span class="hlt">bromine</span> due to VSL sources to be 5 pptv, with ~3 pptv entering the stratosphere as PGVSL and ~2 pptv as SGVSL. The geographic distribution and partitioning of VSL <span class="hlt">bromine</span> within the TTL, and its consequent stratospheric injection, is highly dependent on the oceanic flux, the strength of convection and the occurrence of heterogeneous recycling reactions. Our calculations indicate atomic Br should be the dominant inorganic species in large regions of the TTL during daytime, due to the low ozone and cold conditions of this region. We propose the existence of a "tropical ring of atomic <span class="hlt">bromine</span>" located approximately between 15 and 19 km and 30° N to 30° S. Daytime Br / BrO ratios of up to ~4 are predicted within the Br ring in regions of highly convective transport, such as the tropical Western Pacific. Then, we suggest experimental programs designed to quantify the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> budget of the TTL and the stratospheric injection of VSL biogenic bromocarbons should include a strategy for the measurement of atomic Br during daytime and HOBr or BrCl during nighttime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....1413391F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....1413391F"><span><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> partitioning in the tropical tropopause layer: implications for stratospheric injection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fernandez, R. P.; Salawitch, R. J.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Saiz-Lopez, A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Very short-lived (VSL) bromocarbons are produced at a prodigious rate by ocean biology and these source compounds (SGVSL), together with their inorganic degradation products (PGVSL), are lofted by vigorous convection to the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Using a state-of-the-art photochemical mechanism within a global model, we calculate annual average stratospheric injection of total <span class="hlt">bromine</span> due to VSL sources to be 5 pptv (parts per trillion by volume), with ~ 3 pptv entering the stratosphere as PGVSL and ~ 2 pptv as SGVSL. The geographic distribution and partitioning of VSL <span class="hlt">bromine</span> within the TTL, and its consequent stratospheric injection, is highly dependent on the oceanic flux, the strength of convection and the occurrence of heterogeneous recycling reactions. Our calculations indicate atomic Br should be the dominant inorganic species in large regions of the TTL during daytime, due to the low ozone and cold conditions of this region. We propose the existence of a "tropical ring of atomic <span class="hlt">bromine</span>" located approximately between 15 and 19 km and between 30° N and 30° S. Daytime Br / BrO ratios of up to ~ 4 are predicted within this inhomogeneous ring in regions of highly convective transport, such as the tropical Western Pacific. Therefore, we suggest that experimental programs designed to quantify the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> budget of the TTL and the stratospheric injection of VSL biogenic bromocarbons should include a strategy for the measurement of atomic Br during daytime as well as HOBr and BrCl during nighttime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22360262','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22360262"><span>Electron stimulated desorption of anions from native and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> single stranded oligonucleotide trimers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Polska, Katarzyna; Rak, Janusz; Bass, Andrew D; Cloutier, Pierre; Sanche, Léon</p> <p>2012-02-21</p> <p>We measured the low energy electron stimulated desorption (ESD) of anions from thin films of native (TXT) and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> monosubstituted (TBrXT) oligonucleotide trimers deposited on a gold surface (T = thymidine, X = T, deoxycytidine (C), deoxyadenosine (A) or deoxyguanosine (G), Br = <span class="hlt">bromine</span>). The desorption of H(-), CH(3)(-)/NH(-), O(-)/NH(2)(-), OH(-), CN(-), and Br(-) was induced by 0 to 20 eV electrons. Dissociative electron attachment, below 12 eV, and dipolar dissociation, above 12 eV, are responsible for the formation of these anions. The comparison of the results obtained for the native and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> trimers suggests that the main pathways of TBrXT degradation correspond to the release of the hydride and bromide anions. Significantly, the presence of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in oligonucleotide trimers blocks the electron-induced degradation of nuclobases as evidenced by a dramatic decrease in CN(-) desorption. An increase in the yields of OH(-) is also observed. The debromination yield of particular oligonucleotides diminishes in the following order: BrdU > BrdA > BrdG > BrdC. Based on these results, 5-bromo-2(')-deoxyuridine appears to be the best radiosensitizer among the studied bromonucleosides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22153961','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22153961"><span>Exposure levels to <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compounds in seawater swimming pools treated with chlorine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Parinet, Julien; Tabaries, Sophie; Coulomb, Bruno; Vassalo, Laurent; Boudenne, Jean-Luc</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Despite evidence of formation of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compounds in seawater swimming pools treated with chlorine, no data about exposure levels to these compounds have been reported. To address this issue, a survey has been carried out in four establishments (representing 8 pools) fed with seawater and devoted to relaxing and cure treatments (thalassotherapy centres located in Southeast of France). Carcinogenic and mutagenic <span class="hlt">brominated</span> disinfection byproducts (trihalomethanes -THM- and halogenated acetic acids -HAA-) were quantified at varying levels, statistically related to organic loadings brought by bathers, and not from marine organic matter, and also linked to activities carried out in the pools (watergym vs swimming). Bromoform and dibromoacetic acid, the most abundant THM and HAA detected, were measured at levels up to 18-fold greater than the maximum contaminant levels of 60 and 80 μg/L fixed by US.EPA in drinking waters. The correlations between these disinfection byproducts and other environmental factors such as nitrogen, pH, temperature, free residual chlorine, UV(254), chloride and bromide concentrations, and daily frequentation were examined. Because thalassotherapy and seawater swimming pools (hotels, cruise ships,…) are increasing in use around the world and because carcinogenic and mutagenic <span class="hlt">brominated</span> byproducts may be produced in chlorinated seawater swimming pools, specific care should be taken to assure cleanliness of users (swimmers and patients taking the waters) and to increase water circulation through media filters to reduce levels of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> byproducts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-10416.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-10416.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10416 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyphenyl ether (generic) (P-11-264).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10416 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyphenyl ether (generic) (P-11-264). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=181648&keyword=hyperactivity&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90659009&CFTOKEN=45687671','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=181648&keyword=hyperactivity&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90659009&CFTOKEN=45687671"><span>ACUTE POSTNATAL EXPOSURE TO <span class="hlt">BROMINATED</span> DIPHENYLETHER 47 DELAYS NEUROMOTOR ONTOGENY AND ALTERS MOTOR ACTIVITY IN MICE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used commercial flame retardants that are accumulating in the environment. 2,2’,4,4’-<span class="hlt">Brominated</span> diphenyl ether (BDE 47) is a very stable congener of this group and has been shown to accumulate in humans. PBDEs may interfere with...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24261546','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24261546"><span>A scalable procedure for light-induced benzylic <span class="hlt">brominations</span> in continuous flow.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cantillo, David; de Frutos, Oscar; Rincon, Juan A; Mateos, Carlos; Kappe, C Oliver</p> <p>2014-01-03</p> <p>A continuous-flow protocol for the <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of benzylic compounds with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) is presented. The radical reactions were activated with a readily available household compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) using a simple flow reactor design based on transparent fluorinated ethylene polymer (FEP) tubing. All of the reactions were carried out using acetonitrile as the solvent, thus avoiding hazardous chlorinated solvents such as CCl4. For each substrate, only 1.05 equiv of NBS was necessary to fully transform the benzylic starting material into the corresponding bromide. The general character of the procedure was demonstrated by <span class="hlt">brominating</span> a diverse set of 19 substrates containing different functional groups. Good to excellent isolated yields were obtained in all cases. The novel flow protocol can be readily scaled to multigram quantities by operating the reactor for longer time periods (throughput 30 mmol h(-1)), which is not easily possible in batch photochemical reactors. The <span class="hlt">bromination</span> protocol can also be performed with equal efficiency in a larger flow reactor utilizing a more powerful lamp. For the <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of phenylacetone as a model, a productivity of 180 mmol h(-1) for the desired bromide was achieved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28242530','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28242530"><span>Unintentional production of persistent chlorinated and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> organic pollutants during iron ore sintering processes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Sumei; Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Li, Jinhui; Wang, Mei; Li, Changliang; Chen, Yuan</p> <p>2017-06-05</p> <p>Iron ore sintering (SNT) processes are major sources of unintentionally produced chlorinated persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). However, few studies of emissions of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> POPs, such as polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), during SNT have been performed. Stack gas and fly ash samples from six typical SNT plants in China were collected and analyzed to determine the concentrations and profiles of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PCNs, PBDD/Fs, and PBDEs, as well as any correlations among these compounds. The PCDD/F, PCB, PCN, PBDD/F, and PBDE emission factors were 2.47, 0.61, 552, 0.32, and 107μgt(-1), respectively (109, 4.07, 10.4, 4.41 and 0.02ng toxic equivalents t(-1), respectively). PCBs were the most abundant compounds by mass, while PCNs were the next most abundant, contributing 51% and 42% to the total POP concentration, respectively. However, PCDD/Fs were the dominant contributors to the chlorinated and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> POP toxic equivalent concentrations, contributing 89% to the total toxic equivalent concentration. The PCDD/F and other chlorinated and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> POP concentrations were positively correlated, indicating that chlorinated and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> POP emissions could be synergistically decreased using the best available technologies/best environmental practices already developed for PCDD/Fs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=333133&keyword=obesity+AND+children&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=333133&keyword=obesity+AND+children&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Using the parallelogram approach to estimate human percutaneous bioavailability for novel & legacy <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>(This is an extended abstract. The following text was taken from the Discussion and Conclusion section.) Humans are frequently exposed to <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs), especially via dermal contact with contaminated dust. Human and rat skin data were integrated using a pa...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910782B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910782B"><span>Observations of a <span class="hlt">bromine</span> explosion event coincident with the arrival of Arctic haze in the Canadian high Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bognar, Kristof; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Strong, Kimberly; Hayes, Patrick L.; Tremblay, Samantha; Chang, Rachel Y.-W.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Exponential build-up of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the polar troposphere is linked to severe multi-day ozone depletion events in springtime. The exact origins of, and the meteorological conditions required for these '<span class="hlt">bromine</span> explosions' are, however, not well understood. On March 19-21, 2016, a <span class="hlt">bromine</span> explosion was detected at Eureka, Nunavut, Canada (80.1°N, 86.4°W). BrO slant column densities were retrieved from measurements made by a Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy spectrometer. Ozonesonde data indicate that a compete depletion of near-surface ozone also took place in the same period. The <span class="hlt">bromine</span> explosion was initiated by strong winds and blowing snow, while a stable boundary layer returned for the last day of the event. It is likely that <span class="hlt">bromine</span> release was localized near Eureka, and both the snowpack and aerosols contributed. Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer data show that the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> enhancement coincided with the onset of an Arctic haze event. This work investigates whether acidification from the haze contributed to the local release of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19970003495&hterms=Decrease&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DDecrease','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19970003495&hterms=Decrease&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DDecrease"><span>Room-Temperature Fluorine-Induced Decrease in the Stability of <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> and Iodine Intercalated Carbon Fibers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hung, Ching-Cheh</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Upon exposure to room-temperature fluorine, intercalated carbon fibers (containing either <span class="hlt">bromine</span> alone or iodine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> together) become heavier and less stable. For Amoco P-100 graphitized carbon fibers, which were intercalated with 18 wt percent <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, 1 hour of fluorine exposure resulted in a large weight increase but caused only a small decrease in thermal stability. An additional 89 hours of fluorine exposure time resulted in small additional increases in fiber weight, but significant further decreases in fiber thermal stability. Such phenomena of weight increase and stability decrease do not occur if the intercalated fibers are exposed to 250 C fluorine. These observations suggest that, at room temperature, fluorine is absorbed quickly by the intercalated fibers and is intercalated slowly into the fibers. Most of the original intercalates are replaced by fluorine in the process of fluorine intercalation. In an inert environment, the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> intercalated fibers are much more thermally stable. After 800 C vacuum heating for 2 weeks, the <span class="hlt">brominated</span> fibers lost about 45% of their <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, and their resistivity increased from 64 mu(Omega)-cm to a range of 95-170 mu(Omega)-cm. This is still much lower than the value of 300 mu(Omega)-cm for pristine P-100. For practical purposes, to preserve their thermal stability, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> fibers need to be protected from exposure to fluorine at room temperature or to any intercalate at a temperature where, upon direct contact with graphite, an intercalation compound can easily be formed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19970003495&hterms=iodine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Diodine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19970003495&hterms=iodine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Diodine"><span>Room-Temperature Fluorine-Induced Decrease in the Stability of <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> and Iodine Intercalated Carbon Fibers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hung, Ching-Cheh</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Upon exposure to room-temperature fluorine, intercalated carbon fibers (containing either <span class="hlt">bromine</span> alone or iodine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> together) become heavier and less stable. For Amoco P-100 graphitized carbon fibers, which were intercalated with 18 wt percent <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, 1 hour of fluorine exposure resulted in a large weight increase but caused only a small decrease in thermal stability. An additional 89 hours of fluorine exposure time resulted in small additional increases in fiber weight, but significant further decreases in fiber thermal stability. Such phenomena of weight increase and stability decrease do not occur if the intercalated fibers are exposed to 250 C fluorine. These observations suggest that, at room temperature, fluorine is absorbed quickly by the intercalated fibers and is intercalated slowly into the fibers. Most of the original intercalates are replaced by fluorine in the process of fluorine intercalation. In an inert environment, the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> intercalated fibers are much more thermally stable. After 800 C vacuum heating for 2 weeks, the <span class="hlt">brominated</span> fibers lost about 45% of their <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, and their resistivity increased from 64 mu(Omega)-cm to a range of 95-170 mu(Omega)-cm. This is still much lower than the value of 300 mu(Omega)-cm for pristine P-100. For practical purposes, to preserve their thermal stability, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> fibers need to be protected from exposure to fluorine at room temperature or to any intercalate at a temperature where, upon direct contact with graphite, an intercalation compound can easily be formed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4624G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4624G"><span><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> release from blowing snow and its impact on tropospheric chemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Griffiths, Paul; Yang, Xin; Abraham, N. Luke; Archibald, Alexander; Pyle, John</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In the last two decades, significant depletion of boundary layer ozone (ozone depletion events, ODEs) has been observed in both Arctic and Antarctic spring. ODEs are attributed to catalytic destruction by <span class="hlt">bromine</span> radicals (Br plus BrO), especially during <span class="hlt">bromine</span> explosion events (BEs), when high concentrations of BrO periodically occur. The source of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and the mechanism that sustains the high BrO levels are still the subject of study. Recent work by Pratt et al. (2013) posits Br2 production within saline snow and sea ice which leads to sudden ODEs. Previously, Yang et al. (2008) suggested snow could provide a source of (depleted) sea-salt aerosol if wicked from the surface of ice. They suggest that rapid depletion of bromide from the aerosol will constitute a source of photochemical Bry. Given the large sea ice extent in polar regions, this may constitute a significant source of sea salt and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the polar lower atmosphere. While <span class="hlt">bromine</span> release from blowing snow is perhaps less likely to trigger sudden ODEs, it may make a contribution to regional scale processes affecting ozone levels. Currently, the model parameterisations of Yang et al. assumes that rapid release of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> occurs from fresh snow on sea ice during periods of strong wind. The parameterisation depends on an assumed sea-salt aerosol distribution generated via sublimation of the snow above the boundary layer, as well as taking into account the salinity of the snow. In this work, we draw on recent measurements by scientists from the British Antarctic Survey during a cruise aboard the Polarstern in the southern oceans. This has provided an extensive set of measurements of the chemical and physical characteristics of blowing snow over sea ice, and of the aerosol associated with it. Based on the observations, we have developed an improved parameterisation of the release of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> from blowing snow. The paper presents results from the simulation performed using the United Kingdom Chemistry</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982acs..meet...12R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982acs..meet...12R"><span>Separation of selected stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> by liquid-phase thermal diffusion and by chemical exchange</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rutherford, W. M.; Jepson, B. E.; Michaels, E. D.</p> <p></p> <p>Useful applications of enriched stable nuclides are unduly restricted by high cost and limited availability. Recent research on liquid phase thermal diffusion (LTD) has resulted in practical processes for separating S34, CL35, and CL37 in significant quantities (100 to 500 g/yr) at costs much lower than those associated with the electromagnetic (Calutron) process. The separation of the <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> by LTD is now in progress and BR79 is being produced in relatively simple equivalent at a rate on the order of 0.5 g/day. The results of recent measurements show that the <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> of Zn can be separated by LTD of zinc alkyls. The <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> of calcium can be separated by LTD and by chemical exchange. The LTD process is based on the use of aqueous Ca(NO3)2 as a working fluid.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4031314','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4031314"><span>Method for separating <span class="hlt">isotopes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Jepson, B.E.</p> <p>1975-10-21</p> <p><span class="hlt">Isotopes</span> are separated by contacting a feed solution containing the <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> with a cyclic polyether wherein a complex of one <span class="hlt">isotope</span> is formed with the cyclic polyether, the cyclic polyether complex is extracted from the feed solution, and the <span class="hlt">isotope</span> is thereafter separated from the cyclic polyether.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C11D..04T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C11D..04T"><span>3-D Modeling of <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Chemistry and Its Impacts on Ozone and Mercury in the Arctic Boundary Layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Toyota, K.; Ryzhkov, A.; Dastoor, A.; Stroud, C.; Chen, J.; Zhang, J.; Lupu, A.; Savic-Jovcic, V.; Zheng, Q.; Moran, M. D.; McLinden, C. A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Gas-phase <span class="hlt">bromine</span> radical chemistry is the main driver for the frequent and concurrent depletion of ozone and mercury (Hg) from surface air in polar regions during the spring. Sea ice and its overlying snow cover are broadly understood as the key elements in the production of reactive <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in polar spring. However, a full characterization remains on how physicochemical states of snow and ice influence the release of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> into the atmosphere. Uncertainties in the kinetics and reaction mechanisms of Hg redox chemistry add further complexity to an accurate assessment of the behavior of Hg during its depletion from air. Three-dimensional (3-D) models have been developed to simulate the impact of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> chemistry on Hg oxidation at both global and arctic-basin regional scales. However, thus far, such models have relied upon simplified and indirect representations of the release of gaseous <span class="hlt">bromine</span> from snow/ice, its photochemical transformation to radical species and eventual deposition from the polar atmosphere. Within Environment and Climate Change Canada's operational air-quality model, GEM-MACH, we have developed a process-oriented representation for the coupled <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-ozone-mercury chemistry and the exchange of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, ozone and mercury species between air and snow/ice surface. The model is run at 15-km horizontal resolution in a limited-area domain of the Arctic and is capable of capturing the evolution of high BrO columns associated with synoptic weather disturbances during polar sunrise as can be seen from satellite. The concurrent depletion of ozone and Hg is simulated by consistent model formulations, where the release of reactive <span class="hlt">bromine</span> from the frozen surfaces is facilitated by the presence of ozone in air. We will show and discuss the impact of using our process-oriented representation of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and Hg chemistry on the spatial and temporal patterns of deposition of oxidized Hg during depletion events and as seasonal averages.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22300378','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22300378"><span>Distribution of copper, silver and gold during thermal treatment with <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Oleszek, Sylwia; Grabda, Mariusz; Shibata, Etsuro; Nakamura, Takashi</p> <p>2013-09-15</p> <p>Highlights: • Copper, silver and gold during thermal treatment with <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants. • Distribution of copper, silver and gold during thermal processing. • Thermodynamic considerations of the <span class="hlt">bromination</span> reactions. - Abstract: The growing consumption of electric and electronic equipment results in creating an increasing amount of electronic waste. The most economically and environmentally advantageous methods for the treatment and recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) are the thermal techniques such as direct combustion, co-combustion with plastic wastes, pyrolysis and gasification. Nowadays, this kind of waste is mainly thermally treated in incinerators (e.g. rotary kilns) to decompose the plastics present, and to concentrate metals in bottom ash. The concentrated metals (e.g. copper, precious metals) can be supplied as a secondary raw material to metal smelters, while the pyrolysis of plastics allows the recovery of fuel gases, volatilising agents and, eventually, energy. Indeed, WEEE, such as a printed circuit boards (PCBs) usually contains <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs). From these materials, hydrobromic acid (HBr) is formed as a product of their thermal decomposition. In the present work, the <span class="hlt">bromination</span> was studied of copper, silver and gold by HBr, originating from BFRs, such as Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and Tetrabromobisphenol A-Tetrabromobisophenol A diglycidyl ether (TTDE) polymer; possible volatilization of the bromides formed was monitored using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a laboratory-scale furnace for treating samples of metals and BFRs under an inert atmosphere and at a wide range of temperatures. The results obtained indicate that up to about 50% of copper and silver can evolve from sample residues in the form of volatile CuBr and AgBr above 600 and 1000 °C, respectively. The reactions occur in the molten resin phase simultaneously with the decomposition of the <span class="hlt">brominated</span> resin. Gold is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121..457Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121..457Z"><span>A case study of a transported <span class="hlt">bromine</span> explosion event in the Canadian high arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, X.; Strong, K.; Adams, C.; Schofield, R.; Yang, X.; Richter, A.; Friess, U.; Blechschmidt, A.-M.; Koo, J.-H.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Ozone depletion events in the polar troposphere have been linked to extremely high concentrations of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, known as <span class="hlt">bromine</span> explosion events (BEE). However, the optimum meteorological conditions for the occurrence of these events remain uncertain. On 4-5 April 2011, a combination of both blowing snow and a stable shallow boundary layer was observed during a BEE at Eureka, Canada (86.4°W, 80.1°N). Measurements made by a Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy spectrometer were used to retrieve BrO profiles and partial columns. During this event, the near-surface BrO volume mixing ratio increased to ~20 parts per trillion by volume, while ozone was depleted to ~1 ppbv from the surface to 700 m. Back trajectories and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 satellite tropospheric BrO columns confirmed that this event originated from a <span class="hlt">bromine</span> explosion over the Beaufort Sea. From 30 to 31 March, meteorological data showed high wind speeds (24 m/s) and elevated boundary layer heights (~800 m) over the Beaufort Sea. Long-distance transportation (~1800 km over 5 days) to Eureka indicated strong recycling of BrO within the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> plume. This event was generally captured by a global chemistry-climate model when a sea-salt <span class="hlt">bromine</span> source from blowing snow was included. A model sensitivity study indicated that the surface BrO at Eureka was controlled by both local photochemistry and boundary layer dynamics. Comparison of the model results with both ground-based and satellite measurements confirmed that the BEE observed at Eureka was triggered by transport of enhanced BrO from the Beaufort Sea followed by local production/recycling under stable atmospheric shallow boundary layer conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17941114','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17941114"><span>Determination of iodine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> compounds in foodstuffs by CE-inductively coupled plasma MS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Jing-Huan; Wang, Kai-en; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen</p> <p>2007-11-01</p> <p>A CE-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (CE-ICP-MS) method for iodine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> speciation analysis is described. Samples containing ionic iodine (I(-) and IO(3)(-)) and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (Br(-) and BrO(3)(-)) species are subjected to electrophoretic separation before injection into the microconcentric nebulizer (CEI-100). The separation has been achieved in a 50 cm length x 75 microm id fused-silica capillary. The electrophoretic buffer used is 10 mmol/L Tris (pH 8.0), while the applied voltage is set at -8 kV. Detection limits are 1 and 20-50 ng/mL for various I and Br compounds, respectively, based on peak height. The RSD of the peak areas for seven injections of 0.1 microg/mL I(-), IO(3)(-) and 1 microg/mL Br(-), BrO(3)(-) mixture is in the range of 3-5%. This method has been applied to determine various iodine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> species in NIST SRM 1573a Tomato Leaves reference material and a salt and seaweed samples obtained locally. A microwave-assisted extraction method is used for the extraction of these compounds. Over 87% of the total iodine and 83% of the total <span class="hlt">bromine</span> are extracted using a 10% m/v tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) solution in a focused microwave field within a period of 10 min. The spike recoveries are in the range of 94-105% for all the determinations. The major species of iodine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in tomato leaves, salt, and seaweed are Br(-), IO(3)(-), I(-), and Br(-), respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmEn.155...21L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmEn.155...21L"><span>Enhanced ozone loss by active inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> chemistry in the tropical troposphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Le Breton, Michael; Bannan, Thomas J.; Shallcross, Dudley E.; Khan, M. Anwar; Evans, Mathew J.; Lee, James; Lidster, Richard; Andrews, Stephen; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Schmidt, Johan; Jacob, Daniel; Harris, Neil R. P.; Bauguitte, Stephane; Gallagher, Martin; Bacak, Asan; Leather, Kimberley E.; Percival, Carl J.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> chemistry, particularly in the tropics, has been suggested to play an important role in tropospheric ozone loss although a lack of measurements of active <span class="hlt">bromine</span> species impedes a quantitative understanding of its impacts. Recent modelling and measurements of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> monoxide (BrO) by Wang et al. (2015) have shown current models under predict BrO concentrations over the Pacific Ocean and allude to a missing source of BrO. Here, we present the first simultaneous aircraft measurements of atmospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> monoxide, BrO (a radical that along with atomic Br catalytically destroys ozone) and the inorganic Br precursor compounds HOBr, BrCl and Br2 over the Western Pacific Ocean from 0.5 to 7 km. The presence of 0.17-1.64 pptv BrO and 3.6-8 pptv total inorganic Br from these four species throughout the troposphere causes 10-20% of total ozone loss, and confirms the importance of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> chemistry in the tropical troposphere; contributing to a 6 ppb decrease in ozone levels due to halogen chemistry. Observations are compared with a global chemical transport model and find that the observed high levels of BrO, BrCl and HOBr can be reconciled by active multiphase oxidation of halide (Br- and Cl-) by HOBr and ozone in cloud droplets and aerosols. Measurements indicate that 99% of the instantaneous free Br in the troposphere up to 8 km originates from inorganic halogen photolysis rather than from photolysis of organobromine species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22472504','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22472504"><span>Monitoring of WEEE plastics in regards to <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants using handheld XRF</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aldrian, Alexia; Ledersteger, Alfred; Pomberger, Roland</p> <p>2015-02-15</p> <p>Highlights: • Specification of an empirical factor for conversion from <span class="hlt">bromine</span> to PBB and PBDE. • The handheld XRF device was validated for this particular application. • A very large number of over 4600 pieces of monitor housings was analysed. • The recyclable fraction mounts up to 85% for TV but only 53% of PC waste plastics. • A high percentage of pieces with <span class="hlt">bromine</span> contents of over 50,000 ppm was obtained. - Abstract: This contribution is focused on the on-site determination of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> content in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), in particular waste plastics from television sets (TV) and personal computer monitors (PC) using a handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) device. The described approach allows the examination of samples in regards to the compliance with legal specifications for polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) directly after disassembling and facilitates the sorting out of plastics with high contents of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs). In all, over 3000 pieces of black (TV) and 1600 pieces of grey (PC) plastic waste were analysed with handheld XRF technique for this study. Especially noticeable was the high percentage of pieces with a <span class="hlt">bromine</span> content of over 50,000 ppm for TV (7%) and PC (39%) waste plastics. The applied method was validated by comparing the data of handheld XRF with results obtained by GC–MS. The results showed the expected and sufficiently accurate correlation between these two methods. It is shown that handheld XRF technique is an effective tool for fast monitoring of large volumes of WEEE plastics in regards to BFRs for on-site measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=106231','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=106231"><span><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> Biphenyls Prime Extensive Microbial Reductive Dehalogenation of Aroclor 1260 in Housatonic River Sediment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bedard, Donna L.; Van Dort, Heidi; Deweerd, Kim A.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The upper Housatonic River and Woods Pond (Lenox, Mass.), a shallow impoundment on the river, are contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the residue of partially dechlorinated Aroclor 1260. Certain PCB congeners have the ability to activate or “prime” anaerobic microorganisms in Woods Pond sediment to reductively dehalogenate the Aroclor 1260 residue. We proposed that <span class="hlt">brominated</span> biphenyls might have the same effect and tested the priming activities of 14 mono-, di-, and tribrominated biphenyls (350 μM) in anaerobic microcosms of sediment from Woods Pond. All of the <span class="hlt">brominated</span> biphenyls were completely dehalogenated to biphenyl, and 13 of them primed PCB dechlorination. Measured in terms of chlorine removal and decrease in the proportion of hexa- through nonachlorobiphenyls, the microbial PCB dechlorination primed by several <span class="hlt">brominated</span> biphenyls was nearly twice as effective as that primed by chlorinated biphenyls. Congeners containing a meta <span class="hlt">bromine</span> primed Dechlorination Process N (flanked meta dechlorination), and congeners containing an unflanked para <span class="hlt">bromine</span> primed Dechlorination Process P (flanked para dechlorination). Two ortho-substituted congeners, 2-bromobiphenyl and 2,6-dibromobiphenyl (2-BB and 26-BB), also primed Process N dechlorination. The most effective primers were 26-BB, 245-BB, 25-3-BB, and 25-4-BB. The microbial dechlorination primed by 26-BB converted ∼75% of the hexa- through nonachlorobiphenyls to tri- and tetrachlorobiphenyls in 100 days and removed ∼75% of the PCBs that are most persistent in humans. These results represent a major step toward identifying an effective method for accelerating PCB dechlorination in situ. The challenge now is to identify naturally occurring compounds that are safe and effective primers. PMID:9572952</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24308807','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24308807"><span>Boiling of simulated tap water: effect on polar <span class="hlt">brominated</span> disinfection byproducts, halogen speciation, and cytotoxicity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pan, Yang; Zhang, Xiangru; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Osiol, Jennifer; Plewa, Michael J</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Tap water typically contains numerous halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) as a result of disinfection, especially of chlorination. Among halogenated DBPs, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> ones are generally significantly more toxic than their chlorinated analogues. In this study, with the aid of ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry by setting precursor ion scans of m/z 79/81, whole spectra of polar <span class="hlt">brominated</span> DBPs in simulated tap water samples without and with boiling were revealed. Most polar <span class="hlt">brominated</span> DBPs were thermally unstable and their levels were substantially reduced after boiling via decarboxylation or hydrolysis; the levels of a few aromatic <span class="hlt">brominated</span> DBPs increased after boiling through decarboxylation of their precursors. A novel adsorption unit for volatile total organic halogen was designed, which enabled the evaluation of halogen speciation and mass balances in the simulated tap water samples during boiling. After boiling for 5 min, the overall level of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> DBPs was reduced by 62.8%, of which 39.8% was volatilized and 23.0% was converted to bromide; the overall level of chlorinated DBPs was reduced by 61.1%, of which 44.4% was volatilized and 16.7% was converted to chloride; the overall level of halogenated DBPs was reduced by 62.3%. The simulated tap water sample without boiling was cytotoxic in a chronic (72 h) exposure to mammalian cells; this cytotoxicity was reduced by 76.9% after boiling for 5 min. The reduction in cytotoxicity corresponded with the reduction in overall halogenated DBPs. Thus, boiling of tap water can be regarded as a "detoxification" process and may reduce human exposure to halogenated DBPs through tap water ingestion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880001517','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880001517"><span>The effect of <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of carbon fibers on the coefficient of thermal expansion of graphite fiber-epoxy composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jaworske, D. A.; Maciag, C.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>To examine the effect of <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of carbon fibers on the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of carbon fiber epoxy composites, several pristine and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> carbon fiber-epoxy composite samples were subjected to thermomechanical analysis. The CTE's of these samples were measured in the uniaxial and transverse directions. The CTE was dominated by the fibers in the uniaxial direction, while it was dominated by the matrix in the transverse directions. <span class="hlt">Bromination</span> had no effect on the CTE of any of the composites. In addition, the CTE of fiber tow was measured in the absence of a polymer matrix, using an extension probe. The results from this technique were inconclusive.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7330631','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7330631"><span><span class="hlt">Isotope</span> separation by photochromatography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Suslick, K.S.</p> <p>1975-10-03</p> <p>A photochromatographic method for <span class="hlt">isotope</span> separation is described. An <span class="hlt">isotopically</span> mixed molecular species is adsorbed on an adsorptive surface, and the adsorbed molecules are irradiated with radiation of a predetermined wavelength which will selectively excite desired <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> species. Sufficient energy is transferred to the excited molecules to desorb them from the surface and thus separate them from the undesired <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> species. The method is particularly applicable to the separation of hydrogen <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. (BLM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/862772','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/862772"><span><span class="hlt">Isotope</span> separation by photochromatography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Suslick, Kenneth S.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">isotope</span> separation method which comprises physically adsorbing an <span class="hlt">isotopically</span> mixed molecular species on an adsorptive surface and irradiating the adsorbed molecules with radiation of a predetermined wavelength which will selectively excite a desired <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> species. Sufficient energy is transferred to the excited molecules to desorb them from the surface and thereby separate them from the unexcited undesired <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> species. The method is particularly applicable to the separation of hydrogen <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21612949','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21612949"><span>Combustion and inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> emission of waste printed circuit boards in a high temperature furnace</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ni Mingjiang; Xiao Hanxi; Chi Yong; Yan Jianhua; Buekens, Alfons; Jin Yuqi; Lu Shengyong</p> <p>2012-03-15</p> <p>Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The combustion efficiency of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) depends on temperature, excess air factor, and high temperature zone residence time. Temperature has the most significant impact. Under the proposed condition, combustion of waste PCBs alone is quite complete within the furnace. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High temperature prompts a more complete <span class="hlt">bromine</span> release and conversion. When temperature is high enough, 99.9% organobrominated compounds, the potential precursors for <span class="hlt">brominated</span> dixoins formation, are destroyed efficiently and convert to inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in flue gas, as HBr and Br{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Temperature has crucial influence over the inhibition of HBr conversion to Br{sub 2}, while the oxygen partial pressure plays a reverse role in the conversion to a very small extent. Increasing temperature will decrease the volume percentage ratio of Br{sub 2}/HBr in flue gas greatly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermodynamic equilibrium approach of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> conversion was investigated. The two forms of inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in flue gas substantially reach thermodynamic equilibrium within 0.25 s. Under the proposed operating condition, the reaction of Br transfer and conversion finish. - Abstract: High temperature combustion experiments of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) were conducted using a lab-scale system featuring a continuously-fed drop tube furnace. Combustion efficiency and the occurrence of inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (HBr and Br{sub 2}) were systematically studied by monitoring the main combustion products continuously. The influence of furnace temperature (T) was studied from 800 to 1400 Degree-Sign C, the excess air factor (EAF) was varied from 1.2 to 1.9 and the residence time in the high temperature zone (RT{sub HT}) was set at 0.25, 0.5, or 0.75 s. Combustion efficiency depends on temperature, EAF and RT{sub HT}; temperature has the most significant effect. Conversion of organic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JMoSt1135..144S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JMoSt1135..144S"><span>Ultrasound-assisted green <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of N-cinnamoyl amino acid amides - Structural characterization and antimicrobial evaluation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stoykova, Boyka; Chochkova, Maya; Ivanova, Galya; Markova, Nadezhda; Enchev, Venelin; Tsvetkova, Iva; Najdenski, Hristo; Štícha, Martin; Milkova, Tsenka</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>N-phenylpropenoyl amino acid amides have been <span class="hlt">brominated</span> using two alternative sonochemically activated green chemistry procedures. The first synthetic procedure has involved an ultrasound assisted <span class="hlt">bromination</span> in an aqueous medium using ionic liquid as a catalyst of the reaction, whereas in the second one an in situ formation of Br2 via oxidation of HBr by H2O2 has been used. For comparison, the conventional <span class="hlt">bromination</span> procedure was also used. The newly <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compounds were characterized by appropriate analytical techniques. A detailed NMR spectroscopic analysis and quantum chemical calculations using Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods have been used to define the stereochemistry of the products. The results confirmed the physicochemical identity and similar yields of the products obtained by the three synthetic procedures employed, and reveal the co-existence of two diastereoisomeric forms of the newly synthesized products. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the dibrominated amides were evaluated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=201823&keyword=Bromine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90718988&CFTOKEN=99248257','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=201823&keyword=Bromine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90718988&CFTOKEN=99248257"><span><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Incorporation in Regulated and Emerging DBPs and the Relative Predominance of Mono, Di and Trihalogenated DBPs - SLIDES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Examination of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> incorporation in emerging DBPs vs that of regulated DBPs Study of predominance of di- vs trihalogenated species in different DBP classes Better understand and characterize exposure to DBPs of health concern</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=199380&keyword=Bromine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90718988&CFTOKEN=99248257','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=199380&keyword=Bromine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90718988&CFTOKEN=99248257"><span><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Incorporation in Regulated and Emerging DBPs and the Relative Predominance of Mono-, Di-, and Trihalogenated DBPs (Proceedings Paper)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Previous research has shown that <span class="hlt">bromine</span> incorporation into trihalogenated acetic acids (TXAAs) was similar to that of the trihalomethanes (THMs). Likewise, occurrence data for other trihalogenated DBPs (e.g., halonitromethanes [HNMs], haloacetaldehydes [HAs]) showed similar or ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=199380&keyword=bromine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=199380&keyword=bromine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Incorporation in Regulated and Emerging DBPs and the Relative Predominance of Mono-, Di-, and Trihalogenated DBPs (Proceedings Paper)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Previous research has shown that <span class="hlt">bromine</span> incorporation into trihalogenated acetic acids (TXAAs) was similar to that of the trihalomethanes (THMs). Likewise, occurrence data for other trihalogenated DBPs (e.g., halonitromethanes [HNMs], haloacetaldehydes [HAs]) showed similar or ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=201823&keyword=bromine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=201823&keyword=bromine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Incorporation in Regulated and Emerging DBPs and the Relative Predominance of Mono, Di and Trihalogenated DBPs - SLIDES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Examination of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> incorporation in emerging DBPs vs that of regulated DBPs Study of predominance of di- vs trihalogenated species in different DBP classes Better understand and characterize exposure to DBPs of health concern</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJMSp.242..291B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJMSp.242..291B"><span>Direct determination of halogens in powdered geological and environmental samples using <span class="hlt">isotope</span> dilution laser ablation ICP-MS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boulyga, Sergei F.; Heumann, Klaus G.</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma <span class="hlt">isotope</span> dilution mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-IDMS) with a special laser ablation system for bulk analyses (LINA-Spark(TM)-Atomiser) was applied for direct determinations of chlorine, <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, and iodine in rock and sediment samples. Special attention was focused on possible inter-halogen fractionations and analyte/spike <span class="hlt">isotope</span> fractionations by using LA-ICP-MS and LA-ICP-IDMS, respectively. A variation of Br/Cl and I/Cl element intensity ratios by a factor of 1.3-3 was observed when changing the nebulizer gas flow rate in the range of 0.84-1.0 L min-1 and the laser power density in the range of 2-10 GW cm-2, respectively. When using an internal standard for halogen quantification in LA-ICP-MS, this inter-element fractionation can cause systematic errors, which can be avoided by applying the <span class="hlt">isotope</span> dilution technique. However, at high laser power densities (>5.7 GW cm-2 for iodine and >4.0 GW cm-2 for <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and chlorine) the corresponding measured <span class="hlt">isotope</span> ratio of the <span class="hlt">isotope</span>-diluted sample deviates significantly from the target value. Under optimised conditions concentrations in the range of 30 [mu]g g-1-16 × 103 [mu]g g-1 for chlorine, <2-140 [mu]g g-1 for <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, and <0.1-31 [mu]g g-1 for iodine were determined by LA-ICP-IDMS in two sediment reference materials (SRM 1646, SRM 2704) and three rock reference samples (GS-N, Granite; BX-N, Bauxite; DT-N, Disthene), which have not been certified for these halogens. The sediment results agree well within the given uncertainties with indicative values by different methods and the results of the rock samples with those obtained by negative thermal ionisation <span class="hlt">isotope</span> dilution mass spectrometry. The detection limits of LA-ICP-IDMS are 8 [mu]g g-1 for chlorine, 1.7 [mu]g g-1 for <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, and 0.1 [mu]g g-1 for iodine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11681471','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11681471"><span>A GC/ECNI-MS method for the identification of lipophilic anthropogenic and natural <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compounds in marine samples.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vetter, W</p> <p>2001-10-15</p> <p>GC/ECNI-MS in both the full scan and selected ion monitoring modes was applied to study the patterns of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compounds in the blubber of marine mammals from a variety of locations. The adipose tissue of one polar bear was also studied. Occurrence of three major residues originating from the use of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame-retardants (PBDE 47, 99, and 100) and several potential naturally occurring <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compounds was studied in the samples. A series of three major natural <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compounds (BC-1, BC-2, BC-3) recently identified in dolphins from Australia was included in this study. Two further <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compounds, BC-10 and BC-11, were studied for the first time. ECNI-MS full scan spectra were obtained for BC-3 and BC-10. A natural mixed halogenated compound (MHC-1) and an unknown <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compound (UBC-1) were investigated as well. Evidence for the natural production of these secondary metabolites and their bioaccumulation in higher organisms as well as analytical protocols for their detection in the environment are presented. Some of these naturally occurring compounds may be misinterpreted as anthropogenic <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compounds. In ECNI-MS, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compounds are usually identified by the detection of the fragment ions m/z 79 ([79Br]-) and m/z 81 ([81Br]-). In this work, it is shown that monitoring of additional ion traces corresponding to [Br2]- (160 type), [HBr2]- (161 type), [BrCl]- (116 type), and [HBrCl]- (117 type) fragment ions allows distinguishing between different classes of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compounds. This technique was used to demonstrate that UBC-1 is neither a PBDE nor a PBB congener, whereas a second mixed halogenated compound (MHC-2) was identified as a result of the ECNI-MS response at m/z 114/116. Studies on blubber extracts of marine mammals from four continents resulted in the detection of significant differences in the global distribution of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compounds. Our results suggest that naturally occurring organobromines are more</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22285279','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22285279"><span>Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers exhibit different activities on thyroid hormone receptors depending on their degree of <span class="hlt">bromination</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ren, Xiao-Min Guo, Liang-Hong Gao, Yu Zhang, Bin-Tian Wan, Bin</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormone (TH) functions in experimental animals, and one of the proposed disruption mechanisms is direct binding of hydroxylated PBDE (OH-PBDE) to TH receptors (TRs). However, previous data on TH receptor binding and TH activity of OH-PBDEs were very limited and sometimes inconsistent. In the present paper, we examined the binding potency of ten OH-PBDEs with different degrees of <span class="hlt">bromination</span> to TR using a fluorescence competitive binding assay. The results showed that the ten OH-PBDEs bound to TR with potency that correlated to their <span class="hlt">bromination</span> level. We further examined their effect on TR using a coactivator binding assay and GH3 cell proliferation assay. Different TR activities of OH-PBDEs were observed depending on their degree of <span class="hlt">bromination</span>. Four low-<span class="hlt">brominated</span> OH-PBDEs (2′-OH-BDE-28, 3′-OH-BDE-28, 5-OH-BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47) were found to be TR agonists, which recruited the coactivator peptide and enhanced GH3 cell proliferation. However, three high-<span class="hlt">brominated</span> OH-PBDEs (3-OH-BDE-100, 3′-OH-BDE-154, 4-OH-BDE-188) were tested to be antagonists. Molecular docking was employed to simulate the interactions of OH-PBDEs with TR and identify the structural determinants for TR binding and activity. According to the docking results, low-<span class="hlt">brominated</span> OH-PBDEs, which are weak binders but TR agonists, bind with TR at the inner side of its binding pocket, whereas high-<span class="hlt">brominated</span> compounds, which are potent binders but TR antagonists, reside at the outer region. These results indicate that OH-PBDEs have different activities on TR (agonistic or antagonistic), possibly due to their different binding geometries with the receptor. - Highlights: ► Thyroid hormone (TH) activity of OH-PBDEs with different Br number was evaluated. ► Four different experimental approaches were employed to investigate the mechanism. ► Low-<span class="hlt">brominated</span> OH-PBDEs were agonists, but high-<span class="hlt">brominated</span> ones were antagonists. </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000011666&hterms=Volk&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DVolk','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000011666&hterms=Volk&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DVolk"><span>Distribution of Halon-1211 in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere and the 1994 Total <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Budget. Appendix E</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wamsley, P. R.; Elkins, J. W.; Fahey, D. W.; Dutton, G. S.; Volk, C. M.; Myers, R. C.; Montzka, S. A.; Butler, J. H.; Clarke, A. D.; Fraser, P. J.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>We report here on the details of the first, in situ, real-time measurements of H-1211 (CBrClF2) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) mixing ratios in the stratosphere up to 20 km. Stratospheric air was analyzed for these gases and others with a new gas chromatograph, flown aboard a National Aeronautics and Space Administration ER-2 aircraft as part of the Airborne Southern Hemisphere Ozone Experiment/Measurements for Assessing the Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft mission conducted in 1994. The mixing ratio of SF6, with its nearly linear increase in the troposphere, was used to estimate the mean age of stratospheric air parcels along the ER-2 flight path. Measurements of H-1211 and mean age estimates were then combined with simultaneous measurements of CFC-11 (CCl3F), measurements of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compounds in stratospheric whole air samples, and records of tropospheric organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> mixing ratios to calculate the dry mixing ratio of total <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the lower stratosphere and its partitioning between organic and inorganic forms. We estimate that the organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-containing species were almost completely photolyzed to inorganic species in the oldest air parcels sampled. Our results for inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> are consistent with those obtained from a photochemical, steady state model for stratospheric air parcels with CFC- I I mixing ratios greater than 150 ppt. For stratospheric air parcels with CFC-11 mixing ratios less than 50 ppt (mean age greater than or equal to 5 years) we calculate inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> mixing ratios that are approximately 20% less than the photo-chemical, steady state model. There is a 20% reduction in calculated ozone loss resulting from <span class="hlt">bromine</span> chemistry in old air relative to some previous estimates as a result of the lower <span class="hlt">bromine</span> levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA223612','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA223612"><span>Modification of Polystyrene/Polybutadiene Block Copolymer Films by Chemical Reaction with <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> and Effect on Gas Permeability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1990-06-15</p> <p>polystyrene/polybutadiene ( PS /PB) block copolymer films before and after reaction with aqueous <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. Films reacted to low and very high extents...enhancement relative to the starting PS /PB system. These effects on permeability are the combined result of physical and chemical changes in the block...heterogeneous polystyrene/polybutadiene ( PS /PB) block copolymer films before and after reaction with aqueous <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. Films reacted to low and very</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000011666&hterms=Bromine&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DBromine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000011666&hterms=Bromine&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DBromine"><span>Distribution of Halon-1211 in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere and the 1994 Total <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Budget. Appendix E</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wamsley, P. R.; Elkins, J. W.; Fahey, D. W.; Dutton, G. S.; Volk, C. M.; Myers, R. C.; Montzka, S. A.; Butler, J. H.; Clarke, A. D.; Fraser, P. J.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>We report here on the details of the first, in situ, real-time measurements of H-1211 (CBrClF2) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) mixing ratios in the stratosphere up to 20 km. Stratospheric air was analyzed for these gases and others with a new gas chromatograph, flown aboard a National Aeronautics and Space Administration ER-2 aircraft as part of the Airborne Southern Hemisphere Ozone Experiment/Measurements for Assessing the Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft mission conducted in 1994. The mixing ratio of SF6, with its nearly linear increase in the troposphere, was used to estimate the mean age of stratospheric air parcels along the ER-2 flight path. Measurements of H-1211 and mean age estimates were then combined with simultaneous measurements of CFC-11 (CCl3F), measurements of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compounds in stratospheric whole air samples, and records of tropospheric organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> mixing ratios to calculate the dry mixing ratio of total <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the lower stratosphere and its partitioning between organic and inorganic forms. We estimate that the organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-containing species were almost completely photolyzed to inorganic species in the oldest air parcels sampled. Our results for inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> are consistent with those obtained from a photochemical, steady state model for stratospheric air parcels with CFC- I I mixing ratios greater than 150 ppt. For stratospheric air parcels with CFC-11 mixing ratios less than 50 ppt (mean age greater than or equal to 5 years) we calculate inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> mixing ratios that are approximately 20% less than the photo-chemical, steady state model. There is a 20% reduction in calculated ozone loss resulting from <span class="hlt">bromine</span> chemistry in old air relative to some previous estimates as a result of the lower <span class="hlt">bromine</span> levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28358483','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28358483"><span>Mechanistic Aspects of the Formation of Adsorbable Organic <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> during Chlorination of Bromide-containing Synthetic Waters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Langsa, Markus; Heitz, Anna; Joll, Cynthia A; von Gunten, Urs; Allard, Sebastien</p> <p>2017-05-02</p> <p>During chlorination of bromide-containing waters, a significant formation of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> disinfection byproducts is expected. This is of concern because Br-DBPs are generally more toxic than their chlorinated analogues. In this study, synthetic water samples containing dissolved organic matter (DOM) extracts and bromide were treated under various disinfection scenarios to elucidate the mechanisms of Br-DBP formation. The total concentration of Br-DBPs was measured as adsorbable organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (AOBr). A portion of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (HOBr) was found to react with DOM via electrophilic substitution (≤40%), forming AOBr, and the remaining HOBr reacted with DOM via electron transfer with a reduction of HOBr to bromide (≥60%). During chlorination, the released bromide is reoxidized (recycled) by chlorine to HOBr, leading to further electrophilic substitution of unaltered DOM sites and chlorinated DOM moieties. This leads to an almost complete <span class="hlt">bromine</span> incorporation to DOM (≥87%). The type of DOM (3.06 ≤ SUVA254 ≤ 4.85) is not affecting this process, as long as the <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-reactive DOM sites are in excess and a sufficient chlorine exposure is achieved. When most reactive sites were consumed by chlorine, Cl-substituted functional groups (Cl-DOM) are reacting with HOBr by direct <span class="hlt">bromination</span> leading to Br-Cl-DOM and by <span class="hlt">bromine</span> substitution of chlorine leading to Br-DOM. The latter finding was supported by hexachlorobenzene as a model compound from which bromoform was formed during HOBr treatment. To better understand the experimental findings, a conceptual kinetic model allowing to assess the contribution of each AOBr pathway was developed. A simulation of distribution system conditions with a disinfectant residual of 1 mgC2 L(-1) showed complete conversion of Br(-) to AOBr, with about 10% of the AOBr formed through chlorine substitution by <span class="hlt">bromine</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23592212','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23592212"><span>Mass spectra of methyl esters of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> fatty acids and their presence in soft drinks and cocktail syrups.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bendig, Paul; Maier, Lisa; Lehnert, Katja; Knapp, Holger; Vetter, Walter</p> <p>2013-05-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> vegetable oil (BVO) is frequently used as a solubility transmitter in soft drinks. Being banned in Europe and Japan but permitted in the United States and Canada, there is a need for analytical methods suitable for use in food control. <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> fatty acids in BVO are usually determined by gas chromatography (GC) after their conversion into the corresponding methyl esters. GC with mass spectrometry (MS) was used to record the electron ionization (EI) and negative ion chemical ionization (NICI) mass spectra of relevant <span class="hlt">brominated</span> fatty acid methyl esters synthesized for this purpose. <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> fatty acids obtained from transesterified BVO from soft drink and syrup samples were also analyzed. GC/NICI-MS was the most sensitive method for the detection of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> fatty acids but GC/EI-MS was found to be more suited for quantification due to the formation of more selective fragment ions in the higher mass range. Suitable ions were selected for determination of the methyl esters of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> fatty acids in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Artifacts produced by the transesterification of BVO with boron trifluoride were observed and discussed. BVO was also quantified in three syrup samples commercially produced for use in cocktails/long drinks. In one of the syrup samples that tested positive, BVO was not labelled in the ingredient list. <span class="hlt">Bromination</span> experiments produced evidence that one or more Br2 -18:0 isomers identified as a shoulder peak of threo-9,10-dibromooctadecanoic acid in several soft drink and syrup samples originated from the <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of partly hydrogenated plant oil. BVO was determined for the first time in syrup samples. Attention should be paid to the problem of BVO occurring unlabeled in soft drinks and cocktail syrups imported from North America. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26379008','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26379008"><span>Untargeted Identification of Organo-<span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Compounds in Lake Sediments by Ultrahigh-Resolution Mass Spectrometry with the Data-Independent Precursor Isolation and Characteristic Fragment Method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peng, Hui; Chen, Chunli; Saunders, David M V; Sun, Jianxian; Tang, Song; Codling, Garry; Hecker, Markus; Wiseman, Steve; Jones, Paul D; Li, An; Rockne, Karl J; Giesy, John P</p> <p>2015-10-20</p> <p>While previous studies have found that unknown natural and synthetic organo-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> compounds (NSOBCs) contributed more than 99% of the total organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (Br) in the environment, there was no efficient method for untargeted screening to identify NSOBCs in environmental matrixes. A novel untargeted method for identifying NSOBCs, based on ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry (UHRMS) with the Q Exactive instrument was developed. This method included a data-independent precursor isolation and characteristic fragment (DIPIC-Frag) procedure to identify NSOBCs. A total of 180 successive 5-m/z-wide windows were used to isolate precursor ions. This resulted in a sufficient dynamic range and specificity to identify peaks of Br fragment ions for analysis. A total of 2520 peaks of NSOBC compounds containing Br were observed in sediments from Lake Michigan, United States. A new chemometric strategy which combined chromatographic profiles, <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> peaks, precursor isolation window information, and intensities was used to identify precursor ions and chemical formulas for detecting NSOBCs. Precursor ions for 2163 of the 2520 NSOBCs peaks (86%) were identified, and chemical formulas for 2071 NSOBCs peaks (82%) were determined. After exclusion of <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> peaks, 1593 unique NSOBCs were identified and chemical formulas derived for each. Most of the compounds identified had not been reported previously and had intensities which were 100- to 1000-fold greater than the congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). In extracts of sediments, these compounds exhibited variations in intensities (<10(3) to ∼10(8)), m/z values (170.9438-997.5217), retention times on a C18 column (1.0-29.3 min), and the number of Br atoms (1-8). Generally, compounds with greater m/z values had longer retention times and greater numbers of Br atoms. Three compounds were used in a proof-of-concept experiment to demonstrate that structures of some of the screened NSOBCs could be further predicted</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8277824','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8277824"><span>Isolation of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> long-chain fatty acids from the phospholipids of the tropical marine sponge Amphimedon terpenensis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Garson, M J; Zimmermann, M P; Hoberg, M; Larsen, R M; Battershill, C N; Murphy, P T</p> <p>1993-11-01</p> <p>Preliminary investigation of the phospholipid fatty acid composition of the tropical marine sponge Amphimedon terpenensis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed the presence of some novel <span class="hlt">brominated</span> fatty acids. Two new <span class="hlt">brominated</span> fatty acids, (5E, 9Z)-6-bromo-5,9-tetracosadienoic acid (2a) and (5E, 9Z)-6-bromo-5,9-pentacosadienoic acid (3a) were subsequently isolated from a chloroform/methanol (3:1, vol/vol) extract of the sponge and characterized as their methyl esters 2b and 3b. The known <span class="hlt">brominated</span> fatty acid (5E, 9Z)-6-bromo-5,9-hexacosadienoic acid (4a) was also isolated. The new fatty acid methyl esters were confirmed as <span class="hlt">brominated</span> delta 5,9 acid derivatives by chemical ionization mass spectrometry. The position of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> substituent was determined to be C-6 by nuclear magnetic resonance techniques while the stereochemistry of the two double bonds was deduced by nuclear Overhauser enhancement difference spectroscopy. The biosynthetic implications of the co-occurrence of the three <span class="hlt">brominated</span> acids are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23606364','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23606364"><span>In vivo speciation studies and antioxidant properties of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in Laminaria digitata reinforce the significance of iodine accumulation for kelps.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Küpper, Frithjof C; Carpenter, Lucy J; Leblanc, Catherine; Toyama, Chiaki; Uchida, Yuka; Maskrey, Benjamin H; Robinson, Joanne; Verhaeghe, Elodie F; Malin, Gill; Luther, George W; Kroneck, Peter M H; Kloareg, Bernard; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Megson, Ian L; Potin, Philippe; Feiters, Martin C</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>The metabolism of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in marine brown algae remains poorly understood. This contrasts with the recent finding that the accumulation of iodide in the brown alga Laminaria serves the provision of an inorganic antioxidant - the first case documented from a living system. The aim of this study was to use an interdisciplinary array of techniques to study the chemical speciation, transformation, and function of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in Laminaria and to investigate the link between <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and iodine metabolism, in particular in the antioxidant context. First, <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and iodine levels in different Laminaria tissues were compared by inductively coupled plasma MS. Using in vivo X-ray absorption spectroscopy, it was found that, similarly to iodine, <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is predominantly present in this alga in the form of bromide, albeit at lower concentrations, and that it shows similar behaviour upon oxidative stress. However, from a thermodynamic and kinetic standpoint, supported by in vitro and reconstituted in vivo assays, bromide is less suitable than iodide as an antioxidant against most reactive oxygen species except superoxide, possibly explaining why kelps prefer to accumulate iodide. This constitutes the first-ever study exploring the potential antioxidant function of bromide in a living system and other potential physiological roles. Given the tissue-specific differences observed in the content and speciation of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, it is concluded that the bromide uptake mechanism is different from the vanadium iodoperoxidase-mediated uptake of iodide in L. digitata and that its function is likely to be complementary to the iodide antioxidant system for detoxifying superoxide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23020596','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23020596"><span>Characterization of mercury binding onto a novel <span class="hlt">brominated</span> biomass ash sorbent by X-ray absorption spectroscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bisson, Teresa M; MacLean, Lachlan C W; Hu, Yongfeng; Xu, Zhenghe</p> <p>2012-11-06</p> <p>Recent laboratory and field-scale experiments demonstrated the potential for <span class="hlt">brominated</span> industrial solid waste from biomass combustion (Br-Ash) to be an efficient, cost-effective alternative to activated carbon for capturing mercury from coal-fired power plants. To develop this attractive alternative technology to a commercially sustainable level, a better understanding of mercury capture mechanisms by Br-Ash is required. For this purpose, X-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS) spectra of Br-Ash were collected at the Hg L(III)-edge, Br K-edge and S K-edge, and analyzed to determine the local bonding environment of mercury atoms. The coordination environment of Hg was compared with that on a commercial <span class="hlt">brominated</span> activated carbon. Our results indicate that the mercury was captured by chemisorption on both the commercial and biomass ash sorbents; however, the mercury binding environment was different for each sorbent. Mercury was found to bind to the reduced sulfur by the commercial <span class="hlt">brominated</span> activated carbon, in contrast to mercury binding with carbon and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> on the <span class="hlt">brominated</span> biomass ash. Based on the results obtained, a mechanism of Hg capture involving oxidation of elemental Hg followed by binding of the oxidized mercury on the surface of the sorbent near Br was proposed for the <span class="hlt">brominated</span> biomass ash.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1818419R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1818419R"><span>Statistical clumped <span class="hlt">isotope</span> signatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Röckmann, Thomas; Popa, Maria Elena; Krol, Maarten; Hofmann, Magdalena</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>High precision measurements of molecules containing more than one heavy <span class="hlt">isotope</span> in environmental samples are becoming available with new instrumentation and may provide novel constraints on element cycles in nature. These so-called clumped <span class="hlt">isotope</span> signatures are reported relative to the random (stochastic) distribution of heavy <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> over all available isotopocules of a molecule, which is the conventional reference. When multiple indistinguishable atoms of the same element are present in a molecule, this reference is calculated from the bulk <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> composition of the molecule, which for rare heavy <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> is approximated by the arithmetic average of the <span class="hlt">isotope</span> ratios of single substituted atoms. We show here that this referencing convention leads to apparent negative clumped <span class="hlt">isotope</span> anomalies when the indistinguishable atoms are from <span class="hlt">isotopically</span> different populations. Such statistical clumped <span class="hlt">isotope</span> anomalies must occur in any system where two or more indistinguishable atoms of the same element, but with different <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> composition, combine in a molecule and these anomalies have to be taken into account in data interpretation. The size of the signal is closely related to the relative standard deviation of the initial <span class="hlt">isotope</span> ratios of the indistinguishable atoms that have combined. Therefore, a measured statistical clumped <span class="hlt">isotope</span> anomaly may allow assessment of the heterogeneity of the <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> pools of atoms that are the substrate for formation of molecules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999ApPhB..69..333L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999ApPhB..69..333L"><span>Reduced absorption of neon-like <span class="hlt">bromine</span> X-ray laser radiation in helium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, P.; Fill, E. E.</p> <p>1999-10-01</p> <p>We have measured the absorption of the 19.47-nm neon like <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (J=2-1) X-ray laser line in low-pressure helium. The experiment was motivated by the coincidence of this line with the low-absorption wing of an autoionizing transition in helium. We observe that, with 1 mbar of helium, the continuum background and another <span class="hlt">bromine</span> X-ray laser line at 19.82 nm are strongly reduced, enhancing the relative strength of the 19.47-nm laser line. Increasing the helium pressure to 1.5 mbar makes the continuum virtually disappear, resulting in an almost monochromatic emission of the X-ray laser line. An estimate of the absorption cross section for the 19.47-nm line is given as ≈3.9×10-19 cm2 and for the nearby continuum as 0.9-1.3×10-18 cm2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987JElS..134.2725E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987JElS..134.2725E"><span>A review of mathematical modeling of the zinc/<span class="hlt">bromine</span> flow cell and battery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Evans, T. I.; White, R. E.</p> <p>1987-11-01</p> <p>Mathematical models which have been developed to study various aspects of the zinc/<span class="hlt">bromine</span> cell and stack of cells are reviewed. Development of these macroscopic models begins with a material balance, a transport equation which includes a migration term for charged species in an electric field, and an electrode kinetic expression. Various types of models are discussed: partial differential equation models that can be used to predict current and potential distributions, an algebraic model that includes shunt currents and associated energy losses and can be used to determine the optimum resistivity of an electrolyte, and ordinary differential equation models that can be used to predict the energy efficiency of the cell as a function of the state of charge. These models have allowed researchers to better understand the physical phenomena occurring within parallel plate electrochemical flow reactors and have been instrumental in the improvement of the zinc/<span class="hlt">bromine</span> cell design. Suggestions are made for future modeling work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4860644','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4860644"><span>Anomalous bond length behavior and a new solid phase of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> under pressure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wu, Min; Tse, John S.; Pan, Yuanming</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The behavior of diatomic molecular solids under pressure have attracted great interest and been extensively studied. Under ambient pressure, the structure of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is known to be a molecular phase (phase I). With increasing pressure, it transforms into an incommensurate phase (phase V) before eventually to a monoatomic phase (phase II). However, between phases I and V, the interatomic distance was found to first increase with pressure and then decreased abruptly. This anomalous bond length behavior is accompanied by the splitting of the Raman bands. These phenomena have not been resolved. Here we suggest a new solid phase that explains the Raman spectra. Furthermore, the anomalous bond length behavior is found to be the result of subtle second neighbor intermolecular interactions and is an intrinsic property of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in molecular phases. PMID:27156710</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4897317','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4897317"><span>Advances in Instrumental Analysis of <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> Flame Retardants: Current Status and Future Perspectives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This review aims to highlight the recent advances and methodological improvements in instrumental techniques applied for the analysis of different <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs). The literature search strategy was based on the recent analytical reviews published on BFRs. The main selection criteria involved the successful development and application of analytical methods for determination of the target compounds in various environmental matrices. Different factors affecting chromatographic separation and mass spectrometric detection of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> analytes were evaluated and discussed. Techniques using advanced instrumentation to achieve outstanding results in quantification of different BFRs and their metabolites/degradation products were highlighted. Finally, research gaps in the field of BFR analysis were identified and recommendations for future research were proposed. PMID:27433482</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.9869O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.9869O"><span>The effect of representing <span class="hlt">bromine</span> from VSLS on the simulation and evolution of Antarctic ozone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oman, Luke D.; Douglass, Anne R.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Canty, Timothy P.; Ziemke, Jerald R.; Manyin, Michael</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>We use the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model, a contributor to both the 2010 and 2014 World Meteorological Organization Ozone Assessment Reports, to show that inclusion of 5 parts per trillion (ppt) of stratospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (Bry) from very short lived substances (VSLS) is responsible for about a decade delay in ozone hole recovery. These results partially explain the significantly later recovery of Antarctic ozone noted in the 2014 report, as <span class="hlt">bromine</span> from VSLS was not included in the 2010 Assessment. We show multiple lines of evidence that simulations that account for VSLS Bry are in better agreement with both total column BrO and the seasonal evolution of Antarctic ozone reported by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument on NASA's Aura satellite. In addition, the near-zero ozone levels observed in the deep Antarctic lower stratospheric polar vortex are only reproduced in a simulation that includes this Bry source from VSLS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983sae..cong.....M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983sae..cong.....M"><span>Design of bipolar, flowing-electrolyte zinc-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> electric-vehicle battery systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Malachesky, P. A.; Bellows, R. J.; Einstein, H. E.; Grimes, P. G.; Newby, K.; Young, A.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The integration of bipolar, flowing electrolyte zinc-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> technology into a viable electric vehicle battery system requires careful analysis of the requirements placed on the battery system by the EV power train. In addition to the basic requirement of an appropriate battery voltage and power density, overall battery system energy efficiency must also be considered and parasitic losses from auxiliaries such as pumps and shunt current protection minimized. An analysis of the influence of these various factors on zinc-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> EV battery system design has been carried out for two types of EV propulsion systems. The first of these is a nominal 100V dc system, while the second is a high voltage (200V dc) system as might be used with an advanced design ac propulsion system. Battery performance was calculated using an experimentally determined relationship which expresses battery voltage as a function of current density and state-of-charge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900045389&hterms=Bromine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DBromine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900045389&hterms=Bromine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DBromine"><span>Stratospheric ozone depletion and future levels of atmospheric chlorine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Prather, Michael J.; Watson, Robert T.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The rise in atmospheric chlorine levels caused by the emission of chlorofluorocarbons and other halocarbons is thought to be the main cause of the appearance of the Antarctic ozone 'hole' in the late 1970s, and the more modest ozone depletion observed over parts of the Northern Hemisphere. Atmospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, also associated with halocarbon emissions, is believed to contribute to ozone depletion. Over the next decade, further increases in these compounds are inevitable. Model calculations show that by the end of the next century, atmospheric chlorine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> levels may return to those prevalent before the onset of the ozone hole, but only if more stringent regulations are applied to halocarbon production than those currently proposed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26829049','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26829049"><span><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> and Iodine Contents in Raw and Cooked Shrimp and Its Parts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mesko, Marcia F; Toralles, Isis G; Hartwig, Carla A; Coelho, Gilberto S; Muller, Aline L H; Bizzi, Cezar A; Mello, Paola A</p> <p>2016-03-02</p> <p>The concentration of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and iodine was determined in shrimp and its parts (tissue and shells), and changes in the analyte concentration were evaluated after the cooking procedure. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> and iodine concentrations were determined by a method recently developed by our research group based on microwave-induced combustion for sample preparation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for analyte determination. The accuracy was evaluated using a reference material (NIST 8414) that was digested using the proposed method. No statistical difference was observed between certified and determined values (Student's t test, 95% confidence level). Suitable limits of detection (Br, 0.02 μg g(-1) and I, 0.01 μg g(-1)) were obtained for both analytes. Higher concentrations of both analytes were observed in shrimp shells in comparison to shrimp tissue for raw and cooked samples. Moreover, losses of Br and I (between 24 and 43%) were observed after cooking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25329966','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25329966"><span>Dehalogenation of arenes via SN2 reactions at <span class="hlt">bromine</span>: competition with nucleophilic aromatic substitution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gronert, Scott; Garver, John M; Nichols, Charles M; Worker, Benjamin B; Bierbaum, Veronica M</p> <p>2014-11-21</p> <p>The gas-phase reactions of carbon- and nitrogen-centered nucleophiles with polyfluorobromobenzenes were examined in a selected-ion flow tube (SIFT) and modeled computationally at the MP2/6-31+G(d,p)//MP2/6-31+G(d) level. In the gas-phase experiments, rate constants and branching ratios were determined. The carbon nucleophiles produce expected nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) and proton transfer products along with unexpected products that result from SN2 reactions at the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> center (polyfluorophenide leaving group). With nitrogen nucleophiles, the SN2 at <span class="hlt">bromine</span> channel is suppressed. In the SNAr channels, the "element effect" is observed, and fluoride loss competes with bromide loss. The computational modeling indicates that all the substitution barriers are well below the entrance channel and that entropy and dynamics effects control the product distributions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21238862','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21238862"><span>Molten-Phase Hydrolysis Stage Analysis and Experiments for the Calcium <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Thermochemical Cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Doctor, Richard D.; Panchal, C.B.; Lottes, Steven A.; Lyczkowski, Robert W.; Yang, Jianhong</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>The goal of the United States Department of Energy Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative as linked with the Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative for Gas Reactor Deployment is to develop a cost-effective, proliferation-resistant, low-greenhouse-gas emissions, and sustainable, nuclear-based energy supply system. The calcium-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> cycle under development at Argonne National Laboratory combines both experimental and modeling studies of a novel continuous 'hybrid' cycle for hydrogen production, where 'hybrid' means that both nuclear heat and electricity are employed. Engineering the calcium-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> cycle for continuous operation should facilitate its practical development since there will be an inherent advantage to using components and materials which will operate in a constant, non-cycling chemical and thermal environment. This paper focuses on the first and important calcium bromide hydrolysis stage to generate hydrogen bromide, which when split by electrolysis, produces hydrogen. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JHyd..383...39G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JHyd..383...39G"><span>Analysis and occurrence of emerging <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants in the Llobregat River basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guerra, Paula; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>SummaryIn response to increasing international regulations on <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants (BFR) formulations, alternative additive flame retardants for achieving commercial product fire safety standards are being developed and used. Some of these non-BDE (<span class="hlt">brominated</span> diphenyl ethers) BFRs are pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), hexabromobenzene (hexaBBz), and decabromodiphenylethane (deBDethane). The present study investigated the occurrence of these emerging BFRs, together with 38 BDE congeners (from di- to deca-BDE) in sediments sampled from different points along Llobregat basin (Spain) in three different sampling campaigns between 2005 and 2006. Emerging BFRs were detected in all sediment samples analyzed, at concentrations ranging from 3.1 to 9.6 ng/g for PBEB, from 0.4 to 2.4 ng/g for hexaBBz and from 4.8 to 23 ng/g for deBDethane. These levels are lower than concentrations obtained for PBDEs (from nd to 82 ng/g).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750042633&hterms=bromine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dbromine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750042633&hterms=bromine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dbromine"><span>The surface structure of titanium and its interaction with <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and chlorine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Khan, I. H.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The surface structure and composition of titanium have been studied by electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy in the temperature range 25 to 850 C. Atomically clean, well-defined Ti surfaces were obtained by a combination of argon ion sputtering and thermal treatment at 700 to 800 C. A series of surface superstructures was observed as the crystal temperature was gradually decreased. The development of the superstructures is best explained as due to surface reconstruction as a result of surface relaxation. The interaction of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and chlorine vapors with clean Ti surfaces was investigated in the temperature range 25 to 500 C. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> exposure at room temperature gave rise to an amorphous surface layer, which on annealing transformed into an epitaxial TiBr2 structure. Chlorine interaction resulted in the formation of an epitaxial TiCl3 on both cold and hot Ti surfaces. Surface impurities inhibited the chemical interaction process on the Ti surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900045389&hterms=bromine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dbromine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900045389&hterms=bromine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dbromine"><span>Stratospheric ozone depletion and future levels of atmospheric chlorine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Prather, Michael J.; Watson, Robert T.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The rise in atmospheric chlorine levels caused by the emission of chlorofluorocarbons and other halocarbons is thought to be the main cause of the appearance of the Antarctic ozone 'hole' in the late 1970s, and the more modest ozone depletion observed over parts of the Northern Hemisphere. Atmospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, also associated with halocarbon emissions, is believed to contribute to ozone depletion. Over the next decade, further increases in these compounds are inevitable. Model calculations show that by the end of the next century, atmospheric chlorine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> levels may return to those prevalent before the onset of the ozone hole, but only if more stringent regulations are applied to halocarbon production than those currently proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712637S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712637S"><span>Modeling the formation of tropical rings of atomic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and iodine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Fernandez, Rafael; Gomez Martin, Juan Carlos; Salawitch, Ross; Kinnison, Douglas; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Very short-lived (VSL) bromo- and iodocarbons are produced at a prodigious rate by ocean biology and these source compounds (SGVSL), together with their degradation inorganic products (PGVSL), are lofted by vigorous convection to the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Using a state-of-the-art photochemical mechanism within a global model, we investigate the partitioning and loading of reactive inorganic halogens within the TTL. The specific low ozone and low temperature conditions of this region of the atmosphere changes the steady-state between halogen atoms and oxides, making the atoms the dominant species. We suggest that this leads to the formation of two daytime "tropical rings" of both atomic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and iodine that circle the tropics with the sun. In addition to a description of this photochemical phenomenon, this communication the partitioning of inorganic halogen reservoirs within the TTL and assess its relevance for the injection of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> to stratosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A43M..04S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A43M..04S"><span>Modeling the Formation of Tropical Rings of Atomic <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> and Iodine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saiz-Lopez, A.; Fernandez, R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J. F.; Ordoñez, C.; Gomez Martin, J. C.; Tilmes, S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Very short-lived (VSL) bromo- and iodocarbons are produced at a prodigious rate by ocean biology and these source compounds (SGVSL), together with their degradation inorganic products (PGVSL), are lofted by vigorous convection to the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Using a state-of-the-art photochemical mechanism within a global model, we investigate the partitioning and loading of reactive inorganic halogens within the TTL. The specific low ozone and low temperature conditions of this region of the atmosphere changes the steady-state between halogen atoms and oxides, making the atoms the dominant species. We suggest that this leads to the formation of two daytime "tropical rings" of both atomic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and iodine that circle the tropics with the sun. In addition to a description of this photochemical phenomenon, this communication the partitioning of inorganic halogen reservoirs within the TTL and assess its relevance for the injection of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> to stratosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21808799','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21808799"><span>Complex kinetics and significant influences of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> removal in ferroin-bromate-metol reaction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Jun; Wang, Jichang</p> <p>2011-09-14</p> <p>This study presents a new bromate-based chemical oscillator that employs metol as the organic substrate. Complex reaction behaviors were observed when the system was subjected to <span class="hlt">bromine</span> removal and oxygen exposure. Transitions from simple to sequential oscillations took place as a function of the age of the metol stock solution. MS spectroscopy measurements and parallel kinetic experiments with a mixture of metol and hydroquinone suggest that the decomposition of metol to hydroquinone was responsible for the observed influence of oxygen and the age of the metol solution. GS/MS and NMR measurements revealed that 1,4-benzoquinone and bromobenzoquinones were the major final products, regardless of the presence of oxygen and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> removal. Preliminary exploration in a capillary tube showed some interesting propagating pulse behavior. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...625649W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...625649W"><span>Anomalous bond length behavior and a new solid phase of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> under pressure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Min; Tse, John S.; Pan, Yuanming</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The behavior of diatomic molecular solids under pressure have attracted great interest and been extensively studied. Under ambient pressure, the structure of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is known to be a molecular phase (phase I). With increasing pressure, it transforms into an incommensurate phase (phase V) before eventually to a monoatomic phase (phase II). However, between phases I and V, the interatomic distance was found to first increase with pressure and then decreased abruptly. This anomalous bond length behavior is accompanied by the splitting of the Raman bands. These phenomena have not been resolved. Here we suggest a new solid phase that explains the Raman spectra. Furthermore, the anomalous bond length behavior is found to be the result of subtle second neighbor intermolecular interactions and is an intrinsic property of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in molecular phases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850007527','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850007527"><span>Study of the liquid vapor equilibrium in the <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-hydrobromic acid-water system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Benizri, R.; Lessart, P.; Courvoisier, P.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A glass ebullioscope was built and at atmospheric pressure, liquid-vapor equilibria relative to the Br2-HBr-H2O system, in the concentration range of interest for evaluation of the Mark 13 cycle was studied. Measurements were performed for the brome-azeotrope (HBr-H2O) pseudo-binary system and for the ternary system at temperatures lower than 125 C and in the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentration range up to 13% wt.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992Natur.359..522F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992Natur.359..522F"><span>Surface ozone depletion in Arctic spring sustained by <span class="hlt">bromine</span> reactions on aerosols</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fan, Song-Miao; Jacob, Daniel J.</p> <p>1992-10-01</p> <p>NEAR-TOTAL depletion of the ozone in surface air is often observed in the Arctic spring, coincident with high atmospheric concentrations of inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. A mechanism based on known aqueous-phase chemistry is proposed which rapidly converts HBr, HOBr, and BrNO3 back to Br and BrO radicals. This mechanism should be particularly efficient in the presence of the high concentrations of sulphuric acid aerosols observed during ozone depletion events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140005812','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140005812"><span>Tropospheric <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Chemistry: Implications for Present and Pre-industrial Ozone and Mercury</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Parella, J. P.; Jacob, D. J.; Liang, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Mickley, L. J.; Miller, B.; Evans, M. J.; Yang, X.; Pyle, J. A.; Theys, N.; VanRoozendael, M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We present a new model for the global tropospheric chemistry of inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (Bry) coupled to oxidant-aerosol chemistry in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM). Sources of tropospheric Bry include debromination of sea-salt aerosol, photolysis and oxidation of short-lived bromocarbons, and transport from the stratosphere. Comparison to a GOME-2 satellite climatology of tropospheric BrO columns shows that the model can reproduce the observed increase of BrO with latitude, the northern mid-latitudes maximum in winter, and the Arctic maximum in spring. This successful simulation is contingent on the HOBr + HBr reaction taking place in aqueous aerosols and ice clouds. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> chemistry in the model decreases tropospheric ozone mixing ratios by <1-8 nmol/mol (6.5% globally), with the largest effects in the northern extratropics in spring. The global mean tropospheric OH concentration decreases by 4 %. Inclusion of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> chemistry improves the ability of global models (GEOS-Chem and p-TOMCAT) to simulate observed 19th-century ozone and its seasonality. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> effects on tropospheric ozone are comparable in the present-day and pre-industrial atmospheres so that estimates of anthropogenic radiative forcing are minimally affected. Br atom concentrations are 40% higher in the pre-industrial atmosphere due to lower ozone, which would decrease by a factor of 2 the atmospheric lifetime of elemental mercury against oxidation by Br. This suggests that historical anthropogenic mercury emissions may have mostly deposited to northern mid-latitudes, enriching the corresponding surface reservoirs. The persistent rise in background surface ozone at northern mid-latitudes during the past decades could possibly contribute to the observations of elevated mercury in subsurface waters of the North Atlantic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38...77B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38...77B"><span>Balloon observations of stratospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and aerosols in the 2009 summer polar stratosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berthet, Gwenael; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Brogniez, Colette; Chartier, Michel; Gaubicher, Bertrand; Auriol, Frederique; Balois, Jean-Yves; Francois, Philippe; Verwaerde, Christian</p> <p></p> <p>In the frame of the International Polar Year STRAPOLETE project, a balloon campaign op-erated by the French National Space Agency (CNES) was conducted in August 2009 from Kiruna (Sweden) to explore the rather poorly-documented summertime stratosphere. A set of various in situ and remote-sensing instruments was launched to derive the chemical and dy-namical characteristics inherent in the summer 2009 arctic stratosphere through observations of long-lived and short-lived compounds and of aerosols. Here we firstly focus on the study of stratospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> from remote-sensing UV-visible spectrometry. The total inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> content computed by a 3-dimensional Chemistry-Transport Model is assessed using the total <span class="hlt">bromine</span> content derived from the observations of BrO. These observations will be useful to continue the stratospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> trend as shown in the last World Meteorological Organization assessment. We also present observations of the stratospheric aerosol content which, to our knowledge, has not been reported yet in the summer arctic stratosphere. Aerosol counting/sizing data, photo-polarimetry observations and measurements of the aerosol extinc-tion in the visible spectral domain are used jointly to try to distinguish between the various natures of aerosols and to determine the spatial variability of their size distributions. The most striking feature is the strong spatial variability of the stratospheric aerosol content in particular around an altitude of 30 km from the 8 flights of the aerosol counter/sizer. We will give an estimation of the liquid sulfate aerosol content which is of importance in chemistry models and will estimate the vertical distribution of solid particles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27366936','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27366936"><span>Thermal Recycling of <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> Flame Retardants with Fe2O3.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Ahmed, Oday H; Jiang, Zhong-Tao; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z</p> <p>2016-08-04</p> <p>Plastics containing <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) constitute the major fraction of nonmetallic content in e-waste. Co-pyrolysis of BFRs with hematite (Fe2O3) represents a viable option for the thermal recycling of BFRs. Consensus of experimental findings confirms the excellent <span class="hlt">bromine</span> fixation ability of Fe2O3 and the subsequent formation of iron bromides. This contribution provides a comprehensive mechanistic account of the primary reactions between a cluster model of Fe2O3 and major <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-bearing products from the decomposition of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBA), the most commonly deployed BFR. We estimate the thermo-kinetic parameters for interactions of Fe2O3 with HBr, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> alkanes and alkenes, bromobenzene, and bromophenol. Dissociative addition of HBr at a Fe-O bond proceeds through a trivial barrier of 8.2 kcal/mol with fitted parameters in the Arrhenius equation of k(T) = 7.96 × 10(11) exp(-6400/RT) s(-1). The facile and irreversible nature for HBr addition to Fe2O3 accords with the experimentally reported 90% reduction in HBr emission when Fe2O3 interacts with TBBA pyrolysates. A detailed kinetic analysis indicates that, transformation of Fe2O3 into iron bromides and oxybromides occurs via successive addition of HBr to Fe(Br)-O(H) entities. Elimination of a water molecule proceeds through an intramolecular H transfer. A direct elimination one-step mechanism operates in the dehydrohalogenation of bromoethane into ethene over Fe2O3. Dissociative decomposition and direct elimination channels assume comparable reaction rates in formation of acetylene from vinyl bromide. Results from this study provide an atomic-based insight into a promising thermal recycling route of e-waste.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23808400','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23808400"><span>A dynamic system for delivering controlled <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and chlorine vapor exposures to weanling swine skin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Snider, Thomas H; Perry, Mark R; Richter, William R; Plahovinsak, Jennifer L; Rogers, James; Reid, Frances M; Graham, John S</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Assessing the hazards of accidental exposure to toxic industrial chemical (TIC) vapors and evaluating therapeutic compounds or treatment regimens require the development of appropriate animal models. The objective of this project was to develop an exposure system for delivering controlled vapor concentrations of TICs to the skin of anesthetized weanling pigs. Injury levels targeted for study were superficial dermal (SD) and deep dermal (DD) skin lesions as defined histopathologically. The exposure system was capable of simultaneously delivering chlorine or <span class="hlt">bromine</span> vapor to four, 3-cm diameter exposure cups placed over skin between the axillary and inguinal areas of the ventral abdomen. Vapor concentrations were generated by mixing saturated <span class="hlt">bromine</span> or chlorine vapor with either dried dilution air or nitrogen. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> exposure concentrations ranged from 6.5 × 10(-4) to 1.03 g/L, and exposure durations ranged from 1 to 45 min. A 7-min skin exposure to <span class="hlt">bromine</span> vapors at 0.59 g/L was sufficient to produce SD injuries, while a 17-min exposure produced a DD injury. Chlorine exposure concentrations ranged from 1.0 to 2.9 g/L (saturated vapor concentration) for exposures ranging from 3 to 90 min. Saturated chlorine vapor challenges for up to 30 min did not induce significant dermal injuries, whereas saturated chlorine vapor with wetted material on the skin surface for 30-60 min induced SD injuries. DD chlorine injuries could not be induced with this system. The vapor exposure system described in this study provides a means for safely regulating, quantifying and delivering TIC vapors to the skin of weanling swine as a model to evaluate therapeutic treatments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22137319','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22137319"><span>Combustion and inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> emission of waste printed circuit boards in a high temperature furnace.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ni, Mingjiang; Xiao, Hanxi; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jianhua; Buekens, Alfons; Jin, Yuqi; Lu, Shengyong</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>High temperature combustion experiments of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) were conducted using a lab-scale system featuring a continuously-fed drop tube furnace. Combustion efficiency and the occurrence of inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (HBr and Br(2)) were systematically studied by monitoring the main combustion products continuously. The influence of furnace temperature (T) was studied from 800 to 1400°C, the excess air factor (EAF) was varied from 1.2 to 1.9 and the residence time in the high temperature zone (RT(HT)) was set at 0.25, 0.5, or 0.75 s. Combustion efficiency depends on temperature, EAF and RT(HT); temperature has the most significant effect. Conversion of organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> from flame retardants into HBr and Br(2) depends on temperature and EAF. Temperature has crucial influence over the ratio of HBr to Br(2), whereas oxygen partial pressure plays a minor role. The two forms of inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> seem substantially to reach thermodynamic equilibrium within 0.25s. High temperature is required to improve the combustion performance: at 1200°C or higher, an EAF of 1.3 or more, and a RT(HT) exceeding 0.75 s, combustion is quite complete, the CO concentration in flue gas and remained carbon in ash are sufficiently low, and organobrominated compounds are successfully decomposed (more than 99.9%). According to these results, incineration of waste PCBs without preliminary separation and without additives would perform very well under certain conditions; the potential precursors for <span class="hlt">brominated</span> dioxins formation could be destroyed efficiently. Increasing temperature could decrease the volume percentage ratio of Br(2)/HBr in flue gas greatly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24692043','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24692043"><span>Dependence of mass spectrometric fragmentation on the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> substitution pattern of polybrominated diphenyl ethers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wei, Hua; Zhang, Siyu; Wang, Yawei; Wang, Ying; Li, An; Negrusz, Adam; Yu, Gang</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>This study investigates the link between the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> substitution and the mass spectrometric fragmentation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The mass spectra of 180 PBDEs were obtained in both electron impact (EI) and electron capture negative ionization (ECNI) modes using a single quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS) as well as EI using a tandem MS (MS/MS). The major ions are M(+), [M-2Br](+), [M-2Br](2+) and [M-nBr-28](+) in EI, and Br(-), [HBr2](-) and [C6BrnO](-) in ECNI. In EI-MS, congeners without ortho <span class="hlt">bromine</span> or having 2,3 substitution on one ring and no ortho <span class="hlt">bromines</span> on the other were more robust than the others in each homolog. These congeners generated low [M-2Br](+) but relatively high [M-2Br](2+) in EI-MS and negligible [HBr2](-) in ECNI-MS. In EI-MS/MS, the molecular ions of these congeners required higher collision energy to debrominate, and produced additional ions of [M-nBr](+) and [M-nBr-28](+). Full ortho substitution promotes C-O cleavage forming [C6BrnO](-) in ECNI for congeners with >5 <span class="hlt">bromines</span>. The relationship between the abundance of M(+) and collision energy of the EI-MS/MS was well characterized with a logistic regression model. Principle component analysis found associations between the inflection point collision energy and a few molecular descriptors. Quantum chemistry simulations revealed different EI-induced fragmentation mechanisms among four dibrominated congeners, supporting the hypothesized formation of a stable dibenzofuran-like intermediate during the fragmentation of some congeners but not of others.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28636753','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28636753"><span>Stable Bromiranium Ions with Weakly-Coordinating Counterions as Efficient Electrophilic <span class="hlt">Brominating</span> Agents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ascheberg, Christoph; Bock, Jonathan; Buß, Florenz; Mück-Lichtenfeld, Christian; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Bergander, Klaus; Dielmann, Fabian; Hennecke, Ulrich</p> <p>2017-08-25</p> <p>Electrophilic halogenating agents are an important class of reagents in chemical synthesis. Herein, we show that sterically demanding bromiranium ions with weakly coordinating counterions are highly reactive electrophilic <span class="hlt">brominating</span> agents. Despite their high reactivity these reagents are stable, in one case even under ambient conditions and can be applied in electrophilic halogenations of alkenes as well as heteroatoms. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACPD...12.9665P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACPD...12.9665P"><span>Tropospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> chemistry: implications for present and pre-industrial ozone and mercury</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Parrella, J. P.; Jacob, D. J.; Liang, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Mickley, L. J.; Miller, B.; Evans, M. J.; Yang, X.; Pyle, J. A.; Theys, N.; Van Roozendael, M.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>We present a new model for the global tropospheric chemistry of inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (Bry) coupled to oxidant-aerosol chemistry in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM). Sources of tropospheric Bry include debromination of sea-salt aerosol, photolysis and oxidation of short-lived bromocarbons, and transport from the stratosphere. Comparison to a GOME-2 satellite climatology of tropospheric BrO columns shows that the model can reproduce the observed increase of BrO with latitude, the northern mid-latitudes maximum in winter, and the Arctic maximum in spring. This successful simulation is contingent on the HOBr + HBr reaction taking place in aqueous aerosols and ice clouds. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> chemistry in the model decreases tropospheric ozone concentrations by <1-8 nmol mol-1 (6.5% globally), with the largest effects in the northern extratropics in spring. The global mean tropospheric OH concentration decreases by 4%. Inclusion of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> chemistry improves the ability of global models (GEOS-Chem and p-TOMCAT) to simulate observed 19th-century ozone and its seasonality. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> effects on tropospheric ozone are comparable in the present-day and pre-industrial atmospheres so that estimates of anthropogenic radiative forcing are minimally affected. Br atom concentrations are 40% higher in the pre-industrial atmosphere due to lower ozone, which would decrease by a factor of 2 the atmospheric lifetime of elemental mercury against oxidation by Br. This suggests that historical anthropogenic mercury emissions may have mostly deposited to northern mid-latitudes, enriching the corresponding surface reservoirs. The persistent rise in background surface ozone at northern mid-latitudes during the past decades could possibly contribute to the observations of elevated mercury in subsurface waters of the North Atlantic.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACP....12.6723P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACP....12.6723P"><span>Tropospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> chemistry: implications for present and pre-industrial ozone and mercury</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Parrella, J. P.; Jacob, D. J.; Liang, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Mickley, L. J.; Miller, B.; Evans, M. J.; Yang, X.; Pyle, J. A.; Theys, N.; Van Roozendael, M.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>We present a new model for the global tropospheric chemistry of inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (Bry) coupled to oxidant-aerosol chemistry in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM). Sources of tropospheric Bry include debromination of sea-salt aerosol, photolysis and oxidation of short-lived bromocarbons, and transport from the stratosphere. Comparison to a GOME-2 satellite climatology of tropospheric BrO columns shows that the model can reproduce the observed increase of BrO with latitude, the northern mid-latitudes maximum in winter, and the Arctic maximum in spring. This successful simulation is contingent on the HOBr + HBr reaction taking place in aqueous aerosols and ice clouds. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> chemistry in the model decreases tropospheric ozone mixing ratios by <1-8 nmol mol-1 (6.5% globally), with the largest effects in the northern extratropics in spring. The global mean tropospheric OH concentration decreases by 4%. Inclusion of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> chemistry improves the ability of global models (GEOS-Chem and p-TOMCAT) to simulate observed 19th-century ozone and its seasonality. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> effects on tropospheric ozone are comparable in the present-day and pre-industrial atmospheres so that estimates of anthropogenic radiative forcing are minimally affected. Br atom concentrations are 40% higher in the pre-industrial atmosphere due to lower ozone, which would decrease by a factor of 2 the atmospheric lifetime of elemental mercury against oxidation by Br. This suggests that historical anthropogenic mercury emissions may have mostly deposited to northern mid-latitudes, enriching the corresponding surface reservoirs. The persistent rise in background surface ozone at northern mid-latitudes during the past decades could possibly contribute to the observations of elevated mercury in subsurface waters of the North Atlantic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4166150','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4166150"><span>METHOD OF <span class="hlt">ISOTOPE</span> CONCENTRATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Spevack, J.S.</p> <p>1957-04-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">isotope</span> concentration process is described which consists of exchanging, at two or more different temperature stages, two <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> of an element between substances that are physically separate from each other and each of which is capable of containing either of the <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>, and withdrawing from a point between at least two of the temperatare stages one of the substances containing an increased concentration of the desired <span class="hlt">isotope</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/676906','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/676906"><span>Heterogeneous processing of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> compounds by atmospheric aerosols: Relation to the ozone budget</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Robinson, J.M.; Henson, B.F.; Dubey, M.K.; Casson, J.L.; Johal, M.S.; Wilson, K.R.</p> <p>1998-11-01</p> <p>This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The depletion of ozone, particularly above Antarctica, has been investigated extensively to formulate public policy on the use of halocarbons. While it has been shown that heterogeneous reactions of chlorine compounds on stratospheric particulates cause the ozone hole, little is known of the analogous <span class="hlt">bromine</span> mechanisms, even though it has been recognized for two decades that catalytic destruction of ozone by <span class="hlt">bromine</span> could be more efficient than chlorine. Furthermore, field measurements and modeling calculations suggest that these heterogeneous (gas/surface) reactions are not restricted to the Antarctic regions but occur globally. The authors have performed laboratory measurements of the uptake of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> compounds and other halogens on simulated stratospheric aerosols to help elucidate their role in catalytic ozone destruction cycles. Their studies contribute to the data base required to make assessments of the effects of human activities on global change, including the Montreal Protocol.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28302307','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28302307"><span><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> incorporation into five DBP classes upon chlorination of water with extremely low SUVA values.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hong, Huachang; Yan, Xiaoqing; Song, Xuhui; Qin, Yanyan; Sun, Hongjie; Lin, Hongjun; Chen, Jianrong; Liang, Yan</p> <p>2017-07-15</p> <p>The main objective of this study was to assess the effects of disinfection conditions on <span class="hlt">bromine</span> incorporation into disinfection by-products (DBPs) during chlorination of water with low specific UV absorbance (SUVA). Five classes of DBPs were included: trihalomethanes (THMs), dihaloacetic acids (di-HAAs), trihaloacetic acids (tri-HAAs), dihaloacetonitriles (DHANs) and trihalonitromethanes (THNMs). Results showed that the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> utilization in DBPs formation was positive related with reaction time, pH and temperature. On the other hand, the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> substitution factors (BSFs) of DBPs were generally increased with pH (except tri-HAAs) and bromide concentration, but decreased with the reaction time, temperature and chlorine dose. Moreover, the BSFs values varied with DBP classes with the ranking being as following: THNMs≫DHANs≫tri-HAAs>THM≈di-HAAs. These results were mostly similar with the references, yet the pH effect on BSFs as well as the rank of BSFs for different DBP classes may differ with the specific UV absorbance of organic matter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25464945','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25464945"><span>Monitoring of WEEE plastics in regards to <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants using handheld XRF.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aldrian, Alexia; Ledersteger, Alfred; Pomberger, Roland</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>This contribution is focused on the on-site determination of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> content in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), in particular waste plastics from television sets (TV) and personal computer monitors (PC) using a handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) device. The described approach allows the examination of samples in regards to the compliance with legal specifications for polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) directly after disassembling and facilitates the sorting out of plastics with high contents of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs). In all, over 3000 pieces of black (TV) and 1600 pieces of grey (PC) plastic waste were analysed with handheld XRF technique for this study. Especially noticeable was the high percentage of pieces with a <span class="hlt">bromine</span> content of over 50,000ppm for TV (7%) and PC (39%) waste plastics. The applied method was validated by comparing the data of handheld XRF with results obtained by GC-MS. The results showed the expected and sufficiently accurate correlation between these two methods. It is shown that handheld XRF technique is an effective tool for fast monitoring of large volumes of WEEE plastics in regards to BFRs for on-site measurements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22575175','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22575175"><span>Removal of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardant from electrical and electronic waste plastic by solvothermal technique.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Cong-Cong; Zhang, Fu-Shen</p> <p>2012-06-30</p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) in electrical and electronic (E&E) waste plastic are toxic, bioaccumulative and recalcitrant. In the present study, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) contained in this type of plastic was tentatively subjected to solvothermal treatment so as to obtain <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-free plastic. Methanol, ethanol and isopropanol were examined as solvents for solvothermal treatment and it was found that methanol was the optimal solvent for TBBPA removal. The optimum temperature, time and liquid to solid ratio for solvothermal treatment to remove TBBPA were 90°C, 2h and 15:1, respectively. After the treatment with various alcohol solvents, it was found that TBBPA was finally transferred into the solvents and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the extract was debrominated catalyzed by metallic copper. Bisphenol A and cuprous bromide were the main products after debromination. The morphology and FTIR properties of the plastic were generally unchanged after the solvothermal treatment indicating that the structure of the plastic maintained after the process. This work provides a clean and applicable process for BFRs-containing plastic disposal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28877406','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28877406"><span>Integration of <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> and Cyanogen Bromide Generators for the Continuous-Flow Synthesis of Cyclic Guanidines.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Glotz, Gabriel; Lebl, René; Dallinger, Doris; Kappe, C Oliver</p> <p>2017-09-06</p> <p>A continuous-flow process for the in situ on-demand generation of cyanogen bromide (BrCN) from <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and potassium cyanide that makes use of membrane-separation technology is described. In order to circumvent the handling, storage, and transportation of elemental <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, a continuous <span class="hlt">bromine</span> generator using bromate-bromide synproportionation can optionally be attached upstream. Monitoring and quantification of BrCN generation was enabled through the implementation of in-line FTIR technology. With the Br2 and BrCN generators connected in series, 0.2 mmol BrCN per minute was produced, which corresponds to a 0.8 m solution of BrCN in dichloromethane. The modular Br2 /BrCN generator was employed for the synthesis of a diverse set of biologically relevant five- and six-membered cyclic amidines and guanidines. The set-up can either be operated in a fully integrated continuous format or, where reactive crystallization is beneficial, in semi-batch mode. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26492426','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26492426"><span>Discrimination of hexabromocyclododecane from new polymeric <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardant in polystyrene foam by nuclear magnetic resonance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jeannerat, Damien; Pupier, Marion; Schweizer, Sébastien; Mitrev, Yavor Nikolaev; Favreau, Philippe; Kohler, Marcel</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is a <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardant (BFR) and major additive to polystyrene foam thermal insulation that has recently been listed as a persistent organic pollutant by the Stockholm Convention. During a 2013/2014 field analytical survey, we measured HBCDD content ranging from 0.2 to 2.4% by weight in 98 polystyrene samples. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses indicated that expandable (EPS) and extruded (XPS) polystyrene foams significantly differed in the α/γ HBCDD isomer ratio, with a majority of α and γ isomers in XPS and EPS, respectively. Interestingly, this technique indicated that some recent materials did not contain HBCDD, but demonstrated <span class="hlt">bromine</span> content when analysed with X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Further investigation by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) was able to discriminate between the BFRs present. In addition to confirming the absence or presence of HBCDD in polystyrene samples, high-field NMR spectroscopy provided evidence of the use of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> butadiene styrene (BBS) as copolymer in the production of polystyrene. Use of this alternative flame retardant is expected to cause fewer health and environmental concerns. Our results highlight a trend towards the use of copolymerized BFRs as an alternative to HBCDD in polystyrene foam boards. In addition to providing a rapid NMR method to identify polymeric BFR, our analytical approach is a simple method to discriminate between flame-retardants in polystyrene foam insulating materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4295809','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4295809"><span>Functionalized Poly(3-hexylthiophene)s via Lithium–<span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Exchange</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is one of the most extensively investigated conjugated polymers and has been employed as the active material in many devices including field-effect transistors, organic photovoltaics and sensors. As a result, methods to further tune the properties of P3HT are desirable for specific applications. Herein, we report a facile postpolymerization modification strategy to functionalize the 4-position of commercially available P3HT in two simple steps–<span class="hlt">bromination</span> of the 4-position of P3HT (Br–P3HT) followed by lithium−<span class="hlt">bromine</span> exchange and quenching with an electrophile. We achieved near quantitative lithium–<span class="hlt">bromine</span> exchange with Br–P3HT, which requires over 100 thienyl lithiates to be present on a single polymer chain. The lithiated-P3HT is readily combined with functional electrophiles, resulting in P3HT derivatives with ketones, secondary alcohols, trimethylsilyl (TMS) group, fluorine, or an azide at the 4-position. We demonstrated that the azide-modified P3HT could undergo Cu-catalyzed or Cu-free click chemistry, significantly expanding the complexity of the structures that can be appended to P3HT using this method. PMID:25620811</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5608512','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5608512"><span><span class="hlt">Brominating</span> activity of the seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum: Impact on the biosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wever, R.; Tromp, M.G.M.; Krenn, B.E.; Marjani, A.; Van Tol, M. )</p> <p>1991-03-01</p> <p>Macroalgae are an important source of volatile halogenated organic compounds, such as bromoform and dibromomethane. The mechanism by which these compounds are formed is still elusive. The authors report that the brown seaweeds Laminaria saccharina, Laminaria digitata, Fucus vesiculosis, Pelvetia canaliculata, and Ascophyllum nodosum and the red seaweeds Chondrus crispus and Plocamium hamatum contain bromoperoxidases. The intact plants are able to <span class="hlt">brominate</span> exogeneous organic compounds when H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Br{sup {minus}} are added to seawater. Further, the authors show that the <span class="hlt">brominating</span> activity of the brown macroalga A. nodosum, which contains a vanadium bromoperoxidase located on the thallus surface, occurs when the plant is exposed to light and not in the dark. The rate of <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of exogenous organic compounds in seawater by this plant is 68 nmol (g of wet alga){sup {minus}1} h{sup {minus}1}. HOBr is a strong biocidal agent and the authors propose that the formation of HOBr by this seaweed is part of a host defense system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814959B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814959B"><span>A satellite based study of tropospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> explosion events and their linkages to polar cyclone development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blechschmidt, Anne-Marlene; Richter, Andreas; Burrows, John P.; Kaleschke, Lars; Strong, Kimberly; Theys, Nicolas; Weber, Mark; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Zien, Achim; Hodges, Kevin I.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Intense, cyclone-like shaped plumes of tropospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> monoxide (BrO) are regularly observed by the UV-vis satellite instruments GOME-2/MetOp-A and SCIAMACHY/Envisat over Arctic and Antarctic sea ice in polar spring. The plumes are associated with an autocatalytic chemical chain reaction involving tropospheric ozone depletion and initiated by the release of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> from cold brine-covered ice or snow to the atmosphere. This influences atmospheric chemistry as it affects the oxidising capacity of the troposphere through OH production and may also influence the local weather/temperature of the polar atmosphere, as ozone is a major greenhouse gas. Here, we make combined use of satellite retrievals and numerical model simulations to study individual BrO plume cases in the polar atmosphere. In agreement with previous studies, our analysis shows that the plumes are often transported by high latitude cyclones, sometimes over several days despite the short atmospheric lifetime of BrO. Moreover, general characteristics of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> explosion events linked to transport by polar weather systems, such as frequency, spatial distribution and favourable weather conditions are derived based on a new detection method. Our results show that BrO cyclone transport events are by far more common in the Antarctic than in the Arctic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24958676','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24958676"><span>Examination of the kinetics of degradation of the antineoplastic drug 5-fluorouracil by chlorine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Wei; Tanumihardja, Jessica; Masuyama, Takaaki; Korshin, Gregory</p> <p>2015-01-23</p> <p>This study examined the degradation of the widely used antineoplastic drug 5-fluorouracil (5FU) by chlorine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. 5FU was determined to interact readily with free chlorine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> but was stable in the presence of chloramine. The removal of 5FU followed a second-order kinetic pattern. Apparent rates (kapp) of 5FU removal by chlorine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> were strongly pH dependent and had maximum 14.8M(-1)s(-1) and 1.9×10(3)M(-1)s(-1)kapp values, respectively at pH 7. Modeling of the dependence of the kapp values vs. pH indicated the presence of a relatively acidic (pK 6.4 vs. 8.5 of 5FU per se) 5FU intermediate generated in the presence of halogen species. Spectrophotometric measurements confirmed the increased acidity of 5FU chlorination products and allowed proposing a degradation pathway of 5FU by chlorine. This pathway suggests that 5FU chlorination proceeds via chlorine incorporation at the 6th carbon in the heterocyclic ring of 5FU.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26178826','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26178826"><span>Induced production of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> aromatic compounds in the alga Ceramium tenuicorne.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dahlgren, Elin; Enhus, Carolina; Lindqvist, Dennis; Eklund, Britta; Asplund, Lillemor</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>In the Baltic Sea, high concentrations of toxic <span class="hlt">brominated</span> aromatic compounds have been detected in all compartments of the marine food web. A growing body of evidence points towards filamentous algae as a natural producer of these chemicals. However, little is known about the effects of environmental factors and life history on algal production of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compounds. In this study, several congeners of methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs), hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> phenols (BPs) were identified in a naturally growing filamentous red algal species (Ceramium tenuicorne) in the Baltic Sea. The identified substances displayed large seasonal variations in the alga with a concentration peak in July. Production of MeO-/OH-PBDEs and BPs by C. tenuicorne was also established in isolated clonal material grown in a controlled laboratory setting. Based on three replicates, herbivory, as well as elevated levels of light and salinity in the culture medium, significantly increased the production of 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP). Investigation of differences in production between the isomorphic female, male and diploid clonal life stages of the alga grown in the laboratory revealed a significantly higher production of 2,4,6-TBP in the brackish water female gametophytes, compared to the corresponding marine gametophytes. Even higher concentrations of 2,4,6-TBP were produced by marine male gametophytes and sporophytes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21783321','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21783321"><span><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> and organophosphate flame retardants in selected consumer products on the Japanese market in 2008.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kajiwara, Natsuko; Noma, Yukio; Takigami, Hidetaka</p> <p>2011-09-15</p> <p>The concentrations of traditional <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in new consumer products, including electronic equipment, curtains, wallpaper, and building materials, on the Japanese market in 2008 were investigated. Although some components of the electronic equipment contained <span class="hlt">bromine</span> at concentrations on the order of percent by weight, as indicated by X-ray fluorescence analysis, the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> content could not be fully accounted for by the BFRs analyzed in this study, which included polybrominated diphenylethers, decabromodiphenyl ethane, tetrabromobisphenol A, polybromophenols, and hexabromocyclododecanes. These results suggest the use of alternative BFRs such as newly developed formulations derived from tribromophenol, tetrabromobisphenol A, or both. Among the 11 OPFRs analyzed, triphenylphosphate was present at the highest concentrations in all the products investigated, which suggests the use of condensed-type OPFRs as alternative flame retardants, because they contain triphenylphosphate as an impurity. Tripropylphosphate was not detected in any samples; and trimethylphosphate, tributyl tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate, and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate were detected in only some components and at low concentrations. Note that all the consumer products evaluated in this study also contained traditional BFRs in amounts that were inadequate to impart flame retardancy, which implies the incorporation of recycled plastic materials containing BFRs that are of global concern. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830060636&hterms=bpa&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dbpa','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830060636&hterms=bpa&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dbpa"><span>A new <span class="hlt">brominated</span> polymeric additive for flame retardant glass-filled polybutylene terephthalate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nir, Z.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Bar-Yaacov, Y.; Minke, R.; Touval, I.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Attention is called to the undesirable effects (poor ultraviolet light stability and blooming) sometimes introduced by <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retarders. A <span class="hlt">brominated</span> polymeric additive (BPA) with little or none of these undesirable side effects is compared with decabromobiphenyl oxide (DBBPO). The additive bears the product name F-2300. It is found to be more easily dispersed than DBBPO. The F-2300 is as effective as the DBBPO in the oxygen index test. The improved efficiency of the F-2300 may be explained by its better dispersion in polybutylene terephthalate (PBT). Glass-filled PBT containing F-2300 is found to be more resistant to UV degradation than DBBPO-containing formulas. Formulations with F-2300 therefore have a longer useful outdoor life. F-2300 is a diglycidyl-type polymer containing 50 percent aromatically bound <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. Its melting point is 112 C, and it is stable up to 372 C. It is pointed out that since its melts at a relatively low temperature, it can be introduced into the formulation as a large agglomerate and still be dispersed evenly throughout the polymer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20034734','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20034734"><span>Measurement and human exposure assessment of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants in household products from South China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, She-Jun; Ma, Yun-Juan; Wang, Jing; Tian, Mi; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Da; Mai, Bi-Xian</p> <p>2010-04-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) were examined in household products in the Pearl River Delta, South China, including electronic appliances, furniture and upholstery, car interiors, and raw materials for electronics. The concentrations of PBDEs derived from penta-BDE mixture were much lower (<111 ng/g) than those for octa- and deca-BDE commercially derived PBDEs, with maximum values of 15,107 and 1,603,343 ng/g, respectively, in all the household products. Our findings suggest the recycling of old electronic products and their reuse might be also a potential important source of discontinued PBDEs to the environment. DBDPE was found in 20.0% of all the samples, ranging from 311 to 268,230 ng/g. PBDE congener profiles in both the household products and raw materials suggest that some less <span class="hlt">brominated</span> BDEs in the environment may be derived from the decomposition of higher <span class="hlt">brominated</span> PBDEs in PBDE-containing products in process of the manufacturing, use and/or recycling. Human exposure to PBDEs from household products via inhalation ranged from 175 to 612 pg/kg bw day, accounting for a small proportion of the total daily exposure via indoor inhalation. Despite the low deleterious risk associated with household products with regard to PBDEs, they are of special concern because of the relatively higher exposures observed for young children and further work is required.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26514681','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26514681"><span>Mono- and di-bromo platinum(IV) prodrugs via oxidative <span class="hlt">bromination</span>: synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxicity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Zoufeng; Wang, Zhigang; Yiu, Shek-Man; Zhu, Guangyu</p> <p>2015-12-14</p> <p>Platinum(IV)-based anticancer prodrugs have attracted much attention due to their relative inertness under physiological conditions, being activated inside cells, and their capacity for functionalization with a variety of small-molecule or macromolecule moieties. Novel asymmetric platinum(IV) compounds synthesized through expedient and unique methods are desired. Here we utilize N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and carry out oxidative <span class="hlt">bromination</span> on platinum(II) drugs, namely cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin, to obtain asymmetric and mono-bromo platinum(IV) prodrugs. Different solvents are used to obtain various compounds, and the compounds are further functionalized. Di-bromo compounds are also obtained through NBS-directed oxidative <span class="hlt">bromination</span> in ethanol. The crystal structures of representative compounds are discussed, and the reduction potentials of some compounds are examined. A cytotoxicity test shows that the mono- and di-bromo platinum(IV) compounds are active against human ovarian cancer cells. Our study enriches the family of asymmetric platinum(IV) prodrugs and provides with a convenient strategy to obtain <span class="hlt">brominated</span> platinum(IV) complexes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26301594','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26301594"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Substitution on Human Dermal Absorption of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa; Pawar, Gopal; Harrad, Stuart</p> <p>2015-09-15</p> <p>Human dermal absorption of eight mono- to deca-<span class="hlt">brominated</span> diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was investigated for the first time using EPISKIN human skin equivalent tissue. Using a standard in vitro protocol, EPISKIN tissues mounted in specially designed diffusion cells were exposed to the target PBDEs for 24 h. Estimated steady-state flux (Jss) and permeation coefficients (Papp) across the skin increased with decreasing <span class="hlt">bromine</span> substitution from BDE-153 (Papp = 4.0 × 10(-4) cm/h) to BDE-1 (Papp = 1.1 × 10(-2) cm/h). This was accompanied by an increase in the time required to traverse the skin tissue into the receptor fluid (lag time) from 0.25 h for BDE-1 to 1.26 h for BDE-153. Papp values for the studied PBDEs were correlated significantly (P < 0.05) with physicochemical parameters like water solubility and log KOW. While less <span class="hlt">brominated</span> congeners achieved faster dermal penetration, higher PBDEs displayed greater accumulation within the skin tissue. The PBDEs thus accumulated represent a contaminant depot from which they may be slowly released to the systemic circulation over a prolonged period. Maximal percutaneous penetration was observed for BDE-1 (∼ 30% of the applied 500 ng/cm(2) dose). Interestingly, BDE-183 and BDE-209 showed very low dermal absorption, exemplified by a failure to reach the steady state within the 24 h exposure period that was studied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22938711','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22938711"><span>Freeze-induced formation of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>/chlorine interhalogen species from aqueous halide ion solutions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>O'Concubhair, Ruairí; Sodeau, John R</p> <p>2012-10-02</p> <p>Both gaseous <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> chloride have been monitored in polar environments and implicated in the destruction of tropospheric ozone. The formation mechanisms operating for these halogen compounds have been suggested previously. However, few laboratory studies have been performed using environmentally relevant concentrations of bromide and chloride ions in polar ice mimics. In aqueous solutions held at room temperature, previous studies have shown that the major product is the Cl(2)Br¯ trihalide ion when solutions of bromate, hydrochloric acid, and bromide ions are left to equilibrate. In contrast, the results of the cryochemical experiments presented here suggest that the dibromochloride ion (BrBrCl¯) is the major product when solutions of bromate, sulfuric acid, bromide, and chloride ions are frozen. Such a species would preferentially release <span class="hlt">bromine</span> to the gas phase. Hence, similar halide starting materials form structurally different trihalide ions when frozen, which are capable of releasing differing active halogens, BrCl and Br(2), to the gas-phase. This is a potentially important finding because Br(2) is photolyzed more readily and to longer wavelengths than BrCl and therefore the efficiency in forming products that can lead to ozone destruction in the atmosphere would be increased. Evidence is provided for the mechanism to occur by means of both the freeze-concentration effect and the incorporation of ions into the growing ice phase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1211485','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1211485"><span>High Performance Hydrogen/<span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Redox Flow Battery for Grid-Scale Energy Storage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cho, KT; Ridgway, P; Weber, AZ; Haussener, S; Battaglia, V; Srinivasan, V</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The electrochemical behavior of a promising hydrogen/<span class="hlt">bromine</span> redox flow battery is investigated for grid-scale energy-storage application with some of the best redox-flow-battery performance results to date, including a peak power of 1.4 W/cm(2) and a 91% voltaic efficiency at 0.4 W/cm(2) constant-power operation. The kinetics of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> on various materials is discussed, with both rotating-disk-electrode and cell studies demonstrating that a carbon porous electrode for the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> reaction can conduct platinum-comparable performance as long as sufficient surface area is realized. The effect of flow-cell designs and operating temperature is examined, and ohmic and mass-transfer losses are decreased by utilizing a flow-through electrode design and increasing cell temperature. Charge/discharge and discharge-rate tests also reveal that this system has highly reversible behavior and good rate capability. (C) 2012 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.018211jes] All rights reserved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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