Science.gov

Sample records for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

  1. Cotinine levels in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    PubMed

    Diken, Ozlem Erçen; Unculu, Serap; Karnak, Demet; Cağlayan, Osman; Göçmen, Julide Sedef; Kayacan, Oya

    2010-09-01

    Cotinine is a major metabolite of nicotine. This study was planned to investigate the relationship between bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cotinine levels and serum cotinine levels in smokers and nonsmokers with various pulmonary diseases and to investigate whether these levels are affected by passive smoking. Serum and BAL fluid cotinine levels were measured in 27 patients. BAL cotinine levels were measured using a sensitive ELISA kit produced to measure cotinine in saliva. Plates were read by microuant (BioTek, USA) micro plate reader. All patient serum cotinine levels were detectable except for one nonsmoker patient. However, BAL fluid cotinine levels were measurable in only 6 patients (two of them were nonsmokers). A significant positive correlation was seen between serum and BAL fluid cotinine levels (r = 0.726; p = 0.000). Serum cotinine levels were significantly higher in present smokers than non-smokers (21.0 +/- 16.01; 5.35 +/- 7.65; p = 0.004). However, there were no significant differences in BAL fluid cotinine levels between smokers and nonsmokers. Passive smoking can increase nicotine metabolites in serum and other body fluids, including BAL fluid. Since BAL fluid and serum cotinine levels were well correlated, there is no need to use invasive procedures, such as bronchoscopy and expensive, time consuming BAL fluid analyses. Serum cotinine levels can give a rough idea of smoking status. BAL fluid cotinine meaurements should be done for only scientific reasons. PMID:21073047

  2. Metabolomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from cystic fibrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Wolak, Justyna E.; Esther, Charles R.; O’Connell, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Metabolite profiles of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) were correlated to the degree of airway inflammation using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based metabolomics. BALF was collected from 11 children with CF during clinically indicated bronchoscopy. The spectra from BALF with high levels of neutrophilic airway inflammation displayed signals from numerous metabolites, whereas the spectra from subjects with low levels of inflammation were very sparse. The metabolites identified in samples taken from subjects with high inflammation include known markers of inflammation such as amino acids and lactate, as well as many novel signals. Statistical analysis highlighted the most important metabolites that distinguished the high- from the low-inflammation groups. This first demonstration of metabolomics of human BALF shows that clear distinctions in the metabolic profiles can be observed between subjects experiencing high versus low inflammation and is a first step toward the goal of discovering novel biomarkers of airway inflammation. PMID:19283525

  3. PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF HUMAN BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE FLUID AFTER SUBSGEMENTAL EXPOSURE

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Matthew W.; Will Thompson, J.; Que, Loretta G.; Yang, Ivana V.; Schwartz, David A.; Arthur Moseley, M.; Marshall, Harvey E.

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of airway fluid, as sampled by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), provides a minimally invasive route to interrogate lung biology in health and disease. Here, we used immunodepletion, coupled with gel- and label-free LC-MS/MS, for quantitation of the BAL fluid (BALF) proteome in samples recovered from human subjects following bronchoscopic instillation of saline, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or house dust mite antigen into three distinct lung subsegments. Among more than 200 unique proteins quantified across nine samples, neutrophil granule-derived and acute phase proteins were most highly enriched in the LPS-exposed lobes. Of these, peptidoglycan response protein 1 was validated and confirmed as a novel marker of neutrophilic inflammation. Compared to a prior transcriptomic analysis of airway cells in this same cohort, the BALF proteome revealed a novel set of response factors. Independent of exposure, the enrichment of tracheal-expressed proteins in right lower lung lobes suggests a potential for constitutive intralobar variability in the BALF proteome; sampling of multiple lung subsegments also appears to aid in the identification of protein signatures that differentiate individuals at baseline. Collectively, this proof-of-concept study validates a robust workflow for BALF proteomics and demonstrates the complementary nature of proteomic and genomic techniques for investigating airway (patho)physiology. PMID:23550723

  4. Gallium-67 activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Trauth, H.A.; Heimes, K.; Schubotz, R.; von Wichert, P.

    1986-01-01

    Roentgenograms and gallium-67 scans and gallium-67 counts of BAL fluid samples, together with differential cell counts, have proved to be useful in assessing activity and lung involvement in sarcoidosis. In active pulmonary sarcoidosis gallium-67 scans are usually positive. Quantitation of gallium-67 uptake in lung scans, however, may be difficult. Because gallium-67 uptake and cell counts in BAL fluid may be correlated, we set out to investigate gallium-67 activity in BAL fluid recovered from patient of different groups. Sixteen patients with recently diagnosed and untreated sarcoidosis, nine patients with healthy lungs, and five patients with CFA were studied. Gallium-67 uptake of the lung, gallium-67 activity in the lavage fluid, SACE and LACE levels, and alpha 1-AT activity were measured. Significantly more gallium-67 activity was found in BAL fluid from sarcoidosis patients than in that from CFA patients (alpha = .001) or patients with healthy lungs (alpha = .001). Gallium-67 activity in BAL fluid could be well correlated with the number of lymphocytes in BAL fluid, but poorly with the number of macrophages. Subjects with increased levels of SACE or serum alpha 1-AT showed higher lavage gallium-67 activity than did normals, but no correlation could be established. High gallium-67 activity in lavage fluid may be correlated with acute sarcoidosis or physiological deterioration; low activity denotes change for the better. The results show that gallium-67 counts in BAL fluid reflects the intensity of gallium-67 uptake and thus of activity of pulmonary sarcoidosis.

  5. Rapid diagnosis of gram negative pneumonia by assay of endotoxin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Pugin, J; Auckenthaler, R; Delaspre, O; van Gessel, E; Suter, P M

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of ventilator associated pneumonia can be made by quantitative cultures of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or of protected specimen brushings, though cultures require 24-48 hours to provide results. In 80% of cases aerobic Gram negative bacteria are the cause. METHODS: A rapid diagnostic method of assessing the endotoxin content of lavage fluid by Limulus assay is described. Forty samples of lavage fluid were obtained from patients with multiple trauma requiring mechanical ventilation for a prolonged period. Pneumonia was diagnosed on the basis of clinical, radiological, and bacteriological findings, including quantitative cultures of lavage fluid. RESULTS: A relation was observed between the concentration of endotoxin in lavage fluid and the quantity of Gram negative bacteria. The median endotoxin content of lavage fluid in Gram negative bacterial pneumonia was 15 endotoxin units (EU)/ml; the range observed in individual patients was 6 to > 150 EU/ml. In patients with pneumonia due to Gram positive cocci and in non-infected patients the median endotoxin level was 0.17 (range < or = 0.06 to 2) EU/ml. An endotoxin level greater than or equal to 6 EU/ml distinguished patients with Gram negative bacterial pneumonia from colonised patients and from those with pneumonia due to Gram positive cocci. CONCLUSION: The measurement of endotoxin in lavage fluid is a rapid (less than two hours) and accurate diagnostic method. It should allow specific and early treatment of Gram negative bacterial pneumonia. PMID:1412100

  6. Raised immunoglobulin concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of healthy granite workers.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, W J; Christman, J W; Ershler, W B; Graham, W G; Davis, G S

    1986-04-01

    Immunoglobulin concentrations and lymphocyte counts were determined in bronchoalveolar fluid obtained from nine symptomless, healthy, non-smoking granite workers (mean age 45.6, range 22-56 years) and nine normal, non-smoking, non industrial controls (mean age 22.8, range 21-32 years). The proteins were measured in unconcentrated lavage fluid by means of a solid phase, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. IgG and IgA concentrations were three times greater in lavage fluid from granite workers than the samples from non-industrial controls (p less than 0.02). Eight of nine normal volunteers (89%) had no detectable IgM (less than 30 ng/ml) in the lavage fluid whereas eight of nine (89%) granite workers had detectable IgM (chi 2 = 8, p less than 0.01). Lymphocyte counts in lavage fluid from the workers were significantly greater (15.5%) than control counts (5.6%; p less than 0.05). The normal albumin concentration suggests that differences in permeability do not account for all of the increased immunoglobulin concentrations found in granite workers' lavage fluid and that some immunoglobulin is locally synthesised. It is concluded that occupational exposure to granite dust is associated with an increased proportion of lymphocytes and an increased concentration of immunoglobulin in lavage fluid that may reflect a subclinical immune inflammatory response.

  7. Long term effects of alumina on components of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from rats.

    PubMed Central

    Tornling, G; Blaschke, E; Eklund, A

    1993-01-01

    Significant differences in several components of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL fluid) have previously been reported in aluminium potroom workers compared with controls. The present paper describes the long term effects in rats of one time exposure to potroom aluminium oxide without fluorides (primary alumina (PA)) or with adsorbed fluorides (secondary alumina (SA)) on components of BAL fluid. Alumina dust (40 mg) suspended in saline was instilled intratracheally; controls received saline. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed one, four, and 12 months after exposure. The number of cells in BAL fluid was increased significantly (p < 0.05) by SA but not PA. The increase was mainly macrophages, but the concentrations of neutrophils also increased about 10-fold one and 12 months after exposure. Although albumin and hyaluronan concentrations did not differ from those of controls, fibronectin concentrations were significantly (p < 0.001) increased one year after exposure both in PA exposed and SA exposed rats. The results indicate that SA, possibly because of adhered fluorides, induces early changes in alveolar cell populations including persistent neutrophilia. These cellular changes may have a destructive effect. The late pronounced increase of fibronectin in both PA and SA exposed rats indicates a delayed effect of alumina on the extracellular matrix. PMID:8435350

  8. Cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid acquired by bronchoscopy in healthy ferrets: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Bercier, Marjorie; Langlois, Isabelle; Dunn, Marilyn; Hélie, Pierre; Burns, Patrick; Gara-Boivin, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the normal cytological evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in healthy adult ferrets (N = 12). These ferrets underwent bronchoscopy and BAL using sterile saline [1.5 mL/kg body weight (BW)]. Percentage of fluid recovered, total leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count, and cell count of the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) were determined. The mean percentage of lavage volume recovered from the right lung and left lung were 67.8 ± 14.9% and 69.7 ± 20.0%, respectively. Gender (P = 0.12) and weight (P = 0.17) did not significantly affect the mean percentage of recovered volume. The mean percentage of recovered volume (P = 0.47) and the mean leukocyte count (P = 0.17) from the right and left lung were not significantly different. Macrophages were the main leukocyte component of the lavages, followed by neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. The mean proportion of ELF in BAL fluid was 9.3 ± 3.7% v/v. Bronchoscopy is clinically useful for collecting good quality BAL samples for cytological analysis in ferrets. The leucocyte differential was established, which may help veterinarians to make better clinical decisions when treating respiratory disease. Further studies are required with a larger group in order to establish the healthy reference intervals for BAL values in ferrets. PMID:26733735

  9. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Cellular and Haematological Changes in Different Types of Caprine Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Jarikre, A T; Emikpe, O B; Ohore, G O; Akinremi, A T; Akpavie, O S

    2016-01-01

    Goats in the tropics are often reared under the traditional extensive and semi-intensive management systems. These and other factors influence the pattern of pneumonia complex in goats. We investigated the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) cellular changes and haematological response in different types of caprine pneumonia in Nigeria. Haematological indices and BALf cells were analysed from 300 goats randomly selected from 700 goats comprising different breed, age and body scores. The pneumonia status was well characterised using standard pathological tools. Data is summarized as Mean ± SEM and compared using non-parametric statistics at 5% significance. There was leukocytosis in the pneumonic animals. The overall lavage recovery rate was 55.5%. The differences in Haemoglobin concentration, and Lymphocyte-Neutrophil ratio were significant (p<0.05). BALf changes in the neutrophil, macrophage and eosinophil counts were significantly different (p<0.05). The diagnostic features including increased percentage neutrophils, Macrophage-Neutrophil ratio and eosinophils observed in BAL were reliable and also correlated positively to the pathological findings. BAL should be considered a component of the diagnostic approach to caprine pneumonia complex, as it may accurately aid diagnosis and identification of the causal organisms. PMID:27574761

  10. Diagnosis of pulmonary histiocytosis X by immunodetection of Langerhans cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Chollet, S.; Soler, P.; Dournovo, P.; Richard, M. S.; Ferrans, V. J.; Basset, F.

    1984-01-01

    Based on the finding that Langerhans cells and histiocytosis X cells react with the monoclonal antibody OKT6, raised against a subset of thymocytes, we used this antibody to study the cells collected by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from 131 patients, including 18 with pulmonary histiocytosis X, 43 with pulmonary sarcoidosis, 67 with miscellaneous pulmonary disorders, and 3 controls. Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated the presence of OKT6-reactive cells in all patients with pulmonary histiocytosis X (mean +/- SEM, 5.29% +/- 1.14% of all cells in BAL fluid). Immunoelectron microscopic studies revealed that the cells labeled in these patients (n = 13) contained Langerhans granules. The number of fluorescent cells in the other 113 patients was significantly smaller (mean +/- SEM, 0.20% +/- 0.04% of all cells; P less than 0.001). In the 3 control patients, in the 43 patients with sarcoidosis, and in 61 of the 67 patients with miscellaneous disorders unrelated to histiocytosis X, no cells or less than 1% of the total were labeled; however, in the 6 remaining patients in this miscellaneous group, 1.3 to 2.8% of all cells in BAL were labeled. In 3 of these 6 patients, immunoelectronmicroscopic examination showed that the cells labeled by OKT6 had the general characteristics of Langerhans cells but lacked Langerhans granules. OKT3, OKT4, and OKT8 monoclonal antibodies did not stain histiocytosis X cells in BAL fluid. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:6372496

  11. Protein composition of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and airway surface liquid from newborn pigs

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Jennifer A.; Albertolle, Matthew E.; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine; Pezzulo, Alejandro A.; Zabner, Joseph; Niles, Richard K.; Fisher, Susan J.; McCray, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    The airway mucosa and the alveolar surface form dynamic interfaces between the lung and the external environment. The epithelial cells lining these barriers elaborate a thin liquid layer containing secreted peptides and proteins that contribute to host defense and other functions. The goal of this study was to develop and apply methods to define the proteome of porcine lung lining liquid, in part, by leveraging the wealth of information in the Sus scrofa database of Ensembl gene, transcript, and protein model predictions. We developed an optimized workflow for detection of secreted proteins in porcine bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and in methacholine-induced tracheal secretions [airway surface liquid (ASL)]. We detected 674 and 3,858 unique porcine-specific proteins in BAL and ASL, respectively. This proteome was composed of proteins representing a diverse range of molecular classes and biological processes, including host defense, molecular transport, cell communication, cytoskeletal, and metabolic functions. Specifically, we detected a significant number of secreted proteins with known or predicted roles in innate and adaptive immunity, microbial killing, or other aspects of host defense. In greatly expanding the known proteome of the lung lining fluid in the pig, this study provides a valuable resource for future studies using this important animal model of pulmonary physiology and disease. PMID:23709621

  12. Non-fibrous inorganic particles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of pottery workers.

    PubMed Central

    Falchi, M; Paoletti, L; Mariotta, S; Giosue, S; Guidi, L; Biondo, L; Scavalli, P; Bisetti, A

    1996-01-01

    AIM: To study the actual exposure of pottery workers to silica particles, as their risk of silicosis is potentially high because of the presence of inhalable crystalline silica particles in the workplace. METHODS: Nine pottery workers underwent bronchoalveolar lavage. The recovered fluid was analysed for cytological and mineralogical content by analytical transmission electron microscopy. The data were compared with those obtained from a control group composed of seven patients with sarcoidosis and six patients with haemoptysis. RESULTS: Cytological results showed a similar profile in exposed workers and controls, whereas in patients with sarcoidosis a lymphocytic alveolitis was found. Microanalysis of the particulate identified the presence of silicates, CRSs, and metals. Pottery workers had higher numbers of total particles and CRSs, and had a higher silicate/metal ratio. In five workers, the presence of zirconium silicate was also detected. Patients with sarcoidosis had the lowest number of particles, and an inverted silicate/metal ratio. CONCLUSION: Microanalysis by transmission electron microscope can provide useful information to assess occupational exposure to dusts. PMID:9038801

  13. Late-onset methotrexate-induced pneumonitis with neutrophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Hideaki; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takagi, Masamichi; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    A 61-year-old woman being treated with methotrexate (MTX) 8–10 mg/week and prednisolone 2.5 mg/day for rheumatoid arthritis presented with a 1-week history of increasing fever and dry cough. The patient deteriorated with administration of antibiotics. Chest CT scan showed bilateral diffuse ground-glass opacities. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) revealed marked neutrophilia (65.2% of total cells). The specimen from transbronchial lung biopsy showed a non-specific interstitial pneumonia pattern. Following withdrawal of the MTX, her pulmonary infiltration, clinical symptoms and laboratory findings gradually improved. Therefore, she was diagnosed as having MTX-induced pneumonitis. Lymphocytosis in BALF has been identified as a characteristic of MTX-induced pneumonitis, particularly in late onset of this disease. However, the BALF in our patient was neutrophilic. Although neutrophilia in BALF of patients with drug-induced pneumonitis is usually associated with poor outcome, rare cases of good outcome do exist. PMID:25267808

  14. Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from mice infected with Francisella tularensis ssp novicida

    PubMed Central

    Varnum, Susan M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Frevert, Charles W.; Skerrett, Shawn J.; Wunschel, David

    2012-01-01

    Francisella tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia in humans and is one of the most virulent bacterial pathogens. We utilized a global proteomic approach to characterize protein changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice exposed to one of three organisms, F. tularensis ssp. novicida, an avirulent mutant of F. tularensis ssp. novicida (F.t. novicida-ΔmglA); and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The composition of BALF proteins was altered following infection, including proteins involved in neutrophil activation, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Components of the innate immune response were induced including the acute phase response and the complement system, however the timing of their induction varied. Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida infected mice do not appear to have an effective innate immune response in the first hours of infection, however within 24 hours they show an upregulation of innate immune response proteins. This delayed response is in contrast to P. aeruginosa infected animals which show an early innate immune response. Likewise, F.t. novicida-ΔmglA infection initiates an early innate immune response, however this response is dimished by 24 hours. Finally, this study identifies several candidate biomarkers, including Chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1 or YKL-40) and peroxiredoxin 1, that are associated with F. tularensis ssp. novicida but not P. aeruginosa infection. PMID:22663564

  15. Untargeted LC-MS Metabolomics of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Differentiates Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome from Health

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Charles R.; Karnovsky, Alla; Kovach, Melissa A.; Standiford, Theodore J.; Burant, Charles F.; Stringer, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains a significant hazard to human health and is clinically challenging because there are no prognostic biomarkers and no effective pharmacotherapy. The lung compartment metabolome may detail the status of the local environment that could be useful in ARDS biomarker discovery and the identification of drug target opportunities. However, neither the utility of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as a biofluid for metabolomics nor the optimal analytical platform for metabolite identification are established. To address this, we undertook a study to compare metabolites in BALF samples from patients with ARDS and healthy controls using a newly developed liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectroscopy (MS) platform for untargeted metabolomics. Following initial testing of three different high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns, we determined that reversed phase (RP)-LC and hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC), were the most informative chromatographic methods because they yielded the most and highest quality data. Following confirmation of metabolite identification, statistical analysis resulted in 37 differentiating metabolites in the BALF of ARDS compared with health across both analytical platforms. Pathway analysis revealed networks associated with amino acid metabolism, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, fatty acid biosynthesis, phospholipids and purine metabolism in the ARDS BALF. The complementary analytical platforms of RPLC and HILIC-LC generated informative, insightful metabolomics data of the ARDS lung environment. PMID:24289193

  16. Correlation between Eicosanoids in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid and in Exhaled Breath Condensate

    PubMed Central

    Antczak, Adam; Piotrowski, Wojciech; Marczak, Jerzy; Ciebiada, Maciej; Gorski, Pawel; Barnes, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has been increasingly used as a new and non-invasive method to study airway inflammation. In this study we have compared the concentrations of lipid mediators in EBCwith concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). We included 37 patients undergoing bronchoscopy (12 sarcoidosis, 12 COPD, 6 lung cancer, 5 chronic cough, 1 Wegener’s granulomatosis, 1 sclerodermia). Patients were not allowed to have exacerbation or any change in concomitant medication for at least 4 weeks prior to the study. In all patients, EBC was collected immediately prior to the bronchoscopy. The levels of cys-LTs, LTB4, 8-isoprostane were significantly higher in BALF compared to EBC (p < 0.0001, p < 0.001, p < 0.0001 for cys-LTs, LTB4, 8-isoprostane respectively). Moreover, there was a strong positive correlation between both leukotriene B4 and 8-isoprostane in BALF and EBC (r = 0.53 and r = 0.79, p < 0.01, respectively) in patients with sarcoidosis and COPD but there was no correlation between eicosanoids BALF and EBC in patients with chronic cough and lung cancer. This is the first study to compare EBC and BALF in different lung diseases which demonstrated significant correlations between the levels of eicosanoids in BALF and EBCin patientswith COPD and sarcoidosis. EBC may be useful inmeasuring inflammation in several inflammatory lung diseases. PMID:21734340

  17. Rapid detection of Candida species in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with pulmonary symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Zarrinfar, Hossein; Kaboli, Saeed; Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Mohammadi, Rasoul

    2016-01-01

    Candida species, especially C. albicans, are commensals on human mucosal surfaces, but are increasingly becoming one of the important invasive pathogens as seen by a rise in its prevalence in immunocompromised patients and in antibiotic consumption. Thus, an accurate identification of Candida species in patients with pulmonary symptoms can provide important information for effective treatment. A total of 75 clinical isolates of Candida species were obtained from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients with pulmonary symptoms. Candida cultures were identified based on nuclear ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS1-ITS2 rDNA) sequence analysis by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP). Molecular identification indicated that the isolates belonged predominantly to C. albicans (52%), followed by C. tropicalis (24%), C. glabrata (14.7%), C. krusei (5.3%), C. parapsilosis (1.3%), C. kefyr (1.3%) and C. guilliermondii (1.3%). Given the increasing complexity of disease profiles and their management regimens in diverse patients, rapid and accurate identification of Candida species can lead to timely and appropriate antifungal therapy. PMID:26887241

  18. Adjuvant effects of ambient particulate matter monitored by proteomics of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xuedong; Li, Ning; Wang, Meiying; Boontheung, Pinmanee; Sioutas, Constantinos; Harkema, Jack R; Bramble, Lori A; Nel, Andre E; Loo, Joseph A

    2010-02-01

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) from air pollution is associated with exacerbation of asthma. The immunological basis for the adjuvant effects of PM is still not well understood. The generation of ROS and the resulting oxidative stress has been identified as one of the major mechanisms. Using a new intranasal sensitization model in which ambient PM is used as an adjuvant to enhance allergic inflammation (Li et al., Environ. Health Perspect. 2009, 117, 1116-1123), a proteomics approach was applied to study the adjuvant effects of ambient PM. The enhanced in vivo adjuvant effect of ultrafine particles correlates with a higher in vitro oxidant potential and a higher content of redox-cycling organic chemicals. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from normal and sensitized mice were resolved by 2-DE, and identified by MS. Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, complement C3, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, chitinase 3-like protein 3, chitinase 3-like protein 4, and acidic mammalian chitinase demonstrated significantly enhanced up-regulation by UFP with a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content and a higher oxidant potential. These proteins may be the important specific elements targeted by PM in air pollution through the ability to generate ROS in the immune system, and may be involved in allergen sensitization and asthma pathogenesis. PMID:20029843

  19. Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from mice infected with Francisella tularensis ssp novicida

    SciTech Connect

    Varnum, Susan M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Frevert, Charles; Skerret, Shawn J.; Wunschel, David S.

    2012-07-06

    Francisella tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia in humans and is one of the most virulent bacterial pathogens. We utilized a global proteomic approach to characterize protein changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice exposed to one of three organisms, F. tularensis ssp. novicida, an avirulent mutant of F. tularensis ssp. novicida (F.t. novicida-ΔmglA); and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The composition of BALF proteins was altered following infection, including proteins involved in neutrophil activation, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Components of the innate immune response were induced including the acute phase response and the complement system, however the timing of their induction varied. Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida infected mice do not appear to have an effective innate immune response in the first hours of infection, however within 24 hours they show an upregulation of innate immune response proteins. This delayed response is in contrast to P. aeruginosa infected animals which show an early innate immune response. Likewise, F.t. novicida-ΔmglA infection initiates an early innate immune response, however this response is dimished by 24 hours. Finally, this study identifies several candidate biomarkers, including Chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1 or YKL-40) and peroxiredoxin 1, that are associated with F. tularensis ssp. novicida but not P. aeruginosa infection.

  20. Changes in surfactant in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after hemithorax irradiation in patients with mesothelioma

    SciTech Connect

    Hallman, M.; Maasilta, P.; Kivisaari, L.; Mattson, K. )

    1990-04-01

    Experimental studies have shown that the surfactant system of the lung is affected shortly after irradiation. It is unclear, however, whether surfactant plays a role in the pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis. In the present study surfactant components (saturated phosphatidylcholine, surfactant protein A, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylinositol) and other phospholipids of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) were studied in four patients with pleural mesothelioma before and during hemithorax irradiation (70 Gy) as well as zero, 1, 2, 3, and 4 months following irradiation. The concentrations of these same components and of soluble proteins were also estimated in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) using urea as a marker of dilution. After radiotherapy, the concentrations of the surfactant components in ELF decreased to 12 to 55% of the control values before radiation, whereas the concentration of sphingomyelin in ELF increased ninefold. There were small changes in the other phospholipids. The concentration of soluble protein in ELF increased sevenfold. The minimum surface activity of crude BAL increased from 12 +/- 4 to 32 +/- 6 mN/m, and that of the sediment fraction of BAL increased from 7 +/- 4 to 22 +/- 6 mN/m, p less than 0.001. The protein-rich supernatant fraction of BAL from irradiated lung had a inhibitory effect on normal surfactant. There were significant correlations between the increasing severity of the radiologic changes on the one hand and, on the other, the saturated phosphatidylcholine/sphingomyelin ratio (p less than 0.001), the concentrations of soluble protein (p less than 0.001), and the concentrations of the surfactant components (p less than 0.02-0.001) in ELF.

  1. Effectiveness of PCR and Immunofluorescence Techniques for Detecting Human Cytomegalovirus in Blood and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid.

    PubMed

    Roży, A; Duk, K; Szumna, B; Skrońska, P; Gawryluk, D; Chorostowska-Wynimko, J

    2016-01-01

    Current diagnostic methods allow a rapid and reliable detection of active human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) infection by identifying the presence of pp65 CMV antigen or CMV DNA in peripheral blood and affected organs. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CMV detection in blood and organ-specific biological material, such as bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), by comparing two standard diagnostic methods, immunofluorescence (IF) and the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We evaluated 25 patients with concomitant respiratory disease who were referred to our hospital for diagnosis due to suspected acute CMV infection. The presence of hCMV was concomitantly evaluated by IF and PCR in 16 peripheral blood samples. In two patients, we observed positive results for both IF and PCR, and in two other patients the results were discordant. Of 11 patients, CMV DNA was detected in six BALF samples, and in one blood plasma sample. Real-time PCR detected CMV DNA in 54.6 % of BALF samples and 12.0 % of blood samples, while indirect IF testing confirmed antigenemia in 12.5 % of blood samples. The results from our study suggest that the IF method is as effective as PCR for detecting an ongoing CMV infection in blood samples. However, real-time PCR was much more effective at detecting CMV DNA in BALF compared to blood samples. Our results suggest that the biological material being tested during CMV diagnosis should be derived directly from the virally infected organ(s).

  2. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytokine bead array profile for prognostication of ventilated trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Subodh; Bhardwaj, Nidhi; Khurana, Surbhi; Gupta, Amit; Soni, Kapil Dev; Aggrawal, Richa; Mathur, Purva

    2016-01-01

    Aim of Study: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common cause of mortality in trauma patients admitted to Intensive Care Units. The outcome of such patients may be dependent on local host immune response, which may be best reflected in studies using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. The present study was conducted to ascertain the cytokine profile of BAL using the cytometric bead array (CBA) in a flow cytometer and to correlate the levels of Th-1/Th-2 cytokines in BAL with the clinical outcome of ventilated trauma patients. Patients and Methods: BAL was collected from the patients with suspected VAP. CBA was performed to assess the levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, IL-8, IL-1 β, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the BAL samples. After acquiring the BAL samples on the flow cytometer, the results were generated using FCAP Array™ software. The cytokine profile was correlated to clinical outcomes. Results: A total of forty patients were enrolled during the study period. Of these, 12 patients (30%) had confirmed VAP and 8 (20%) patients had a fatal outcome. The levels of IL-8 and IFN-γ correlated significantly with the development of VAP and elevated IL-6 in BAL was associated with a poor outcome. Conclusion: A proinflammatory response in the form of elevated IL-6 and IL-8 correlated poorly with the clinical outcome. Th-1 response was significantly reduced in patients with VAP. A proinflammatory response in the form of elevated IL-6 and IL-8 correlated poorly with the clinical outcome.

  3. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytokine bead array profile for prognostication of ventilated trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Subodh; Bhardwaj, Nidhi; Khurana, Surbhi; Gupta, Amit; Soni, Kapil Dev; Aggrawal, Richa; Mathur, Purva

    2016-01-01

    Aim of Study: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common cause of mortality in trauma patients admitted to Intensive Care Units. The outcome of such patients may be dependent on local host immune response, which may be best reflected in studies using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. The present study was conducted to ascertain the cytokine profile of BAL using the cytometric bead array (CBA) in a flow cytometer and to correlate the levels of Th-1/Th-2 cytokines in BAL with the clinical outcome of ventilated trauma patients. Patients and Methods: BAL was collected from the patients with suspected VAP. CBA was performed to assess the levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, IL-8, IL-1 β, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the BAL samples. After acquiring the BAL samples on the flow cytometer, the results were generated using FCAP Array™ software. The cytokine profile was correlated to clinical outcomes. Results: A total of forty patients were enrolled during the study period. Of these, 12 patients (30%) had confirmed VAP and 8 (20%) patients had a fatal outcome. The levels of IL-8 and IFN-γ correlated significantly with the development of VAP and elevated IL-6 in BAL was associated with a poor outcome. Conclusion: A proinflammatory response in the form of elevated IL-6 and IL-8 correlated poorly with the clinical outcome. Th-1 response was significantly reduced in patients with VAP. A proinflammatory response in the form of elevated IL-6 and IL-8 correlated poorly with the clinical outcome. PMID:27688626

  4. [Determination of the neutrophil chemotactic factor in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with diffuse panbronchiolitis].

    PubMed

    Oda, H; Kadota, J; Sakito, O; Mukae, H; Morikawa, N; Shukuwa, C; Senju, R; Sawa, H; Kusano, S; Morikawa, T

    1992-04-01

    It is well known that erythromycin (EM) therapy is effective on chronic lower respiratory tract disease, including diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB). In this study we investigated the relationship between clinical findings and neutrophil chemotactic activity (NCA) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in patients with DPB receiving orally EM therapy. The NCA in post-EM therapy BALF was significantly reduced (p less than 0.001) compared with that in BALF before EM therapy (30.17 +/- 7.84% vs 53.05 +/- 10.65%). On the respiratory function before and after EM therapy, DPB patients (20 cases) showed significant improvement of %VC, FEV1.0, RV/TLC (p less than 0.001, each) and V25 (p less than 0.05). And on the post-EM therapy blood gas, PaO2 and AaDO2 level were confirmed to be significantly improved (p less than 0.001). In addition, we examined the correlation between the improvement ratio of clinical finding and the reduction of NCA in BALF after EM therapy in 10 patients with DPB. We found the significant correlation between the improvement ratio of PaO2 and the reduction NCA in BALF of those patients (p less than 0.05). There were no significant relationships between the improvement ratio in other parameters as stated above and the reduction of NCA in BALF. These findings indicate that EM restrains the NCA in BALF of patients with DPB and impairs the accumulation of neutrophils in respiratory tract, ultimately contributes to the improvement of clinical symptoms such as sputum and clinical findings such as PaO2 in patients with DPB. PMID:1624836

  5. Analysis of proteins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids during pulmonary edema resulting from nitrogen dioxide and cadmium exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Gurley, L.R.; London, J.E.; Dethloff, L.A.; Lehnert, B.E.

    1988-01-01

    We have developed a new HPLC method by which quantitative measurements can be made on the biochemical constituents of the extracellular fluid lining of the lung as sampled by bronchoalveolar lavage. Nine of the fractions are proteins, two are phospholipids, and two fractions remained unidentified. Rats were subjected to the intrapulmonary deposition of cadmium, a treatment model known to induce pulmonary edema and cause a translocation of blood compartment proteins into the lung's alveolar space compartment. Resulting pulmonary edema was hallmarked by /approximately/25-fold increases in three major blood compartment-derived HPLC protein fractions, two of which have been identified as albumin and immunoglobulin(s). Analysis of lavage fluid from rats exposed to 100 ppM NO/sub 2/ for 15 min, an exposure regimen which also produces pulmonary edema, indicated that the three blood compartment proteins in the lavage fluids were elevated 35- to 72-fold over controls 24 h after exposure. These results demonstrate that HPLC can be used to provide a highly sensitive method for detection and quantitation of pulmonary edema that can occur in acute lung injuries resulting from environmental insults.

  6. Activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with sarcoidosis: visualisation of single cell activation products.

    PubMed Central

    Pantelidis, P.; Southcott, A. M.; Cambrey, A. D.; Laurent, G. J.; du Bois, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Interstitial lung diseases are characterised by the recruitment of mononuclear cells to disease sites where maturation occurs and activation products, including lysozyme (LZM), are released. Analysis of in vitro cell culture supernatants for activation products masks the functional heterogeneity of cell populations. It is therefore necessary to examine the secretion of activation products by single cells to assess whether the activation of newly recruited mononuclear phagocytes at the sites of disease in the lung is uniform and controlled by the local microenvironment. METHODS--The reverse haemolytic plaque assay was used to evaluate, at a single cell level, the ability of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from seven patients with sarcoidosis to activate Ficoll-Hypaque-separated peripheral blood mononuclear cells by comparison with BAL fluid from six normal volunteers and nine patients with systemic sclerosis. Monolayers of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and sheep red blood cells were cultured either alone or in the presence of 20% (v/v) BAL fluid with a polyclonal anti-LZM antibody. LZM/anti-LZM complexes bound to red blood cells surrounding the secreting cells were disclosed following complement lysis of red blood cells and quantification of plaque dimensions using microscopy and image analysis. RESULTS--Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from all the patients with sarcoidosis increased LZM secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells compared with unstimulated mononuclear cells. By contrast, BAL fluid from the other individuals had no effect on LZM secretion. CONCLUSIONS--Single cells activated by BAL fluid can be evaluated by the reverse haemolytic plaque assay. BAL fluid from patients with sarcoidosis, but not from patients with systemic sclerosis or normal individuals, contains components capable of activating mononuclear phagocytes to secrete lysozyme. Images PMID:7831632

  7. Molecular and Culture-Based Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Testing for the Diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus Pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Susanna K; Burgener, Elizabeth B; Waggoner, Jesse J; Gajurel, Kiran; Gonzalez, Sarah; Chen, Sharon F; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, with CMV pneumonitis among the most severe manifestations of infection. Although bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples are frequently tested for CMV, the clinical utility of such testing remains uncertain. Methods.  Retrospective analysis of adult patients undergoing BAL testing via CMV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), shell vial culture, and conventional viral culture between August 2008 and May 2011 was performed. Cytomegalovirus diagnostic methods were compared with a comprehensive definition of CMV pneumonitis that takes into account signs and symptoms, underlying host immunodeficiency, radiographic findings, and laboratory results. Results.  Seven hundred five patients underwent 1077 bronchoscopy episodes with 1090 BAL specimens sent for CMV testing. Cytomegalovirus-positive patients were more likely to be hematopoietic cell transplant recipients (26% vs 8%, P < .0001) and less likely to have an underlying condition not typically associated with lung disease (3% vs 20%, P < .0001). Histopathology was performed in only 17.3% of CMV-positive bronchoscopy episodes. When CMV diagnostic methods were evaluated against the comprehensive definition, the sensitivity and specificity of PCR, shell vial culture, and conventional culture were 91.3% and 94.6%, 54.4% and 97.4%, and 28.3% and 96.5%, respectively. Compared with culture, PCR provided significantly higher sensitivity and negative predictive value (P ≤ .001), without significantly lower positive predictive value. Cytomegalovirus quantitation did not improve test performance, resulting in a receiver operating characteristic curve with an area under the curve of 0.53. Conclusions.  Cytomegalovirus PCR combined with a comprehensive clinical definition provides a pragmatic approach for the diagnosis of CMV pneumonitis.

  8. The Significance of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Cytology in Diagnosing Lung Infiltrates in Children

    PubMed Central

    Selimovic, Amina; Mujicic, Ermina; Milisic, Selma; Pejicic, Tanja; Rancic, Milan; Mesihovic-Dinarevic, Senka; Lukic-Bilela, Lada; Moro, Mahir

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this research is to show why is it important in diagnosing children with lung infiltrates. Methods: Our study included 50 children with lung infiltrates during period 2005-2012, and was conducted on Pediatric Clinic of the University Clinical Center Sarajevo. We sent all cytological BAL analyses to the University Clinical Center Sarajevo. Cytology was performed by direct microscopy. BAL cytology was performed by the principle of sending samples for centrifuging, 12000 revolutions during a 10 min Shandon-cyto spin. Then the centrifuged sample is dried in the air during 1-2 hours, and is then dyed under the May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining, and analyzed under the Olympus BX41 microscope. Results: Nosocomial pneumonia has occurred in 32% children, acquired pneumonia in 38%, and 30% children had a lung infiltrates. 6 (12%) of children were younger then 1 year old, 23 (46%) children were between 1 to 5 years, 14 (28%) of children were between 5 to 10 ages, and 7 (14%) of children were between 10-15 ages. The most of the changes in observed children took place on the right lung, 34%, while 26% occurred on the left side, 22% were normal and 18% changes have affected both lungs, right and left. Percentage of cells in cytological smear in children with BAL were: cylindrical cells 28%, lung macrophage 26%, lymphocytes 17%, detritus 17% and phlegm 12%. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in children with BAL was up to 10-52%, to 50-30%, while ESR after first hour was above 50-18 %. Conclusion: Clinical parameters and local inflammation of the affected lobe are associated with positive bronchoalveolar cytology lavage findings. PMID:26980927

  9. Molecular and Culture-Based Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Testing for the Diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus Pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Susanna K.; Burgener, Elizabeth B.; Waggoner, Jesse J.; Gajurel, Kiran; Gonzalez, Sarah; Chen, Sharon F.; Pinsky, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, with CMV pneumonitis among the most severe manifestations of infection. Although bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples are frequently tested for CMV, the clinical utility of such testing remains uncertain. Methods. Retrospective analysis of adult patients undergoing BAL testing via CMV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), shell vial culture, and conventional viral culture between August 2008 and May 2011 was performed. Cytomegalovirus diagnostic methods were compared with a comprehensive definition of CMV pneumonitis that takes into account signs and symptoms, underlying host immunodeficiency, radiographic findings, and laboratory results. Results. Seven hundred five patients underwent 1077 bronchoscopy episodes with 1090 BAL specimens sent for CMV testing. Cytomegalovirus-positive patients were more likely to be hematopoietic cell transplant recipients (26% vs 8%, P < .0001) and less likely to have an underlying condition not typically associated with lung disease (3% vs 20%, P < .0001). Histopathology was performed in only 17.3% of CMV-positive bronchoscopy episodes. When CMV diagnostic methods were evaluated against the comprehensive definition, the sensitivity and specificity of PCR, shell vial culture, and conventional culture were 91.3% and 94.6%, 54.4% and 97.4%, and 28.3% and 96.5%, respectively. Compared with culture, PCR provided significantly higher sensitivity and negative predictive value (P ≤ .001), without significantly lower positive predictive value. Cytomegalovirus quantitation did not improve test performance, resulting in a receiver operating characteristic curve with an area under the curve of 0.53. Conclusions. Cytomegalovirus PCR combined with a comprehensive clinical definition provides a pragmatic approach for the diagnosis of CMV pneumonitis. PMID:26885542

  10. [The presence of mycobacteria in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from an immunocompetent patient does not necessarily imply tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Vandenbos, Frédéric; Marcq, Laurent; Novellas, Sébastien; Chyderiotis, Georges; Haudebourg, Juliette; Benchetrit, Maxime; Burel-Vandenbos, Fanny

    2009-12-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the most frequently identified mycobacterium in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of immunocompetent patients. Lung infections due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are rare in such patients and then often occur in the context of pre-existing chronic lung disease. We report the case of an immunocompetent 85-year-old woman without pre-existing lung disease in whom M. abscessus was recovered from BALF. Cytological examination of the BALF revealed an increased number of neutrophils and some acid-fast bacilli, all located within neutrophil cytoplasm. This case report contributes a cytological description of BALF in the context of M. abscessus infection, which is poorly detailed in the literature. PMID:20005441

  11. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (Balf) from patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.F.; Baughman, R.P.; Waide, J.J.

    1995-12-01

    The pathogenesis of ARDS is largely unknown, but many factors are known to predispose one to ARDS: sepsis, aspiration of gastric contents, pneumonia, fracture, multiple transfusions, cardiopulmonary bypass, burn, dissemination intravascular coagulation, pulmonary contusion, near drowning, and pancreatitis. ARDS is characterized by severe hypoxemia, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates, and decreased pulmonary compliance. Current treatment methods still result in 50% mortality. Studies are underway at the University of Cincinnati to determine if treatment with a synthetic pulmonary surfactant, Exosurf{sup {reg_sign}} (contains dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline, Burroughs-Wellcome), improves the prognosis of these patients. BALF from these patients, before and after treatment, was analyzed to determine if the treatment resulted in an increase in disaturated phospholipids (surfactant phospholipids) in the epithelial lining fluid and if the treatments reduced the concentration of markers of inflammation and toxicity in the BALF. This study indicates that the method of administering Exosurf{sup {reg_sign}} did not lead to an increase in surfactant lipid or protein in the bronchoalveolar region of the respiratory tract.

  12. Effects of pentobarbital, isoflurane, or medetomidine-midazolam-butorphanol anesthesia on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood chemistry in rats.

    PubMed

    Tsubokura, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Toshio; Oshima, Yutaka; Hashizume, Naoki; Nakai, Makoto; Ajimi, Shozo; Imatanaka, Nobuya

    2016-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) is commonly examined for pulmonary toxicity in animal studies. Two common means of anesthesia before euthanasia and bronchoalveolar lavage in rats are intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital and inhalation of isoflurane. Medetomidine-midazolam-butorphanol is an alternative anesthesia to pentobarbital for animal welfare; however, the effect of this combination on BALF and blood chemistry is unknown. Here, we compared the effects of anesthesia by intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital or one of two combinations of medetomidine-midazolam-butorphanol (dose, 0.375-2.0-2.5 or 0.15-2.0-2.5 mg/kg) or by inhalation of isoflurane on BALF and blood chemistry in rats with or without pulmonary inflammation. In BALF, we determined total protein, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase, total cell count and neutrophil count. In serum, we conducted a general chemistry screen. After anesthesia with pentobarbital or isoflurane, there were no significant differences between any of the BALF or blood chemistry parameters with or without inflammation. After anesthesia with either of the combinations of medetomidine-midazolam-butorphanol, lactate dehydrogenase, total cell count, neutrophil count, and almost all of the blood chemistry parameters were comparable with those observed after pentobarbital or isoflurane; however, BALF albumin and serum glucose were significantly increased in rats without inflammation. After the combination of low-dose medetomidine in rats with inflammation, BALF parameters were comparable with those observed after pentobarbital or isoflurane. Our results show that, of the anesthetics examined, inhalation of isoflurane is the most appropriate means of anesthesia when examining BALF or serum for toxicity studies in rats. PMID:27665769

  13. Asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. A study of 20 asbestos-exposed individuals and comparison to patients with other chronic interstitial lung diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Roggli, V.L.; Piantadosi, C.A.; Bell, D.Y.

    1986-09-01

    We studied the asbestos body (AB) content of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from 20 patients with a history of occupational asbestos exposure, 31 patients with sarcoidosis and 5 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The cellular lavage pellet was digested in sodium hypochlorite and filtered onto Nuclepore filters for AB quantification by light microscopy. ABs were found in 15 of 20 asbestos-exposed individuals, 9 of 31 sarcoidosis cases and 2 of 5 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of ABs per million cells recovered or per milliliter of recovered lavage fluid in the asbestos-exposed group as compared to the other categories of chronic interstitial lung disease. The highest levels occurred in patients with asbestosis. Large numbers of asbestos bodies in the lavage fluid (greater than 1 AB/10(6) cells) were indicative of considerable occupational asbestos exposure, whereas occasional bodies were a nonspecific finding.

  14. Correlation between Either Cupriavidus or Porphyromonas and Primary Pulmonary Tuberculosis Found by Analysing the Microbiota in Patients’ Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuhua; Lin, Feishen; Cui, Zelin; Zhang, Xiangrong; Hu, Chunmei; Shen, Tian; Chen, Chunyan; Zhang, Xia; Guo, Xiaokui

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) has gained attention in recent decades because of its rising incidence trend; simultaneously, increasing numbers of studies have identified the relationship between microbiota and chronic infectious diseases. In our work, we enrolled 32 patients with primary TB characterised by unilateral TB lesion formation diagnosed by chest radiographic exam. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was taken from both lungs. Twenty-four healthy people were chosen as controls. Pyrosequencing was performed on the V3 hypervariable region of 16S rDNA in all bacterial samples and used as a culture-independent method to describe the phylogenetic composition of the microbiota. Through pyrosequencing, 271,764 amplicons were detected in samples and analysed using tools in the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) and bioinformatics. These analyses revealed significant differences in the microbiota in the lower respiratory tract (LRT) of TB patients compared with healthy controls; in contrast, the microbiota of intra/extra-TB lesions were similar. These results showed that the dominant bacterial genus in the LRT of TB patients was Cupriavidus and not Streptococcus, which resulted in a significant change in the microbiota in TB patients. The abundance of Mycobacteria and Porphyromonas significantly increased inside TB lesions when compared with non-lesion-containing contralateral lungs. From these data, it can be concluded that Cupriavidus plays an important role in TB’s secondary infection and that in addition to Mycobacteria, Porphyromonas may also be a co-factor in lesion formation. The mechanisms underlying this connection warrant further research. PMID:26000957

  15. Genome-wide analysis of aberrantly expressed microRNAs in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with silicosis

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Yang; WANG, Faxuan; ZHOU, Dingzi; REN, Xiaohui; ZHOU, Dinglun; GAO, Xiaosi; LAN, Yajia; ZHANG, Qin; XIE, Xiaoqi

    2016-01-01

    Background To identify differentially expressed miRNAs profiles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from patients with silicosis and consider the potential contribution of miRNAs to silicosis. Methods miRNAs expression profiling were performed in the cell fraction of BALF samples obtained from 9 subjects (3 silicosis observation subjects, 3 stage I and stage II silicosis patients, respectively). The differential expression of two selected miRNAs hsa-miR-181c-5p and hsa-miR-29a-3p were confirmed by RT-qPCR. Furthermore, miRNAs Gene Ontology Enrichment categories and target mRNAs were determined based on miRWalk. Results We found 110 dysregulated miRNAs in silicosis samples, most of which showed a down-regulation trend. Microarray results were confirmed by RT-qPCR. With the observation group samples set as standards, stage I samples showed 123 differentially expressed miRNAs, and stage II 46. 23 miRNAs were dysregulated in both stages. Finally, functional enrichment analysis indicated that these miRNAs played an important role in various biological processes, including ECM-receptor interaction and endocytosis. Conclusions This is the first time to acquire the BALF-derived microRNAs expression profiling targeting to human silicosis. These results contribute to unravelling miRNAs involved in the pathogenesis of silicosis, and provide new tools of potential use of as biomarkers for diagnosis and/or therapeutic purposes. PMID:26903263

  16. Effects of tylosin, tilmicosin and tulathromycin on inflammatory mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Er, Ayse; Yazar, Enver

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of macrolides through kinetic parameters in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury. Rats were divided into four groups: lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS + tylosin, LPS + tilmicosin and LPS + tulathromycin. BALF samples were collected at sampling times. TNF, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2α (PGM) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were analysed. Area under the curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) values of inflammatory mediators were determined by a pharmacokinetic computer programme. When inflammatory mediator concentrations were compared between the LPS group and other groups for each sampling time, the three macrolides had no pronounced depressor effect on cytokine levels, but they depressed PGM and CRP levels. In addition, tylosin and tilmicosin decreased the AUC0-24 level of TNF, while tilmicosin decreased the AUC0-24 level of IL-10. Tylosin and tulathromycin decreased the AUC0-24 of PGM, and all three macrolides decreased the AUC0-24 of CRP. Especially tylosin and tulathromycin may have more expressed anti-inflammatory effects than tilmicosin, via depressing the production of inflammatory mediators in the lung. The AUC may be used for determining the effects of drugs on inflammation. In this study, the antiinflammatory effects of these antibiotics were evaluated with kinetic parameters as a new and different approach.

  17. The effect of lead acetate on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in rat bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue.

    PubMed

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Borji, Abasalt; Afshari, Reza; Delkhosh, Mohammad Bagher; gholami, Ali

    2013-07-01

    Despite the wide spread of lead environmental pollution, the effect of this heavy metal on respiratory disease was not shown yet. In respect to increased oxidative stress is an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of respiratory disease, the present study was designed to examine the association between lead toxicity and lung disease via measuring oxidative stress biomarkers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue of rat. For this aim, 32 rats were divided into the following groups of eight animals each: control, three lead tested (received lead acetate in the drinking water for a period of 14 d at concentrations of 250, 500 and 1000 ppm) groups. At the end of the 2 week period, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents were measured to assess free radical activity in the BALF and lung tissue. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was also determined. A significant dose-dependent increase in the BALF supernatant and lung homogenate levels of MDA and NO with decrease GSH level and SOD activity were observed in the lead-treated groups compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Thus, lead acetate may be contributed to respiratory disorders via increased oxidative stress. PMID:23419166

  18. Concentration-time models for the effects of ozone on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein from rats and guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Highfill, J.W.; Hatch, G.E.; Slade, R.; Devlin, R.B.; Costa, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Questions about the adequacy of the existing ozone (O3) standard prompted an examination of relationships between concentration (C) and exposure time (T) and the impact of changes in the C x T product on toxic responses. Using protein concentration of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALP) as an index of O3-induced lung damage, models were developed from a matrix of C (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 ppm) and T (2, 4, and 8 h) values in rat and guinea pig. Equal C x T products with different levels of C and T were incorporated into the protocol. Polynomial and exponential least-squares models were developed and the lognormal linear model (Larsen et al., 1991) was evaluated for the rat and guinea pig data. For equal C x T products the results showed similar BALP responses at low C x T products. Calculations from the data and the models showed that (1) the models were consistent with reported experiments from the author's laboratory (Hatch et al., 1986), (2) exercising humans were more responsive to O3 exposure (without adjustments for ventilation rates) than were either rats or guinea pigs as measured by changes in BALP (Koren et al., 1989), and (3) the exponential model provided more generality than Haber's law by providing estimates of BALP levels for various C x T. (Copyright (c) 1992 by Hemisphere Publishing Corporation.)

  19. Translational research in pediatrics III: bronchoalveolar lavage.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Dhenuka; Yamashita, Cory; Gillio-Meina, Carolina; Fraser, Douglas D

    2014-07-01

    The role of flexible bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for the care of children with airway and pulmonary diseases is well established, with collected BAL fluid most often used clinically for microbiologic pathogen identification and cellular analyses. More recently, powerful analytic research methods have been used to investigate BAL samples to better understand the pathophysiological basis of pediatric respiratory disease. Investigations have focused on the cellular components contained in BAL fluid, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and mast cells, as well as the noncellular components such as serum molecules, inflammatory proteins, and surfactant. Molecular techniques are frequently used to investigate BAL fluid for the presence of infectious pathologies and for cellular gene expression. Recent advances in proteomics allow identification of multiple protein expression patterns linked to specific respiratory diseases, whereas newer analytic techniques allow for investigations on surfactant quantification and function. These translational research studies on BAL fluid have aided our understanding of pulmonary inflammation and the injury/repair responses in children. We review the ethics and practices for the execution of BAL in children for translational research purposes, with an emphasis on the optimal handling and processing of BAL samples.

  20. Reconstitution of CD4 T Cells in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid after Initiation of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy▿

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Kenneth S.; Vinton, Carol; Hage, Chadi A.; Kohli, Lisa M.; Twigg, Homer L.; Klatt, Nichole R.; Zwickl, Beth; Waltz, Jeffrey; Goldman, Mitchell; Douek, Daniel C.; Brenchley, Jason M.

    2010-01-01

    The massive depletion of gastrointestinal-tract CD4 T cells is a hallmark of the acute phase of HIV infection. In contrast, the depletion of the lower-respiratory-tract mucosal CD4 T cells as measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is more moderate and similar to the depletion of CD4 T cells observed in peripheral blood (PB). To understand better the dynamics of disease pathogenesis and the potential for the reconstitution of CD4 T cells in the lung and PB following the administration of effective antiretroviral therapy, we studied cell-associated viral loads, CD4 T-cell frequencies, and phenotypic and functional profiles of antigen-specific CD4 T cells from BAL fluid and blood before and after the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The major findings to emerge were the following: (i) BAL CD4 T cells are not massively depleted or preferentially infected by HIV compared to levels for PB; (ii) BAL CD4 T cells reconstitute after the initiation of HAART, and their infection frequencies decrease; (iii) BAL CD4 T-cell reconstitution appears to occur via the local proliferation of resident BAL CD4 T cells rather than redistribution; and (iv) BAL CD4 T cells are more polyfunctional than CD4 T cells in blood, and their functional profile is relatively unchanged after the initiation of HAART. Taken together, these data suggest mechanisms for mucosal CD4 T-cell depletion and interventions that might aid in the reconstitution of mucosal CD4 T cells. PMID:20610726

  1. Ubiquitin and stromal cell-derived factor-1α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after burn and inhalation injury.

    PubMed

    Baker, Todd A; Davis, Christopher S; Bach, Harold H; Romero, Jacqueline; Burnham, Ellen L; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Gamelli, Richard L; Majetschak, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether the CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR) 4 ligands ubiquitin and stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1α are detectable in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) after burn and inhalation injury and whether their concentrations in BALF are associated with injury severity, physiological variables, or clinical outcomes. BALF was obtained on hospital admission from 51 patients (48 ± 18 years) with burn (TBSA: 23 ± 24%) and inhalation injury (controls: 10 healthy volunteers, 42 ± 8 years). BALF was analyzed for total protein and for ubiquitin and SDF-1α by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ubiquitin/SDF-1α levels were normalized to total BALF protein content. The extent of inhalation injury was determined during bronchoscopy using a standardized scoring system. Percent TBSA, Baux scores, revised Baux scores, and clinical variables were documented. Ubiquitin and SDF-1α were detectable in 40% of normal BALF specimens. After injury, ubiquitin was detectable in 90% (P < .01 vs control) and SDF-1α in 10% of the specimens (P < .05 vs control). While SDF-1α levels were reduced in patients (P < .01), ubiquitin levels were increased (P < .01). Ubiquitin concentrations correlated inversely with grade of inhalation injury, revised Baux scores, and resuscitation fluid requirements (Spearman correlation coefficients [r]: -.3, -.33, and -.45, respectively). Ubiquitin levels correlated positively with arterial oxygenation at the time of bronchoscopy (r: .35). BALF levels of CXCR4 agonists are differentially regulated after burn and inhalation injury. Increases in BALF ubiquitin after inhalation injury may maintain CXCR4-mediated lung protection and repair processes. The finding that BALF ubiquitin decreased with higher grades of inhalation injury may provide a biological correlate for an insufficient local inflammatory response after severe inhalation injury.

  2. OPTIMIZATION OF REPEATED BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE IN RABBITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a relatively non-invasive technique used to obtain diagnostic samples from the lower airways of companion animals with respira¬tory disease. BAL is also commonly used in laboratory animals to assess pulmo¬nary changes after expos...

  3. Analysis of Culture-Dependent versus Culture-Independent Techniques for Identification of Bacteria in Clinically Obtained Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Robert P.; Erb-Downward, John R.; Prescott, Hallie C.; Martinez, Fernando J.; Curtis, Jeffrey L.; Lama, Vibha N.

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis and management of pneumonia are limited by the use of culture-based techniques of microbial identification, which may fail to identify unculturable, fastidious, and metabolically active viable but unculturable bacteria. Novel high-throughput culture-independent techniques hold promise but have not been systematically compared to conventional culture. We analyzed 46 clinically obtained bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid specimens from symptomatic and asymptomatic lung transplant recipients both by culture (using a clinical microbiology laboratory protocol) and by bacterial 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Bacteria were identified in 44 of 46 (95.7%) BAL fluid specimens by culture-independent sequencing, significantly more than the number of specimens in which bacteria were detected (37 of 46, 80.4%, P ≤ 0.05) or “pathogen” species reported (18 of 46, 39.1%, P ≤ 0.0001) via culture. Identification of bacteria by culture was positively associated with culture-independent indices of infection (total bacterial DNA burden and low bacterial community diversity) (P ≤ 0.01). In BAL fluid specimens with no culture growth, the amount of bacterial DNA was greater than that in reagent and rinse controls, and communities were markedly dominated by select Gammaproteobacteria, notably Escherichia species and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Culture growth above the threshold of 104 CFU/ml was correlated with increased bacterial DNA burden (P < 0.01), decreased community diversity (P < 0.05), and increased relative abundance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P < 0.001). We present two case studies in which culture-independent techniques identified a respiratory pathogen missed by culture and clarified whether a cultured “oral flora” species represented a state of acute infection. In summary, we found that bacterial culture of BAL fluid is largely effective in discriminating acute infection from its absence and identified some specific limitations of BAL fluid culture in

  4. Analysis of culture-dependent versus culture-independent techniques for identification of bacteria in clinically obtained bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Robert P; Erb-Downward, John R; Prescott, Hallie C; Martinez, Fernando J; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Lama, Vibha N; Huffnagle, Gary B

    2014-10-01

    The diagnosis and management of pneumonia are limited by the use of culture-based techniques of microbial identification, which may fail to identify unculturable, fastidious, and metabolically active viable but unculturable bacteria. Novel high-throughput culture-independent techniques hold promise but have not been systematically compared to conventional culture. We analyzed 46 clinically obtained bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid specimens from symptomatic and asymptomatic lung transplant recipients both by culture (using a clinical microbiology laboratory protocol) and by bacterial 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Bacteria were identified in 44 of 46 (95.7%) BAL fluid specimens by culture-independent sequencing, significantly more than the number of specimens in which bacteria were detected (37 of 46, 80.4%, P ≤ 0.05) or "pathogen" species reported (18 of 46, 39.1%, P ≤ 0.0001) via culture. Identification of bacteria by culture was positively associated with culture-independent indices of infection (total bacterial DNA burden and low bacterial community diversity) (P ≤ 0.01). In BAL fluid specimens with no culture growth, the amount of bacterial DNA was greater than that in reagent and rinse controls, and communities were markedly dominated by select Gammaproteobacteria, notably Escherichia species and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Culture growth above the threshold of 10(4) CFU/ml was correlated with increased bacterial DNA burden (P < 0.01), decreased community diversity (P < 0.05), and increased relative abundance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P < 0.001). We present two case studies in which culture-independent techniques identified a respiratory pathogen missed by culture and clarified whether a cultured "oral flora" species represented a state of acute infection. In summary, we found that bacterial culture of BAL fluid is largely effective in discriminating acute infection from its absence and identified some specific limitations of BAL fluid culture in the

  5. Response of rodents to inhaled diluted diesel exhaust: biochemical and cytological changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in lung tissue.

    PubMed

    Henderson, R F; Pickrell, J A; Jones, R K; Sun, J D; Benson, J M; Mauderly, J L; McClellan, R O

    1988-10-01

    The effect of long-term (24 months) inhalation of diesel exhaust on the bronchoalveolar region of the respiratory tract of rodents was assessed by serial (every 6 months) analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and of lung tissue from F344/Crl rats and CD-1 mice (both sexes) exposed to diesel exhaust diluted to contain 0, 0.35, 3.5, or 7.0 mg soot/m3. The purpose of the study was twofold. One was to assess the potential health effects of inhaling diluted exhaust from light-duty diesel engines. The second was to determine the usefulness of BALF analysis in detecting the early stages in the development of nononcogenic lung disease and differentiating them from the normal repair processes. No biochemical or cytological changes in BALF or in lung tissue were noted in either species exposed to the lowest, and most environmentally relevant, concentration of diesel exhaust. In the two higher levels of exposure, a chronic inflammatory response was measured in both species by dose-dependent increases in inflammatory cells, cytoplasmic and lysosomal enzymes, and protein in BALF. Histologically, after 1 year of exposure, the rats had developed focal areas of fibrosis associated with the deposits of soot, while the mice, despite a higher lung burden of soot than the rats, had only a fine fibrillar thickening of an occasional alveolar septa in the high-level exposure group. Higher increases in BALF beta-glucuronidase activity and in hydroxyproline content accompanied the greater degree of fibrosis in the rat. BALF levels of glutathione (GSH) and glutathione reductase activity increased in a dose-dependent fashion and were higher in mice than in rats. Lung tissue GSH was depleted in a dose-dependent fashion in rats but was slightly increased in mice. This depletion may have played a role in the greater fibrogenic response observed in rats. Other tissue changes in enzymatic activity were small compared to changes observed in BALF. The exposure did not increase the

  6. Erionite bodies and fibres in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of residents from Tuzköy, Cappadocia, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Dumortier, P; Coplu, L; Broucke, I; Emri, S; Selcuk, T; de Maertelaer, V; De Vuyst, P; Baris, I

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—The high incidence of malignant mesothelioma in some villages of Cappadocia (Turkey) is due to environmental exposure to erionite fibres. The aim was to evaluate the fibre burden in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from inhabitants of an erionite village and compare it with Turkish subjects with or without environmental exposure to tremolite asbestos.
METHODS—Ferruginous bodies (FBs) and fibres were measured and analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in the BALF of 16 subjects originating from Tuzköy.
RESULTS—FBs were detected in the BALF of 12 subjects, with concentrations above 1 FB/ml in seven of them. Erionite was the central fibre of 95.7% of FBs. Erionite fibres were found in the BALF of all subjects, by TEM, and these fibres were low in Mg, K, and Ca compared with erionite from Tuzköy soil. The mean concentration of erionite fibres in BALF was similar to that of tremolite fibres in Turks with environmental exposure to tremolite. The proportion of fibres longer than 8 µm in BALF represented 35.6% for erionite compared with 14.0% for tremolite. The asbestos fibre concentrations in erionite villagers was not different from that in Turks without environmental exposure to tremolite.
CONCLUSION—Analysis of BALF gives information about fibre retention in populations environmentally exposed to erionite for whom data on fibre burden from lung tissue samples are scarce. This may apply to exposed Turks having emigrated to other countries.


Keywords: ferruginous body; asbestos body; environmental exposure; mesothelioma PMID:11245743

  7. sTREM-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis, effect of smoking and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Suchankova, M; Bucova, M; E, Tibenska; Demian, J; Majer, I; Novosadova, H; Tedlova, E; Durmanova, V; Paulovicova, E

    2013-01-01

    Soluble TREM-1 (sTREM-1; Triggering receptor expressed on myelocytes) is a new inflammatory marker indicating the intensity of myeloid cells activation and the presence of infection caused by extracellular bacteria and mould.The aim of our work was to detect and compare the levels of sTREM-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis (PS) and other ILD of non-infectious origin. The sTREM-1 levels were assessed by ELISA in 46 patients suffering from ILD, out of them 22 with PS. The levels of BALF sTREM-1 in PS patients were higher than in control group of ILD patients of non-infectious origin, however, the difference was not statistically significant. Since all PS patients except one were non-smokers we compared non-smokers PS with non-smokers ILD patients and found four times higher levels of BALF sTREM-1 in PS patients (P = 0.001). We also recorded the effect of smoking, ILD smokers had higher sTREM-1 levels than non-smokers (P = 0.0019). Higher concentrations of sTREM-1 were detected in BALF of patients with lymphadenopathy and with elevated inflammatory markers in BALF. Our results show that BALF sTREM-1 could be a good inflammatory marker and could help in diagnosis and PS monitoring. Detection of sTREM-1 in BALF indirectly points to myeloid cells activation in the lungs and helps to complete the information about the number of myeloid cells commonly determined in BALF with additional information concerning the intensity of their activation. This is the first study that analyses BALF sTREM-1 levels in patients with PS (Tab. 8, Ref. 28). Text in PDF www.elis.sk.

  8. sTREM-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis, effect of smoking and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Suchankova, M; Bucova, M; E, Tibenska; Demian, J; Majer, I; Novosadova, H; Tedlova, E; Durmanova, V; Paulovicova, E

    2013-01-01

    Soluble TREM-1 (sTREM-1; Triggering receptor expressed on myelocytes) is a new inflammatory marker indicating the intensity of myeloid cells activation and the presence of infection caused by extracellular bacteria and mould.The aim of our work was to detect and compare the levels of sTREM-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis (PS) and other ILD of non-infectious origin. The sTREM-1 levels were assessed by ELISA in 46 patients suffering from ILD, out of them 22 with PS. The levels of BALF sTREM-1 in PS patients were higher than in control group of ILD patients of non-infectious origin, however, the difference was not statistically significant. Since all PS patients except one were non-smokers we compared non-smokers PS with non-smokers ILD patients and found four times higher levels of BALF sTREM-1 in PS patients (P = 0.001). We also recorded the effect of smoking, ILD smokers had higher sTREM-1 levels than non-smokers (P = 0.0019). Higher concentrations of sTREM-1 were detected in BALF of patients with lymphadenopathy and with elevated inflammatory markers in BALF. Our results show that BALF sTREM-1 could be a good inflammatory marker and could help in diagnosis and PS monitoring. Detection of sTREM-1 in BALF indirectly points to myeloid cells activation in the lungs and helps to complete the information about the number of myeloid cells commonly determined in BALF with additional information concerning the intensity of their activation. This is the first study that analyses BALF sTREM-1 levels in patients with PS (Tab. 8, Ref. 28). Text in PDF www.elis.sk. PMID:24329508

  9. Mild hypothermia attenuates changes in respiratory system mechanics and modifies cytokine concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid during low lung volume ventilation.

    PubMed

    Dostál, P; Senkeřík, M; Pařízková, R; Bareš, D; Zivný, P; Zivná, H; Cerný, V

    2010-01-01

    Hypothermia was shown to attenuate ventilator-induced lung injury due to large tidal volumes. It is unclear if the protective effect of hypothermia is maintained under less injurious mechanical ventilation in animals without previous lung injury. Tracheostomized rats were randomly allocated to non-ventilated group (group C) or ventilated groups of normothermia (group N) and mild hypothermia (group H). After two hours of mechanical ventilation with inspiratory fraction of oxygen 1.0, respiratory rate 60 min(-1), tidal volume 10 ml x kg(-1), positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 2 cm H2O or immediately after tracheostomy in non-ventilated animals inspiratory pressures were recorded, rats were sacrificed, pressure-volume (PV) curve of respiratory system constructed, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and aortic blood samples obtained. Group N animals exhibited a higher rise in peak inspiratory pressures in comparison to group H animals. Shift of the PV curve to right, higher total protein and interleukin-6 levels in BAL fluid were observed in normothermia animals in comparison with hypothermia animals and non-ventilated controls. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha was lower in the hypothermia group in comparison with normothermia and non-ventilated groups. Mild hypothermia attenuated changes in respiratory system mechanics and modified cytokine concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid during low lung volume ventilation in animals without previous lung injury.

  10. Standardization of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Method Based on Suction Frequency Number and Lavage Fraction Number Using Rats

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jeong-Ah; Yang, Hyo-Seon; Lee, Jinsoo; Kwon, Soonjin; Jung, Kyung Jin; Heo, Jeong-Doo; Cho, Kyu-Hyuk; Song, Chang Woo

    2010-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a useful tool in researches and in clinical medicine of lung diseases because the BAL fluid contains biochemical and cytological indicators of the cellular response to infection, drugs, or toxicants. However, the variability among laboratories regarding the technique and the processing of the BAL material limits clinical research. The aim of this study was to determine the suction frequency and lavage fraction number necessary to reduce the variability in lavage using male Sprague-Dawley rats. We compared the total cell number and protein level of each lavage fraction and concluded that more cells and protein can be obtained by repetitive lavage with a suction frequency of 2 or 3 than by lavage with a single suction. On the basis of total cell recovery, approximately 70% of cells were obtained from fractions 1~3. The first lavage fraction should be used for evaluation of protein concentration because fractions 2~5 of lavage fluid were diluted in manifolds. These observations were confirmed in bleomycin-induced inflamed lungs of rats. We further compared the BAL data from the whole lobes with data from the right lobes and concluded that BAL data of the right lobes represented data of the whole lobes. However, this conclusion can only be applied to general lung diseases. At the end, this study provides an insight into the technical or analytical problems of lavage study in vivo. PMID:24278525

  11. Effect of ambroxol on the concentration of cefotaxime in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of rats with pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, FENG; ZHANG, YUAN-XIA; ZHANG, CAI-QING

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of ambroxol on the concentration of cefotaxime in the bronchioalveolar lavage fluid of rats with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. A total of 54 Wistar male rats were randomly divided into three groups, namely the normal control group, model group and ambroxol group. On experimental day 0, the rats were intratracheally instilled with bleomycin (5 mg/kg body weight) or sterile saline. The rats in the ambroxol group were then treated with ambroxol (35 mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally. On days 7, 14, 28 after instillation, six rats from each group were sacrificed, bronchial alveolar fluids were recovered and the lungs were collected for histopathological examination following the injection of cefotaxime (600 mg/kg) intravenously. The concentration of cefotaxime in the bronchial alveolar fluids was assayed by a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. On day 7, the concentration of cefotaxime in the bronchial alveolar fluid of the ambroxol group was lower than that of the model group. On day 14, the concentration of cefotaxime in the bronchial alveolar fluids of the ambroxol group was higher than that of the model group, and the difference between these groups was significant statistically (P<0.001). On day 28, the concentration of cefotaxime in the bronchial alveolar fluids of the ambroxol group decreased sharply, and was lower than that of the model group (P=0.126). These results indicate that ambroxol increased the concentration of cefotaxime in the bronchial alveolar fluids at the primary fibrosis stage. PMID:25574230

  12. CD4+/CD25(high)/FoxP3+/CD127- regulatory T cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Osińska, Iwona; Stelmaszczyk-Emmel, Anna; Polubiec-Kownacka, Małgorzata; Dziedzic, Dariusz; Domagała-Kulawik, Joanna

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the presence of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the local lung cancer environment versus systemic immune response based on the examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) and peripheral blood (PB) from the same patient. 35 patients with lung cancer were investigated. Flow cytometry method with panel of antibodies: anti CD4/CD25/FoxP3/CD127 for Tregs identification was used. We observed significantly higher proportion of Tregs in the BALF than in PB (median 9.4 vs. 5.4%, p<0.05). The increased proportion of Tregs in patients with advanced disease and in adenocarcinoma was found. This study confirmed the usefulness of BALF analysis in evaluation of immune response in lung cancer. Detection of Tregs in the local tumour environment may have therapeutic relevance in individual indication for anti-cancer immune-therapies. PMID:27474372

  13. Validation of a new Aspergillus real-time PCR assay for direct detection of Aspergillus and azole resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    PubMed

    Chong, Ga-Lai M; van de Sande, Wendy W J; Dingemans, Gijs J H; Gaajetaan, Giel R; Vonk, Alieke G; Hayette, Marie-Pierre; van Tegelen, Dennis W E; Simons, Guus F M; Rijnders, Bart J A

    2015-03-01

    Azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus is increasingly reported. Here, we describe the validation of the AsperGenius, a new multiplex real-time PCR assay consisting of two multiplex real-time PCRs, one that identifies the clinically relevant Aspergillus species, and one that detects the TR34, L98H, T289A, and Y121F mutations in CYP51A and differentiates susceptible from resistant A. fumigatus strains. The diagnostic performance of the AsperGenius assay was tested on 37 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples from hematology patients and 40 BAL fluid samples from intensive care unit (ICU) patients using a BAL fluid galactomannan level of ≥1.0 or positive culture as the gold standard for detecting the presence of Aspergillus. In the hematology and ICU groups combined, there were 22 BAL fluid samples from patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA) (2 proven, 9 probable, and 11 nonclassifiable). Nineteen of the 22 BAL fluid samples were positive, according to the gold standard. The optimal cycle threshold value for the presence of Aspergillus was <36. Sixteen of the 19 BAL fluid samples had a positive PCR (2 Aspergillus species and 14 A. fumigatus samples). This resulted in a sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 88.9%, 89.3%, 72.7%, and 96.2%, respectively, for the hematology group and 80.0%, 93.3%, 80.0%, and 93.3%, respectively, in the ICU group. The CYP51A real-time PCR confirmed 12 wild-type and 2 resistant strains (1 TR34-L98H and 1 TR46-Y121F-T289A mutant). Voriconazole therapy failed for both patients. The AsperGenius multiplex real-time PCR assay allows for sensitive and fast detection of Aspergillus species directly from BAL fluid samples. More importantly, this assay detects and differentiates wild-type from resistant strains, even if BAL fluid cultures remain negative.

  14. Anti-citrullinated heat shock protein 90 antibodies identified in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are a marker of lung-specific immune responses.

    PubMed

    Harlow, Lisa; Gochuico, Bernadette R; Rosas, Ivan O; Doyle, Tracy J; Osorio, Juan C; Travers, Timothy S; Camacho, Carlos C; Oddis, Chester V; Ascherman, Dana P

    2014-11-01

    Previous work has demonstrated a correlation between serum anti-citrullinated HSP90 antibodies and rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD). To further investigate this potential pathogenic relationship, we used ELISA-based techniques to assess anti-citrullinated HSP90 antibody profiles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients with different stages of RA-ILD. 9/21 RA-derived BALF specimens demonstrated IgG and/or IgA antibodies targeting citrullinated HSP90 proteins/peptides, highlighting disease specific responses (with a predilection for RA-ILD) that did not occur in IPF patients (0/5) or healthy control subjects (0/5). Comparison of antibody profiles between BALF and matching serum specimens revealed various recognition patterns favoring predominant production of anti-citrullinated HSP90 antibodies within the lung microenvironment-further supporting the connection between this antibody specificity and parenchymal lung disease. Equally important, qualitative as well as quantitative differences in anti-citrullinated HSP90 profiles between BALF and serum indicate that the lung plays a direct role in shaping the immune repertoire of RA/RA-ILD.

  15. The effects of Eucheuma cottonii on alveolar macrophages and malondialdehyde levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in chronically particulate matter 10 coal dust-exposed rats

    PubMed Central

    Saputri, Romadhiyana Kisno; Setiawan, Bambang; Nugrahenny, Dian; Kania, Nia; Wahyuni, Endang Sri; Widodo, M Aris

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): To investigate the effect of Eucheuma cottonii on alveolar macrophages (AM) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) in particulate matter 10 (PM10) coal dust-exposed rats. Materials and Methods: Ten groups, including a non exposed group and groups exposed to coal dust at doses of 6.25 (CD6.25), 12.5 (CD12.5), or 25 mg/m3 (CD25) an hour daily for 6 months with or without supplementation of ethanolic extract of E. cottonii at doses of 150 (EC150) or 300 mg/kg BW (EC300). The number of macrophages was determined using a light microscope. MDA levels were measured by TBARS assay. Results: EC150 insignificantly (P > 0.05) reduces the AM in CD groups compared to non treatment groups. EC150 and EC300 significantly (P < 0.05) decreased MDA levels in CD12.5 and CD25 groups relative to non treatment groups. Conclusion: E. cottonii attenuated oxidative stress in chronic exposure of PM10 coal dust. PMID:25429347

  16. Gallium-67 scintigraphy, bronchoalveolar lavage, and pathologic changes in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, S.; Munakata, M.; Nishimura, M.; Tsuneta, Y.; Terai, T.; Nakano, I.; Ohsaki, Y.; Kawakami, Y.

    1984-05-01

    The intensity of gallium-67 scintiscans, lymphocyte counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and pathologic changes were studied in 26 patients with untreated pulmonary sarcoidosis. Noncaseating granulomas were recognized with significantly greater frequency in stage 2 (80 percent; 8/10 cases) than in stage 1 (43 percent; 6/14 cases). Alveolitis showed little relation to the roentgenographic stage. There was a strong correlation between the intensity of gallium uptake in pulmonary parenchyma and the detection rate of granuloma; however, the detection rate of alveolitis was not statistically different from the intensity of gallium uptake. A highly significant correlation was revealed between the lymphocyte counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and the intensity of alveolitis. These observations suggest that the gallium uptake reflects mainly the presence of granuloma, and the lymphocyte count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid reflects the intensity of alveolitis in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis.

  17. [Flexible bronchoscopy techniques: bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial biopsy and transbronchial biopsy].

    PubMed

    Escribano Montaner, A; Moreno Galdó, A

    2005-04-01

    This article completes previous recommendations of the Techniques Group of the Spanish Society of Pediatric Pulmonologists on the practice of flexible bronchoscopy in children. We review the most frequently performed diagnostic and therapeutic procedures applied through the flexible bronchoscope: bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial biopsy and transbronchial biopsy. Recommendations are also provided on the practice of nonbronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage. We review the indications and contraindications of these techniques, the equipment required, and the preparation and monitoring of the patient before, during and after the procedure. The complications of these techniques are also discussed. These recommendations may be adopted, modified or rejected according to clinical needs and constraints.

  18. Polymerase-chain reaction/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry for the detection of bacteria and fungi in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Huttner, A; Emonet, S; Harbarth, S; Renzi, G; Kaiser, L; Schrenzel, J

    2014-12-01

    PLEX-ID uses polymerase chain reaction-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry for rapid identification of infectious agents in clinical samples. We evaluated its concordance with our centre's standard methods (SM) for bacterial and fungal detection in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in a prospective observational cohort study. The primary outcome was concordance (%) between SM and PLEX-ID. Secondary outcomes included concordance when excluding commensal oral flora, detection of resistance genes, and PLEX-ID's potential impact on clinical management, as determined by two independent reviewers. Included were 101 specimens from 94 patients. BALs were performed primarily for suspected pneumonia (76/101, 75%) and lung transplant work-ups (12/101, 12%). Most specimens yielded at least one organism by either method (92/101, 91%). Among all microorganisms detected (n = 218), 83% and 17% were bacterial and fungal, respectively. Overall concordance between SM and PLEX-ID was 45% (45/101). Concordance increased to 66% (67/101) when discordance for commensal flora was excluded. PLEX-ID failed to detect 21% of all 183 SM-identified organisms, while SM did not identify 28% of the 191 PLEX-ID-identified organisms (p <0.001). There was low concordance for mecA detection. Two infectious-disease specialists' analyses concluded that in most of the 31 discordant, non-commensal cases, PLEX-ID results would have had little or no impact on patient management; in eight cases, however, PLEX-ID would have led to 'wrong decision-making'. The tested version of PLEX-ID concurred weakly with standard methods in the detection of bacteria and fungi in BAL specimens, and is not likely to be useful as a standalone tool for microbiological diagnosis in suspected respiratory infections.

  19. Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) for Research; Obtaining Adequate Sample Yield

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Andrea M.; Rylance, Jamie; Wootton, Daniel G.; Wright, Angela D.; Wright, Adam K. A.; Fullerton, Duncan G.; Gordon, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a research technique for fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) using manual hand held suction in order to remove nonadherent cells and lung lining fluid from the mucosal surface. In research environments, BAL allows sampling of innate (lung macrophage), cellular (B- and T- cells), and humoral (immunoglobulin) responses within the lung. BAL is internationally accepted for research purposes and since 1999 the technique has been performed in > 1,000 subjects in the UK and Malawi by our group. Our technique uses gentle hand-held suction of instilled fluid; this is designed to maximize BAL volume returned and apply minimum shear force on ciliated epithelia in order to preserve the structure and function of cells within the BAL fluid and to preserve viability to facilitate the growth of cells in ex vivo culture. The research technique therefore uses a larger volume instillate (typically in the order of 200 ml) and employs manual suction to reduce cell damage. Patients are given local anesthetic, offered conscious sedation (midazolam), and tolerate the procedure well with minimal side effects. Verbal and written subject information improves tolerance and written informed consent is mandatory. Safety of the subject is paramount. Subjects are carefully selected using clear inclusion and exclusion criteria. This protocol includes a description of the potential risks, and the steps taken to mitigate them, a list of contraindications, pre- and post-procedure checks, as well as precise bronchoscopy and laboratory techniques. PMID:24686157

  20. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for research; obtaining adequate sample yield.

    PubMed

    Collins, Andrea M; Rylance, Jamie; Wootton, Daniel G; Wright, Angela D; Wright, Adam K A; Fullerton, Duncan G; Gordon, Stephen B

    2014-01-01

    We describe a research technique for fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) using manual hand held suction in order to remove nonadherent cells and lung lining fluid from the mucosal surface. In research environments, BAL allows sampling of innate (lung macrophage), cellular (B- and T- cells), and humoral (immunoglobulin) responses within the lung. BAL is internationally accepted for research purposes and since 1999 the technique has been performed in > 1,000 subjects in the UK and Malawi by our group. Our technique uses gentle hand-held suction of instilled fluid; this is designed to maximize BAL volume returned and apply minimum shear force on ciliated epithelia in order to preserve the structure and function of cells within the BAL fluid and to preserve viability to facilitate the growth of cells in ex vivo culture. The research technique therefore uses a larger volume instillate (typically in the order of 200 ml) and employs manual suction to reduce cell damage. Patients are given local anesthetic, offered conscious sedation (midazolam), and tolerate the procedure well with minimal side effects. Verbal and written subject information improves tolerance and written informed consent is mandatory. Safety of the subject is paramount. Subjects are carefully selected using clear inclusion and exclusion criteria. This protocol includes a description of the potential risks, and the steps taken to mitigate them, a list of contraindications, pre- and post-procedure checks, as well as precise bronchoscopy and laboratory techniques.

  1. Sampling the Airway: Improving the Predictive and Toxicological Value of Bronchoalveolar Lavage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a relatively simple technique to obtain biological material in the form of BAL fluid (BALF) from airways of humans and laboratory animals. Numerous predictive biomarkers of pulmonary injury and diseases can be detected in BALF which aid in diagnosi...

  2. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteome from systemic sclerosis patients with or without functional, clinical and radiological signs of lung fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Fietta, AM; Bardoni, AM; Salvini, R; Passadore, I; Morosini, M; Cavagna, L; Codullo, V; Pozzi, E; Meloni, F; Montecucco, C

    2006-01-01

    Lung fibrosis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in systemic sclerosis (SSc). However, its pathogenesis still needs to be elucidated. We examined whether the alteration of certain proteins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) might have a protective or a causative role in the lung fibrogenesis process. For this purpose we compared the BALF protein profile obtained from nine SSc patients with lung fibrosis (SScFib+) with that obtained from six SSc patients without pulmonary fibrosis (SScFib-) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Only spots and spot-trains that were consistently expressed in a different way in the two study groups were taken into consideration. In total, 47 spots and spot-trains, corresponding to 30 previously identified proteins in human BALF, showed no significant variation between SScFib+ patients and SScFib- patients, whereas 24 spots showed a reproducible significant variation in the two study groups. These latter spots corresponded to 11 proteins or protein fragments, including serum albumin fragments (13 spots), 5 previously recognized proteins (7 spots), and 4 proteins (3 spots) that had not been previously described in human BALF maps, namely calumenin, cytohesin-2, cystatin SN, and mitochondrial DNA topoisomerase 1 (mtDNA TOP1). Mass analysis did not determine one protein-spot. The two study groups revealed a significant difference in BALF protein composition. Whereas levels of glutathione S-transferase P (GSTP), Cu–Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and cystatin SN were downregulated in SScFib+ patients compared with SScFib- patients, we observed a significant upregulation of α1-acid glycoprotein, haptoglobin-α chain, calgranulin (Cal) B, cytohesin-2, calumenin, and mtDNA TOP1 in SScFib+ patients. Some of these proteins (GSTP, Cu–Zn SOD, and cystatin SN) seem to be involved in mechanisms that protect lungs against injury or inflammation, whereas others (Cal B, cytohesin-2, and calumenin) seem to be involved in

  3. Expression of T helper cell-associated inflammatory mediator mRNAs in cells of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples and oxygen concentration in arterial blood samples from healthy horses exposed to hyperbaric oxygen.

    PubMed

    Looijen, Maty G P; New, Dallas J; Fischer, Carrie D; Dardari, Rkia; Irwin, Karyn M; Berezowski, Christopher J; Bond, Stephanie L; Léguillette, Renaud

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the mRNA expression of T helper (Th)1, Th2, and Th17 cell-associated inflammatory mediators in cells of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples collected from healthy horses exposed to hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) and to monitor blood oxygen concentration during and following HBO therapy. ANIMALS 8 healthy horses. PROCEDURES In a randomized controlled crossover design study, each horse was exposed (beginning day 1) to 100% oxygen at a maximum of 3 atmospheres absolute (304 kPa) daily for 10 days or ambient air at atmospheric pressure in the HBO chamber for an equivalent amount of time (control). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were collected on days 0 and 10. After validation of candidate reference genes, relative mRNA expressions of various innate inflammatory, Th1 cell-derived, Th2 cell-derived (including eotaxin-2), Th17 cell-derived, and regulatory cytokines were measured by quantitative PCR assays. For 3 horses, arterial blood samples were collected for blood gas analysis during a separate HBO session. RESULTS The optimal combination of reference genes was glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, hypoxanthine ribosyltransferase, and ribosomal protein L32. Compared with day 0 findings, expression of eotaxin-2 mRNA was significantly lower (0.12-fold reduction) and the percentage of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples was significantly lower on day 10 when horses received HBO therapy. Values of Pao2 rapidly increased (> 800 mm Hg) but immediately decreased to pretreatment values when HBO sessions ended. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that HBO therapy does not increase mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, but reduces eotaxin-2 mRNA transcription. The Pao2 increase was transient with no cumulative effects of HBO. PMID:27668587

  4. Peptides in Bronchoalveolar Lavage in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wendt, Chris H.; Nelsestuen, Gary; Harvey, Stephen; Gulcev, Makedonka; Stone, Matthew; Reilly, Cavan

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease with a significant public health burden. Currently there is no biomarker that identifies those at risk of developing COPD, progression of disease or disease phenotypes. We performed metabolomic profiling of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from COPD patients to determine if metabolites correlated with clinical measurements such as lung function, functional status and degree of emphysema. Methods Metabolomic components of BALF from 59 subjects with COPD and 20 healthy controls were separated by reversed-phase UPLC and analyzed by ESI-ToF mass spectrometry. We used univariate analysis and multiple regression models to investigate associations between metabolomic features and various clinical variables, such as lung function, functional status as measured by the St. George Respiratory Quotient Score and emphysema as measured by the CT density mask score. Results We identified over 3900 features by mass spectrometry, many consistent with peptides. Subjects with severe COPD had increased concentration of peptides compared to controls (p < 9.526e-05). The peptide concentration correlated with spirometry, specifically pulmonary function tests associated with airflow obstruction. There was no correlation with CT density, i.e. emphysema, or functional status. Conclusions Metabolomic profiling of BALF in COPD patients demonstrated a significant increase in peptides compared to healthy controls that associated strongly to lung function, but not emphysema or functional status. PMID:27227774

  5. Bronchoalveolar lavage: role in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of interstitial lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Daniele, R.P.; Elias, J.A.; Epstein, P.E.; Rossman, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage has emerged as a useful technique for the study of pulmonary interstitial disorders. Several types of information are provided by the evaluation of lavage fluid. First, the identification of cellular constituents helps to separate inflammatory processes in which lymphocytes predominate (for example, sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and berylliosis) from those in which neutrophils or macrophages predominate (for example, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and histiocytosis X). Second, the cells removed during lavage can be studied for their immune properties and function; tested with specific antigens, in diseases such as berylliosis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis; and examined for the presence of unique surface antigens with monoclonal antibodies (for example, histiocytosis X). Third, in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy and electron probe analysis, lavage makes possible the identification of inorganic particles in alveolar macrophages of patients with pneumoconiotic lung disease. Finally, although lavage is still an investigative procedure for most pulmonary disorders, it has an established role in the diagnosis of opportunistic infections in the immunocompromised patient.

  6. Genetic relationships between Candida albicans strains isolated from dental plaque, trachea, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mechanically ventilated intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed

    Heo, Seok-Mo; Sung, Robert S; Scannapieco, Frank A; Haase, Elaine M

    2011-01-01

    Candida albicans often resides in the oral cavity of healthy humans as a harmless commensal organism. This opportunistic fungus can cause significant disease in critically ill patients, such as those undergoing mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit (ICU) having compromised local airway defense mechanisms. The goal of this study was to determine the intra- and inter-patient genetic relationship between strains of C. albicans recovered from dental plaque, tracheal secretions, and the lower airway by bronchoalveolar lavage of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Three pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing methods were used to determine the genetic relatedness of the C. albicans strains, including electrophoretic karyotyping (EK) and restriction endonuclease analysis of the genome using SfiI (REAG-S) and BssHII (REAG-B). The C. albicans isolates from dental plaque and tracheo-bronchial sites from the same patient were genetically indistinguishable and retained over time, whereas strains from different patients usually separated into different genotypes. Among the three methods, REAG-B proved to be the most discriminatory method to differentiate isolates. The finding of genetically similar strains from the oral and tracheo-bronchial sites from the same patient supports the notion that the oral cavity may serve as an important source for C. albicans spread to the trachea and lung of mechanically ventilated patients.

  7. Sulfuric acid aerosol exposure in humans assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage

    SciTech Connect

    Frampton, M.W.; Voter, K.Z.; Morrow, P.E.; Roberts, N.J. Jr.; Culp, D.J.; Cox, C.; Utell, M.J. )

    1992-09-01

    Epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggests that exposure to acidic aerosols may affect human health. Brief exposures to acidic aerosols alter mucociliary clearance and increase airway responsiveness, but effects on host defense mechanisms at the alveolar level have not been studied in humans. Twelve healthy, nonsmoking volunteers between 20 and 39 yr of age were exposed for 2 h to aerosols of approximately 1,000 micrograms/m3 sulfuric acid (H2SO4) or sodium chloride (NaCl (control)), with intermittent exercise, in a randomized, double-blind fashion. Each subject received both exposures, separated by at least 2 wk. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed 18 h after exposure in order to detect evidence of an inflammatory response, changes in alveolar cell subpopulations, or changes in alveolar macrophage (AM) function, which is important in host defense. When compared with NaCl, exposure to H2SO4 did not increase polymorphonuclear leukocytes in BAL fluid. The percentage of T lymphocytes decreased in association with H2SO4 exposure, but the difference was not statistically significant (14.9% after NaCl, 11.5% after H2SO4; p = 0.14). Antibody-mediated cytotoxicity of AM increased in association with H2SO4 exposure (percent lysis 19.1 after NaCl, 23.6 after H2SO4; p = 0.16). No significant change was seen in release of superoxide anion or inactivation of influenza virus in vitro. Brief exposures to H2SO4 aerosol at 1,000 micrograms/m3 do not cause an influx of inflammatory cells into the alveolar space, and no evidence was found for alteration in antimicrobial defense 18 h after exposure.

  8. Bronchoalveolar lavage and technetium-99m glucoheptonate imaging in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Lieske, T.R.; Sunderrajan, E.V.; Passamonte, P.M.

    1984-02-01

    A patient with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia was evaluated using bronchoalveolar lavage, technetium-99m glucoheptonate, and transbronchial lung biopsy. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 43 percent eosinophils and correlated well with results of transbronchial lung biopsy. Technetium-99m glucoheptonate lung imaging demonstrated intense parenchymal uptake. After eight weeks of corticosteroid therapy, the bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophil population and the technetium-99m glucoheptonate uptake had returned to normal. We suggest that bronchoalveolar lavage, with transbronchial lung biopsy, is a less invasive way than open lung biopsy to diagnose chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. The mechanism of uptake of technetium-99m glucoheptonate in this disorder remains to be defined.

  9. Primary A (H1N1) pdm09 Influenza Pneumonia Diagnosed on Reverse Transcription-polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid but not Rapid Tests with Nasopharyngeal Swabs.

    PubMed

    Ohkura, Noriyuki; Tani, Mayuko; Nishitsuji, Masaru; Nishi, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    A 47-year-old man with a fever was highly suspected of having influenza A infection since his wife and son who lived with him had been diagnosed with influenza A. Although repeated rapid tests with a nasopharyngeal swab showed negative findings, the patient developed bilateral pneumonia and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for A (H1N1) pdm09 virus in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was positive. We therefore diagnosed him with primary influenza pneumonia and initiated treatment with peramivir plus corticosteroids, which rapidly improved his condition. During the influenza season, sample collection from the lower airway and PCR should be considered for the definitive diagnosis of primary influenza viral pneumonia.

  10. Levels of cytokines in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid, but not in plasma, are associated with levels of markers of lipid peroxidation in breath of ventilated ICU patients.

    PubMed

    Boshuizen, Margit; Leopold, Jan Hendrik; Zakharkina, Tetyana; Knobel, Hugo H; Weda, Hans; Nijsen, Tamara M E; Vink, Teunis J; Sterk, Peter J; Schultz, Marcus J; Bos, Lieuwe D J

    2015-09-03

    Alkanes and alkenes in the breath are produced through fatty acid peroxidation, which is initialized by reactive oxygen species. Inflammation is an important cause and effect of reactive oxygen species. We aimed to evaluate the association between fatty acid peroxidation products and inflammation of the alveolar and systemic compartment in ventilated intensive care unit (ICU) patients.Volatile organic compounds were measured by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in the breath of newly ventilated ICU patients within 24 h after ICU admission. Cytokines were measured in non-directed bronchial lavage fluid (NBL) and plasma by cytometric bead array. Correlation coefficients were calculated and presented in heatmaps.93 patients were included. Peroxidation products in exhaled breath were not associated with markers of inflammation in plasma, but were correlated with those in NBL. IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α concentration in NBL showed inverse correlation coefficients with the peroxidation products of fatty acids. Furthermore, NBL IL-10, IL-13, GM-CSF and IFNγ demonstrated positive associations with breath alkanes and alkenes. Correlation coefficients for NBL cytokines were high regarding peroxidation products of n-6, n-7 and particularly in n-9 fatty acids.Levels of lipid peroxidation products in the breath of ventilated ICU patients are associated with levels of inflammatory markers in NBL, but not in plasma. Alkanes and alkenes in breath seems to be associated with an anti-inflammatory, rather than a pro-inflammatory state in the alveoli.

  11. Schistosoma mansoni larvicidal activity of murine bronchoalveolar lavage cells.

    PubMed

    Lewis, F A; White-Ziegler, C A; Ball, J E; Niemann, G M

    1990-12-01

    We have investigated the ability of cells obtained from both normal and immune mice by bronchoalveolar lavage (BACs) to kill Schistosoma mansoni larvae in vitro. In cultures with mechanically derived schistosomules, high levels of larvicidal activity were displayed by BACs from both normal and irradiated cercaria-immunized C57BL/6 mice. Based on effector-to-target-cell ratios, BAC-mediated killing was two- to threefold more efficient than killing mediated by macrophage-rich cell populations obtained from the peritoneal cavity. BACs from normal A/J mice were essentially as larvicidal as normal C57BL/6 cells. However, BACs from a strain of mouse (P/J) with a known macrophage defect possessed negligible larvicidal activity. Macrophages made up 85 to 95% of BACs from all three strains tested. In contrast to cells of the IC-21 macrophage cell line, B6 BACs did not show enhanced killing activity when preincubated with lymphokine-containing supernatants. Lung schistosomules harvested 10 days after cercarial penetration were refractory to BAC-mediated killing. PMID:2254018

  12. Schistosoma mansoni larvicidal activity of murine bronchoalveolar lavage cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, F A; White-Ziegler, C A; Ball, J E; Niemann, G M

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the ability of cells obtained from both normal and immune mice by bronchoalveolar lavage (BACs) to kill Schistosoma mansoni larvae in vitro. In cultures with mechanically derived schistosomules, high levels of larvicidal activity were displayed by BACs from both normal and irradiated cercaria-immunized C57BL/6 mice. Based on effector-to-target-cell ratios, BAC-mediated killing was two- to threefold more efficient than killing mediated by macrophage-rich cell populations obtained from the peritoneal cavity. BACs from normal A/J mice were essentially as larvicidal as normal C57BL/6 cells. However, BACs from a strain of mouse (P/J) with a known macrophage defect possessed negligible larvicidal activity. Macrophages made up 85 to 95% of BACs from all three strains tested. In contrast to cells of the IC-21 macrophage cell line, B6 BACs did not show enhanced killing activity when preincubated with lymphokine-containing supernatants. Lung schistosomules harvested 10 days after cercarial penetration were refractory to BAC-mediated killing. PMID:2254018

  13. Oral and aerosol immunization with viable or inactivated Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae bacteria: antibody response to capsular polysaccharides in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) and sera of pigs.

    PubMed

    Hensel, A; Pabst, R; Bunka, S; Petzoldt, K

    1994-04-01

    To investigate the antibody response after local application of lung-pathogenic bacteria, pigs were immunized with viable or inactivated Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae by the oral and aerogenous route. After 3 weeks class-specific immunoglobulins against purified A. pleuropneumoniae capsular polysaccharides (CP) were determined in serum and BALF by ELISA. A significant increase of IgA antibodies was found in BALF but not in sera of all immunized pigs. Oral immunization with viable A. pleuropneumoniae and aerosol immunization with either viable or inactivated bacteria resulted in a significant increase of IgG antibodies to the CP antigen in BALF, whereas only aerosol exposure to viable bacteria resulted in a significant increase in IgG antibodies in serum. A significant increase in anti-CP IgM in BALF was observed after aerosol exposure but not after oral immunization. IgM antibodies towards CP increased significantly by both routes of immunization with viable bacteria. The anti-CP activity of all three isotypes in sera and BALF was low in all groups compared with the positive controls, although inoculation of viable A. pleuropneumoniae led to higher levels of antibody concentration than inactivated bacteria. Our results indicate a traffic of primed lymphocytes from the gut into the bronchoalveolar airways and further support the hypothesis that polysaccharide-specific B cells may functionally mature at the mucosal surfaces.

  14. The clinical utility of bronchoalveolar lavage in interstitial lung disease - is it really useful?

    PubMed

    Meyer, Keith C

    2014-04-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) can be a very useful tool in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease, but BAL must be performed properly and the retrieved BAL fluid adequately processed and analyzed to allow accurate conclusions to be drawn from BAL analysis. A differential cell count of nucleated immune cells can show cell patterns that suggest or support certain diagnoses, and other testing (stains and cultures for infectious pathogens, malignant cell cytology) can be performed on BAL fluid that can also aid in diagnosis. When combined with the results of a careful history, physical examination, thoracic imaging, and other pertinent laboratory testing, the BAL analysis may allow a confident diagnosis of a specific interstitial lung disease to be made without proceeding to more invasive testing (e.g., surgical lung biopsy) that is associated with increased risk of complications.

  15. Bronchoalveolar lavage cell differential on microscope glass cover. A simple and accurate technique

    SciTech Connect

    Laviolette, M.; Carreau, M.; Coulombe, R.

    1988-08-01

    We describe a quick and easy technique to perform cell differentials on bronchoalveolar lavage: the microscope glass cover. Lavage fluids of 72 subjects were analyzed by 3 techniques: glass cover, filter, and cytocentrifuge preparations. Seventy-seven other lavages were analyzed by glass cover and cytocentrifuge preparations alone. Data for the 72 subjects studied by all 3 techniques showed that the cell counts on glass cover and filter preparations were similar, e.g., lymphocytes, 19.2% (range, 0.5 to 94%) and 20.9% (range, 3 to 95%), respectively (Spearman's correlation coefficient, 0.98). However, on cytocentrifuge preparations, lymphocyte counts were lower (8.3%; range, zero to 87%) and macrophage counts were higher (p less than 0.005). Comparison of glass cover and cytocentrifuge preparation mixtures with varying amounts (20 to 80%) of purified blood leukocytes labeled with 51Cr (greater than or equal to 72% lymphocytes) showed that a significant amount of radioactive cells was lost during the cytocentrifuge technique in contrast to the glass cover technique. Because neutrophils represented a low proportion of lavage cells, we also evaluated cell suspensions with known neutrophil contents (10 to 70%); we found no difference in neutrophil counts obtained with the 3 techniques. Lavage data analysis of 40 young nonsmoking volunteers showed that glass cover lymphocyte count was also higher than counts on cytocentrifuge preparations: 16.5% (range, 3 to 45%) and 8.2% (range, 2.5 to 35%), respectively. In this group, the distribution of glass cover lymphocyte percentages was normal (p = 0.21, chi 2 test), and the one-tailed 95% confidence interval was 18.6 to 34.7% (mean plus 1.65 standard deviation).

  16. Bronchoalveolar lavage cell counts as a predictor of short term outcome in pulmonary sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Foley, N M; Coral, A P; Tung, K; Hudspith, B N; James, D G; Johnson, N M

    1989-09-01

    Sixty seven patients with biopsy proven pulmonary sarcoidosis were prospectively studied to determine whether single point bronchoalveolar lavage cell counts were a useful indicator of functional outcome and whether repeated lavage helped in management. The mean follow up period was 25 (range 13-37) months. No patient was having corticosteroid treatment at the time of initial bronchoalveolar lavage. "High intensity alveolitis" (lymphocyte count greater than or equal to 28%) was present at the initial lavage in 42 patients. These patients showed a significant improvement in their pulmonary function and chest radiographs over the follow up period whereas patients with "low intensity alveolitis" did not. Of the 42 patients with high intensity alveolitis, 31 had chronic sarcoidosis (duration over two years, mean 80 months). These patients showed a significant improvement in FVC but not in TLCO. Corticosteroids resulted in greater functional and radiological improvement in the patients with high intensity alveolitis than in those with low intensity alveolitis. Repeat bronchoalveolar lavage in 34 patients, mean 8.4 months after the original lavage, showed a weak inverse relation between a reduced lymphocyte count and change in forced vital capacity and isotope uptake on a gallium scan. These correlations were too weak to make repeated cell counts useful in management. Our results suggest that high intensity alveolitis may be a favourable prognostic factor for lung function in pulmonary sarcoidosis, even in patients with chronic disease, but that repeat lavage adds little to the management of the individual patient. PMID:2588210

  17. Characterization of the mouse bronchoalveolar lavage proteome by micro-capillary LC–FTICR mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Pounds, Joel G.; Flora, Jason W.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Lee, Kyeonghee M.; Rana, Gaurav S.J.B.; Sengupta, Tapas; Smith, Richard D.; McKinney, Willie J.

    2008-03-15

    Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) contains proteins derived from various pulmonary cell types, secretions and blood. As the characterization of the BALF proteome will be instrumental in establishing potential biomarkers of pathophysiology in the lungs, the objective of this study was to contribute to the comprehensive collection of Mus musculus BALF proteins using high resolution and highly sensitive micro-capillary liquid chromatography (microLC) combined with state-of-the-art high resolution mass spectrometry (MS). BALF was collected from ICR and C57BL/6 male mice exposed to nose-only inhalation to either air or cigarette smoke. The tandem mass spectra were analyzed by SEQUEST for peptide identifications with the subsequent application of accurate mass and time tags resulting in the identification of 1797 peptides with high confidence by high resolution MS. These peptides covered 959 individual proteins constituting the largest collection of BALF proteins to date. High throughput monitoring profiles of this extensive collection of BALF proteins will facilitate the discovery and validation of biomarkers that would elucidate pathogenic or adaptive responses of the lungs upon toxic insults.

  18. Pseudoasbestos bodies and fibers in bronchoalveolar lavage of refractory ceramic fiber users.

    PubMed

    Dumortier, P; Broucke, I; De Vuyst, P

    2001-08-01

    Refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) are widely used to replace asbestos in applications requiring high heat resistance. Ferruginous bodies mimicking asbestos bodies (ABs) have been detected in the lungs of RCF production workers. This raises the question about their presence in other occupational groups and whether "typical ABs" still reflect past asbestos exposures in all settings. An AB counting by phase-contrast light microscopy and a screening test by analytical electron microscopy were systematically performed on all bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) submitted to our laboratory in 1992 through 1997 (n = 1,800). When RCF were detected in electron microscopy, the structures considered as "typical ABs" were marked under light microscopy and prepared for further chemical and structural analysis. Pseudo-ABs on RCF were detected in samples from nine subjects (0.5%). All of them had worked either as foundry workers, steel workers, or welders. In these subjects, alumino-silicate fibers compatible with RCF accounted for 42% of the core fibers analyzed, other nonasbestos fibers for 28%, and asbestos fibers for 30%. ABs thus remain a valid marker of asbestos retention but attention must be paid to a possible occurrence of pseudo-asbestos bodies on RCF and other nonasbestos fibers in end-users of refractory fibers. PMID:11500357

  19. Cyanide in bronchoalveolar lavage is not diagnostic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa in children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Stutz, M D; Gangell, C L; Berry, L J; Garratt, L W; Sheil, B; Sly, P D

    2011-03-01

    Early detection of the cyanobacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the lungs of young children with cystic fibrosis (CF) is considered the key to delaying chronic pulmonary disease. We investigated whether cyanide in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid could be used as an early diagnostic biomarker of infection. Cyanide was measured in 226 BAL samples (36 P. aeruginosa infected) obtained from 96 infants and young children with CF participating in an early surveillance programme involving annual BAL. Cyanide was detected in 97.2% of P. aeruginosa infected and 60.5% of uninfected samples. Cyanide concentrations were significantly higher in BALs infected with P. aeruginosa (median (25th-75th percentile) 27.3 (22.1-33.3) μM) than those which were not (17.2 (7.85-23.0) μM, p<0.001). The best sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were obtained with a cut-off concentration of 20.6 μM, and were 83%, 66%, 32% and 96%, respectively. Neutrophil number in BAL was a significant predictor of cyanide concentration (p<0.001). Cyanide concentration can distinguish between P. aeruginosa infected and uninfected BALs as a group, but not individually; therefore, cyanide is a poor diagnostic biomarker of P. aeruginosa infection. Cyanide levels in BAL are related to the level of neutrophilic inflammation.

  20. Pseudoasbestos bodies and fibers in bronchoalveolar lavage of refractory ceramic fiber users.

    PubMed

    Dumortier, P; Broucke, I; De Vuyst, P

    2001-08-01

    Refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) are widely used to replace asbestos in applications requiring high heat resistance. Ferruginous bodies mimicking asbestos bodies (ABs) have been detected in the lungs of RCF production workers. This raises the question about their presence in other occupational groups and whether "typical ABs" still reflect past asbestos exposures in all settings. An AB counting by phase-contrast light microscopy and a screening test by analytical electron microscopy were systematically performed on all bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) submitted to our laboratory in 1992 through 1997 (n = 1,800). When RCF were detected in electron microscopy, the structures considered as "typical ABs" were marked under light microscopy and prepared for further chemical and structural analysis. Pseudo-ABs on RCF were detected in samples from nine subjects (0.5%). All of them had worked either as foundry workers, steel workers, or welders. In these subjects, alumino-silicate fibers compatible with RCF accounted for 42% of the core fibers analyzed, other nonasbestos fibers for 28%, and asbestos fibers for 30%. ABs thus remain a valid marker of asbestos retention but attention must be paid to a possible occurrence of pseudo-asbestos bodies on RCF and other nonasbestos fibers in end-users of refractory fibers.

  1. Influence of common cold and of parenteral administration of influenza virus antigens on bronchoalveolar lavage cells.

    PubMed

    Demedts, M; Van den Eeckhout, A; Neirynck, J; Mariën, G; Ceuppens, J L

    1986-04-01

    We investigated in a pilot study on healthy young subjects whether a common cold or a vaccination with influenza virus antigens within 10 days influenced the number and subsets of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. The total number of BAL-cells was about doubled in the common cold group, yet no consistent changes in overall cell distribution was found. Among BAL-lymphocytes the ratio of helper-inducer over suppressor-cytotoxic lymphocytes (THI/TCS) tended to be increased in both groups, due to a lower percentage of TCS-cells, which was significant in the vaccination group only. In the blood, on the contrary, the THI/TCS ratio was significantly decreased in both groups due to a drop in THI-cells; in addition, the proportions of E-Rosette (+) T-cells and of activated (Ia+) T-cells were slightly increased. In conclusion, only minor changes in inflammatory BAL-cells were observed, which, however, may interfere with the effects of other diseases.

  2. Amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity. Immunoallergologic tests and bronchoalveolar lavage phospholipid content.

    PubMed

    Nicolet-Chatelain, G; Prevost, M C; Escamilla, R; Migueres, J

    1991-02-01

    Amiodarone (A) is a widely-used antiarrhythmic drug. Pulmonary toxicity is the most serious adverse effect with an estimated mortality of 1 to 33 percent. In order to determine an element helpful for diagnosis, we examined four patients with amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity, three patients treated with A, without evidence of pulmonary toxicity but with a main underlying pulmonary disease, and four healthy volunteers. Daily and cumulative doses or duration of treatment were similar in the first two groups. Pulmonary function tests (spirometry, CO-diffusing capacity, arterial blood gases), roentgenographic examinations, pulmonary biopsies or immunoallergologic tests (skin reaction, lymphoblastic transformation test and human basophile degranulation test) did not provide any discriminatory element. In APT+, we observed an increased cellularity of the bronchoalveolar lavage. Neither the differential cell count nor the presence of foamy macrophages were distinguishable between APT+ and APT-. The phospholipid composition of BAL fluid showed a decreased total phospholipid and phospholipid/protein ratio in all patients compared to normal subjects. These changes reflect more the severity of pulmonary disease than the specificity of the causative agent. However, we observed that the unique PL which decreases in APT- and remains normal in APT+ is phosphatidyl-serine + phosphatidylinositol (PS + PI). This has to be confirmed and should be evaluated at different stages of the disease to determine an eventual specific element. We conclude that there are no data currently available to establish the diagnosis of APT except perhaps for the analysis of BAL PL content.

  3. [Cytologic parameters of broncho-alveolar lavage state in experimental animals exposed to mechanical rubber aerosol].

    PubMed

    Zhumabekova, B K; Sraubayev, E N; Gazalieva, M A; Akhmetova, S B

    2015-01-01

    Cytologic studies covered broncho-alveolar lavage in animals exposed to mechanical rubber aerosol in subacute (2 months) and chronic (5 months) experiments. Under exposure to mechanical rubber aerosol the experimental animals developed disorders of lung protective mechanisms. Subacute dust inhalation in the experimental animals caused higher counts of neutrophils and degeneratively changed cells with increased functional activity of alveolar macrophages and neutrophils. Chronic dust inhalation in the experimental animals proved lower functional activity alveolar macrophages and neutrophils.

  4. Species comparisons of bronchoalveolar lavages from guinea pigs and rats exposed in vivo to diesel exhaust for one year

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.; Weller, M.A.; Barnhart, M.I.

    1982-01-01

    Male Hartly guinea pigs and Fischer rats 344 were exposed to diesel exhaust (DE) concentrations at 0, 250, and 1500 micrograms/m3 in short terms, as well as long term experiments up to one year. The effects of inhaled DE on these rodents were evaluated using bronchoalveolar lavage technique. Both the morphological and functional studies of free lung cells and the biochemical and immunologic studies of the supernatant lavage fluid provided the basis for a quantitative species comparison of the pulmonary responses of exposed guinea pigs and rats versus age matched controls. Following inhalation of 250 micrograms DE/m3, there were little or no significant changes in either species. In contrast, at higher DE concentration, leukocytic infiltration and elevation of specific proteins in lavage fluids were observed in both species. The findings occurred and persisted in both species. Some of the responses were species specific (e.g., the specific type of exudative leukocytes, appearance of reactive monocytes, and different amounts of free DE particles and debris in the lavage fluid). Other responses were similar in both species. Among them, the emergence and increase of lymphocytes was evidence of immunologic responses. Biochemical data from the supernatant fluid correlates with the changes in cellular population in the lavage. The responses appear to be dose and duration dependent. These data indicate that species differences occur. However, it is clear that the alveolar macrophage and granulocytic leukocytes continue to exert effective defense at the DE dose-durations studied. In general, rats appeared more resistant to DE exposure than guinea pigs.

  5. Accuracy of the Bronchoalveolar Lavage Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay for the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Caishuang; Wu, Yanqiu; Wan, Chun; Shen, Konglong; Hu, Yuzhu; Yang, Ting; Shen, Yongchun; Wen, Fuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Assessing of local immune response may improve the accuracy of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) diagnosis. Many studies have investigated diagnosing PTB based on enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, but the results have been inconclusive. We meta-analyzed the available evidences on overall diagnostic performance of ELISPOT assay of BAL fluid for diagnosing PTB. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Embase, Wangfang, Weipu, and CNKI. Data were pooled on sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR). Overall test performance was summarized using summary receiver operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC). Deeks test was used to test for potential publication bias. Seven publications with 814 subjects met our inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. The following pooled estimates for diagnostic parameters were obtained: sensitivity, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.85–0.94); specificity, 0.80 (95% CI: 0.77–0.84); PLR, 5.08 (95% CI: 2.70–9.57); NLR, 0.13 (95% CI: 0.06–0.28); DOR, 49.12 (95% CI: 12.97–186.00); and AUC, 0.96. No publication bias was identified. The available evidence suggests that ELISPOT assay of BAL fluid is a useful rapid diagnostic test for PTB. The results of this assay should be interpreted in parallel with clinical findings and the results of conventional tests. PMID:27015211

  6. The lung at high altitude: bronchoalveolar lavage in acute mountain sickness and pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Schoene, R B; Swenson, E R; Pizzo, C J; Hackett, P H; Roach, R C; Mills, W J; Henderson, W R; Martin, T R

    1988-06-01

    High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), a severe form of altitude illness that can occur in young healthy individuals, is a noncardiogenic form of edema that is associated with high concentrations of proteins and cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (Schoene et al., J. Am. Med. Assoc. 256: 63-69, 1986). We hypothesized that acute mountain sickness (AMS) in which gas exchange is impaired to a milder degree is a precursor to HAPE. We therefore performed BAL with 0.89% NaCl by fiberoptic bronchoscopy in eight subjects at 4,400 m (barometric pressure = 440 Torr) on Mt. McKinley to evaluate the cellular and biochemical responses of the lung at high altitude. The subjects included one healthy control (arterial O2 saturation = 83%), three climbers with HAPE (mean arterial O2 saturation = 55.0 +/- 5.0%), and four with AMS (arterial O2 saturation = 70.0 +/- 2.4%). Cell counts and differentials were done immediately on the BAL fluid, and the remainder was frozen for protein and biochemical analysis to be performed later. The results of this and of the earlier study mentioned above showed that the total leukocyte count (X10(5)/ml) in BAL fluid was 3.5 +/- 2.0 for HAPE, 0.9 +/- 4.0 for AMS, and 0.7 +/- 0.6 for controls, with predominantly alveolar macrophages in HAPE. The total protein concentration (mg/dl) was 616.0 +/- 3.3 for HAPE, 10.4 +/- 8.3 for AMS, and 12.0 +/- 3.4 for controls, with both large- (immunoglobulin M) and small- (albumin) molecular-weight proteins present in HAPE.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3403445

  7. Inflammatory and immune processes in the human lung in health and disease: evaluation by bronchoalveolar lavage.

    PubMed Central

    Hunninghake, G. W.; Gadek, J. E.; Kawanami, O.; Ferrans, V. J.; Crystal, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage is an invaluable means of accurately evaluating the inflammatory and immune processes of the human lung. Although lavage recovers only those cells and proteins present on the epithelial surface of the lower respiratory tract, comparison with open lung biopsies shows that these constituents are representative of the inflammatory and immune systems of the alveolar structures. With the use of these techniques, sufficient materials are obtained from normal individuals to allow characterization of not only the types of cells and proteins present but their functions as well. Such observations have been useful in defining the inflammatory and immune capabilities of the normal lung and provide a basis for the study of lung disease. Lavage methods have been used to characterize inflammatory and immune processes of the lower respiratory tract in destructive, infectious, neoplastic, and interstitial disorders. From the data already acquired, it is apparent that bronchoalveolar lavage will yield major insights into the pathogenesis, staging, and therapy decisions involved in these disorders. (Am J Pathol 97:149--206, 1979). Images Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 10 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 3 PMID:495693

  8. Comparative proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage of familial and sporadic cases of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Carleo, A; Bargagli, E; Landi, C; Bennett, D; Bianchi, L; Gagliardi, A; Carnemolla, C; Perari, M G; Cillis, G; Armini, A; Bini, L; Rottoli, P

    2016-06-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lung disease characterized by progressive deterioration of the alveolar integrity. Among IPF identified phenotypes, that of familial (f-)IPF is usually associated with several gene mutations which are seldom observed in sporadic (s-)IPF. This study aimed at investigating the molecular patterns and variability in f-IPF and s-IPF patients through a differential proteomic analysis. Protein patterns of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples from 10 familial and 17 sporadic IPF patients were compared using 2D electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to proteomic data and an enrichment analysis was also performed to characterize specific pathogenic mechanisms and to identify potential biomarkers. BALF samples from f-IPF showed 87 protein spots differentially expressed than those from s-IPF samples; once identified, these spots revealed 22 unique proteins. The functional analysis showed that the endothelial reticulum stress probably plays a central pathogenetic role in f-IPF with an up-regulation of proteins involved in wounding and immune responses, coagulation system, and ion homeostasis. Up-regulated proteins in the s-IPF group were those involved in the oxidative stress response. PCA analysis of differentially expressed proteins clearly distinguished f-IPF from s-IPF patients, and in agreement with radiological and histological patterns, pointed out a higher heterogeneity in f-IPF than s-IPF samples. The 'Slit/Robo signaling', 'clathrin-coated vesicle' and 'cytoskeleton remodelling', were extrapolated by 'pathways analysis' and the results of 'diseases (by biomarkers)' highlighted a 'connective tissue and autoimmune disease', two aspects of increasing interest in IPF. PMID:27082636

  9. Metabolomics of bronchoalveolar lavage differentiate healthy HIV-1-infected subjects from controls.

    PubMed

    Cribbs, Sushma K; Park, Youngja; Guidot, David M; Martin, Greg S; Brown, Lou Ann; Lennox, Jeffrey; Jones, Dean P

    2014-06-01

    Despite antiretroviral therapy, pneumonias from pathogens such as pneumococcus continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality in HIV-1-infected individuals. Respiratory infections occur despite high CD4 counts and low viral loads; therefore, better understanding of lung immunity and infection predictors is necessary. We tested whether metabolomics, an integrated biosystems approach to molecular fingerprinting, could differentiate such individual characteristics. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf ) was collected from otherwise healthy HIV-1-infected individuals and healthy controls. A liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry method was used to detect metabolites in BALf. Statistical and bioinformatic analyses used false discovery rate (FDR) and orthogonally corrected partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to identify groupwise discriminatory factors as the top 5% of metabolites contributing to 95% separation of HIV-1 and control. We enrolled 24 subjects with HIV-1 (median CD4=432) and 24 controls. A total of 115 accurate mass m/z features from C18 and AE analysis were significantly different between HIV-1 subjects and controls (FDR=0.05). Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed clusters of metabolites, which discriminated the samples according to HIV-1 status (FDR=0.05). Several of these did not match any metabolites in metabolomics databases; mass-to-charge 325.065 ([M+H](+)) was significantly higher (FDR=0.05) in the BAL of HIV-1-infected subjects and matched pyochelin, a siderophore-produced Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Metabolic profiles in BALf differentiated healthy HIV-1-infected subjects and controls. The lack of association with known human metabolites and inclusion of a match to a bacterial metabolite suggest that the differences could reflect the host's lung microbiome and/or be related to subclinical infection in HIV-1-infected patients. PMID:24417396

  10. Bronchoalveolar lavage, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme, and /sup 67/Ga scanning in extrathoracic sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wallaert, B.; Ramon, P.; Fournier, E.; Tonnel, A.B.; Voisin, C.

    1982-11-01

    Results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), 67Ga scanning, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) assay are compared in the assessment of pulmonary involvement in ten cases of extrathoracic sarcoidosis. Standard clinical, radiologic, and pulmonary function tests detected no pulmonary changes in these patients, but BAL demonstrated an increased alveolar lymphocytosis in eight of ten cases. SACE levels were increased in two cases, and the thoracic gallium uptake was normal in all cases. BAL appears to be the best technique for diagnosing latent pulmonary involvement in extrathoracic sarcoidosis.

  11. Influenza A/H1N1 Severe Pneumonia: Novel Morphocytological Findings in Bronchoalveolar Lavage

    PubMed Central

    Faverio, Paola; Messinesi, Grazia; Brenna, Ambrogio; Pesci, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) performed in three patients with severe influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Light microscopy analysis of BAL cytocentrifugates showed the presence of characteristic large, mononuclear, plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like cells never described before. Via transmission electron microscopy, these cells were classified as atypical type II pneumocytes and some of them showed cytoplasmic vesicles and inclusions. We concluded that plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like type II pneumocytes might represent a morphologic marker of A/H1N1 influenza virus infection as well as reparative cellular activation after diffuse alveolar damage. PMID:25383078

  12. Electron microscopic microanalysis of bronchoalveolar lavage: a way to identify exposure to silica and silicate dust.

    PubMed Central

    Monsó, E; Carreres, A; Tura, J M; Ruiz, J; Fiz, J; Xaus, C; Llatjós, M; Morera, J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The diagnostic implications of finding non-fibrous inorganic particles in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has not been fully assessed. The aim of this study has been to measure the silica and non-fibrous silicates in BAL fluid from populations with different exposures to inorganic dust, and to find whether such measurement is useful for diagnostic purposes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BAL samples from 19 subjects with only environmental exposure to inorganic dust (group A, mean (SD) age 50.7 (15.2)), 23 subjects with normal chest x ray films exposed to silica or silicates at work (group B, mean (SD) age 52.0 (12.4)), and 15 subjects with a previous diagnosis of silicosis (group C, mean (SD) age 68.0 (6.5)) were studied. Absolute and relative cell counts were found, and the samples were prepared for microanalysis by electron microscopy (EM). Firstly, semiquantitative x ray microanalysis was performed to find the level of silicon (Si) (peak/background Si) and this was followed by microanalysis of individual particles by EM. Variables related to the level of Si detected were assessed with multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Detected levels were higher in group B (2.09, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.56 to 2.82) and C (1.50, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.12) than in group A (0.87, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.16) (P < 0.05, Dunett t test). A first multivariate analysis showed that exposure to silica or silicates was the only determinant of the level of Si expressed as log peak/background Si, when adjusted for age, sex, smoking habit, and cell count. A second multivariate analysis with microanalysis of individual particles as an independent variable showed the silica count to be the main predictor of detected concentration of Si. Silica and non-aluminium silicates together explain 55.5% (R2) of the variation in detected levels of Si. CONCLUSIONS: Detected levels of Si in BAL fluid depend on silica count and are higher in subjects with exposure to inorganic dust at work, but will not

  13. Bronchoalveolar lavage of cranial and caudal lung regions in selected normal calves: cellular, microbiological, immunoglobulin, serological and histological variables.

    PubMed Central

    Pringle, J K; Viel, L; Shewen, P E; Willoughby, R A; Martin, S W; Valli, V E

    1988-01-01

    Of a group of 30 clinically normal male Holstein calves two to eight weeks of age, six two week old and six four week old calves met various radiographical and clinicopathological criteria for normality. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy on cranial and caudal lung regions in all 30 calves and samples analyzed for free cells, microorganisms, and immunoglobulins. Lateral chest radiographs and lung biopsies were also conducted on each calf. Calves were euthanized and necropsied ten days after bronchoalveolar lavage was conducted. Reported in this paper are results from the 12 normal calves. Microorganisms were present in small numbers in the lower respiratory tract of some normal calves. There were no differences in the above parameters between cranial and caudal lobes. There were statistically significant changes in bronchoalveolar lavage cell proportions with age although there were no detectable differences in clinical signs. Four week old calves had a lower percentage of macrophages and a higher percentage of epithelial cells than two week old animals (p less than 0.05). There was also a trend toward an increased percentage of neutrophils in older calves but this was not significant (p greater than 0.05). Total bronchoalveolar lavage protein also appeared to increase with age (p less than 0.05). In both groups a higher proportion of IgG2 in bronchoalveolar lavage compared to serum was found, suggesting the presence of a local selective transfer mechanism into respiratory secretions. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3370559

  14. Mineral dust and cell recovery from the bronchoalveolar lavage of healthy Vermont granite workers.

    PubMed

    Christman, J W; Emerson, R J; Graham, W G; Davis, G S

    1985-08-01

    We characterized the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from healthy Vermont granite workers to investigate the pulmonary response to a chronic exposure to an injurious agent. Nine granite workers with 4 to 36 yr of employment in the industry and 27 unexposed volunteers were normal by history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, blood count, spirometry, and chest radiograph. Lavage cell recovery and percent neutrophils were not different. Lymphocyte recovery in BAL was increased in the granite-exposed population. Granite dust was present within the majority of alveolar macrophages from granite workers compared with those from control subjects, as determined by polarizing light microscopy and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy with X-ray energy spectrometry. There were no differences in phagocytic function or viability of macrophages from granite workers compared with those from unexposed volunteers. We conclude that in exposed populations, granite dust can be detected and semiquantitated in lavage specimens within the alveolar macrophages, macrophage function is preserved, and the response to this exposure involves an influx of lymphocytes.

  15. Smoking status and anti-inflammatory macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage and induced sputum in COPD

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Macrophages have been implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD. M1 and M2 macrophages constitute subpopulations displaying pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that smoking cessation affects macrophage heterogeneity in the lung of patients with COPD. Our aim was to study macrophage heterogeneity using the M2-marker CD163 and selected pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and induced sputum from current smokers and ex-smokers with COPD. Methods 114 COPD patients (72 current smokers; 42 ex-smokers, median smoking cessation 3.5 years) were studied cross-sectionally and underwent sputum induction (M/F 99/15, age 62 ± 8 [mean ± SD] years, 42 (31-55) [median (range)] packyears, post-bronchodilator FEV1 63 ± 9% predicted, no steroids past 6 months). BAL was collected from 71 patients. CD163+ macrophages were quantified in BAL and sputum cytospins. Pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators were measured in BAL and sputum supernatants. Results Ex-smokers with COPD had a higher percentage, but lower number of CD163+ macrophages in BAL than current smokers (83.5% and 68.0%, p = 0.04; 5.6 and 20.1 ×104/ml, p = 0.001 respectively). The percentage CD163+ M2 macrophages was higher in BAL compared to sputum (74.0% and 30.3%, p < 0.001). BAL M-CSF levels were higher in smokers than ex-smokers (571 pg/ml and 150 pg/ml, p = 0.001) and correlated with the number of CD163+ BAL macrophages (Rs = 0.38, p = 0.003). No significant differences were found between smokers and ex-smokers in the levels of pro-inflammatory (IL-6 and IL-8), and anti-inflammatory (elafin, and Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor [SLPI]) mediators in BAL and sputum. Conclusions Our data suggest that smoking cessation partially changes the macrophage polarization in vivo in the periphery of the lung towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype, which is not accompanied by a decrease in inflammatory parameters. PMID:21426578

  16. Intratracheal fiber glass instillation in rats: IL8 and lymphocytes levels in bronchoalveolar lavage, correlation with the histopathological findings

    PubMed Central

    HANCU, BIANCA DOMOKOS; POP, MONICA

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Fiberglass (FG) is the largest category of man –made mineral fibers. Many types of FG are manufactured for specific uses building insulation, air handling, and sound absorption. Because of increasing use and potential for widespread human exposure, a chronic toxicity instillation study was conducted in Wistar rats, which were found to be sensitive to the induction of mesotheliomas with another MMVF. Aim The present study is focused on the effect of fiber glass on lung through intratracheal exposure, the analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage and measurement of IL 8 levels, lymphocytes number and histopathological finding after the exposure period. Material and method Four groups of 8 female Wistar rats were included in the study. The animals were divided into three groups of 8 each, exposed to different doses of FG and one control group. The first group (1–8) was exposed to 6 mg dose/0.2 ml saline 5 days/week for 10 weeks, the second (9–16) group was exposed to 10 mg/0.2 ml saline 5 days/week 10 weeks, the third group (17–24) was exposed to 12 mg FG/0.2 ml saline solution 5 days/week 10 weeks and the control group (25–32) was exposed to the same volume of saline. The fibers had been size selected to be rat respirable. At the end of the exposure period of 10 weeks the rats were killed one week after the last exposure. Following preparation of the lungs, they were lavaged with 2x5 ml saline without massage. The lavage fluid was collected in calibrated tubes and harvested volume was recorded. Supernatant was obtained after centrifugation at 1,500 r.p.m for 5 minutes and IL8 levels and lymphocytes number were measured. Results The IL8 levels were found to be dose related; the first group had values ranging from 10 to 19.8 pg/ml and the total lymphocytes number in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ranging from 1,500–1,900 and minimal/slight inflammatory lesions. The second group had the IL8 levels ranging between 60.4–80.4 pg/ml, lymphocytes number

  17. Value of bronchoalveolar lavage in the management of severe acute pneumonia and interstitial pneumonitis in the immunocompromised child.

    PubMed Central

    de Blic, J; McKelvie, P; Le Bourgeois, M; Blanche, S; Benoist, M R; Scheinmann, P

    1987-01-01

    The diagnostic value of 73 bronchoalveolar lavages was assessed in 67 immunocompromised children (aged 3 months to 16 years) with pulmonary infiltrates. Thirty one children had primary and 19 secondary immune deficiency, 14 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and three AIDS related complex. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed during fibreoptic bronchoscopy, under local anaesthesia in all but two. One or more infective agents was found in eight of 11 patients with severe acute pneumonia and in 26 of 62 patients with interstitial pneumonitis. In interstitial pneumonitis, the most frequently encountered agents were Pneumocystis carinii (12), cytomegalovirus (8), and Aspergillus fumigatus (3). The yield was related to the severity of interstitial pneumonitis. The mean cellular count and cytological profile in lavage returns from patients with varying infective agents or underlying pathological conditions showed no significant difference, except in those children with AIDS and AIDS related complex who had appreciable lymphocytosis (mean percentage of lymphocytes 28 (SD 17]. In children with AIDS and chronic interstitial pneumonitis lymphocytosis without pneumocystis infection was observed in eight of nine bronchoalveolar lavage returns and was suggestive of pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia. Finally, bronchoalveolar lavage produced a specific diagnosis from the microbiological or cytological findings in 44 instances (60%). Transient exacerbation of tachypnoea was observed in the most severely ill children but there was no case of respiratory decompensation attributable to the bronchoscopy. Bronchoalveolar lavage is a safe and rapid examination for the investigation of pulmonary infiltrates in immunocompromised children. It should be performed as a first line investigation and should reduce the use of open lung biopsy techniques. PMID:2827334

  18. Biomarkers of inflammation in ozone-exposed humans: Comparison of the nasal and bronchoalveolar lavage

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, D.E.; Koren, H.S.

    1989-06-01

    An influx of neutrophils (PMNs), a primary feature of acute inflammation, has been associated with the development of lower lung disorders, such as emphysema and idiopathic fibrosis, as well as airway hyperreactivity and increased mucus secretion. It was previously established that an acute inflammatory response in the upper respiratory tract of humans could be studied by analysis of nasal lavages (NL), which is inexpensive, non-invasive, and atraumatic. However, the relationship of the cellular changes in the upper respiratory tract to changes in the lower airways has not been thoroughly investigated in humans. Here the cellular changes detected in the NL with those detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) taken from the same individual have been compared. Ten subjects were exposed to either filtered air or 0.4 ppm ozone (O3), with exercise, for 2 hrs. The NL was done prior to, immediately following an 18 hr post exposure, while the BAL was done only at 18 hr post exposure. A significant increase in PMNs was detected in the NL immediately post exposure to 03, (7.7-fold increase; p=.003), and remained elevated in the 18 hr post-03 NL (6.1-fold increase; p<.001).

  19. Fibronectin in human bronchopulmonary lavage fluid. Elevation in patients with interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Rennard, S I; Crystal, R G

    1982-01-01

    Fibronectin is a major adhesive and opsonic glycoprotein found in plasma and tissues. Because this molecule appears to mediate a number of interactions between cells and extracellular matrix, and because the interstitial lung disease are characterized by marked derangements of the pulmonary extracellular matrix, we evaluated fibronectin in the lower respiratory tract in patients with these disorders. Fibronectin could be detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of normals (11/11), as well as those with noninterstitial lung diseases (18/18), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (21/21), sarcoidosis (20/20), and other interstitial lung diseases (22/22). Compared with normal and those with noninterstitial lung disease, the levels in bronchoalveolar lavage of patients with interstitial disease were significantly higher (P less than 0.01), all comparisons). This was true only for bronchoalveolar lavage fibronectin; plasma levels were similar in all study groups (P greater than 0.2, all comparisons). The lavage fluid fibronectin was intact antigenically and retained collagen binding capability, although in some cases of interstitial disease, the presence of lower molecular weight fragments suggested some degradation. Thus, fibronectin is a normal constituent of the epithelial fluid of the lower respiratory tract and is present in increased amounts in a significant number of individuals with interstitial lung disease. Images PMID:7054232

  20. A natural herbal remedy modulates angiogenic activity of bronchoalveolar lavage cells from sarcoidosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Radomska-Leśniewska, Dorota M.; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Demkow, Urszula; Jóźwiak, Jarosław; Sobiecka, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease with abnormally high angiogenic activity of inflammatory cells. Reumaherb preparation consisting of three herbs: Echinacea purpurea, Harpagophytum procumbens, and Filipendula ulmaria, and it exerts anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and analgesic activity and stimulates regenerative and immunological processes. The aim of this paper was to estimate the effect of Reumaherb on immunological angiogenesis induced by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells collected from six patients with sarcoidosis and grafted into Balb/c mice skin. After grafting, the animals were fed for three days with 0.6 or 1.2 mg of Reumaherb (calculated from recommended human daily dose) daily, suspended in 40 µl of water, or 40 µl of water alone (control group). A significant reduction of newly formed blood vessels was obtained in four cases for 1.2 mg and in three cases for 0.6 mg daily dose of this remedy. Thus, we hypothesise that Reumaherb promotes anti-angiogenic activity and may potentially be used in diseases associated with excessive blood vessel formation. PMID:27095919

  1. A natural herbal remedy modulates angiogenic activity of bronchoalveolar lavage cells from sarcoidosis patients.

    PubMed

    Radomska-Leśniewska, Dorota M; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Demkow, Urszula; Jóźwiak, Jarosław; Sobiecka, Małgorzata; Bałan, Barbara Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease with abnormally high angiogenic activity of inflammatory cells. Reumaherb preparation consisting of three herbs: Echinacea purpurea, Harpagophytum procumbens, and Filipendula ulmaria, and it exerts anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and analgesic activity and stimulates regenerative and immunological processes. The aim of this paper was to estimate the effect of Reumaherb on immunological angiogenesis induced by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells collected from six patients with sarcoidosis and grafted into Balb/c mice skin. After grafting, the animals were fed for three days with 0.6 or 1.2 mg of Reumaherb (calculated from recommended human daily dose) daily, suspended in 40 µl of water, or 40 µl of water alone (control group). A significant reduction of newly formed blood vessels was obtained in four cases for 1.2 mg and in three cases for 0.6 mg daily dose of this remedy. Thus, we hypothesise that Reumaherb promotes anti-angiogenic activity and may potentially be used in diseases associated with excessive blood vessel formation. PMID:27095919

  2. Effect of ozone exposure and infection on bronchoalveolar lavage: Sex differences in response patterns.

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Xiaozhuang; Umstead, Todd M.; Haque, Rizwanul; Wang, Guirong; Floros, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Female mice exhibit a better survival rate than males after infection, but if infection follows an ozone-induced oxidative stress, male survival exceeds that of females. Our goal was to study bronchoalveolar lavage factors that contribute to these sex differences in outcome. We studied parameters at 4, 24, and 48 hours after ozone exposure and infection, including markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and tissue damage, and surfactant phospholipids and surfactant protein A (SP-A). A multianalyte immunoassay at the 4 hr time point measured 59 different cytokines, chemokines, and other proteins. We found that: 1) Although some parameters studied revealed sex differences, no sex differences were observed in LDH, total protein, MIP-2, and SP-A. Males showed more intragroup significant differences in SP-A between filtered air- and ozone-exposed mice compared to females. 2) Oxidized dimeric SP-A was higher in FA-exposed female mice. 3) Surfactant phospholipids were typically higher in males. 4) The multianalyte data revealed differences in the exuberance of responses under different conditions - males in response to infection and females in response to oxidative stress. These more exuberant, and presumably less well-controlled responses associate with the poorer survival. We postulate that the collective effects of these sex differences in response patterns of lung immune cells may contribute to the clinical outcomes previously observed. PMID:24769259

  3. Immune complexes, gallium lung scans, and bronchoalveolar lavage in idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis-fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Gelb, A.F.; Dreisen, R.B.; Epstein, J.D.; Silverthorne, J.D.; Bickel, Y.; Fields, M.; Border, W.A.; Taylor, C.R.

    1983-08-01

    We obtained results of lung immune complexes (LIC), circulating immune complexes (CIC), 48-hour gallium lung scans (scans), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and pulmonary function tests in 20 patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis-fibrosis. Sixteen patients had predominantly interstitial (13 cases UIP) and/or intraalveolar (3 cases DIP) cellular disease (group 1). Prior to corticosteroid therapy in group 1, scans were positive in 75 percent, CIC were elevated in 86 percent, LIC were present in 64 percent, and BAL was abnormal in 90 percent. Duration of follow-up after treatment was 3.5 +/- 1.0 year. In group 1 after treatment with corticosteroids in 13 patients and corticosteroids and penicillamine (three patients) and plasmapheresis (one patient), only four patients remain stable or improved. After corticosteroid therapy, elevated CIC returned to normal values despite progressive patient deterioration. In three patients, lung immune complexes were still detected after circulating immune complexes had returned to normal after corticosteroid therapy. In group 2 were four patients with fibrotic disease; scans and CIC were uniformly negative, LIC were weakly present in only one patient, and BAL was abnormal in all. Despite corticosteroid therapy, all have died or deteriorated. These results suggest that positive gallium lung scans, BAL, circulating immune complexes, and to a lesser extent, lung immune complexes are associated with the cellular phase of interstitial pneumonia, but do not reliably identify a corticosteroid-responsive group.

  4. Clinical Utility of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Pepsin in Diagnosis of Gastroesophageal Reflux among Wheezy Infants

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Ahmed Fathi; El-Desoky, Tarek; Fathi, Khalid; Elkashef, Wagdy Fawzi

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is no gold standard test for diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) associated infantile wheezing. Objectives. To evaluate the value of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) pepsin assay in diagnosis of GERD in wheezy infants. Methods. Fifty-two wheezy infants were evaluated for GERD using esophageal combined impedance-pH (MII-pH) monitoring, esophagogastroduodenoscopy with esophageal biopsies, and BAL pepsin. Tracheobronchial aspirates from 10 healthy infants planned for surgery without history of respiratory problems were examined for pepsin. Results. Wheezy infants with silent reflux and wheezy infants with typical GERD symptoms but normal MII-pH had significantly higher BAL pepsin compared to healthy control (45.3 ± 8.6 and 42.8 ± 8 versus 29 ± 2.6, P < 0.0001 and P = 0.011, resp.). BAL pepsin had sensitivity (61.7%, 72 %, and 70%) and specificity (55.5%, 52.9%, and 53%) to diagnose GERD associated infantile wheeze compared to abnormal MII-pH, reflux esophagitis, and lipid laden macrophage index, respectively. Conclusion. A stepwise approach for assessment of GERD in wheezy infants is advised. In those with silent reflux, a trial of antireflux therapy is warranted with no need for further pepsin assay. But when combined MII-pH is negative despite the presence of typical GERD symptoms, pepsin assay will be needed to rule out GERD related aspiration. PMID:27516725

  5. [Microbiological results of bronchoalveolar lavage that was performed for opportunistic pulmonary infections].

    PubMed

    Gülcü, Aylin; Sevinç, Can; Esen, Nuran; Kilinç, Oğuz; Uçan, Eyüp Sabri; Itil, Oya; Cimrin, Arif Hikmet; Kömüs, Nuray; Sener, Gülper; Akkoçlu, Atila; Gülay, Zeynep; Yücesoy, Mine

    2006-01-01

    Between 2001-2002; in 62 cases, 33 (53%) male, 29 (47%) female, mean age 51.4 +/- 18.1 years) bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed for diagnosis of opportunistic pulmonary infection and specimens were evaluated for results of microbiological examinations. There was hematological malignancy in 18 (29%) and solid organ malignancy in 13 (21%) cases. Thirty-one (50%) cases were immunocompromised for reasons other than malignancy. By endoscopic evaluation endobronchial lesion was seen in 2 (3%) cases, indirect tumor signs were seen in 2 (3%) cases and signs of infection were seen in 11 (18%) cases. Forty-even (76%) cases were endoscopically normal. Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) direct examination was positive in 3 (5%) cases. In 4 (6%) cases mycobacterial culture was positive, Mycobacterium tuberculosis-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was also positive in these four cases. Examination of gram-stained smears for bacteria was associated with infection in 14 (23%) cases. Bacteriologic cultures were positive for single potential pathogen in 10 (16%) cases, and for mixed pathogens in 7 (11%) cases for a total number of 17 (27%). Fungal cultures were positive in 3 (5%) cases all of which had hematological malignancy. As a result in 24 (39%) cases microbiological agent of infection is determined: in four mycobacteria, in 17 bacteria other than mycobacteria and in three fungi. PMID:17001542

  6. [Microbiological results of bronchoalveolar lavage that was performed for opportunistic pulmonary infections].

    PubMed

    Gülcü, Aylin; Sevinç, Can; Esen, Nuran; Kilinç, Oğuz; Uçan, Eyüp Sabri; Itil, Oya; Cimrin, Arif Hikmet; Kömüs, Nuray; Sener, Gülper; Akkoçlu, Atila; Gülay, Zeynep; Yücesoy, Mine

    2006-01-01

    Between 2001-2002; in 62 cases, 33 (53%) male, 29 (47%) female, mean age 51.4 +/- 18.1 years) bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed for diagnosis of opportunistic pulmonary infection and specimens were evaluated for results of microbiological examinations. There was hematological malignancy in 18 (29%) and solid organ malignancy in 13 (21%) cases. Thirty-one (50%) cases were immunocompromised for reasons other than malignancy. By endoscopic evaluation endobronchial lesion was seen in 2 (3%) cases, indirect tumor signs were seen in 2 (3%) cases and signs of infection were seen in 11 (18%) cases. Forty-even (76%) cases were endoscopically normal. Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) direct examination was positive in 3 (5%) cases. In 4 (6%) cases mycobacterial culture was positive, Mycobacterium tuberculosis-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was also positive in these four cases. Examination of gram-stained smears for bacteria was associated with infection in 14 (23%) cases. Bacteriologic cultures were positive for single potential pathogen in 10 (16%) cases, and for mixed pathogens in 7 (11%) cases for a total number of 17 (27%). Fungal cultures were positive in 3 (5%) cases all of which had hematological malignancy. As a result in 24 (39%) cases microbiological agent of infection is determined: in four mycobacteria, in 17 bacteria other than mycobacteria and in three fungi.

  7. Sputum is a surrogate for bronchoalveolar lavage for monitoring Mycobacterium tuberculosis transcriptional profiles in TB patients.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Benjamin J; Loxton, Andre G; Dolganov, Gregory M; Van, Tran T; Davis, J Lucian; de Jong, Bouke C; Voskuil, Martin I; Leach, Sonia M; Schoolnik, Gary K; Walzl, Gerhard; Strong, Michael; Walter, Nicholas D

    2016-09-01

    Pathogen-targeted transcriptional profiling in human sputum may elucidate the physiologic state of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) during infection and treatment. However, whether M. tuberculosis transcription in sputum recapitulates transcription in the lung is uncertain. We therefore compared M. tuberculosis transcription in human sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 11 HIV-negative South African patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. We additionally compared these clinical samples with in vitro log phase aerobic growth and hypoxic non-replicating persistence (NRP-2). Of 2179 M. tuberculosis transcripts assayed in sputum and BAL via multiplex RT-PCR, 194 (8.9%) had a p-value <0.05, but none were significant after correction for multiple testing. Categorical enrichment analysis indicated that expression of the hypoxia-responsive DosR regulon was higher in BAL than in sputum. M. tuberculosis transcription in BAL and sputum was distinct from both aerobic growth and NRP-2, with a range of 396-1020 transcripts significantly differentially expressed after multiple testing correction. Collectively, our results indicate that M. tuberculosis transcription in sputum approximates M. tuberculosis transcription in the lung. Minor differences between M. tuberculosis transcription in BAL and sputum suggested lower oxygen concentrations or higher nitric oxide concentrations in BAL. M. tuberculosis-targeted transcriptional profiling of sputa may be a powerful tool for understanding M. tuberculosis pathogenesis and monitoring treatment responses in vivo.

  8. Sputum is a surrogate for bronchoalveolar lavage for monitoring Mycobacterium tuberculosis transcriptional profiles in TB patients.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Benjamin J; Loxton, Andre G; Dolganov, Gregory M; Van, Tran T; Davis, J Lucian; de Jong, Bouke C; Voskuil, Martin I; Leach, Sonia M; Schoolnik, Gary K; Walzl, Gerhard; Strong, Michael; Walter, Nicholas D

    2016-09-01

    Pathogen-targeted transcriptional profiling in human sputum may elucidate the physiologic state of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) during infection and treatment. However, whether M. tuberculosis transcription in sputum recapitulates transcription in the lung is uncertain. We therefore compared M. tuberculosis transcription in human sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 11 HIV-negative South African patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. We additionally compared these clinical samples with in vitro log phase aerobic growth and hypoxic non-replicating persistence (NRP-2). Of 2179 M. tuberculosis transcripts assayed in sputum and BAL via multiplex RT-PCR, 194 (8.9%) had a p-value <0.05, but none were significant after correction for multiple testing. Categorical enrichment analysis indicated that expression of the hypoxia-responsive DosR regulon was higher in BAL than in sputum. M. tuberculosis transcription in BAL and sputum was distinct from both aerobic growth and NRP-2, with a range of 396-1020 transcripts significantly differentially expressed after multiple testing correction. Collectively, our results indicate that M. tuberculosis transcription in sputum approximates M. tuberculosis transcription in the lung. Minor differences between M. tuberculosis transcription in BAL and sputum suggested lower oxygen concentrations or higher nitric oxide concentrations in BAL. M. tuberculosis-targeted transcriptional profiling of sputa may be a powerful tool for understanding M. tuberculosis pathogenesis and monitoring treatment responses in vivo. PMID:27553415

  9. Identification of heptanal and nonanal in bronchoalveolar lavage from rats exposed to low levels of ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Cueto, R.; Squadrito, G.L.; Bermudez, E.; Pryor, W.A. )

    1992-10-15

    Heptanal and nonanal are identified from in vitro studies as potential biomarkers of exposure to ozone, the former resulting from ozonation of palmitoleic acid and the latter from oleic acid. An analytical method is developed based on derivatization using O-pentafluorobenzylhydroxylamine HCl and gas chromatography. These molecules also are present in the lung lavage of Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 1.3 ppm ozone for 10 hr. These results suggest aldehydes may be useful dosimeters for ozone and indicate that unsaturated fatty acids in the lung lining fluid layer undergo ozonation in vivo.

  10. Identification of heptanal and nonanal in bronchoalveolar lavage from rats exposed to low levels of ozone.

    PubMed

    Cueto, R; Squadrito, G L; Bermudez, E; Pryor, W A

    1992-10-15

    Heptanal and nonanal are identified from in vitro studies as potential biomarkers of exposure to ozone, the former resulting from ozonation of palmitoleic acid and the latter from oleic acid. An analytical method is developed based on derivatization using O-pentafluorobenzylhydroxylamine HCl and gas chromatography. These molecules also are present in the lung lavage of Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 1.3 ppm ozone for 10 hr. These results suggest aldehydes may be useful dosimeters for ozone and indicate that unsaturated fatty acids in the lung lining fluid layer undergo ozonation in vivo.

  11. Rapid detection of fungal pathogens in bronchoalveolar lavage samples using panfungal PCR combined with high resolution melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Bezdicek, Matej; Lengerova, Martina; Ricna, Dita; Weinbergerova, Barbora; Kocmanova, Iva; Volfova, Pavlina; Drgona, Lubos; Poczova, Miroslava; Mayer, Jiri; Racil, Zdenek

    2016-10-01

    Despite advances in the treatment of invasive fungal diseases (IFD), mortality rates remain high. Moreover, due to the expanding spectrum of causative agents, fast and accurate pathogen identification is necessary. We designed a panfungal polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which targets the highly variable ITS2 region of rDNA genes and uses high resolution melting analysis (HRM) for subsequent species identification. The sensitivity and specificity of this method was tested on a broad spectrum of the most clinically important fungal pathogens including Aspergillus spp., Candida spp. and mucormycetes. Despite the fact that fluid from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is one of the most frequently tested materials there is a lack of literature sources aimed at panfungal PCR as an IFD diagnostic tool from BAL samples. The applicability of this method in routine practice was evaluated on 104 BAL samples from immunocompromised patients. Due to high ITS region variability, we obtained divergent melting peaks for different fungal species. Thirteen out of 18 patients with proven or probable IFD were positive. Therefore, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of our method were 67%, 100%, 100%, and 94%, respectively. In our assay, fungal pathogens identification is based on HRM, therefore omitting the expensive and time consuming sequencing step. With the high specificity, positive and negative predictive values, short time needed to obtain a result, and low price, the presented assay is intended to be used as a quick screening method for patients at risk of IFD. PMID:27161789

  12. Bronchoalveolar lavage in the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia: to quantitate or not, that is the question.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Omer J; Malhotra, Ajai K; Aboutanos, Michel B; Duane, Therese M; Goldberg, Aaron E; Borchers, C Todd; Martin, Nancy R; Ivatury, Rao R

    2011-03-01

    Quantitative bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is used to diagnose ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). We prospectively compared semiquantitative (SQ) and quantitative (Qu) culture of BAL for VAP diagnosis. Ventilated patients suspected of VAP underwent bronchoscopic BAL. BAL fluid was examined by both Qu (colony-forming units [CFUs]/mL) and SQ culture (none, sparse, moderate, or heavy) and results were compared. VAP was defined as 10⁵ CFU/mL or greater on Qu culture. Over 36 months, 319 BALs were performed. Sixty-three of 319 (20%) showed diagnostic growth by Qu culture identifying a total of 81 organisms causing VAP. All 63 specimens showed growth of some organism(s) on SQ culture with 79 of 81 causative organisms identified and two (Pseudomonas, one; Corynebacterium, one) not identified. The remaining 256 specimens did not meet the threshold for VAP by the Qu method. Among these, 79 did not show any growth on SQ culture. Among the 240 specimens showing some growth on SQ culture, a total of 384 organisms were identified. VAP rates in relation to strength of growth on SQ culture were: sparse, 10 of 140 (7%); moderate, 24 of 147 (16%); and heavy, 45 of 97 (46%). Sensitivity (Sn), specificity (Sp), positive (PPV), and negative (NPV) predictive values of SQ culture of BAL fluid for the diagnosis of VAP were 97, 21, 21, and 97 per cent, respectively. Nonquantitative culture of BAL fluid is fairly accurate in ruling out VAP (high Sn and NPV). It however has poor Sp and PPV and using this method will lead to unnecessary antimicrobial use with its attendant complications of toxicity, cost, and resistance. PMID:21375840

  13. Identifying a biomarker network for corticosteroid resistance in asthma from bronchoalveolar lavage samples.

    PubMed

    Vargas, José Eduardo; Porto, Bárbara Nery; Puga, Renato; Stein, Renato Tetelbom; Pitrez, Paulo Márcio

    2016-07-01

    Corticosteroid resistance (CR) is a major barrier to the effective treatment of severe asthma. Hence, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in this condition is a priority. Network analysis is an emerging strategy to explore this complex heterogeneous disorder at system level to identify a small own network for CR in asthma. Gene expression profile of GSE7368 from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of CR in subjects with asthma was downloaded from the gene expression omnibus (GEO) database and compared to BAL of corticosteroid-sensitive (CS) patients. DEGs were identified by the Limma package in R language. In addition, DEGs were mapped to STRING to acquire protein-protein interaction (PPI) pairs. Topological properties of PPI network were calculated by Centiscape, ClusterOne and BINGO. Subsequently, text-mining tools were applied to design one own cell signalling for CR in asthma. Thirty-five PPI networks were obtained; including a major network consisted of 370 nodes, connected by 777 edges. After topological analysis, a minor PPI network composed by 48 nodes was indentified, which is composed by most relevant nodes of major PPI network. In this subnetwork, several receptors (EGFR, EGR1, ESR2, PGR), transcription factors (MYC, JAK), cytokines (IL8, IL6, IL1B), one chemokine (CXCL1), one kinase (SRC) and one cyclooxygenase (PTGS2) were described to be associated with inflammatory environment and steroid resistance in asthma. We suggest a biomarker network composed by 48 nodes that could be potentially explored with diagnostic or therapeutic use. PMID:27188427

  14. [Myeloperoxidase, lactoferrin and elastase in bronchoalveolar lavage and plasma in pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Braun, J; Dalhoff, K; Lipp, R; Eckmann, C; Marre, R; Wood, W G; Wiessmann, K J

    1992-04-01

    Neutrophilic granulocytes in the lower respiratory tract are of decisive importance for the elimination of pathogenic germs in bacterial pneumonia. On the other hand, the liberation of phagocyte products (e.g. elastase) can result in tissue damage in the parenchyma of the lungs. For this reason, we determined in patients suffering from acute pneumonia (n = 21), in patients with acute pneumonia associated with immunosuppression (n = 12), in patients who had overcome their pneumonia (n = 9) and in controls (n = 17) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BALF) and in plasma, the concentration of the locally produced granulocyte products myeloperoxidase (MPO), lactoferrin (LF) and elastase-alpha 1 proteinase complex (ELA) as well as of the alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor (alpha 1 Pi) and alpha 2 proteinase inhibitor (alpha 2 Pi) via chemoluminescence immunoassay, and compared the same with the differential cell count in the BALF. The protein concentrations were referred to the albumin concentration (Alb) for standardisation. This concentration did not differ significantly between the various patients and control groups. The BALF concentration of ELA in the group with pneumonia (median: 86.3 micrograms/l or 8.5 micrograms/mg Alb) was about eight times higher than in the group of patients suffering from pneumonia with immunosuppression (median: 16 micrograms/l or 1.0 micrograms/l Alb, p less than 0.001) or in whom the pneumonia was no longer present (17.6 micrograms/l or 0.5 micrograms/mg), and approximately 40 times higher than in the control group (3 micrograms/l or 0.2 micrograms/mg, respectively). Similar results were obtained for LF (61 micrograms/mg Alb vs. 11.3; 16.8 and 5.9 micrograms/mg; p less than 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1315965

  15. Inhaled concentrated ambient particles are associated with hematologic and bronchoalveolar lavage changes in canines.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, R W; Coull, B; Reinisch, U; Catalano, P; Killingsworth, C R; Koutrakis, P; Kavouras, I; Murthy, G G; Lawrence, J; Lovett, E; Wolfson, J M; Verrier, R L; Godleski, J J

    2000-01-01

    Pulmonary inflammatory and hematologic responses of canines were studied after exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) using the Harvard ambient particle concentrator (HAPC). For pulmonary inflammatory studies, normal dogs were exposed in pairs to either CAPs or filtered air (paired studies) for 6 hr/day on 3 consecutive days. For hematologic studies, dogs were exposed for 6 hr/day for 3 consecutive days with one receiving CAPs while the other was simultaneously exposed to filtered air; crossover of exposure took place the following week (crossover studies). Physicochemical characterization of CAPs exposure samples included measurements of particle mass, size distribution, and composition. No statistical differences in biologic responses were found when all CAPs and all sham exposures were compared. However, the variability in biologic response was considerably higher with CAPs exposure. Subsequent exploratory graphical analyses and mixed linear regression analyses suggested associations between CAPs constituents and biologic responses. Factor analysis was applied to the compositional data from paired and crossover experiments to determine elements consistently associated with each other in CAPs samples. In paired experiments, four factors were identified; in crossover studies, a total of six factors were observed. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and hematologic data were regressed on the factor scores. Increased BAL neutrophil percentage, total peripheral white blood cell (WBC) counts, circulating neutrophils, and circulating lymphocytes were associated with increases in the aluminum/silicon factor. Increased circulating neutrophils and increased BAL macrophages were associated with the vanadium/nickel factor. Increased BAL neutrophils were associated with the bromine/lead factor when only the compositional data from the third day of CAPs exposure were used. Significant decreases in red blood cell counts and hemoglobin levels were correlated with the sulfur

  16. Comparison of gallium-67 scanning, bronchoalveolar lavage, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels in pulmonary sarcoidosis. Predicting response to therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Baughman, R.P.; Fernandez, M.; Bosken, C.H.; Mantil, J.; Hurtubise, P.

    1984-05-01

    Patients with active pulmonary sarcoidosis underwent bronchoalveolar lavage, gallium scan, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) level determination prior to treatment with corticosteroids. Pulmonary function was tested before and after therapy. Increase in vital capacity after treatment ranged from 40 to 1,030 ml; 12 of the 16 patients studied had an increase of more than 200 ml. There was a close correlation between the percentage uptake of gallium scan and the increase of the vital capacity after therapy (r . 0.95, p less than 0.01). There was no relationship between the percentage of lymphocytes obtained on lavage and the changes in vital capacity with therapy (r . 0.05). There was a positive correlation between the changes in vital capacity and the ratio of T4(+):T8(+)lymphocytes (r . 0.62, p less than 0.05) and number of T4 (+) lymphocytes (r . 0.92, p less than 0.01) in the bronchoalveolar fluid. There was a low correlation between the pretreatment ACE level and the change in vital capacity (r . 0.368, p greater than 0.05).

  17. Short-term inhalation toxicity of polyisocyanate aerosols in rats: comparative assessment of irritant-threshold concentrations by bronchoalveolar lavage.

    PubMed

    Pauluhn, Jürgen

    2002-03-01

    The object of this study was to compare the relative potency of respirable aerosols of the aliphatic hexamethylene 1,6-diisocyanate homopolymer of the isocyanurate type (HDI-IC) and the aromatic polymeric methylenediphenyl-4,4'-diisocyanate (pMDI) to elicit early changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The validity of the concentration x time (C x t) concept was addressed in rats exposed to concentrations from 3.4 to 58.1 mg pMDI/m3 and exposure durations of 6 h to 23 min, respectively (C x t approximately 1200 mg/m3-min). One additional group of rats was exposed to 2.7 mg MDA/m3 for 1 x 6 h, a putative product of hydrolysis of pMDI. In rats repeatedly exposed to 12.9 mg pMDI/m3 (6 h/day, 5 days/wk for 14 days), cumulative exposure-related changes were examined. Results show that total protein and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in BALF were among the most sensitive endpoints to probe early effects caused by exposure to irritant polyisocyanate aerosols. In the repeated-exposure study, BALF protein was maximal after the first exposure day. Based on these most sensitive endpoints in BALF, a benchmark no-effect threshold concentration of 0.5 and 3 mg/m3 was estimated for the pMDI and HDI-IC aerosol, respectively. The slope of the concentration-effect curve was steeper following exposure to HDI-IC than to pMDI. These estimated acute no-observed-effect levels (NOELs) were almost identical to those observed in longer term inhalation studies using conventional endpoints. It is concluded that pulmonary irritation caused by polyisocyanate aerosols can readily be quantified in an acute rat bioassay by the analysis of total protein in BALF.

  18. Gallium-67 scanning to stage the alveolitis of sarcoidosis: correlation with clinical studies, pulmonary function studies, and bronchoalveolar lavage

    SciTech Connect

    Line, B.R.; Hunninghake, G.W.; Keogh, B.A.; Jones, A.E.; Johnston, G.S.; Crystal, R.G.

    1981-04-01

    Current concepts of the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis suggest that the alveolitis of this disorder is related to increased numbers of mononuclear phagocytes and activated T-lymphocytes within the lung. To determine if 67Ga scanning, a procedure commonly used in the evaluation of inflammation, would be useful in staging the alveolitis of sarcoidosis, we studied 41 patients with this disorder and correlated estimates of pulmonary 67Ga accumulation with clinical, roentgenographic, physiologic, and bronchoalveolar lavage studies in these patients. Although 65% of patients with sarcoidosis showed increased amounts of 67Ga accumulation in the lung compared with control subjects, only weak correlations (r less than +/- 0.42, all comparisons) were found between the degree of gallium uptake and the clinical, roentgenographic, or physiologic data. In contrast, there was a strong correlation of 67Ga uptake and the number of lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes recovered from the lungs of these patients by bronchoalveolar lavage (p less than 0.0001, r greater than or equal to 0.67, both comparisons). This data suggested that gallium uptake reflects the intensity of the T-lymphocytes mediated component of the alveolitis in sarcoidosis. Because 67Ga scans are noninvasive, simple to perform, and widely available, they should prove useful to stage the activity of sarcoidosis and to make decisions regarding therapy directed against the alveolitis of the disease.

  19. Gallium-67 scanning to stage the alveolitis of sarcoidosis: correlation with clinical studies, pulmonary function studies, and bronchoalveolar lavage

    SciTech Connect

    Line, B.R.; Hunninghake, G.W.; Keogh, B.A.; Jones, A.E.; Johnston, G.S.; Crystal, R.G.

    1981-04-01

    Current concepts of the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis suggest that the alveolitis of this disorder is related to increased numbers of mononuclear phagocytes and activated T-lymphocytes within the lung. To determine if 67Ga scanning, a procedure commonly used in the evaluation of inflammation, would be useful in staging the alveolitis of sarcoidosis, researchers studied 41 patients with this disorder and correlated estimates of pulmonary /sup 67/Ga accumulation with clinical, roentgenographic, physiologic, and bronchoalveolar lavage studies in these patients. Although 65% of patients with sarcoidosis showed increased amounts of /sup 67/Ga accumulation in the lung compared with control subjects, only weak correlations (r less than +/- 0.42, all comparisons) were found between the degree of gallium uptake and the clinical, roentgenographic, or physiologic data. In contrast, there was a strong correlation of /sup 67/Ga uptake and the number of lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes recovered from the lungs of these patients by bronchoalveolar lavage (p less than 0.0001, r greater than or equal to 0.67, both comparisons). This data suggested that gallium uptake reflects the intensity of the T-lymphocytes mediated component of the alveolitis in sarcoidosis. Because /sup 67/Ga scans are noninvasive, simple to perform, and widely available, they should prove useful to stage the activity of sarcoidosis and to make decisions regarding therapy directed against the alveolitis of the disease.

  20. MAP KINASE SIGNALING IN PULMONARY FIBROBLASTS EXPOSED TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) AND BRONCHOAL VEOLAR LAVAGE FLUID (BALF) FROM HEALTHY AND HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MAP KINASE SIGNALING IN PULMONARY FIBROBLASTS EXPOSED TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) AND BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE FLUID (BALF) FROM HEALTHY AND HYPERTENSIVE RATS. 1P Zhang, UP Kodavanti. NHEERL, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, 1School of Vet Med, NCSU, Raleigh, NC
    Exposure to PM ma...

  1. Patients with collagen vascular disease and dyspnea. The value of gallium scanning and bronchoalveolar lavage in predicting response to steroid therapy and clinical outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, N.B.; Solinger, A.M.; Baughman, R.P.

    1987-05-01

    Patients with collagen vascular disease with or without pulmonary symptoms were studied to determine the value of gallium scan and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in predicting clinical outcome and response to steroid therapy. Thirty-six subjects, 20 with progressive dyspnea, were studied. Gallium uptake was seen in the lung in 17 of the 20 progressively dyspneic patient's and none of the 16 nonprogressive patients. The BAL fluid in the progressive patients had a higher percentage of neutrophils (13.4 percent +/- 2.88) and lymphocytes (16.1 percent +/- 2.75) than in the nonprogressive patients (neutrophils = 3.3 +/- 1.30 percent; lymphocytes = 5.6 +/- 1.57 percent. Of the 19 progressive patients who were treated with steroids or cyclophosphamide, six had only increased neutrophils in their BAL fluid and all died. The remaining 13 treated progressive patients had increased lymphocytes or a normal BAL (two patients): six had improvement in their vital capacity, six have had stable function, and one died. We found gallium scan and BAL useful in assessing progressive pulmonary fibrosis in collagen vascular disease.

  2. Safety and efficacy of bronchoalveolar lavage using a laryngeal mask airway in cases of acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure with diffuse lung infiltrates.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takafumi; Sato, Yoko; Fukuda, Satoshi; Katayama, Shinshu; Miyazaki, Yuya; Ozaki, Makoto; Kotani, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Objective Fibre-optic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (FOB-BAL) is an important tool for diagnosing and selecting treatment for acutely hypoxaemic patients with diffuse lung infiltrates. However, FOB-BAL carries a risk of significant hypoxaemia and subsequent tracheal intubation during and after the procedure. The application of FOB-BAL using a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) in combination with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) may minimize the incidence of hypoxaemia; however, the safety and efficacy of this procedure have not been investigated. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed from April to September 2013. Data regarding the recovered volume of BAL fluid, incidence of tracheal intubation within eight hours after the completion of FOB-BAL, respiratory and haemodynamic parameters and treatment modifications were collected for the evaluation. Results Ten trials of FOB-BAL using an LMA and CPAP were performed in nine patients with severe acute hypoxaemia associated with diffuse lung infiltrates. The BAL fluid recovery rate was 56%, and the procedure was completed without subsequent complications. In addition, the percutaneous arterial oxygen saturation decreased to 95.7%±3.8%, although it was never lower than 90.0% during the procedure, and no patients required intubation. Furthermore, the arterial blood pressure significantly but transiently decreased due to sedation, and the procedure yielded diagnostic information in all nine patients. Conclusion FOB-BAL using LMA and CPAP appears to be safe and effective in patients who develop severe acute hypoxaemia. PMID:25832933

  3. Activity testing of alveolar macrophages and changes in surfactant phospholipids after irradiation in bronchoalveolar lavage: Experimental and clinical data

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, F.; Rehn, B.; Kraus, R.; Quabeck, K.; Bruch, J.; Beelen, D.W.; Schaefer, U.W.; Streffer, C. )

    1992-07-01

    This study presents results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) after irradiation to the lungs in mice as well as clinical data. The number of BAL cells, mainly macrophages, lymphocytes, and granulocytes, changed in a time-dependent manner. The phagocytic activity of the macrophages measured as the phagocytosis of microbeads and measured as the esterase activity also showed a strong time-dependent increase during the acute phase up to 21 days after irradiation. The contents of surfactant phospholipids (SF) and sphingomyelin (SPH; as a parameter for cell death) were quantified by HPLC. Both were significantly changed between day 2 and 21 after irradiation. Three BALs of a patient with idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis, who had received an allogenic bone marrow graft after total body irradiation with 10 Gy, showed similar effects in the cellular and surfactant parameters. These data indicate that there are positive interactions between the number of different BAL cells, macrophage activity, and SF and SPH content in the preclinical model of the mouse as well as in the clinical situation after lung irradiation. 30 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Effects of work exposure, retirement, and smoking on bronchoalveolar lavage measurements of lung dust in Vermont granite workers.

    PubMed

    Christman, J W; Emerson, R J; Hemenway, D R; Graham, W G; Davis, G S

    1991-12-01

    Estimation of the exposure to respirable dust in the workplace is an important aspect of industrial hygiene. We performed bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) on 42 healthy nonindustrial control subjects and 44 workers in the Barre, Vermont granite industry to determine whether BAL materials reflected occupational exposure. The granite workers held jobs with a range of dust exposure intensities and had employment histories from 1 to 43 yr; 12 workers were retired. None of the workers had radiologic evidence of silicosis. The granite dust content of BAL materials was measured by enumerating the percentage of cells positive for particulates by polarized light microscopy, by analysis for silicon by scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and by chemical analysis. Minerals were present in greater quantity in the BAL cells from granite workers than from nonindustrial control subjects. Polarized light microscopy was comparable in sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy to electron microscopy; chemical analysis was less accurate than either microscopic technique. Tobacco smoking did not interfere with the detection of the occupationally related minerals or influence the quantity of dust present. The mineral in BAL cells was partially related to the intensity of exposure within the granite industry and to the duration of employment, but there was great individual variation among subjects. Retirement led to a decrease in BAL mineral content, but substantial dust remained for many years.

  5. Bronchoalveolar lavage cellular analyses in conjunction with high-resolution computed tomography imaging as a diagnostic intervention for patients with suspected interstitial lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Chockalingam, Ammaiyappan; Duraiswamy, Ranganathan; Jagadeesan, Madhavan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) has gained acceptance for diagnosis of Interstitial lung disease (ILD). The advent of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has reduced the clinical utility of BAL. This work has utilized the recommendations of the American Thoracic Society (ATS) to optimize BAL and the findings have been associated with clinical examination and HRCT to precisely narrow down the cause of ILD. Materials and Methods: BAL was performed on ILD suspects at the target site chosen based on HRCT. The procedure, transport, processing, and analysis of BAL fluid were performed as per the ATS guidelines. The clinical data, HRCT findings and BAL report were used to narrow down the diagnosis of ILD. The statistical analysis was performed to assess the significance. Results: The BAL procedure was optimized as per the recommendations of the ATS. In a cohort of 50 patients, Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, (8) hypersensitivity pneumonitis, (17) connective tissue disorder, (9) sarcoidosis, (3) pneumoconiosis, (5) acute respiratory distress syndrome, (2) eosinophilic lung disease (2) and lymphangitic carcinomatosa, (2) aspiration bronchiolitis (1) and pulmonary histiocytosis (1) were diagnosed. Statistically significant variation in differential counts was found in different ILDs. The different ILDs were classified based on the criteria described by the ATS. Clinical Significance: BAL along with clinical and HRCT findings improved the diagnostic accuracy by incorporating, the acute or chronic nature of the disease and the cause for acute exacerbation, which helped in the better management of ILDs. PMID:27185993

  6. Detection of antibodies against avian antigens in bronchoalveolar lavage from patients with pigeon breeder's disease: usefulness of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzyme immunotransfer blotting.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, J; Bañales, J L; Cortés, J J; Mendoza, F; Selman, M; Reyes, P A

    1990-01-01

    The study reported here evaluated the usefulness of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the detection of antibodies against pigeon antigens in the serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of patients with clinical, radiological, and functional evidence of interstitial lung disease (ILD) with and without pigeon breeder's disease (PBD). The results were compared with those obtained by the simultaneous use of counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) in the same patients. In PBD, ELISA detected antibodies against pigeon's sera in both serum and BAL in 100% of patients, while CIE failed to detect the antibodies in the serum of one patient and in most of the samples of BAL. In addition, we used enzyme immunotransfer blotting to determine the number of epitopes in pigeon serum recognized by antibodies present in serum and BAL. There was a heterogeneous response in both fluids, but the reaction pattern demonstrated that patient's sera recognize to-25 different pigeon epitopes. We conclude that ELISA is a highly sensitive and specific method for the detection of antibodies against pigeon antigens in the serum and BAL of patients with PBD and that the host response involves a great number of avian antigens.

  7. Neuraminidase Activity and Resistance of 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus to Antiviral Activity in Bronchoalveolar Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Ruangrung, Kanyarat; Suptawiwat, Ornpreya; Maneechotesuwan, Kittipong; Boonarkart, Chompunuch; Chakritbudsabong, Warunya; Assawabhumi, Jirawatna; Bhattarakosol, Parvapan; Uiprasertkul, Mongkol; Puthavathana, Pilaipan; Wiriyarat, Witthawat; Jongkaewwattana, Anan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human bronchoalveolar fluid is known to have anti-influenza activity. It is believed to be a frontline innate defense against the virus. Several antiviral factors, including surfactant protein D, are believed to contribute to the activity. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus was previously shown to be less sensitive to surfactant protein D. Nevertheless, whether different influenza virus strains have different sensitivities to the overall anti-influenza activity of human bronchoalveolar fluid was not known. We compared the sensitivities of 2009 pandemic H1N1, seasonal H1N1, and seasonal H3N2 influenza virus strains to inhibition by human bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. The pandemic and seasonal H1N1 strains showed lower sensitivity to human BAL fluid than the H3N2 strains. The BAL fluid anti-influenza activity could be enhanced by oseltamivir, indicating that the viral neuraminidase (NA) activity could provide resistance to the antiviral defense. In accordance with this finding, the BAL fluid anti-influenza activity was found to be sensitive to sialidase. The oseltamivir resistance mutation H275Y rendered the pandemic H1N1 virus but not the seasonal H1N1 virus more sensitive to BAL fluid. Since only the seasonal H1N1 but not the pandemic H1N1 had compensatory mutations that allowed oseltamivir-resistant strains to maintain NA enzymatic activity and transmission fitness, the resistance to BAL fluid of the drug-resistant seasonal H1N1 virus might play a role in viral fitness. IMPORTANCE Human airway secretion contains anti-influenza activity. Different influenza strains may vary in their susceptibilities to this antiviral activity. Here we show that the 2009 pandemic and seasonal H1N1 influenza viruses were less sensitive to human bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid than H3N2 seasonal influenza virus. The resistance to the pulmonary innate antiviral activity of the pandemic virus was determined by its neuraminidase (NA) gene, and it was shown that the

  8. Analysis of Lung Microbiota in Bronchoalveolar Lavage, Protected Brush and Sputum Samples from Subjects with Mild-To-Moderate Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Deborah A; Willger, Sven D; Dolben, Emily L; Hampton, Thomas H; Stanton, Bruce A; Morrison, Hilary G; Sogin, Mitchell L; Czum, Julianna; Ashare, Alix

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) often acquire chronic lung infections that lead to irreversible damage. We sought to examine regional variation in the microbial communities in the lungs of individuals with mild-to-moderate CF lung disease, to examine the relationship between the local microbiota and local damage, and to determine the relationships between microbiota in samples taken directly from the lung and the microbiota in spontaneously expectorated sputum. In this initial study, nine stable, adult CF patients with an FEV1>50% underwent regional sampling of different lobes of the right lung by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and protected brush (PB) sampling of mucus plugs. Sputum samples were obtained from six of the nine subjects immediately prior to the procedure. Microbial community analysis was performed on DNA extracted from these samples and the extent of damage in each lobe was quantified from a recent CT scan. The extent of damage observed in regions of the right lung did not correlate with specific microbial genera, levels of community diversity or composition, or bacterial genome copies per ml of BAL fluid. In all subjects, BAL fluid from different regions of the lung contained similar microbial communities. In eight out of nine subjects, PB samples from different regions of the lung were also similar in microbial community composition, and were similar to microbial communities in BAL fluid from the same lobe. Microbial communities in PB samples were more diverse than those in BAL samples, suggesting enrichment of some taxa in mucus plugs. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine the microbiota in different regions of the CF lung in clinically stable individuals with mild-to-moderate CF-related lung disease. PMID:26943329

  9. Analysis of Lung Microbiota in Bronchoalveolar Lavage, Protected Brush and Sputum Samples from Subjects with Mild-To-Moderate Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Deborah A.; Willger, Sven D.; Dolben, Emily L.; Hampton, Thomas H.; Stanton, Bruce A.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; Czum, Julianna; Ashare, Alix

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) often acquire chronic lung infections that lead to irreversible damage. We sought to examine regional variation in the microbial communities in the lungs of individuals with mild-to-moderate CF lung disease, to examine the relationship between the local microbiota and local damage, and to determine the relationships between microbiota in samples taken directly from the lung and the microbiota in spontaneously expectorated sputum. In this initial study, nine stable, adult CF patients with an FEV1>50% underwent regional sampling of different lobes of the right lung by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and protected brush (PB) sampling of mucus plugs. Sputum samples were obtained from six of the nine subjects immediately prior to the procedure. Microbial community analysis was performed on DNA extracted from these samples and the extent of damage in each lobe was quantified from a recent CT scan. The extent of damage observed in regions of the right lung did not correlate with specific microbial genera, levels of community diversity or composition, or bacterial genome copies per ml of BAL fluid. In all subjects, BAL fluid from different regions of the lung contained similar microbial communities. In eight out of nine subjects, PB samples from different regions of the lung were also similar in microbial community composition, and were similar to microbial communities in BAL fluid from the same lobe. Microbial communities in PB samples were more diverse than those in BAL samples, suggesting enrichment of some taxa in mucus plugs. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine the microbiota in different regions of the CF lung in clinically stable individuals with mild-to-moderate CF-related lung disease. PMID:26943329

  10. Detection, Identification, and Distribution of Fungi in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Specimens by Use of Multilocus PCR Coupled with Electrospray Ionization/Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jeong Hwan; Ranken, Raymond; Sefers, Susan E.; Lovari, Robert; Quinn, Criziel D.; Meng, Shufang; Carolan, Heather E.; Toleno, Donna; Li, Haijing; Lee, Jeong Nyeo; Stratton, Charles W.; Massire, Christian

    2013-01-01

    As pulmonary fungal infections continue to increase due to an increasing number of immunocompromised patients, rapid detection and accurate identification of these fungal pathogens are critical. A broad fungal assay was developed by incorporating broad-range multilocus PCR amplification and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) to detect and identify fungal organisms directly from clinical specimens. The aims of this study were to evaluate the performance of PCR/ESI-MS for detection, identification, and determination of the distribution of fungal organisms in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid specimens. The BAL fluid specimens submitted for fungal culture at Vanderbilt University Medical Center between May 2005 and October 2011 were included. Cultures and identification were done using standard procedures. In addition, DNA was extracted from BAL fluid specimens, and fungal DNA amplification/identification were performed by PCR/ESI-MS. The results were compared with those of the standard cultures. A total of 691 nonduplicated BAL fluid specimens with sufficient leftover volume for molecular testing were evaluated using PCR/ESI-MS. Among them, 134 specimens (19.4%) were positive for fungi by both culture and PCR/ESI-MS testing. Of the dual-positive specimens, 125 (93.3%) were positive for Candida and Aspergillus species, with concordances between culture and PCR/ESI-MS results being 84 (67.2%) at the species level and 109 (87.2%) at the genus level. In addition, 243 (35.2%) and 30 (4.3%) specimens were positive only by PCR/ESI-MS or by culture, respectively (odds ratio [OR] = 11.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.90 to 18.17, P = 0.0000). Codetection of fungal organisms was noted in 23 (3.3%) specimens by PCR/ESI-MS, which was significantly higher than the 4 (0.6%) in which they were noted by culture (OR = 5.91, 95% CI = 1.93 to 20.27, P = 0.0002). Among 53 specimens in which cultures failed because of bacterial overgrowth, at least one fungus was

  11. PAR-2, IL-4R, TGF-β and TNF-α in bronchoalveolar lavage distinguishes extrinsic allergic alveolitis from sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    MATĚJ, RADOSLAV; SMĚTÁKOVÁ, MAGDALENA; VAŠÁKOVÁ, MARTINA; NOVÁKOVÁ, JANA; ŠTERCLOVÁ, MARTINA; KUKAL, JAROMÍR; OLEJÁR, TOMÁŠ

    2014-01-01

    Sarcoidosis (SARC) and extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) share certain markers, making a differential diagnosis difficult even with histopathological investigation. In lung tissue, proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is primarily investigated with regard to epithelial and inflammatory perspectives. Varying levels of certain chemokines can be a useful tool for distinguishing EAA and SARC. Thus, in the present study, differences in the levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4R) and PAR-2 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were compared, using an ELISA method, between 14 patients with EAA and six patients with SARC. Statistically significant higher levels of IL-4R, PAR-2 and the PAR-2/TGF-β1 and PAR-2/TNF-α ratios were observed in EAA patients as compared with SARC patients. Furthermore, the ratios of TNF-α/total protein, TGF-β1/PAR-2 and TNF-α/PAR-2 were significantly lower in EAA patients than in SARC patients. The results indicated a higher detection of PAR-2 in EAA samples in association with TNF-α and TGF-β levels. As EAA and PAR-2 in parallel belong to the Th2-mediated pathway, the results significantly indicated an association between this receptor and etiology. In addition, the results indicated that SARC is predominantly a granulomatous inflammatory disease, thus, higher levels of TNF-α are observed. Therefore, the detection of PAR-2 and investigated chemokines in BALF may serve as a useful tool in the differential diagnosis between EAA and SARC. PMID:25009615

  12. Immunostimulation of bronchoalveolar lavage cells from recurrent airway obstruction-affected horses by different CpG-classes bound to gelatin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Klier, John; May, Anna; Fuchs, Sebastian; Schillinger, Ulrike; Plank, Christian; Winter, Gerhard; Gehlen, Heidrun; Coester, Conrad

    2011-11-15

    Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) in horses has become a common problem in stabled horses in industrialized countries and deserves new therapeutic strategies. CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODNs) were developed as effective immunostimulating agents to induce a Th2/Th1 shift. These agents showed a beneficial therapeutic effect in allergic diseases with predominant Th2 immunoresponse. CpG-ODN delivery by gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) resulted in enhanced cellular uptake in murine and human in vitro studies and was a starting point for the present trial. The aim of this study was to identify an optimal stimulating CpG motif in horses with regard to species specificity on equine bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells, in terms of a possible specific immunomodulation effect (Th2/Th1 shift) by used CpG-ODN. Accordingly, GNPs were evaluated as a delivery system to improve CpG-ODN immunostimulation in equine BAL cells. BAL fluid (BALF) was obtained from seven horses with moderate RAO and from four healthy horses and was subsequently incubated with five different CpG-ODN sequences (from A-, B- and C-class) and one ODN without any CpG motif. Release of three key cytokines (IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ) was quantified by ELISA to detect an allergy mediated Th2 immunoresponse (IL-4) as well as a proinflammatory Th1 response (IFN-γ). Due to its specific anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects, IL-10 was considered as a beneficial agent in pathophysiology of RAO. Results showed a significant upregulation of IL-10 and IFN-γ on the one hand and a downregulation of IL-4 on the other hand in RAO affected horses. Cell cultures from healthy horses had a significantly stronger response in cytokine release to all the applied stimuli in contrast to RAO derived cells. Comparing all five CpG sequences, A-class 2216 significantly showed the highest immunomodulatory effects on equine BALF cells and, hence, was chosen for follow-up preliminary clinical studies. PMID:21831455

  13. MRP1 expression in bronchoalveolar lavage cells in subjects with lung cancer who were chronically exposed to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Recio-Vega, Rogelio; Dena-Cazares, Jose Angel; Ramirez-de la Peña, Jorge Luis; Jacobo-Ávila, Antonio; Portales-Castanedo, Arnulfo; Gallegos-Arreola, Martha Patricia; Ocampo-Gomez, Guadalupe; Michel-Ramirez, Gladis

    2015-12-01

    Alteration of multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 (MRP1) expression has been associated with certain lung diseases, and this protein may be pivotal in protecting the lungs against endogenous or exogenous toxic compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the expression of MRP1 in bronchoalveolar cells from subjects with and without lung cancer who had been chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water. MRP1 expression was assessed in bronchoalveolar cells in a total of 102 participants. MRP1 expression was significantly decreased in those with arsenic urinary levels >50 μg/L when compared with the controls. In conclusion, chronic arsenic exposure negatively correlates with the expression of MRP1 in BAL cells in patients with lung cancer.

  14. Evaluation of different real time PCRs for the detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded bronchoalveolar lavage samples.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, Bertie H C G M; Voskuil, W Sebastiaan; Maraha, Boulos; van der Zee, Anneke; Westenend, Pieter J; Kusters, Johannes G

    2015-06-01

    The presence of Pneumocystis jirovecii in fresh clinical materials can be detected by PCR with high sensitivity and is thus preferred over microscopic methods. However, fresh materials are not always available, and on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded materials, PCR may result in reduced detection rates. In this study the diagnostic sensitivity of P. jirovecii real time PCR on DNA isolated from fresh bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples versus that from matched FFPE derived DNA is analyzed. Our results indicate that when targeting a small DNA fragment P. jirovecii PCR can be performed on FFPE BAL samples with acceptable sensitivity (up to 83.3%). This is considerably higher than the 33.3% positives observed by classical staining of these samples.

  15. [Neutrophilia in the bronchoalveolar lavage of patients with AIDS and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Reflections on its prognostic value in the Spanish setting].

    PubMed

    Sauleda, J; Gea, J; Aran, X; Gimferrer, E; Conangla, M; Broquetas, J M

    1994-04-01

    The prognostic value of neutrophilia (> 5%) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in our context is studied in 21 patients with AIDS and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Neutrophilia does not seem to be a good prognostic indicator in our context. We have found this condition, with a mean of 6 +/- 4%, in only 33% of our sample. The sensitivity of this parameter with respect to risk of death was very low (25%), while specificity was moderate (65%). In contrast with what has been reported in studies done with Anglo-Saxon populations, neutrophilia in BAL is probably of little prognostic use in our context. This may be due to various factors, among them the type of population (most being intravenous drug users) and the therapeutic protocol (early empirical treatment). PMID:8025785

  16. Multi-platform metabolomics assays for human lung lavage fluids in an air pollution exposure study.

    PubMed

    Surowiec, Izabella; Karimpour, Masoumeh; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Wu, Junfang; Unosson, Jon; Bosson, Jenny A; Blomberg, Anders; Pourazar, Jamshid; Sandström, Thomas; Behndig, Annelie F; Trygg, Johan; Nording, Malin L

    2016-07-01

    Metabolomics protocols are used to comprehensively characterize the metabolite content of biological samples by exploiting cutting-edge analytical platforms, such as gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) assays, as well as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assays. We have developed novel sample preparation procedures combined with GC-MS, LC-MS, and NMR metabolomics profiling for analyzing bronchial wash (BW) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from 15 healthy volunteers following exposure to biodiesel exhaust and filtered air. Our aim was to investigate the responsiveness of metabolite profiles in the human lung to air pollution exposure derived from combustion of biofuels, such as rapeseed methyl ester biodiesel, which are increasingly being promoted as alternatives to conventional fossil fuels. Our multi-platform approach enabled us to detect the greatest number of unique metabolites yet reported in BW and BAL fluid (82 in total). All of the metabolomics assays indicated that the metabolite profiles of the BW and BAL fluids differed appreciably, with 46 metabolites showing significantly different levels in the corresponding lung compartments. Furthermore, the GC-MS assay revealed an effect of biodiesel exhaust exposure on the levels of 1-monostearylglycerol, sucrose, inosine, nonanoic acid, and ethanolamine (in BAL) and pentadecanoic acid (in BW), whereas the LC-MS assay indicated a shift in the levels of niacinamide (in BAL). The NMR assay only identified lactic acid (in BW) as being responsive to biodiesel exhaust exposure. Our findings demonstrate that the proposed multi-platform approach is useful for wide metabolomics screening of BW and BAL fluids and can facilitate elucidation of metabolites responsive to biodiesel exhaust exposure. Graphical Abstract Graphical abstract illustrating the study workflow. NMR Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, LC-TOFMS Liquid chromatography-Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry, GC Gas

  17. Prediction of therapeutic response in steroid-treated pulmonary sarcoidosis. Evaluation of clinical parameters, bronchoalveolar lavage, gallium-67 lung scanning, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels

    SciTech Connect

    Hollinger, W.M.; Staton, G.W. Jr.; Fajman, W.A.; Gilman, M.J.; Pine, J.R.; Check, I.J.

    1985-07-01

    To find a pretreatment predictor of steroid responsiveness in pulmonary sarcoidosis the authors studied 21 patients before and after steroid treatment by clinical evaluation, pulmonary function tests, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), gallium-67 lung scan, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) level. Although clinical score, forced vital capacity (FVC), BAL percent lymphocytes (% lymphs), quantitated gallium-67 lung uptake, and SACE levels all improved with therapy, only the pretreatment BAL % lymphs correlated with the improvement in FVC (r = 0.47, p less than 0.05). Pretreatment BAL % lymphs of greater than or equal to 35% predicted improvement in FVC of 10/11 patients, whereas among 10 patients with BAL % lymphs less than 35%, 5 patients improved and 5 deteriorated. Clinical score, pulmonary function parameters, quantitated gallium-67 lung uptake, and SACE level used alone, in combination with BAL % lymphs or in combination with each other, did not improve this predictive value. The authors conclude that steroid therapy improves a number of clinical and laboratory parameters in sarcoidosis, but only the pretreatment BAL % lymphs are useful in predicting therapeutic responsiveness.

  18. Microbial interaction between a CTXM-15 -producing Escherichia coli and a susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage: influence of cefotaxime in the dual-species biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Bessa, Lucinda J; Mendes, Ângelo; Gomes, Rita; Curvelo, Sara; Cravo, Sara; Sousa, Emília; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Martins da Costa, Paulo

    2015-06-01

    Two isolates, Escherichia coli ella00 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ella01, obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage, were found to be closely associated in clusters in agar medium. Escherichia coli ella00 was multidrug resistant and CTXM-15 extended-spectrum β-lactamase producer, while P. aeruginosa ella01 was susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. These observations impelled for further studies aimed to understand their microbial interaction. The P. aeruginosa ella01 biofilm-forming capacity was reduced and not affected when it was co-cultured with E. coli ella00 and E. coli ATCC 25922 respectively. Interestingly, the co-culture of ella isolates in the presence of high concentrations, such as 160 μg ml(-1) , of cefotaxime allowed the formation of more biofilm than in the absence of the antibiotic. As revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, in co-culture, P. aeruginosa ella01 survived and subsequently flourished when exposed to this third-generation cephalosporin at a concentration 10 × higher than its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and this was mostly due to β-lactamases production by E. coli ella00. In fact, it was demonstrated by high-performance liquid chromatography that cefotaxime was absent for the culture medium 4 h after application. In conclusion, we demonstrate that bacterial species can interact differently depending on the surrounding conditions (favourable or stressing), and that those interactions can switch from unprofitable to beneficial.

  19. [The correlations between chemical mediators and interleukins in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in 6 asthmatic children].

    PubMed

    De Luca, L; Mazzarella, G; Natale, A; Chiummariello, S

    1993-01-01

    The authors studied the inflammation's factors of the lung in six asthmatic children in BAL liquid. Were monitored either the cells either the inflammation's mediators as PCF--albumin--PGE2--PG1 alpha--Tx beta 2--PAF--LT beta 4 and the interleukines IL1 alpha--IL-1 beta--IL-6--IL-8. In the BAL liquid was observed the macrophagic non epiteliomorphic and lymphocytic preminence. The mediators of inflammation were all increased in particular IL-1 beta--IL-6--IL-8. The cultural exams were negatives in 80% of children.

  20. [The Role of Bronchoalveolar Lavage in the Diagnosis of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: An Investigation of the Relevance of the Protein Content].

    PubMed

    Schildge, J; Frank, J; Klar, B

    2016-07-01

    Although bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is often used in the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), its importance in investigating, in particular, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is controversial. The cell distributions in the BAL are taken into account in the clinical routine, non-cellular characteristics of the BAL play no role.Using mathematical modeling of data, the present work investigated the extent to which BAL features enable drawing conclusions about the underlying ILK or help exclude IPF. Included in the calculation are cellular findings of the BAL, in addition the protein and albumin content of the BAL, the nicotine history (pack years), and spirometry (FEV1, IVC).Using linear discriminant analysis and creating classification trees, the relevance of the characteristics of 806 patients with ILK was examined (183 IPF, 191 cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, 147 lung involvement in autoimmune disease, 97 respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease, 118 extrinsic allergic alveolitis, 41 lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP), 23 non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), 88 controls).There was a close positive relationship between protein levels and lymphocytes in the group as a whole. No such correlations were seen in IPF and NSIP. Albumin was closely correlated with the protein content in all groups.The lymphocytes are best suited to distinguish between different ILDs. Yet, a reliable calculation of the ILD is not possible on the basis of the investigated factors, the classification error ranged from 23.5 % (IPF) to 100 % (LIP, NSIP).Constellations that likely (> 99 %) speak against an IPF are lymphocytosis > 34 % or protein content > 347 mg/l. The same applies to the constellation: lymphocytes > 25 % together with protein > 250 mg/l.In ILD, BAL findings can narrow the diagnosis, but they are seldom diagnostic. BAL can make an important contribution to excluding of IPF. PMID:27218212

  1. Assessment of Aspergillus fumigatus in Guinea Pig Bronchoalveolar Lavages and Pulmonary Tissue by Culture and Realtime Polymerase Chain Reaction Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Dennis G.; Bolton, Vincent E.; Sutton, John S.; Guilford, Frederick T.; Straus, David C.; Najvar, Laura K.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Kirkpatrick, William R.; Patterson, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we pursued a diagnostic target in Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) by using qualitative Realtime PCR combined with proprietary DNA primers and a hydrolysis probe specific for this fungal target. Qualitative Realtime PCR is a diagnostic tool that utilizes Realtime PCR technology and detects the presence or absence target specific DNA within a predetermined detection range. Respiratory tissue and fluids from experimentally infected guinea pigs were tested by extracting DNA from the samples which were amplified and detected using AF specific DNA primers and probe. This study included qualitative evaluations of all specimens for the presence of the DNA of AF. The findings in the tissues after AF infection were compared to the numbers of spores in aerosolized samples used to inoculate the animals. Results demonstrated that the specific probe and primer set could detect the presence or absence of AF DNA in the sample. The qualitative detection limit of the assay ranged from 6 × 104 copies to 6 copies. Since blood cultures are rarely positive for Aspergillosis, our data indicate that qualitative Realtime PCR, in combination with the appropriate DNA primers and probe can serve as an effective diagnostic tool in the early detection of fungal infections. PMID:22312282

  2. Turnover of phospholipids isolated from fractions of lung lavage fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Baritussio, A.; Carraro, R.; Bellina, L.; Rossi, A.; Bruni, R.; Pettenazzo, A.; Enzi, G.

    1985-10-01

    To clarify the steps following surfactant secretion, we injected adult rabbits with radioactive palmitate, lavaged the airways, removed the cells, separated by ultracentrifugation lavage components into two fractions (B and C), and followed the labeling of phospholipids of these fractions. The results were compatible with the view that total and saturated phosphatidylcholine are transferred from B to C. Furthermore, the fluxes of total and saturated phosphatidylcholine through fraction C (0.45 and 0.30 mumol . h-1 . g lung-1, respectively) were compatible with the actual estimates of surfactant recycling. The labeling of phosphatidylglycerol ruled out a simple precursor-product relationship between B and C but was compatible with a nonideal first-order relationship. The labeling of phosphatidylinositol, cardiolipin, and phosphatidylethanolamine was incompatible with the existence of a direct precursor-product relationship between B and C. The labeling of total and saturated phosphatidylcholine suggests that fraction B may be made by active surfactant, whereas fraction C may contain surfactant modified for reuptake or for reuptake and catabolism.

  3. Human herpesvirus 6 in bronchalveolar lavage fluid after lung transplantation: a risk factor for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome?

    PubMed

    Neurohr, C; Huppmann, P; Leuchte, H; Schwaiblmair, M; Bittmann, I; Jaeger, G; Hatz, R; Frey, L; Uberfuhr, P; Reichart, B; Behr, J

    2005-12-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is the limiting factor to long-term survival after lung transplantation. Previous studies suggested respiratory viral tract infections are associated with the development of BOS. To identify the impact of virus detection in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, we analyzed BAL samples from 87 consecutive lung transplant recipients for human herpesvirus (HHV)-6, Epstein-Barr virus, Herpes simplex virus 1/2, Cytomegalovirus, respiratory syncytical virus and adenovirus by PCR. Acute rejection, BOS and death were recorded for a mean follow-up time of 3.27 +/- 0.47 years. Results of PCR analysis and other potential risk factors were entered into a Cox regression analysis of BOS predictors and death. Only acute rejection was a distinct risk factor for BOS of all stages, death and death from BOS. HHV-6 was detected in 20 patients. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that HHV-6 was associated with an increased risk to develop BOS > orb = stage 1 and death, separate from the risk attributable to acute rejection. Identification of HHV-6 DNA in BAL fluid is a potential risk factor for BOS. Our results warrant further studies to elucidate a possible causal link between HHV-6 and BOS. PMID:16303014

  4. The IRIDICA PCR/Electrospray Ionization–Mass Spectrometry Assay on Bronchoalveolar Lavage for Bacterial Etiology in Mechanically Ventilated Patients with Suspected Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Ehn, Fredrik; Giske, Christian G.; Ullberg, Måns; Hedlund, Jonas; Petersson, Johan; Spindler, Carl; Özenci, Volkan

    2016-01-01

    We studied the diagnostic performance of the IRIDICA PCR/electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) assay applied on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples, from 51 mechanically ventilated patients with suspected pneumonia, in a prospective study. In 32 patients with X-ray verified pneumonia, PCR/ESI-MS was positive in 66% and BAL culture was positive in 38% (p = 0.045), and either of the methods was positive in 69%. The following BAL result combinations were noted: PCR/ESI-MS+/culture+, 34%; PCR/ESI-MS+/culture-, 31%; PCR/ESI-MS-/culture+, 3.1%; PCR/ESI-MS-/culture-, 31%; kappa 0.36 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.10–0.63). In pneumonia patients without prior antibiotic treatment, optimal agreement was noted with 88% PCR/ESI-MS+/culture+ and 12% PCR/ESI-MS-/culture- (kappa 1.0). However, in patients with prior antibiotic treatment, the test agreement was poor (kappa 0.16; 95% CI, -0.10–0.44), as 10 patients were PCR/ESI-MS+/culture-. In 8/10 patients the pathogens detected by PCR/ESI-MS could be detected by other conventional tests or PCR tests on BAL. Compared with BAL culture, PCR/ESI-MS showed specificities and negative predictive values of ≥87% for all individual pathogens, an overall sensitivity of 77% and positive predictive value (PPV) of 42%. When other conventional tests and PCR tests were added to the reference standard, the overall PPV increased to 87%. The PCR/ESI-MS semi-quantitative level tended to be higher for PCR/ESI-MS positive cases with pneumonia compared with cases without pneumonia (p = 0.074). In conclusion, PCR/ESI-MS applied on BAL showed a promising performance and has potential to be clinically useful in mechanically ventilated patients with suspected pneumonia. The usefulness of the method for establishment of pneumonia etiology and selection of antibiotic therapy should be further studied. PMID:27463099

  5. Rapid detection of Pneumocystis carinii in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: use of a simple DNA extraction procedure and nested PCR.

    PubMed

    Rabodonirina, M; Raffenot, D; Cotte, L; Boibieux, A; Mayençon, M; Bayle, G; Persat, F; Rabatel, F; Trepo, C; Peyramond, D; Piens, M A

    1997-11-01

    We report on the development of a rapid nested PCR protocol for the detection of Pneumocystis carinii DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens in which the protocol included the use of a commercially available DNA extraction kit (GeneReleaser). GeneReleaser enabled us to obtain amplification-ready DNA within 20 min without requiring the purification of the DNA. The nested PCR was performed with the primers pAZ102-E, pAZ102-H, and pAZ102-L2 (A. E. Wakefield, F. J. Pixley, S. Banerji, K. Sinclair, R. F. Miller, E. R. Moxon, and J. M. Hopkin, Lancet 336:451-453, 1990.). Results were obtained in about 4 h with the adoption of denaturation, annealing, and extension steps shortened to 20 seconds. The sensitivity of the nested PCR was tested with a P. carinii cyst suspension and was found to be less than one cyst (one to eight nuclei). The detection limit was the same with the use of GeneReleaser or proteinase K-phenol chloroform for DNA extraction. The nested PCR assay was prospectively compared with staining with Giemsa and methenamine silver stains for the detection of P. carinii in 127 BAL samples from 105 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients investigated for acute respiratory illness. Twenty-five BAL specimens (20%) were positive by staining and the nested PCR and 25 (20%) were negative by staining and positive by the nested PCR. These 25 BAL specimens with conflicting results were obtained from 23 patients, 82% of whom were receiving prophylactic therapy against P. carinii pneumonia (PCP). Only two patients were diagnosed with possible PCP. The final diagnosis was not PCP for 20 patients who were considered to be colonized or to have a low level of infection. This colonization is not of clinical importance but is of epidemiological importance. Our rapid, simple, and sensitive amplification protocol may be performed in clinical laboratories for the routine diagnosis of PCP with BAL specimens.

  6. Evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage profiling as a screening method for pulmonary damage induced by nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), fly ash, and NO/sub 2/-fly ash combinations

    SciTech Connect

    DeNicola, D.B.

    1981-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid profiling (BALP) was used to detect pulmonary injury induced by acute inhalation of NO/sub 2/ gas and fly ash alone and in combination. Also, BALP was utilized in an investigation into potential NO/sub 2/-fly ash synergism. The components measured in the BALP included lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, ..beta..-glucuronidase, alkaline phosphatase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activity levels, sialic acid and total protein contents, and total and differential cell counts. BALP analysis was effective in detecting the multifocal necrotizing terminal bronchiolitis produced in three groups of hamsters exposed to increasing concentrations of NO/sub 2/ gas (12, 17 and 22 ppM) for 48 continuous hours. BALP and histopathologic changes correlated well and followed a dose-related pattern. Increased numbers of neutrophils and macrophages were the most sensitive BALP indicators of NO/sub 2/ damage. To evaluate the potential acute toxic effects of fly ash, three groups of hamsters were exposed to increasing concentrations of fly ash alone (0, 69, and 123 mg/m/sup 3/). No significant BALP or histopathologic alterations were observed. To evaluate potential NO/sub 2/-fly ash synergism, three groups of hamsters were exposed to 0, 12, and 17 ppM NO/sub 2/ for 48 continuous hours with the addition of 0, 115, and 105 mg/m/sup 3/ fly ash respectively during the initial 6 hours. No consistent significant BALP difference between hamsters exposed to NO/sub 2/ + fly ash exposed hamsters. To further evaluate synergistic effects between these two inhalants, the acute inhalation (48 continuous hours) LC/sub 50/ of NO/sub 2/ gas alone and in combination with fly ash were determined and estimated to be 36 and 31 ppM respectively, which represented a slight but insignificant decrease in the NO/sub 2/ + fly ash group.

  7. Penetration of GS4071, a novel influenza neuraminidase inhibitor, into rat bronchoalveolar lining fluid following oral administration of the prodrug GS4104.

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, E J; Bidgood, A; Cundy, K C

    1997-01-01

    GS4071 is a novel potent inhibitor of influenza neuraminidase (Ki < 1 nM) with low (< 5%) oral bioavailability in animals. An ethyl ester prodrug of GS4071, GS4104, has exhibited good oral bioavailability in rat, mouse, and dog models and is currently being developed for the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections. Since influenza virus replicates primarily in the surface epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, the ability of the prodrug to deliver GS4071 to the bronchoalveolar lining fluid (BALF) following an oral dose of GS4104 should be an important indicator of its potential efficacy. In the present study, we determined the concentration-time profiles of GS4071 in the BALF and plasma of rats following oral administration of GS4104. The BALF was sampled by bronchoalveolar lavage with endogenous urea as a dilution marker. The concentration of GS4071 in BALF reached a peak at 2 h (1 h after the plasma peak) and declined at a slower rate than plasma levels, suggesting slow clearance of drug from the lung acini. The ratios of the area-under-the-curve (AUC) values of GS4071 in BALF to those in plasma were 1.05 for AUC from 0 to 6 h (AUC(0-6)) and 1.51 for AUC(0-infinity), indicating significant penetration of the parent drug into the lower respiratory tracts of rats following oral administration of the prodrug. No unchanged GS4104 was detected in BALF. PMID:9303391

  8. Diagnosis of bile duct cancer by bile cytology: usefulness of post-brushing biliary lavage fluid

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Shinya; Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Hirokazu; Sasaki, Keiko; Nagata, Kaori; Ohno, Sachiyo; Uesaka, Katsuhiko; Mori, Keita; Imai, Kenichiro; Hotta, Kinichi; Takizawa, Kohei; Kakushima, Naomi; Tanaka, Masaki; Kawata, Noboru; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pathologic evidence of biliary diseases can be obtained from cytology in addition to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP); however, the diagnostic effectiveness is not satisfactory. Study aim: This retrospective, single-center study evaluated the efficacy of various sampling methods for the cytologic diagnosis of bile duct cancer. Patients and methods: Biliary samples included bile that was simply aspirated, brush smear, brush-rinsed saline, and post-brushing biliary lavage fluid. A set of samples was compared for cytologic efficacy in 76 patients with surgically proven bile duct cancer and in 50 patients with benign biliary stricture. Results: The cytologic sensitivity for diagnosing biliary cancer was 34 % with aspirated bile, 32 % with brush smear, 43 % with brush-rinsed saline, and 70 % with post-brushing biliary lavage fluid, in contrast to the null false-positive result in the benign cases. The sensitivity of cytology was significantly higher with post-brushing lavage fluid than with the other three sampling methods (P < 0.0001), and post-brushing lavage fluid improved the cumulative sensitivity by 24 % (P = 0.002). The sensitivity of biliary cytology was also associated with the amount of aspirated bile (P = 0.01) and with the aspiration site (P = 0.03). The rate of cancer positivity in a cytology set differed according to the tumor macroscopic type (85 % in the protruding type vs. 40 % in the flat type; P = 0.003), and according to the size of the cancer (87 % for tumors ≥ 50 mm vs. 66 % for tumors < 50 mm; P = 0.02). Conclusions: Post-brushing biliary lavage fluid cytology provides superior diagnostic efficacy, and its addition to ERCP procedures is recommended for obtaining cytologic evidence of bile duct cancer. PMID:26357678

  9. Molecular detection of free cancer cells in pleural lavage fluid from esophageal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Natsugoe, Shoji; Tokuda, Koki; Matsumoto, Masataka; Okumura, Hiroshi; Nakajo, Akihiro; Takatori, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Ishigami, Sumiya; Takao, Sonshin; Aikou, Takashi

    2003-11-01

    The clinical significance of free cancer cells in pleural lavage fluid detected by molecular methods during surgery remains uncertain in esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). We therefore evaluated the relationship between free cancer cells and clinicopathological findings, and compared the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method with conventional cytological examination. Pleural lavage fluid from 38 consecutive patients was obtained at two time points; immediately after thoracotomy and before thorax closure. Papanicolaou and Giemsa staining as well as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-specific RT-PCR were performed. The positivity rates obtained using cytological examination and CEA-mRNA expression were 5.3 and 15.8%, respectively. Positive results were observed in pleural lavage fluid after tumor resection. No significant differences in clinicopathologic factors were seen, irrespective of CEA-mRNA expression status. Among the 5 patients exhibiting CEA-mRNA positivity, 2 experienced hematogenous recurrence, 2 experienced mixed recurrence and 1 experienced pleural dissemination. With regard to mode of recurrence and mean period between surgery and relapse, no significant differences were seen between CEA-mRNA-positive and CEA-mRNA-negative patients. Although disease recurred in almost all patients exhibiting CEA-mRNA expression, due to the relatively small sample in the present study the clinical significance must be investigated further in a larger number of patients.

  10. Temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis and crystal deposition diseases: a study of crystals in synovial fluid lavages in osteoarthritic temporomandibular joints.

    PubMed

    Dijkgraaf, L C; Liem, R S; de Bont, L G

    1998-08-01

    To study the presence of crystals in synovial fluid lavages of osteoarthritic temporomandibular joints (TMJs), in order to evaluate the possible role of these crystals in the osteoarthritic (OA) process, synovial fluid lavage samples of the upper joint compartment from 44 TMJs were obtained prior to arthroscopy. The OA group consisted of 32 TMJs. The control group consisted of 12 TMJs that had been diagnosed with other nonosteoarthritic conditions. The lavage samples were analysed as wet preparations, unstained and stained, with ordinary light, polarized light and compensated polarized light for the presence of crystals and white blood cells. One sample was prepared for subsequent electron microscopic (EM) examination. Synovial fluid lavage analysis of osteoarthritic TMJs did not show any monosodium urate monohydrate or calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals. However, in three lavages, particles which possibly contained calcium were identified with alizarin red S staining. White blood cells were occasionally seen. Synovial fluid analysis of the lavages of the control TMJs did not reveal any crystals. EM examination of synovial fluid lavage from an osteoarthritic TMJ failed to clearly show crystal formation. Concurrence of TMJ crystal deposition and OA appears less prominent than in other synovial joints. We conclude that crystals probably do not play an important role in TMJ OA. PMID:9698172

  11. Cellular component of lavage fluid from broilers with normal versus aerosol-primed airways.

    PubMed

    Lorenzoni, A G; Erf, G F; Rath, N C; Wideman, R F

    2009-02-01

    Previously, we reported that intratracheal administration of lipopolysaccharide elicited pulmonary hypertension (PH) in broilers reared under commercial conditions and in broilers reared in environmental chambers and pretreated with aerosolized red food colorant # 3 and propylene glycol (Red#3+PG), but not in control broilers reared in environmental chambers. The objective of the present experiment was to determine possible changes in the number or proportion of airway leukocytes that could contribute to the magnitude of the PH responses elicited in broilers. Birds were aerosolized for 40 min with a saturated mixture of Red#3+PG. After 24 h, a blood sample was taken, the broilers were killed, and a pulmonary lavage process was conducted in each bird. Leukocyte concentration (white blood cells/microL) and differential leukocyte counts (%) were measured in blood and lavage fluid. Leukocyte concentration in blood did not differ between groups, but the percentage of blood lymphocytes was lower in broilers from the Red#3+PG group compared with birds from the control group (52.4+/-2.9 and 56.9+/-2.9%, respectively). Cells recovered from the lavage fluid from both groups were primarily heterophils. The concentration of leukocytes was greater in the lavage fluid of broilers from the Red#3+PG group compared with broilers from the control group (763.2+/-158.7 and 402.9+/-62.6 white blood cells/microL, respectively), but the proportions among leukocytes were not different between the 2 groups. We propose that the increased concentration of leukocytes present within the airways was one of the components that enabled broilers pre-treated with aerosolized Red#3+PG to exhibit PH responses to intratracheal lipopolysaccharide.

  12. Cigarette smoking induced liver insult concomitant with inflammatory mediators in serum crevicular fluid and bronchio alveolar lavage of schistosomal diabetic subjects with history of bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    El-Dardiry, Samia A; Shafik, Sherine R; Wagih, Ayman; Amir, El-Amir M; Kassem, Gamal K; Atef, Ghada; El-Toukhy, Heba

    2007-08-01

    Forty five smokers were classified into schistosomal cases with type-2 diabetis mellitus (GI) and with associated history of bronchial asthma (GII) and without T-2 DM (GIII). A control group (GIV) of non-diabetic non schistosomal age matched subjects who quitted smoking for >6 months were included. Assessed parameters included indices of glycemic status (glycated hemoglobin), angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor) hepatic and bronchoalveolar disposition (Liver function test, metallothionein, serum levels of cotinine, cadmium selenium, copper & zinc) and bronchoalveolar lavage) (BAL) levels of surfactant proteins A & D, zinc and copper oxidative stress and fibrogenesis (total antioxidant capacity thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) and vasculopathy (angiotensin converting enzyme, P-selectin, nitrate) and periodontitis (collagenase and elastase in GCF) impact of cigarette smoking associated with trace element disbalance and enzymatic changes in crevicular fluid on altered parameters collaborative out-come. The study reflected the collaborative outcome of immune mediated mechanisms initiated by liver affection, glycemic status and history of predisposed bronchial integrity induced by oxidative stress.

  13. Physiological and lavage fluid cytological and biochemical endpoints of toxicity in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Lehnert, B.E.

    1992-01-01

    Exposure of the respiratory tract to toxic materials can result in a variety of physiologic disturbances that can serve as endpoints of toxicity. In addition to a brief review of commonly assessed physiologic endpoints, attention is given in the first component of this report to the use of both nose breathing and mouth'' breathing rats in toxicity studies that involve measurements of ventilatory functional changes in response to test atmospheres. Additionally, the usefulness of maximum oxygen consumption, or VO[sub 2max], as a physiologic endpoint of toxicity that uses exercising rats after exposure to test atmospheres is described, along with an introduction to post-exposure exercise as an important behavioral activity that can markedly impact on the severity of acute lung injury caused by pneumoedematogenic materials. The second component of this report focuses on bronchoalveolar lavage and cytological and biochemical endpoints that can be assessed in investigations of the toxicities of test materials. As will be shown herein, some of the biochemical endpoints of toxicity, especially, can sensitively detect subtle injury to the lower respiratory tract that may escape detection by changes in some other conventional endpoints of toxicity, including lung gravimetric increases and histopathological alterations.

  14. Physiological and lavage fluid cytological and biochemical endpoints of toxicity in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Lehnert, B.E.

    1992-12-31

    Exposure of the respiratory tract to toxic materials can result in a variety of physiologic disturbances that can serve as endpoints of toxicity. In addition to a brief review of commonly assessed physiologic endpoints, attention is given in the first component of this report to the use of both nose breathing and ``mouth`` breathing rats in toxicity studies that involve measurements of ventilatory functional changes in response to test atmospheres. Additionally, the usefulness of maximum oxygen consumption, or VO{sub 2max}, as a physiologic endpoint of toxicity that uses exercising rats after exposure to test atmospheres is described, along with an introduction to post-exposure exercise as an important behavioral activity that can markedly impact on the severity of acute lung injury caused by pneumoedematogenic materials. The second component of this report focuses on bronchoalveolar lavage and cytological and biochemical endpoints that can be assessed in investigations of the toxicities of test materials. As will be shown herein, some of the biochemical endpoints of toxicity, especially, can sensitively detect subtle injury to the lower respiratory tract that may escape detection by changes in some other conventional endpoints of toxicity, including lung gravimetric increases and histopathological alterations.

  15. Aerosol exposure of pigs to viable or inactivated Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 induces antibodies in bronchoalveolar lining fluids and serum, and protects against homologous challenge.

    PubMed

    Hensel, A; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N; Ganter, M; Petzoldt, K

    1995-11-01

    A dose-defined nose-only inhalation system for pigs was used to study the immunogenic and protective potentials of a single aerosol application of viable or killed Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 9. Respiratory volumes were measured for each pig to calculate inhaled individual doses. Eight pigs inhaled 107 CFU A. pleuropneumoniae CVI 13261 reference strain for serotype 9. Another eight pigs received an identical dose of killed actinobacilli. After three weeks the pigs and nonexposed controls were challenged with 108 CFU of the homologous strain by aerosol. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BALF) in pigs was performed during the experiment to obtain lavage samples for assessment of local antibodies. Isotype-specific antibody responses in serum and BAL fluids were measured by ELISAs based on whole-cell antigens. The protective efficacy of aerosol immunization was evaluated by clinical and post-mortem examinations. The controls developed fever and severe pleuropneumonia, whereas previously exposed pigs had less fever and less extensive gross pulmonary lesions. After the first aerosol exposure pulmonary IgM, and IgG antibodies reactive with A. pleuropneumoniae increased significantly in both aerosol exposed groups. IgA in BALF and serum concentrations of each Ig class were significantly increased in the group exposed to viable bacteria when compared to the non-exposed controls. After aerosol challenge a pronounced increase of systemic and pulmonary IgA, IgM, and IgG antibodies was detected in both exposure groups. Aerosol application of whole-cell A. pleuropneumoniae bacterins induced similar protective effects against aerosol challenge infection as administration of an identical dose of viable bacteria. Inhalation of A. pleuropneumoniae may lead to asymptomatic carriers in some pigs that could spread the disease under field conditions.

  16. Effect of repeated through-and-through joint lavage on serum amyloid A in synovial fluid from healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Teran, A F; Bracamonte, J L; Hendrick, S; Riddell, L; Musil, K; Hoff, B; Rubio-Martínez, L M

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of through-and-through joint lavage on systemic and synovial serum amyloid A (SAA), total protein, nucleated cell count and percentage of neutrophils in the synovial fluid of six healthy horses. A prospective experimental study was performed where one healthy tarsocrural joint of each horse was randomly assigned to receive repeated through-and-through joint lavage at 0, 48 and 96 h. Synovial fluid and blood samples were collected at 0 (baseline), 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h. Systemic and synovial SAA, total protein, nucleated cell count and percentage of neutrophils were measured and compared to baseline. Concentrations of systemic and synovial SAA percentage of neutrophils were not increased from baseline in contrast to total protein and nucleated cell counts (except for nucleated cell count at 96 h). In conclusion, repeated through-and-through joint lavage did not affect synovial SAA concentrations in horses; however, synovial total protein and nucleated cell count values increased. Some of the total protein and nucleated cell count values observed in this study were within the range reported for septic arthritis 24 h after joint lavage. Hence, synovial SAA may be a valuable marker to evaluate the clinical progression of septic joints after through-and-through joint lavage. Clinical studies evaluating synovial fluid SAA concentrations while treating synovial sepsis with through-and-through joint lavage are warranted.

  17. Protective effects of nedocromil sodium on cellular and biohumoral components present in the bronchial alveolar lavage fluid and in peripheral blood in atopic asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Mazzarella, G; Grella, E; Romano, L; Perna, A; Marzo, C; Guarino, C; Cammarata, A; Bianco, A; Liccardo, G

    1994-01-01

    Nedocromil sodium, a disodium salt of a pyroquinolinedicarboxylic acid, raises the bronchial hyperresponsiveness threshold, because it inhibits the mediators released by the various cells, and reduces the involvement and activation of inflammatory cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the state of activation of the immunocompetent cells and the main chemical mediators present in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from 10 atopic asthmatic patients, before and after treatment with nedocromil sodium. The following examinations were performed before treatment and after 120 days of therapy with nedocromil sodium at 16 mg/day (two 2-mg puffs x 4): the level of chemical mediators and the state of activation of immunocompetent cells in BAL fluid; immunological analytes in activation of immunocompetent cells in BAL fluid; immunological analytes in peripheral blood; aspecific bronchial challenge test with ultrasonicated bidistilled H2O fog to evaluate variations in the hyperreactivity threshold; questionnaire to determine any adverse effects of treatment (cough, breathlessness, sleep disorders). Our findings demonstrate that nedocromil sodium prevents the release of chemotactic and inflammatory mediators by the effector cells and thus stabilizes microvascular permeability and epithelial damage, so raising the threshold of response to bronchoconstriction stimuli. Lastly, nedocromil sodium is associated with a better preventive therapeutic efficacy and good tolerance and can therefore be suggested as a valid drug to be used in the long-term treatment of bronchial asthma.

  18. Detection of Pneumocystis carinii and characterization of mutations associated with sulfa resistance in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects.

    PubMed

    Zingale, Anna; Carrera, Paola; Lazzarin, Adriano; Scarpellini, Paolo

    2003-06-01

    One hundred ninety-four bronchoalveolar specimens were evaluated by microscopic examination and by amplification of a sequence of a Pneumocystis carinii dihidropteroate synthase gene for identification of mutations linked to sulfa resistance. PCR sensitivity and specificity were 100 and 86.7%, respectively, compared to results of microscopic examination. However, 7 out of 19 microscopy-negative, PCR-positive samples were collected from subjects with a clinically high probability of P. carinii pneumonia, suggesting that PCR may be more sensitive than microscopic examination, although the absolute performance of PCR cannot be determined. Mutations were identified in 28 out of 70 (40%) PCR-positive specimens and were significantly more common in patients exposed to sulfa drugs (21 out of 29 [72.4%]) than in those not exposed to sulfa drugs (4 out of 35 [11.4%]).

  19. Detection of Pneumocystis carinii and Characterization of Mutations Associated with Sulfa Resistance in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Samples from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Zingale, Anna; Carrera, Paola; Lazzarin, Adriano; Scarpellini, Paolo

    2003-01-01

    One hundred ninety-four bronchoalveolar specimens were evaluated by microscopic examination and by amplification of a sequence of a Pneumocystis carinii dihidropteroate synthase gene for identification of mutations linked to sulfa resistance. PCR sensitivity and specificity were 100 and 86.7%, respectively, compared to results of microscopic examination. However, 7 out of 19 microscopy-negative, PCR-positive samples were collected from subjects with a clinically high probability of P. carinii pneumonia, suggesting that PCR may be more sensitive than microscopic examination, although the absolute performance of PCR cannot be determined. Mutations were identified in 28 out of 70 (40%) PCR-positive specimens and were significantly more common in patients exposed to sulfa drugs (21 out of 29 [72.4%]) than in those not exposed to sulfa drugs (4 out of 35 [11.4%]). PMID:12791912

  20. Sensitivity and specificity of indirect immunofluorescence and Grocott-technique in comparison with immunocytology (alkaline phosphatase anti alkaline phosphatase = APAAP) for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL).

    PubMed

    Arastéh, K N; Simon, V; Musch, R; Weiss, R O; Przytarski, K; Futh, U M; Pleuger, F; Huhn, D; L'age, M P

    1998-12-16

    The purpose of the study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the indirect method of immunofluorescence with the immunocytological technique of alkaline phosphatase anti alkaline phosphatase complex (APAAP) for the detection of Pneumocystis carinii by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in HIV-1 positive patients. - 83 HIV-1 positive patients with clinical presentations suggestive of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PcP) were included in the study. 28 samples were found Pc-positive by immunofluorescence (IFT), 26 by Grocott and 29 by APAAP. In comparison to the lab results 33 patients were diagnosed as PcP according to the clinical course (i.e. therapeutic outcome, drugs used, and therapy changes). Compared to the clinical diagnoses, the following lab tests proved to be false positive and false negative: false positive: IF = 1, Grocott = 0, APAAP = 4 (3F6). false negative: IF = 5, Grocott = 7, APAAP = 4 (3F6). - Grocott stain shows insufficient correlation to the clinical diagnoses (p = 0.0156, McNemar-Test, two-tailed). - The two different detection methods (IFT and APAAP) showed no significant statistical difference with regard to their sensitivity (p = 0.3438, McNemar-Test, two tailed) and specificity. Considering cost and time the immunofluorescence technique seems to be the most suitable for the diagnosis of PcP in HIV-1 positive patients.

  1. Patterns of reduced nipple aspirate fluid production and ductal lavage cellularity in women at high risk for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Susan A; Matloff, Ellen T; Rimm, David L; Dziura, James; Haffty, Bruce G; King, Bonnie L

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Nipple aspiration is a noninvasive technique for obtaining breast fluids from the duct openings of the nipple for the evaluation of abnormalities associated with breast cancer. Nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) can be elicited from 48 to 94% of healthy women, and its production has been linked to an increased relative risk for breast cancer development. NAF production has been used in studies to guide the selection of ducts for ductal lavage, a procedure in which ducts are cannulated and flushed with saline to collect cells. In a previous multicenter trial to evaluate intraductal approaches in women at high-risk for breast cancer, NAF production was observed in 84% of the subjects. However, we observed a significantly lower proportion of fluid-yielding subjects in a similar series of high-risk women. The purpose of the present study was to identify variables associated with this reduction. Method Nipple aspiration was performed on 33 high-risk women (defined as having a 5-year Gail model index of more than 1.7, a personal or family history of breast cancer, and/or a BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutation) to identify ductal orifices for lavage procedures. Lavage was performed on all fluid-yielding ducts and on nine non-fluid-yielding ducts. Results Fluid-yielding ducts were identified in 12 of 33 (36%) of the subjects in the present series, compared with 16 of 19 (84%) of the subjects undergoing identical procedures at our facility during a multicenter trial (P = 0.001). Reduced NAF yields were associated with postmenopausal status (P = 0.02), BRCA germline mutations (P = 0.004), and risk reduction therapies, including bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) and/or selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs; P = 0.009). All nine (100%) of the ductal lavage specimens collected from non-fluidyielding ducts were acellular, in comparison with 3 of 13 specimens from fluid-yielding ducts (P < .001). Conclusion Analysis of high-risk women in the present series revealed

  2. Changes in pulmonary lavage fluid of guinea pigs exposed to ultrafine zinc oxide with adsorbed sulfuric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, M.W.; Flood, W.H.; Rogers, A.E.; Amdur, M.O.

    1989-01-01

    Ultrafine metal oxide particles (diameters less than 0.1 microns) and sulfur dioxide are important products of coal combustion. Interaction of these products in the effluent stream results in formation of ultrafine particles with adsorbed sulfur compounds, including sulfuric acid. The toxicity of ultrafine zinc oxide particles with adsorbed sulfuric acid was evaluated by comparing pulmonary lavage fluid from guinea pigs exposed for 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 consecutive daily 3-h periods to ultrafine zinc oxide generated in the presence of sulfur dioxide (ZnO + SO/sub 2/) to pulmonary lavage fluid from guinea pigs exposed to an equivalent concentration of ultrafine ZnO. Two groups of guinea pigs exposed either to SO/sub 2/ or to particle-free furnace gas served as additional controls. Cells, protein, and activities of lactate dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, and alkaline phosphatase were increased in lavage fluid obtained from guinea pigs exposed to ZnO + SO/sub 2/ as compared to guinea pigs exposed to ZnO. These results demonstrate the potential importance of ultrafine metal oxides as carries of sulfuric acid derived from fossil fuel combustion.

  3. Protein corona formation in bronchoalveolar fluid enhances diesel exhaust nanoparticle uptake and pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Catherine A; Mortimer, Gysell M; Deng, Zhou J; Carter, Edwin S; Connell, Shea P; Miller, Mark R; Duffin, Rodger; Newby, David E; Hadoke, Patrick W F; Minchin, Rodney F

    2016-09-01

    In biological fluids nanoparticles bind a range of molecules, particularly proteins, on their surface. The resulting protein corona influences biological activity and fate of nanoparticle in vivo. Corona composition is often determined by the biological milieu encountered at the entry portal into the body, and, can therefore, depend on the route of exposure to the nanoparticle. For environmental nanoparticles where exposure is by inhalation, this will be lung lining fluid. This study examined plasma and bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) protein binding to engineered and environmental nanoparticles. We hypothesized that protein corona on nanoparticles would influence nanoparticle uptake and subsequent pro-inflammatory biological response in macrophages. All nanoparticles bound plasma and BALF proteins, but the profile of bound proteins varied between nanoparticles. Focusing on diesel exhaust nanoparticles (DENP), we identified proteins bound from plasma to include fibrinogen, and those bound from BALF to include albumin and surfactant proteins A and D. The presence on DENP of a plasma-derived corona or one of purified fibrinogen failed to evoke an inflammatory response in macrophages. However, coronae formed in BALF increased DENP uptake into macrophages two fold, and increased nanoparticulate carbon black (NanoCB) uptake fivefold. Furthermore, a BALF-derived corona increased IL-8 release from macrophages in response to DENP from 1720 ± 850 pg/mL to 5560 ± 1380 pg/mL (p = 0.014). These results demonstrate that the unique protein corona formed on nanoparticles plays an important role in determining biological reactivity and fate of nanoparticle in vivo. Importantly, these findings have implications for the mechanism of detrimental properties of environmental nanoparticles since the principle route of exposure to such particles is via the lung.

  4. Protein corona formation in bronchoalveolar fluid enhances diesel exhaust nanoparticle uptake and pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Catherine A; Mortimer, Gysell M; Deng, Zhou J; Carter, Edwin S; Connell, Shea P; Miller, Mark R; Duffin, Rodger; Newby, David E; Hadoke, Patrick W F; Minchin, Rodney F

    2016-09-01

    In biological fluids nanoparticles bind a range of molecules, particularly proteins, on their surface. The resulting protein corona influences biological activity and fate of nanoparticle in vivo. Corona composition is often determined by the biological milieu encountered at the entry portal into the body, and, can therefore, depend on the route of exposure to the nanoparticle. For environmental nanoparticles where exposure is by inhalation, this will be lung lining fluid. This study examined plasma and bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) protein binding to engineered and environmental nanoparticles. We hypothesized that protein corona on nanoparticles would influence nanoparticle uptake and subsequent pro-inflammatory biological response in macrophages. All nanoparticles bound plasma and BALF proteins, but the profile of bound proteins varied between nanoparticles. Focusing on diesel exhaust nanoparticles (DENP), we identified proteins bound from plasma to include fibrinogen, and those bound from BALF to include albumin and surfactant proteins A and D. The presence on DENP of a plasma-derived corona or one of purified fibrinogen failed to evoke an inflammatory response in macrophages. However, coronae formed in BALF increased DENP uptake into macrophages two fold, and increased nanoparticulate carbon black (NanoCB) uptake fivefold. Furthermore, a BALF-derived corona increased IL-8 release from macrophages in response to DENP from 1720 ± 850 pg/mL to 5560 ± 1380 pg/mL (p = 0.014). These results demonstrate that the unique protein corona formed on nanoparticles plays an important role in determining biological reactivity and fate of nanoparticle in vivo. Importantly, these findings have implications for the mechanism of detrimental properties of environmental nanoparticles since the principle route of exposure to such particles is via the lung. PMID:27027807

  5. Bronchoalveolar mast cells in sarcoidosis: increased numbers and accentuation of mediator release.

    PubMed Central

    Flint, K C; Leung, K B; Hudspith, B N; Brostoff, J; Pearce, F L; Geraint-James, D; Johnson, N M

    1986-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage was carried out in 36 subjects with sarcoidosis and 20 control subjects undergoing bronchoscopy for routine diagnostic purposes. The proportion of mast cells in the lavage fluid of subjects with sarcoidosis (mean (SE) 0.84% 0.09%; p less than 0.01) when compared with that of controls (mean 0.32% (0.05%); p less than 0.01). This increase was greatest in subjects with positive gallium scans but was not correlated with the percentage recovery of lymphocytes or radiographic stage. Anti-IgE induced histamine release from the bronchoalveolar cells of 15 subjects with sarcoidosis was significantly increased at all effective doses of anti-IgE. This accentuation of histamine release was significantly greater in patients with positive gallium scans and correlated directly with the percentage recovery of lymphocytes (r = 0.7, p less than 0.005). The dose-response curve of anti-IgE induced histamine release from bronchoalveolar cells of subjects with more than 20% of lymphocytes in the lavage cell population was significantly greater than the dose-response curves of subjects with fewer than 20% of lymphocytes and of controls. PMID:2422776

  6. Depletion by styrene of glutathione in plasma and bronchioalveolar lavage fluid of non-Swiss albino (NSA) mice.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Gary P

    2010-01-01

    Styrene is a widely used chemical, but it is known to produce lung and liver damage in mice. This may be related to oxidative stress associated with the decrease in the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the target tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of styrene and its primary metabolites R-styrene oxide (R-SO) and S-styrene oxide (S-SO) on GSH levels in the lung lumen, as determined by amounts of GSH in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and in plasma. When non-Swiss albino (NSA) mice were administered styrene (600 mg/kg, ip), there was a significant fall in GSH levels in both BALF and plasma within 3 h. These returned to control levels by 12 h. The active metabolite R-SO (300 mg/kg, ip) also produced significant decreases in GSH in both BALF and plasma, but S-SO was without marked effect. Since GSH is a principal antioxidant in the lung epithelial lining fluid, this fall due to styrene may exert a significant influence on the ability of the lung to buffer oxidative damage.

  7. 21 CFR 880.5475 - Jet lavage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Jet lavage. (a) Identification. A jet lavage is a device used to clean a wound by a pulsatile jet of..., and a means of propelling the fluid through the tubing, such as an electric roller pump....

  8. 21 CFR 880.5475 - Jet lavage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Jet lavage. (a) Identification. A jet lavage is a device used to clean a wound by a pulsatile jet of..., and a means of propelling the fluid through the tubing, such as an electric roller pump....

  9. Effects of Viscoseal, a synovial fluid substitute, on recovery after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy and joint lavage.

    PubMed

    Mathies, B

    2006-01-01

    This was a pilot, single blind, randomised, controlled study in patients requiring partial meniscectomy. The aim was to assess whether replacing the synovial fluid lost during arthroscopy with a hyaluronic acid-containing synovial fluid substitute (Viscoseal) would reduce the severity and duration of post-operative symptoms during the 4 weeks post-surgery, in comparison to the standard arthroscopy procedure alone. Fifty patients were randomly assigned to either undergo arthroscopic partial meniscectomy alone (control group: n=25) or to receive 10 ml Viscoseal into the joint at the end of the procedure (Viscoseal group: n=25). Forty patients (20 per group) completed the study. Despite the small patient population in this pilot study, some interesting results were obtained. On Day 1 after surgery, the mean values for pain at rest (VAS) increased in both groups but this increase was lower in the Viscoseal group (8.9+/-23.1 mm) than in the standard therapy group (20.0+/-25.9 mm) (Mann-Whitney statistic MW-S: P=0.0525) and remained in favour of Viscoseal for the first 3 days after surgery. Joint swelling decreased to a greater extent in the Viscoseal group with an observed superiority at Day 7 (MW-S: P=0.1187) and a proven superiority at Days 12 (MW-S: P=0.015) and 28 (MW-S: P=0.0072). Diclofenac intake was lower in the Viscoseal group from Day 3 to Day 28 with a proven superiority (LB-CI > 0.5) in favour of Viscoseal on Days 3 (MW-S: P = 0.0093), 4 (MW-S: P= 0.0075), and 7 (MW-S: P = 0.0195) indicating that the product had an NSAID-sparing effect. Viscoseal was safe and well-tolerated and no adverse reactions occurred during the study. These findings indicate that Viscoseal may be useful as a synovial fluid substitute after arthroscopy.

  10. Differentiation of Gram-Negative Bacterial Aerosol Exposure Using Detected Markers in Bronchial-Alveolar Lavage Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Wunschel, David; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Frevert, Charles W.; Skerrett, Shawn; Beagley, Nat; Willse, Alan; Colburn, Heather; Antolick, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The identification of biosignatures of aerosol exposure to pathogens has the potential to provide useful diagnostic information. In particular, markers of exposure to different types of respiratory pathogens may yield diverse sets of markers that can be used to differentiate exposure. We examine a mouse model of aerosol exposure to known Gram negative bacterial pathogens, Francisella tularensis novicida and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mice were subjected to either a pathogen or control exposure and bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected at four and twenty four hours post exposure. Small protein and peptide markers within the BALF were detected by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) and analyzed using both exploratory and predictive data analysis methods; principle component analysis and degree of association. The markers detected were successfully used to accurately identify the four hour exposed samples from the control samples. This report demonstrates the potential for small protein and peptide marker profiles to identify aerosol exposure in a short post-exposure time frame. PMID:19756149

  11. Differentiation of Gram-Negative Bacterial Aerosol Exposure Using Detected Markers in Bronchial-Alveolar Lavage Fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Wunschel, David S.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Frevert, Charles W.; Skerret, Shawn J.; Beagley, Nathaniel; Willse, Alan R.; Colburn, Heather A.; Antolick, Kathryn C.

    2009-09-16

    The identification of biosignatures of aerosol exposure to pathogens has the potential to provide useful diagnostic information. In particular, markers of exposure to different types of respiratory pathogens may yield diverse sets of markers that can be used to differentiate exposure. We examine a of mouse model of aerosol exposure to known Gram negative bacterial pathogens, Francisella tularensis novicida and Pseudomonas auriginosa. Mice were subjected to either a pathogen or control exposure and bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected at four and twenty four hours post exposure. Small protein and peptide markers within the BALF were detected by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) and analyzed using both exploratory and predictive data analysis methods; principle component analysis and degree of association. The markers detected were successfully used to accurately identify the four hour exposed samples from the control samples. This report demonstrates the potential for small protein and peptide marker profiles to identify aerosol exposure in a short post-exposure time frame.

  12. Targeted proteomic analyses of nasal lavage fluid in persulfate-challenged hairdressers with bleaching powder-associated rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Mörtstedt, Harriet; Ali, Neserin; Kåredal, Monica; Jacobsson, Helene; Rietz, Emelie; Diab, Kerstin Kronholm; Nielsen, Jörn; Jönsson, Bo A G; Lindh, Christian H

    2015-02-01

    Hairdressers have an increased risk for developing airway symptoms, for example, asthma and rhinitis. Persulfates, which are oxidizing agents in bleaching powder, are considered important causal agents for these symptoms. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The aim was therefore to measure proteomic changes in nasal lavage fluid from persulfate-challenged subjects to identify proteins potentially involved in the pathogenesis of bleaching powder-associated rhinitis or candidate effect biomarkers for persulfate. Also, oxidized peptides were measured to evaluate their usefulness as biomarkers for persulfate exposure or effect, for example, oxidative stress. Samples from hairdressers with and without bleaching powder-associated rhinitis were analyzed with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using selected reaction monitoring to target 246 proteins and five oxidized peptides. Pathway analysis was applied to obtain a functional overview of the proteins. Several proteins involved in biologically meaningful pathways, functions, or disorders, for example, inflammatory responses, oxidative stress, epithelium integrity, and dermatological disorders, changed after the persulfate challenge. A list with nine proteins that appeared to be affected by the persulfate challenge and should be followed up was defined. An albumin peptide containing oxidized tryptophan increased 2 h and 5 h after the challenge but not after 20 min, which indicates that such peptides may be useful as oxidative stress biomarkers. PMID:25546367

  13. Performance of lateral flow device and galactomannan for the detection of Aspergillus species in bronchoalveolar fluid of patients at risk for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Miceli, Marisa H; Goggins, Michael I; Chander, Pranay; Sekaran, Archana K; Kizy, Anne E; Samuel, Linoj; Jiang, Hui; Thornton, Christopher R; Ramesh, Mayur; Alangaden, George

    2015-06-01

    Early diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) remains difficult due to the variable performance of the tests used. We compared the performance characteristics of Aspergillus lateral flow device (LFD) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) vs. BAL-galactomannan (GM), for the diagnosis of IPA. 311 BAL specimens were prospectively collected from patients who underwent bronchoscopy from January to May 2013. Patients at risk for IPA were divided into haematological malignancy (HEM) and non-HEM groups: solid organ transplants (SOT) (lung transplant (LT) and non-LT SOT); chronic steroid use (CSU); solid tumour (STU) and others. We identified 96 patients at risk for IPA; 89 patients (93%) were in the non-HEM groups: SOT 57 (LT, 46, non-LT SOT, 11); CSU 21; STU 6, other 5. Only three patients met criteria for IA (two probable; one possible). Overall sensitivity (SS) was 66% for both and specificity (SP) was 94% vs. 52% for LFD and GM respectively. LFD and GM performance was similar in the HEM group (SS 100% for both and SP 83% vs. 100% respectively). LFD performance was better than GM among non-HEM SOT patients (P = 0.02). Most false-positive GM results occurred in the SOT group (50.8%), especially among LT patients (56.5%). LFD performance was superior with an overall SP of 95.6% in SOT (P < 0.002) and 97% in LT patients (P = 0.0008). LFD is a rapid and simple test that can be performed on BAL to rule out IPA.

  14. Bronchoalveolar inflammation after exposure to diesel exhaust: comparison between unfiltered and particle trap filtered exhaust

    PubMed Central

    Rudell, B.; Blomberg, A.; Helleday, R.; Ledin, M. C.; Lundback, B.; Stjernberg, N.; Horstedt, P.; Sandstrom, T.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Air pollution particulates have been identified as having adverse effects on respiratory health. The present study was undertaken to further clarify the effects of diesel exhaust on bronchoalveolar cells and soluble components in normal healthy subjects. The study was also designed to evaluate whether a ceramic particle trap at the end of the tail pipe, from an idling engine, would reduce indices of airway inflammation. METHODS: The study comprised three exposures in all 10 healthy never smoking subjects; air, diluted diesel exhaust, and diluted diesel exhaust filtered with a ceramic particle trap. The exposures were given for 1 hour in randomised order about 3 weeks apart. The diesel exhaust exposure apperatus has previously been carefully developed and evaluated. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed 24 hours after exposures and the lavage fluids from the bronchial and bronchoalveolar region were analysed for cells and soluble components. RESULTS: The particle trap reduced the mean steady state number of particles by 50%, but the concentrations of the other measured compounds were almost unchanged. It was found that diesel exhaust caused an increase in neutrophils in airway lavage, together with an adverse influence on the phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages in vitro. Furthermore, the diesel exhaust was found to be able to induce a migration of alveolar macrophages into the airspaces, together with reduction in CD3+CD25+ cells. (CD = cluster of differentiation) The use of the specific ceramic particle trap at the end of the tail pipe was not sufficient to completely abolish these effects when interacting with the exhaust from an idling vehicle. CONCLUSIONS: The current study showed that exposure to diesel exhaust may induce neutrophil and alveolar macrophage recruitment into the airways and suppress alveolar macrophage function. The particle trap did not cause significant reduction of effects induced by diesel exhaust compared with unfiltered diesel

  15. Innovation in surfactant therapy I: surfactant lavage and surfactant administration by fluid bolus using minimally invasive techniques.

    PubMed

    Dargaville, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    Innovation in the field of exogenous surfactant therapy continues more than two decades after the drug became commercially available. One such innovation, lung lavage using dilute surfactant, has been investigated in both laboratory and clinical settings as a treatment for meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Studies in animal models of MAS have affirmed that dilute surfactant lavage can remove meconium from the lung, with resultant improvement in lung function. In human infants both non-randomised studies and two randomised controlled trials have demonstrated a potential benefit of dilute surfactant lavage over standard care. The largest clinical trial, performed by our research group in infants with severe MAS, found that lung lavage using two 15-ml/kg aliquots of dilute surfactant did not reduce the duration of respiratory support, but did appear to reduce the composite outcome of death or need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. A further trial of lavage therapy is planned to more precisely define the effect on survival. Innovative approaches to surfactant therapy have also extended to the preterm infant, for whom the more widespread use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has meant delaying or avoiding administration of surfactant. In an effort to circumvent this problem, less invasive techniques of bolus surfactant therapy have been trialled, including instillation directly into the pharynx, via laryngeal mask and via brief tracheal catheterisation. In a recent clinical trial, instillation of surfactant into the trachea using a flexible feeding tube was found to reduce the need for subsequent intubation. We have developed an alternative method of brief tracheal catheterisation in which surfactant is delivered via a semi-rigid vascular catheter inserted through the vocal cords under direct vision. In studies to date, this technique has been relatively easy to perform, and resulted in rapid improvement in lung function and reduced need for

  16. Recovery of cyclic antidepressants with gastric lavage.

    PubMed

    Watson, W A; Leighton, J; Guy, J; Bergman, R; Garriott, J C

    1989-01-01

    The role of lavage fluid volume in recovery of cyclic antidepressant with gastric lavage was determined in 13 patients treated for moderate to severe cyclic antidepressant intoxication. An orogastric tube was placed, gastric contents aspirated, and gastric lavage performed with 60 to 180 mL aliquots of tap water or 0.9% NaCl for irrigation. A volume of 12.8 +/- 4.4 liters of lavage fluid was instilled, and 97.6 +/- 6.9% of this volume was recovered. The recovered aspirate and lavage fluid were inspected for the presence of particulate matter and saved in 4 to 5 liter collections. Determination of cyclic antidepressant and metabolite concentrations was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the amount of cyclic antidepressant recovered was calculated. The mean total amount recovered was 110 mg and ranged from 2.4 mg to 342 mg. Of the total amount recovered, 88% +/- 13% was recovered in the first 4 to 5 liters of lavage fluid. An estimate of the dose ingested was available in 7 patients, with 8.7% (0.4% to 21.7%) of the estimated dose recovered by lavage. There were no cases of significant drug recovery in clear lavage fluid. We conclude that if gastric lavage is undertaken in cyclic antidepressant intoxications, it should utilize 5 liters initially and then continue only if particulate matter is seen.

  17. LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of clarithromycin, rifampicin and their main metabolites in horse plasma, epithelial lining fluid and broncho-alveolar cells.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Stefan; Peters, Jette; Venner, Monica; Siegmund, Werner

    2011-04-28

    Clarithromycin (CLA) is a well established macrolide antibiotic which is frequently used in therapy of airway diseases in foals. It is extensively metabolized by CYP3A4 resulting in the antimicrobial active metabolite 14-hydroxyclarithromycin (OH-CLA). Rifampicin (RIF) is often comedicated to prevent resistance and augment therapy. RIF is a known inducer for metabolizing enzymes and transporter proteins. Therefore, comedication might bare the risks of pharmacokinetic drug interactions which were investigated in a clinical trial. As no adequate method to determine CLA, RIF and their main metabolites OH-CLA and 25-O-desacetylrifampicin (DAc-RIF) were described so far, we developed a selective and sensitive assay to measure concentrations of all four substances simultaneously in plasma, epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and broncho-alveolar cells (BAC) of foals. Drugs were measured after extraction with methyl tert-butyl ether using roxithromycin as internal standard and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for detection. The chromatography was done isocratically using 25mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4)/acetonitrile (45%/55%, flow rate 200μl/min). The MS/MS analysis was performed in the positive ion mode (m/z transitions: CLA, 748.5-590.1; OH-CLA, 764.1-606.1; RIF, 823.1-791.2; DAc-RIF, 781.1-749.1 and 837.3-679.2 for the internal standard). The method was validated according to selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, matrix effects and stability. The validation ranges for all substances were 2.5-25 for the low and 25-250ng/ml for the high validation range. The described assay was shown to be valid and successfully applied to measure disposition of CLA, OH-CLA, RIF and DAc-RIF in plasma, ELF and BAC of foals in a clinical trial.

  18. Guinea Pig Lung Lavage Cells After Intranasal BCG Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Terai, T.; Ganguly, Rama; Waldman, Robert H.

    1979-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that intranasal administration of antigen can induce local cell-mediated immunity in lung lavage cells. The present study was designed to examine the changes in composition of lung lavage cells and their capacity to produce the lymphokine migration inhibitory factor after intranasal immunization with BCG in guinea pigs. Results indicate that guinea pigs responded to respiratory tract BCG infection with an increase in immunocompetent cells in the bronchoalveolar tract and with production of migration inhibitory factor. After local pulmonary BCG administration, the total number of cells increased as compared with that of the uninfected animals, the increase being statistically significant within 2 weeks. This marked increase in the total cell population is due to a more than doubling of the number of macrophages in the lavage fluid. Animals also developed at this time positive delayed hypersensitivity to intradermally administered purified protein derivative. A significant increase in the total lymphoid cells and macrophage population was observed again at 6 weeks after sensitization, suggesting that the response is biphasic in nature. At 6 weeks, however, there was also a significant rise in total lymphocytes and T cell population in addition to macrophage numbers. This increase in T cells correlated with an increase in production of migration inhibitory factor in the presence of purified protein derivative. These data suggest that the immune response of the respiratory tract after BCG challenge involves increased recruitment of immunocompetent cells locally at the site of infection and that these cells are capable of producing effector molecules in terms of the elaboration of migration inhibitory factor. PMID:387595

  19. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Whole-Gut Lavage Fluid and Pancreatic Juice Reveals a Less Invasive Method of Sampling Pancreatic Secretions

    PubMed Central

    Rocker, Jana M; Tan, Marcus C; Thompson, Lee W; Contreras, Carlo M; DiPalma, Jack A; Pannell, Lewis K

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: There are currently no reliable, non-invasive screening tests for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The fluid secreted from the pancreatic ductal system (“pancreatic juice”) has been well-studied as a potential source of cancer biomarkers. However, it is invasive to collect. We recently observed that the proteomic profile of intestinal effluent from the bowel in response to administration of an oral bowel preparation solution (also known as whole-gut lavage fluid, WGLF) contains large amounts of pancreas-derived proteins. We therefore hypothesized that the proteomic profile is similar to that of pancreatic juice. In this study, we compared the proteomic profiles of 77 patients undergoing routine colonoscopy with the profiles of 19 samples of pure pancreatic juice collected during surgery. METHODS: WGLF was collected from patients undergoing routine colonoscopy, and pancreatic juice was collected from patients undergoing pancreatic surgery. Protein was isolated from both samples using an optimized method and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Identified proteins were compared between samples and groups to determine similarity of the two fluids. We then compared our results with literature reports of pancreatic juice-based studies to determine similarity. RESULTS: We found 104 proteins in our pancreatic juice samples, of which 90% were also found in our WGLF samples. The majority (67%) of the total proteins found in the WGLF were common to pancreatic juice, with intestine-specific proteins making up a smaller proportion. CONCLUSIONS: WGLF and pancreatic juice appear to have similar proteomic profiles. This supports the notion that WGLF is a non-invasive, surrogate bio-fluid for pancreatic juice. Further studies are required to further elucidate its role in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. PMID:27228405

  20. Gene expression profiles of bronchoalveolar cells in Pulmonary TB

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Bindu; Hoshino, Yoshihiko; Belitskaya-Lévy, Ilana; Dawson, Rod; Ress, Stanley; Gold, Jeffrey A.; Condos, Rany; Pine, Richard; Brown, Stuart; Nolan, Anna; Rom, William N.; Weiden, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    The host response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis includes macrophage activation, inflammation with increased immune effector cells, tissue necrosis and cavity formation, and fibrosis, distortion, and bronchiectasis. To evaluate the molecular basis of the immune response in the lungs of patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), we used bronchoalveolar lavage to obtain cells at the site of infection. Affymetrix Genechip micro-arrays and cDNA nylon filter microarrays interrogated gene expression in BAL cells from 11 healthy controls and 17 patients with active pulmonary TB. We found altered gene expression for 69 genes in TB versus normal controls that included cell surface markers, cytokines, chemokines, receptors, transcription factors, and complement components. In addition, TB BAL cell gene expression patternssegregated into 2 groups: one suggestive of a T helper type 1 (Th1) cellular immune response with increased STAT-4, IFN-γ receptor, and MIG expression with increased IFN-γ protein levels in BAL fluid; the other group displayed characteristics of Th2 immunity with increased STAT-6, CD81, and IL-10 receptor expression. We were able to demonstrate that a Th2 presentation could change to a Th1 pattern after anti-tuberculous treatment in one TB patient studied serially. These gene expression data support the conclusion that pulmonary TB produces a global change in the BAL cell transcriptome with manifestations of either Th1 or Th2 immunity. PMID:17921069

  1. Protein and microRNA biomarkers from lavage, urine, and serum in military personnel evaluated for dyspnea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We have identified candidate protein and microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for dyspnea by studying serum, lavage fluid, and urine from military personnel who reported serious respiratory symptoms after they were deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Methods Forty-seven soldiers with the complaint of dyspnea who enrolled in the STudy of Active Duty Military Personnel for Environmental Dust Exposure (STAMPEDE) underwent comprehensive pulmonary evaluations at the San Antonio Military Medical Center. The evaluation included fiber-optic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. The clinical findings from the STAMPEDE subjects pointed to seven general underlying diagnoses or findings including airway hyperreactivity, asthma, low diffusivity of carbon monoxide, and abnormal cell counts. The largest category was undiagnosed. As an exploratory study, not a classification study, we profiled proteins or miRNAs in lavage fluid, serum, or urine in this group to look for any underlying molecular patterns that might lead to biomarkers. Proteins in lavage fluid and urine were identified by accurate mass tag (database-driven) proteomics methods while miRNAs were profiled by a hybridization assay applied to serum, urine, and lavage fluid. Results Over seventy differentially expressed proteins were reliably identified both from lavage and from urine in forty-eight dyspnea subjects compared to fifteen controls with no known lung disorder. Six of these proteins were detected both in urine and lavage. One group of subjects was distinguished from controls by expressing a characteristic group of proteins. A related group of dyspnea subjects expressed a unique group of miRNAs that included one miRNA that was differentially overexpressed in all three fluids studied. The levels of several miRNAs also showed modest but direct associations with several standard clinical measures of lung health such as forced vital capacity or gas exchange efficiency. Conclusions Candidate proteins and mi

  2. Protein and microRNA biomarkers from lavage, urine, and serum in military personnel evaluated for dyspnea

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Joseph N.; Brewer, Heather M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Weitz, Karl K.; Morris, Michael J.; Skabelund, Andrew J.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Smith, Richard D.; Cho, Ji -Hoon; Gelinas, Richard

    2014-10-05

    Background: We have identified candidate protein and microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for dyspnea by studying serum, lavage fluid, and urine from military personnel who reported serious respiratory symptoms after they were deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Methods: Forty-seven soldiers with the complaint of dyspnea who enrolled in the STudy of Active Duty Military Personnel for Environmental Dust Exposure (STAMPEDE) underwent comprehensive pulmonary evaluations at the San Antonio Military Medical Center. The evaluation included fiber-optic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. The clinical findings from the STAMPEDE subjects pointed to seven general underlying diagnoses or findings including airway hyperreactivity, asthma, low diffusivity of carbon monoxide, and abnormal cell counts. The largest category was undiagnosed. As an exploratory study, not a classification study, we profiled proteins or miRNAs in lavage fluid, serum, or urine in this group to look for any underlying molecular patterns that might lead to biomarkers. Proteins in lavage fluid and urine were identified by accurate mass tag (database-driven) proteomics methods while miRNAs were profiled by a hybridization assay applied to serum, urine, and lavage fluid. Results: Over seventy differentially expressed proteins were reliably identified both from lavage and from urine in forty-eight dyspnea subjects compared to fifteen controls with no known lung disorder. Six of these proteins were detected both in urine and lavage. One group of subjects was distinguished from controls by expressing a characteristic group of proteins. A related group of dyspnea subjects expressed a unique group of miRNAs that included one miRNA that was differentially overexpressed in all three fluids studied. The levels of several miRNAs also showed modest but direct associations with several standard clinical measures of lung health such as forced vital capacity or gas exchange efficiency. Conclusions: Candidate proteins and mi

  3. Protein and microRNA biomarkers from lavage, urine, and serum in military personnel evaluated for dyspnea

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brown, Joseph N.; Brewer, Heather M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Weitz, Karl K.; Morris, Michael J.; Skabelund, Andrew J.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Smith, Richard D.; Cho, Ji -Hoon; Gelinas, Richard

    2014-10-05

    Background: We have identified candidate protein and microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for dyspnea by studying serum, lavage fluid, and urine from military personnel who reported serious respiratory symptoms after they were deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Methods: Forty-seven soldiers with the complaint of dyspnea who enrolled in the STudy of Active Duty Military Personnel for Environmental Dust Exposure (STAMPEDE) underwent comprehensive pulmonary evaluations at the San Antonio Military Medical Center. The evaluation included fiber-optic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. The clinical findings from the STAMPEDE subjects pointed to seven general underlying diagnoses or findings including airway hyperreactivity, asthma, low diffusivity of carbonmore » monoxide, and abnormal cell counts. The largest category was undiagnosed. As an exploratory study, not a classification study, we profiled proteins or miRNAs in lavage fluid, serum, or urine in this group to look for any underlying molecular patterns that might lead to biomarkers. Proteins in lavage fluid and urine were identified by accurate mass tag (database-driven) proteomics methods while miRNAs were profiled by a hybridization assay applied to serum, urine, and lavage fluid. Results: Over seventy differentially expressed proteins were reliably identified both from lavage and from urine in forty-eight dyspnea subjects compared to fifteen controls with no known lung disorder. Six of these proteins were detected both in urine and lavage. One group of subjects was distinguished from controls by expressing a characteristic group of proteins. A related group of dyspnea subjects expressed a unique group of miRNAs that included one miRNA that was differentially overexpressed in all three fluids studied. The levels of several miRNAs also showed modest but direct associations with several standard clinical measures of lung health such as forced vital capacity or gas exchange efficiency. Conclusions: Candidate proteins

  4. Role of elevated plasma soluble ICAM-1 and bronchial lavage fluid IL-8 levels as markers of chronic lung disease in premature infants.

    PubMed Central

    Little, S.; Dean, T.; Bevin, S.; Hall, M.; Ashton, M.; Church, M.; Warner, J.; Shute, J.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Pulmonary neutrophilia characterises both the relatively transient inflammation associated with infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS) and the persistent inflammation of chronic lung disease. The possibility that persistently raised markers of inflammation indicate the development of chronic lung disease in low birth weight (< 1730 g) preterm (< 31 weeks) infants was therefore investigated. METHODS--Soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) levels in plasma, and interleukin (IL)-8 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in bronchial lavage fluid (BLF) obtained from 17 infants on days 1, 5, and 14 following birth were measured and correlations with the number of neutrophils in BLF sought. Peripheral neutrophils were isolated on Polymorphoprep and chemotactic responsiveness to IL-8 was assessed using micro Boyden chambers. RESULTS--Sixteen infants developed IRDS and, of these, 10 infants subsequently developed chronic lung disease. Levels of IL-8 in BLF at 14 days of age correlated with the long term requirement for intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV). Interleukin 8 levels in BLF correlated with neutrophil numbers and MPO concentration, suggesting both recruitment and activation in response to this cytokine. Antibody depletion studies showed that approximately 50% of total neutrophil chemotactic activity in BLF was due to IL-8. No difference in peripheral neutrophil chemotactic responsiveness at any age was observed for infants with IRDS or chronic lung disease. Plasma soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM-1) was higher at 14 days of age in infants who developed chronic lung disease than in those with resolving IRDS, and correlated with severity of disease, as indicated by duration of IPPV. CONCLUSIONS--The results indicate that high levels of plasma sICAM-1 and IL-8 in BLF at day 14 correlate with the development of chronic lung disease and indicate the severity of disease. PMID:7491556

  5. Extracellular cadmium in the bronchoalveolar space of long-term tobacco smokers with and without COPD and its association with inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sundblad, Britt-Marie; Ji, Jie; Levänen, Bettina; Midander, Klara; Julander, Anneli; Larsson, Kjell; Palmberg, Lena; Lindén, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco contains cadmium, and this metal has been attributed a causative role in pulmonary emphysema among smokers, although extracellular cadmium has not to date been quantified in the bronchoalveolar space of tobacco smokers with or without COPD. We determined whether cadmium is enhanced in the bronchoalveolar space of long-term tobacco smokers with or without COPD in vivo, its association with inflammation, and its effect on chemokine release in macrophage-like cells in vitro. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), sputum, and blood samples were collected from current, long-term smokers with and without COPD and from healthy nonsmokers. Cadmium concentrations were determined in cell-free BAL fluid using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Blood monocyte-derived macrophages were exposed to cadmium chloride in vitro. Depending upon the type of sample, molecular markers of inflammation were quantified either as protein (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) or as mRNA (real-time polymerase chain reaction). Cadmium concentrations were markedly increased in cell-free BAL fluid of smokers compared to that of nonsmokers (n=19–29; P<0.001), irrespective of COPD. In these smokers, the measured cadmium displayed positive correlations with macrophage TNF-α mRNA in BAL, neutrophil and CD8+ cell concentrations in blood, and finally with IL-6, IL-8, and MMP-9 protein in sputum (n=10–20; P<0.05). The cadmium chloride exposure caused a concentration-dependent increase in extracellular IL-8 protein in monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro. In conclusion, extracellular cadmium is enhanced in the bronchoalveolar space of long-term smokers and displays pro-inflammatory features. Its pathogenic role in tobacco-induced disease deserves further evaluation. PMID:27274222

  6. Arthroscopy and joint lavage.

    PubMed

    Ayral, Xavier

    2005-06-01

    Arthroscopy is used by rheumatologists for research purposes in cases with knee osteoarthritis and inflammatory arthritis. This chapter explains the technical characteristics of 'research arthroscopy' including the simplification of the procedure, video-recording, as well as risks and training. Lavage of the knee joint is proposed as a treatment procedure for osteoarthritis and inflammatory and septic arthritis. Tidal irrigation and the two-needle technique of lavage are described. In the absence of clear predictive factors for efficacy, the indications for these techniques are a matter of debate. PMID:15939366

  7. Recent applications of CE- and HPLC-MS in the analysis of human fluids.

    PubMed

    Iadarola, Paolo; Fumagalli, Marco; Bardoni, Anna Maria; Salvini, Roberta; Viglio, Simona

    2016-01-01

    The present review intends to cover the literature on the use of CE-/LC-MS for the analysis of human fluids, from 2010 until present. It has been planned to provide an overview of the most recent practical applications of these techniques to less extensively used human body fluids, including, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, synovial fluid, nipple aspirate, tear fluid, breast fluid, amniotic fluid, and cerumen. Potential pitfalls related to fluid collection and sample preparation, with particular attention to sample clean-up procedures, and methods of analysis, from the research laboratory to a clinical setting will also be addressed. While being apparent that proteomics/metabolomics represent the most prominent approaches for global identification/quantification of putative biomarkers for a variety of human diseases, evidence is also provided of the suitability of these sophisticated techniques for the detection of heterogeneous components carried by these fluids.

  8. The Role of Peritoneal Lavage in Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ranson, John H. C.; Spencer, Frank C.

    1978-01-01

    Encouraged by reports of the therapeutic efficacy of peritoneal lavage in small series of five or six patients with acute pancreatitis, we have evaluated this treatment in 24 patients with “severe” pancreatitis. One hundred and three patients with “severe” pancreatitis (28% mortality) were separated from 347 with “mild” pancreatitis (0.9% mortality) by previously described early objective signs. Early treatment (Day 0-7) of “severe” pancreatitis included peritoneal lavage through catheters placed nonoperatively in 18 (Group A) and by catheters placed at laparotomy in six (Group C). Early treatment of nonlavaged patients with “severe” pancreatitis was by standard nonoperative measures in 61 (Group B) and included early operation in 18 (Group D). Lavage was continued for 48-96 hours, usually using 36-48 L/24 hours of balanced isotonic dialysate fluid, and was uncomplicated. Lavage led to striking immediate clinical improvement and no lavaged patient (Groups A and C) died during the first 10 days of treatment of pancreatitis. By contrast, 45% of deaths in nonlavaged patients (Group B and D) occurred during this early period, usually from cardiovascular or respiratory failure. Although lavage reduced mortality in subgroups of patients, ultimate overall survival was no affected (Group A, 83%; B, 84%; C, 33%; D,33%). Late peripancreatic abscesses caused most deaths in lavaged patients. These data show that peritoneal complications of severe acute pancreatitis and dramatically reduces early mortality. Lavage does not prevent the late local sequelae of peripancreatic necrosis. PMID:646497

  9. Sys-BodyFluid: a systematical database for human body fluid proteome research.

    PubMed

    Li, Su-Jun; Peng, Mao; Li, Hong; Liu, Bo-Shu; Wang, Chuan; Wu, Jia-Rui; Li, Yi-Xue; Zeng, Rong

    2009-01-01

    Recently, body fluids have widely become an important target for proteomic research and proteomic study has produced more and more body fluid related protein data. A database is needed to collect and analyze these proteome data. Thus, we developed this web-based body fluid proteome database Sys-BodyFluid. It contains eleven kinds of body fluid proteomes, including plasma/serum, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, synovial fluid, nipple aspirate fluid, tear fluid, seminal fluid, human milk and amniotic fluid. Over 10,000 proteins are presented in the Sys-BodyFluid. Sys-BodyFluid provides the detailed protein annotations, including protein description, Gene Ontology, domain information, protein sequence and involved pathways. These proteome data can be retrieved by using protein name, protein accession number and sequence similarity. In addition, users can query between these different body fluids to get the different proteins identification information. Sys-BodyFluid database can facilitate the body fluid proteomics and disease proteomics research as a reference database. It is available at http://www.biosino.org/bodyfluid/.

  10. Impaired chemotactic responses of bronchoalveolar leukocytes in experimental pneumoconiosis.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, K; Brown, G M; Brown, D M; Slight, J; Robertson, M D; Davis, J M

    1990-01-01

    Rats were exposed to clouds of the following pneumoconiotic dusts: quartz, coal-mine dust, and chrysotile asbestos at 10 or 50 mg/m3 for 8, 32, and 75 days; for comparison, rats were also exposed to the non-pathogenic dust titanium dioxide (TiO2). The bronchoalveolar leukocytes (macrophages and neutrophils) from dust-exposed and control rats were obtained by lavage and tested for their ability to migrate toward zymosan-activated serum. Varying amounts of neutrophils were present depending on the ability of the dust to cause inflammation and the length of exposure. There was a marked loss of chemotactic ability in leukocytes from rats inhaling the pneumoconiotic dusts compared with controls; TiO2-exposed leukocytes had some impairment of chemotaxis, but this was substantially less than that found with the pneumoconiotic dusts. The loss of chemotactic activity did not correlate with the percentage of neutrophils in the lavage cells except when there were very high levels of neutrophils, and there was substantial impairment of chemotaxis with negligible numbers of neutrophils, showing that macrophage chemotaxis was impaired. A phagocytic burden within the leucocytes was not sufficient alone to inhibit chemotaxis, nor was the loss of chemotactic activity due to occupied receptors, since incubation failed to restore chemotaxis. Loss to chemotactic activity by leukocytes from pneumoconiotic dust-exposed lung could be an important factor in the development of pneumoconiosis.

  11. Bronchoalveolar CD4+ T cell responses to respiratory antigens are impaired in HIV-infected adults

    PubMed Central

    Sepako, Enoch; Fullerton, Duncan G; Mzinza, David; Glennie, Sarah; Wright, Adam K; Heyderman, Robert S; Gordon, Stephen B

    2011-01-01

    Rationale HIV-infected adults are at an increased risk of lower respiratory tract infections. HIV infection impairs systemic acquired immunity, but there is limited information in humans on HIV-related cell-mediated immune defects in the lung. Objective To investigate antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses to influenza virus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and peripheral blood between HIV-infected individuals and HIV-uninfected Malawian adults. Methods We obtained BAL fluid and blood from HIV-infected individuals (n=21) and HIV-uninfected adults (n=24). We determined the proportion of T cell subsets including naive, memory and regulatory T cells using flow cytometry, and used intracellular cytokine staining to identify CD4+ T cells recognising influenza virus-, S pneumoniae- and M tuberculosis-antigens. Main results CD4+ T cells in BAL were predominantly of effector memory phenotype compared to blood, irrespective of HIV status (p<0.001). There was immune compartmentalisation with a higher frequency of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells against influenza virus, S pneumoniae and M tuberculosis retained in BAL compared to blood in HIV-uninfected adults (p<0.001 in each case). Influenza virus- and M tuberculosis-specific CD4+ T cell responses in BAL were impaired in HIV-infected individuals: proportions of total antigen-specific CD4+ T cells and of polyfunctional IFN-γ and TNF-α-secreting cells were lower in HIV-infected individuals than in HIV-uninfected adults (p<0.05 in each case). Conclusions BAL antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses against important viral and bacterial respiratory pathogens are impaired in HIV-infected adults. This might contribute to the susceptibility of HIV-infected adults to lower respiratory tract infections such as pneumonia and tuberculosis. PMID:21357587

  12. Status Asthmaticus: use of acetylcysteine during bronchoscopy and lavage to remove mucous plugs.

    PubMed

    Millman, M; Goodman, A H; Goldstein, I M; Millman, F M; Van Campen, S S

    1983-02-01

    Three patients suffering from severe, chronic, bronchial asthma underwent bronchoscopy and lavage, using in the irrigant fluid acetylcysteine, isoetharine and Solu-Medrol. All patients had a large amount of thick mucus in the tracheobronchial tree which was removed during the lavage. Following the lavage, all three patients were easily treated with conventional allergic measures and were able to lead normal lives, which they could not do before. A discussion of the precautions to be taken by the medical-surgical team in charge of a patient undergoing bronchoscopy and lavage is made. These conclusions were based on the results of two previous reports by the authors in addition to the present communication.

  13. Host and environmental factors affect pulmonary responses measured in bronchoalveolar lavage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Obesity is considered a chronic low-grade inflammatory state which may predispose individuals to lung disease. Measures of obesity can be associated with changes in adipokine levels, cytokine concentrations, and indices of iron homeostasis in the serum. To test for an...

  14. LADTAG Progress 2010 and Plans for 2011 and Provisional PELs from Lavage and Blood Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Assessment Group (LADTAG) plans and progress for 2010 and 2011. Provisional Permissible Exposure Limits (PPELs) from lavage fluid and blood data are also presented.

  15. Influence of peritoneal lavage on objective prognostic signs in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Ihse, I; Evander, A; Gustafson, I; Holmberg, J T

    1986-01-01

    In 39 patients with severe attacks of acute pancreatitis, a longitudinal study was done with respect to the influence of peritoneal lavage on objective prognostic signs (WBC, blood-glucose, serum-calcium, hematocrit, serum-creatinine, arterial pO2, base deficit); amylase activities in peritoneal fluid, serum, and urine; serum-hemoglobin, serum-Na, serum-K, and plasma-insulin. In addition to standard care in the ICU, half of the patients (N = 19) were randomly treated with peritoneal lavage. Peritoneal lavage did not influence overall mortality (13%), incidence of major complications (36%), or hospital stay (23 +/- 7 days). None of the prognostic signs was significantly influenced by lavage. Amylase concentration in peritoneal fluid was significantly reduced in the lavaged group after 6 hours compared to 24 hours in controls. Serum and urinary amylase decreased 12 hours earlier in the lavaged group, indicating an efficiency of the lavage procedure per se. Still, this study did not reveal any beneficial clinical effects of peritoneal lavage in acute pancreatitis. PMID:2427042

  16. Reduction of cytokine release of blood and bronchoalveolar mononuclear cells by ambroxol.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, S; Zissel, G; Kienast, K; Müller-Quernheim, J

    1997-03-24

    Ambroxol is a mucolytic agent frequently used in the treatment of chronic bronchitis. It has been reported, following clinical and in-vitro studies, that ambroxol exhibits an anti-inflammatory action. This capability was investigated by activating bronchoalveolar lavage cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in-vitro to elicit the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-2 and interferon gamma, whilst simultaneously exposing them to varying pharmacological concentrations of ambroxol (10, 1, and 0.1 microM). After 24 h it was observed that the isolated tissue-culture supernatants showed a dose-dependent reduction in the concentration of the tested cytokines; 10 microM (12 to 37% reduction) and 1 microM to (6 to 27% reduction). At 0.1 microM, a significant reduction could only be observed in the release of interleukin-2 by bronchoalveolar lavage cells. These results demonstrate, that ambroxol exhibits anti-inflammatory actions in concentrations achievable in vivo.

  17. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantification of tetrastatin in body fluids and tumor extracts.

    PubMed

    Dupont-Deshorgue, A; Oudart, J B; Brassart, B; Deslee, G; Perotin, J M; Diebold, M D; Monboisse, J C; Ramont, L; Brassart-Pasco, S

    2015-08-01

    Basement membrane collagens or derived fragments are measured in biological fluids such as blood and urine of patients and appear to be useful for diagnosis, prognostication, or treatment monitoring as proposed for endostatin, a fragment of collagen XVIII, or tumstatin, a fragment of collagen IV. Tetrastatin, the NC1 alpha 4 collagen IV domain, was previously reported to inhibit tumor growth and angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method to measure tetrastatin concentrations in human fluids. We developed a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). It allowed measuring tetrastatin levels in human serum, bronchial aspiration and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, and lung tissue extracts. The tetrastatin level was significantly higher in tumor tissues than in healthy lung tissues. Tetrastatin competitive ELISA could be useful to quantify tetrastatin in tissues and biological fluids for the diagnosis or prognostication of diseases in which basement membrane metabolism may be altered, especially tumor progression. PMID:25935259

  18. [Determining the volume of solution necessary for intraoperative disinfection lavage of the abdominal cavity in diffuse suppurative peritonitis].

    PubMed

    Nifant'ev, O E; Popov, A E; Voevodina, T V; Okolelova, E V

    1990-01-01

    The advantages of lavage of the abdominal cavity in diffuse purulent peritonitis by means of a developed device "Geyser" are shown. Changes in the bacterial contamination, toxicity and metabolite contents in the lavage solution and peritoneum depended on a volume of the fluid used.

  19. [Determining the volume of solution necessary for intraoperative disinfection lavage of the abdominal cavity in diffuse suppurative peritonitis].

    PubMed

    Nifant'ev, O E; Popov, A E; Voevodina, T V; Okolelova, E V

    1990-01-01

    The advantages of lavage of the abdominal cavity in diffuse purulent peritonitis by means of a developed device "Geyser" are shown. Changes in the bacterial contamination, toxicity and metabolite contents in the lavage solution and peritoneum depended on a volume of the fluid used. PMID:2338787

  20. The effect of peritoneal lavage on the postoperative course after colonic anastomosis and perforation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Arnesjö, B; Breland, U; Petersson, B G

    1975-01-01

    Peritoneal lavage was given during four days to rats subjected either to transection and re-anastomosis or perforation of the descending part of the colon or caecum. Control rats were treated in the smae way but did not receive peritoneal lavage. The rats which were treated with a colonic anastomosis and peritoneal lavage had significantly less abdominal adhesions, peritonitis and peritoneal fluid observed at autopsy 11 or 60 days after surgery. No rats developed anastomosis insufficiency and all survived. Peritoneal lavage in rats subjected to colonic or caecal perforation increased the survival time and reduced the mortality rate, the frequency of adhesions and the signs of peritonitis. An increased frequency of peritoneal adhesions was observed after extensive mobilization of the colon during operation when no peritoneal lavage had been given. The peritoneal lavage catheter per se did not cause adhesions.

  1. Cellular and inflammatory responses in bronchoalveolar lavage and lungs in rats after intratracheal instillation of Libby amphibole or amosite asbestos

    EPA Science Inventory

    The high incidence of asbestos-related disease in residents of Libby, Montana, is associated with the mining of asbestos-contaminated vermiculite, but the etiology of disease related to Libby amphibole asbestos (LA) exposure is unclear. In this study, water elutriation was used t...

  2. Enzyme activities of lung lavage in silicosis.

    PubMed

    Larivée, P; Cantin, A; Dufresne, A; Bégin, R

    1990-01-01

    The cytotoxic effect of quartz on lung cells has been well documented by in vitro and animal studies, but the pertinence of these findings to humans has not yet been documented. We measured lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities in the lung lavage of 24 long-term workers in the Québec granite industry and 25 control subjects. We found significant increases in LDH activities in the workers' lung lavage, even in the absence of established silicosis (9 subjects). We looked at a similar observation in the sheep model of early silicosis, measured quartz content of lung lavage, and found significant correlation with LDH levels (R = 0.64, p less than 0.001). All of the quartz particles in human and sheep lung lavage were in the alveolar macrophages. To test further the relationship of macrophage damage (cytotoxicity of quartz) we measured the release of LDH by sheep alveolar macrophage in 24 h cell culture under control conditions, exposure to inert dust, titanium, minusil-5 quartz, or aluminum-treated quartz. The LDH release was at control levels during titanium exposure and showed a significantly dose-related increase during quartz exposure. The latter cytotoxic effect was largely attenuated by aluminum treatment of quartz. These in vitro data agreed with previous reports. This study presents evidence of a cytotoxic effect of quartz inhalation in humans. The effect is related to the intensity of quartz retention in the lung macrophages; it is not a nonspecific dust exposure effect and can be attenuated by surface modification of the quartz.

  3. Bronchoalveolar hemostasis in lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Glas, G J; Van Der Sluijs, K F; Schultz, M J; Hofstra, J-J H; Van Der Poll, T; Levi, M

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced intrapulmonary fibrin deposition as a result of abnormal broncho-alveolar fibrin turnover is a hallmark of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pneumonia and ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), and is important to the pathogenesis of these conditions. The mechanisms that contribute to alveolar coagulopathy are localized tissue factor-mediated thrombin generation, impaired activity of natural coagulation inhibitors and depression of bronchoalveolar urokinase plasminogen activator-mediated fibrinolysis, caused by the increase of plasminogen activator inhibitors. There is an intense and bidirectional interaction between coagulation and inflammatory pathways in the bronchoalveolar compartment. Systemic or local administration of anticoagulant agents (including activated protein C, antithrombin and heparin) and profibrinolytic agents (such as plasminogen activators) attenuate pulmonary coagulopathy. Several preclinical studies show additional anti-inflammatory effects of these therapies in ARDS and pneumonia. PMID:23114008

  4. Effect of intrabronchially instilled amosite on lavagable lung and pleural cells.

    PubMed Central

    Oberdoerster, G; Ferin, J; Marcello, N L; Meinhold, S H

    1983-01-01

    Rats were instilled intrabronchially with 1 mg UICC amosite suspended in 0.2 mL of filtered saline; control animals received the saline instillation only. Five animals from each group were killed on various days after instillation, up to day 128/129. Total retrieved cell counts and differential cell analysis were performed from lung and pleural lavages. In particular, the appearance of peroxidase-positive macrophages (PPM) as indicators of newly arrived macrophages was investigated. Polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) and PPMs in lung lavages increased in number 24 hr after amosite instillation and remained at increased levels until day 62. Alveolar macrophage numbers were significantly decreased after amosite instillation. There was only a very transient increase of PPMs and PMNs in the saline group. The number of PPMs in pleural lavage fluid was already increased 24 hr after amosite instillation. The pleural PPM increase was sustained throughout the study. No pleural reaction was seen in the saline instilled group. The inflammatory reactions indicated by the composition of the lavaged cells of the lung represent the in vivo toxicity of intrabronchially instilled amosite. The stimulus for recruitment of PMNs and PPMs is different, since no PMN response was detected in the pleural space. It is suggested that the response of the pleural PPMs is caused by the early arrival of fibers at the pleural sites, which results in the recruitment of PPMs to this space by an unknown mechanism. PMID:6315380

  5. A new easy method for specific measurement of active myeloperoxidase in human biological fluids and tissue extracts.

    PubMed

    Franck, T; Kohnen, S; Boudjeltia, K Zouaoui; Van Antwerpen, P; Bosseloir, A; Niesten, A; Gach, O; Nys, M; Deby-Dupont, G; Serteyn, D

    2009-12-15

    The SIEFED ("Specific Immunological Extraction Followed by Enzymatic Detection") method already developed for the specific detection of the activity of equine myeloperoxidase (MPO) was adapted for the specific measurement of active human MPO in biological fluids or tissue extracts. The method consists of the extraction of MPO from aqueous solutions by immobilized anti-MPO antibodies followed by a washing (to eliminate the extraction medium and the biological fluid with their possible interfering molecules) and the measurement of the activity of MPO with a detection system containing a fluorogenic substrate, H(2)O(2) and nitrite ions as reaction enhancer. The SIEFED was applied to study active MPO in human biological fluids (plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and supernatant from carotids extracts). The SIEFED for human MPO has a sensitivity limit of 0.080 mU/mL and showed good precision with intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation below 10 and 20% respectively within a broad range of MPO activities establish from 0.156 to 473 mU/mL. The SIEFED for human MPO will be useful for the specific detection of active MPO in complex fluids and can be complementary to an ELISA to determine an active/total MPO ratio in healthy volunteers and patients especially in case of chronic or acute inflammatory diseases.

  6. Elevated levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in pulmonary edema fluid are associated with mortality in acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Prabhakaran, Priya; Ware, Lorraine B; White, Kimberly E; Cross, Michael T; Matthay, Michael A; Olman, Mitchell A

    2003-07-01

    The alveolar fibrinolytic system is altered in acute lung injury (ALI). Levels of the fibrinolytic protease inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), are too low in bronchoalveolar lavage to address its prognostic significance. This study was performed to assess whether PAI-1 antigen in undiluted pulmonary edema fluid levels can identify patients with ALI and predict their outcome. PAI-1 antigen levels in both plasma and edema fluid were higher in ALI compared with hydrostatic edema, and edema fluid PAI-1 values identified those with ALI with high sensitivity and specificity. Both the high plasma and edema fluid PAI-1 antigen values were associated with a higher mortality rate and fewer days of unassisted ventilation in patients with ALI. Differences in PAI-1 activity were concordant with levels of PAI-1 antigen. Although the fibrin-derived alveolar D-dimer levels were strikingly similar in both groups, ALI patients had a higher relative proportion of D-monomer. In conclusion, PAI-1 levels in edema fluid and plasma identify those with ALI that have a poor prognosis. The data indicate that fibrin turnover in early ALI is a consequence of a rapid fibrinogen influx and fractional fibrinolytic inhibition.

  7. Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome: Life Saving Role of Peritoneal Lavage and Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Minako; Oyama, Fumie; Ito, Asami; Yokota, Megumi; Matsukura, Daisuke; Tsutsumi, Shinji; Kasai, Tomonori; Nitobe, Yohshiro; Morikawa, Akiko; Ozaki, Takashi; Yokoyama, Yoshihito

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We encountered a case where an infection with group A streptococcus (GAS; ie, Streptococcus pyogenes) initially caused primary peritonitis and then subsequently caused streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The patient’s life was likely saved by an emergency laparotomy followed by extensive peritoneal lavage and drainage. CASE PRESENTATION A 40-year-old woman was admitted to the Emergency Department for lower abdominal pain and numbness in the extremities. She presented with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. An emergency laparotomy was performed, and ascites that resembled pus and general peritonitis were noted. Peritoneal lavage and drainage were performed, and GAS was isolated from peritoneal fluid. Gram staining of cervical polyp specimens revealed Gram-positive bacteria. CONCLUSIONS The patient was diagnosed with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome due to an ascending GAS infection originating from vagina. PMID:27579001

  8. Palisade dorsoventral lavage for neglected peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Losanoff, J; Kjossev, K

    1997-02-01

    A modification of the procedure of laparostomy with palisade dorsoventral lavage for treating neglected peritonitis is described. It consists of adding a polyethylene foil to cover the intestines and thus avoiding the direct contact between them from one side, and the suction drains and the palisade laparostomy screen from the other. Between 1988 and 1995, 19 patients with neglected peritonitis (APACHE II scores from 12 to 42; mean 22.3) were managed using this modified technique. A total of 81 reexplorations were done (average, 4.3 reexplorations per patient). The technique proved effective (21% mortality, n = 4). No intestinal perforations, fistulas, or residual pus collections occurred among survivors or among those who died. Primary fascial closure was achieved in all survivors and during an 18-months followup, no incisional hernia occurred. Based on these results, we believe this technique is extremely useful when both laparostomy and continuous peritoneal irrigations are considered in patients with neglected peritonitis.

  9. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage in evaluating acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Barbee, C L; Gilsdorf, R B

    1975-06-01

    A study was performed to determine the value of peritoneal lavage in the acute abdomen not related to trauma. Lavage was performed in 33 patients in the evaluation of abdominal pain of sufficient degree to warrant consideration for surgical intervention. Peritoneal lavage was truly positive or truly negative in 64% of the cases. It showed false negative results in 28% and false positive results in 8%. The lavage was most accurate in the evaluation of appendicitis, colonic disease, and intra abdominal bleeding. It was highly inaccurate in the evaluation of cholecystitis and peptic ulcer disease. It was concluded that the peritoneal lavage can be a useful adjunct in the evaluation of patients with abdominal pain and should be considered in difficult diagnostic problems but not routinely employed.

  10. Yttrium and lanthanides in human lung fluids, probing the exposure to atmospheric fallout.

    PubMed

    Censi, P; Tamburo, E; Speziale, S; Zuddas, P; Randazzo, L A; Punturo, R; Cuttitta, A; Aricò, P

    2011-02-28

    Inhalation of airborne particles can produce crystallization of phosphatic microcrysts in intraaveolar areas of lungs, sometimes degenerating into pulmonary fibrosis. Results of this study indicate that these pathologies are induced by interactions between lung fluids and inhaled atmospheric dust in people exposed to volcanic dust ejected from Mount Etna in 2001. Here, the lung solid-liquid interaction is evaluated by the distribution of yttrium and lanthanides (YLn) in fluid bronchoalveolar lavages on selected individuals according the classical geochemical approaches. We found that shale-normalised patterns of yttrium and lanthanides have a 'V shaped' feature corresponding to the depletion of elements from Nd to Tb when compared to the variable enrichments of heavy lanthanides, Y, La and Ce. These features and concurrent thermodynamic simulations suggest that phosphate precipitation can occur in lungs due to interactions between volcanic particles and fluids. We propose that patterns of yttrium and lanthanides can represent a viable explanation of some pathology observed in patients after prolonged exposure to atmospheric fallout and are suitable to become a diagnostic parameter of chemical environmental stresses.

  11. [Course of hay fever during the pollen season with respect to the effect of specific immunotherapy. II. Cytologic changes and chemotactic activity in nasal lavage].

    PubMed

    Rozniecka, M; Kowałski, M L; Grzegorczyk, J; Wojciechowska, B; Sliwińska-Kowalska, M; Rozniecki, J

    1995-01-01

    The cytological changes and chemotactic activity in nasal lavage fluid were observed in 27 patients with pollen allergy. In one group of patients Pollinex was administered, but in the second--only placebo. Total cell count in nasal secretions was increased after pollen season. The significant increase of eosinophils and metachromatic cells was observed during the season in comparison with the time before and after it. No seasonal dynamic was documented in chemotactic activity of neutrophils in the nasal lavage fluid. Applied immunotherapy gave a some protection on evaluated parameters and observed symptoms.

  12. Clinical effects of laparotomy with perioperative continuous peritoneal lavage and postoperative hemofiltration in patients with severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The elevated serum and peritoneal cytokine concentrations responsible for the systemic response syndrome (SIRS) and multiorgan failure in patients with severe acute pancreatitis lead to high morbidity and mortality rates. Prompted by reports underlining the importance of reducing circulating inflammatory mediators in severe acute pancreatitis, we designed this study to evaluate the efficiency of laparotomy followed by continuous perioperative peritoneal lavage combined with postoperative continuous venovenous diahemofiltration (CVVDH) in managing critically ill patients refractory to intensive care therapy. As the major clinical outcome variables we measured morbidity, mortality and changes in the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score and cytokine concentrations in serum and peritoneal lavage fluid over time. Methods From a consecutive group of 23 patients hospitalized for acute pancreatitis, we studied 6 patients all with Apache II scores ≥19, who underwent emergency surgery for acute complications (5 for an abdominal compartment syndrome and 1 for septic shock) followed by continuous perioperative peritoneal lavage and postoperative CVVDH. CVVDH was started within 12 hours after surgery and maintained for at least 72 hours, until the multiorgan dysfunction syndrome improved. Samples were collected from serum, peritoneal lavage fluid and CVVDH dialysate for cytokine assay. Apache II scores were measured daily and their association with cytokine levels was assessed. Results All six patients tolerated CVVDH well, and the procedure lasted a mean 6 days (range, 3-12). Five patients survived and one died of Acinetobacter infection after surgery (mortality rate 16.6%). The mean APACHE II score was ≥ 19 (range 19-22) before laparotomy and decreased significantly during peritoneal lavage and postoperative CVVDH (P = 0.013 by matched-pairs Students t-test). The decrease in cytokine concentrations in serum and lavage fluid was

  13. Receptor for advanced glycation end-products regulates lung fluid balance via protein kinase C-gp91(phox) signaling to epithelial sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Downs, Charles A; Kreiner, Lisa H; Johnson, Nicholle M; Brown, Lou Ann; Helms, My N

    2015-01-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), a multiligand member of the Ig family, may play a crucial role in the regulation of lung fluid balance. We quantified soluble RAGE (sRAGE), a decoy isoform, and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of smokers and nonsmokers, and tested the hypothesis that AGEs regulate lung fluid balance through protein kinase C (PKC)-gp91(phox) signaling to the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). Human bronchoalveolar lavage samples from smokers showed increased AGEs (9.02 ± 3.03 μg versus 2.48 ± 0.53 μg), lower sRAGE (1,205 ± 292 pg/ml versus 1,910 ± 263 pg/ml), and lower volume(s) of epithelial lining fluid (97 ± 14 ml versus 133 ± 17 ml). sRAGE levels did not predict ELF volumes in nonsmokers; however, in smokers, higher volumes of ELF were predicted with higher levels of sRAGE. Single-channel patch clamp analysis of rat alveolar epithelial type 1 cells showed that AGEs increased ENaC activity measured as the product of the number of channels (N) and the open probability (Po) (NPo) from 0.19 ± 0.08 to 0.83 ± 0.22 (P = 0.017) and the subsequent addition of 4-hydroxy-2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl decreased ENaC NPo to 0.15 ± 0.07 (P = 0.01). In type 2 cells, human AGEs increased ENaC NPo from 0.12 ± 0.05 to 0.53 ± 0.16 (P = 0.025) and the addition of 4-hydroxy-2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl decreased ENaC NPo to 0.10 ± 0.03 (P = 0.013). Using molecular and biochemical techniques, we observed that inhibition of RAGE and PKC activity attenuated AGE-induced activation of ENaC. AGEs induced phosphorylation of p47(phox) and increased gp91(phox)-dependent reactive oxygen species production, a response that was abrogated with RAGE or PKC inhibition. Finally, tracheal instillation of AGEs promoted clearance of lung fluid, whereas concomitant inhibition of RAGE, PKC, and gp91(phox) abrogated the response. PMID:24978055

  14. [Characteristics of hay fever during pollen season with regard to the influence of specific immunotherapy. I. Clinical course and biochemical changes in nasal lavage].

    PubMed

    Rozniecka, M; Kowalski, M; Grzegorczyk, J; Wojciechowska, B; Sliwińska-Kowalska, M; Rozniecki, J

    1995-01-01

    Nasal lavage is a useful tool for monitoring of inflammatory process in pollinosis. In 27 patients with pollen allergy the nasal lavage was performed before, during and after pollen season. The concentration of total protein, albumin and lysozyme were determined in obtained fluid. In one group Pollinex (Bencard) was applied before pollen season, and in the second one--placebo in similar injections. The concentrations of total protein in nasal lavage fluid was significantly lower after the pollen season in both analyzed groups. On the other hand, the concentrations of albumin and lysozyme were increased during pollen season relatively to values before and after the season. In patients treated with Pollinex observed values after the season were lower than in placebo group.

  15. Deficiency of vitamin E in the alveolar fluid of cigarette smokers. Influence on alveolar macrophage cytotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Pacht, E R; Kaseki, H; Mohammed, J R; Cornwell, D G; Davis, W B

    1986-01-01

    Cigarette smoking produces oxidant-mediated changes in the lung important to the pathogenesis of emphysema. Since vitamin E can neutralize reactive oxygen species and prevent peroxidation of unsaturated lipids, it may constitute an important component of the lung's defense against oxidant injury. To better characterize the antioxidant protective role of vitamin E, young asymptomatic smokers and nonsmokers were evaluated by bronchoalveolar lavage before and immediately after a 3-wk course of oral vitamin E (2,400 IU/d). Smoker alveolar fluid at baseline was relatively deficient in vitamin E compared with nonsmoker fluid (3.1 +/- 0.7 ng/ml vs. 20.7 +/- 2.4 ng/ml, P less than 0.005). Although smoker alveolar fluid vitamin E levels increased to 9.3 +/- 2.3 ng/ml after supplementation, the levels remained significantly lower than nonsmoker baseline levels (P less than 0.01). This deficiency was explained, in part, by the increased oxidative metabolism of vitamin E to the quinone form in the lungs of smokers compared with nonsmokers. Although the significance of a lower concentration of alveolar fluid vitamin E is unclear, it may compromise the antioxidant protection afforded by the alveolar fluid as it coats the lung's epithelial surface. The protective role of vitamin E was assessed by cytotoxicity experiments, which demonstrated that the killing of normal rat lung parenchymal cells by smoker alveolar macrophages was inversely related to the vitamin E content of the parenchymal cells. These findings suggest that vitamin E may be an important lower respiratory tract antioxidant, and that the deficiency seen in young smokers may predispose them to an enhanced oxidant attack on their lung parenchymal cells. PMID:3949977

  16. In vivo bronchoalveolar macrophage defense against Rhizopus oryzae and Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Waldorf, A R; Levitz, S M; Diamond, R D

    1984-11-01

    The ability of bronchoalveolar macrophages from normal, diabetic, and cortisone-treated mice to inhibit spore germination and kill fungal spores in vivo was investigated. The data indicated that the normal host controls different fungal infections in the lungs by different mechanisms. Prevention of mucormycosis required inhibition of fungal spore germination by alveolar macrophages. In contrast, pulmonary defense against aspergillosis depended on early killing of conidia by alveolar macrophages and not on inhibition of germination by bronchoalveolar macrophages. Bronchoalveolar macrophages in diabetic and cortisone-treated animals allowed fungal spore germination, thereby permitting infection by Rhizopus oryzae. In the cortisone-treated mouse, bronchoalveolar macrophages did not kill fungal conidia and progressive infection by Aspergillus fumigatus occurred. Fungicidal activity of bronchoalveolar macrophages was measured with a new in vivo killing assay.

  17. [Intrauterine lavage in the treatment and prevention of puerperal endometritis].

    PubMed

    Mirov, I M; Avdeev, Iu V; Solomatina, L M

    1993-01-01

    Addition of intrauterine lavage with cooled furacilin solution (0-4 degrees C) to a complex of treatment of 87 patients with postpartum endometritis resulted in a sooner recovery as against that in 61 patients administered traditional treatment alone; such a therapeutic course required lesser amounts of drugs, too. To specify endometritis severity and monitor the treatment efficacy, metro-aspirated specimen cytology was examined. Preventive lavage of the uterine cavity postpartum in cases with a 'dry' period longer than 24 h and other factors of risk of infectious complications proved to be highly effective. PMID:8250131

  18. USE OF REPEATED BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE IN RABBITS TO ASSESS POLLUTANT-INDUCED LUNG CHANGES IN AN ANIMAL MODEL OF CARDIOVASCULAR (CV) DISEASE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animal models of coronary heart disease (e.g., hyperlipidemic rabbits) are being used to investigate epidemiologic associations between higher levels of air pollution and adverse CV consequences. Mechanisms by which pollutant-induced lung or systemic inflammation leads to acute C...

  19. Nitric oxide production by rat bronchoalveolar macrophages or polymorphonuclear leukocytes following intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide or silica.

    PubMed

    Huffman, L J; Prugh, D J; Millecchia, L; Schuller, K C; Cantrell, S; Porter, D W

    2003-02-01

    Exposure of the lung to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or silica results in an activation of alveolar macrophages (AMs), recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) into bronchoalveolar spaces, and the production of free radicals. Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the free radicals generated by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell populations following either LPS or silica exposure. The purpose of the present study was to assess the relative contributions of AMs and PMNs to the amounts of NO produced by BAL cells following intratracheal (IT) instillation of either LPS or silica. Male Sprague Dawley rats (265-340 g body wt.) were given LPS (10 mg/100 g body wt.) or silica (5 mg/100 g body wt.). BAL cells were harvested 18-24 h post-IT and enriched for AMs or PMNs using density gradient centrifugation. Media levels of nitrate and nitrite (NOx; the stable decomposition products of NO) were then measured 18 h after ex vivo culture of these cells. Following IT exposure to either LPS or silica, BAL cell populations were approximately 20% AMs and approximately 80% PMNs. After density gradient centrifugation of BAL cells from LPS- or silica-treated rats, cell fractions were obtained which were relatively enriched for AMs (approximately 60%) or PMNs (approximately 90%). The amounts of NOx produced by the AM-enriched fractions from LPS- or silica-treated rats were approximately 2-4-fold greater than that produced by the PMN-enriched fractions. Estimations of the relative contribution of AMs or PMNs to the NOx produced indicated that: (i) following LPS treatment, 75%-89% of the NOx was derived from AMs and 11%-25% from PMNs; and (ii) following silica treatment, 76%-100% of the NOx was derived from AMs and 0-24% from PMNs. Immunohistochemistry for inducible NO synthase on lung tissue sections supported these findings. We conclude that AMs are the major source of the NO produced by BAL cells during acute pulmonary inflammatory responses to LPS or silica. PMID:12682422

  20. Maxillary antral lavage using inferior meatal cannula anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Mochloulis, G; Hern, J D; Hollis, L J; Tolley, N S

    1996-08-01

    Antral puncture and lavage through the inferior meatus is a minor but common otolaryngological procedure, usually performed under local anaesthesia. We describe a new method of introducing local anaesthetic into the inferior meatus, via the use of a soft intravenous cannula connected to a syringe containing 10 per cent cocaine paste. We have called this new technique inferior meatal cannula anaesthesia (IMCA).

  1. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to metalworking fluids: how to find the antigens.

    PubMed

    Merget, R; Sander, I; van Kampen, V; Raulf-Heimsoth, M; Rabente, T; Kolk, A; Brüning, Th

    2013-01-01

    Most surveys of outbreaks of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) in subjects with occupational exposure to water-based metalworking fluids (MWFs) were unable to detect a clear link between symptoms and the precise causative agents. We studied the case of a male 41-year-old industrial knife grinder with exposure to water-based MWFs since 12 years. The diagnosis of HP was made by typical work-related symptoms, the demonstration of high lymphocyte numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage and elevated IgG antibody concentrations to various molds in the patient's serum, and complete recovery after early exposure cessation. Whereas an environmental survey showed only low numbers of mold contamination in one sump sample, high antigenic activity was demonstrated in the same sample by antigen-specific IgG inhibition tests. We conclude that the detection of antigenic molds in water-based MWFs by culture methods may be limited. The link between occupational exposure to specific molds in MWFs and hypersensitivity pneumonitis can be established by the demonstration of antigenic activity by antigen-specific IgG inhibition tests. PMID:23835995

  2. A quantitative PCR method for assessing the presence of Pasteurella testudinis DNA in nasal lavage samples from the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii).

    PubMed

    duPre', S A; Tracy, C R; Sandmeier, F C; Hunter, K W

    2012-12-01

    Pasteurella testudinis has been associated with upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) in the threatened desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii). Our goal was to develop a sensitive and specific qPCR method for detecting DNA from P. testudinis in nasal lavage fluid collected from desert tortoises in the field. Probes for 16S ribosomal RNA and RNA polymerase β-subunit (rpoB) genes were designed. A standard curve generated with DNA extracted from known numbers of bacterial cells determined by flow cytometry revealed a lower detection limit of 50 fg/ml (10 bacteria/ml). The nasal lavage fluid contained no interfering substances, and the qPCR method did not recognize normal flora DNA. The nasal lavage samples from 20 desert tortoises captured in Clark County, Nevada, USA in 2007 and housed at the Desert Tortoise Conservation Center, were all positive for P. testudinis DNA by qPCR. Another set of 19 lavage samples collected in 2010 from wild desert tortoises in the Mojave Desert were tested and 84% were positive for P. testudinis DNA. Fully validated, this qPCR method will provide a means of determining colonization rate. When used in conjunction with serological methods and clinical evaluations, both infection rate and disease rate can be determined for this potential URTD pathogen. This new assay provides an important tool for managing the threatened populations of the Mojave Desert tortoise.

  3. Cytological and bacteriological evaluation of transendoscopic guttural pouch lavages in clinically healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Dobesova, Olga; Bezdekova, Barbora

    2016-06-01

    Thirty-eight guttural pouch lavages from 19 clinically healthy horses were collected transendoscopically. Cytological examination and bacteriological culture of the samples were carried out. All 38 lavages assessed for cytology contained less than five per cent neutrophils and could be termed as cytologically 'normal'. In none of the lavages did the neutrophil count vary between five and 25 per cent or exceed 25 per cent, which are the borderlines for being termed 'reactive' or 'pathological', respectively. Epithelial cells were the most commonly represented cell type in all lavages. Bacteriological culture was positive in 16 out of 38 lavages, but specific pathogenic bacteria were not cultivated in any of them, and only transient microflora was present. Although the relationship between the presence of specific bacteria, neutrophil count and total cell count could not be statistically evaluated due to the absence of 'reactive' and 'pathological' lavages, transendoscopic lavage appears to be a reliable method for obtaining a sample for bacteriological culture. PMID:27342089

  4. A device and technique for gastrointestinal lavage in the horse.

    PubMed

    Beroza, G A

    1989-06-01

    A device and technique for intra-operative gastro-intestinal lavage was developed to remove ingesta from the stomach, large intestine and caecum of horses. The Gastro-Intestinal Lavage System (GILS) is composed of a nozzle connected to both water under pressure and suction. Water jets across an intake portal in the nozzle, breaks up food and debris within the nozzle and is evacuated under negative pressure into the aspirating tube which is connected to a collection drum. The GILS nozzle was introduced at the pelvic flexure through a sterile enterotomy cuff and plastic sleeve. Water was first added through the GILS nozzle to mix intestinal ingesta to form a slurry and then the effluent was evacuated into the storage container by engaging the vacuum. Comparisons of this technique were made with the standard garden hose lavage technique. The GILS enables removal of 8.1 kg of large intestinal ingesta in less than 20 mins. Cleansing of the large bowel with the GILS was rapid, complete and a contamination free procedure which should prove applicable and beneficial for surgical treatment of small colonic, caecal, rectal and gastric impactions as well as sand colic and colonic torsions. PMID:9118117

  5. Subjective results of joint lavage and viscosupplementation in hemophilic arthropathy

    PubMed Central

    de Rezende, Márcia Uchoa; Rosa, Thiago Bittencourt Carvalho; Pasqualin, Thiago; Frucchi, Renato; Okazaki, Erica; Villaça, Paula Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether joint lavage, viscosupplementation and triamcinolone improve joint pain, function and quality of life in patients with severe hemophilic arthropathy. METHODS: Fourteen patients with knee and/or ankle hemophilic arthritis with and without involvement of other joints underwent joint lavage and subsequent injection of hylan G-F20 and triamcinolone in all affected joints. The patients answered algo-functional questionnaires (Lequesne and WOMAC), visual analog scale for pain (VAS) and SF-36 preoperatively, and at one, three, six and twelve months postoperatively. RESULTS: Sixteen knees, 15 ankles, 8 elbows and one shoulder were treated in 14 patients. Six patients had musculoskeletal bleeding [ankle (1), leg muscle (2) and knees (4)] at 3 months affecting the results. Pain did not improve significantly. Function improved (WOMAC p=0.02 and Lequesne p=0.01). The physical component of SF-36 improved at all time points except at 3 months, with best results at one-year follow-up (baseline = 33.4; 1 month = 39.6; 3 months= 37.6; 6 months 39.6 and 1 year = 44.6; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Joint lavage followed by injection of triamcinolone and hylan G-F20 improves function and quality of life progressively up to a year, even in severe hemophilic arthropathy. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:26207096

  6. pH in exhaled breath condensate and nasal lavage as a biomarker of air pollution-related inflammation in street traffic-controllers and office-workers

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Thamires Marques; Kazama, Cristiane Mayumi; Koczulla, Andreas Rembert; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Macchione, Mariangela; Fernandes, Ana Luisa Godoy; de Paula Santos, Ubiratan; Bueno-Garcia, Maria Lucia; Zanetta, Dirce Maria; de André, Carmen Diva Saldiva; Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento; Nakagawa, Naomi Kondo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To utilize low-cost and simple methods to assess airway and lung inflammation biomarkers related to air pollution. METHODS: A total of 87 male, non-smoking, healthy subjects working as street traffic-controllers or office-workers were examined to determine carbon monoxide in exhaled breath and to measure the pH in nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate. Air pollution exposure was measured by particulate matter concentration, and data were obtained from fixed monitoring stations (8-h work intervals per day, during the 5 consecutive days prior to the study). RESULTS: Exhaled carbon monoxide was two-fold greater in traffic-controllers than in office-workers. The mean pH values were 8.12 in exhaled breath condensate and 7.99 in nasal lavage fluid in office-workers; these values were lower in traffic-controllers (7.80 and 7.30, respectively). Both groups presented similar cytokines concentrations in both substrates, however, IL-1β and IL-8 were elevated in nasal lavage fluid compared with exhaled breath condensate. The particulate matter concentration was greater at the workplace of traffic-controllers compared with that of office-workers. CONCLUSION: The pH values of nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate are important, robust, easy to measure and reproducible biomarkers that can be used to monitor occupational exposure to air pollution. Additionally, traffic-controllers are at an increased risk of airway and lung inflammation during their occupational activities compared with office-workers. PMID:24473505

  7. Surgical uterine drainage and lavage as treatment for canine pyometra.

    PubMed

    De Cramer, K G M

    2010-09-01

    Pyometra is a common post-oestral syndrome in bitches. Classical treatment consists of either ovariohystorectomy or medical intervention. Surgical uterine drainage and lavage via direct trans-cervical catheterisation using a 5% povidone-iodine in saline solution was performed successfully in 8 bitches with pyometra. All bitches conceived and whelped without complications subsequent to this treatment. It is concluded that this method offers an effective alternative treatment for canine pyometra with shorter recovery times as well as good clinical recovery and pregnancy rates in bitches destined for further breeding. PMID:21247045

  8. Effect of bronchopulmonary lavage on lung retention and clearance of particulate material in hamsters.

    PubMed Central

    Ellender, M; Hodgson, A; Wood, K L; Moody, J C

    1992-01-01

    Hamsters were exposed to an aerosol of fused aluminosilicate particles (FAP) labeled with 57Co. Three groups of animals were given bronchopulmonary lavage, beginning at either 1 week, 1 month, or 6 months after exposure. Each treated group was lavaged eight times over a period of 25 days. Each lavage involved 10 saline washes of the lungs. For each group, about 60-70% of the body content of 57Co at the start of lavage treatment was removed; nearly half of this was recovered in the first two lavages. A positive correlation was demonstrated between the macrophage content and 57Co activity of the washings. The subsequent fractional clearance rate of 57Co from lavaged animals was not significantly different from that in a group of untreated control animals. PMID:1396460

  9. Effect of bronchopulmonary lavage on lung retention and clearance of particulate material in hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Ellender, M.; Hodgson, A.; Wood, K.L.; Moody, J.C. )

    1992-07-01

    Hamsters were exposed to an aerosol of fused aluminosilicate particles (FAP) labeled with [sup 57]CO. Three groups of animals were given bronchopulmonary lavage, beginning at either 1 week, 1 month, or 6 months after exposure. Each treated group was lavaged eight times over a period of 25 days. Each lavage involved 10 saline washes of the lungs. For each group, about 60-70% of the body content of [sup 57]CO at the start of lavage treatment was removed; nearly half of this was recovered in the first two lavages. A positive correlation was demonstrated between the macrophage content and [sup 57]Co activity of the washings. The subsequent fractional clearance rate of [sup 57]Co from lavaged animals was not significantly different from that in a group of untreated control animals. 30 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Analysis of a Panel of 48 Cytokines in BAL Fluids Specifically Identifies IL-8 Levels as the Only Cytokine that Distinguishes Controlled Asthma from Uncontrolled Asthma, and Correlates Inversely with FEV1.

    PubMed

    Hosoki, Koa; Ying, Sun; Corrigan, Christopher; Qi, Huibin; Kurosky, Alexander; Jennings, Kristofer; Sun, Qian; Boldogh, Istvan; Sur, Sanjiv

    2015-01-01

    We sought to identify cells and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids that distinguish asthma from healthy control subjects and those that distinguish controlled asthma from uncontrolled asthma. Following informed consent, 36 human subjects were recruited for this study. These included 11 healthy control subjects, 15 subjects with controlled asthma with FEV1≥80% predicted and 10 subjects with uncontrolled asthma with FEV1 <80% predicted. BAL fluid was obtained from all subjects. The numbers of different cell types and the levels of 48 cytokines were measured in these fluids. Compared to healthy control subjects, patients with asthma had significantly more percentages of eosinophils and neutrophils, IL-1RA, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2Rα, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, G-CSF, GROα (CXCL1), MIP-1β (CCL4), MIG (CXCL9), RANTES (CCL5) and TRAIL in their BAL fluids. The only inflammatory markers that distinguished controlled asthma from uncontrolled asthma were neutrophil percentage and IL-8 levels, and both were inversely correlated with FEV1. We examined whether grouping asthma subjects on the basis of BAL eosinophil % or neutrophil % could identify specific cytokine profiles. The only differences between neutrophil-normal asthma (neutrophil≤2.4%) and neutrophil-high asthma (neutrophils%>2.4%) were a higher BAL fluid IL-8 levels, and a lower FEV1 in the latter group. By contrast, compared to eosinophil-normal asthma (eosinophils≤0.3%), eosinophil-high asthma (eosinophils>0.3%) had higher levels of IL-5, IL-13, IL-16, and PDGF-bb, but same neutrophil percentage, IL-8, and FEV1. Our results identify neutrophils and IL-8 are the only inflammatory components in BAL fluids that distinguish controlled asthma from uncontrolled asthma, and both correlate inversely with FEV1.

  11. Analysis of a Panel of 48 Cytokines in BAL Fluids Specifically Identifies IL-8 Levels as the Only Cytokine that Distinguishes Controlled Asthma from Uncontrolled Asthma, and Correlates Inversely with FEV1.

    PubMed

    Hosoki, Koa; Ying, Sun; Corrigan, Christopher; Qi, Huibin; Kurosky, Alexander; Jennings, Kristofer; Sun, Qian; Boldogh, Istvan; Sur, Sanjiv

    2015-01-01

    We sought to identify cells and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids that distinguish asthma from healthy control subjects and those that distinguish controlled asthma from uncontrolled asthma. Following informed consent, 36 human subjects were recruited for this study. These included 11 healthy control subjects, 15 subjects with controlled asthma with FEV1≥80% predicted and 10 subjects with uncontrolled asthma with FEV1 <80% predicted. BAL fluid was obtained from all subjects. The numbers of different cell types and the levels of 48 cytokines were measured in these fluids. Compared to healthy control subjects, patients with asthma had significantly more percentages of eosinophils and neutrophils, IL-1RA, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2Rα, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, G-CSF, GROα (CXCL1), MIP-1β (CCL4), MIG (CXCL9), RANTES (CCL5) and TRAIL in their BAL fluids. The only inflammatory markers that distinguished controlled asthma from uncontrolled asthma were neutrophil percentage and IL-8 levels, and both were inversely correlated with FEV1. We examined whether grouping asthma subjects on the basis of BAL eosinophil % or neutrophil % could identify specific cytokine profiles. The only differences between neutrophil-normal asthma (neutrophil≤2.4%) and neutrophil-high asthma (neutrophils%>2.4%) were a higher BAL fluid IL-8 levels, and a lower FEV1 in the latter group. By contrast, compared to eosinophil-normal asthma (eosinophils≤0.3%), eosinophil-high asthma (eosinophils>0.3%) had higher levels of IL-5, IL-13, IL-16, and PDGF-bb, but same neutrophil percentage, IL-8, and FEV1. Our results identify neutrophils and IL-8 are the only inflammatory components in BAL fluids that distinguish controlled asthma from uncontrolled asthma, and both correlate inversely with FEV1. PMID:26011707

  12. Elevated levels of the complement activation product C4d in bronchial fluids for the diagnosis of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ajona, Daniel; Razquin, Cristina; Pastor, Maria Dolores; Pajares, Maria Jose; Garcia, Javier; Cardenal, Felipe; Fleischhacker, Michael; Lozano, Maria Dolores; Zulueta, Javier J; Schmidt, Bernd; Nadal, Ernest; Paz-Ares, Luis; Montuenga, Luis M; Pio, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Molecular markers in bronchial fluids may contribute to the diagnosis of lung cancer. We previously observed a significant increase of C4d-containing complement degradation fragments in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) supernatants from lung cancer patients in a cohort of 50 cases and 22 controls (CUN cohort). The present study was designed to determine the diagnostic performance of these complement fragments (hereinafter jointly referred as C4d) in bronchial fluids. C4d levels were determined in BAL supernatants from two independent cohorts: the CU cohort (25 cases and 26 controls) and the HUVR cohort (60 cases and 98 controls). A series of spontaneous sputum samples from 68 patients with lung cancer and 10 controls was also used (LCCCIO cohort). Total protein content, complement C4, complement C5a, and CYFRA 21-1 were also measured in all cohorts. C4d levels were significantly increased in BAL samples from lung cancer patients. The area under the ROC curve was 0.82 (95%CI = 0.71-0.94) and 0.67 (95%CI = 0.58-0.76) for the CU and HUVR cohorts, respectively. In addition, unlike the other markers, C4d levels in BAL samples were highly consistent across the CUN, CU and HUVR cohorts. Interestingly, C4d test markedly increased the sensitivity of bronchoscopy in the two cohorts in which cytological data were available (CUN and HUVR cohorts). Finally, in the LCCCIO cohort, C4d levels were higher in sputum supernatants from patients with lung cancer (area under the ROC curve: 0.7; 95%CI = 0.56-0.83). In conclusion, C4d is consistently elevated in bronchial fluids from lung cancer patients and may be used to improve the diagnosis of the disease. PMID:25799154

  13. Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress Study IV. Are Antioxidants Markers of Ozone Exposure?

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine whether the oxidative effects of ozone would result in losses of antioxidants from plasma, and possibly bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). This research is part of a comprehensive, multilaboratory validation study searching for noninvasive biomarkers of oxidative ...

  14. Serial bronchoscopic lung lavage in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis under local anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Davis, K. Rennis; Vadakkan, D. Thomas; Krishnakumar, E. V.; Anas, A. Muhammed

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease, characterized by alveolar accumulation of surfactant composed of proteins and lipids due to defective surfactant clearance by alveolar macrophages. Mainstay of treatment is whole lung lavage, which requires general anesthesia. Herein, we report a case of primary PAP, successfully treated with serial bronchoscopic lung lavages under local anesthesia. PMID:25814803

  15. Normal volume and cellular contents of pleural fluid.

    PubMed

    Noppen, M

    2001-07-01

    The pleural space in healthy humans was thought to contain a few milliliters of fluid, based on extrapolation from animal studies. However, because of the obvious technical difficulties in atraumatically retrieving such a small volume of fluid, the exact volume and cellular content of human pleural fluid has not been known. Development of a minimally invasive pleural lavage technique has allowed, for the first time, the measurement of volume and cellular content of the pleural fluid in healthy humans. PMID:11470970

  16. Diagnostic Role of Tumour Markers CEA, CA15-3, CA19-9 and CA125 in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Indranath; Bhattacharjee, Debojyoti; Das, Anjan Kumar; Chakrabarti, Goutam; Dasgupta, Anindya; Dey, Subir Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic yield of the tumour markers carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 15-3, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 and carbohydrate antigen 125, in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in a group of patients with bronchogenic carcinoma. Serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were collected in a group of 90 patients with benign or malignant pulmonary diseases. After appropriate processing, tumour markers were determined by enzyme immunoassay. The diagnostic yields (sensitivity, specificity and predictive values) in each environment (serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) were obtained by using "Receivers operating characteristic" curve. Determined individually, carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 and carbohydrate antigen 125, showed the greatest diagnostic accuracy in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Carbohydrate antigen 15-3 did so in serum. Carcinoembryonic antigen was the most relevant marker in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. For the factors evaluated in this study, determination of carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 and carbohydrate antigen 125 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were clinically more useful markers in comparison with serum, although the latter may also be helpful in certain situations. Although there is no specific tumour marker for lung cancer, the combination of several can be used to diagnose most patients with lung cancer and also to rule out false positive and negative cases.

  17. Determination of the spermicide nonoxynol-9 in vaginal lavage by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    McPherson, J L; Nichols, J H; Barditch-Crovo, P; Hamzeh, F M

    1996-02-23

    A sensitive normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method using a bonded-phase aminosilica column has been developed for the measurement of the spermicide nonoxynol-9 in vaginal lavage fluid. The mean multiple correlation coefficient (r2) for nonoxynol-9 was 0.999 over the calibration range 3.125-50 micrograms/ml for the standards. Quality control samples measured at two different concentration levels gave intra-day precision values (coefficient of variation, C.V.) in the range of 0.61 to 1.63% and the intra-day accuracy values (mean relative error, M.R.E.) in the range of 0.13-0.62%. Inter-day precision and accuracy values from five different calibration standard concentration values ranged from 2.25 to 5.09% C.V. and 4.02 to 7.56% M.R.E. Nonoxynol-9 samples examined for peak area stability at room temperature over a 24-h time period had a M.R.E. of 14.9%. Quality control samples stored at -70 degrees C, and tested after one month by comparison to baseline samples, had a M.R.E. of -10% and 7.53% for the low and high quality control samples, respectively. The method is sensitive and simple, with short runtimes, to enable the processing of numerous samples from a clinical trial. PMID:8925098

  18. Cytokines evaluation in nasal lavage of allergic children after Bacillus clausii administration: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ciprandi, Giorgio; Tosca, Maria Angela; Milanese, Manlio; Caligo, Giacomo; Ricca, Vittorio

    2004-04-01

    Respiratory infections are very frequent in children. Bacillus clausii has been demonstrated to exert some immunomodulatory activities and to be safe. We conducted a study to investigate whether B. clausii administration in allergic children with recurrent respiratory infections might modulate cytokine pattern. Ten children (mean age 4.4 yr) attending the nursery school were enrolled at the end of school year (i.e. in the summer). Bacillus clausii spores (Enterogermina): 2 billion spores per vial) were administered at the dosage schedule of two vials a day for 4 wk. A panel of cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, interferon (IFN)-gamma, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, was measured by immunoassay in the fluid recovered from nasal lavage, performed before and after the treatment. Bacillus clausii treatment induced a significant decrease of IL-4 levels (p < 0.01) and a significant increase of IFN-gamma (p < 0.05), IL-12 (p < 0.001), TGF-beta (p < 0.05), and IL-10 (p < 0.05) levels. Other cytokines were not significantly modified. In conclusion, this study shows that the B. clausii may exert immunomodulating activity by affecting cytokine pattern at nasal level in allergic children with recurrent respiratory infections. PMID:15059191

  19. Survival Defects of Cryptococcus neoformans Mutants Exposed to Human Cerebrospinal Fluid Result in Attenuated Virulence in an Experimental Model of Meningitis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anthony; Toffaletti, Dena L.; Tenor, Jennifer; Soderblom, Erik J.; Thompson, J. Will; Moseley, M. Arthur; Price, Michael; Perfect, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungal pathogen that encounters various microenvironments during growth in the mammalian host, including intracellular vacuoles, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Because the CSF is isolated by the blood-brain barrier, we hypothesize that CSF presents unique stresses that C. neoformans must overcome to establish an infection. We assayed 1,201 mutants for survival defects in growth media, saline, and human CSF. We assessed CSF-specific mutants for (i) mutant survival in both human bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and fetal bovine serum (FBS), (ii) survival in macrophages, and (iii) virulence using both Caenorhabditis elegans and rabbit models of cryptococcosis. Thirteen mutants exhibited significant survival defects unique to CSF. The mutations of three of these mutants were recreated in the clinical serotype A strain H99: deletions of the genes for a cation ATPase transporter (ena1Δ), a putative NEDD8 ubiquitin-like protein (rub1Δ), and a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (pik1Δ). Mutant survival rates in yeast media, saline, and BAL fluid were similar to those of the wild type; however, survival in FBS was reduced but not to the levels in CSF. These mutant strains also exhibited decreased intracellular survival in macrophages, various degrees of virulence in nematodes, and severe attenuation of survival in a rabbit meningitis model. We analyzed the CSF by mass spectrometry for candidate compounds responsible for the survival defect. Our findings indicate that the genes required for C. neoformans survival in CSF ex vivo are necessary for survival and infection in this unique host environment. PMID:20696827

  20. Peritoneal lavage in penetrating injuries of the small bowel and colon: value of enzyme determinations.

    PubMed

    Marx, J A; Moore, E E; Bar-Or, D

    1983-02-01

    The value of lavage alkaline phosphatase determinations following hollow visceral injury was studied. Twenty-nine mongrel dogs were subjected to partial transection of the small intestine or colon, or underwent sham laparotomy. Sequential diagnostic peritoneal lavage was performed. At one hour post injury the lavage red cell count, white cell count, and amylase levels were within normal limits in each group. The lavage alkaline phosphatase, however, was markedly elevated in both bowel-injured groups compared with the sham group. In the five-hour lavage, red cell counts and amylase levels remained normal. White cell counts were now elevated in all three groups, but the results did not distinguish the intestinal injury from the sham model. Lavage alkaline phosphatase was again significantly increased in the injured groups versus the sham model. Serum alkaline phosphatase and amylase levels were normal in all study groups at baseline and one and five hours post injury. This canine study demonstrates the utility of peritoneal lavage alkaline phosphatase levels in identifying isolated small intestine and colon injuries that were otherwise undetected by red cell, white cell, and amylase determinations.

  1. Prevention of bile peritonitis by laparoscopic evacuation and lavage after nonoperative treatment of liver injuries.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Glen A; Richardson, J David; Brown, Aaron L; Christmas, A Britton; Miller, Frank B; Harbrecht, Brian G; Carrillo, Eddy H

    2007-06-01

    One of the major lessons learned in the World War II experience with liver injuries was that bile peritonitis was a major factor in morbidity and mortality; the nearly uniform drainage of liver injuries in the subsequent operative era prevented this problem. In the era of nonoperative management, patients who do not require operative treatment for hemodynamic instability may develop large bile and/or blood collections that are often ignored or inadequately drained by percutaneous methods. These inadequately treated bile collections may cause systemic inflammatory response syndrome and/or respiratory distress. We present an experience with laparoscopic evacuation of major bile/blood collections that may prevent the inflammatory sequelae of bile peritonitis. Patients usually underwent operation between 3 and 5 days postinjury (range, 2-18) if CT demonstrated large fluid collections throughout the abdomen/pelvis not amenable to percutaneous drainage. Most patients had signs of systemic inflammatory response syndrome, respiratory compromise, or elevated bilirubin. The bile and retained hematoma was evacuated from around the liver and closed-suction drainage was placed. Twenty-eight patients underwent laparoscopic evacuation/lavage of bile collections (about 4% of total blunt liver injuries). The majority (75%) had Grade IV or V injury. The amount of evacuated fluid ranged from 300 to 3800 mL. Other adjunctive procedures (endoscopic retrograde pancreaticocholangiography, angiography, and laparotomy) were occasionally required. There were no complications related to the procedure. Most patients had a dramatic decline in tachycardia, temperature, white blood cell count, serum bilirubin, and pain. Respiratory failure also resolved in most patients. Large bile and/or blood accumulations are present in a subset of patients with severe liver injuries treated nonoperatively. Delayed laparoscopic evacuation of these collections prevents bile peritonitis and decreases

  2. Gastric phytobezoars may be treated by nasogastric Coca-Cola lavage.

    PubMed

    Ladas, Spiros D; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Tzathas, Charalabos; Tassios, Pericles; Rokkas, Theodore; Raptis, Sotirios A

    2002-07-01

    Large gastric phytobezoars may occur in patients with gastric dysmotility disorders. Treatment options include dissolution with enzymes, endoscopic fragmentation with removal or aspiration, and surgery. We report our experience with nasogastric cola lavage therapy. Over an 8-year period, five consecutive patients were referred to our unit for endoscopic treatment of large gastric phytobezoars. They included one patient with lobectomy for lung cancer and four patients with diabetic gastroparesis. An initial attempt of endoscopic fragmentation and removal was unsuccessful. Patients were treated with 3 l of Coca-Cola nasogastric lavage over 12 h. Nasogastric lavage was very well tolerated by the patients. Complete phytobezoar dissolution was achieved in one session in all cases. There were no procedure-related complications. The dissolution of large gastric phytobezoars with cola nasogastric lavage is a safe, rapid and effective method. Patients may be treated in the medical ward, avoiding therapeutic endoscopy or surgery.

  3. The impact of low-volume uterine lavage on endometrial biopsy classification.

    PubMed

    Linton, J K; Sertich, P L

    2016-09-01

    In the mare, the low-volume uterine lavage technique allows for bacterial sampling of the entire uterine lumen and is usually performed after obtaining the traditional double-guarded endometrial swab for aerobic culture and cytology and before procurement of an endometrial biopsy sample during a breeding soundness examination. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential effects of the low-volume lavage on the endometrial biopsy classification and polymorphonuclear cell (PMNs) infiltration in the context of a breeding soundness examination. Fourteen light horse mares of mixed breed, age 7 to 21 years, with known reproductive history, were included in the study, matched by age and reproductive history, and then divided into treatment and control groups. Transrectal palpation and ultrasonography, endometrial swabbing, and the first endometrial biopsy were performed in all mares. Low-volume uterine lavage was performed in the treatment group but not the control group. After either the lavage or a 15-minute rest, a second endometrial biopsy was obtained from both the control and treatment groups. Endometrial swabs and effluent from the low-volume lavages were submitted for aerobic culture and sensitivity. Biopsy samples were fixed in Bouin's solution for 24 hours, processed, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and then viewed under bright light microscopy. Additional staining with anti-neutrophil elastase antibody (ab68672) was performed for indirect immunohistochemistry. All samples were interpreted by a blinded observer. When the first (pre-uterine lavage) and second (post-uterine lavage) biopsies were compared using a mixed-effects logistic regression, there was no difference in endometrial biopsy classification (P = 0.74), presence of PMNs in blood vessels (P = 0.728), or infiltration of PMNs in the tissue (P = 0.934) between the treatment and control groups. In this study, the low-volume uterine lavage did not affect the endometrial biopsy

  4. Pretreatment Gastric Lavage Reduces Postoperative Bleeding after Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Gastric Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yuka; Itakura, Jun; Ueda, Ken; Suzuki, Shoko; Yasui, Yutaka; Tamaki, Nobuharu; Nakakuki, Natsuko; Takada, Hitomi; Ueda, Masako; Hayashi, Tsuguru; Kuwabara, Konomi; Takaura, Kenta; Higuchi, Mayu; Komiyama, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Tsubasa; Izumi, Namiki

    2016-01-01

    Aim For patients receiving endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), there is urgent need pertaining to the prevention of postoperative bleeding. We conducted a retrospective propensity score-matched study that evaluated whether pre-ESD gastric lavage prevents postoperative bleeding after ESD for gastric neoplasms. Methods From September 2002 to October 2015, the 760 consecutive patients receiving ESD for gastric neoplasm were enrolled and data regarding them were retrospectively analyzed. All patients received conventional preventive treatment against delayed bleeding after ESD, including the administration of proton pump inhibitor and preventive coagulation of visible vessels, at the end of the ESD procedure. Results Pre-ESD risk factors for postoperative bleeding included tumor size and no gastric lavage. Using multivariate analysis tumor size >2.0 cm (HR 2.90, 95% CI 1.65–5.10, p = 0.0002) and no gastric lavage (HR 3.20, 95% CI 1.13–9.11, p = 0.029) were found to be independent risk factors. Next, we evaluated the effect of gastric lavage on the prevention of post-ESD bleeding using a propensity score-matching method. A total of 284 subjects (142 per group) were selected. Adjusted odds ratio of gastric lavage for post-ESD bleeding was 0.25 (95% CI 0.071–0.886, p = 0.032). Conclusion Pretreatment gastric lavage reduced postoperative bleeding in patients receiving ESD for gastric neoplasm. PMID:26871449

  5. Laparoscopic Lavage Is Feasible and Safe for the Treatment of Perforated Diverticulitis With Purulent Peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Angenete, Eva; Thornell, Anders; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Skullman, Stefan; Bisgaard, Thue; Jess, Per; Läckberg, Zoltan; Matthiessen, Peter; Heath, Jane; Rosenberg, Jacob; Haglind, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate short-term outcomes of a new treatment for perforated diverticulitis with purulent peritonitis in a randomized controlled trial. Background: Perforated diverticulitis with purulent peritonitis (Hinchey III) has traditionally been treated with surgery including colon resection and stoma (Hartmann procedure) with considerable postoperative morbidity and mortality. Laparoscopic lavage has been suggested as a less invasive surgical treatment. Methods: Laparoscopic lavage was compared with colon resection and stoma in a randomized controlled multicenter trial, DILALA (ISRCTN82208287). Initial diagnostic laparoscopy showing Hinchey III was followed by randomization. Clinical data was collected up to 12 weeks postoperatively. Results: Eighty-three patients were randomized, out of whom 39 patients in laparoscopic lavage and 36 patients in the Hartmann procedure groups were available for analysis. Morbidity and mortality after laparoscopic lavage did not differ when compared with the Hartmann procedure. Laparoscopic lavage resulted in shorter operating time, shorter time in the recovery unit, and shorter hospital stay. Conclusions: In this trial, laparoscopic lavage as treatment for patients with perforated diverticulitis Hinchey III was feasible and safe in the short-term. PMID:25489672

  6. Fluid imbalance

    MedlinePlus

    ... fluid imbalance; Hypernatremia - fluid imbalance; Hypokalemia - fluid imbalance; Hyperkalemia - fluid imbalance ... of sodium or potassium is present as well. Medicines can also affect fluid balance. The most common ...

  7. Dynamics of soluble and cellular inflammatory markers in nasal lavage obtained from Cystic Fibrosis patients during intravenous antibiotic treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, the upper airways display the same ion channel defect as evident in the lungs, resulting in chronic inflammation and infection. Recognition of the sinonasal area as a site of first and persistent infection with pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, reinforces the “one-airway” hypothesis. Therefore, we assessed the effect of systemic antibiotics against pulmonary pathogens on sinonasal inflammation. Methods Nasal lavage fluid (NLF) from 17 CF patients was longitudinally collected prior to and during elective intravenous (i.v.) antibiotic treatment to reduce pathogen burden and resulting inflammation (median treatment time at time of analysis: 6 days). Samples were assessed microbiologically and cytologically. Cytokine and chemokine expression was measured by Cytometric Bead Array and ELISA (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MPO, MMP9, RANTES and NE). Findings were compared with inflammatory markers from NLF obtained from 52 healthy controls. Results Initially, the total cell count of the NLF was significantly higher in CF patients than in controls. However after i.v. antibiotic treatment it decreased to a normal level. Compared with controls, detection frequencies and absolute concentrations of MPO, IL-8, IL-6 and IL-1β were also significantly higher in CF patients. The detection frequency of TNF was also higher. Furthermore, during i.v. therapy sinonasal concentrations of IL-6 decreased significantly (P = 0.0059), while RANTES and MMP9 levels decreased 10-fold and two-fold, respectively. PMN-Elastase, assessed for the first time in NFL, did not change during therapy. Conclusions Analysis of NLF inflammatory markers revealed considerable differences between controls and CF patients, with significant changes during systemic i.v. AB treatment within just 6 days. Thus, our data support further investigation into the collection of samples from the epithelial surface of the upper airways by nasal lavage as a

  8. Presence of respiratory viruses in middle ear fluids and nasal wash specimens from children with acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Chonmaitree, T; Howie, V M; Truant, A L

    1986-05-01

    During a 28-month period, 84 children with acute otitis media were studied by viral and bacterial cultures of middle ear fluid and viral cultures of nasal lavage fluid. Viruses were isolated from the middle ear fluid of 17 (20%) patients. Evidence of viral infection was demonstrated by positive viral cultures of middle ear fluid and/or nasal lavage fluid in 33 (39%) patients. Rhinovirus in one patient and influenza b virus in another were the only pathogens isolated. Influenza virus, enterovirus, and rhinovirus were the most common viruses found in middle ear fluids. Parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus were found less often. In 82% of cases, the virus isolated from middle ear fluid was also isolated from nasal lavage fluid, but only 44% of viruses found in nasal lavage fluid were also found in middle ear fluid. Mixed bacterial and combined viral-bacterial infections were common. Only 15% of patients had no pathogen isolated from middle ear fluids. Using tissue culture techniques, we demonstrated that enterovirus and rhinovirus are also common middle ear pathogens. Our data reemphasize the significance of viruses as etiologic agents of acute otitis media and propose several questions regarding the viral-bacterial interactions and the types of viruses involved in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  9. Peritoneal lavage with distilled water during liver resection in patients with spontaneously ruptured hepatocellular carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Hua; Hsieh, Huan-Fa; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Chen, Teng-Wei; Yu, Chih-Yung; Hsieh, Chung-Bao

    2006-09-01

    Spontaneously rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma is a life threatening and worse prognosis. Not only the lower rate of resection and hemodynamic unstable, but also the hepatic failure and recurrence. Distilled water irrigation had been applied in several cancer surgeries including colon, stomach, breast, ovary, and bladder; thus had good results in lowering the tumor spreading. We applied distilled water peritoneal lavage after liver resection in patients with spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma to define the influence of prognosis. Thirteen patients with spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma underwent distilled water peritoneal lavage after curative liver resection (Group A). Nineteen patients with spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma did not undergo distilled water peritoneal lavage after curative liver resection (Group B). There were 11 patients of tumor recurrence in Group B; 2 in Group A. The mean disease-free time of Group B was 2.05 +/- 0.74 years; for Group A it was 3.59 +/- 0.60 (P = 0.045). Peritoneal lavage in this series resulted in significantly better survival time for the patients in Group A (P = 0.0158). That implies distilled water peritoneal lavage during liver resection would retard the tumor recurrence and further improve the survival rate in patients with spontaneously ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:16900516

  10. Effect of pre-cardiac and adult stages of Dirofilaria immitis in pulmonary disease of cats: CBC, bronchial lavage cytology, serology, radiographs, CT images, bronchial reactivity, and histopathology.

    PubMed

    Ray Dillon, A; Tillson, D M; Wooldridge, A; Cattley, R; Hathcock, J; Brawner, W R; Cole, R; Welles, B; Christopherson, P W; Lee-Fowler, T; Bordelon, S; Barney, S; Sermersheim, M; Garbarino, R; Wells, S Z; Diffie, E B; Schachner, E R

    2014-11-15

    A controlled, blind study was conducted to define the initial inflammatory response and lung damage associated with the death of precardiac stages of Dirofilaria immitis in cats as compared to adult heartworm infections and normal cats. Three groups of six cats each were used: UU: uninfected untreated controls; PreS I: infected with 100 D. immitis L3 by subcutaneous injection and treated topically with selamectin 32 and 2 days pre-infection and once monthly for 8 months); IU: infected with 100 D. immitis L3 and left untreated. Peripheral blood, serum, bronchial lavage, and thoracic radiographic images were collected from all cats on Days 0, 70, 110, 168, and 240. CT images were acquired on Days 0, 110, and 240. Cats were euthanized, and necropsies were conducted on Day 240 to determine the presence of heartworms. Bronchial rings were collected for in vitro reactivity. Lung, heart, brain, kidney, and liver tissues were collected for histopathology. Results were compared for changes within each group. Pearson and Spearman correlations were performed for association between histologic, radiographic, serologic, hematologic and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) results. Infected cats treated with selamectin did not develop radiographically evident changes throughout the study, were heartworm antibody negative, and were free of adult heartworms and worm fragments at necropsy. Histologic lung scores and CT analysis were not significantly different between PreS I cats and UU controls. Subtle alveolar myofibrosis was noted in isolated areas of several PreS I cats and an eosinophilic BAL cytology was noted on Days 75 and 120. Bronchial ring reactivity was blunted in IU cats but was normal in PreS I and UU cats. The IU cats became antibody positive, and five cats developed adult heartworms. All cats with heartworms were antigen positive at one time point; but one cat was antibody positive, antigen negative, with viable adult females at necropsy. The CT revealed early involvement

  11. Palatability of colonic lavage solution is improved by the addition of artificially sweetened flavored drink mixes.

    PubMed

    Gruber, M; Fay, D; Pudhorodsky, T; Lance, P

    1991-12-01

    A frequent complaint of patients asked to drink polyethylene glycol (PEG) colonic lavage solution is the salty flavor. This often results in failure to ingest the entire 4 liters of the solution and compromises bowel cleansing. The purpose of this study was to determine systematically whether the addition of a flavored drink mix sweetened with aspartame to the PEG lavage solution would improve palatability without significantly altering the osmolality of the solution. Eighty-seven (87) staff volunteers participated in a taste test of PEG lavage solutions containing varying amounts of commercially available drink mixes. The solution containing two packages of lemon-flavored KoolAid drink mix sweetened with aspartame was significantly more palatable than the others (p less than 0.005), while osmolality remained within the range specified by the manufacturer of Colyte.

  12. Evaporation versus iced gastric lavage treatment of heatstroke: comparative efficacy in a canine model.

    PubMed

    White, J D; Riccobene, E; Nucci, R; Johnson, C; Butterfield, A B; Kamath, R

    1987-08-01

    We compared the speed of cooling and treatment efficacy for evaporative cooling vs. iced gastric lavage in a canine heatstroke model. Nine random-source, mongrel dogs were anesthetized, shaved, and internally heated until the core temperature reached 43.0 degrees C. The animals were then randomly assigned to be cooled to 37 degrees C either by iced (1 degree C) tap water gastric lavage (n = 5200 ml/min) through a large (32-Fr) orogastric tube, or by spraying with tap water (n = 4, 15 degrees C, 12 L/min) before a large fan blowing room temperature air (23 degrees C) across the dog at 0.5 m/sec from a height of 50 cm. Temperatures were monitored by thermocouples in both tympanic membranes and the pulmonary artery. BP, pulse, and cardiac output were measured every 5 min. Evaporative cooling was twice as fast as iced gastric lavage (0.16 +/- .05 degree vs. 0.08 +/- .01 degree C/min X m2, p less than .01). Animals in the evaporatively cooled group also experienced a quicker and more complete return to baseline cardiac indices than the lavage-treated group. Moreover, all animals treated with evaporation survived and were neurologically intact 48 h later, while only one lavage-treated dog was neurologically intact over the same period. The others in the lavage group died one hour after cooling (n = 1), were grossly ataxic (n = 1), or were persistently comatose (n = 2). A simple evaporative cooling technique, readily available in the emergency department, appears to be the most rapid and effective means for cooling and treating heatstroke in the dog. PMID:3608531

  13. [Thoracic lavage and open cardiac massage as treatment of hypothermic cardiac arrest--case report].

    PubMed

    Koponen, Timo; Vänni, Ville; Kettunen, Minna; Reinikainen, Matti; Hakala, Tapio

    2016-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass is the treatment of choice for a severely hypothermic patient with cardiac arrest. However, the treatment is not always available. We describe a successful three-and-a-half hour resuscitation of a hypothermic cardiac arrest patient with manual chest compressions followed by open cardiac massage and rewarming with thoracic lavage. PMID:27188092

  14. Evaporation versus iced peritoneal lavage treatment of heatstroke: comparative efficacy in a canine model.

    PubMed

    White, J D; Kamath, R; Nucci, R; Johnson, C; Shepherd, S

    1993-01-01

    The authors compared the speed of cooling and treatment efficacy for evaporative cooling versus iced peritoneal lavage in a canine heatstroke model. Nine random-source, mongrel dogs were anesthetized, shaved, and internally heated until the core temperature reached 43.0 degrees C. The animals were then randomly assigned to be cooled to 37 degrees C either by sterile normal saline (6 degrees C) continuous peritoneal lavage at 250 mL/min (n = 4), or by spraying with tap water (15 degrees C, 12 L/min) before a large fan blowing room temperature air (23 degrees C) across the dog at 0.5 m/sec from a height of 50 cm (n = 5). Temperatures were monitored by thermocouples in both tympanic membranes. Electrocardiogram, blood pressure, and pulse were continuously monitored. Evaporative cooling was as rapid as iced peritoneal lavage (0.18 +/- .03 versus 0.17 +/- .07 degrees C/min/m2, P = NS). All animals survived, although one animal in each treatment group demonstrated a moderate neurologic deficit when measured 48 hours following resuscitation. A simple noninvasive evaporative cooling technique, readily available in the emergency department, appears to be as rapid readily available in the emergency department, appears to be as rapid and effective as aggressive peritoneal lavage for cooling and treating heatstroke in the dog. PMID:8447861

  15. Impact of Bacterial Vaginosis, as Assessed by Nugent Criteria and Hormonal Status on Glycosidases and Lectin Binding in Cervicovaginal Lavage Samples

    PubMed Central

    Moncla, Bernard J.; Chappell, Catherine A.; Mahal, Lara K.; Debo, Brian M; Meyn, Leslie A; Hillier, Sharon L.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of hormonal status and bacterial vaginosis (BV) on the glycosidases present and glycosylation changes as assessed by lectin binding to cervicovaginal lavage constituents. Frozen cervicovaginal lavage samples from a completed study examining the impact of reproductive hormones on the physicochemical properties of vaginal fluid were utilized for the present study. In the parent study, 165 women were characterized as having BV, intermediate or normal microflora using the Nugent criteria. The presence of glycosidases in the samples was determined using quantitative 4-methyl-umbelliferone based assays, and glycosylation was assessed using enzyme linked lectin assays (ELLA). Women with BV had elevated sialidase, α-galactosidase, β-galactosidase and α-glucosidase activities compared to intermediate or normal women (P<0.001, 0.003, 0.006 and 0.042 respectively). The amount of sialic acid (Sambucus nigra, P = 0.003) and high mannose (griffithsin, P<0.001) were reduced, as evaluated by lectin binding, in women with BV. When the data were stratified according to hormonal status, α-glucosidase and griffithsin binding were decreased among postmenopausal women (P<0.02) when compared to premenopausal groups. These data suggest that both hormonal status and BV impact the glycosidases and lectin binding sites present in vaginal fluid. The sialidases present at increased levels in women with BV likely reduce the number of sialic acid binding sites. Other enzymes likely reduce griffithsin binding. The alterations in the glycosidase content, high mannose and sialic acid binding sites in the cervicovaginal fluid associated with bacterial vaginosis may impact susceptibility to viruses, such as HIV, that utilize glycans as a portal of entry. PMID:26011704

  16. Cofactor Regulation of C5a Chemotactic Activity in Physiological Fluids. Requirement for the Vitamin D Binding Protein, Thrombospondin-1 and its Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Glenda; Zhang, Jianhua; Habiel, David M.; Ge, Lingyin; Ramadass, Mahalakshmi; Ghebrehiwet, Berhane; Kew, Richard R.

    2011-01-01

    Factors in physiological fluids that regulate the chemotactic activity of complement activation peptides C5a and C5a des Arg are not well understood. The vitamin D binding protein (DBP) has been shown to significantly enhance chemotaxis to C5a/C5a des Arg. More recently, platelet-derived thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) has been shown to facilitate the augmentation of C5a-induced chemotaxis by DBP. The objective of this study was to better characterize these chemotactic cofactors and investigate the role that cell surface TSP-1 receptors CD36 and CD47 may play in this process. The chemotactic activity in C-activated normal serum, citrated plasma, DBP-depleted serum or C5 depleted serum was determined for both normal human neutrophils and U937 cell line transfected with the C5a receptor (U937-C5aR). In addition, levels of C5a des Arg, DBP and TSP-1 in these fluids were measured by RIA or ELISA. Results show that there is a clear hierarchy with C5a being the essential primary signal (DBP or TSP-1 will not function in the absence of C5a), DBP the necessary cofactor and TSP-1 a dependent tertiary factor, since it cannot function to enhance chemotaxis to C5a without DBP. Measurement of the C5a-induced intracellular calcium flux confirmed the same hierarchy observed with chemotaxis. Moreover, analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) demonstrated that C5a-dependent chemotactic activity is significantly decreased after anti-DBP treatment. Finally, results show that TSP-1 utilizes cell surface receptors CD36 and CD47 to augment chemotaxis, but DBP does not bind to TSP-1, CD36 or CD47. The results clearly demonstrate that C5a/C5a des Arg needs both DBP and TSP-1 for maximal chemotactic activity and suggest that the regulation of C5a chemotactic activity in physiological fluids is more complex than previously thought. PMID:22014686

  17. Studying the Effects of Reproductive Hormones and Bacterial Vaginosis on the Glycome of Lavage Samples from the Cervicovaginal Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Linlin; Koppolu, Sujeethraj; Chappell, Catherine; Moncla, Bernard J.; Hillier, Sharon L.; Mahal, Lara K.

    2015-01-01

    The cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) coating the vaginal epithelium is an important immunological mediator, providing a barrier to infection. Glycosylation of CVF proteins, such as mucins, IgG and S-IgA, plays a critical role in their immunological functions. Although multiple factors, such as hormones and microflora, may influence glycosylation of the CVF, few studies have examined their impact on this important immunological fluid. Herein we analyzed the glycosylation of cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) samples collected from 165 women under different hormonal conditions including: (1) no contraceptive, post-menopausal, (2) no contraceptive, days 1-14 of the menstrual cycle, (3) no contraceptive, days 15-28 of the menstrual cycle, (4) combined-oral contraceptive pills for at least 6 months, (5) depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera) injections for at least 6 months, (6) levonorgestrel IUD for at least 1 month. Glycomic profiling was obtained using our lectin microarray system, a rapid method to analyze carbohydrate composition. Although some small effects were observed due to hormone levels, the major influence on the glycome was the presence of an altered bacterial cohort due to bacterial vaginosis (BV). Compared to normal women, samples from women with BV contained lower levels of sialic acid and high-mannose glycans in their CVL. The change in high mannose levels was unexpected and may be related to the increased risk of HIV-infection observed in women with BV, as high mannose receptors are a viral entry pathway. Changes in the glycome were also observed with hormonal contraceptive use, in a contraceptive-dependent manner. Overall, microflora had a greater impact on the glycome than hormonal levels, and both of these effects should be more closely examined in future studies given the importance of glycans in the innate immune system. PMID:25993513

  18. Ozone inhalation in rats: effects on alkaline phosphatase and lactic dehydrogenase isoenzymes in lavage and plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Nachtman, J.P.; Moon, H.L.; Miles, R.C.

    1988-10-01

    Ozone is found in urban and rural atmospheres and is produced from a variety of natural and man-made sources. Animal studies conducted at typical ambient levels result in reproducible morphological, biochemical and functional effects. Ozone damages type I epithelial cells, induces proliferation of type II cells and produces inflammation of the terminal bronchiolar-alveolar duct region. Ozone increases lung oxygen utilization and increases glutathione metabolism. Ozone increases airway resistance. The authors measured lactic dehydrogenase (LD) isoenzymes to ascertain the tissue giving rise to the increased LD activity in lavage. They also assayed acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase activities, and protein levels since these parameters were increased in rat lung lavage after particulate exposure. They determined white cell differential and red cell morphology parameters because previous investigators reported that ozone increased neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio.

  19. [Iatrogenic extravasations of cytotoxic or hyperosmolar aqueous solutions. Value of surgical emergency by aspiration and lavage].

    PubMed

    Lambert, F; Couturaud, B; Arnaud, E; Champeau, F; Revol, M; Servant, J M

    1997-08-01

    Iatrogenic extravasations are characterized by their unpredictable course, the possible repercussions of functional, cosmetic and psychological sequelae, and the absence of a therapeutic consensus. The authors present the protocol used in Hôpital Saint-Louis, based on a synthesis of current procedures, consisting of emergency conservative surgical aspiration and lavage, performed in a context of close collaboration with oncolosits, intensive care physicians and radiologists. From 1994 to March 1997, fifteen patients were operated following extravasation during seven chemotherapeutic protocols, three radiographic examinations with injection of contrast agents and five resuscitation procedures. This simple protocol, applied systematically, achieved cure without cutaneous or functional sequelae in all patients. Aspiration-lavage during the first twelve hours therefore constitutes the treatment of choice of iatrogenic extravasation with cytotoxic or hyperosmolar aqueous solutions.

  20. Evaluation of stomach tubes and gastric lavage for sampling diets from blue catfish and flathead catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waters, D.S.; Kwak, T.J.; Arnott, J.B.; Pine, William E.

    2004-01-01

    We compared the ability to extract all stomach contents by using stomach tubes or gastric lavage to sample diets from blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus and flathead catfish Pylodictus olivarus. Pulsed gastric lavage (PGL) removed a significantly greater proportion of stomach content mass (95.6%) from blue catfish than did stomach tubes (14.6%). Percent mass of flathead catfish contents removed with PGL (96.0%) was not significantly different from that removed with stomach tubes (86.9%). Based on the greater effectiveness of PGL for blue catfish, combined with a shorter mean time required per sample (69 versus 118 s) and the better preservation of extracted diet material, we recommend using PGL as a nonlethal technique to collect diet samples from large catfishes.

  1. Pharmacokinetics and penetration of ceftazidime and avibactam into epithelial lining fluid in thigh- and lung-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Berkhout, Johanna; Melchers, Maria J; van Mil, Anita C; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Lagarde, Claudia M; Nichols, Wright W; Mouton, Johan W

    2015-04-01

    Ceftazidime and the β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam constitute a new, potentially highly active combination in the battle against extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria. To determine possible clinical use, it is important to know the pharmacokinetic profiles of the compounds related to each other in plasma and the different compartments of infection in experimentally infected animals and in humans. We used a neutropenic murine thigh infection model and lung infection model to study pharmacokinetics in plasma and epithelial lining fluid (ELF). Mice were infected with ca. 10(6) CFU of Pseudomonas aeruginosa intramuscularly into the thigh or intranasally to cause pneumonia and were given 8 different (single) subcutaneous doses of ceftazidime and avibactam in various combined concentrations, ranging from 1 to 128 mg/kg of body weight in 2-fold increases. Concomitant samples of serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were taken at up to 12 time points until 6 h after administration. Pharmacokinetics of both compounds were linear and dose proportional in plasma and ELF and were independent of the infection type, with estimated half-lives (standard deviations [SD]) in plasma of ceftazidime of 0.28 (0.02) h and of avibactam of 0.24 (0.04) h and volumes of distribution of 0.80 (0.14) and 1.18 (0.34) liters/kg. The ELF-plasma (area under the concentration-time curve [AUC]) ratios (standard errors [SE]) were 0.24 (0.03) for total ceftazidime and 0.27 (0.03) for unbound ceftazidime; for avibactam, the ratios were 0.20 (0.02) and 0.22 (0.02), respectively. No pharmacokinetic interaction between ceftazidime and avibactam was observed. Ceftazidime and avibactam showed linear plasma pharmacokinetics that were independent of the dose combinations used or the infection site in mice. Assuming pharmacokinetic similarity in humans, this indicates that similar dose ratios of ceftazidime and avibactam could be used for different types and sites of infection. PMID

  2. Alveolitis caused by exposure to coal mine dusts: Production of interleukin-1 and immunomodulation by bronchoalveolar leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kusaka, Y.; Brown, G.M.; Donaldson, K. )

    1990-10-01

    Two kinds of coal mine dust, low rank with high quartz (bituminous) and high rank with low quartz (anthracite), were assayed for ability to induce alveolitis and to stimulate interleukin-1 release from normal alveolar macrophages in vitro. Dust-elicited bronchoalveolar leukocytes were also assessed for their effects on macrophage-depleted splenocyte mitogenesis and their ability to produce interleukin-1. Quartz and titanium dioxide were used for comparison as toxic and inert dusts, respectively. Both coal mine dusts caused substantial release of interleukin-1 from normal alveolar macrophages in vitro and the levels were higher than those caused by quartz. Bituminous coal mine dust provoked acute but rapidly subsiding macrophage/neutrophil alveolitis which was greater than that provoked by titanium dioxide; anthracite caused less alveolitis than titanium dioxide and quartz caused large scale, persistent alveolitis. Whole bronchoalveolar leukocytes, including polymorphonuclear neutrophils, elicited by exposure to dust, were less inhibitory to lymphocyte mitogenesis than normal alveolar macrophages and bituminous coal mine dust-induced neutrophils were augmentary to lymphocyte mitogenesis; macrophages from inflamed lungs were, on the whole, inhibitory to lymphocyte mitogenesis. Alveolar macrophages from bituminous coal mine dust- or titanium dioxide-exposed lungs showed increased ability to release interleukin-1 on stimulation in vitro. These findings suggest that bronchoalveolar leukocytes elicited by coal mine dust could modulate immunity by means of interleukin-1 release and enhancement of lymphocyte proliferation.

  3. Upper airway response in workers exposed to fuel oil ash: nasal lavage analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, R; Elreedy, S; Hoppin, J A; Christiani, D C

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Among other constituents, fuel oil ash contains vanadium pentoxide, a known respiratory irritant. Exposure to ambient vanadium pentoxide dust has been shown to produce irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat. The usefulness of nasal lavage in detecting an inflammatory response to exposure to fuel oil ash among 37 boilermakers and utility workers was investigated. METHODS--A baseline lavage was performed on the morning of the first day back to work after an average of 114 days away from work (range 36 hours to 1737 days). A lavage was performed after exposure on the morning three days after the baseline lavage. Exposure to respirable particulate matter of diameter < or = 10 microns (PM10) and respirable vanadium dust were estimated with daily work diaries and a personal sampling device for respirable particulates. These estimates were made for each subject on each workday during the three days between lavages. For each subject, the adjusted change in polymorphonuclear cells was calculated by dividing the change in polymorphonuclear cell counts by the average of the counts before and after exposure. The association between the adjusted polymorphonuclear cell counts and exposure was assessed with multiple linear regression, adjusted for age and current smoking. RESULTS--Personal sampling (one to 10 hour time weighted average) showed a range of PM10 concentrations of 50 to 4510 micrograms/m3, and respirable vanadium dust concentration of 0.10 to 139 micrograms/m3. In smokers the adjusted polymorphonuclear cell count was not significantly different from zero (-0.1%, P > 0.5), but in nonsmokers it was significantly greater than zero (+50%, P < 0.05). In both non-smokers and smokers, there was considerable variability in adjusted polymorphonuclear cell counts and a dose-response relation between these adjusted cell counts and either PM10 or respirable vanadium dust exposure could not be found. CONCLUSION--A significant increase in polymorphonuclear cells in

  4. Total PC Activity Is Increased in Uterine Lavage of Post-Menopausal Endometrial but Not Ovarian Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Heng, Sophea; Stephens, Andrew N.; Jobling, Tom W.; Nie, Guiying

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial and ovarian cancers are two most common cancers affecting women in their post-menopausal years. To date, there are no simple biochemical tests to detect these cancers at early stages. Our previous study has demonstrated that the activity of total proprotein convertases (PCs) is significantly increased in uterine lavage at all stages of endometrial cancer, suggesting uterine lavage which can be obtained relatively non-invasively may provide a simple tool for the detection of endometrial cancer. However, uterine lavage may also contain ovarian-derived factors, and PCs are also reported to be up-regulated in ovarian cancer. In this study we determined whether increases in uterine lavage PC activity are specific to endometrial cancer or are also associated with ovarian cancer. PC activity was detected in all uterine lavages examined but no difference was found between women with and without ovarian cancer. On the other hand, the PC activity was significantly higher in post-menopausal endometrial cancer patients, consistent with our previous report. These results suggest that measuring total PC activity in uterine lavage is a useful tool to detect endometrial cancer specifically. PMID:27698920

  5. Suction assisted pulse lavage: randomised controlled studies comparing its efficacy with conventional dressings in healing of chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Rahul; Barreto, Elvino; Paul, Kingsly M

    2014-02-01

    Chronic, open, non-healing wounds pose a continual challenge in medicine as the treatment is variable and there are no documented consistent responses. Although wound aetiologies vary and there are a number of factors that affect chronic wound pathogenesis, wound ischaemia and bacterial colonisation of wounds are the chief concerns among them. Conventionally, pulse lavage has been used primarily as a wound debriding device. To address both the critical factors of wound ischaemia and bacterial burden, a couple of technical points were proposed and applied in this study. The objective of our study was to evaluate pulse lavage therapy's ability to improve the healing rate of chronic wounds compared to that of the traditional saline-wet-to-moist dressings. The study period was from 1 August 2010 to 31 January 2012 and was conducted in our institution. Thirty patients with 31 chronic, non-healing wounds were enrolled in the study after obtaining proper consent. Subjects were randomised (15 patients each) to the pulse lavage group and the control group. Patients in the test group were subjected to irrigation of their wounds with pulsed lavage at 10 to 15 psi pressure. In the control group, wound was closed by applying moist betadine saline gauze dressings after cleaning with saline. Wounds treated with pulse lavage system significantly reduced in size, had better control of bacterial contamination and had overall faster healing rates. Efficacy of pulse lavage can be increased by correct method of administration of the irrigant.

  6. Suction assisted pulse lavage: randomised controlled studies comparing its efficacy with conventional dressings in healing of chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Rahul; Barreto, Elvino; Paul, Kingsly M

    2014-02-01

    Chronic, open, non-healing wounds pose a continual challenge in medicine as the treatment is variable and there are no documented consistent responses. Although wound aetiologies vary and there are a number of factors that affect chronic wound pathogenesis, wound ischaemia and bacterial colonisation of wounds are the chief concerns among them. Conventionally, pulse lavage has been used primarily as a wound debriding device. To address both the critical factors of wound ischaemia and bacterial burden, a couple of technical points were proposed and applied in this study. The objective of our study was to evaluate pulse lavage therapy's ability to improve the healing rate of chronic wounds compared to that of the traditional saline-wet-to-moist dressings. The study period was from 1 August 2010 to 31 January 2012 and was conducted in our institution. Thirty patients with 31 chronic, non-healing wounds were enrolled in the study after obtaining proper consent. Subjects were randomised (15 patients each) to the pulse lavage group and the control group. Patients in the test group were subjected to irrigation of their wounds with pulsed lavage at 10 to 15 psi pressure. In the control group, wound was closed by applying moist betadine saline gauze dressings after cleaning with saline. Wounds treated with pulse lavage system significantly reduced in size, had better control of bacterial contamination and had overall faster healing rates. Efficacy of pulse lavage can be increased by correct method of administration of the irrigant. PMID:22943586

  7. Total PC Activity Is Increased in Uterine Lavage of Post-Menopausal Endometrial but Not Ovarian Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Heng, Sophea; Stephens, Andrew N.; Jobling, Tom W.; Nie, Guiying

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial and ovarian cancers are two most common cancers affecting women in their post-menopausal years. To date, there are no simple biochemical tests to detect these cancers at early stages. Our previous study has demonstrated that the activity of total proprotein convertases (PCs) is significantly increased in uterine lavage at all stages of endometrial cancer, suggesting uterine lavage which can be obtained relatively non-invasively may provide a simple tool for the detection of endometrial cancer. However, uterine lavage may also contain ovarian-derived factors, and PCs are also reported to be up-regulated in ovarian cancer. In this study we determined whether increases in uterine lavage PC activity are specific to endometrial cancer or are also associated with ovarian cancer. PC activity was detected in all uterine lavages examined but no difference was found between women with and without ovarian cancer. On the other hand, the PC activity was significantly higher in post-menopausal endometrial cancer patients, consistent with our previous report. These results suggest that measuring total PC activity in uterine lavage is a useful tool to detect endometrial cancer specifically.

  8. Radiotherapy Improves Survival in Unresected Stage I-III Bronchoalveolar Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, Damien; Mishra, Mark; Onn, Amir; Dicker, Adam P.; Symon, Zvi; Pfeffer, M. Raphael; Lawrence, Yaacov Richard

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that radiotherapy (RT) improves the outcome of patients with unresected, nonmetastatic bronchoalveolar carcinoma (BAC) by performing a population-based analysis within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry. Methods and Materials: Inclusion criteria were as follows: patients diagnosed with BAC, Stage I-III, between 2001 and 2007. Exclusion criteria included unknown stage, unknown primary treatment modality, Stage IV disease, and those diagnosed at autopsy. Demographic data, treatment details, and overall survival were retrieved from the SEER database. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Results: A total of 6933 patients with Stage I-III BAC were included in the analysis. The median age at diagnosis was 70 years (range, 10-101 years). The majority of patients were diagnosed with Stage I (74.4%); 968 patients (14%) did not undergo surgical resection. Unresected patients were more likely to be older (p < 0.0001), male (p = 0.001), black (p < 0.0001), and Stage III (p < 0.0001). Within the cohort of unresected patients, 300 (31%) were treated with RT. The estimated 2-year overall survival for patients with unresected, nonmetastatic BAC was 58%, 44%, and 27% in Stage I, II, and III, respectively. Factors associated with improved survival included female sex, earlier stage at diagnosis, and use of RT. Median survival in those not receiving RT vs. receiving RT was as follows: Stage I, 28 months vs. 33 months (n = 364, p = 0.06); Stage II, 18 months vs. not reached (n = 31, nonsignificant); Stage III, 10 months vs. 17 months (n = 517, p < 0.003). Conclusions: The use of RT is associated with improved prognosis in unresected Stage I-III BAC. Less than a third of patients who could have potentially benefited from RT received it, suggesting that the medical specialists involved in the care of these patients underappreciate the importance of RT.

  9. Fluid fertilizers. [Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Potts, J.M.

    1984-09-01

    The use of fertilizer in the United States has increased spectacularly in the past 20 years. In 1981 plant nutrient use (N + P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ + K/sub 2/O) totaled 23.5 million short tons - compared with only 7.5 million tons in 1960 (table 2). Nutrient use doubled from 1960 to 1970 and tripled from 1960 to 1981. In 1981 fluid nutrient use (mixtures plus nitrogen solutions) totaled 4.1 million tons, more than doubling since 1970 and increasing from 6.3% to 17.5% of the total nutrient use since 1960. Fluid mixtures (NPK) use in 1981 totaled 1.8 million tons of nutrients - about 17% of total mixed fertilizers or 7.5% of total nutrients used. The proportion of total fertilizer nutrients applied in fluid from increases greatly if anhydrous ammonia is included. The 4.6 million tons of nitrogen applied as anhydrous ammonia in 1981 increases total fluid nutrients to 8.1 million tons - 34.5% of the total nutrients applied in the United States. Fluid fertilizer use has grown nearly twice as fast as total fertilizer use, averaging more than 15% per year increase between 1960 and 1970, and an 11% increase between 1960 and 1980. A large part of this increase occurred during the introductory stages of the new product form and was aided by rapid advances in technology.

  10. Cardiovascular changes after PMMA vertebroplasty in sheep: the effect of bone marrow removal using pulsed jet-lavage.

    PubMed

    Benneker, Lorin M; Krebs, Jörg; Boner, Vanessa; Boger, Andreas; Hoerstrup, Simon; Heini, Paul F; Gisep, Armando

    2010-11-01

    Clinically, the displacement of intravertebral fat into the circulation during vertebroplasty is reported to lead to problems in elderly patients and can represent a serious complication, especially when multiple levels have to be treated. An in vitro study has shown the feasibility of removing intravertebral fat by pulsed jet-lavage prior to vertebroplasty, potentially reducing the embolization of bone marrow fat from the vertebral bodies and alleviating the cardiovascular changes elicited by pulmonary fat embolism. In this in vivo study, percutaneous vertebroplasty using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was performed in three lumbar vertebrae of 11 sheep. In six sheep (lavage group), pulsed jet-lavage was performed prior to injection of PMMA compared to the control group of five sheep receiving only PMMA vertebroplasty. Invasive recording of blood pressures was performed continuously until 60 min after the last injection. Cardiac output and arterial blood gas parameters were measured at selected time points. Post mortem, the injected cement volume was measured using CT and lung biopsies were processed for assessment of intravascular fat. Pulsed jet-lavage was feasible in the in vivo setting. In the control group, the injection of PMMA resulted in pulmonary fat embolism and a sudden and significant increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure. Pulsed jet-lavage prevented any cardiovascular changes and significantly reduced the severity of bone marrow fat embolization. Even though significantly more cement had been injected into the lavaged vertebral bodies, significantly fewer intravascular fat emboli were identified in the lung tissue. Pulsed jet-lavage prevented the cardiovascular complications after PMMA vertebroplasty in sheep and alleviated the severity of pulmonary fat embolism.

  11. Cardiovascular changes after PMMA vertebroplasty in sheep: the effect of bone marrow removal using pulsed jet-lavage

    PubMed Central

    Benneker, Lorin M.; Krebs, Jörg; Boner, Vanessa; Boger, Andreas; Hoerstrup, Simon; Heini, Paul F.

    2010-01-01

    Clinically, the displacement of intravertebral fat into the circulation during vertebroplasty is reported to lead to problems in elderly patients and can represent a serious complication, especially when multiple levels have to be treated. An in vitro study has shown the feasibility of removing intravertebral fat by pulsed jet-lavage prior to vertebroplasty, potentially reducing the embolization of bone marrow fat from the vertebral bodies and alleviating the cardiovascular changes elicited by pulmonary fat embolism. In this in vivo study, percutaneous vertebroplasty using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was performed in three lumbar vertebrae of 11 sheep. In six sheep (lavage group), pulsed jet-lavage was performed prior to injection of PMMA compared to the control group of five sheep receiving only PMMA vertebroplasty. Invasive recording of blood pressures was performed continuously until 60 min after the last injection. Cardiac output and arterial blood gas parameters were measured at selected time points. Post mortem, the injected cement volume was measured using CT and lung biopsies were processed for assessment of intravascular fat. Pulsed jet-lavage was feasible in the in vivo setting. In the control group, the injection of PMMA resulted in pulmonary fat embolism and a sudden and significant increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure. Pulsed jet-lavage prevented any cardiovascular changes and significantly reduced the severity of bone marrow fat embolization. Even though significantly more cement had been injected into the lavaged vertebral bodies, significantly fewer intravascular fat emboli were identified in the lung tissue. Pulsed jet-lavage prevented the cardiovascular complications after PMMA vertebroplasty in sheep and alleviated the severity of pulmonary fat embolism. PMID:20725752

  12. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  13. CD161 Expression Defines a Th1/Th17 Polyfunctional Subset of Resident Memory T Lymphocytes in Bronchoalveolar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Yolanda; Herrera, María Teresa; Juárez, Esmeralda; Salazar-Lezama, Miguel Angel; Bobadilla, Karen; Torres, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar resident memory T cells (TRM) comprise a currently uncharacterized mixture of cell subpopulations. The CD3+CD161+ T cell subpopulation resides in the liver, intestine and skin, but it has the capacity for tissue migration; however, the presence of resident CD3+CD161+ T cells in the bronchoalveolar space under normal conditions has not been reported. Bronchoalveolar cells (BACs) from healthy volunteers were evaluated and found that 8.6% (range 2.5%-21%) of these cells were CD3+ T lymphocytes. Within the CD3+ population, 4.6% of the cells (2.1–11.3) expressed CD161 on the cell surface, and 74.2% of the CD161+CD3+ T cells expressed CD45RO. The number of CD3+CD161+ T cells was significantly lower in the bronchoalveolar space than in the blood (4.6% of BACs vs 8.4% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs); P<0.05). We also found that 2.17% of CD4+ T lymphocytes and 1.52% of CD8+ T lymphocytes expressed CD161. Twenty-two percent of the alveolar CD3+CD161+ T lymphocytes produced cytokines upon stimulation by PMA plus ionomycin, and significantly more interferon gamma (IFN-γ) was produced compared with other cytokines (P = 0.05). Most alveolar CD3+CD161+ T cells produced interleukin-17 (IL-17) and IFN-γ simultaneously, and the percentage of these cells was significantly higher than the percentage of CD3+CD161− T cells. Moreover, the percentage of alveolar CD3+CD161+ T lymphocytes that produced IFN-γ/IL-17 was significantly higher than those in the peripheral blood (p<0.05). In conclusion, Th1/Th17-CD3+CD161+ TRM could contribute to compartment-specific immune responses in the lung. PMID:25906076

  14. Effect of corticosteroid treatment on cell recovery by lung lavage in acute radiation-induced lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Wesselius, L.J.; Floreani, A.A.; Kimler, B.F.; Papasian, C.J.; Dixon, A.Y. )

    1989-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitate cell populations recovered by lung lavage up to 6 weeks following thoracic irradiation (24 Gy) as an index of the acute inflammatory response within lung structures. Additionally, rats were treated five times weekly with intraperitoneal saline (0.3 cc) or methylprednisolone (7.5 mg/kg/week). Lung lavage of irradiated rats recovered increased numbers of total cells compared to controls beginning 3 weeks after irradiation (P less than 0.05). The initial increase in number of cells recovered was attributable to an influx of neutrophils (P less than 0.05), and further increases at 4 and 6 weeks were associated with increased numbers of recovered macrophages (P less than 0.05). Lung lavage of steroid-treated rats at 6 weeks after irradiation recovered increased numbers of all cell populations compared to controls (P less than 0.05); however, numbers of recovered total cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes were all significantly decreased compared to saline-treated rats (P less than 0.05). The number of inflammatory cells recovered by lung lavage during acute radiation-induced lung injury is significantly diminished by corticosteroid treatment. Changes in cells recovered by lung lavage can also be correlated with alteration in body weight and respiration rate subsequent to treatment with thoracic irradiation and/or corticosteroids.

  15. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of gamithromycin in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid in naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease in multisource commingled feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    DeDonder, K D; Apley, M D; Li, M; Gehring, R; Harhay, D M; Lubbers, B V; White, B J; Capik, S F; KuKanich, B; Riviere, J E; Tessman, R K

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine (i) whether an association exists between individual pharmacokinetic parameters and treatment outcome when feeder cattle were diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and treated with gamithromycin (Zactran(®) ) at the label dose and (ii) whether there was a stronger association between treatment outcome and gamithromycin concentration in plasma or in the pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) effect compartment. The study design was a prospective, blinded, randomized clinical trial utilizing three groups of 60 (362-592 lb) steers/bulls randomly allocated within origin to sham injection or gamithromycin mass medication. Cattle were evaluated daily for signs of BRD by a veterinarian blinded to treatment. Animals meeting the BRD case definition were enrolled and allocated to a sample collection scheme consisting of samples for bacterial isolation (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and nasopharyngeal swabs) and gamithromycin concentration determination (PELF and plasma). Gamithromycin susceptibility of M. haemolytica (n = 287) and P. multocida (n = 257) were determined using broth microdilution with frozen panels containing gamithromycin at concentrations from 0.03 to 16 μg/mL. A two-compartment plasma pharmacokinetic model with an additional compartment for gamithromycin in PELF was developed using rich data sets from published and unpublished studies. The sparse data from our study were then fit to this model using nonlinear mixed effects modeling to estimate individual parameter values. The resulting parameter estimates were used to simulate full time-concentration profiles for each animal in this study. These profiles were analyzed using noncompartmental methods so that PK/PD indices (AUC24 /MIC, AUC∞ /MIC, CMAX /MIC) could be calculated for plasma and PELF (also T>MIC) for each individual. The calculated PK/PD indices were indicative that for both M. haemolytica and P. multocida a higher drug

  16. Leukocyte emigration in normal calves and calves with leukocyte adhesion deficiency.

    PubMed

    Nagahata, H; Masuyama, A; Masue, M; Yuki, M; Higuchi, H; Ohtsuka, H; Kurosawa, T; Sato, H; Noda, H

    1997-12-01

    The emigration of leukocytes from calves with beta 2 integrin deficiency (BLAD) into bronchoalveolar spaces and scraped tissues was compared to that of normal calves. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils were found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from BLAD-affected calves showing chronic pneumonia. The neutrophils were complement receptor type 3 (CR3)-negative when characterized by flow cytometric analysis using anti-CD18 monoclonal antibody. Chemiluminescent response mediated by CR3 in neutrophils isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from BLAD-calves showed similar findings obtained from CR3-deficient neutrophils. Neutrophils from normal calves migrated into scraped tissue which was prepared in an upper gluteal surface area, whereas few leukocytes from calves with BLAD migrated to the scraped tissue, evaluated by skin window (Rebuck) method. These findings confirmed the extravasation of CR3-deficient leukocytes into bronchoalveolar lumen in BLAD calves, and demonstrated in vivo characteristics of extravasating property of normal and CR3-deficient neutrophils into scraped tissues. PMID:9450245

  17. [Laparoscopic lavage and drainage in the surgical treatment of diverticular disease complicated by peritonitis].

    PubMed

    Lippi, Carlo Ettore; Beatini, Luca; Cervia, Silvio; Fabbricotti, Alaido; Miaruelli, Piero Antonio; Spessa, Elisabetta; Sturlese, Ivarco; Braini, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of peritonitis complicating diverticular disease of the colon is yet to be universally regarded as established practice and major differences in management are to be noted in the various surgical institutions. In the emergency setting, the minimally invasive approach is used by few surgeons and the most frequent therapeutic options are sigmoid resection with primary anastomosis (with or without a diverting stoma) and Hartmann's procedure. The Authors report their preliminary experience (13 cases) with laparoscopic lavage and drainage without colonic resection in diverticulitis complicated by peritonitis and describe the technical details of the surgical procedure. They conduct a systematic review of the literature and, on the basis of their latest experience, compare the results of the traditional resective operations (resection with primary anastomosis and Hartmann's procedure) with those of laparoscopic conservative and non-resective treatment. Laparoscopic non-resective procedures reduce the frequency and severity of the surgical complications, as well as the hospital stay and costs of treatment. In conclusion, laparoscopic lavage and drainage can be used in the majority of patients, with excellent prospects of recovery, without disabling stomas, in a single operative stage. PMID:19845268

  18. Determination of presence of Tritrichomonas foetus in uterine lavages from cows with reproductive problems.

    PubMed

    González-Carmona, Lady Carolina; Sánchez-Ladino, Milena Jineth; Castañeda-Salazar, Rubiela; Pulido-Villamarín, Adriana Del Pilar; Guáqueta-Munar, Humberto; Aranda-Silva, Moisés; Rueda-Varón, Milton Januario

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of Tritrichomonas foetus in two dairy herds on the Altiplano Cundiboyacense. Twenty-one low-volume uterine lavages from cows with a history of reproductive problems in two dairy herds located in the municipality of Sibaté (Cundinamarca) and Ventaquemada (Boyacá) were evaluated. In the first herd, 10 cows were sampled and in the second, 11 cows, based on three inclusion criteria. The uterine lavages were obtained through infusion of physiological saline solution into the uterine body. The samples were centrifuged and seeded in Tritrichomonas basal medium for 10-15 days at 37 ºC. The protozoa were evaluated on the day of sampling and 10 and 15 days after incubation by means of direct viewing under a dark-field microscope. Positive samples were stained with Wright and Lugol to identify the morphological characteristics. This study showed that T. foetus was present in 61.8% of the animals sampled. The determination that T. foetus was present in 61.8% of the samples analyzed is a significant finding given that in the herds evaluated, this agent had not previously been diagnosed. PMID:23070427

  19. Examination of cytokines and metals in exhaled breath condensate and lung lavage fluids after diesel exhaust exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiology studies link human exposure to ambient air pollution with the development and exacerbation of cardiopulmonary disease. Diesel exhaust (DE) is a significant source of ambient air pollution, and thus may contribute to adverse pulmonary health effects. Previous human re...

  20. Successful Management of a Cesarean Scar Defect with Dehiscence of the Uterine Incision by Using Wound Lavage

    PubMed Central

    Ida, Akinori; Kubota, Yoko; Nosaka, Maiko; Ito, Koichi; Kato, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Cesarean scar defects (CSDs) that can be visualized using transvaginal ultrasonography (TVUS) may cause prolonged menstruation, irregular genital bleeding, and secondary infertility; surgical repair is sometimes necessary. We present a case of CSD, with dehiscence of the uterine incision, which was managed using wound lavage. A 38-year-old woman (gravida 4, para 4) had delivered her third and fourth children by cesarean section. Upon the resumption of menstruation, 9 months after her second cesarean section, she demonstrated prolonged menstruation and the presence of a menstrual fistula due to dehiscence of the cesarean section incision from the myometrium to the serosa. We treated the defect by lavaging with a physiological saline solution. After lavaging the wound 3 times, spontaneous healing of the dehiscent muscle layer was successfully achieved. The treatment was complication-free and the healing of the muscle layer has been maintained for more than 8 months. PMID:25431714

  1. A simple technique to restore needle patency during percutaneous lavage and aspiration of calcific rotator cuff tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Jelsing, Elena J; Maida, Eugene; Smith, Jay

    2013-03-01

    Calcific rotator cuff tendinopathy caused by symptomatic calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition is a well-established cause of shoulder pain. In refractory or acutely symptomatic cases, sonographically guided percutaneous lavage and aspiration can significantly reduce pain in approximately 60%-92% of cases. Although the complication rate of sonographically guided percutaneous lavage and aspiration is apparently low, needle clogging attributable to impacted calcific debris has been described by several authors and in our experience can occur in daily practice. Traditionally, an inability to relieve the obstruction via needle repositioning or increased syringe plunger pressure has required needle removal and replacement. In this article, we outline a simple technique that can be used to restore patency of the obstructed lavage needle without necessitating needle removal and replacement. PMID:23399296

  2. Lavage of the Uterine Cavity for Molecular Detection of Müllerian Duct Carcinomas: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Maritschnegg, Elisabeth; Wang, Yuxuan; Pecha, Nina; Horvat, Reinhard; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Vergote, Ignace; Heitz, Florian; Sehouli, Jalid; Kinde, Isaac; Diaz, Luis A.; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Vogelstein, Bert; Speiser, Paul; Zeillinger, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Type II ovarian cancer (OC) and endometrial cancer (EC) are generally diagnosed at an advanced stage, translating into a poor survival rate. There is increasing evidence that Müllerian duct cancers may exfoliate cells. We have established an approach for lavage of the uterine cavity to detect shed cancer cells. Patients and Methods Lavage of the uterine cavity was used to obtain samples from 65 patients, including 30 with OC, five with EC, three with other malignancies, and 27 with benign lesions involving gynecologic organs. These samples, as well as corresponding tumor tissue, were examined for the presence of somatic mutations using massively parallel sequencing (next-generation sequencing) and, in a subset, singleplex analysis. Results The lavage technique could be applied successfully, and sufficient amounts of DNA were obtained in all patients. Mutations, mainly in TP53, were identified in 18 (60%) of 30 lavage samples of patients with OC using next-generation sequencing. Singleplex analysis of mutations previously determined in corresponding tumor tissue led to further identification of six patients. Taken together, in 24 (80%) of 30 patients with OC, specific mutations could be identified. This also included one patient with occult OC. All five analyzed lavage specimens from patients with EC harbored mutations. Eight (29.6%) of 27 patients with benign lesions tested positive for mutations, six (75%) as a result of mutations in the KRAS gene. Conclusion This study proved that tumor cells from ovarian neoplasms are shed and can be collected via lavage of the uterine cavity. Detection of OC and EC and even clinically occult OC was achieved, making it a potential tool of significant promise for early diagnosis. PMID:26552420

  3. [Cellular immunity state assessed in bronchial and alveolar lavage for experimental animals exposed to the rubber dust].

    PubMed

    Zhumabekova, B K; Karabalin, S K; Bakirova, R E

    2004-01-01

    Experiments on 21 rats helped to study influence of mechanical rubber dust on cellular immunity state in bronchial and alveolar lavage, efficiency of Ruvimine for prophylaxis. Findings are that mechanical rubber dust is strongly cytotoxic. Ruvimine administration during the whole experiment demonstrates therapeutic and prophylactic effect and normalizes local pulmonary phagocytosis.

  4. The effect of pulsed jet lavage in vertebroplasty on injection forces of PMMA bone cement: an animal study

    PubMed Central

    Boger, Andreas; Benneker, Lorin M.; Krebs, Jörg; Heini, Paul F.; Gisep, Armando

    2009-01-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty, comprising of the injection of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) into vertebral bodies, is an efficient procedure to stabilize osteoporotic compression fractures as well as other weakening lesions. Besides fat embolism, cement leakage is considered to be one of the major and most severe complications during percutaneous vertebroplasty. The viscosity of the PMMA during injection plays a key role in this context. It was shown in vitro that the best way to lower the risk of cement leakage is to inject the cement at higher viscosity, which is requires high injection forces. Injection forces can be reduced by applying a newly developed lavage technique as it was shown in vitro using human cadaver vertebrae. The purpose of this study was to prove the in vitro results in an in vivo model. The investigation was incorporated in an animal study that was performed to evaluate the cardiovascular reaction on cement augmentation using the lavage technique. Injection forces were measured with instrumentation for 1 cc syringes, additionally acquiring plunger displacement. Averaged injection forces measured, ranged from 12 to 130 N and from 28 to 140 N for the lavage group and the control group, respectively. Normalized injection forces (by viscosity and injection speed) showed a trend to be lower for the lavage group in comparison to the control group (P = 0.073). In conclusion, the clinical relevance on the investigated lavage technique concerning lowering injection forces was only shown by trend in the performed animal study. However, it might well be that the effect is more pronounced for osteoporotic vertebral bodies. PMID:19568774

  5. The effect of pulsed jet lavage in vertebroplasty on injection forces of PMMA bone cement: an animal study.

    PubMed

    Boger, Andreas; Benneker, Lorin M; Krebs, Jörg; Boner, Vanessa; Heini, Paul F; Gisep, Armando

    2009-12-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty, comprising of the injection of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) into vertebral bodies, is an efficient procedure to stabilize osteoporotic compression fractures as well as other weakening lesions. Besides fat embolism, cement leakage is considered to be one of the major and most severe complications during percutaneous vertebroplasty. The viscosity of the PMMA during injection plays a key role in this context. It was shown in vitro that the best way to lower the risk of cement leakage is to inject the cement at higher viscosity, which is requires high injection forces. Injection forces can be reduced by applying a newly developed lavage technique as it was shown in vitro using human cadaver vertebrae. The purpose of this study was to prove the in vitro results in an in vivo model. The investigation was incorporated in an animal study that was performed to evaluate the cardiovascular reaction on cement augmentation using the lavage technique. Injection forces were measured with instrumentation for 1 cc syringes, additionally acquiring plunger displacement. Averaged injection forces measured, ranged from 12 to 130 N and from 28 to 140 N for the lavage group and the control group, respectively. Normalized injection forces (by viscosity and injection speed) showed a trend to be lower for the lavage group in comparison to the control group (P = 0.073). In conclusion, the clinical relevance on the investigated lavage technique concerning lowering injection forces was only shown by trend in the performed animal study. However, it might well be that the effect is more pronounced for osteoporotic vertebral bodies.

  6. Treatment of necrotizing acute pancreatitis with peritoneal lavage and dialysis by a new simplified technique insert catheters

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi; Zhu, Bai; Zhu, Xueyan; Piao, Chenglin; Cui, Wenpeng; Wang, Yangwei; Sun, Jing; Chen, Wenguo; Miao, Lining

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Peritoneal lavage and dialysis is an approach to treat necrotizing acute pancreatitis as it removes dialyzable toxins and reduces severe metabolic disturbances. Successful catheter implantation is important for delivering adequate peritoneal lavage and dialysis. The aim of the present study was to describe a new modified percutaneous technique for the placement of peritoneal dialysis catheters and assess the effectiveness and safety of peritoneal lavage and dialysis used for treatment of necrotizing acute pancreatitis. We conducted a retrospective data review of 35 patients of necrotizing acute pancreatitis from January 2010 to December 2014 in Jilin City Central Hospital and The First Affiliated Hospital of ZheJiang University. In total, 18 patients underwent peritoneal lavage and dialysis after inserting catheters by our new technique (group A), whereas 17 patients underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous catheter drainage (group B). By analyzing the patients’ data, the drainage days and mean number of hours between the debut of the symptoms and the hospital admission were lower in group A (P < 0.05, P < 0.05, respectively). The complication rate of 5.6 and 17.6%, respectively (P = 0.261), and a mortality rate of 16.7 and 5.9% for each group, respectively (P = 0.316). Likewise, hospitalization time was similar for the group A: 31 ± 25.3 days compared with 42.8 ± 29.4 days in the group B (P = 0.211). Peritoneal lavage and dialysis can be used in necrotizing acute pancreatitis, and our new modified percutaneous technique offers the same complication and mortality rate as ultrasound-guided drainage but with a shorter drainage days. PMID:27281083

  7. Fluid Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  8. Acute respiratory distress caused by Neosartorya udagawae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe the first reported case of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) attributed to Neosartorya infection. The mold grew rapidly in culture of both sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from a previously healthy 43-year-old woman with ARDS, which developed as the culmination of a...

  9. Antimycobacterial drugs modulate immunopathogenic matrix metalloproteinases in a cellular model of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shivani; Kubler, Andre; Singh, Utpal K; Singh, Ajay; Gardiner, Harriet; Prasad, Rajniti; Elkington, Paul T; Friedland, Jon S

    2014-08-01

    Tuberculosis is characterized by extensive destruction and remodelling of the pulmonary extracellular matrix. Stromal cell-derived matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated in this process and may be a target for adjunctive immunotherapy. We hypothesized that MMPs are elevated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of tuberculosis patients and that antimycobacterial agents may have a modulatory effect on MMP secretion. Concentrations of MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -8, and -9 were elevated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from tuberculosis patients compared to those in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with other pulmonary conditions. There was a positive correlation between MMP-3, MMP-7, and MMP-8 and a chest radiological score of cavitation and parenchymal damage. Respiratory epithelial cell-derived MMP-3 was suppressed by moxifloxacin, rifampicin, and azithromycin in a dose-dependent manner. Respiratory epithelial cell-derived MMP-1 was suppressed by moxifloxacin and azithromycin, whereas MMP-9 secretion was only decreased by moxifloxacin. In contrast, moxifloxacin and azithromycin both increased MMP-1 and -3 secretion from MRC-5 fibroblasts, demonstrating that the effects of these drugs are cell specific. Isoniazid did not affect MMP secretion. In conclusion, MMPs are elevated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from tuberculosis patients and correlate with parameters of tissue destruction. Antimycobacterial agents have a hitherto-undescribed immunomodulatory effect on MMP release by stromal cells.

  10. Strain Differences in Antioxidants in Rat Models of Cardiovascular Disease Exposed to Ozone

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the hypothesis that antioxidant substances and enzymes in lung, heart and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) are altered in response to 03 in cardiovascular disease and/or metabolic syndrome (CVD)-prone rat models. CVD strains [spontaneously hypertensive (SH), SH ...

  11. Laparoscopic Peritoneal Lavage: A Definitive Treatment for Diverticular Peritonitis or a “Bridge” to Elective Laparoscopic Sigmoidectomy?

    PubMed Central

    Cirocchi, Roberto; Trastulli, Stefano; Vettoretto, Nereo; Milani, Diego; Cavaliere, Davide; Renzi, Claudio; Adamenko, Olga; Desiderio, Jacopo; Burattini, Maria Federica; Parisi, Amilcare; Arezzo, Alberto; Fingerhut, Abe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To this day, the treatment of generalized peritonitis secondary to diverticular perforation is still controversial. Recently, in patients with acute sigmoid diverticulitis, laparoscopic lavage and drainage has gained a wide interest as an alternative to resection. Based on this backdrop, we decided to perform a systematic review of the literature to evaluate the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of peritoneal lavage in perforated diverticular disease. A bibliographic search was performed in PubMed for case series and comparative studies published between January 1992 and February 2014 describing laparoscopic peritoneal lavage in patients with perforated diverticulitis. A total of 19 articles consisting of 10 cohort studies, 8 case series, and 1 controlled clinical trial met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. In total these studies analyzed data from 871 patients. The mean follow-up time ranged from 1.5 to 96 months when reported. In 11 studies, the success rate of laparoscopic peritoneal lavage, defined as patients alive without surgical treatment for a recurrent episode of diverticulitis, was 24.3%. In patients with Hinchey stage III diverticulitis, the incidence of laparotomy conversion was 1%, whereas in patients with stage IV it was 45%. The 30-day postoperative mortality rate was 2.9%. The 30-day postoperative reintervention rate was 4.9%, whereas 2% of patients required a percutaneous drainage. Readmission rate after the first hospitalization for recurrent diverticulitis was 6%. Most patients who were readmitted (69%) required redo surgery. A 2-stage laparoscopic intervention was performed in 18.3% of patients. Laparoscopic peritoneal lavage should be considered an effective and safe option for the treatment of patients with sigmoid diverticulitis with Hinchey stage III peritonitis; it can also be consider as a “bridge” surgical step combined with a delayed and elective laparoscopic sigmoidectomy in order to avoid a Hartmann procedure

  12. Human upper respiratory tract responses to inhaled pollutants with emphasis on nasal lavage

    SciTech Connect

    Koren, H.S.; Devlin, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    A set of symptoms has been described during the past two decades which has been called the sick building syndrome. These symptoms include eye, nose, and throat irritation; headache; mental fatigue; and respiratory distress. It is likely that volatile organic compounds (VOC) present in synthetic materials used in homes and office buildings contribute to these symptoms. However, there have been few studies in which humans have been exposed to known amounts of VOC under carefully controlled conditions. In the study 14 subjects have been exposed to a mixture of VOC (25 mg/cu m total hydrocarbon) representative of what is found in new homes and office buildings. Since irritation of the nose and throat are symptoms often associated with the upper respiratory tract and may result from an inflammatory response in the upper airways, the authors have used nasal lavage to monitor neutrophil (PMN) influx into the nasal passages following exposure to VOC. The authors report statistically significant increases in PMNs both immediately after a four hour exposure to VOC, as well as 18 hours later.

  13. The thermal effects of lavage on 57 ox femoral heads prepared for hip resurfacing arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Previously, we have documented surface temperatures recorded by thermography great enough to cause osteonecrosis of the femoral head during hip resurfacing. We now performed an in vitro investigation with 3 questions: (1) whether water irrigation reduced bone surface temperature, (2) whether external bone temperatures were similar to core temperatures, and (3) whether blunting of the reamer affected temperature generation. Methods Using an ox-bone model, 57 femoral heads were peripherally reamed. The surface temperatures of bone were measured using a thermal camera and internal bone temperatures were measured using 2 theromocouples. We measured the effects of cooling with water at room temperature and with ice-cooled water. Progressive blunting of reamers was assessed over the 57 experiments. Results Mean and maximum temperatures generated during peripheral reaming were greater when no irrigation was used. Ice-cold saline protected femoral heads from thermal damage. External bone temperatures were much greater than internal temperatures, which were not sufficiently elevated to cause osteonecrosis regardless of lavage. Blunting of the reamer was not found to have a statistically significant effect in this study. Interpretation Cooling with ice-cooled water is recommended. Internal bone temperatures are not elevated despite the high surface temperatures reached during femoral head resurfacing. PMID:24079554

  14. Lavage-induced Surfactant Depletion in Pigs As a Model of the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS).

    PubMed

    Russ, Martin; Kronfeldt, Sebastian; Boemke, Willehad; Busch, Thilo; Francis, Roland C E; Pickerodt, Philipp A

    2016-01-01

    Various animal models of lung injury exist to study the complex pathomechanisms of human acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and evaluate future therapies. Severe lung injury with a reproducible deterioration of pulmonary gas exchange and hemodynamics can be induced in anesthetized pigs using repeated lung lavages with warmed 0.9% saline (50 ml/kg body weight). Including standard respiratory and hemodynamic monitoring with clinically applied devices in this model allows the evaluation of novel therapeutic strategies (drugs, modern ventilators, extracorporeal membrane oxygenators, ECMO), and bridges the gap between bench and bedside. Furthermore, induction of lung injury with lung lavages does not require the injection of pathogens/endotoxins that impact on measurements of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. A disadvantage of the model is the high recruitability of atelectatic lung tissue. Standardization of the model helps to avoid pitfalls, to ensure comparability between experiments, and to reduce the number of animals needed. PMID:27684585

  15. Does local lavage influence functional recovery during lumber discectomy of disc herniation?

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ru-Sen; Ren, Yi-Ming; Yuan, Jian-Jun; Cui, Zi-Jian; Wan, Jun; Fan, Bao-You; Lin, Wei; Zhou, Xian-Hu; Zhang, Xue-Li

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is a common disease and lumbar discectomy is the most common surgical procedure carried out for patients with low back pain and leg symptoms. Although most researchers are focusing on the surgical techniques during operation, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of local intervertebral lavage during microdiscectomy. In this retrospective study, 410 patients were operated on by microdiscectomy for LDH during 2011 to 2014. Retrospectively, 213 of them (group A) accepted local intervertebral irrigation with saline water before wound closure and 197 patients (group B) only had their operative field irrigated with saline water. Systematic records of visual analog scores (VAS), Oswestry disability Index (ODI) questionnaire scale scores, use of analgesia, and hospital length of stay were done after hospitalization. The majority (80.49%) of the cases were diagnosed with lumber herniation at the levels of L4/5 and L5/S1. Fifty-one patients had herniations at 2 levels. There were significant decreases of VAS scores and ODI in both groups between preoperation and postoperation of different time points. VAS scores decreased more in group A than group B at early stage of postoperation follow-up. However, there were no statistically significant differences between 2 groups in using analgesia, VAS and ODI up to 1 month of follow-up. Microdiscectomy for LDH offers a marked improvement in back and radicular pain. Local irrigation of herniated lumber disc area could relief dick herniation-derived low back pain and leg radicular pain at early stage of post-operation. However, the pain relief of this intervention was not noticeable for a long period. PMID:27759631

  16. The penetration of lavage solution into the periodontal pocket during ultrasonic instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Nosal, G; Scheidt, M J; O'Neal, R; Van Dyke, T E

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the penetration depth of the water coolant for medicament lavage of an ultrasonic device into the periodontal pocket. Patients having teeth previously planned for extraction, and exhibiting probing depths 3 mm or greater were used in this study. A reference notch was placed on the tooth at the level of the gingival margin and the probing attachment level (PAL) was measured from the base of the notch to the base of the pocket. The ultrasonic device, with an EWPP tip and equipped with a reservoir of erythrocin dye colored coolant, was activated and moved in a vertical direction from the gingival margin to the apical extent of the pocket. The tooth was extracted and the penetration depth (PD) of the dye-colored water spray was measured from the reference notch to the apical limit of the stained subgingival plaque. The tooth was counter stained with methylene blue to determine the coronal extent of the connective tissue attachment. Pearsons' Product Moment Correlation Coefficient for the PAL and PD was calculated. Dye-stained root surface was observed along the full extent of the probe tip's penetration path. The dispersion of the dye-colored stain was localized to the area of the ultrasonic probe with very little lateral dispersion. The ultrasonic instrument may be an effective system to mechanically remove plaque and calculus at the same time as delivering a chemotherapeutic agent. The limited dispersion of the liquid dye would indicate that chemical plaque control with this delivery system is dependent upon thorough debridement with the instrument such that all affected surfaces are instrumented. PMID:1658291

  17. A Study of Agastachis Herba on Ovalbumin-induced Asthma in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Lim, C. Y.; Kim, B. Y.; Lim, S. H.; Cho, S. I.

    2015-01-01

    Agastachis Herba is one of the well-known medicinal herbs in Korean traditional medicine. This study was taken up to examine the beneficial effects of Agastachis Herba on a mice model of asthma. BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin to produce a murine model of asthma. Methanol extracts of Agastachis Herba were orally administered to the ovalbumin-induced asthmatic mice. The effects of methanol extract of Agastachis Herba on airway hyper responsiveness, immune cell distributions in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin E in serum, and histopathological changes were evaluated. Mice treated with the methanol extract of Agastachis Herba showed reduction of airway hyper responsiveness as well as inhibited immune cell infiltration in bronchoalveolar region. Also ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin E levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid significantly decreased in extract treated mice. Histopathological findings showed significant beneficial changes in inflammatory cell infiltration. PMID:26798185

  18. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Lauriie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Ribeiro, L.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Johnston, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 50% of ISS astronauts experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's preflight conditions and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. METHODS: We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by

  19. Fluid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.; Firouzjahi, H.; Namjoo, M.H.; Sasaki, M. E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2013-09-01

    In this work we present an inflationary mechanism based on fluid dynamics. Starting with the action for a single barotropic perfect fluid, we outline the procedure to calculate the power spectrum and the bispectrum of the curvature perturbation. It is shown that a perfect barotropic fluid naturally gives rise to a non-attractor inflationary universe in which the curvature perturbation is not frozen on super-horizon scales. We show that a scale-invariant power spectrum can be obtained with the local non-Gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} = 5/2.

  20. GC/MS detection of paraffins in a case of lipoid pneumonia following occupational exposure to oil spray.

    PubMed

    Penes, M C; Vallon, J J; Sabot, J F; Vallon, C

    1990-01-01

    A case of lipoid pneumonia following occupational exposure to oil spray is described. Biological fluids (broncho-alveolar lavage and pleural fluid) are analyzed to determine if the compounds found in the industrial oils are present. The samples are purified using high-performance thin-layer chromatography, and after extraction, the compounds were submitted to infrared spectroscopy. Direct hexane extraction of biological fluids is also performed, followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). PMID:2087097

  1. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Michael B.; Hargens, Alan R.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Ebert, Douglas J.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Laurie, Steven S.; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Martin, David S.; Liu, John; Macias, Brandon R.; Arbeille, Philippe; Danielson, Richard; Chang, Douglas; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Johnston, Smith L.; Westby, Christian M.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J.; Smith, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesize that microgravity-induced cephalad fluid shifts elevate intracranial pressure (ICP) and contribute to VIIP. We will test this hypothesis and a possible countermeasure in ISS astronauts.

  2. Amniotic fluid

    MedlinePlus

    ... baby is born), or gestational diabetes . Too little amniotic fluid is known as oligohydramnios. This condition may occur with late pregnancies, ruptured membranes, placental dysfunction , or fetal abnormalities. Abnormal amounts of ...

  3. Drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B.L.

    1984-01-10

    Polyethylene glycols in combination with at least one water-dispersible polymeric viscosifier comprising cellulose ethers, cellulose sulfate esters, polyacrylamides, guar gum, or heteropolysaccharides improve the water loss properties of water-based drilling fluids, particularly in hard brine environments.

  4. Amniotic Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Heather C.; Muglia, Louis J.; Morrow, Ardythe L.

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to review the use of high-dimensional biology techniques, specifically transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, in amniotic fluid to elucidate the mechanisms behind preterm birth or assessment of fetal development. We performed a comprehensive MEDLINE literature search on the use of transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic technologies for amniotic fluid analysis. All abstracts were reviewed for pertinence to preterm birth or fetal maturation in human subjects. Nineteen articles qualified for inclusion. Most articles described the discovery of biomarker candidates, but few larger, multicenter replication or validation studies have been done. We conclude that the use of high-dimensional systems biology techniques to analyze amniotic fluid has significant potential to elucidate the mechanisms of preterm birth and fetal maturation. However, further multicenter collaborative efforts are needed to replicate and validate candidate biomarkers before they can become useful tools for clinical practice. Ideally, amniotic fluid biomarkers should be translated to a noninvasive test performed in maternal serum or urine. PMID:23599373

  5. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Laurie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Gunga, H.; Johnston, S.; Westby, C.; Ribeiro, L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mechanisms responsible for the ocular structural and functional changes that characterize the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (ICP) syndrome (VIIP) are unclear, but hypothesized to be secondary to the cephalad fluid shift experienced in spaceflight. This study will relate the fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight with VIIP symptoms. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, can be predicted preflight with acute hemodynamic manipulations, and also if lower body negative pressure (LBNP) can reverse the VIIP effects. METHODS: Physiologic variables will be examined pre-, in- and post-flight in 10 International Space Station crewmembers including: fluid compartmentalization (D2O and NaBr dilution); interstitial tissue thickness (ultrasound); vascular dimensions and dynamics (ultrasound and MRI (including cerebrospinal fluid pulsatility)); ocular measures (optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, ultrasound); and ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, otoacoustic emissions). Pre- and post-flight measures will be assessed while upright, supine and during 15 deg head-down tilt (HDT). In-flight measures will occur early and late during 6 or 12 month missions. LBNP will be evaluated as a countermeasure during HDT and during spaceflight. RESULTS: The first two crewmembers are in the preflight testing phase. Preliminary results characterize the acute fluid shifts experienced from upright, to supine and HDT postures (increased stroke volume, jugular dimensions and measures of ICP) which are reversed with 25 millimeters Hg LBNP. DISCUSSION: Initial results indicate that acute cephalad fluid shifts may be related to VIIP symptoms, but also may be reversible by LBNP. The effect of a chronic fluid shift has yet to be evaluated. Learning Objectives: Current spaceflight VIIP research is described

  6. Electrorheological fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, T.C.; Martin, J.E.

    1993-10-01

    An electrorheological fluid is a substance whose form changes in the presence of electric fields. Depending on the strength of the field to which it is subjected, an electrorheological fluid can run freely like water, ooze like honey or solidify like gelatin. Indeed, the substance can switch from ne state to another within a few milliseconds. Electrorheological fluids are easy to make; they consist of microscopic particles suspended in an insulating liquid. Yet they are not ready for most commercial applications. They tend to suffer from a number of problems, including structural weakness as solids, abrasiveness as liquids and chemical breakdown, especially at high temperatures. Automotive engineers could imagine, for instance, constructing an electrorheological clutch. It was also hoped that electrorheological fluids would lead to valveless hydraulic systems, in which solidifying fluid would shut off flow through a thin section of pipe. Electrorheological fluids also offer the possibility of a shock absorber that provides response times of milliseconds and does not require mechanical adjustments. 3 refs.

  7. Effect of acute nitrogen dioxide exposure on the composition of fatty acid associated with phospholipids in alveolar lavage

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, T.; Noguchi, T.; Kikuno, M.; Kubota, K.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo exposure of rats to 10 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) for 12 h caused changes in fatty acids composition of alveolar lavage phospholipids. Among the fatty acid species, the relative ratio of palmitic acid, myristic acid and palmitoleic acid increased significantly. While the relative ratio of stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid decreased significantly. Both the increase in the incorporation of palmitic acid in phosphatidylcholine which would be released into the alveoli and the increase in the release of phosphatidylcholine into the alveoli may account for the changes in the fatty acid composition of the present findings.

  8. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Michael; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Platts, S.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 30% of ISS astronauts experience more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the space flight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration space flight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during space flight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight condition and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound

  9. The protective effect of pulsed lavage against implant subsidence and micromotion for cemented tibial unicompartmental knee components: an experimental cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Sebastian; Rieger, Johannes S; Bruckner, Thomas; Kretzer, J Philippe; Clarius, Michael; Bitsch, Rudi G

    2014-04-01

    Cemented UKAs were performed in 12 pairs of human cadaver legs and the bone bed was cleansed using pulsed lavage (group A) and conventional syringe lavage (group B). Subsidence and micromotion of the loaded tibial trays were measured. There was a significant effect of BMD on subsidence (P = 0.043) but not on micromotion. Cement penetration of group A was significantly increased (P = 0.005). Group A showed a reduced implant subsidence (P = 0.025) and micromotion (P = 0.026) compared to group B. The group differences in micromotion and implant subsidence of UKA tibial components were statistically significant but rather small and might clinically be of minor importance. Nevertheless a worse bone quality adversely affected implant subsidence and pulsed lavage had a protective effect in these specimens.

  10. Effect of peritoneal lavage with ulinastatin on the expression of NF-κB and TNF-α in multiple organs of rats with severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    FENG, CONG; LI, BEI; WANG, LI-LI; CHEN, LI; ZHOU, XUAN; LV, FA-QIN; LI, TAN-SHI

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of peritoneal lavage with ulinastatin on the expression levels of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in multiple organs of rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the following groups: Sham-operated (C), SAP model (SAP), saline lavage (SL), intravenous ulinastatin (IU) and peritoneal lavage with ulinastatin (UL). The SAP model was induced by the retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate into the biliopancreatic ducts of the rats. Intraperitoneal lavage or injection was performed immediately following the establishment of the SAP model in groups SL, IU and UL. Intraperitoneal lavage with or without ulinastatin was performed for 3 h. The survival time of half of the rats in each group was recorded over a 12-h period. At 3 h after the induction of SAP, inflammatory mediators and the expression levels of NF-κB and TNF-α in multiple organs of the rats in each group were also detected. The survival rates of the rats in group UL at 6 h and 9 h were increased compared with those in group SAP, and were also higher than that in groups SL and IU. The levels of serum inflammatory mediators were effectively reduced in groups SL, IU and UL, the greatest effects were observed in group UL. The expression levels of NF-κB and TNF-α in multiple organs were significantly lower in group UL compared with other groups. Intraperitoneal lavage with ulinastatin significantly ameliorated the inflammatory reaction and inhibited NF-κB and TNF-α expression in multiple organs of SAP model rats. PMID:26668591

  11. Is the rate of re-operation after primary lumbar microdiscectomy affected by surgeon grade or intra-operative lavage of the disc space?

    PubMed

    Ellenbogen, Jonathan R; Marlow, William; Fischer, Benjamin E; Tsegaye, Magnum; Wilby, Martin J

    2014-04-01

    STUDY DESIGN. Retrospective audit of consecutive patients. OBJECTIve. To investigate the re-operation rate following elective primary lumbar microdiscectomy and to determine whether principal surgeon grade and/or disc space lavage is a factor in recurrence. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. Recurrent herniation of disc material following lumbar microdiscecomy surgery is one of the commonest complications of the procedure. Any reduction in the number of revision microdiscectomies performed per year would have a significant impact on patients' lives and on the health service economy. We undertook this study to ascertain whether principal surgeon grade and/or disc space lavage has an impact in reducing the re-operation rate. METHODS. We undertook a retrospective audit of patients who underwent elective primary lumbar microdiscectomy, over a 3-year period (n = 971). RESULTS. The overall re-operation rate for primary elective microdiscectomy was 3.8%, consistent with the published literature. The relative risk of re-operation in patients primarily operated by registrar surgeons was 1.2 fold the risk in patients operated by consultants (95% CI: 0.62, 2.35) although not statistically significant (p = 0.568). The risk of re-operation in the 'non lavage' group was 2.15 times the risk in the 'lavage' group (95% CI: 0.63, 7.34), but it did not reach significance (p = 0.222). CONCLUSIONS. Principal surgeon grade and intervertebral disc lavage have not been found conclusively to be factors in the rate of recurrence. This information is useful to reassure patients that their outcome from such surgery is not dependent on the grade of surgeon performing the operation. There is a possible trend towards intervertebral disc lavage reducing the rate of recurrence. PMID:23957779

  12. Fluid Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pnueli, David; Gutfinger, Chaim

    1997-01-01

    This text is intended for the study of fluid mechanics at an intermediate level. The presentation starts with basic concepts, in order to form a sound conceptual structure that can support engineering applications and encourage further learning. The presentation is exact, incorporating both the mathematics involved and the physics needed to understand the various phenomena in fluid mechanics. Where a didactical choice must be made between the two, the physics prevails. Throughout the book the authors have tried to reach a balance between exact presentation, intuitive grasp of new ideas, and creative applications of concepts. This approach is reflected in the examples presented in the text and in the exercises given at the end of each chapter. Subjects treated are hydrostatics, viscous flow, similitude and order of magnitude, creeping flow, potential flow, boundary layer flow, turbulent flow, compressible flow, and non-Newtonian flows. This book is ideal for advanced undergraduate students in mechanical, chemical, aerospace, and civil engineering. Solutions manual available.

  13. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  14. Metabolism of Benzo[a]pyrene in Human Bronchoalveolar H358 Cells Using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hao; Gelhaus, Stacy L.; Mangal, Dipti; Harvey, Ronald G.; Blair, Ian A.; Penning, Trevor M.

    2008-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), is metabolically activated by three enzymatic pathways; by peroxidases (e.g. cytochrome P450-peroxidase) to yield radical cations; by P4501A1/1B1 monoxygenation plus epoxide hydrolase to yield diol-epoxides; and by P4501A1/1B1 monoxygenation, epoxide hydrolase plus aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) to yield o-quinones. In humans, a major exposure site for environmental and tobacco smoke PAH is the lung, however, the profile of B[a]P metabolites formed at this site has not been well characterized. In this study, human bronchoalveolar H358 cells were exposed to B[a]P, and metabolites generated by peroxidase (B[a]P-1,6- and B[a]P-3,6-diones), from cytochrome P4501A1/1B1 monooxygenation (3-hydroxyl-B[a]P, B[a]P-7,8- and 9,10-trans-dihydrodiols, and B[a]P -r-7,t-8,t-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol (B[a]P -tetrol-1)), and from AKRs (B[a]P-7,8-dione) were detected and quantified by RP-HPLC-with in line photo-diode array and radiometric detection, and identified by LC-MS. Progress curves showed a lag-phase in the formation of 3-hydroxy-B[a]P, B[a]P-7,8-trans-dihydrodiol, B[a]P-tetraol-1 and B[a]P-7,8-dione over 24 h. Northern blot analysis showed that B[a]P induced P4501B1 and AKR1C isoforms in H358 cells in a time-dependent manner providing an explanation for the lag-phase. Pretreatment of H358 cells with 10 nM 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, (TCDD) eliminated this lag-phase, but did not alter the levels of the individual metabolites observed, suggesting that both B[a]P and TCDD induction ultimately yield the same B[a]P-metabolic profile. The one exception was B[a]P-3,6-dione which was formed without a lag-phase in the absence and presence of TCDD, suggesting that the peroxidase responsible for its formation was neither P4501A1 nor 1B1. Candidate peroxidases that remain include PGH synthases and uninduced P450 isoforms. This study shows that the P4501A1/1B1 and AKR pathways are inducible in human lung

  15. Peritoneal Fluid Analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Peritoneal Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Peritoneal Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pleural Fluid Analysis , Pericardial Fluid ...

  16. Pleural Fluid Analysis Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Pleural Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Pleural Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pericardial Fluid Analysis , Peritoneal Fluid ...

  17. Polyethylene Glycol Electrolyte Lavage Solution versus Colonic Hydrotherapy for Bowel Preparation before Colonoscopy: A Single Center, Randomized, and Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yan; Zhang, Kai-Yuan; Li, Jiao; Lu, Hao; Xie, Wan-Ling; Liao, Sheng-Tao; Chen, Dong-Feng; Zeng, Deng-Feng; Lan, Chun-Hui

    2014-01-01

    This single center, randomized, and controlled study aimed to compare the effectiveness and safety of polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage (PEG-EL) solution and colonic hydrotherapy (CHT) for bowel preparation before colonoscopy. A total of 196 eligible outpatients scheduled for diagnostic colonoscopy were randomly assigned to the PEG-EL (n = 102) or CHT (n = 94) groups. Primary outcome measures included colonic cleanliness and adverse effects. Secondary outcome measures were patient satisfaction and preference, colonoscopic findings, ileocecal arrival rate, examiner satisfaction, and cecal intubation time. The results show that PEG-EL group was associated with significantly better colonic cleanliness than CHT group, fewer adverse effects, and increased examiner satisfaction. However, the CHT group had higher patient satisfaction and higher diverticulosis detection rates. Moreover, the results showed the same ileocecal arrival rate and patient preference between the two groups (P > 0.05). These findings indicate that PEG-EL is the preferred option in patients who followed the preparation instructions completely.

  18. Clinical experiences of treating septic arthritis in the equine by repeated joint lavage: a series of 39 cases.

    PubMed

    Meijer, M C; van Weeren, P R; Rijkenhuizen, A B

    2000-08-01

    The condition of septic arthritis was treated in 12 foals with 21 affected joints (Group I) and in 27 adult horses. The adult horses were divided into three groups, based on aetiology of the condition: haematogenous (Group II, n = 6), iatrogenic (Group III, n = 6), and perforating trauma (Group IV, n = 15). The treatment consisted of an initial systemic antibiotic that anticipated the microbial agents that were considered most likely per group, repeated through-and-through joint lavages every other day and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The antibiotics were adjusted to the results of bacteriological culture and susceptibility tests. Joint lavages were continued until the white blood cell count dropped below 15 G/l and bacteriological culture was negative, after which a single dose of a short-acting corticosteroid was administered intra-articularly. Joint recovery rate in group I was 71%. Patient recovery rate of the foals, however, was lower (42%). Three foals were killed for reasons other than arthritis; one foal because of an arthritis-related problem and three foals because of persistent arthritis. Overall joint recovery rate, equalling patient recovery rate, in the adult horses was 81%. The expected predominance of Streptococcus spp. in haematogenous arthritis in adult horses was not confirmed, indicating that in these cases also, an initial antibiotic treatment with a broad-spectrum combination is preferable. It is concluded that with intensive treatment, the prognosis of septic arthritis in the adult horse can be classified as fair to even good. Results in the foals are not as good, but this seems to be more due to the specific problems surrounding the equine neonate than to unresponsiveness to the treatment.

  19. Analysis of nanoparticle–protein coronas formed in vitro between nanosized welding particles and nasal lavage proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Neserin; Mattsson, Karin; Rissler, Jenny; Karlsson, Helen Marg; Svensson, Christian R.; Gudmundsson, Anders; Lindh, Christian H.; Jönsson, Bo A. G.; Cedervall, Tommy; Kåredal, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Welding fumes include agglomerated particles built up of primary nanoparticles. Particles inhaled through the nose will to some extent be deposited in the protein-rich nasal mucosa, and a protein corona will be formed around the particles. The aim was to identify the protein corona formed between nasal lavage proteins and four types of particles with different parameters. Two of the particles were formed and collected during welding and two were manufactured iron oxides. When nasal lavage proteins were added to the particles, differences were observed in the sizes of the aggregates that were formed. Measurements showed that the amount of protein bound to particles correlated with the relative size increase of the aggregates, suggesting that the surface area was associated with the binding capacity. However, differences in aggregate sizes were detected when nasal proteins were added to UFWF and Fe2O3 particles (having similar agglomerated size) suggesting that yet parameters other than size determine the binding. Relative quantitative mass spectrometric and gel-based analyses showed differences in the protein content of the coronas. High-affinity proteins were further assessed for network interactions. Additional experiments showed that the inhibitory function of secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor, a highly abundant nasal protein, was influenced by particle binding suggesting that an understanding of protein function following particle binding is necessary to properly evaluate pathophysiological events. Our results underscore the importance of including particles collected from real working environments when studying the toxic effects of particles because these effects might be mediated by the protein corona. PMID:26186033

  20. [Acute therapeutic measures for limb salvage Part 2 : Debridement, lavage techniques and anti-infectious strategies].

    PubMed

    Willy, C; Stichling, M; Müller, M; Gatzer, R; Kramer, A; Back, D A; Vogt, D

    2016-05-01

    The quality of the primary care of Gustilo-Anderson (GA) type IIIB and IIIC extremity injuries is crucial to the success of the limb salvage procedure. This article provides a compilation of consistent, but often controversially discussed aspects of initial debridement, modern techniques of lavage and wound closure, in addition to current issues on the application of antibiotics and antiseptics, based on our own experiences and the latest literature. The following points should be stressed. Severe extremity injuries with gross contamination (GA IIIA, B, and C) will still be associated with an infection rate of up to 60 %. The initial debridement should be performed as soon as an experienced trauma surgeon is available. Tissue that is definitely avital will have to be removed, whereas traumatized but potentially surviving tissue will have to be re-evaluated during a second-look operation after 36-48 h. Given a high enough level of contamination, biofilms will form after as few as 6 h. The perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis has to be initiated early and should be continued for at least 24 h (GA I/II) or up to 5 days (GA III). In cases of bacterial contamination, wound irrigation will be useful with additives such as polyhexanide, octenidine or superoxidized water. Rinsing of the wound should be performed with 3-9 L and only slight manual pressure (no jet lavage). The definitive primary closure of a wound should be achieved in the initial operation, but only in the case of certain "decontamination" and overall vitality of the wound (GA I and II). In the presence of high-grade injuries, a temporary vacuum sealing technique can be used until the earliest possible definitive plastic surgical wound closure.

  1. Lung Involvement in Multiple Myeloma - Case Study

    PubMed Central

    NIŢU, MIMI; CRIȘAN, EMILIA; OLTEANU, M.; CĂLĂRAŞU, CRISTINA; OLTEANU, MĂDĂLINA; POPESCU, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Mutiple mieloma (MM) cells are rarely found in extramedullary sites. The sites of extramedullary dissemination reported in the literature are spleen, liver, lymph nodes, kidneys, thyroid gland, adrenal gland, ovary, tests, lung, pleura, pericardium, intestinal tract and skin. We report a case in which the myeloma was diagnosed after we discovered the presence of monoclonal plasma cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL). Matherial and method: a case in which diagnosis was established from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid demonstrating the presence of monoclonal plasma cells in Craiova Pneumology Departament. Results: Analysis of BAL fluid for the presence of plasma cells and for cytoplasmic immunoglobulin DNA provides a noninvasive means of establishing the diagnosis. Conclusions: Pulmonary parenchyma is an uncommon site of extramedullary involvement in multiple myeloma. Interstitial lung disease as pulmonary manifestation of multiple myeloma is even rarer; only isolated cases with histological proofs have been reported in the literature. PMID:26788357

  2. Polyunsaturated lysophosphatidic acid as a potential asthma biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Steven J; Park, Gye Young; Christman, John W; Nyenhuis, Sharmilee; Berdyshev, Evgeny; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2016-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a lipid mediator in biological fluids and tissues, is generated mainly by autotaxin that hydrolyzes lysophosphatidylcholine to LPA and choline. Total LPA levels are increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from asthmatic lung, and are strongly induced following subsegmental bronchoprovocation with allergen in subjects with allergic asthma. Polyunsaturated molecular species of LPA (C22:5 and C22:6) are selectively synthesized in the airways of asthma subjects following allergen challenge and in mouse models of allergic airway inflammation, having been identified and quantified by LC/MS/MS lipidomics. This review discusses current knowledge of LPA production in asthmatic lung and the potential utility of polyunsaturated LPA molecular species as novel biomarkers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate of asthma subjects. PMID:26808693

  3. Gyroelastic fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Kerbel, G.D.

    1981-01-20

    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch.

  4. Fluid channeling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald Y. (Inventor); Hitch, Bradley D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A fluid channeling system includes a fluid ejector, a heat exchanger, and a fluid pump disposed in series flow communication The ejector includes a primary inlet for receiving a primary fluid, and a secondary inlet for receiving a secondary fluid which is mixed with the primary fluid and discharged therefrom as ejector discharge. Heat is removed from the ejector discharge in the heat exchanger, and the heat exchanger discharge is compressed in the fluid pump and channeled to the ejector secondary inlet as the secondary fluid In an exemplary embodiment, the temperature of the primary fluid is greater than the maximum operating temperature of a fluid motor powering the fluid pump using a portion of the ejector discharge, with the secondary fluid being mixed with the primary fluid so that the ejector discharge temperature is equal to about the maximum operating temperature of the fluid motor.

  5. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids and Fluid Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Sengers, Jan V.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

    2004-05-03

    The major goal of the project was to study the effect of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties and phase behavior of fluids and fluid mixtures. Long-range fluctuations appear because of the presence of critical phase transitions. A global theory of critical fluctuations was developed and applied to represent thermodynamic properties and transport properties of molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. In the second phase of the project, the theory was extended to deal with critical fluctuations in complex fluids such as polymer solutions and electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions have been confirmed by computer simulations and by light-scattering experiments. Fluctuations in fluids in nonequilibrium states have also been investigated.

  6. ACUTE OZONE-INDUCED INFLAMMATORY GENE EXPRESSION IN THE RAT LUNG IS NOT RELATED TO LEVELS OF ANTIOXIDANTS IN THE LAVAGE FLUID

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT BODY: Ozone causes oxidative stress and lung inflammation. We hypothesized that rat strains with or without genetic susceptibility to cardiovascular disease will have different antioxidant levels in alveolar lining, and that ozone induced inflammatory gene expression wil...

  7. [Contribution to the study of the phagocytosing ability of broncho-alveolar macrophages in smokers and non-smokers (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kleisbauer, J P; Poirier, R; Colonna, J; Laval, P

    1980-01-01

    Broncho-alveolar macrophages were obtained by bronchial washing from 20 pairs of matched smokers and non-smokers. The following parameters were studied: phagocytosing ability of macrophages on silica in cell culture in the presence or absence of cotinin, a biocompound of nicotin; migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and power and level of alpha 1-antitrypsin in sera of patients. The results are reported as a function of absolute number of macrophages obtained, their viability, the amount of cigarettes smoked, and the action of cotinin. MIF was stronger in the smokers. There was no difference between the groups as far as power and level of alpha 1-antitrypsin are concerned. Cotinin provokes important lesions in the macrophages. The phagocytic power was not significantly different in smokers and non smokers, but the results were better in non-smokers. PMID:7003666

  8. Subchronic inhalation of coal dust particulate matter 10 induces bronchoalveolar hyperplasia and decreases MUC5AC expression in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kania, Nia; Setiawan, Bambang; Widjadjanto, Edi; Nurdiana, Nurdiana; Widodo, M Aris; Kusuma, H M S Chandra

    2014-10-01

    Coal dust is a pollutant found in coal mines that are capable of inducing oxidative stress and inflammation, but the effects on lung metaplasia as an early step of carcinogenesis remain unknown. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of PM10 coal dust on lung histology, MUC5AC expression, epidermal growth factor (EGF) expression, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression. An experimental study was done on male Wistar rats, which were divided into the following groups: control groups exposed to coal dust for 14 days (at doses of 6.25 mg/m(3), 12.5 mg/m(3), and 25 mg/m(3)), and the groups exposed to coal dust for 28 days (at doses of 6.25 mg/m(3), 12.5 mg/m(3), and 25 mg/m(3)). EGF expressions in rat lungs were measured by ELISA. EGFR and MUC5AC were measured by a confocal laser scanning microscope. The bronchoalveolar epithelial image of the group exposed to coal dust for 14 and 28 days showed a epithelial rearrangement, hyperplastic (metaplastic) goblet cells, and scattered massive inflammatory cells. The pulmonary parenchymal image of the group of exposed to coal dust for 14 and 28 days showed scattered inflammatory cells filling up the pulmonary alveolar networks, leading to an appearance of thickened parenchymal alveoli until emphysema-like structure. There was no significant difference in MUC5AC, EGF, and EGFR expressions for 14-d exposure (p>0.05). There was no significant difference in EGF and EGFR expressions for 28-d exposure (p>0.05), but there was a significant difference in MUC5AC expression (p<0.05). We concluded that subchronic inhalation of coal dust particulate matter 10 induces bronchoalveolar reactive hyperplasia and rearrangement of epithelial cells which accompanied by decrease expression MUC5AC in male rats.

  9. Pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis in resistant and susceptible mice: relationship among progression of infection, bronchoalveolar cell activation, cellular immune response, and specific isotype patterns.

    PubMed Central

    Cano, L E; Singer-Vermes, L M; Vaz, C A; Russo, M; Calich, V L

    1995-01-01

    Using the intraperitoneal route of infection, we demonstrated previously that A/Sn mice are resistant and B10.A mice are susceptible to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. Since paracoccidioidomycosis is a deep systemic granulomatous disorder that involves primarily the lungs and then disseminates to other organs and systems, we herein investigated the course of the infection and the resulting immune responses developed by A/Sn and B10.A mice after intratracheal infection with P. brasiliensis yeast cells. It was observed that A/Sn mice develop a chronic benign pulmonary-restricted infection, whereas B10.A mice present a chronic progressive disseminated disease. A/Sn animals were able to restrict fungal infection to the lungs despite the increased fungal load at the beginning of the infection. This behavior was associated with low mortality rates, the presence of adequate and persistent delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, oxidative burst by bronchoalveolar cells, and production of high levels of specific antibodies in which immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) and IgG3 isotype titers were significantly higher than those observed in the susceptible mice. In contrast, B10.A animals showed a constant pulmonary fungal load and dissemination to the liver and spleen. This infection pattern resulted in high mortality rates, discrete delayed-type hypersensitivity reactivity, poorly activated or nonactivated bronchoalveolar cells, and production of specific IgG2b isotype titers significantly higher than those observed in the resistant mice at week 4 of infection. Thus, A/Sn and B10.A mice maintain the same resistance patterns as those observed previously with the intraperitoneal route of infection. Furthermore, the obtained results suggest that resistance to paracoccidioidomycosis is associated with T-cell, macrophage, and B-cell activities that are known to be mediated by gamma interferon. PMID:7729885

  10. Magnetized drive fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Rosensweig, R.E.; Zahn, M.

    1986-04-01

    A process is described for recovering a first fluid from a porous subterranean formation which comprises injecting a displacement fluid in an effective amount to displace the first fluid, injecting a ferrofluid, applying a magnetic field containing a gradient of field intensity within the formation, driving the displacement fluid through the formation with the ferrofluid and recovering first fluid.

  11. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid-sampling tool for obtaining a fluid sample from a container. When used in combination with a rotatable drill, the tool bores a hole into a container wall, withdraws a fluid sample from the container, and seals the borehole. The tool collects fluid sample without exposing the operator or the environment to the fluid or to wall shavings from the container.

  12. Ciliary fluid transport enhanced by viscoelastic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hanliang; Kanso, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Motile cilia encounter complex, non-Newtonian fluids as they beat to gain self-propulsion of cells, transport fluids, and mix particles. Recently there have been many studies on swimming in complex fluids, both experimentally and theoretically. However the role of the non-Newtonian fluid in the ciliary transport system remains largely unknown. Here we use a one-way-coupled immersed boundary method to evaluate the impacts of viscoelastic fluid (Oldroyd-B fluid) on the fluid transport generated by an array of rabbit tracheal cilia beating in a channel at low Reynolds number. Our results show that the viscoelasticity could enhance the fluid transport generated by the rabbit tracheal cilia beating pattern and the flow is sensitive to the Deborah number in the range we investigate.

  13. Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dilley, Lorie

    2013-01-01

    Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

  14. Synovial fluid analysis

    MedlinePlus

    Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration ... El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly's Textbook of ...

  15. Pleural fluid Gram stain

    MedlinePlus

    Gram stain of pleural fluid ... lungs fill a person's chest with air. If fluid builds up in the space outside the lungs ... chest, it can cause many problems. Removing the fluid can relieve a person's breathing problems and help ...

  16. Pericardial fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - pericardial fluid ... the heart (the pericardium). A small amount of fluid is removed. You may have an ECG and ... x-ray after the test. Sometimes the pericardial fluid is taken during open heart surgery. The sample ...

  17. Pleural fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - pleural fluid ... is used to get a sample of pleural fluid. The sample is sent to a laboratory and ... the chest wall into the pleural space. As fluid drains into a collection bottle, you may cough ...

  18. Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection-induced chronic bronchitis and emphysematous changes in CCSP-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Takemasa; Fujita, Masaki; Hirano, Ryosuke; Uchino, Junji; Tajiri, Yukari; Fukuyama, Satoru; Morimoto, Yasuo; Watanabe, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    The club cell secretory protein (CCSP) is a regulator of lung inflammation following acute respiratory infection or lung injury. Recently, the relationship between CCSP and COPD has been reported. Since COPD results from an abnormal inflammatory response, we hypothesized that CCSP could have a protective role against chronic inflammation-induced lung damage. To address this issue, the pathophysiology of chronic lung inflammation induced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in CCSP-deficient mice was determined. A tube of 5 mm in length was soaked in a fluid containing P. aeruginosa (PAO01 strain) for 1 week and inserted into the trachea of CCSP-deficient mice. One week later, P. aeruginosa was administered into the trachea. Five weeks after insertion of tube, the mice were sacrificed. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids were collected to determine the bacterial growth, and the lung histology and physiology were also examined. P. aeruginosa was continuously detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids during the study. Neutrophils were increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from the CCSP-deficient mice in comparison to wild-type mice. A histological study demonstrated chronic inflammation around bronchus, serious bronchial stenosis, and alveolar enlargement in the CCSP-deficient mice. The lung physiology study demonstrated an increase in the lung compliance of the CCSP-deficient mice. Chronic P. aeruginosa inflammation resulted in chronic bronchitis and emphysematous changes in the CCSP-deficient mice. CCSP could play an important role in protecting the host from the chronic inflammation-induced lung damage. PMID:27703342

  19. Characterization of the oxidant generation by inflammatory cells lavaged from rat lungs following acute exposure to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Esterline, R.L.; Bassett, D.J.; Trush, M.A.

    1989-06-15

    Following exposure to 2 ppm ozone for 4 hr, two distinct effects on rat lung inflammatory cell oxidant generation were observed. TPA- and opsonized zymosan-stimulated superoxide production by the inflammatory cell population was found to be maximally inhibited 24 hr following ozone exposure. In contrast, luminol-amplified chemiluminescence increased 24 hr following ozone exposure, coinciding with an increase in the percentage of neutrophils and myeloperoxidase in the inflammatory cell population. Supporting the involvement of myeloperoxidase in the enhanced oxidant-generating status of these cells, the luminol-amplified chemiluminescence was found to be azide-, but not superoxide dismutase-inhibitable. Additionally, this cell population was found to generate taurine chloramines, a myeloperoxidase-dependent function which was absent prior to the ozone exposure and also demonstrated enhanced activation of benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol to its light-emitting dioxetane intermediate. Addition of myeloperoxidase to control alveolar macrophages resulted in enhanced luminol-amplified chemiluminescence, taurine chloramine generation, and enhanced chemiluminescence from benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol demonstrating that, in the presence of myeloperoxidase, alveolar macrophages are capable of supporting myeloperoxidase-dependent reactions. The possibility of such an interaction occurring in vivo is suggested by the detection of myeloperoxidase activity in the cell-free lavagates of ozone-exposed rats. These studies suggest that neutrophils recruited to ozone-exposed lungs alter the oxidant-generating capabilities in the lung which could further contribute to lung injury or to the metabolism of inhaled xenobiotics.

  20. [THE GENETIC EXAMINATION OF BRONCHIAL LAVAGE ENABLES THE PROMPT DIAGNOSIS OF PULMONARY MYCOBACTERIUM KANSASII--A CASE REPORT].

    PubMed

    Mori, Masahide; Ageshio, Fumitaka; Kagawa, Hiroyuki; Oshitani, Yohei; Fujikawa, Takeya; Saito, Haruko; Sako, Hajime; Yano, Yukihiro; Kitada, Seigo; Maekura, Ryoji

    2015-08-01

    A 59-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchial asthma presented at our hospital with an abnormal shadow on the chest radiograph, which was obtained as part of a routine medical examination. Computed tomography of the chest revealed two nodules in the right upper lung with the longest diameter measuring 29 mm and 10 mm, respectively. A granulomatous disease was strongly suspected based on the histological features of the transbronchial lung biopsy specimen. Results of smear examination for mycobacteria and genetic examination of the bronchial lavage aspirate by the transcription reverse transcription concerted (TRC) reaction method for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. avium complex (MAC), were both negative. However, three days after the bronchoscopic examination, an additional genetic examination by the TRC method confirmed the diagnosis of M. kansasii infection. About two weeks later, the culture results were positive and M. kansasii infection was re-confirmed with the DNA probe method. The patient responded well to treatment with a combination of isoniazid, rifampicin, and ethambutol. In Japan, among the nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, the prevalence of pulmonary M.kansasii disease is second only to infection with MAC. However, it is often difficult to distinguish this disease from pulmonary tuberculosis. In this patient, a genetic examination with the TRC method enabled a prompt diagnosis of M. kansasii infection. The TRC method appears to be a useful tool for diagnosing nontubercular mycobacterial infections. PMID:26665518

  1. Assessing the activity of sarcoidosis: quantitative /sup 67/Ga-citrate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Fajman, W.A.; Greenwald, L.V.; Staton, G.; Check, I.J.; Pine, J.; Gilman, M.; Scheidt, K.A.; McClees, E.C.

    1984-04-01

    Three different methods of quantitating /sup 67/Ga-citrate lung images - a visual index, a computer-assisted index, and the total-lung-to-background ratio - were compared in 71 studies of patients with biopsy-proven sarcoidosis. Fifty consecutive cases were analyzed independently by two different observers using all three methods. In these studies, each index was correlated with the cell differential in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The total-lung-to-background ratio proved to be the simplest to perform; correlated best with the original visual index and the percentage of lymphocytes obtained in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Sensitivity for detecting active disease was 84% compared with 64% and 58% for the visual and computer-assisted indices, respectively, with no sacrifice in specificity.

  2. Silicosis in Workers Exposed to Artificial Quartz Conglomerates: Does It Differ From Chronic Simple Silicosis?

    PubMed

    Paolucci, Valentina; Romeo, Riccardo; Sisinni, Antonietta Gerardina; Bartoli, Dusca; Mazzei, Maria Antonietta; Sartorelli, Pietro

    2015-12-01

    Recently, a number of reports have been published on silicosis in workers exposed to artificial quartz conglomerates containing high levels of crystalline silica particles (70-90%) used in the construction of kitchen and bathroom surfaces. Three cases of silicosis in workers exposed to artificial quartz conglomerates are reported. The diagnosis was derived from both the International Labour Office and the International Classification of HRCT for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) classifications and cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In 2 cases, levels of respirable silica greatly in excess of recommended standards were measured in the workplace, and cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid highlighted a prevalence of lymphocytes, meeting criteria for the diagnosis of accelerated silicosis. The prevention of pneumoconiosis caused by the use of innovative materials, such as artificial conglomerates with high crystalline silica content must be addressed. PMID:26410340

  3. Use of a novel virus detection assay to identify coronavirus HKU1 in the lungs of a hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient with fatal pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Uhlenhaut, Christine; Cohen, Jeffrey I.; Pavletic, Steven; Illei, Gabor; Gea-Banacloche, Juan Carlos; Abu-Asab, Mones; Krogmann, Tammy; Gubareva, Larisa; McClenahan, Shasta; Krause, Philip R.

    2012-01-01

    A 38-year-old patient with systemic lupus erythematosus presented with pulmonary infiltrates and hypoxemia for several months following immunodepleting autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. She was treated for influenza, which was isolated repeatedly from ororpharynx and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, and later empirically for lupus pneumonitis, but expired 6 months after transplant. Autopsy findings failed to show influenza in the lungs or lupus pneumonitis. A novel generic PCR-based assay using degenerate primers identified human coronavirus HKU1 RNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at autopsy. Coronavirus was confirmed by virus-specific PCRs of lung tissue at autopsy. Electron microscopy showed viral particles consistent with coronavirus HKU1 in lung tissue both at autopsy and from a previous biopsy. While human coronavirus HKU1 infection is not usually severe, in highly immunocompromised patients, it can be associated with fatal pneumonia. PMID:21749586

  4. Consumption of hypoallergenic flour prevents gluten-induced airway inflammation in Brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, J; Tanabe, S; Watanabe, M; Kasai, T; Sonoyama, K

    2001-08-01

    Brown Norway rats were immunized with gluten, and then fed a diet containing hypoallergenic flour or an amino acid mixture. The rats were then made to inhale a solubilized gluten to induce gluten-specific bronchial asthma. The antibody levels in the serum of rats were measured by ELISA, and cell counts were done on cytospin preparations of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Body weight was decreased after allergen challenge in rats fed the amino acid mixture but not in rats fed the hypoallergenic flour. Antibody levels in the serum were significantly lower in rats fed hypoallergenic flour than in those fed the amino acid mixture. Differential cell counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed that the numbers of eosinophils, lymphocytes, and neutrophils were significantly lower in rats fed the hypoallergenic flour than in those fed the amino acid mixture. These results suggest that hypoallergenic flour actively suppresses the allergic reactions, probably by inducing oral tolerance.

  5. Astragalin Attenuates Allergic Inflammation in a Murine Asthma Model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiping; Cheng, Yue; Zhang, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Xue; Chen, Shuxian; Hu, Zongmiao; Zhou, Chunmei; Zhang, Enhu; Ma, Shiping

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to determine the protective effects and the underlying mechanisms of astragalin (AG) on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic inflammation in a mouse model of allergic asthma. Our study demonstrated that AG inhibited OVA-induced increases in eosinophil count; IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IgE were recovered in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and increased IFN-γ level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Histological studies demonstrated that AG substantially inhibited OVA-induced eosinophilia in lung tissue. Western blot analysis demonstrated that AG treatments markedly inhibited OVA-induced SOCS-3 expression and enhancement of SOCS-5 expression in an asthma model. Our findings support the possible use of AG as a therapeutic drug for patients with allergic asthma.

  6. Silicosis in Workers Exposed to Artificial Quartz Conglomerates: Does It Differ From Chronic Simple Silicosis?

    PubMed

    Paolucci, Valentina; Romeo, Riccardo; Sisinni, Antonietta Gerardina; Bartoli, Dusca; Mazzei, Maria Antonietta; Sartorelli, Pietro

    2015-12-01

    Recently, a number of reports have been published on silicosis in workers exposed to artificial quartz conglomerates containing high levels of crystalline silica particles (70-90%) used in the construction of kitchen and bathroom surfaces. Three cases of silicosis in workers exposed to artificial quartz conglomerates are reported. The diagnosis was derived from both the International Labour Office and the International Classification of HRCT for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) classifications and cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In 2 cases, levels of respirable silica greatly in excess of recommended standards were measured in the workplace, and cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid highlighted a prevalence of lymphocytes, meeting criteria for the diagnosis of accelerated silicosis. The prevention of pneumoconiosis caused by the use of innovative materials, such as artificial conglomerates with high crystalline silica content must be addressed.

  7. Annotated genome sequence of Mycobacterium massiliense strain M154, belonging to the recently created taxon Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Choo, Siew Woh; Wong, Yan Ling; Tan, Joon Liang; Ong, Chia Sui; Wong, Guat Jah; Ng, Kee Peng; Ngeow, Yun Fong

    2012-09-01

    Mycobacterium massiliense has recently been proposed as a member of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii comb. nov. Strain M154, a clinical isolate from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of a Malaysian patient presenting with lower respiratory tract infection, was subjected to shotgun DNA sequencing with the Illumina sequencing technology to obtain whole-genome sequence data for comparison with other genetically related strains within the M. abscessus species complex. PMID:22887675

  8. Sauna lung: hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to Exophiala jeanselmei.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Chen; Lu, Yin-Hsiu; Lin, Zih-Gong; Su, Wen-Lin

    2010-04-01

    A 55-year-old man developed progressive cough and dyspnoea after regular attendance at a public steam bath. Hypoxaemia, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and a predominance of lymphocytes with an increased percentage of CD8+ T cells in his bronchoalveolar lavage fluid suggested hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Microbial cultures from the steam bath room and tank identified Exophiala jeanselmei. Immunoblotting assays from the patient's serum confirmed the major antigenic stimulus. The patient recovered fully after systemic corticosteroid treatment and cessation of further exposure.

  9. CXCR2 antagonists block the N-Ac-PGP-induced neutrophil influx in the airways of mice, but not the production of the chemokine CXCL1.

    PubMed

    Braber, Saskia; Overbeek, Saskia A; Koelink, Pim J; Henricks, Paul A J; Zaman, Guido J R; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D; Folkerts, Gert

    2011-10-15

    Neutrophils are innate immune cells in chronic inflammatory diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and can be attracted to the site of inflammation via the collagen breakdown product N-acetyl Proline-Glycine-Proline (N-Ac-PGP). To elucidate whether CXCR2 is involved in N-Ac-PGP-induced neutrophil migration and activation, studies using specific antagonists were performed in vivo. N-Ac-PGP and keratinocyte cell-derived chemokine (KC; CXCL1) were administered in C57Bl/6 mice via oropharyngeal aspiration. Intraperitoneal applications of CXCR2 antagonist SB225002 or SB332235 were administered 1h prior and 1h after oropharyngeal aspiration. Six hours after oropharyngeal aspiration mice were sacrificed. Neutrophil counts and CXCL1 levels were determined in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, myleoperoxidase (MPO) levels were measured in lung tissue homogenates and an immunohistological staining for neutrophils was performed on lung tissue. N-Ac-PGP and CXCL1 induced a neutrophil influx in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue, which was also reflected by increased MPO levels in lung tissue. The N-Ac-PGP- and CXCL1-induced neutrophil influx and the increased pulmonary tissue MPO levels were inhibited by the CXCR2 antagonists SB225002 and SB332235. Moreover, N-Ac-PGP administration enhanced the CXCL1 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which could not be attenuated by both CXCR2 antagonists. In conclusion, neutrophil migration induced by N-Ac-PGP is mediated via direct CXCR2 interaction. The N-Ac-PGP-induced release of CXCL1 is independent of CXCR2. Related to the maximal effect of CXCL1, N-Ac-PGP is more potent at inducing neutrophil migration in the pulmonary tissue than into the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, or N-ac-PGP may be more potent at inducing MPO levels in the lung tissue.

  10. Mycobacterium abscessus Morphotype Comparison in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Caverly, Lindsay J.; Caceres, Silvia M.; Fratelli, Cori; Happoldt, Carrie; Kidwell, Kelley M.; Malcolm, Kenneth C.; Nick, Jerry A.; Nichols, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary infections with Mycobacterium abscessus (M. abscessus) are increasingly prevalent in patients with lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis. M. abscessus exists in two morphotypes, smooth and rough, but the impact of morphotype on virulence is unclear. We developed an immune competent mouse model of pulmonary M. abscessus infection and tested the differences in host inflammatory response between the morphotypes of M. abscessus. Smooth and rough morphotypes of M. abscessus were isolated from the same American Type Culture Collection strain. Wild type and cystic fibrosis mice were intratracheally inoculated with known quantities of M. abscessus suspended in fibrin plugs. At the time of sacrifice lung and splenic tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were collected and cultured. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was analyzed for leukocyte count, differential and cytokine expression. Pulmonary infection with M. abscessus was present at both 3 days and 14 days post-inoculation in all groups at greater levels than systemic infection. Inoculation with M. abscessus rough morphotype resulted in more bronchoalveolar lavage fluid neutrophils compared to smooth morphotype at 14 days post-inoculation in both wild type (p = 0.01) and cystic fibrosis (p<0.01) mice. Spontaneous in vivo conversion from smooth to rough morphotype occurred in 12/57 (21%) of mice. These mice trended towards greater weight loss than mice in which morphotype conversion did not occur. In the described fibrin plug model of M. abscessus infection, pulmonary infection with minimal systemic dissemination is achieved with both smooth and rough morphotypes. In this model M. abscessus rough morphotype causes a greater host inflammatory response than the smooth based on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid neutrophil levels. PMID:25675351

  11. Mycobacterium abscessus morphotype comparison in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Caverly, Lindsay J; Caceres, Silvia M; Fratelli, Cori; Happoldt, Carrie; Kidwell, Kelley M; Malcolm, Kenneth C; Nick, Jerry A; Nichols, David P

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary infections with Mycobacterium abscessus (M. abscessus) are increasingly prevalent in patients with lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis. M. abscessus exists in two morphotypes, smooth and rough, but the impact of morphotype on virulence is unclear. We developed an immune competent mouse model of pulmonary M. abscessus infection and tested the differences in host inflammatory response between the morphotypes of M. abscessus. Smooth and rough morphotypes of M. abscessus were isolated from the same American Type Culture Collection strain. Wild type and cystic fibrosis mice were intratracheally inoculated with known quantities of M. abscessus suspended in fibrin plugs. At the time of sacrifice lung and splenic tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were collected and cultured. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was analyzed for leukocyte count, differential and cytokine expression. Pulmonary infection with M. abscessus was present at both 3 days and 14 days post-inoculation in all groups at greater levels than systemic infection. Inoculation with M. abscessus rough morphotype resulted in more bronchoalveolar lavage fluid neutrophils compared to smooth morphotype at 14 days post-inoculation in both wild type (p = 0.01) and cystic fibrosis (p<0.01) mice. Spontaneous in vivo conversion from smooth to rough morphotype occurred in 12/57 (21%) of mice. These mice trended towards greater weight loss than mice in which morphotype conversion did not occur. In the described fibrin plug model of M. abscessus infection, pulmonary infection with minimal systemic dissemination is achieved with both smooth and rough morphotypes. In this model M. abscessus rough morphotype causes a greater host inflammatory response than the smooth based on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid neutrophil levels. PMID:25675351

  12. Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoid, decreases inflammation in a murine model of acute lung injury: role for the adenosine A(2A) receptor.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Alison; Ferraz-de-Paula, Viviane; Pinheiro, Milena L; Vitoretti, Luana B; Mariano-Souza, Domenica P; Quinteiro-Filho, Wanderley M; Akamine, Adriana T; Almeida, Vinícius I; Quevedo, João; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Hallak, Jaime E; Zuardi, Antônio W; Crippa, José A; Palermo-Neto, João

    2012-03-01

    Acute lung injury is an inflammatory condition for which treatment is mainly supportive because effective therapies have not been developed. Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic cannabinoid component of marijuana (Cannabis sativa), has potent immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, we investigated the possible anti-inflammatory effect of cannabidiol in a murine model of acute lung injury. Analysis of total inflammatory cells and differential in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was used to characterize leukocyte migration into the lungs; myeloperoxidase activity of lung tissue and albumin concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were analyzed by colorimetric assays; cytokine/chemokine production in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was also analyzed by Cytometric Bead Arrays and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). A single dose of cannabidiol (20mg/kg) administered prior to the induction of LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-induced acute lung injury decreases leukocyte (specifically neutrophil) migration into the lungs, albumin concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, myeloperoxidase activity in the lung tissue, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF and IL-6) and chemokines (MCP-1 and MIP-2) 1, 2, and 4days after the induction of LPS-induced acute lung injury. Additionally, adenosine A(2A) receptor is involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabidiol on LPS-induced acute lung injury because ZM241385 (4-(2-[7-Amino-2-(2-furyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol) (a highly selective antagonist of adenosine A(2A) receptor) abrogated all of the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabidiol previously described. Thus, we show that cannabidiol has anti-inflammatory effects in a murine model of acute lung injury and that this effect is most likely associated with an increase in the extracellular adenosine offer and signaling through adenosine A(2A) receptor.

  13. Fluid mechanics in fluids at rest.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Howard

    2012-07-01

    Using readily available experimental thermophoretic particle-velocity data it is shown, contrary to current teachings, that for the case of compressible flows independent dye- and particle-tracer velocity measurements of the local fluid velocity at a point in a flowing fluid do not generally result in the same fluid velocity measure. Rather, tracer-velocity equality holds only for incompressible flows. For compressible fluids, each type of tracer is shown to monitor a fundamentally different fluid velocity, with (i) a dye (or any other such molecular-tagging scheme) measuring the fluid's mass velocity v appearing in the continuity equation and (ii) a small, physicochemically and thermally inert, macroscopic (i.e., non-Brownian), solid particle measuring the fluid's volume velocity v(v). The term "compressibility" as used here includes not only pressure effects on density, but also temperature effects thereon. (For example, owing to a liquid's generally nonzero isobaric coefficient of thermal expansion, nonisothermal liquid flows are to be regarded as compressible despite the general perception of liquids as being incompressible.) Recognition of the fact that two independent fluid velocities, mass- and volume-based, are formally required to model continuum fluid behavior impacts on the foundations of contemporary (monovelocity) fluid mechanics. Included therein are the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, which are now seen to apply only to incompressible fluids (a fact well-known, empirically, to experimental gas kineticists). The findings of a difference in tracer velocities heralds the introduction into fluid mechanics of a general bipartite theory of fluid mechanics, bivelocity hydrodynamics [Brenner, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 54, 67 (2012)], differing from conventional hydrodynamics in situations entailing compressible flows and reducing to conventional hydrodynamics when the flow is incompressible, while being applicable to both liquids and gases.

  14. Acute respiratory effects of endotoxin-contaminated machining fluid aerosols in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Gordon, T

    1992-07-01

    Exposure to machining fluid aerosols in the automotive industry is associated with a variety of respiratory symptoms including cross-shift changes in pulmonary function, cough, asthma, and phlegm. Lubricating and cooling fluids used in machining operations are predominantly water and thus are susceptible to microbial growth. In the present study, the role of endotoxin in the acute pulmonary injury produced by machining fluid aerosols was examined in guinea pigs. Animals were exposed to nebulized water, unused machining fluid, or used machining fluid. At the end of a 3-hr exposure, specific airway conductance (SGaw) was not affected by exposure to the vehicle water, but was decreased in a dose-dependent manner by exposure to aerosols of the used machining fluid. SGaw decreased from preexposure baseline values by 0, 7, and 40% in animals exposed to 1, 10, and 100 mg/m3 used machining fluid, respectively. These exposure levels also produced acute lung injury as evidenced by changes in cellular and biochemical indices in lavage fluid. These adverse respiratory effects may have been due to microbial contamination of the used machining fluid as the aerosol exposures were associated with airborne endotoxin concentrations of 0.3, 1.9, and 5.3 micrograms/m3, respectively. Animals exposed to aerosols of the endotoxin-free unused machining fluid had no statistically significant adverse functional, cellular, or biochemical effects except for a fourfold increase in neutrophils at 100 mg/m3. These results suggest that contamination of machining fluid during use or storage may lead to the adverse respiratory effects of aerosolized machining fluids.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Fungi, β-Glucan, and Bacteria in Nasal Lavage of Greenhouse Workers and Their Relation to Occupational Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Tendal, Kira; Thilsing, Trine; Frederiksen, Margit W.; Baelum, Jesper; Hansen, Jørgen V.

    2013-01-01

    The nose and mouth are the first regions of the respiratory tract in contact with airborne microorganisms. Occupational exposures to airborne microorganisms are associated with inflammation and different symptoms of the airways. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation between occupational exposure to fungi, β-glucan, and bacteria and contents of fungi, β-glucan, and bacteria in nasal lavage (NAL) of greenhouse workers. We also studied whether contents of microorganisms in NAL were related to gender, time of the work week, and runny nose. NAL samples (n = 135) were taken Monday morning and Thursday at noon and personal exposure to inhalable bioaerosols was measured during a working day. The content of fungi and β-glucan in NAL of men was affected by their exposure to fungi and β-glucan. The content of fungi, β-glucan, and bacteria in NAL was higher Thursday at noon than Monday morning. The ratios of fungi in NAL between Thursday at noon and Monday morning were 14 (median value) for men and 3.5 for women. Gender had no effect on the exposure level but had a significant effect on the content of fungi, β-glucan, and bacteria in NAL, with the highest contents in NAL of men. On Thursdays, the median content of fungi in NAL samples of men without runny noses was 9408 cfu per NAL sample, whereas the same content for women was 595 cfu per NAL sample. Workers with runny noses had fewer fungi in NAL than workers without runny noses. A higher content of β-glucan per fungal spore was found in NAL than in the air. This indicates that mainly the larger fungal spores or pollen grains deposit in the nose. The difference between genders and the fact that the content of fungi in NAL was significantly affected by the exposure indicate that the two genders are affected by the same exposure level differently. PMID:23749501

  16. Fluid transport container

    DOEpatents

    DeRoos, Bradley G.; Downing, Jr., John P.; Neal, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitment for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container.

  17. Fluid transport container

    DOEpatents

    DeRoos, B.G.; Downing, J.P. Jr.; Neal, M.P.

    1995-11-14

    An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitting for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container. 13 figs.

  18. Electric fluid pump

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  19. Peritoneal fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... based on more than just the peritoneal fluid culture (which may be negative even if you have ...

  20. Amniotic fluid (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Amniotic fluid surrounds the growing fetus in the womb and protects the fetus from injury and temperature changes. ... of fetal movement and permits musculoskeletal development. The amniotic fluid can be withdrawn in a procedure called amniocentsis ...

  1. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, Roger G.; Garcia, Anthony R. E.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    2001-09-25

    The invention includes a rotatable tool for collecting fluid through the wall of a container. The tool includes a fluid collection section with a cylindrical shank having an end portion for drilling a hole in the container wall when the tool is rotated, and a threaded portion for tapping the hole in the container wall. A passageway in the shank in communication with at least one radial inlet hole in the drilling end and an opening at the end of the shank is adapted to receive fluid from the container. The tool also includes a cylindrical chamber affixed to the end of the shank opposite to the drilling portion thereof for receiving and storing fluid passing through the passageway. The tool also includes a flexible, deformable gasket that provides a fluid-tight chamber to confine kerf generated during the drilling and tapping of the hole. The invention also includes a fluid extractor section for extracting fluid samples from the fluid collecting section.

  2. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOEpatents

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-07-06

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  3. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOEpatents

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-01-01

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  4. The fluids in salt.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roedder, E.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of fluid inclusions in salt, the geological processes through which these fluids evolve, and the possible problems such inclusions pose for nuclear waste disposal in salt beds or domes are reviewed.-J.A.Z.

  5. Pleural fluid analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fluid that has collected in the pleural space. This is the space between the lining of the outside of the ... the chest. When fluid collects in the pleural space, the condition is called pleural effusion .

  6. Pleural fluid smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... the fluid that has collected in the pleural space. This is the space between the lining of the outside of the ... the chest. When fluid collects in the pleural space, the condition is called pleural effusion .

  7. Fluid force transducer

    DOEpatents

    Jendrzejczyk, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    An electrical fluid force transducer for measuring the magnitude and direction of fluid forces caused by lateral fluid flow, includes a movable sleeve which is deflectable in response to the movement of fluid, and a rod fixed to the sleeve to translate forces applied to the sleeve to strain gauges attached to the rod, the strain gauges being connected in a bridge circuit arrangement enabling generation of a signal output indicative of the magnitude and direction of the force applied to the sleeve.

  8. Repeated lung lavage with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treating severe acute respiratory distress syndrome due to nasogastric tube malposition for enternal nutrition: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kao, Xiaoming; Yu, Wenkui; Zhu, Weiming; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2012-01-01

    Enternal nutritional support, a frequently applied technique for providing nutrition and energy, played a pivotal role in the treatment of high risk patients. However, severe complications induced by malposition of nasogastric tube caused great danger and even death to the patients. In this case report, we present a patient with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced by bronchopleural fistula (BPF) due to malposition of nasogastric tube. Repeated lung lavage combined with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was performed after transferring to the ICU of our hospital. Finally, the patient recovered and discharged 7 days after admission.

  9. MicroRNA analysis of breast ductal fluid in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Do Canto, Luisa Matos; Marian, Catalin; Willey, Shawna; Sidawy, Mary; Da Cunha, Patricia A; Rone, Janice D; Li, Xin; Gusev, Yuriy; Haddad, Bassem R

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that microRNAs show promise as excellent biomarkers for breast cancer; however there is still a high degree of variability between studies making the findings difficult to interpret. In addition to blood, ductal lavage (DL) and nipple aspirate fluids represent an excellent opportunity for biomarker detection because they can be obtained in a less invasive manner than biopsies and circumvent the limitations of evaluating blood biomarkers with regards to tissue of origin specificity. In this study, we have investigated for the first time, through a real-time PCR array, the expression of 742 miRNAs in the ductal lavage fluid collected from 22 women with unilateral breast tumors. We identified 17 differentially expressed miRNAs between tumor and paired normal samples from patients with ductal breast carcinoma. Most of these miRNAs have various roles in breast cancer tumorigenesis, invasion and metastasis, therapeutic response, or are associated with several clinical and pathological characteristics of breast tumors. Moreover, some miRNAs were also detected in other biological fluids of breast cancer patients such as serum (miR-23b, -133b, -181a, 338-3p, -625), plasma (miR-200a), and breast milk (miR-181a). A systems biology analysis of these differentially expressed miRNAs points out possible pathways and cellular processes previously described as having an important role in breast cancer such as Wnt, ErbB, MAPK, TGF-β, mTOR, PI3K-Akt, p53 signaling pathways. We also observed a difference in the miRNA expression with respect to the histological type of the tumors. In conclusion, our findings suggest that miRNA analysis of breast ductal fluid is feasible and potentially very useful for the detection of breast cancer.

  10. Fluid Movement and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slepian, Michael L.; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive scientists describe creativity as fluid thought. Drawing from findings on gesture and embodied cognition, we hypothesized that the physical experience of fluidity, relative to nonfluidity, would lead to more fluid, creative thought. Across 3 experiments, fluid arm movement led to enhanced creativity in 3 domains: creative generation,…

  11. Inhibitory effect of n-butanol fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in a guinea pig model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Shailaja G; Banerjee, Aryamitra; Chauhan, Bhupendrasinh F; Padh, Harish; Nivsarkar, Manish; Mehta, Anita A

    2009-01-01

    Moringaceae, which belongs to the Moringa oleifera Lam. family, is a well-known herb used in Asian medicine as an antiallergic drug. In the present study, the efficacy of the n-butanol extract of the seeds of the plant (MONB) is examined against ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in guinea pigs. The test drugs (MONB or dexamethasone) are administered orally prior to challenge with aerosolized 0.5% ovalbumin. During the experimental period, bronchoconstriction tests are performed, and lung function parameters are measured. The blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are collected to assess cellular content, and serum is used for cytokine (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-4, and interleukin-6) assays. Histamine assays of lung tissue are performed using lung tissue homogenate. The results suggest that in ovalbumin-sensitized model control animals, tidal volume is decreased, respiration rate is increased, and both the total and differential cell counts in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are increased significantly compared with nonsensitized controls. MONB treatment shows improvement in all parameters except bronchoalveolar lavage tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-4. Moreover, MONB treatment demonstrates protection against acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstriction and airway inflammation. These results indicate that MONB has an inhibitory effect on airway inflammation. Thus, MONB possesses an antiasthmatic property through modulation of the relationship between Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalances.

  12. Fluid cooled electrical assembly

    DOEpatents

    Rinehart, Lawrence E.; Romero, Guillermo L.

    2007-02-06

    A heat producing, fluid cooled assembly that includes a housing made of liquid-impermeable material, which defines a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet and an opening. Also included is an electrical package having a set of semiconductor electrical devices supported on a substrate and the second major surface is a heat sink adapted to express heat generated from the electrical apparatus and wherein the second major surface defines a rim that is fit to the opening. Further, the housing is constructed so that as fluid travels from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet it is constrained to flow past the opening thereby placing the fluid in contact with the heat sink.

  13. Spinning fluids reactor

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  14. Assessment of the quantity of microorganisms associated with bronchiectasis in saliva, sputum and nasal lavage after periodontal treatment: a study protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Erika Horácio; Longo, Priscila Larcher; de Camargo, Caroline Cristina Batista; Dal Corso, Simone; Lanza, Fernanda De Cordoba; Stelmach, Rafael; Athanazio, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Mayer, Marcia Pinto Alves; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil; Mesquita Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli; Horliana, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The association between periodontal disease (PD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been widely studied, with aspiration of periodontal pathogens being one of the most accepted causal mechanisms for pulmonary exacerbation. Periodontal treatment (PT) was associated with a decrease in these exacerbations. Bronchiectasis is a pulmonary disease that has many similarities to COPD; however, there are no studies correlating this condition to PD thus far. This study will evaluate if PT reduces proinflammatory cytokines in serum and saliva, as well as halitosis and the amount of microorganisms associated with exacerbation of bronchiectasis in saliva, sputum and nasal lavage 3 months after PT. Methods and analysis A total of 182 patients with PD and bronchiectasis will be randomly allocated to group 1 (positive control; scaling and root planing (SRP)+oral hygiene (OH)) or group 2 (experimental; SRP+photodynamic therapy+OH). After 3 months, samples of saliva, nasal lavage and sputum will be collected to determine the level of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Porphyromonas gingivalis by quantitative PCR. This protocol will determine the efficacy of PT in reducing the most likely niches of bronchiectasis exacerbation by comparing pre- and post-treatment microbiology samples. Furthermore, there will be assessment of oral halitosis and verification of inflammatory cytokines in serum and saliva. Ethics and dissemination This protocol has been approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Universidade Nove de Julho. Data will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. Trial registration number NCT02514226. PMID:27084279

  15. Split-dose vs same-day reduced-volume polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage solution for morning colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wah-Kheong; Azmi, Najib; Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare same-day whole-dose vs split-dose of 2-litre polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage solution (PEG-ELS) plus bisacodyl for colon cleansing for morning colonoscopy. METHODS: Consecutive adult patients undergoing morning colonoscopy were allocated into two groups i.e., same-day whole-dose or split-dose of 2-litre PEG-ELS. Investigators and endoscopists were blinded to the allocation. All patients completed a questionnaire that was designed by Aronchick and colleagues to assess the tolerability of the bowel preparation regime used. In addition, patients answered an ordinal five-value Likert scale question on comfort level during bowel preparation. Endoscopists graded the quality of bowel preparation using the Boston bowel preparation scale (BBPS). In addition, endoscopists gave an overall grading of the quality of bowel preparation. Cecal intubation time, withdrawal time, total colonoscopy time, adenoma detection rate and number of adenomas detected for each patient were recorded. Sample size was calculated using an online calculator for binary outcome non-inferiority trial. Analyses was based upon intent-to-treat. Significance was assumed at P-value < 0.05. RESULTS: Data for 295 patients were analysed. Mean age was 62.0 ± 14.4 years old and consisted of 50.2 % male. There were 143 and 152 patients in the split-dose and whole-dose group, respectively. Split-dose was as good as whole-dose for quality of bowel preparation. The total BBPS score was as good in the split-dose group compared to the whole-dose group [6 (6-8) vs 6 (6-7), P = 0.038]. There was no difference in cecal intubation rate, cecal intubation time, withdrawal time, total colonoscopy time and adenoma detection rate. Median number of adenoma detected was marginally higher in the split-dose group [2 (1-3) vs 1 (1-2), P = 0.010]. Patients in the whole-dose group had more nausea (37.5% vs 25.2%, P = 0.023) and vomiting (16.4% vs 8.4%, P = 0.037), and were less likely to complete the bowel

  16. [Physical, biochemical and bacterioscopic parameters of mouth lavage in patients with periodontium diseases and working on ethanol production enterprises].

    PubMed

    Bandrivskaia, N N; Mrochko, O I; Bandrivskiĭ, Iu L

    2014-01-01

    The parameters of oral bacterioscopy and homeostasis were studied in patients with periodontal diseases. The shift of pH towards the acid values, increased content of total protein were determined. Analysis of oral fluid showed increase in level of ionized calcium, nitrate anion, and decreased content of magnesium and ammonium cations. The increased overall number of bacteria in patients with periodontal diseases was seen, especially due to gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25335425

  17. Fiber optic fluid detector

    DOEpatents

    Angel, S.M.

    1987-02-27

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

  18. Fiber optic fluid detector

    DOEpatents

    Angel, S. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

  19. Microwave fluid flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Billeter, Thomas R.; Philipp, Lee D.; Schemmel, Richard R.

    1976-01-01

    A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.

  20. Solar heat transport fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The progress made on the development and delivery of noncorrosive fluid subsystems is reported. These subsystems are to be compatible with closed-loop solar heating or combined heating and hot water systems. They are also to be compatible with both metallic and non-metallic plumbing systems. At least 100 gallons of each type of fluid recommended by the contractor will be delivered under the contract. The performance testing of a number of fluids is described.

  1. Fluid movement and creativity.

    PubMed

    Slepian, Michael L; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-11-01

    Cognitive scientists describe creativity as fluid thought. Drawing from findings on gesture and embodied cognition, we hypothesized that the physical experience of fluidity, relative to nonfluidity, would lead to more fluid, creative thought. Across 3 experiments, fluid arm movement led to enhanced creativity in 3 domains: creative generation, cognitive flexibility, and remote associations. Alternative mechanisms such as enhanced mood and motivation were also examined. These results suggest that creativity can be influenced by certain types of physical movement.

  2. Metalworking and machining fluids

    DOEpatents

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  3. Spiral fluid separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A fluid separator for separating particulate matter such as contaminates is provided which includes a series of spiral tubes of progressively decreasing cross sectional area connected in series. Each tube has an outlet on the outer curvature of the spiral. As fluid spirals down a tube, centrifugal force acts to force the heavier particulate matter to the outer wall of the tube, where it exits through the outlet. The remaining, and now cleaner, fluid reaches the next tube, which is smaller in cross sectional area, where the process is repeated. The fluid which comes out the final tube is diminished of particulate matter.

  4. Electrodeposition from supercritical fluids.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, P N; Cook, D A; George, M W; Hector, A L; Ke, J; Levason, W; Reid, G; Smith, D C; Zhang, W

    2014-05-28

    Recent studies have shown that it is possible to electrodeposit a range of materials, such as Cu, Ag and Ge, from various supercritical fluids, including hydrofluorocarbons and mixtures of CO2 with suitable co-solvents. In this perspective we discuss the relatively new field of electrodeposition from supercritical fluids. The perspective focuses on some of the underlying physical chemistry and covers both practical and scientific aspects of electrodeposition from supercritical fluids. We also discuss possible applications for supercritical fluid electrodeposition and suggest some key developments that are required to take the field to the next stage.

  5. Electrorheological fluids and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Peter F.; McIntyre, Ernest C.

    2015-06-02

    Electrorheological fluids and methods include changes in liquid-like materials that can flow like milk and subsequently form solid-like structures under applied electric fields; e.g., about 1 kV/mm. Such fluids can be used in various ways as smart suspensions, including uses in automotive, defense, and civil engineering applications. Electrorheological fluids and methods include one or more polar molecule substituted polyhedral silsesquioxanes (e.g., sulfonated polyhedral silsesquioxanes) and one or more oils (e.g., silicone oil), where the fluid can be subjected to an electric field.

  6. Sphere based fluid systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Systems are described for using multiple closely-packed spheres. In one system for passing fluid, a multiplicity of spheres lie within a container, with all of the spheres having the same outside diameter and with the spheres being closely nested in one another to create multiple interstitial passages of a known size and configuration and smooth walls. The container has an inlet and outlet for passing fluid through the interstitial passages formed between the nested spheres. The small interstitial passages can be used to filter out material, especially biological material such as cells in a fluid, where the cells can be easily destroyed if passed across sharp edges. The outer surface of the spheres can contain a material that absorbs a constitutent in the flowing fluid, such as a particular contamination gas, or can contain a catalyst to chemically react the fluid passing therethrough, the use of multiple small spheres assuring a large area of contact of these surfaces of the spheres with the fluid. In a system for storing and releasing a fluid such as hydrogen as a fuel, the spheres can include a hollow shell containing the fluid to be stored, and located within a compressable container that can be compressed to break the shells and release the stored fluid.

  7. Specific immunotherapy with mugwort pollen allergoid reduce bradykinin release into the nasal fluid

    PubMed Central

    Grzanka, Alicja; Jawor, Barbara; Czecior, Eugeniusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A pathomechanism of allergic rhinitis is complex. A neurogenic mechanism seems to play a significant role in this phenomenon. Aim The evaluation of influence of specific immunotherapy of mugwort pollen allergic patients on the bradykinin concentration in the nasal lavage fluid. Material and methods The study included 22 seasonal allergic rhinitis patients. Thirty persons with monovalent allergy to mugwort pollen, confirmed with skin prick tests and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E, underwent a 3-year-long allergen immunotherapy with the mugwort extract (Allergovit, Allergopharma, Germany). The control group was composed of 9 persons with polyvalent sensitivity to pollen, who were treated with pharmacotherapy. Before the allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) and in subsequent years before the pollen seasons, a provocation allergen test with the mugwort extract was performed, together with collection of nasal fluids, where bradykinin concentration was determined according to Proud method. Results There were similar levels of bradykinin in both groups at baseline prior to therapy (AIT group: 584.0 ±87.2 vs. controls 606.3 ±106.5 pg/ml) and changes after allergen challenge 1112.4 ±334.8 vs. 1013.3 ±305.9 pg/ml as well. The bradykinin concentration in nasal lavage fluid after mugwort challenge in 1 year was lower in the AIT group (824.1 ±184.2 pg/ml vs. 1000.4 ±411.5 pg/l; p < 005) with a further significant decrease after the 2nd and 3rd year of specific immunotherapy. Significant reduction of symptoms and medications use was observed in hyposensitized patients. Conclusions A decreased level of bradykinin as a result of AIT suggests that some of the symptomatic benefits of AIT may be related to the reduced release of bradykinin into nasal secretions. These values correlate with clinical improvement within the course of treatment.

  8. Specific immunotherapy with mugwort pollen allergoid reduce bradykinin release into the nasal fluid

    PubMed Central

    Grzanka, Alicja; Jawor, Barbara; Czecior, Eugeniusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A pathomechanism of allergic rhinitis is complex. A neurogenic mechanism seems to play a significant role in this phenomenon. Aim The evaluation of influence of specific immunotherapy of mugwort pollen allergic patients on the bradykinin concentration in the nasal lavage fluid. Material and methods The study included 22 seasonal allergic rhinitis patients. Thirty persons with monovalent allergy to mugwort pollen, confirmed with skin prick tests and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E, underwent a 3-year-long allergen immunotherapy with the mugwort extract (Allergovit, Allergopharma, Germany). The control group was composed of 9 persons with polyvalent sensitivity to pollen, who were treated with pharmacotherapy. Before the allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) and in subsequent years before the pollen seasons, a provocation allergen test with the mugwort extract was performed, together with collection of nasal fluids, where bradykinin concentration was determined according to Proud method. Results There were similar levels of bradykinin in both groups at baseline prior to therapy (AIT group: 584.0 ±87.2 vs. controls 606.3 ±106.5 pg/ml) and changes after allergen challenge 1112.4 ±334.8 vs. 1013.3 ±305.9 pg/ml as well. The bradykinin concentration in nasal lavage fluid after mugwort challenge in 1 year was lower in the AIT group (824.1 ±184.2 pg/ml vs. 1000.4 ±411.5 pg/l; p < 005) with a further significant decrease after the 2nd and 3rd year of specific immunotherapy. Significant reduction of symptoms and medications use was observed in hyposensitized patients. Conclusions A decreased level of bradykinin as a result of AIT suggests that some of the symptomatic benefits of AIT may be related to the reduced release of bradykinin into nasal secretions. These values correlate with clinical improvement within the course of treatment. PMID:27605897

  9. How to Avoid Fluid Overload

    PubMed Central

    Ogbu, Ogbonna C.; Murphy, David J.; Martin, Greg S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the review This review highlights recent evidence describing the outcomes associated with fluid overload in critically ill patients and provides an overview of fluid management strategies aimed at preventing fluid overload during the resuscitation of patients with shock. Recent findings Fluid overload is a common complication of fluid resuscitation and is associated with increased hospital costs, morbidity and mortality. Summary Fluid management goals differ during the resuscitation, optimization, stabilization and evacuation phases of fluid resuscitation. To prevent fluid overload, strategies that reduce excessive fluid infusions and emphasize the removal of accumulated fluids should be implemented. PMID:26103147

  10. Space Station fluid management logistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  11. Fluids and Combustion Facility: Fluids Integrated Rack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corban, Robert R.; Winsa, Edward A.

    1998-01-01

    The Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) is a modular, multi-user facility to accommodate a wide variety of microgravity fluid physics science experiments on-board the US Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS). The FIR is one of three racks comprising the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). The FCF is being designed to increase the amount and quality of scientific data and decrease the development cost of an individual experiment relative to the era of Space Shuttle experiments. The unique, long-term, microgravity environment and long operational times on the ISS will offer experimenters the opportunity to modify experiment parameters based on their findings similar to what can be accomplished in ground laboratories. The FIR concept has evolved over time to provide a flexible, 'optics bench' approach to meet the wide variety of anticipated research needs. The FIR's system architecture presented is designed to meet the needs of the fluid physics community while operating within the constraints of the available ISS resources.

  12. Fluid delivery control system

    DOEpatents

    Hoff, Brian D.; Johnson, Kris William; Algrain, Marcelo C.; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2006-06-06

    A method of controlling the delivery of fluid to an engine includes receiving a fuel flow rate signal. An electric pump is arranged to deliver fluid to the engine. The speed of the electric pump is controlled based on the fuel flow rate signal.

  13. Computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    An overview of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) activities at the Langley Research Center is given. The role of supercomputers in CFD research, algorithm development, multigrid approaches to computational fluid flows, aerodynamics computer programs, computational grid generation, turbulence research, and studies of rarefied gas flows are among the topics that are briefly surveyed.

  14. Fluid-loss control

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, C.W.; Trittipo, B.L. ); Hutchinson, B.H. )

    1989-08-01

    Acid fluid loss is extremely difficult to control and is generally considered to be the major factor limiting the effectiveness of acid fracturing treatments. Chemical erosion of fracture faces and the development of wormholes are largely responsible for the reduced efficiency of acid fracturing fluids. The creation of acid wormholes increases the effective area from which leakoff occurs, thus reducing the acid hydraulic efficiency. Once wormholes form, most acid fluid loss originates from these wormholes rather than penetrating uniformly into the fracture face. Methods of acid fluid-loss control are discussed and evaluated with an improved fluid-loss test procedure. This procedure uses limestone cores of sufficient length to contain wormhole growth. Studies demonstrate that if wormhole growth can be controlled, acid fluid loss approaches that of nonreactive fluids. An improved acid fracturing fluid having unique rheological characteristics is described. This acid has a low initial viscosity but temporarily becomes extremely viscous during leakoff. This high leakoff viscosity blocks wormhole development and prevents acid entry into natural fractures. After the treatment, spent-acid viscosity declines rapidly to ensure easier cleanup.

  15. Solar heat transport fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The development and delivery of noncorrosive fluid subsystems are reported that are compatible with closed-loop solar heating or combined heating and hot water systems. They are also compatible with both metallic and non-metallic plumbing systems. The performance testing of a number of fluids is described.

  16. Time Independent Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collyer, A. A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses theories underlying Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids by explaining flow curves exhibited by plastic, shear-thining, and shear-thickening fluids and Bingham plastic materials. Indicates that the exact mechanism governing shear-thickening behaviors is a problem of further study. (CC)

  17. Fluid Bubble Eliminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor); Tsao, Yow-Min (Inventor); Lee, Wenshan (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A gas-liquid separator uses a helical passageway to impart a spiral motion to a fluid passing therethrough. The centrifugal fore generated by the spiraling motion urges the liquid component of the fluid radially outward which forces the gas component radially inward. The gas component is then filtered through a gas-permeable, liquid-impervious membrane and discharged through a central passageway.

  18. Fluid bubble eliminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor); Tsao, Yow-Min D. (Inventor); Lee, Wenshan (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A gas-liquid separator uses a helical passageway to impart a spiral motion to a fluid passing therethrough. The centrifugal fore generated by the spiraling motion urges the liquid component of the fluid radially outward which forces the gas component radially inward. The gas component is then filtered through a gas-permeable, liquid-impervious membrane and discharged through a central passageway.

  19. Fluid Power Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2008-01-01

    Fluid power technicians, sometimes called hydraulic and pneumatic technicians, work with equipment that utilizes the pressure of a liquid or gas in a closed container to transmit, multiply, or control power. Working under the supervision of an engineer or engineering staff, they assemble, install, maintain, and test fluid power equipment.…

  20. Solar heat transport fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The progress made in the development and delivery of noncorrosive fluid subsystems is discussed. These subsystems are to be compatible with closed-loop solar heating or combined heating and hot water systems. They are also to be compatible with both metallic and non-metallic plumbing systems. The performance testing of a number of fluids is described.

  1. FLUID SELECTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Stinson, W.J.

    1958-09-16

    A valve designed to selectively sample fluids from a number of sources is described. The valve comprises a rotatable operating lever connected through a bellows seal to a rotatable assembly containing a needle valve, bearings, and a rotational lock. The needle valve is connected through a flexible tube to the sample fluid outlet. By rotating the lever the needle valve is placed over . one of several fluid sources and locked in position so that the fluid is traasferred through the flexible tubing and outlet to a remote sampling system. The fluids from the nonselected sources are exhausted to a waste line. This valve constitutes a simple, dependable means of selecting a sample from one of several scurces.

  2. Fluid blade disablement tool

    SciTech Connect

    Jakaboski, Juan-Carlos; Hughs, Chance G.; Todd, Steven N.

    2012-01-10

    A fluid blade disablement (FBD) tool that forms both a focused fluid projectile that resembles a blade, which can provide precision penetration of a barrier wall, and a broad fluid projectile that functions substantially like a hammer, which can produce general disruption of structures behind the barrier wall. Embodiments of the FBD tool comprise a container capable of holding fluid, an explosive assembly which is positioned within the container and which comprises an explosive holder and explosive, and a means for detonating. The container has a concavity on the side adjacent to the exposed surface of the explosive. The position of the concavity relative to the explosive and its construction of materials with thicknesses that facilitate inversion and/or rupture of the concavity wall enable the formation of a sharp and coherent blade of fluid advancing ahead of the detonation gases.

  3. Microgravity Fluid Management Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Microgravity Fluid Management Symposium, held at the NASA Lewis Research Center, September 9 to 10, 1986, focused on future research in the microgravity fluid management field. The symposium allowed researchers and managers to review space applications that require fluid management technology, to present the current status of technology development, and to identify the technology developments required for future missions. The 19 papers covered three major categories: (1) fluid storage, acquisition, and transfer; (2) fluid management applications, i.e., space power and thermal management systems, and environmental control and life support systems; (3) project activities and insights including two descriptions of previous flight experiments and a summary of typical activities required during development of a shuttle flight experiment.

  4. Constraining the dark fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David; Gao Changjun

    2009-10-15

    Cosmological observations are normally fit under the assumption that the dark sector can be decomposed into dark matter and dark energy components. However, as long as the probes remain purely gravitational, there is no unique decomposition and observations can only constrain a single dark fluid; this is known as the dark degeneracy. We use observations to directly constrain this dark fluid in a model-independent way, demonstrating, in particular, that the data cannot be fit by a dark fluid with a single constant equation of state. Parametrizing the dark fluid equation of state by a variety of polynomials in the scale factor a, we use current kinematical data to constrain the parameters. While the simplest interpretation of the dark fluid remains that it is comprised of separate dark matter and cosmological constant contributions, our results cover other model types including unified dark energy/matter scenarios.

  5. Evaluation of a multiplex real time PCR assay for the detection of human papillomavirus infections on self-collected cervicovaginal lavage samples.

    PubMed

    Jentschke, Matthias; Soergel, Philipp; Hillemanns, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Self-collection of cervical samples for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing can help to raise the participation rate in cervical cancer screening among non-responders. This study was conducted to compare the analytical and clinical performance of the Abbott RealTime High-Risk HPV Test (RealTime) with the Hybrid Capture 2 assay (HC2) on self-collected cervicovaginal lavage samples. One hundred samples from women referred for colposcopy (reference smears and biopsies in case of abnormalities) were included. Fifty-seven women had a normal cytology, 27 had low grade and 16 had high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. Fourteen of 49 biopsies (28.6%) were benign, 14 (28.6%) cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1, 11 (22.4%) cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2, 8 (16.3%) cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 and 2 (4.1%) invasive cancer. The agreement between RealTime and HC2 in the self-collected and in the reference samples was 85% (κ=0.665) and 83% (κ=0.620), respectively. The agreement between self-sampling and the reference smears was higher with RealTime (93%; κ=0.849) than with HC2 (89%; κ=0.741). In the self-collected samples, the sensitivity and specificity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or worse of RealTime/HC2 were 81.0%/66.7% (p=0.25) and 53.6%/57.1%, respectively. The sensitivity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 or worse of RealTime and HC2 were 80.0% and 70.0% (p=1.0). The specificity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 or worse was 43.6% (RealTime) and 51.3% (HC2). This study shows that RealTime can be used for HR-HPV testing of self-collected lavage samples in a referral population with at least equal quality and performance as HC2.

  6. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall.

  7. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, A.R.; Johnston, R.G.; Martinez, R.K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool is described for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall. 6 figs.

  8. FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Subhash Shah

    2000-08-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

  9. Fundamentals of fluid lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, Bernard J.

    1991-01-01

    The aim is to coordinate the topics of design, engineering dynamics, and fluid dynamics in order to aid researchers in the area of fluid film lubrication. The lubrication principles that are covered can serve as a basis for the engineering design of machine elements. The fundamentals of fluid film lubrication are presented clearly so that students that use the book will have confidence in their ability to apply these principles to a wide range of lubrication situations. Some guidance on applying these fundamentals to the solution of engineering problems is also provided.

  10. Relativistic fluid dynamics. Proceedings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anile, A. M.; Choquet-Bruhat, Y.

    Contents: 1. Covariant theory of conductivity in ideal fluid or solid media (B. Carter). 2. Hamiltonian techniques for relativistic fluid dynamics and stability theory (D. D. Holm). 3. Covariant fluid mechanics and thermodynamics: an introduction (W. Israel). 4. Relativistic plasmas (H. Weitzner). 5. An improved relativistic warm plasma model (A. M. Anile, S. Pennisi). 6. Relativistic extended thermodynamics II (I. Müller). 7. Relativistic extended thermodynamics: general assumptions and mathematical procedure (T. Ruggeri). 8. Relativistic hydrodynamics and heavy ion reactions (D. Strottman). 9. Some problems in relativistic hydrodynamics (C. G. van Weert).

  11. Synthetic Base Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M.; Fotheringham, J. D.; Hoyes, T. J.; Mortier, R. M.; Orszulik, S. T.; Randles, S. J.; Stroud, P. M.

    The chemical nature and technology of the main synthetic lubricant base fluids is described, covering polyalphaolefins, alkylated aromatics, gas-to-liquid (GTL) base fluids, polybutenes, aliphatic diesters, polyolesters, polyalkylene glycols or PAGs and phosphate esters.Other synthetic lubricant base oils such as the silicones, borate esters, perfluoroethers and polyphenylene ethers are considered to have restricted applications due to either high cost or performance limitations and are not considered here.Each of the main synthetic base fluids is described for their chemical and physical properties, manufacture and production, their chemistry, key properties, applications and their implications when used in the environment.

  12. Supercritical fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  13. Multiphase fluid characterization system

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Dipen N.

    2014-09-02

    A measurement system and method for permitting multiple independent measurements of several physical parameters of multiphase fluids flowing through pipes are described. Multiple acoustic transducers are placed in acoustic communication with or attached to the outside surface of a section of existing spool (metal pipe), typically less than 3 feet in length, for noninvasive measurements. Sound speed, sound attenuation, fluid density, fluid flow, container wall resonance characteristics, and Doppler measurements for gas volume fraction may be measured simultaneously by the system. Temperature measurements are made using a temperature sensor for oil-cut correction.

  14. Fundamentals of fluid sealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamentals of fluid sealing, including seal operating regimes, are discussed and the general fluid-flow equations for fluid sealing are developed. Seal performance parameters such as leakage and power loss are presented. Included in the discussion are the effects of geometry, surface deformations, rotation, and both laminar and turbulent flows. The concept of pressure balancing is presented, as are differences between liquid and gas sealing. Mechanisms of seal surface separation, fundamental friction and wear concepts applicable to seals, seal materials, and pressure-velocity (PV) criteria are discussed.

  15. Magnetic Fluids--Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoon, S. R.; Tanner, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    Basic physical concepts of importance in understanding magnetic fluids (fine ferromagnetic particles suspended in a liquid) are discussed. They include home-made magnetic fluids, stable magnetic fluids, and particle surfactants. (DH)

  16. Survey of geothermal completion fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Childers, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of oil field fluids companies indicates that there are no geothermal completion fluids on the market. It is recommended that development of a completion fluid and appropriate support testing be funded.

  17. Basic fluid system trainer

    DOEpatents

    Semans, Joseph P.; Johnson, Peter G.; LeBoeuf, Jr., Robert F.; Kromka, Joseph A.; Goron, Ronald H.; Hay, George D.

    1993-01-01

    A trainer, mounted and housed within a mobile console, is used to teach and reinforce fluid principles to students. The system trainer has two centrifugal pumps, each driven by a corresponding two-speed electric motor. The motors are controlled by motor controllers for operating the pumps to circulate the fluid stored within a supply tank through a closed system. The pumps may be connected in series or in parallel. A number of valves are also included within the system to effect different flow paths for the fluid. In addition, temperature and pressure sensing instruments are installed throughout the closed system for measuring the characteristics of the fluid, as it passes through the different valves and pumps. These measurements are indicated on a front panel mounted to the console, as a teaching aid, to allow the students to observe the characteristics of the system.

  18. Computational fluid dynamic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Tom T.; Deabreu-Garcia, Alex

    1989-01-01

    A general technique is presented for modeling fluid, or gas, dynamic systems specifically for the development of control systems. The numerical methods which are generally used in computational fluid dynamics are borrowed to create either continuous-time or discrete-time models of the particular fluid system. The resulting equations can be either left in a nonlinear form, or easily linearized about an operating point. As there are typically very many states in these systems, the usual linear model reduction methods can be used on them to allow a low-order controller to be designed. A simple example is given which typifies many internal flow control problems. The resulting control is termed computational fluid dynamic control.

  19. Culture - joint fluid

    MedlinePlus

    Joint fluid culture ... fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. If these germs are detected, other tests may ... is no special preparation needed for the lab culture. How to prepare for the removal of joint ...

  20. Windshield washer fluid

    MedlinePlus

    ... liquid made of methanol, a poisonous alcohol. Sometimes small amounts of other toxic alcohols such as ethylene glycol are added to the mixture. Some young children may mistake the fluid for juice, which ...

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a laboratory test to look for bacteria, fungi, and viruses in the fluid that moves in ... culture medium. Laboratory staff then observe if bacteria, fungi, or viruses grow in the dish. Growth means ...

  2. Polymer Fluid Dynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, R. Byron

    1980-01-01

    Problems in polymer fluid dynamics are described, including development of constitutive equations, rheometry, kinetic theory, flow visualization, heat transfer studies, flows with phase change, two-phase flow, polymer unit operations, and drag reduction. (JN)

  3. Improved perfluoroalkylether fluid development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Paciorek, K.; Nakahara, J.; Smythe, M.; Kratzer, R.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of transforming a commercial linear perfluoroalkylether fluid into a material stable in the presence of metals and metal alloys in oxidizing atmospheres at 300 C without the loss of the desirable viscosity temperature characteristics was determined. The approach consisted of thermal oxidative treatment in the presence of catalyst to remove weak links, followed by transformation of the created functional groups into phospha-s-triazine linkages. It it found that the experimental material obtained in 66% yield from the commercial fluid exhibits, over an 8 hr period at 300 C in the presence of Ti(4Al, 4Mn) alloy, thermal oxidative stability better by a factor of 2.6x1000 based on volatiles evolved than the commercial product. The viscosity and molecular weight of the developed fluid are unchanged and are essentially identical with the commercial material. No metal corrosion occurs with the experimental fluid at 300 C.

  4. Our World: Fluid Shift

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn about the circulatory system and how gravity aids blood flow in our bodies here on Earth. Find out how NASA flight surgeons help the astronauts deal with the fluid shift that happens during s...

  5. Lighter fluid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... in lighter fluids are called hydrocarbons. They include: Benzene Butane Hexamine Lacolene Naptha Propane ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 158. Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron ...

  6. Cellular fluid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamm, Roger D.

    The coupling of fluid dynamics and biology at the level of the cell is an intensive area of investigation because of its critical role in normal physiology and disease. Microcirculatory flow has been a focus for years, owing to the complexity of cell-cell or cell-glycocalyx interactions. Noncirculating cells, particularly those that comprise the walls of the circulatory system, experience and respond biologically to fluid dynamic stresses. In this article, we review the more recent studies of circulating cells, with an emphasis on the role of the glycocalyx on red-cell motion in small capillaries and on the deformation of leukocytes passing through the microcirculation. We also discuss flows in the vicinity of noncirculating cells, the influence of fluid dynamic shear stress on cell biology, and diffusion in the lipid bi-layer, all in the context of the important fluid-dynamic phenomena.

  7. Joint fluid Gram stain

    MedlinePlus

    Gram stain of joint fluid ... result means no bacteria are present on the Gram stain. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among ... Abnormal results mean bacteria were seen on the Gram stain. This may be a sign of a ...

  8. Fluid pumping apparatus

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.

    2006-01-17

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  9. [Diagnosis: synovial fluid analysis].

    PubMed

    Gallo Vallejo, Francisco Javier; Giner Ruiz, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Synovial fluid analysis in rheumatological diseases allows a more accurate diagnosis in some entities, mainly infectious and microcrystalline arthritis. Examination of synovial fluid in patients with osteoarthritis is useful if a differential diagnosis will be performed with other processes and to distinguish between inflammatory and non-inflammatory forms. Joint aspiration is a diagnostic and sometimes therapeutic procedure that is available to primary care physicians.

  10. Valve for fluid control

    SciTech Connect

    Oborny, Michael C.; Paul, Phillip H.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Manginell, Ronald P.

    2001-01-01

    A valve for controlling fluid flows. This valve, which includes both an actuation device and a valve body provides: the ability to incorporate both the actuation device and valve into a unitary structure that can be placed onto a microchip, the ability to generate higher actuation pressures and thus control higher fluid pressures than conventional microvalves, and a device that draws only microwatts of power. An electrokinetic pump that converts electric potential to hydraulic force is used to operate, or actuate, the valve.

  11. Fluid property measurements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devaney, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    Fluid properties of refrigerant-21 were investigated at temperatures from the freezing point to 423 Kelvin and at pressures to 1.38 x 10 to the 8th power N/sq m (20,000 psia). The fluid properties included were: density, vapor pressure, viscosity, specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, freezing point and bulk modulus. Tables of smooth values are reported.

  12. Fluid infusion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Performance testing carried out in the development of the prototype zero-g fluid infusion system is described and summarized. Engineering tests were performed in the course of development, both on the original breadboard device and on the prototype system. This testing was aimed at establishing baseline system performance parameters and facilitating improvements. Acceptance testing was then performed on the prototype system to verify functional performance. Acceptance testing included a demonstration of the fluid infusion system on a laboratory animal.

  13. Biopharmaceutical Characterization of Nebulized Antimicrobial Agents in Rats: 5. Oseltamivir Carboxylate.

    PubMed

    Galindo Bedor, Danilo Cesar; Marchand, Sandrine; Lamarche, Isabelle; Laroche, Julian; Pereira de Santana, Davi; Couet, William

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the biopharmaceutical characteristics of oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) after pulmonary delivery. After OC bolus and intratracheal nebulization (NEB) in rats, blood was collected and bronchoalveolar lavages (BALs) were performed. Epithelial lining fluid (ELF) concentrations were estimated from BAL fluid. The area under the curve (AUC) ratio for ELF to plasma was 842 times higher after NEB than after intravenous (i.v.) administration, indicating that OC nebulization offers a biopharmaceutical advantage over i.v. administration. PMID:27297482

  14. [Fluid management: estimation of fluid status].

    PubMed

    Renner, Jochen; Broch, Ole; Bein, Berthold

    2012-07-01

    Cardiac filling pressures alone are not appropriate to estimate the effect of a volume challenge on the corresponding change in stroke volume. Dynamic variables of fluid responsiveness have been shown to discriminate with acceptable sensitivity and specificity between responders and non-responders to a volume challenge. However, several clinical confounders have been indentified which potentially influence the predictive power of these variables. Sound knowledge of these confounders and the acknowledgement that there is no unique threshold value for volume optimisation but a considerable "gray zone" is necessary to fully exploit the advantages of functional haemodynamic monitoring.

  15. Orbital Fluid Transfer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. S., (Nick); Ryder, Mel; Tyler, Tony R.

    1998-01-01

    An automated fluid and power interface system needs to be developed for future space missions which require on orbit consumable replenishment. Current method of fluid transfer require manned vehicles and extravehicular activity. Currently the US does not have an automated capability for consumable transfer on-orbit. This technology would benefit both Space Station and long duration satellites. In order to provide this technology the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) was developed. The AFIS project was an advanced development program aimed at developing a prototype satellite servicer for future space operations. This mechanism could transfer propellants, cryogens, fluids, gasses, electrical power, and communications from a tanker unit to the orbiting satellite. The development of this unit was a cooperative effort between Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and Moog, Inc. in East Aurora, New York. An engineering model was built and underwent substantial development testing at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). While the AFIS is not suitable for spaceflight, testing and evaluation of the AFIS provided significant experience which would be beneficial in building a flight unit. The lessons learned from testing the AFIS provided the foundation for the next generation fluid transfer mechanism, the Orbital Fluid Transfer System (OFTS). The OFTS project was a study contract with MSFC and Moog, Inc. The OFTS was designed for the International Space Station (ISS), but its flexible design could used for long duration satellite missions and other applications. The OFTS was designed to be used after docking. The primary function was to transfer bipropellants and high pressure gases. The other items addressed by this task included propellant storage, hardware integration, safety and control system issues. A new concept for high pressure couplings was also developed. The results of the AFIS testing provided an excellent basis for the OFTS design. The OFTS

  16. Intravenous Fluid Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, John; McKay, Terri; Brown, Daniel; Zoldak, John

    2013-01-01

    The ability to stabilize and treat patients on exploration missions will depend on access to needed consumables. Intravenous (IV) fluids have been identified as required consumables. A review of the Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) lists over 400 medical conditions that could present and require treatment during ISS missions. The Intravenous Fluid Generation System (IVGEN) technology provides the scalable capability to generate IV fluids from indigenous water supplies. It meets USP (U.S. Pharmacopeia) standards. This capability was performed using potable water from the ISS; water from more extreme environments would need preconditioning. The key advantage is the ability to filter mass and volume, providing the equivalent amount of IV fluid: this is critical for remote operations or resource- poor environments. The IVGEN technology purifies drinking water, mixes it with salt, and transfers it to a suitable bag to deliver a sterile normal saline solution. Operational constraints such as mass limitations and lack of refrigeration may limit the type and volume of such fluids that can be carried onboard the spacecraft. In addition, most medical fluids have a shelf life that is shorter than some mission durations. Consequently, the objective of the IVGEN experiment was to develop, design, and validate the necessary methodology to purify spacecraft potable water into a normal saline solution, thus reducing the amount of IV fluids that are included in the launch manifest. As currently conceived, an IVGEN system for a space exploration mission would consist of an accumulator, a purifier, a mixing assembly, a salt bag, and a sterile bag. The accumulator is used to transfer a measured amount of drinking water from the spacecraft to the purifier. The purifier uses filters to separate any air bubbles that may have gotten trapped during the drinking water transfer from flowing through a high-quality deionizing cartridge that removes the impurities in

  17. Inverse magnetorheological fluids.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Arco, L; López-López, M T; Zubarev, A Y; Gdula, K; Durán, J D G

    2014-09-01

    We report a new kind of field-responsive fluid consisting of suspensions of diamagnetic (DM) and ferromagnetic (FM) microparticles in ferrofluids. We designate them as inverse magnetorheological (IMR) fluids for analogy with inverse ferrofluids (IFFs). Observations on the particle self-assembly in IMR fluids upon magnetic field application showed that DM and FM microparticles were assembled into alternating chains oriented along the field direction. We explain such assembly on the basis of the dipolar interaction energy between particles. We also present results on the rheological properties of IMR fluids and, for comparison, those of IFFs and bidispersed magnetorheological (MR) fluids. Interestingly, we found that upon magnetic field application, the rheological properties of IMR fluids were enhanced with respect to bidispersed MR fluids with the same FM particle concentration, by an amount greater than the sum of the isolated contribution of DM particles. Furthermore, the field-induced yield stress was moderately increased when up to 30% of the total FM particle content was replaced with DM particles. Beyond this point, the dependence of the yield stress on the DM content was non-monotonic, as expected for FM concentrations decreasing to zero. We explain these synergistic results by two separate phenomena: the formation of exclusion areas for FM particles due to the perturbation of the magnetic field by DM particles and the dipole-dipole interaction between DM and FM particles, which enhances the field-induced structures. Based on the second phenomenon, we present a theoretical model for the yield stress that semi-quantitatively predicts the experimental results. PMID:25022363

  18. Improved perfluoroalkylether fluid development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciorek, K. L.; Masuda, S. R.; Nakahara, J. H.; Kratzer, R. H.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this program was to optimize and scale up the linear perfluoroalkylether stabilization process and to provide test data regarding the fluids' thermal oxidative stability in the presence of metal alloys. The stabilization of Fomblin Z-25 was scaled up to 300 g of fluid. The modified fluid was stable at 316 C in oxygen in the presence of M-50 alloy for more than 24 hrs but less than 40 hrs; the amount of volatiles produced after 24 hrs was 5.5 mg/g. In the presence of Ti(4Al,4Mn) alloy, under the above conditions, following an exposure of 24 hrs, the amount of volatiles formed was 6.2 mg/g; 56 hrs exposure yielded 13.9 mg/g. The commercial fluid at 288 C (in oxygen) in the presence of M-50 after 15 hrs of exposure decomposed extensively, 342 mg/g; in the presence of Ti(4Al,4Mn) alloy after only 8 hrs at 288 C, the amount of volatiles was 191 mg/g. Formulation of the commercial fluid with C2PN3 additive was not as effective as the stabilization processing. All the perfluoroalkylether fluids studied were stable in nitrogen at 343 C. The thermal oxidative stability in the absence of metal alloys varied, with Aflunox exhibiting the best behavior. All the fluids were degraded in oxygen at 316 C during 24 hrs exposure to Ti(4Al,4Mn) alloy with the exception of a perfluoroalkylether substituted triazine and the modified Z-25.

  19. Novel CLC3 transcript variants in blood eosinophils and increased CLC3 expression in nasal lavage and blood eosinophils of asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Gaurav, Rohit; Bewtra, Againdra K; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilia is a characteristic feature of allergic airway inflammation and remodeling. Chloride channel-3 (CLC3) in eosinophils has been associated with superoxide generation and respiratory burst. The CLC3 gene may produce multiple transcript variants through alternative splicing. However, the presence of CLC3 variants in human eosinophils is unknown. We examined the expression of CLC3 transcript variants in peripheral blood eosinophils of allergic asthmatics and healthy individuals. Potential of these obligatory dimers to form homo- or hetero-dimers was examined in HEK293 cells co-transfected with CLC3b-GFP and CLC3e-RFP. Eosinophils were isolated from peripheral blood by negative selection. Expression of CLC3 and CLC3 transcript variants was examined by qPCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. Confocal micrographs were analyzed with Image J software. Higher levels of novel transcript variants of CLC3 (CLC3b and CLC3e) were found in peripheral blood eosinophils of asthmatics compared to healthy non-atopic subjects. We also found higher CLC3 protein expression in the blood and nasal lavage eosinophils of asthmatics than healthy subjects. Both membranous and intracellular CLC3 expression were observed. Also, we found the presence of both homodimers and heterodimers of CLC3b-GFP and CLC3e-RFP in HEK293 cells. Higher and differential expression of novel CLC3 transcript variants in mild-to-moderate and moderate-to-severe asthmatic eosinophils suggest their critical role in allergic asthma. Membranous and intracellular (granular) expression of CLC3 in nasal lavage and peripheral blood eosinophils suggest their involvement in the activation and migration of eosinophils in allergic asthma. Moreover, homo- and hetero-dimerization of these transcript variants may change the channel properties to exhibit these states. Presence of CLC3 variants may serve as a biomarker in allergic asthma and additional knowledge of interaction between CLC3 transcript variants and their

  20. Fluid driven reciprocating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Whitehead, J.C.

    1997-04-01

    An apparatus is described comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached. 13 figs.

  1. Amniotic fluid embolism.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Bhardwaj, Mamta; Kumar, Prashant; Singhal, Suresh; Singh, Tarandeep; Hooda, Sarla

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%.

  2. Fluid driven recipricating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Whitehead, John C.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached.

  3. Amniotic fluid embolism

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Bhardwaj, Mamta; Kumar, Prashant; Singhal, Suresh; Singh, Tarandeep; Hooda, Sarla

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%. PMID:27275041

  4. Boiler using combustible fluid

    DOEpatents

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  5. Amniotic fluid embolism.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Bhardwaj, Mamta; Kumar, Prashant; Singhal, Suresh; Singh, Tarandeep; Hooda, Sarla

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%. PMID:27275041

  6. Evaluation of Xpert® MTB/RIF Assay in Induced Sputum and Gastric Lavage Samples from Young Children with Suspected Tuberculosis from the MVA85A TB Vaccine Trial

    PubMed Central

    Geldenhuys, Hennie; Schmidt, Bey-Marrie; Luabeya, Angelique Kany Kany; Mulenga, Humphrey; Scriba, Thomas J.; Hanekom, Willem A.; Mahomed, Hassan; McShane, Helen; Hatherill, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objective Diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis is limited by the paucibacillary respiratory samples obtained from young children with pulmonary disease. We aimed to compare accuracy of the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay, an automated nucleic acid amplification test, between induced sputum and gastric lavage samples from young children in a tuberculosis endemic setting. Methods We analyzed standardized diagnostic data from HIV negative children younger than four years of age who were investigated for tuberculosis disease near Cape Town, South Africa [2009–2012]. Two paired, consecutive induced sputa and early morning gastric lavage samples were obtained from children with suspected tuberculosis. Samples underwent Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube [MGIT] culture and Xpert MTB/RIF assay. We compared diagnostic yield across samples using the two-sample test of proportions and McNemar’s χ2 test; and Wilson’s score method to calculate sensitivity and specificity. Results 1,020 children were evaluated for tuberculosis during 1,214 admission episodes. Not all children had 4 samples collected. 57 of 4,463[1.3%] and 26 of 4,606[0.6%] samples tested positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis on MGIT culture and Xpert MTB/RIF assay respectively. 27 of 2,198[1.2%] and 40 of 2,183[1.8%] samples tested positive [on either Xpert MTB/RIF assay or MGIT culture] on induced sputum and gastric lavage samples, respectively. 19/1,028[1.8%] and 33/1,017[3.2%] admission episodes yielded a positive MGIT culture or Xpert MTB/RIF assay from induced sputum and gastric lavage, respectively. Sensitivity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay was 8/30[26.7%; 95% CI: 14.2–44.4] for two induced sputum samples and 7/31[22.6%; 11.4–39.8] [p = 0.711] for two gastric lavage samples. Corresponding specificity was 893/893[100%;99.6–100] and 885/890[99.4%;98.7–99.8] respectively [p = 0.025]. Conclusion Sensitivity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay was low, compared to MGIT culture, but diagnostic performance of Xpert MTB

  7. Validation of the FAM19A4/mir124-2 DNA methylation test for both lavage- and brush-based self-samples to detect cervical (pre)cancer in HPV-positive women

    PubMed Central

    De Strooper, Lise M.A.; Verhoef, Viola M.J.; Berkhof, Johannes; Hesselink, Albertus T.; de Bruin, Helena M.E.; van Kemenade, Folkert J.; Bosgraaf, Remko P.; Bekkers, Ruud L.M.; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Melchers, Willem J.G.; Steenbergen, Renske D.M.; Snijders, Peter J.F.; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; Heideman, Daniëlle A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives DNA methylation analysis of cancer-related genes is a promising tool for HPV-positive women to identify those with cervical (pre)cancer (CIN3+) in need of treatment. However, clinical performance of methylation markers can be influenced by the sample type utilized. We describe a multiplex quantitative methylation-specific PCR that targets FAM19A4 and mir124-2 loci, to detect CIN3+ using both HPV-positive lavage- and brush self-samples. Methods We determined methylation thresholds for clinical classification using HPV-positive training sets comprising lavage self-samples of 182 women (including 40 with CIN3+) and brush self-samples of 224 women (including 61 with CIN3+). Subsequently, independent HPV-positive validation sets of 389 lavage self-samples (including 78 with CIN3+), and 254 brush self-samples (including 72 with CIN3+) were tested using the preset thresholds. Furthermore, the clinical performance of combined methylation analysis and HPV16/18 genotyping was determined. Results Training set analysis revealed similar FAM19A4 and mir124-2 thresholds for both self-sample types to yield highest CIN3+ sensitivity at 70% specificity. Validation set analysis resulted in a CIN3+ sensitivity of 70.5% (95%CI: 60.4–80.6) at a specificity of 67.8% (95%CI: 62.7–73.0) for lavage self-samples, and a CIN3+ sensitivity of 69.4% (95%CI: 58.8–80.1) at a 76.4% (95%CI: 70.2–82.6) specificity for brush self-samples. In combination with HPV16/18 genotyping, CIN3+ sensitivity and specificity were 88.5% (95%CI: 81.4–95.6) and 46.0% (95%CI: 40.4–51.5) for lavage self-samples, and 84.7% (95%CI: 76.4–93.0) and 54.9% (95%CI: 47.7–62.2) for brush self-samples. Conclusions FAM19A4/mir124-2 methylation analysis performs equally well in HPV-positive lavage- and brush self-samples to identify women with CIN3+. In combination with HPV16/18 genotyping, significantly higher CIN3+ sensitivities are obtained, at decreased specificity. PMID:26921784

  8. Fluorescent fluid interface position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2004-02-17

    A new fluid interface position sensor has been developed, which is capable of optically determining the location of an interface between an upper fluid and a lower fluid, the upper fluid having a larger refractive index than a lower fluid. The sensor functions by measurement, of fluorescence excited by an optical pump beam which is confined within a fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the lower fluid, but escapes from the fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the upper fluid.

  9. Supercritical fluid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Gere, D.R.

    1983-10-21

    Chromatographic separations with a supercritical fluid as the mobile phase were suggested more than 20 years ago. Availability of commercial hardware makes this technique more widely usable today. Many separations by this method are now carried out with supercritical carbon dioxide as the mobile phase and packed liquid-chromatography columns as the stationary phase. Although carbon dioxide has many practical advantages, including its near-ambient critical temperature and minimal interference with spectrometric detection, the use of other supercritical fluids or addition of modifiers to carbon dioxide may extend the applications of this technique. Some mixtures that are difficult to analyze by other chromatographic methods may be susceptible to separation by supercritical fluid chromatography. Mixtures that have been separated with supercritical carbon dioxide include resin acids with the empirical formula C/sub 20/H/sub 30/O/sub 2/ and ubiquinones from bacterial cell wall extracts of Legionella pneumophila. 60 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Asymptotically free fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarski, Robert D.

    1982-12-01

    I study the field theory of a scalar field ω with solely cubic interactions in three dimensions-(ω3)3. I insist that the ω field represents the density of a fluid, so ω must always be >=0. If there are long-range couplings in the fluid such that the inverse ω propagator is linear rather than quadratic in momentum, then (ω3)3 theory is asymptotically free. The asymptotic freedom of (ω3)3 theory is closely related to the existence of a nonzero, ultraviolet-stable fixed point in large-N (φ¯6)3 theory. There are also analogies between the asymptotic freedom of fluids (in three and six dimensions) and that of non-Abelian gauge fields (in four dimensions).

  11. Fluid lubricated bearing construction

    DOEpatents

    Dunning, John R.; Boorse, Henry A.; Boeker, Gilbert F.

    1976-01-01

    1. A fluid lubricated thrust bearing assembly comprising, in combination, a first bearing member having a plain bearing surface, a second bearing member having a bearing surface confronting the bearing surface of said first bearing member and provided with at least one spiral groove extending inwardly from the periphery of said second bearing member, one of said bearing members having an axial fluid-tight well, a source of fluid lubricant adjacent to the periphery of said second bearing member, and means for relatively rotating said bearing members to cause said lubricant to be drawn through said groove and to flow between said bearing surfaces, whereby a sufficient pressure is built up between said bearing surfaces and in said well to tend to separate said bearing surfaces.

  12. Universal fluid droplet ejector

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Eric R.; Perl, Martin L.

    1999-08-24

    A droplet generator comprises a fluid reservoir having a side wall made of glass or quartz, and an end cap made from a silicon plate. The end cap contains a micromachined aperture through which the fluid is ejected. The side wall is thermally fused to the end cap, and no adhesive is necessary. This means that the fluid only comes into contact with the side wall and the end cap, both of which are chemically inert. Amplitudes of drive pulses received by reservoir determine the horizontal displacements of droplets relative to the ejection aperture. The drive pulses are varied such that the dropper generates a two-dimensional array of vertically-falling droplets. Vertical and horizontal interdroplet spacings may be varied in real time. Applications include droplet analysis experiments such as Millikan fractional charge searches and aerosol characterization, as well as material deposition applications.

  13. Universal fluid droplet ejector

    DOEpatents

    Lee, E.R.; Perl, M.L.

    1999-08-24

    A droplet generator comprises a fluid reservoir having a side wall made of glass or quartz, and an end cap made from a silicon plate. The end cap contains a micromachined aperture through which the fluid is ejected. The side wall is thermally fused to the end cap, and no adhesive is necessary. This means that the fluid only comes into contact with the side wall and the end cap, both of which are chemically inert. Amplitudes of drive pulses received by reservoir determine the horizontal displacements of droplets relative to the ejection aperture. The drive pulses are varied such that the dropper generates a two-dimensional array of vertically-falling droplets. Vertical and horizontal inter-droplet spacings may be varied in real time. Applications include droplet analysis experiments such as Millikan fractional charge searches and aerosol characterization, as well as material deposition applications. 8 figs.

  14. Electrorheological Fluids: Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmar, D. S.; Eftekhari, A.; Belvin, K. W.; Singh, J. J.

    1996-01-01

    Electrorheological fluids (ERF) are an intriguing class of non-Newtonian industrial fluids. They consist of fine dielectric particles suspended in liquids of low dielectric constants. The objectives of this research were to select a particulate system such that: (1) its density can be varied to match that of the selected liquid, and (2) the dielectric constant of the particles and the liquids should be such that the critical fields needed for asymptotic increase in viscosity are less than or equal to 10 KV/cm. Synthetic Zeolite particles were selected as the solute/suspensions. Octoil oil was selected as the solvent. The results are summarized here.

  15. High temperature drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Stong, R.E.; Walinsky, S.W.

    1986-01-28

    This patent describes an aqueous drilling fluid suitable for high-temperature use. This fluid is composed of a water base. Clay is suspended in the base and from about 0.01-25 pounds per barrel total composition of a hydrolyzed terpolymer of maleic anhydride, styrene and a third monomer selected from acrylamide, methacrylamide, acrylic acid and metacrylic acid. The molar ratio of maleic anhydride to styrene to the third monomer is from about 30:10:60 to 50:40:10, and the alkali metal, ammonium and lower aliphatic amine salts thereof, the weight-average molecular weight of the hydrolyzed terpolymer is from about 500-10,000.

  16. The Induction of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Supeoxide Anion, Myeloperoxidase, and Superoxide Dismutase in the Peritoneal Lavage Cells of Mice after Prolonged Exposure to Dichloroacetate and Trichloroacetate

    PubMed Central

    Spildener, Jessica; Cearfoss, Jacquelyn

    2010-01-01

    The induction of phagocytic activation in response to prolonged treatment with different doses of dichloroacetate (DCA) and trichloroacetate (TCA) has been investigated in mice. Groups of B6C3F1 male mice were administered 7.7, 77, 154 and 410 mg of DCA or TCA/ kg/day , post orally, for 4- and 13-weeks. Peritoneal lavage cells (PLCs) were isolated and assayed for the different biomarkers of phagocytyic activation, including superoxide anion (SA), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and myeloperoxidase (MPO). In addition, the role of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the SA production was also assessed. DCA and TCA produced significant and dose-dependent increases in SA and TNF-α production and in MPO activity but the increases in response to the high doses of the compounds (> 77 mg/kg/day) in the 13-week treatment period were less significant than those produced in the 4-week treatment period. Also, dose-dependent increases in SOD activity were observed in both periods of treatments. In general, the results demonstrate significant induction of the biomarkers of phagocytic activation by doses of DCA and TCA that were previously shown to be non carcinogenic, with significantly greater increases observed at the earlier period of exposure, as compared with later period. These findings may argue against the contribution of those mechanisms to the hepatotoxicity/hepatocarcinogenicity of the compounds and suggest them to be early adaptive/ protective mechanisms against their long term effects. PMID:20391627

  17. Detection of cancer cells and tumor markers in gastric lavage of patients with gastric cancer: Do these findings have a clinicopathological significance and oncological implication?

    PubMed

    Virgilio, Edoardo; Giarnieri, Enrico; Montagnini, Monica; D'Urso, Rosaria; Proietti, Antonella; Mesiti, Alessandra; Giovagnoli, Maria Rosaria; Mercantini, Paolo; Cavallini, Marco; Balducci, Genoveffa

    2016-09-01

    Although decreasing in the incidence over the last years, currently gastric adenocarcinoma represents the second cause of cancer related-death worldwide. Further knowledge and novel therapies are desperately needed in order to make the prognosis of these patients more acceptable. Infact, even though in recent years numerous staging parameters have been largely studied and unanimously recognized for their clinical and prognostic value, today too many shadows still exist around the capacity to predict exactly the natural history or post-treatment behavior of this cancer even among patients of the same stage. This study has identified the presence of isolated cancer cells as well as tumor markers (CEA, Ca 19.9, Ca 72.4 and Ca 50) from the gastric lavage of patients affected by gastric adenocarcinoma. Such findings led to the hypothesis that endoluminal exfoliation of neoplastic cells and the release of their products (tumor markers) into the gastric juice might be an expression of neoplastic behavior as well as aggressive malignancy. Should this hypothesis become a reality, some important progress could be made in the knowledge, staging, prediction as well as management and follow-up of this inauspicious type of cancer. PMID:27515187

  18. Low temperature fluid blender

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Repas, G. A.

    1971-01-01

    Blender supplies hydrogen at temperatures from 289 deg K to 367 deg K. Hydrogen temperature is controlled by using blender to combine flow from liquid hydrogen tank /276 deg K/ and gaseous hydrogen cylinder /550 deg K/. Blenders are applicable where flow of controlled low-temperature fluid is desired.

  19. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

    MedlinePlus

    ... the foods you eat and the fluids you drink. Levels of electrolytes in your body can become too low or too high. That can happen when the amount of water in your body changes, causing dehydration or overhydration. Causes include some medicines, vomiting, diarrhea, ...

  20. Cryogenic fluid management experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Bailey, W. J.; Fester, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The cryogenic fluid management experiment (CFME), designed to characterize subcritical liquid hydrogen storage and expulsion in the low-q space environment, is discussed. The experiment utilizes a fine mesh screen fluid management device to accomplish gas-free liquid expulsion and a thermodynamic vent system to intercept heat leak and control tank pressure. The experiment design evolved from a single flight prototype to provision for a multimission (up to 7) capability. A detailed design of the CFME, a dynamic test article, and dedicated ground support equipment were generated. All materials and parts were identified, and components were selected and specifications prepared. Long lead titanium pressurant spheres and the flight tape recorder and ground reproduce unit were procured. Experiment integration with the shuttle orbiter, Spacelab, and KSC ground operations was coordinated with the appropriate NASA centers, and experiment interfaces were defined. Phase 1 ground and flight safety reviews were conducted. Costs were estimated for fabrication and assembly of the CFME, which will become the storage and supply tank for a cryogenic fluid management facility to investigate fluid management in space.

  1. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-08-15

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  2. Fluid dynamics test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayman, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    Test method and apparatus determine fluid effective mass and damping in frequency range where effective mass may be considered as total mass less sum of slosh masses. Apparatus is designed so test tank and its mounting yoke are supported from structural test wall by series of flexures.

  3. Time Dependent Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collyer, A. A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the flow characteristics of thixotropic and negative thixotropic fluids; various theories underlying the thixotropic behavior; and thixotropic phenomena exhibited in drilling muds, commercial paints, pastes, and greases. Inconsistencies in the terminology used to label time dependent effects are revealed. (CC)

  4. A Fluid Block Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubben, Gerald C.

    1976-01-01

    Achieving flexibility without losing student accountability is a challenge that faces every school. With a fluid block schedule, as described here, accountability is maintained without inhibiting flexibility. An additional advantage is that three levels of schedule decision making take some of the pressure off the principal. (Editor)

  5. Peritoneal fluid analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the fluid to measure: Albumin Protein Red and white blood cell counts Tests will also check for bacteria and other ... be a sign of tumor or injury. High white blood cell counts may be a sign of peritonitis . Milk-colored ...

  6. Orbital Fluid Resupply Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, Ralph N.

    1989-01-01

    Orbital fluid resupply can significantly increase the cost-effectiveness and operational flexibility of spacecraft, satellites, and orbiting platforms and observatories. Reusable tankers are currently being designed for transporting fluids to space. A number of options exist for transporting the fluids and propellant to the space-based user systems. The fluids can be transported to space either in the Shuttle cargo bay or using expendable launch vehicles (ELVs). Resupply can thus be accomplished either from the Shuttle bay, or the tanker can be removed from the Shuttle bay or launched on an ELV and attached to a carrier such as the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) or Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) for transport to the user to be serviced. A third option involves locating the tanker at the space station or an unmanned platform as a quasi-permanent servicing facility or depot which returns to the ground for recycling once its tanks are depleted. Current modular tanker designs for monopropellants, bipropellants, and water for space station propulsion are discussed. Superfluid helium tankers are addressed, including trade-offs in tanker sizes, shapes to fit the range of ELVs currently available, and boil-off losses associated with longer-term (greater than 6-month) space-basing. It is concluded that the mixed fleet approach to on-orbit consumables resupply offers significant advantages to the overall logistics requirements.

  7. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics.

    PubMed

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-08-01

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  8. In vitro gallium-67 lung index for the evaluation of sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Braude, A.C.; Cohen, R.; Rahmani, R.; Hornstein, A.; Klein, M.; Meindok, H.O.; Chamberlain, D.W.; Rebuck, A.S.

    1984-11-01

    In the evaluation of the active alveolitis of pulmonary sarcoidosis, both the proportional lymphocyte count obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage and state of activation of the alveolar macrophage by gallium scanning are required. We injected 6 mCi (200 MBq) of /sup 67/Ga intravenously on 24 occasions in 13 patients with biopsy-proved sarcoidosis. Forty-eight hours later, patients were scanned with a rectilinear scanner and the generated scintigrams were evaluated using the NIH index. Seventy-two hours after injection, bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, and venous blood was sampled. The harvested lavage fluid was analyzed for absolute and proportional cell counts, and radioactivity was measured in blood and BAL fluid. An in vitro /sup 67/Ga index was generated and expressed as counts/100,000 alveolar macrophages/ml blood (mean, 0.0146 +/- 0.0087 SD). There was a significant relationship between the in vitro index and proportional lymphocyte BAL counts (r . 0.79; p less than 0.002) that was comparable to that obtained using the NIH index (r . 0.74; p less than 0.005). These data suggest that the in vitro index might offer a more objective assessment of /sup 67/Ga uptake by the lung, but this would require validation against clinical parameters in a prospective study.

  9. Fluid Transport in Lineaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerrich, R.

    1986-04-01

    Fluid infiltration into fault zones and their deeper level counterparts, brittle-ductile shear zones, is examined in five different tectonic environments. In the 2.7 Ga Abitibi Greenstone Belt major tectonic discontinuities have lateral extents of hundreds of kilometres. These structures, initiated as listric normal faults accommodating rift extension of the greenstone belt, acted as sites for the extrusion of komatiitic magmas, and formed submarine scarps which delimit linear belts of clastic and chemical sediments. During reverse motion on the structures, accommodating shortening of the belt, these transcrustal faults were used as a conduit for the ascent of trondhjemitic magmas from the base of the crust, alkaline magmas from the asthenosphere, and for discharge of hundreds of cubic kilometres of hydrothermal fluids. Such fluids were characterized by δ 18O = 6 ± 2, δ D = -50 ± 20, δ 13C = -4 ± 3, and temperatures of 270-450 degrees C, probably derived from devolatilization of crustal rocks undergoing prograde metamorphism. Hydrothermal fluids were more radiogenic (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7010-0.7040) and possessed higher values of μ than contemporaneous mantle, komatiites or tholeiites, and thus carried a contribution from older sialic basement. Mineralized faults possess enrichments of l.i.l. elements, including K, Rb, Li, Cs, B and CO2, as well as rare elements such as Au, Ag, As, Sb, Se, Te, Bi, W. Fluids were characterized by XCO_{2}≈ 0.1, neutral to slightly acidic pH, low salinity (less than 3% by mass), and K/Na ≈ 0.1, carried minor CH4, CO and N2, and underwent transient effervescence of CO2 during decompression. At Yellowknife, a series of large-scale shear zones developed by brittle-ductile mechanisms, involving volume dilation with the migration of ca. 5% (by mass) volatiles into the shear zone from surrounding metabasalts. This early deformation involved no departures in redox state or whole-rock δ 18O from background states of Fe2+/ɛ Fe = 0.7 and

  10. Ultrasonic fluid densitometry and densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, Margaret S.; Lail, Jason C.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge having an acoustic impedance that is near the acoustic impedance of the fluid, specifically less than a factor of 11 greater than the acoustic impedance of the fluid. The invention also includes a wedge having at least two transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface.

  11. Ultrasonic fluid densitometry and densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, M.S.; Lail, J.C.

    1998-01-13

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge having an acoustic impedance that is near the acoustic impedance of the fluid, specifically less than a factor of 11 greater than the acoustic impedance of the fluid. The invention also includes a wedge having at least two transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface. 6 figs.

  12. Magnetic fluids and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeynaetjoki, M.

    1991-02-01

    Magnetic fluids consist of carrier fluid, magnetically active particles and surfactant on each particle preventing the agglomeration of the particles. The fluids acting in the presence of the magnetic field like the ferromagnetic materials, but remaining their fluid properties, are prepared in this way. Potential applications of these fluids are magnetic separation, ink jet printing, sealing, damping, lubrication and heat transfer. So far, the industrial applications of the magnetic fluids are in the seals and bearings of the computer hard disk drives, in the heat transfer and damping of loudspeakers and in the damping of step motors. The other applications are in laboratory and research stage.

  13. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    ScienceCinema

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2016-07-12

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  14. Microgravity Fluids for Biology, Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, DeVon; Kohl, Fred; Massa, Gioia D.; Motil, Brian; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Quincy, Charles; Sato, Kevin; Singh, Bhim; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity Fluids for Biology represents an intersection of biology and fluid physics that present exciting research challenges to the Space Life and Physical Sciences Division. Solving and managing the transport processes and fluid mechanics in physiological and biological systems and processes are essential for future space exploration and colonization of space by humans. Adequate understanding of the underlying fluid physics and transport mechanisms will provide new, necessary insights and technologies for analyzing and designing biological systems critical to NASAs mission. To enable this mission, the fluid physics discipline needs to work to enhance the understanding of the influence of gravity on the scales and types of fluids (i.e., non-Newtonian) important to biology and life sciences. In turn, biomimetic, bio-inspired and synthetic biology applications based on physiology and biology can enrich the fluid mechanics and transport phenomena capabilities of the microgravity fluid physics community.

  15. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2014-03-06

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  16. Double Helical Fluid Containment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, Brian

    2003-11-01

    In the absence of gravity or at micro-scales, helical wires can support cylindrical volumes of fluid of infinite length, making them convenient as conduits. However, fixed contact line double helical fluid volumes have the additional property that they can be drained to zero volume without loss of stability to constant pressure disturbances. Thus the two-wire support is a convenient microgravity or micro-scale container as well as conduit. For evenly spaced wires, continuous draining of a cylindrical volume to zero is possible for double helices ranging from moderate pitch to the parallel wire case. Double helices of steeper pitch are stable as cylinders and at zero volume, but are unstable for some range of intermediate volumes. This unstable zone is very strongly dependent on the offset between the helical wires, varying rapidly for offsets other than 180 degrees. Preliminary experimental results validate the theoretical predictions.

  17. Canonical fluid thermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    The space-time integral of the thermodynamic pressure plays the role of the thermodynamic potential for compressible, adiabatic flow in the sense that the pressure integral for stable flow is less than for all slightly different flows. This stability criterion can be converted into a variational minimum principle by requiring the molar free-enthalpy and the temperature, which are the arguments of the pressure function, to be generalized velocities, that is, the proper-time derivatives of scalar spare-time functions which are generalized coordinates in the canonical formalism. In a fluid context, proper-time differentiation must be expressed in terms of three independent quantities that specify the fluid velocity. This can be done in several ways, all of which lead to different variants (canonical transformations) of the same constraint-free action integral whose Euler-Lagrange equations are just the well-known equations of motion for adiabatic compressible flow.

  18. Production of MHD fluid

    DOEpatents

    Lacey, James J.; Kurtzrock, Roy C.; Bienstock, Daniel

    1976-08-24

    A hot gaseous fluid of low ash content, suitable for use in open-cycle MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) power generation, is produced by means of a three-stage process comprising (1) partial combustion of a fossil fuel to produce a hot gaseous product comprising CO.sub.2 CO, and H.sub.2 O, (2) reformation of the gaseous product from stage (1) by means of a fluidized char bed, whereby CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O are converted to CO and H.sub.2, and (3) combustion of CO and H.sub.2 from stage (2) to produce a low ash-content fluid (flue gas) comprising CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O and having a temperature of about 4000.degree. to 5000.degree.F.

  19. Drilling fluid filter

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe; Garner, Kory

    2007-01-23

    A drilling fluid filter for placement within a bore wall of a tubular drill string component comprises a perforated receptacle with an open end and a closed end. A hanger for engagement with the bore wall is mounted at the open end of the perforated receptacle. A mandrel is adjacent and attached to the open end of the perforated receptacle. A linkage connects the mandrel to the hanger. The linkage may be selected from the group consisting of struts, articulated struts and cams. The mandrel operates on the hanger through the linkage to engage and disengage the drilling fluid filter from the tubular drill string component. The mandrel may have a stationary portion comprising a first attachment to the open end of the perforated receptacle and a telescoping adjustable portion comprising a second attachment to the linkage. The mandrel may also comprise a top-hole interface for top-hole equipment.

  20. Body Fluids Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siconolfi, Steven F. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are described for determining volumes of body fluids in a subject using bioelectrical response spectroscopy. The human body is represented using an electrical circuit. Intra-cellular water is represented by a resistor in series with a capacitor; extra-cellular water is represented by a resistor in series with two parallel inductors. The parallel inductors represent the resistance due to vascular fluids. An alternating, low amperage, multifrequency signal is applied to determine a subject's impedance and resistance. From these data, statistical regression is used to determine a 1% impedance where the subject's impedance changes by no more than 1% over a 25 kHz interval. Circuit component, of the human body circuit are determined based on the 1% impedance. Equations for calculating total body water, extra-cellular water, total blood volume, and plasma volume are developed based on the circuit components.

  1. Metallization of fluid hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Nellis, W.J.; Louis, A.A.; Ashcroft, N.W.

    1997-05-14

    The electrical activity of liquid hydrogen has been measured at the high dynamic pressures, and temperatures that can be achieved with a reverberating shock wave. The resulting data are most naturally interpreted in terms of a continuous transition from a semiconducting to a metallic, largely diatomic fluid, the latter at 140 CPa, (ninefold compression) and 3000 K. While the fluid at these conditions resembles common liquid metals by the scale of its resistivity of 500 micro-ohm-cm, it differs by retaining a strong pairing character, and the precise mechanism by which a metallic state might be attained is still a matter of debate. Some evident possibilities include (i) physics of a largely one-body character, such as a band-overlap transition, (ii) physics of a strong-coupling or many-body character,such as a Mott-Hubbard transition, and (iii) process in which structural changes are paramount.

  2. Oscillating fluid power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, David C

    2014-02-25

    A system and method for harvesting the kinetic energy of a fluid flow for power generation with a vertically oriented, aerodynamic wing structure comprising one or more airfoil elements pivotably attached to a mast. When activated by the moving fluid stream, the wing structure oscillates back and forth, generating lift first in one direction then in the opposite direction. This oscillating movement is converted to unidirectional rotational movement in order to provide motive power to an electricity generator. Unlike other oscillating devices, this device is designed to harvest the maximum aerodynamic lift forces available for a given oscillation cycle. Because the system is not subjected to the same intense forces and stresses as turbine systems, it can be constructed less expensively, reducing the cost of electricity generation. The system can be grouped in more compact clusters, be less evident in the landscape, and present reduced risk to avian species.

  3. The Mechanism of Fluid Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonkarman, T.; Rubach, H.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanism of fluid resistance within the limit of the square law is presented. It was concluded that the investigations should be extended and completed in two directions, namely: by an investigation of stable vortex configurations in space, and by considering the perfect fluid as the limiting case of a viscous fluid and then limiting the law of vortex of formation with the condition that only those fluid particles which were in contact with the surface of the body can receive rotation.

  4. Corrosion in supercritical fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Propp, W.A.; Carleson, T.E.; Wai, Chen M.; Taylor, P.R.; Daehling, K.W.; Huang, Shaoping; Abdel-Latif, M.

    1996-05-01

    Integrated studies were carried out in the areas of corrosion, thermodynamic modeling, and electrochemistry under pressure and temperature conditions appropriate for potential applications of supercritical fluid (SCF) extractive metallurgy. Carbon dioxide and water were the primary fluids studied. Modifiers were used in some tests; these consisted of 1 wt% water and 10 wt% methanol for carbon dioxide and of sulfuric acid, sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium nitrate at concentrations ranging from 0.00517 to 0.010 M for the aqueous fluids. The materials studied were Types 304 and 316 (UNS S30400 and S31600) stainless steel, iron, and AISI-SAE 1080 (UNS G10800) carbon steel. The thermodynamic modeling consisted of development of a personal computer-based program for generating Pourbaix diagrams at supercritical conditions in aqueous systems. As part of the model, a general method for extrapolating entropies and related thermodynamic properties from ambient to SCF conditions was developed. The experimental work was used as a tool to evaluate the predictions of the model for these systems. The model predicted a general loss of passivation in iron-based alloys at SCF conditions that was consistent with experimentally measured corrosion rates and open circuit potentials. For carbon-dioxide-based SCFs, measured corrosion rates were low, indicating that carbon steel would be suitable for use with unmodified carbon dioxide, while Type 304 stainless steel would be suitable for use with water or methanol as modifiers.

  5. Astrophysical fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvie, Gordon I.

    2016-06-01

    > These lecture notes and example problems are based on a course given at the University of Cambridge in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. Fluid dynamics is involved in a very wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as the formation and internal dynamics of stars and giant planets, the workings of jets and accretion discs around stars and black holes and the dynamics of the expanding Universe. Effects that can be important in astrophysical fluids include compressibility, self-gravitation and the dynamical influence of the magnetic field that is `frozen in' to a highly conducting plasma. The basic models introduced and applied in this course are Newtonian gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for an ideal compressible fluid. The mathematical structure of the governing equations and the associated conservation laws are explored in some detail because of their importance for both analytical and numerical methods of solution, as well as for physical interpretation. Linear and nonlinear waves, including shocks and other discontinuities, are discussed. The spherical blast wave resulting from a supernova, and involving a strong shock, is a classic problem that can be solved analytically. Steady solutions with spherical or axial symmetry reveal the physics of winds and jets from stars and discs. The linearized equations determine the oscillation modes of astrophysical bodies, as well as their stability and their response to tidal forcing.

  6. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Turner

    2006-11-28

    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  7. Supercritical fluids cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Butner, S.; Hjeresen, D.; Silva, L.; Spall, D.; Stephenson, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a proposed multi-party research and development program which seeks to develop supercritical fluid cleaning technology as an alternative to existing solvent cleaning applications. While SCF extraction technology has been in commercial use for several years, the use of these fluids as cleaning agents poses several new technical challenges. Problems inherent in the commercialization of SCF technology include: the cleaning efficacy and compatibility of supercritical working fluids with the parts to be cleaned must be assessed for a variety of materials and components; process parameters and equipment design Have been optimized for extractive applications and must be reconsidered for application to cleaning; and co-solvents and entrainers must be identified to facilitate the removal of polar inorganic and organic contaminants, which are often not well solvated in supercritical systems. The proposed research and development program would address these issues and lead to the development and commercialization of viable SCF-based technology for precision cleaning applications. This paper provides the technical background, program scope, and delineates the responsibilities of each principal participant in the program.

  8. Lavage with Allicin in Combination with Vancomycin Inhibits Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis in a Rabbit Model of Prosthetic Joint Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Haohan; Pan, Jianchao; Pang, En; Bai, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim The present anti-infection strategy for prosthetic joint infections (PJI) includes the use of antibiotics and surgical treatments, but the bacterial eradication rates are still low. One of the major challenges is the formation of biofilm causing poor bacterial eradication. Recently it has been reported that allicin (diallyl thiosulphinate), an antibacterial principle of garlic, can inhibit bacteria adherence and prevent biofilm formation in vitro. However, whether allicin could inhibit biofilm formation in vivo is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of allicin on biofilm formation, and whether allicin could potentiate the bactericidal effect of vancomycin in a rabbit PJI model. Methods A sterile stainless-steel screw with a sterile ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene washer was inserted into the lateral femoral condyle of the right hind knee joint of rabbit, and 1 mL inoculum containing 104 colony-forming units of Staphylococcus epidermidis was inoculated into the knee joint (n = 32). Fourteen days later, rabbits randomly received one of the following 4 treatments using continuous lavages: normal saline, vancomycin (20 mcg/mL), allicin (4 mg/L), or allicin (4 mg/L) plus vancomycin (20 mcg/mL). Three days later, the washer surface biofilm formation was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The bacterial counts within the biofilm of implanted screws were determined by bacterial culture. Results The lowest number of viable bacterial counts of Staphylococcus epidermidis recovered from the biofilm was in the rabbits treated with allicin plus vancomycin (P<0.01 vs. all other groups). The biofilm formation was significantly reduced or undetectable by SEM in rabbits receiving allicin or allicin plus vancomycin. Conclusion Intra-articular allicincan inhibit biofilm formation and enhance the bactericidal effect of vancomycin on implant surface in vivo. Allicin in combination with vancomycin may be a useful anti

  9. Fluid handling equipment: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Devices and techniques used in fluid-handling and vacuum systems are described. Section 1 presents several articles on fluid lines and tubing. Section 2 describes a number of components such as valves, filters, and regulators. The last section contains descriptions of a number of innovative fluid-handling systems.

  10. Microwave Propagation in Dielectric Fluids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonc, W. P.

    1980-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate experiment designed to verify quantitatively the effect of a dielectric fluid's dielectric constant on the observed wavelength of microwave radiation propagating through the fluid. The fluid used is castor oil, and results agree with the expected behavior within 5 percent. (Author/CS)

  11. The Viscosity of Polymeric Fluids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, J. E.; Martin, G. C.

    1983-01-01

    To illustrate the behavior of polymeric fluids and in what respects they differ from Newtonian liquids, an experiment was developed to account for the shear-rate dependence of non-Newtonian fluids. Background information, procedures, and results are provided for the experiment. Useful in transport processes, fluid mechanics, or physical chemistry…

  12. Synthetic double-stranded RNA enhances airway inflammation and remodelling in a rat model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Satoshi; Tamaoka, Meiyo; Takayama, Koji; Okayasu, Kaori; Tsuchiya, Kimitake; Miyazaki, Yasunari; Sumi, Yuki; Martin, James G; Inase, Naohiko

    2011-10-01

    Respiratory viral infections are frequently associated with exacerbations of asthma. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) produced during viral infections may be one of the stimuli for exacerbation. We aimed to assess the potential effect of dsRNA on certain aspects of chronic asthma through the administration of polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), synthetic dsRNA, to a rat model of asthma. Brown Norway rats were sensitized to ovalbumin and challenged three times to evoke airway remodelling. The effect of poly I:C on the ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation and structural changes was assessed from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and histological findings. The expression of cytokines and chemokines was evaluated by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR and ELISA. Ovalbumin-challenged animals showed an increased number of total cells and eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared with PBS-challenged controls. Ovalbumin-challenged animals treated with poly I:C showed an increased number of total cells and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared with those without poly I:C treatment. Ovalbumin-challenged animals showed goblet cell hyperplasia, increased airway smooth muscle mass, and proliferation of both airway epithelial cells and airway smooth muscle cells. Treatment with poly I:C enhanced these structural changes. Among the cytokines and chemokines examined, the expression of interleukins 12 and 17 and of transforming growth factor-β(1) in ovalbumin-challenged animals treated with poly I:C was significantly increased compared with those of the other groups. Double-stranded RNA enhanced airway inflammation and remodelling in a rat model of bronchial asthma. These observations suggest that viral infections may promote airway remodelling.

  13. IgG subclass deficiency and sinopulmonary bacterial infections in patients with alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Spinozzi, F; Cimignoli, E; Gerli, R; Agea, E; Bertotto, A; Rondoni, F; Grignani, F

    1992-01-01

    Abnormalities in IgG subclass distribution were sought in serum samples and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from 15 patients with alcoholic liver disease to explain their increased susceptibility to bacterial respiratory infections. Serum IgG4 deficiency alone or in association with low IgG2 levels was revealed in approximately 30% of patients with alcoholic liver disease. This fact prompted us to further investigate the immunoglobulin concentrations in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid, paying special attention to the distribution of IgA and IgG subclasses. IgA levels were found to be normal or slightly elevated. However, there were substantial defects in total IgG and IgG1 concentrations, often associated with reduced IgG2 and IgG4 levels, in approximately 70% of patients with alcoholic liver disease, which proved to be closely correlated with the number and type (pneumonia) of bacterial respiratory infections. A prospective study of intravenous immunoglobulin substitutive therapy involving two patients with recurrent pneumonia and very low serum IgG2 values demonstrated a reduction in the number of respiratory infectious episodes as well as an increase in both serum and, to a lesser extent, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid IgG1 and IgG2 levels. We identified immune defects that may represent an important pathogenetic mechanism that, when considered together with the alcohol-related suppression of alveolar macrophage and ciliary functions and the inhibition of leukocyte migration into the lungs, should help clarify the complex relationships between alcohol and immune defense. PMID:1728935

  14. Deficiency of phospholipase A2 receptor exacerbates ovalbumin-induced lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Tamaru, Shun; Mishina, Hideto; Watanabe, Yosuke; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Fujioka, Daisuke; Takahashi, Soichiro; Suzuki, Koji; Nakamura, Takamitsu; Obata, Jun-Ei; Kawabata, Kenichi; Yokota, Yasunori; Murakami, Makoto; Hanasaki, Kohji; Kugiyama, Kiyotaka

    2013-08-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) plays a critical role in the genesis of lung inflammation through proinflammatory eicosanoids. A previous in vitro experiment showed a possible role of cell surface receptor for sPLA2 (PLA2R) in the clearance of extracellular sPLA2. PLA2R and groups IB and X sPLA2 are expressed in the lung. This study examined a pathogenic role of PLA2R in airway inflammation using PLA2R-deficient (PLA2R(-/-)) mice. Airway inflammation was induced by immunosensitization with OVA. Compared with wild-type (PLA2R(+/+)) mice, PLA2R(-/-) mice had a significantly greater infiltration of inflammatory cells around the airways, higher levels of groups IB and X sPLA2, eicosanoids, and Th2 cytokines, and higher numbers of eosinophils and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after OVA treatment. In PLA2R(-/-) mice, intratracheally instilled [(125)I]-labeled sPLA2-IB was cleared much more slowly from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared with PLA2R(+/+) mice. The degradation of the instilled [(125)I]-labeled sPLA2-IB, as assessed by trichloroacetic acid-soluble radioactivity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after instillation, was lower in PLA2R(-/-) mice than in PLA2R(+/+) mice. In conclusion, PLA2R deficiency increased sPLA2-IB and -X levels in the lung through their impaired clearance from the lung, leading to exaggeration of lung inflammation induced by OVA treatment in a murine model.

  15. Enhanced cough reflex in a model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Blanco, Joan Antoni; Aguilera, Mònica; Domènech, Anna; Tarrasón, Gema; Prats, Neus; Miralpeix, Montse; De Alba, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    Fibrotic lung diseases, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, are associated with spontaneous dry cough and hypersensitivity to tussive agents. Understanding the pathophysiology driving enhanced cough may help us to define better therapies for patients. We hypothesized that lung fibrosis induced by intratracheal bleomycin would exacerbate the cough reflex induced by tussive agents in guinea pigs. Disease progression in the lungs was characterized at days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after bleomycin administration. Inflammatory and fibrotic markers, as well as neurotrophin levels, were assessed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and/or lung tissue. Cough sensitivity to citric acid, capsaicin and allylisothiocyanate was evaluated in conscious animals at days 14 and 21 after bleomycin administration. Pulmonary lesions evolved from an early inflammatory phase (from day 1 to day 7) to a fibrotic stage (between days 14 and 28). Fibrosis was related to increased levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (day 21: saline, 0.26 ng/ml; bleomycin, 0.49 ng/ml). At day 14, we also observed increased cough reflexes to citric acid (163%), capsaicin (125%) and allylisothiocyanate (178%). Cough exacerbation persisted, but at a lower extent, by day 21 for capsaicin (100%) and allylisothiocyanate (54%). Moreover, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, suggested to induce nerve remodelling in chronic cough, were also enhanced (day 1: saline, 14.21 pg/ml; bleomycin, 30.09 pg/ml). In summary, our model of bleomycin-induced cough exacerbation may be a valuable tool to investigate cough hypersensitivity and develop antitussive therapies for fibrotic lung diseases.

  16. Lymphocyte infiltration and increased macrophage phagocytosis in the lungs of HNO sub 3 -exposed humans

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, S.; Roger, L.J.; Devlin, R.B.; Koren, H.S. )

    1991-03-11

    Nitric acid is a common air pollutant possibly associated with airway inflammation. Therefore the authors have exposed healthy, non-smoking volunteers, 18-35 yr of age, once to HNO{sub 3} and once to filtered air for 2 hr with 100 min of moderate exercise. Eighteen hr after exposure bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and the cells and fluid were analyzed for indicators of inflammation. Compared to air, the number of lymphocytes in lavage fluid was increased after HNO{sub 3}; macrophage and PMN counts were unchanged. In a phagocytosis assay, the number of macrophages ingesting unopsinized C. albicans increased from 12% (air to 33%) (HNO{sub 3}); the number ingesting opsonized yeast increased from 58% to 78%. Lavage fluid protein concentration was increased. These preliminary data suggest that HNO{sub 3} exposure results in permeability changes accompanied by lymphocyte infiltration and stimulation of macrophage phagocytosis in the lower airways. The lack of LDH and PMN increases in the lavage, under the conditions tested, suggests that this pollutant does not cause tissue damage in the airways as previously reported with O{sub 3}.

  17. Fluid mechanics revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, Howard

    2006-10-01

    Öttinger's recent nontraditional incorporation of fluctuations into the formulation of the friction matrix appearing in the phenomenological GENERIC theory of nonequilibrium irreversible processes is shown to furnish transport equations for single-component gases and liquids undergoing heat transfer which support the view that revisions to the Navier-Stokes-Fourier (N-S-F) momentum/energy equation set are necessary, as empirically proposed by the author on the basis of an experimentally supported theory of diffuse volume transport. The hypothesis that the conventional N-S-F equations prevail without modification only in the case of “incompressible” fluids, where the density ρ of the fluid is uniform throughout, serves to determine the new phenomenological parameter α‧ appearing in the GENERIC friction matrix. In the case of ideal gases the consequences of this constitutive hypothesis are shown to yield results identical to those derived theoretically by Öttinger on the basis of a “proper” coarse-graining of Boltzmann's kinetic equation. A major consequence of the present work is that the fluid's specific momentum density v is equal to its volume velocity vv, rather than to its mass velocity vm, contrary to current views dating back 250 years to Euler. In the case of rarefied gases the proposed modifications are also observed to agree with those resulting from Klimontovich's molecularly based, albeit ad hoc, self-diffusion addendum to Boltzmann's collision integral. Despite the differences in their respective physical models-molecular vs. phenomenological-the role played by Klimontovich's collisional addition to Boltzmann's equation in modifying the N-S-F equations is noted to constitute a molecular counterpart of Öttinger's phenomenological fluctuation addition to the GENERIC friction matrix. Together, these two theories collectively recognize the need to address multiple- rather than single- encounter collisions between a test molecule and its

  18. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    DOEpatents

    Fulton, John L.; Smith, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W.sub.o that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W.sub.o of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions.

  19. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    DOEpatents

    Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D.

    1993-11-30

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W[sub o] that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W[sub o] of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions. 27 figures.

  20. Plane waves in noncommutative fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, M. C. B.; Holender, L.; Santos, M. A.; Vancea, I. V.

    2013-08-01

    We study the dynamics of the noncommutative fluid in the Snyder space perturbatively at the first order in powers of the noncommutative parameter. The linearized noncommutative fluid dynamics is described by a system of coupled linear partial differential equations in which the variables are the fluid density and the fluid potentials. We show that these equations admit a set of solutions that are monochromatic plane waves for the fluid density and two of the potentials and a linear function for the third potential. The energy-momentum tensor of the plane waves is calculated.