Gerazounis, M; Athanassiadi, Kalliopi; Metaxas, E; Athanassiou, Maria; Kalantzi, Nikolitsa
A bronchobiliary fistula (BBF) is a rare complication of echinococcosis due to rupture of hydatid cysts located at the upper surface of the liver to the bronchial tree. We present our experience in treating this uncommon and dangerous entity. During the last 20 years, 21 patients, ten men and 11 women ranging in age from 26 to 83 years with a BBF were treated in our department. They presented dyspnea, biloptysis, cough or fever. Diagnostic imaging studies have been very helpful in identifying the communication and in delineating its location. The disease was limited to the liver in 11 cases, whereas in the rest ten cases, both liver and lung were involved. Right thoracotomy was the approach of choice. Our strategy consisted of adequate evacuation of the intrahepatic cysts, obliteration of the cyst space, freeing the adherent lung, dissection and closure of the BBF. Two deaths occurred due to anaphylactic shock and cardiac insufficiency. Follow up at 7-12 years did not reveal any recurrence. Although the incidence of echinococcosis has been decreased, the BBF still remains a serious complication with a high morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and management of septic associated complications are essential.
Pérez, Cinthia G; Reusmann, Aixa
Congenital tracheo-or-bronchobiliary fistula or congenital he-patopulmonary fistula is a rare malformation with high morbidity and mortality if the diagnosis is not made early. The tracheo-or-bronchobiliary fistula is a communication between the respiratory (trachea or bronchus) and biliary tract. To date, only 35 cases have been published worldwide. We report a case of a neonate with right pneumonia and bilious fluid in the endotracheal tube. Diagnosis was made using bronchoscopy with fluoroscopy. Videothoracoscopy was used to remove the bronchobiliary fistula. Subsequently, a left he-patectomy with Roux-en-Y biliary-digestive anastomosis was performed as bile ductus hypoplasia was present.
Prieto-Nieto, M. I. Perez-Robledo, J. P.; Alvarez-Luque, A. Suz, J. I. Acitores Torres, J. Novo
Bronchobiliary fistula is a rare and is an uncommon but severe complication of hydatid disease of the liver. Treatment has traditionally been surgical resection, but embolization and stent placement have been described. The invasive method seems to be a key component of patient treatment. We describe a case of a 58-year-old woman who, 25 years before, had undergone surgery for a hydatid cyst. A total cystectomy without previous puncture or parasite extraction was carried out. The lower aspect of the cyst was found to be completely perforated over the biliary duct. During the postoperative course, the patient had subphrenic right-sided pleural effusion and biliary fistula that subsided with medical treatment. Afterward, the patient came to the outpatient area of our hospital complaining of leakage of purulent exudate through the cutaneous opening, pain located on the right hypochondrium radiating to the right hemithorax, malaise, fever, chronic cough, and occasional vomiting of bile. Fistulography revealed an anfractuous cavity communicating with a residual cystic cavity on the right hepatic lobe. We observed communication with the intrahepatic canaliculi. Computed tomographic scan revealed a fistulous tract on the anterior liver border through the abdominal wall. There were no posttreatment complications. The patient is asymptomatic.
Günlemez, Ayla; Tugay, Melih; Elemen, Levent; Türker, Gülcan; Gürcan, Nagihan Inan; Demir, Hakan; Gürbüz, Yeşim; Hosten, Tulay
Congenital tracheobiliary and bronchobiliary fistulae are rare malformations in which patent communications exist between the respiratory system and biliary tract, respectively. We present a newborn who was admitted with respiratory distress and bilious tracheal discharge. Investigation revealed a bronchobiliary fistula originating from the left main bronchus, as well as biliary atresia. Excision of the bronchobiliary fistula was successful and the connection between biliary tract and gastrointestinal system was established by performance of a Roux-en-Y cholecysto-jejunostomy. Diagnostic tools, differential diagnosis, and surgical correction strategies are discussed.
Bhasin, Deepak K; Rana, Surinder S; Rawal, Pawan; Gupta, Rajesh; Wig, Jai Dev; Nagi, Birinder; Singh, Kartar
Bronchobiliary fistula is a rare condition that has been usually treated surgically. We report successful resolution of a rare case of combined bronchobiliary and biliocutaneous fistula by prolonged endoscopic transpapillary biliary drainage. The patient developed these fistulae following right hepatectomy for blunt trauma to the abdomen. Although endoscopic biliary drainage has been reported to be effective in healing of post-traumatic and post-surgical bile leaks, there are limited reports describing the efficacy of endoscopic drainage in complex biliary fistulas. This case report describes the successful closure of complex biliary fistula by prolonged endoscopic drainage.
Karabulut, Nevzat; Cakmak, Vefa; Kiter, Göksel
We report the utility of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) using gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) in the diagnosis of bronchobiliary fistula associated with liver hydatid cyst. Contrast-enhanced MRC clearly delineated the leakage of contrast agent from the biliary duct and its communication with the bronchial tree. Providing functional information about physiologic or pathologic biliary flow in addition to the display of biliary anatomy, contrast-enhanced MRC stands as a robust technique in confidently detecting bronchobiliary fistula and bile leaks.
Gandini, Roberto; Konda, Daniel Tisone, Giuseppe; Pipitone, Vincenzo; Anselmo, Alessandro; Simonetti, Giovanni
A 71-year-old man, who had undergone right hepatectomy extended to the caudate lobe with terminolateral Roux-en-Y left hepatojejunostomy for a Klatskin tumor, developed bilioptysis 3 weeks postoperatively due to bronchobiliary fistula. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography revealed a non-dilated biliary system with contrast medium extravasation to the right subphrenic space through a resected anomalous right posterior segmental duct. After initial unsuccessful internal-external biliary drainage, the fistula was sealed with a VIATORR covered self-expanding nitinol stent-graft placed with its distal uncovered region in the hepatojejunal anastomosis and the proximal ePTFE-lined region in the left hepatic duct. A 10-month follow-up revealed no recurrence of bilioptysis and confirmed the complete exclusion of the bronchobiliary fistula.
Mehrzad, Homoyoon; Aziz, Akhmid; Mangat, Kamarjit
Bronchobiliary fistula is a rare and challenging condition that most commonly presents worldwide following infection with hydatid cystic disease of the liver but is increasingly seen in cases of trauma involving the right upper quadrant. The most common presenting complaint is biliptysis. Treatment is initially aimed at decompressing the biliary tree which allows a considered approach for closure of the fistulous tract. Options range from conservative management to endoscopic and percutaneous approaches. Traditionally definitive treatment would have been surgical and may ultimately have resulted in hepatic and/or pulmonary segmentectomy. Current management strategies of this potentially serious condition are variable. We describe a particularly challenging case in which interventional embolisation with microcoils was used in an attempt to treat persistent post-traumatic bronchobiliary fistula in a tertiary centre. We describe this technique and hope that it is may be of useful reference for those contemplating a similar approach.
Stock, E; Vannucci, A; Doyle, M; Patterson, G A; Chapman, W; Kangrga, I
Herein, we report the case of an intraoperative diagnosis of bronchobiliary fistula during combined liver-kidney transplantation because of polycystic disease. The diagnosis necessitated changes in surgical and anesthesiologic management and in the overall medical decision-making process. Emergent isolation of the affected lung was instituted to mitigate a large air leak and ensure adequate respiratory exchange, and to enable surgical repair. The kidney transplantation procedure was delayed for a few hours, enabling hemodynamic and respiratory stabilization in the intensive care unit before conditions were deemed adequate to proceed. The posttransplantation course was complicated but eventually successful, and the patient recovered both liver and kidney function. At a later evaluation, we realized that diagnosis of bronchobiliary fistula could have been made preoperatively had the chest radiograph been interpreted correctly and had the clinicians involved had a higher degree of suspicion for this complication of polycystic liver disease. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liao, Guan-Qun; Wang, Hao; Hu, Qiu-Hui; Tai, Sheng
Bronchobiliary fistula (BBF) is a rare condition in which there is a nonnatural communication between the biliary tract and the bronchial trees. It is usually aroused by the complications of hepatic hydatidosis, hepatic amebic, biliary obstruction, trauma, neoplasm and hepatic abscess formation. In this paper, we described a patient suffering from BBF that is secondary to trauma or surgery. Especially, BBF was detected in the left lung. Finally, we managed this case successfully without an open surgery.
Katsinelos, Panagiotis; Paroutoglou, George; Chatzimavroudis, Grigoris; Beltsis, Athanasios; Mimidis, Kostas; Katsinelos, Taxiarchis; Pilpilidis, Ioannis; Papaziogas, Basilis
A bronchobiliary fistula (BBF) is an uncommon entity with bilioptysis being a pathognomonic sign. We describe the case of a 41-year-old man who had recurrent BBF, 6 months after resection of the anterior segment of the right lower pulmonary lobe and repair of a BBF due to hepatic hydatid disease. Magnetic resonance cholangiography revealed a communication between the biliary tree and the lower lobe of the right lung. Endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy and repeated insertion of large size biliary plastic stents led to a successful resolution of the symptoms and closure of the fistula.
Panda, Dipanjan; Aggarwal, Mayank; Yadav, Vikas; Kumar, Sachin; Mukund, Amar; Baghmar, Saphalta
We present a case report of broncho-biliary fistula that developed due to the blockage of biliary stent placed during the management of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET); diagnosed on high clinical suspicion, percutaneous cholangiogram and contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT); and successfully treated with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD).
ZENG, ZHAOLIN; CAI, MINGYUE; HUANG, WENSOU; HUANG, JINGJUN; CHEN, XIUZHEN; SHAN, HONG; ZHU, KANGSHUN
Bronchobiliary fistula (BBF) is a rare complication of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of hepatocellular carcinoma. The rupture of a biloma following RFA may result in the development of BBF, with their early detection and timely management important in the prevention of BBF. The current study presents a case of BBF, which developed at 17 months after radiofrequency ablation (RFA), due to biloma rupture in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite the percutaneous drainage of the biloma following BBF, the persistent fever did not resolve due to biliary infection. Finally, an extensive surgical intervention was performed. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans that had been performed following RFA were reviewed, and it was found that the biloma and increased bile leakage had presented prior to biloma rupture. For that reason, it is advised that patients who present with biloma following RFA should receive regular follow-up MRI scans. Biloma enlargement could be a predictor for the development of BBF; therefore, timely drainage of an enlarging biloma may be able to prevent this complication. PMID:27123093
A fistula is an abnormal connection between two parts inside of the body. Fistulas may develop between different organs, such as between ... two arteries. Some people are born with a fistula. Other common causes of fistulas include Complications from ...
Rowe, Kyle; Munguti, Cyrus; Nassif, Imad
Primary aortoenteric fistula is a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleed but can lead to significant mortality if the diagnosis is delayed. Aortitis, characterized by inflammation of the aortic wall, is a rare cause of aortoenteric fistula. We present a case report of a 72-year-old male patient with infectious aortoenteric fistula secondary to Streptococcus parasanguinis, along with a review of the literature. This case demonstrates the importance of early diagnosis and aggressive surgical treatment of aortoenteric fistulae and recognizing infectious aortitis as a potential etiology. PMID:28255476
Takeda, Makoto; Higashi, Yukihiro; Shoji, Tuyoshi; Hiraide, Takanori; Maruo, Hirotoshi
We report a case of necrotizing fasciitis in the loin of a 76-year old man with several coexisting or past health issues, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, alcohol-related liver cirrhosis, gastrectomy for gastric cancer, subarachnoid hemorrhage, normal pressure hydrocephalus, and cerebral infarction. Incision of the necrotizing fasciitis was successful, but it revealed an appendicocutaneous fistula; thus, we performed appendectomy and fistulectomy. We think that the necrotizing fasciitis was caused by appendicitis perforation involving the retroperitoneum, inducing the formation of an appendicocutaneous fistula. Necrotizing fasciitis and appendicocutaneous fistulae are rare complications of appendicitis. Moreover, to our knowledge, this is the first report of fluoroscopic examination demonstrating that a primary appendicocutaneous fistula had caused necrotizing fasciitis. Our search of the literature found 12 cases of necrotizing fasciitis caused by preoperative appendicitis. We discuss the characteristics and findings of these cases.
Mostafa, B E; El Fiky, L; Khafagy, A
Occult perilymph fistulas may be the cause of unexplained non-epidemic meningitis. To review the case reports of 5 patients (3 females and 2 males aged 4-56) presenting with unexplained meningitis. All had sensorineural hearing loss of variable duration. All patients were submitted to CT, MRI and MRI cisternography. All underwent exploratory tympanotomy to seal the fistula. In all patients the fistula could be located and sealed. All had no further attacks of meningitis and those who had serviceable hearing did not show any further deterioration. In any case of recurrent meningitis an occult perilymph leak should be sought. A high degree of suspicion should exist if there are auditory or vestibular symptoms. Detecting and sealing of the defect will protect the patient against further attacks and deterioration of hearing.
Duman, Levent; Savas, Cagri; Aktas, Aykut Recep; Akcam, Mustafa
Choledochoduodenal fistula (CDF) is an unusual clinical entity and a diagnostic challenge in children. We herein present CDF as an unusual cause of recurrent cholangitis in a 6-year-old child. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest patient reported until date. In this paper, we also highlight possible etiologic factors, presenting symptoms, diagnostic methods, and treatment modalities of CDF. PMID:25197198
Chan, Fook-How; Shen, Chao-Yu; Liu, Jung-Tung; Li, Cho-Shun
Summary A 34-year-old woman presented with a history of persisting headache for years, and a newly developed dizziness, left facial palsy and right hemiparesis two days prior to this admission. Initial computed tomographic angiography of the head demonstrated an area of increased density in the left middle and posterior fossae. Multiple aneurysmally dilated venous ectasias with contrast enhancement at the left pre-pontine cistern causing a massive mass effect to the brainstem were also noted, suggesting a huge vascular abnormality. Digital subtraction angiography revealed an abnormal vascular lesion surrounding the brainstem, which indicated a left direct carotid-cavernous fistula with posterior drainage. As her consciousness deteriorated the next day, a follow-up computed tomography scan was done which revealed a pontine hemorrhage. Subsequently, endovascular closure of the fistula with sacrifice of the left ICA was performed, which successfully eliminated the imaging abnormalities. PMID:25207913
De Prisco G, Celinski S, and Spak CW. Abdominal abscesses and gastrointestinal fistulas. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 9th ed. Philadelphia, ...
Demartini Jr., Zeferino; Liebert, Fernando; Gatto, Luana Antunes Maranha; Jung, Thiago Simiano; Rocha Jr., Carlos; Santos, Alex Marques Borges; Koppe, Gelson Luis
Unilateral carotid cavernous fistula presents with ipsilateral ocular findings. Bilateral presentation is only seen in bilateral fistulas, usually associated with indirect (dural) carotid cavernous fistulas. Direct carotid cavernous fistulas are an abnormal communication between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. They typically begin with a traumatic disruption in the artery wall into the cavernous sinus, presenting with a classic triad of unilateral pulsatile exophthalmos, cranial bruit and episcleral venous engorgement. We report the case of a 38-year-old male with traumatic right carotid cavernous sinus fistula and bilateral ocular presentation successfully treated by interventional neuroradiology. PMID:26955353
Hong, Tao; Xu, Xie-Qun; He, Xiao-Dong; Qu, Qiang; Li, Bing-Lu; Zheng, Chao-Ji
The wide use of surgical endoclips in laparoscopic surgery has led to a variety of complications. Post-cholecystectomy endoclips migrating into the common bile duct after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is rare. A migrated endoclip can cause obstruction, serve as a nidus for stone formation, and cause cholangitis. While the exact pathogenesis is still unknown, it is probably related to improper clip application, subclinical bile leak, inflammation, and subsequent necrosis, allowing the clips to erode directly into the common bile duct. We present a case of endoclip migrating into the common bile duct and duodenum, resulting in choledochoduodenal fistula after laparoscopic cholecystectomy and a successful reconstruction of the biliary tract by a hepaticojejunostomy with a Roux-en-Y procedure. This case shows that surgical endoclips can penetrate into the intact bile duct wall through serial maceration, and it is believed that careful application of clips may be the only way to prevent their migration after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:24782639
Wang, Fangyuan; Wu, Nan; Hou, Zhaohui; Liu, Jun; Shen, Weidong; Han, Weiju; Yang, Shiming
To investigate the clinical features of labyrinthine fistula and obtain the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of different types of fistula. A retrospective analysis of 42 cases (43 ears) with labyrinthine fistula in our hospital from January 2007 to November 2014 was conducted. Data of preoperative clinical manifestation, auditory function, CT image, operative findings, treatment and postoperative recovery were collected and statistically analysed. Thirty-nine cases (40 ears) of the 42 cases (43 ears) which were diagnosed as labyrinthine fistula according to operative findings occurred in the lateral semicircular canal, 1 case occurred in the posterior semicircular canal, 1 case occurred in the superior semicircular canal, and 1 case occurred both in lateral and posterior semicircular canal. Before operation, 24 ears (55.8% ) experienced vertigo and 14 ears (32.6%) showed impaired bone conduction hearing threshold. According to Dornhoffer classification standard, 22 cases (23 ears) were diagnosed as type I fistula, 9 cases as type II fistula and 11 cases as type III fistula. There was no statistical difference among the 3 groups on type of hearing loss, vertigo, CT, facial nerve canal damage before operation and bone conduction hearing threshold, vertigo after operation. An accurate diagnosis of labyrinthine fistula relies on the operative findings rather than preoperative clinical manifestation, auditory function or CT The surgical intervention should be individualized. There is no significant difference on postoperative recovery among different types of labyrinthine fistula.
Richards, Helen; van Bommel, Annelotte; Clark, Victoria; Richard, Bruce
To investigate a possible correlation between fistula and dental decay in children at 5 years of age from a single-surgeon series of cleft palate repairs. Retrospective review of data over a 9-year period between 2003 and 2011 of cleft palate repairs performed by the senior author at Birmingham Children's Hospital, U.K. Data collected on age, sex, age at repair, presence of fistula, and number of decayed, missing, or filled primary teeth (i.e., decayed, missing, and filled teeth score) at age 5 years. The overall fistula rate for this patient population was 24.1%. Fistulae were more common in the more severe forms of cleft type, as was frequency of dental decay. Comparison of fistula versus nonfistula groups showed a higher rate of dental decay (40%) in the fistula group, compared with only 20% in the nonfistula group (P = .036). A positive association was established between dental decay and the presence of a fistula. Although not proven as causative, possible reasons for this include nasal mucus retaining sugary food in the mouth and an overall prolonged food-clearance time. The known association between severity of cleft and an increased likelihood of a fistula and severity of cleft and increased dental decay were again demonstrated but were not found to be the exclusive explanation for the new finding of an association between fistulae and higher dental decay rates.
Ha, Gi Won; Lee, Min Ro; Kim, Jong Hun
Cholecystocolic fistula secondary to gallbladder carcinoma is extremely rare and has been reported in very few studies. Most cholecystocolic fistulae are late complications of gallstone disease, but can also develop following carcinoma of the gallbladder when the necrotic tumor penetrates into the adjacent colon. Although no currently available imaging technique has shown great accuracy in recognizing cholecystocolic fistula, abdominopelvic computed tomography may show fistulous communication and anatomical details. Herein we report an unusual case of cholecystocolic fistula caused by gallbladder carcinoma, which was preoperatively misdiagnosed as hepatic flexure colon carcinoma.
Macedo, Francisco Igor B; Casillas, Victor J; Davis, James S; Levi, Joe U; Sleeman, Danny
Biliary-colonic fistula is a rare complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We present a case of post-cholecystectomy iatrogenic biliary injury that resulted in a fistula between the common hepatic duct and large bowel. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography provided good visualization of injury even with concurrent normal level of alkaline phosphatase. Radiologic findings and surgical management of this condition are discussed in detail.
Palou, J; Mir y Mir, L
A case of angioma by malignant AV fistula (described by F. Martorell in 1970) is reported. Such kind of fistulas have usually a lethal course. The case reported underwent a surgical correction, and after a following of 10 years, no major complications have been reported.
Colouterine fistula is an extremely rare condition because the uterus is a thick, muscular organ. Here, we present a case of a colouterine fistula secondary to colonic diverticulitis. An 81-year-old woman was referred to the emergency department with abdominal pain and vaginal discharge. Computed tomography showed a myometrial abscess cavity in the uterus adherent to the thick sigmoid wall. Upon contrast injection via the cervical os for fistulography, we observed spillage of the contrast into the sigmoid colon via the uterine fundus. Inflammatory adhesion of the distal sigmoid colon to the posterior wall of the uterus was found during surgery. The colon was dissected off the uterus. Resection of the sigmoid colon, primary anastomosis, and repair of the fistula tract of the uterus were performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. This case represents an unusual type of diverticulitis complication and illustrates diagnostic procedures and surgical management for a colouterine fistula. PMID:23346512
Najih, Mohammed; Laraqui, Hicham; Njoumi, Nouredine; Mouhafid, Faycel; Moujahid, Mountassir; Ehirchiou, Abdelkader; Zentar, Aziz
Post-appendectomy faecal fistula is a rare surgical complication, associated with significant morbidity. Taenia saginata infestation is one of the most common cestode infestation in the gastrointestinal tract. It makes many complications as obstruction, perforation, anastomotic leakage or appendicular stump dehiscence. The objective of our study is to report a very rare case of post appendectomy faecal fistula caused by taenia saginata infestation and was successfully treated conservatively. PMID:28292157
Kahlke, Volker; Brossmann, Joachim; Klomp, Hans-Juergen
A 55-year-old women developed an aortointestinal fistula between the bifurcation of the aorta and the distal ileum following implantation of multiple endovascular stents into both common iliac arteries for treatment of aortoiliac occlusive disease. Ten months before the acute onset of the gastrointestinal hemorrhage two balloon-expandable steel stents had been implanted into both common iliac arteries. Due to restenosis and recurrent intermittent claudication, three balloon-expandable covered stents were implanted 4 months later on reintervention. The patient presented with abdominal pain and melena, and fell into hemorrhagic shock with signs of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. After transfer to our hospital, she again developed hemorrhagic shock with massive upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding and died during emergency laparotomy. The development of aortoenteric fistulas following endovascular surgery/stent implantation is very rare and has to be considered in cases of acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage.
... Other causes include: Blockage in the intestine Infection Crohn disease Radiation to the abdomen (most often given as ... medicines if the fistula is a result of Crohn disease Surgery to remove the fistula and part of ...
Foreign body (FB) ingestion is a common problem in children. Prolonged impaction of FB in esophagus may result in tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF). A 6-year-old girl presented with progressive dysphagia and recurrent chest infections. No history of FB ingestion was given by parents. Further investigations revealed FB (spool) in cervical esophagus. Patient was successfully managed by surgery through trans-cervical approach. PMID:28164003
Chan, Esther Ern-Hwei
Hydrothorax secondary to a pancreaticopleural fistula (PPF) is a rare complication of acute pancreatitis. In patients with a history of pancreatitis, diagnosis is made by detection of amylase in the pleural exudate. Imaging, particularly magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, aids in the detection of pancreatic ductal disruption. Management includes thoracocentesis and pancreatic duct drainage or pancreatic resection procedures. We present a case of massive right hydrothorax secondary to a PPF due to recurrent acute pancreatitis. Due to respiratory failure, urgent thoracocentesis was done. Distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy and cholecystectomy was performed. The patient remains well at one-year follow-up. PMID:27747128
Wong, Terry; Berry, Philip
Cholecystocolonic fistulas (CCF) due to colonic diverticulosis are a rare cause of liver abscesses. It is even rarer to simultaneously have choledocholithiasis, another cause for liver abscesses. In this case report, we found both pathologies and emphasise the need to study cholangiograms carefully so as not to miss alternative diagnoses. PMID:27994893
Moretti, F; Uberti-Foppa, C; Quiros-Roldan, E; Fanti, L; Lillo, F; Lazzarin, A
Human herpesvirus oesophagitis in human immunodeficiency virus positive patients is caused by cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus; no cases of oesophagitis and oesophagobrochial fistula as a result of varicella zoster virus (VZV) have been reported to date. This report describes the case of a patient with a 2–3 mm deep oesophageal ulcer whose viral culture was positive for VZV. The patient was treated with acyclovir with resolution of the symptomatology. After the end of the induction treatment, because of the onset of fever and fits of coughing during eating, the patient underwent oesophagography, which showed an ulcer with an oesophagobronchial fistula in the middle and lower third of the oesophagus. This case report stresses the role of VZV infection as a possible cause of oesophagobronchial fistula, a rare but benign condition in patients with AIDS. PMID:11986352
Copelan, Alexander; Chehab, Monzer; Cash, Charles; Korman, Howard; Dixit, Purushottam
Ureteroarterial fistula is a rare, potentially life-threatening cause of hematuria characterized by an abnormal channel between a ureter and artery. The rarity of this condition, complexity of predisposing risk factors and intermittence of symptoms may delay or obscure its diagnosis. With a high index of suspicion and careful angiographic evaluation, embarking on this condition is not only possible but sets the stage for curative intervention. We report a case of a ureteroarterial fistula presenting with intermittent hematuria, successfully diagnosed at angiography and managed with endovascular stent graft placement. PMID:25426238
Muthialu, Nagarajan; Joshi, Shreedhar; Hoskote, Aparna; Bhole, Vinay
A fistula between the right pulmonary artery and the left atrium is a very rare cause of central cyanosis. A clinical diagnosis is often made by first excluding other common causes and then performing diagnostic catheterization. Surgical closure offers a definitive cure for this rare congenital anomaly. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
Hsiao, I-Han; Lee, Han-Chung; Yen, Pao-Sheng; Cho, Der-Yang
Perimedullary arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is rare. There are three subtypes, and the treatment strategies for each are different. Subtype B (multiple fistulas) can be treated by either embolization or surgery. On the basis of a case from our treatment experience, we propose a method for achieving optimal outcome while minimizing nerve injury. A 51-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with acute myelopathy caused by a perimedullary AVF. Initially, we treated her by embolization using the chemical agent Onyx. Her symptoms improved immediately but gradually returned beginning 1 week later. Two months later, the symptoms had returned to pretreatment status, so we removed the fistulas surgically. Severe adhesions between nerve and occult venous varices were noted during the operation. Afterward, the patient's symptoms improved significantly. Histopathological sections showed an inflammatory reaction around the varices. We initially considered several possible reasons for the return of symptoms: (a) Hypoperfusion of the spinal cord; (b) mass effect of the occult vein varices; (c) residual AVF or vascular remodeling resulting in recurrent cord hypertension; (d) Onyx-induced perivascular inflammation resulting in nerves adhering to each other and to occult venous varices. Clinical, surgical, and pathological findings ruled out the first three, leaving Onyx-induced perivascular inflammation as the probable reason. Given our treatment experience and the pros and cons of the two methods, we propose that initial embolization followed by surgery after 5 days to remove occult venous varices is the ideal strategy for treating perimedullary AVF of subtype B.
Introduction The intrauterine device is a form of contraception with a long duration of action and few systemic side effects. Migration into the abdominal cavity may occur early or years after insertion giving rise to bowel obstruction, perforation, ischemia, mesenteric injury, strictures or fistulae. Colocolic fistula formation is a rare but serious complication of intrauterine device migration, which may lead to difficulties in diagnosis and device retrieval. Case presentation We report the case of a 29-year-old Sri Lankan woman who became pregnant 5 years after intrauterine device insertion. The device could not be located during pregnancy. She was asymptomatic and defaulted follow up during the antenatal period. She had an uncomplicated vaginal delivery. A subsequent laparotomy for device retrieval failed due to technical difficulties. A repeat laparotomy identified a sigmoid colocolic fistula with adhesions to the fallopian tube. The device was removed and colonic defects primarily closed following which the patient made an uneventful recovery. Conclusions All translocated intrauterine devices should be removed regardless of type and location. This case illustrates that they may cause complex bowel lesions leading to serious technical difficulties during retrieval. With the increasing use of minimally invasive approaches for intrauterine device retrieval, a low threshold for open surgery in complicated cases is advocated. PMID:24594141
Ditisheim, Saskia; Girardin, Marc; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Hadengue, Antoine; Frossard, Jean Louis
Primary aortodigestive fistulas (PAFs) are a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding, with an incidence of 0.04-0.07% in autopsy series. The diagnosis of PAF is difficult and should be considered in patients with gastrointestinal hemorrhage of obscure origin. Because of its high mortality rate, clinical recognition of prodromal symptoms for early diagnosis is crucial for effective treatment. We report on the case of a 79-year-old patient with a PAF who was admitted for hematochezia and melena. The PAF was suspected during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and confirmed by CT angiography. PMID:21960944
Aeron, Ruchir; Goel, Sunny; Goel, Apul; Kumar, Vikas
Urinothorax, an unusual and rare cause of pleural effusion, is usually secondary to urinary obstruction and abdominal trauma. We describe an uncommon case of left-sided urinothorax in a 35-year-old man with diabetes and hypothyroidism associated with an autoimmune disorder without obvious obstructive uropathy. Workup revealed pancytopenia, mild proteinuria, positive anti-nuclear and anti-dsDNA antibodies suggestive of probable systemic lupus erythematosus. Contrast-enhanced CT-chest and abdomen showed hepatosplenomegaly with bilateral renal abscesses and a fistulous connection between left superior calyx and left the pleural cavity. Patient was initially managed by intravenous antibiotics, intercostal tube drainage and ipsilateral double-J stent placement. The definitive management in the form of closure of nephropleural fistula was achieved with sclerotherapy using 0.1% povidone-iodine instillation, while oral steroids were started for the probable autoimmune disorder. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of spontaneous non-obstructive nephropleural fistula associated with an autoimmune disorder, managed by minimally invasive methods. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Machado-Atías, I; Fornés, O; González-Bello, R; Machado-Hernández, I
We present a case of a 46-year-old man with a pulsatile mass in the left inferior abdominal quadrant that irradiated a continuous murmur extending to the left lumbar region. Despite an 8-year history of cardiomegaly, he appeared to be asymptomatic except for the mass and could recollect no traumatic injury or surgery that might have caused it. Near the vertebral column, we found a small scar, the result of spinal disk surgery 11 years before. Following chest radiography and electrocardiography, we located the suspected arteriovenous fistula by selective angiography of the aorta and its branches: a communication of the left iliac artery with the left iliac vein had resulted in a very large left-to-right shunt and a severely dilated inferior vena cava. We then divided and isolated the arterial segment containing the fistula, but left this segment in continuity with the left iliac vein by over-sewing both ends. To avoid injury to surrounding structures, dissection was limited to the area of maximal thrill. Hemodynamic improvement was immediate, and the postoperative course was uneventful. At the present time, almost 3 years postoperatively, the patient is asymptomatic. Images PMID:8508067
Duque, Juan C; Tabbara, Marwan; Martinez, Laisel; Cardona, Jose; Vazquez-Padron, Roberto I; Salman, Loay H
The arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the preferred hemodialysis access type because it has better patency rates and fewer complications than other access types. However, primary failure remains a common problem impeding AVF maturation and adding to patients' morbidity and mortality. Juxta-anastomotic (or inflow) stenosis is the most common reason leading to primary failure, and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty continues to be the gold-standard treatment with excellent success rates. Intimal hyperplasia (IH) has been traditionally blamed as the main pathophysiologic culprit, but new evidence raises doubts regarding the contribution of IH alone to primary failure. We report a 64-year-old man with a 2-stage brachiobasilic AVF that was complicated by failure 4 months after creation. An angiogram showed multiple juxta-anastomotic and midfistula stenotic lesions. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty was successful in assisting maturation and subsequently cannulating the AVF for hemodialysis treatment. We failed to identify the underlying cause of stenosis because biopsy specimens from fistula tissue obtained at the time of transposition revealed no occlusive IH. This case emphasizes the need for additional research on factors contributing to AVF failure besides IH and highlights the need for more therapeutic options to reduce AVF failure rate. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Choi, Chang Woo; Lim, Jae Woong; Her, Keun
An aortoesophageal fistula (AEF) is an extremely rare, potentially fatal condition, and aortic surgery is usually performed together with extracorporeal circulation. However, this surgical method has a high rate of surgical complications and mortality. This report describes an AEF caused by tuberculous esophagitis that was treated successfully using a two-stage operation. A 52-yr-old man was admitted to the hospital with severe hematemesis and syncope. Based on the computed tomography and diagnostic endoscopic findings, he was diagnosed with an AEF and initially underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair. Esophageal reconstruction was performed after controlling the mediastinal inflammation. The patient suffered postoperative anastomotic leakage, which was treated by an endoscopic procedure, and the patient was discharged without any further problems. The patient received 9 months of anti-tuberculosis treatment after he was diagnosed with histologically confirmed tuberculous esophagitis; subsequently, he was followed as an outpatient and has had no recurrence of the tuberculosis or any further issues. PMID:26539019
Ito, Ai; Ii, Yuichiro; Higashigawa, Takatoshi; Murashima, Shuichi; Tomimoto, Hidekazu
We report a case of spectacular shrinking deficit caused by paradoxical cerebral embolism through pulmonary arteriovenous fistula (AVF). A 79-year-old female suddenly developed right hemiplegia, paresthesia, and speech disturbance symptoms that were improved within 20 min, indicating a diagnosis of spectacular shrinking deficit. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed acute cerebral infarcts in the left parietal cortex of the left middle cerebral arterial territory. A contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography scan revealed a pulmonary AVF in the middle lobe of the right lung. The patient had deep venous thrombosis in her left lower leg. She had no clinical signs of telangiectasia, did not exhibit recurrent epistaxis, and had no family history of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Therefore, she was diagnosed with paradoxical cerebral embolism secondary to the pulmonary AVF without HHT. Pulmonary AVF should be considered in patients with cerebral embolism, even when presenting with spectacular shrinking deficit.
Abtar, Houssam Khodor; Mneimneh, Mostapha; Hammoud, Mazen M; Zaaroura, Ahmed; Papas, Yasmina S
Stone formation within the intestinal lumen is called enterolith. This stone can encroach into the lumen causing obstruction and surgical emergency. Jejunal obstruction by an enterolith is a very rare entity and often missed preoperatively. To our knowledge, most cases of jejunal obstruction, secondary to stone, were associated with biliary disease (cholecystoenteric fistula), bezoar, jejunal diverticulosis, or foreign body. Hereby we present a rare case report of small bowel obstruction in an elderly man who was diagnosed lately to have primary proximal jejunal obstruction by an enterolith without evidence of a cholecystoenteric fistula or jejunal diverticulosis. This patient underwent laparotomy, enterotomy with stone extraction, and subsequent primary repair of the bowel.
Mneimneh, Mostapha; Hammoud, Mazen M.; Zaaroura, Ahmed; Papas, Yasmina S.
Stone formation within the intestinal lumen is called enterolith. This stone can encroach into the lumen causing obstruction and surgical emergency. Jejunal obstruction by an enterolith is a very rare entity and often missed preoperatively. To our knowledge, most cases of jejunal obstruction, secondary to stone, were associated with biliary disease (cholecystoenteric fistula), bezoar, jejunal diverticulosis, or foreign body. Hereby we present a rare case report of small bowel obstruction in an elderly man who was diagnosed lately to have primary proximal jejunal obstruction by an enterolith without evidence of a cholecystoenteric fistula or jejunal diverticulosis. This patient underwent laparotomy, enterotomy with stone extraction, and subsequent primary repair of the bowel. PMID:27803836
Kelly, Stephen L; Peters, Paul; Ogg, Murray J; Li, Alan; Smithers, Bernard M
We report a case of aortoesophageal fistula (AEF) caused by a fish bone that had a successful outcome. Aortoesophageal fistula is a rare complication of foreign body ingestion from which few patients survive. Over one hundred cases of AEF secondary to foreign body ingestion have been documented but only seven, including our case, have survived over 12 months. Treatment involved stabilising the patient with a Sengstaken-Blakemore tube and insertion of a thoracic aortic endovascular stent-graft. Unfortunately the stent became infected and definitive open surgical repair involved removing the stent, replacing the aorta with a homograft and coverage with a left trapezius flap while under deep hypothermic arrest.
Takahashi, Rina; Ichikawa, Ryosuke; Ito, Singo; Mizukoshi, Kosuke; Ishiyama, Shun; Sgimoto, Kiichi; Kojima, Yutaka; Goto, Michitoshi; Tomiki, Yuichi; Yao, Takashi; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro
This case involved an 80-year-old man who was seen for melena. Further testing revealed a tubular adenocarcinoma 50 mm in size in the rectum. In addition, an anal fistula was noted behind the anus along with induration. A biopsy of tissue from the external (secondary) opening of the fistula also revealed adenocarcinoma. Nodules suspected of being metastases were noted in both lung fields. The patient was diagnosed with rectal cancer, a cancer arising from an anal fistula, and a metastatic pulmonary tumor, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy was begun. A laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection was performed 34 days after 6 cycles of mFOLFOX-6 therapy. Based on pathology, the rectal cancer was diagnosed as moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, and this adenocarcinoma had lymph node metastasis (yp T3N2aM1b). There was no communication between the rectal lesion and the anal fistula, and a moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma resembling the rectal lesion was noted in the anal fistula. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that both the rectal lesion and anal fistula were cytokeratin 7 (CK7) (-) and cytokeratin 20 (CK20) (+), and the patient's condition was diagnosed as implantation of rectal cancer in an anal fistula.In instances where an anal fistula develops in colon cancer, cancer implantation in that fistula must also be taken into account, and further testing should be performed prior to surgery.
Moorthy, H. Krishna; Pillai, Biju S.
Prostatic abscess rarely follows acute prostatitis and can sometimes lead to a fistula by breaking into the prostatic urethra, peri-rectal tissues, the perineum, or the rectum. We report a case of a prostatic abscess tracking into the bulbar urethra after a transurethral resection of the prostate. This created a fistula, mimicking a urethral duplication and leading to urinary incontinence. PMID:25553167
de Toledo, Luís Gustavo Morato; Santos, Victor Espinheira; Maron, Paulo Eduardo Gourlat; Vedovato, Bruno César; Fucs, Moacyr; Perez, Marjo Deninson Cardenuto
ABSTRACT Vesicovaginal fistula is an abnormal communication between the bladder and vagina and represents the most frequent type of fistula in the urinary tract. The most common cause in Brazil is iatrogenic fistula, secondary to histerectomia. Classically these women present continuous urinary leakage from the vagina and absence of micturition, with strong negative impact on their quality of life. We present a case of totally continent vesicovaginal fistula, with a follow-up of 11 years with no complications. PMID:23579756
Agut, Amalia; Carrillo, Juana D; Anson, Agustina; Belda, Eliseo; Soler, Marta
A young intact female dog was presented with urinary incontinence. Abdominal ultrasound revealed the presence of hyperechoic linear structures within the cranial vagina suggestive of foreign material. A computed tomography (CT) retrograde vaginourethrogram demonstrated the presence of a fistulous tract between the urethra and vagina. A presumptive diagnosis of urethrovaginal fistula due to migration of foreign material was made. The grass awn was removed with vaginoscopic-guided retrieval. Fourteen days later, surgical repair of the fistula and an ovariohysterectomy were done. This case report emphasizes the usefulness of CT for diagnosis and precise anatomical localization of genitourinary tract fistulas. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Radiology.
Kim, Kun Il; Lee, Won Yong; Ko, Ho Hyun; Kim, Hyoung Soo; Lee, Hee Sung
Myocardial infarction (MI) secondary to coronary artery fistula and the subsequent occlusion of the distal right coronary artery (RCA) after blunt chest trauma is a rare entity. Here, we describe a case of coronary artery fistula and occlusion with an inferior MI that occurred following blunt chest trauma. At the initial visit to the emergency room after a car accident, this patient had been undiagnosed with acute myocardial infarction, readmitted five months after ischemic insult, and revealed to have experienced MI due to RCA-right atrial fistula and occlusion of the distal RCA. He underwent coronary surgery and recovered without complications. PMID:25207252
Yamazaki, Tomoo; Ochi, Yasuhide; Tanaka, Naoki; Watanabe, Takayuki; Iwaya, Yugo; Seki, Ayako; Hara, Etsuo; Tanaka, Eiji; Watanabe, Tomoharu; Imai, Shun; Hasebe, Osamu
An 86-year-old man with a long-term habit of ethanol consumption was admitted due to massive transudate ascites and leg edema. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a dilated main pancreatic duct and atrophied pancreatic parenchyma, leading to the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis. Moreover, the portal vein was enhanced in the early arterial phase, which indicated the presence of an arterioportal fistula. The fistula was located between the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery and the portal vein near a pancreatic retention cyst. Transarterial coil embolization dramatically improved the ascites. Arterioportal fistula and ensuing ascites should be recognized as a complication of chronic pancreatitis.
Takao, Hidemasa Doi, Ippei; Makita, Kohzoh; Watanabe, Toshiaki
Arteriobiliary fistula is a rare complication of hepatic intra-arterial chemotherapy. We report successful coil embolization of an arteriobiliary fistula. An 80-year-old woman underwent percutaneous placement of an indwelling catheter into the replaced right hepatic artery for intra-arterial chemotherapy of liver metastases. Coil embolization of the left hepatic artery was not performed. The patient complained of abdominal pain during intra-arterial chemotherapy. Angiography revealed a fistula between the replaced right hepatic artery and the common bile duct. The fistula was successfully treated by coil embolization via the indwelling catheter, and the indwelling catheter was removed. Although such complications usually herald the termination of intra-arterial chemotherapy, the patient underwent percutaneous implantation of a new catheter-port system, and intra-arterial chemotherapy was restarted.
Quinn, Robert R; Oliver, Matthew J; Devoe, Daniel; Poinen, Krishnan; Kabani, Rameez; Kamar, Fareed; Mysore, Priyanka; Lewin, Adriane M; Hiremath, Swapnil; MacRae, Jennifer; James, Matthew T; Miller, Lisa; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Moist, Louise M; Garg, Amit X; Chowdhury, Tanvir T; Ravani, Pietro
Whether the lower risk of mortality associated with arteriovenous fistula use in hemodialysis patients is due to the avoidance of catheters or if healthier patients are simply more likely to have fistulas placed is unknown. To provide clarification, we determined the proportion of access-related deaths in a retrospective cohort study of patients aged ≥18 years who initiated hemodialysis between 2004 and 2012 at five Canadian dialysis programs. A total of 3168 patients initiated dialysis at the participating centers; 2300 met our inclusion criteria. Two investigators independently adjudicated cause of death using explicit criteria and determined whether a death was access-related. We observed significantly lower mortality in individuals who underwent a predialysis fistula attempt than in those without a predialysis fistula attempt in patients aged <65 years (hazard ratio [HR], 0.49; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.29 to 0.82) and in the first 2 years of follow-up in those aged ≥65 years (HR0-24 months, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.84; HR24+ months, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.25 to 2.67). Sudden deaths that occurred out of hospital accounted for most of the deaths, followed by deaths due to cardiovascular disease and infectious complications. We found only 2.3% of deaths to be access-related. In conclusion, predialysis fistula attempt may associate with a lower risk of mortality. However, the excess mortality observed in patients treated with catheters does not appear to be due to direct, access-related complications but is likely the result of residual confounding, unmeasured comorbidity, or treatment selection bias.
Shimizu, Yuki; Imaizumi, Hiroshi; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Okuwaki, Kosuke; Miyazawa, Shiro; Iwai, Tomohisa; Takezawa, Miyoko; Kida, Mitsuhiro; Suzuki, Erina; Saegusa, Makoto; Koizumi, Wasaburo
We herein report the first case of a pancreatic fistula extending into the thigh caused by the rupture of an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas. An 80-year-old man was suspected to have necrotizing fasciitis because of right femoral pain. Computed tomography showed fluid retention from the pancreatic head to the right iliopsoas muscle and an IPMN at the pancreatic head. The findings of endoscopic retrograde pancreatography led to the suspicion of a minor leak and a pancreatic stent was placed. The patient died due to an uncontrollable infection. A pathological autopsy showed a pancreatic fistula extending into the thigh that had been caused by the rupture of the IPMN.
Shimizu, Yuki; Imaizumi, Hiroshi; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Okuwaki, Kosuke; Miyazawa, Shiro; Iwai, Tomohisa; Takezawa, Miyoko; Kida, Mitsuhiro; Suzuki, Erina; Saegusa, Makoto; Koizumi, Wasaburo
We herein report the first case of a pancreatic fistula extending into the thigh caused by the rupture of an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas. An 80-year-old man was suspected to have necrotizing fasciitis because of right femoral pain. Computed tomography showed fluid retention from the pancreatic head to the right iliopsoas muscle and an IPMN at the pancreatic head. The findings of endoscopic retrograde pancreatography led to the suspicion of a minor leak and a pancreatic stent was placed. The patient died due to an uncontrollable infection. A pathological autopsy showed a pancreatic fistula extending into the thigh that had been caused by the rupture of the IPMN. PMID:28154275
Lee, Kanglok; Ko, Jun Kwon; Park, Jaekeun; Yu, Mi Yeon; Oh, Chang Kyo; Hong, Seung Pyo; Kim, Yeonjae; Lim, Younghyo; Kim, Hyuck
Purulent pericarditis is a rare condition with a high mortality rate. We report a case of purulent pericarditis subsequently caused by Candida parapsilosis, Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus, Streptococcus anginosus, Staphylococcus aureus, Prevotella oralis, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a previously healthy 17-year-old boy with mediastinal tuberculous lymphadenitis. The probable route of infection was a bronchomediastinal lymph node-pericardial fistula. The patient improved with antibiotic, antifungal, and antituberculous medication in addition to pericardiectomy. PMID:26788411
Rupa, Vedantam; Agarwal, Indira; Rajshekhar, Vedantam
To study the steps involved in definitive evaluation and successful management of patients with congenital perilymph fistula presenting with recurrent meningitis. Case series with chart review. Tertiary care center. The case records of 11 patients (12 ears) treated for congenital perilymph fistula presenting with recurrent meningitis were reviewed to ascertain their clinical, radiological, and intraoperative features and outcome following surgery. Most patients presented after at least 3 episodes of meningitis (range, 2-10 episodes). Ipsilateral hearing loss was present in 9 of 12 ears, with normal hearing in 3 patients. High-resolution computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging scanning of the temporal bone contributed to the diagnosis in 75% of cases but was normal in 3 cases (25%). Oval window and round window defects were the most common (66.7% and 63.6%, respectively). Four ears (33.3%) had more than 1 defect. The unusual presentations included 2 patients who presented in adulthood, a patient with a defect in the medial wall of the attic, and 3 patients with normal radiological findings. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 11 years (median, 2 years). There were 2 failures following simple fistula closure with cessation of symptoms after vestibular obliteration. No patient was readmitted with recurrent meningitis after definitive surgery. Up to 25% of patients with recurrent meningitis secondary to congenital perilymph fistula may have normal audiological and radiological assessment necessitating exploratory tympanotomy. Vestibular obliteration, rather than simple fistula closure, prevents recurrence.
... cause. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This test creates images of soft tissues in your body. MRI can show the location of a fistula, whether other pelvic organs are involved or whether you have a tumor. ... waves to produce a video image of your anus and rectum. Your doctor inserts ...
... to the head or in some cases a "whiplash" injury. Other common causes include ear trauma, objects perforating the eardrum, or “ear block” on descent of an airplane or SCUBA diving. Fistulas may also develop after rapid increases in intracranial pressure, such as may ...
Cognard, C.; Casasco, A.; Toevi, M.; Houdart, E.; Chiras, J.; Merland, J.
OBJECTIVES—A retrospective study was carried out on 13 patients with intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) who presented with isolated or associated signs of intracranial hypertension. METHODS—Nine patients presented with symptoms of intracranial hypertension at the time of diagnosis. Ocular fundoscopy available in 12 patients showed bilateral papilloedema in eight and optic disk atrophy in four. Clinical evolution was particularly noticeable in five patients because of chronic (two patients) or acute (after lumbar shunting or puncture: three patients, one death) tonsillar herniation. RESULTS—Two patients had a type I fistula (drainage into a sinus, with a normal antegrade flow direction). The remaining 11 had type II fistulas (drainage into a sinus, with abnormal retrograde venous drainage into sinuses or cortical veins). Stenosis or thrombosis of the sinus(es) distal to the fistula was present in five patients. The cerebral venous drainage was abnormal in all patients. CONCLUSION—Type II (and some type I) DAVFs may present as isolated intracranial hypertension mimicking benign intracranial hypertension. Normal cerebral angiography should be added as a fifth criterion of benign intracranial hypertension. The cerebral venous drainage pattern must be carefully studied by contralateral carotid and vertebral artery injections to correctly evaluate the impairment of the cerebral venous outflow. Lumbar CSF diversion (puncture or shunting) may induce acute tonsillar herniation and should be avoided absolutely. DAVF may induce intracranial hypertension, which has a poor long term prognosis and may lead to an important loss of visual acuity and chronic tonsillar herniation. Consequently, patients with intracranial hypertension must be treated, even agressively, to obliterate the fistula or at least to reduce the arterial flow and to restore a normal cerebral venous drainage. The endovascular treatment may associate arterial or transvenous
Rao, Ahsan M; Khalil, Ahmed; Suttie, Stuart
Ureteric fistula into the arterial tree is a well-recognised, but uncommon condition. The involvement of internal iliac artery is rare. We present a rare case of fistulous communication and subsequent infection of an internal iliac artery aneurysm and ureter secondary to insertion of ureteric stent following endovascular exclusion of the aneurysm and its management. Nephrostogram identified the fistula not seen on computerised tomography. This case highlights the awareness of such pathology allowing for prompt recognition of the condition and importance of appropriate imaging.
Kumar, Prawin; Mehta, Poonam; Ismail, Javed; Agarwala, Sandeep; Jana, Manisha; Lodha, Rakesh; Kabra, Sushil K
Bronchobiliary fistula (BBF) is a rare condition, defined by the presence of abnormal communication between biliary tract and bronchial tree. We describe a 3½-year-old child who developed BBF after rupture of liver abscess. She underwent exploratory laparotomy and peritoneal wash for ruptured liver abscess. Seven months later she presented with fever and cough with yellow-colored expectoration (bilioptysis). An abnormal communication between right branch of the hepatic duct and a branch of right main bronchus was identified. Child underwent right lateral thoracotomy and right lower lobectomy with surgical excision of sinus tract. On follow-up child was asymptomatic and doing well.
Lechan, Ronald M.
Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) are rare, pathologic communications of the carotid artery and the venous plexus of the cavernous sinus. They can develop spontaneously in certain at risk individuals or following traumatic head injury. Typical clinical manifestations include headache, proptosis, orbital pain, and diplopia. We report a case of bilateral carotid-cavernous fistulas associated with these symptoms and also with pituitary enlargement and hypopituitarism, which improved following surgical intervention. Arterialization of the cavernous sinus and elevated portal pressure may interfere with normal venous drainage and the conveyance of inhibiting and releasing hormones from the hypothalamus, resulting in pituitary enlargement and hypopituitarism. This condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hypopituitarism associated with anterior pituitary enlargement. PMID:27651959
Joo, Young Jin; Koo, Jung Hoi; Song, Sun Hong
A 60-year-old man with a history of recurrent strokes secondary to moyamoya disease underwent insertion of a percutaneous radiologic gastrostomy tube because of severe dysphagia. Feeding was continued for 5 months after the procedure without complications. Persistent diarrhea began 2 weeks after admission for comprehensive rehabilitation. Conservative treatment was not effective. Sigmoidoscopy showed a U-shaped tube suggestive of a gastrocolic fistula in the transverse colon. This was confirmed by means of a tubogram obtained through a gastrostomy tube. The diarrhea resolved after changing the gastrostomy tube. This case report highlights the importance of considering other uncommon conditions, such as a gastrocolic fistula, in the differential diagnosis of persistent diarrhea in a patient with a gastrostomy tube.
Pappy, Reji; Abu-Fadel, Mazen; Hennebry, Thomas
Ureteroarterial fistulae (UAFs) are rare but potentially life-threatening entities that require a high degree of suspicion for diagnosis followed by prompt intervention. This case report describes the successful management of the oldest woman to-date presenting with intermittent hematuria, secondary to a fistula between the ureter and internal iliac artery, which was subsequently resolved by coil embolization. Morbidity and mortality associated with UAFs can be decreased by increasing awareness of this rare but fatal complication. Our review of the medical literature indicates that this is the oldest woman reported to have developed a UAF after radiation therapy and chronic ureteral stent exchange, as well as the first reported management of a UAF by interventional cardiologists.
Background Rectovaginal fistulas (RVFs) have multiple causes, size and location on which the surgical treatment depends. Description The Authors consider different approaches to RVFs and describe a clinical case of recurrent high RVF. Conclusions Most RVFs can be successfully repaired, although many interventions may be necessary. A colostomy with delayed repair may improve RVFs outcome. Moreover, several authors indicate Mucosal Advancement Flap and Babcock-Bacon technique as the treatments of choice respectively for low and high RVFs (complex and recurrent) and emphasize the placement of endoscopic prothesis in cases of difficult healing of the anastomosis. PMID:24266908
Sager, Hendrik B.; Wellhoener, Peter; Wermelt, Johanna A.; Schunkert, Heribert; Kurowski, Volkhard
Aortoesophageal fistula (AEF) is a rare but life-threatening complication after endovascular or surgical aortic repair. Here we report a patient with AEF secondary to aortic stent-placement 2 years earlier who presented with hematemesis and died from hemorrhagic shock. By means of this case and the literature, we highlight potential bleeding sources in such a scenario because this is of crucial importance for the management strategy.
Vaginal fistula Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff A vaginal fistula is an abnormal opening that connects your vagina to ... or urine to pass through your vagina. Vaginal fistulas can develop as a result of an injury, ...
... Arteriovenous fistula By Mayo Clinic Staff An arteriovenous (AV) fistula is an abnormal connection between an artery ... body, but especially in the lungs. Surgical creation (AV fistula procedure). People who have late-stage kidney ...
Diseases and Conditions Vaginal fistula By Mayo Clinic Staff A vaginal fistula is an abnormal opening that connects your vagina to another organ, ... stool or urine to pass through your vagina. Vaginal fistulas can develop as a result of an ...
Sung, Kai-Feng; Chu, Yin-Yi; Liu, Nai-Jen; Hung, Chien-Fu; Chen, Tse-Ching; Chen, Jinn-Shiun; Lin, Cheng-Hui
Here, we report a case of a pancreatobiliary (PB) fistula caused by an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas. The PB fistula was suspected after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and diagnosed after direct visualization with a direct peroral cholangioscopy and pancreatoscopy by using an ultra-slim endoscope. No previous reports exist on the precise diagnosis of a PB fistula with direct peroral cholangioscopy and pancreatoscopy. In our case report, a 69-year-old man underwent an ERCP because of a pancreatic head mass and biliary tract obstruction. During ERCP, a fistula between the common bile duct (CBD) and main pancreatic duct (MPD) was suspected. After endoscopic sphincterotomy, we examined both the CBD and MPD with an ultra-slim videoendoscope (GIF-N260; Olympus Optical Co, Tokyo, Japan) under direct visualization and biopsy of the mass. The analysis of the biopsy specimen confirmed this mass to be an IPMN of the pancreas. When we examined the CBD, one fistula with copious mucin secretion was identified at the distal CBD. In conclusion, direct peroral cholangioscopy and pancreatoscopy using the ultra-slim endoscope is an efficient tool for diagnosis of PB fistula and pancreatic IPMN.
Casey, Joseph; Lorenzo, Gabriel
Peptic ulcer disease is a less common cause of gastrocolic fistula than either carcinoma of the stomach or colon. However, use of steroids or aspirin appear to make this a more common complication of benign disease. The typical symptoms are pain, diarrhea, weight loss, foul eructation, and feculent vomiting. The most accurate method of diagnosis is with barium enema. The treatment is surgical. PMID:3712471
Kirkpantur, Alper; Balci, Mustafa; Turkvatan, Aysel; Afsar, Baris
Bone and mineral abnormalities, and cardiovascular calcification are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recent studies have implicated Wnt signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of bone metabolism and vascular calcification. Sclerostin is a soluble inhibitor of Wnt signaling pathway and has been shown to be associated with decreased bone turnover and vascular calcification in CKD patients. The aim was to investigate whether the circulating levels of sclerostin are associated with all-cause mortality in prevalent hemodialysis patients. Data are prospectively collected for 24 months for survival analysis in 350 prevalent hemodialysis patients. At baseline, serum sclerostin levels were measured and arteriovenous fistula calcification was detected by using a 64-detector computerized tomographic scanner. During the follow-up, 84 (24%) patients died. Patients who died had higher serum sclerostin levels. Kaplan-Meier curve revealed that patients with increasing tertiles of serum sclerostin levels at baseline, had a worse survival. In the multivariate Cox regression analysis age, albumin, and presence of arteriovenous fistula calcification, but not sclerostin levels, were found to be independent predictors of survival in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Further clinical studies with longer follow-up are needed to clarify the impact of serum sclerostin levels on morbidity and mortality of maintenance hemodialysis patients. The study was performed as a post hoc survival analysis of the patients involved in a single-center prospective trial investigating the association between serum sclerostin levels and arteriovenous fistula calcification and patency [Balcı M, et al. Herz 2015;40:289-97] with a Clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT01382966. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Hegde, Rahul G; Kalekar, Tushar M; Gajbhiye, Meenakshi I; Bandgar, Amol S; Pawar, Shephali S; Khadse, Gopal J
We report two cases of esophagobronchial fistulae diagnosed by Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) oral contrast swallow examination. It is helpful to supplement the CT study with an oral contrast swallow as it aids in confirmation of a suspected fistula and also demonstrates the fistula tract better. We present the clinical details and the imaging findings on MDCT of two cases of esophagobronchial fistulae – one secondary to chronic chest tuberculosis and the other secondary to a squamous cell carcinoma of the upper esophagus – followed by discussion of the etiology, pathogenesis, and imaging of these fistulae. PMID:24082484
Missen, Anthony J. B.; Pemberton, James; Boon, Andrew
1. Gastro-bronchial fistula is a rare condition occurring most commonly as a complication of a subphrenic abscess. 2. Other causes include trauma and necrosis within an infiltrating neoplasm. 3. The treatment of those fistulae which are secondary to a subphrenic abscess should be by drainage of the abscess, jejunal tube feeding and continuous gastric aspiration. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:4464513
Tanaka, Motonari; Kawashima, Akira; Kuremoto, Yoshito; Tanada, Kazuko
Aortocaval fistula is a rare complication of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. We report anesthetic management of a patient with aortocaval fistula caused by rupture of a huge abdominal aortic aneurysm into the inferior vena cava. A 51-year-old man who had complained of low back pain and general fatigue was referred to our hospital because of his liver damage. Aortocaval fistula due to rupture of a huge abdominal aortic aneurysm was diagnosed from physical examination, enhanced computed tomography and color Doppler ultrasonography. Anesthesia was induced with propofol and rocuronium, and was maintained with sevoflurane and remifentanil. After induction of anesthesia, the central venous pressure and cardiac index showed remarkably high values because of arteriovenous shunt. When the aneurysm was incised after the clamping of the abdominal aorta, massive venous bleeding occurred from the fistula and caused severe hypotension. Blood pressure recovered by digital compression of the bleeding point and the use of an autotransfusion device. After the repair of the aortocaval fistula, the hemodynamics became stable. The patient had a high output but a good cardiac function in preoperative examination. Therefore anesthesia was managed successfully without worsening high-output heart failure.
LEE, YU-TING; CHEN, YING-YUAN; WU, CHIA-YUN; CHEN, HUNG-MING; TZENG, CHENG-HWAI; CHIOU, TZEON-JYE
Enterovesical fistula (EVF) is a rare complication of diverticulitis, as well as Crohn's disease, intestinal malignancy, radiotherapy and trauma. EVF formation is associated with inflammation of the involved bowel segments. The current study presents the case of a 35-year-old man with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who developed pneumaturia, fecaluria and recurrent urinary tract infections following chemotherapy, accompanied by regressive change of the lymphoma. Abdominal computed tomography scans revealed that the terminal ileum had adhered to the bladder wall. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy and partial resection of the terminal ileum, and EVF was confirmed. Histological examination revealed an inflammatory response but no evidence of residual lymphoma. The diagnosis of EVF is occasionally difficult and requires appropriate radiographic examination. Surgical treatment is recommended. PMID:27347146
Yildirim, Erkan; Saba, Tonguc Ozulku, Mehmet; Harman, Ali Aytekin, Cuneyt Boyvat, Fatih
A 67-year-old woman was admitted to our institution with pain, night cramping, and visible varicose veins on her left leg. Doppler ultrasonography revealed continuous reflux in the great saphenous vein when the patient did the Valsalva maneuver. Endovenous laser therapy was applied to the great saphenous vein. Doppler ultrasonography 7 days later showed recanalization of, and arterialized flow in, the great saphenous vein. There also were small arterial vessels adjunct to the recanalized side. A left femoral angiography via a right femoral approach showed multiple small arteriovenous fistulas between superficial femoral artery muscle branches and the great saphenous vein. A second endovenous laser treatment was done at 80 J/cm, but the recanalization persisted. We offered to treat this endovascularly, but the patient preferred a surgical option. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the demonstration of such a complication with endovenous laser therapy.
Leifer, G.; Jacobs, W.H.
We report a new technique for the management of the complications of vesicorectal fistulas. The patient we present had a fistula and severe skin excoriation. The fistula was caused by carcinoma of the prostate that had been treated by radiation therapy. The fistula was patched with a rectal prosthesis similar to that used to patch esophageal-tracheal and esophageal-bronchial fistulas.
Das, Bidhan; Snyder, Michael
Rectovaginal fistulae are abnormal epithelialized connections between the rectum and vagina. Fistulae from the anorectal region to the posterior vagina are truly best characterized as anovaginal or very low rectovaginal fistulae. True rectovaginal fistulae are less common and result from inflammatory bowel disease, trauma, or iatrogenic injury. A very few patients are asymptomatic, but the symptoms of rectovaginal fistula are incredibly distressing and unacceptable. Diagnostic approach, timing, and choice of surgical intervention, including sphincteroplasty, gracilis flaps, Martius flaps, and special circumstances are discussed. PMID:26929752
Yamashita, Kentaro; Ohe, Naoyuki; Yoshimura, Shin-ichi; Iwama, Toru
A 33-year-old woman presented with a rare intracranial pial arteriovenous fistula manifesting as monoparesis and hypesthesia of the right lower extremity. Computed tomography demonstrated an approximately 10-mm diameter subcortical hematoma in the left postcentral gyrus. Two months after suffering the ictus, angiography demonstrated a pial arteriovenous fistula in the late arterial phase fed by the left paracentral artery and drained into the left precentral vein. No nidus or dural arteriovenous fistula was detected. Left parietal craniotomy was performed and the pial arteriovenous fistula was extirpated by electrocoagulation. Intraoperative angiography demonstrated disappearance of the fistula. She experienced no postoperative neurological deterioration, but hypesthesia of the right leg persisted. Obliteration of the pial arteriovenous fistula was reconfirmed by postoperative angiography. She suffered no rebleeding episodes during the 36-month follow-up period. Pial arteriovenous fistula causing mild symptoms should be treated by flow disconnection because the direct arteriovenous shunt and attendant high blood flow usually results in huge venous varices. To determine whether direct surgery or endovascular treatment is appropriate, the position and shape of the lesion must be known.
Das, Krishanu; Ordones, Flavio; Welikumbura, Sumudu
Abstract Background: Memokath 051™ stents are increasingly used for management of benign and malignant ureteral strictures refractory to management with single or tandem polymeric Double-J ureteral stents. Migration, encrustation, and difficulty in extraction during stent exchange are the chief problems reported so far with these thermoexpandable metallic stents. We report an unusual complication of ureteroexternal iliac artery fistula (UEAF) caused by Memokath stent inserted for radiation-induced ureteral stricture. Case Presentation: A 71-year-old male with history of colorectal cancer (underwent extirpative surgery + chemoradiotherapy) and subsequently radiation-induced ureteral stricture had bilateral Memokath ureteral stents inserted. Three months later, he presented with sepsis and hemodynamic instability secondary to UEAF, confirmed on angiography. A covered vascular stent was inserted as an immediate management. Conclusion: Memokath stent insertion in radiation-induced ureteral strictures may be associated with an increased risk of erosion and the rare potential complication of UEAF. This potential risk needs to be considered in the overall setting of such strictures and the difficulty in treating them. Prompt imaging (angiography) and placement of an endovascular stent are the ideal immediate options in such cases. PMID:27785465
Favretti, F; Segato, G; De Marchi, F; Pucciarelli, S; Nitti, D; Lise, M
The Authors reviewed their series of patients submitted to VBG in order to investigate the rate and cause of gastric partition disruption. This complication was found only in patients who had the gastric partition done by means of a double application of TA-90. No gastric partition disruption was found in those patients in which TA-90-B was used. The partition breakdown might be due to occasionally defective closure mechanism in the traditional staplers.
Heper, Gulumser; Kose, Sedat
We present the case of a 54-year-old man who had crescendo angina during nitrate therapy. Selective coronary angiograms showed no atherosclerotic lesions, but did show plexuses of intramural vessels that connected the distal thirds of the left and right coronary systems with the left ventricle. The cause of our patient's increased myocardial ischemia during nitrate therapy may have been the coronary "steal" phenomenon.
Eneling, Johanna; Karlsson, Per M.; Rossitti, Sandro
Background: Vascular injuries in transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenomas are uncommon but can result in serious disability or death. Case Description: A 46-year-old man, who underwent resection of a pituitary adenoma with suprasellar extension via a transsphenoidal approach, presented with massive epistaxis five days postoperatively. Angiography revealed an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) between the right sphenopalatine artery and a deep vein draining to the right internal jugular vein, as well as contrast agent extravasation at the fistula point. The AVF was catheterized and successfully occluded with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. Conclusions: Transsphenoidal pituitary surgery can be complicated by massive epistaxis from a lesion of a small branch of the external carotid artery. Airway protection through intubation and investigation with conventional digital subtraction angiography is recommended. The treatment of choice is endovascular embolization because it can be done immediately at the angiography suite. PMID:28144482
Wolf, Michael; Scott, Benjamin
We present an interesting case illustrating the possible hemodynamic consequences when a left-sided arteriovenous hemodialysis fistula is combined with the congenital anomaly of a persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC). Our case illustrates the importance of an echocardiographic examination with attention to the coronary sinus (CS) caliber-raising suspicion of a PLSVC-in the assessment for the hemodialysis access in end-stage renal disease patients. The causes and symptoms of CS dilatation, as well as the literature on PLSVC, are also discussed in detail.
Slater, Bethany J; Rothenberg, Steven S
Tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is a relatively rare congenital anomaly. Surgical intervention is required to establish esophageal continuity and prevent aspiration and overdistension of the stomach. Since the first successful report of thoracoscopic TEF repair in 2000, the minimally invasive approach has become increasingly utilized. The main advantages of the thoracoscopic technique include avoidance of a thoracotomy, improved cosmesis, and superior visualization of the anatomy and fistula afforded by the laparoscope׳s magnification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
CRYPTOGLANDULAR ANAL FISTULA: Perianal abscesses are caused by cryptoglandular infections. Not every abscess will end in a fistula. The formation of a fistula is determined by the anatomy of the anal sphincter and perianal fistulas will not heal on their own. The therapy of a fistula is oriented between a more aggressive approach (operation) and a conservative treatment with fibrin glue or a plug. Definitive healing and the development of incontinence are the most important key points. ANAL FISSURES: Acute anal fissures should be treated conservatively by topical ointments, consisting of nitrates, calcium channel blockers and if all else fails by botulinum toxin. Treatment of chronic fissures will start conservatively but operative options are necessary in many cases. Operation of first choice is fissurectomy, including excision of fibrotic margins, curettage of the base and excision of the sentinel pile and anal polyps. Lateral internal sphincterotomy is associated with a certain degree of incontinence and needs critical long-term observation.
... tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) are 2 disorders of the digestive system. They happen in babies before the babies are ... The main problems EA causes are with the digestive system. TEF usually presents itself through breathing problems. Symptoms ...
Ekeoduru, Rhashedah A; Aijazi, Hassan M; Graham-Carlson, Amy D
A 3-year-old boy underwent tracheostomy at age 5 months for respiratory failure. The tracheostomy tube was removed a year later but a tracheocutaneous fistula developed requiring fistulectomy and primary skin closure. After an initial uneventful course in the postanesthesia care unit, the patient became agitated, began to scream, and suddenly developed rapidly progressing subcutaneous emphysema over his chest, face, and abdomen. Orotracheal intubation was emergently performed and chest radiograph revealed pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum. The child was taken to the operating room for placement of a tracheostomy tube.
Robbin, Michelle L.; Young, Carlton J.; Deierhoi, Mark H.; Goodman, Jeremy; Hanaway, Michael; Lockhart, Mark E.; Litovsky, Silvio
Summary Background and objectives Arteriovenous fistulas often fail to mature, and nonmaturation has been attributed to postoperative stenosis caused by aggressive neointimal hyperplasia. Preexisting intimal hyperplasia in the native veins of uremic patients may predispose to postoperative arteriovenous fistula stenosis and arteriovenous fistula nonmaturation. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This work explored the relationship between preexisting venous intimal hyperplasia, postoperative arteriovenous fistula stenosis, and clinical arteriovenous fistula outcomes in 145 patients. Venous specimens obtained during arteriovenous fistula creation were quantified for maximal intimal thickness (median thickness=22.3 μm). Postoperative ultrasounds at 4–6 weeks were evaluated for arteriovenous fistula stenosis. Arteriovenous fistula maturation within 6 months of creation was determined clinically. Results Postoperative arteriovenous fistula stenosis was equally frequent in patients with preexisting venous intimal hyperplasia (thickness>22.3 μm) and patients without hyperplasia (46% versus 53%; P=0.49). Arteriovenous fistula nonmaturation occurred in 30% of patients with postoperative stenosis versus 7% of those patients without stenosis (hazard ratio, 4.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.55 to 12.06; P=0.001). The annual frequency of interventions to maintain arteriovenous fistula patency for dialysis after maturation was higher in patients with postoperative stenosis than patients without stenosis (0.83 [95% confidence interval, 0.58 to 1.14] versus 0.42 [95% confidence interval, 0.28 to 0.62]; P=0.008). Conclusions Preexisting venous intimal hyperplasia does not predispose to postoperative arteriovenous fistula stenosis. Postoperative arteriovenous fistula stenosis is associated with a higher arteriovenous fistula nonmaturation rate. Arteriovenous fistulas with hemodynamically significant stenosis frequently mature without an intervention. Postoperative
Charles, J C
The author presents a case of spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula associated with a complete staghorn calculus in a nonfunctioning kidney. A renal scan, an intravenous pyelogram, and a right retrograde pyelogram confirmed the need for a nephrectomy. The procedure and results are described here.
Charles, J. C.
The author presents a case of spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula associated with a complete staghorn calculus in a nonfunctioning kidney. A renal scan, an intravenous pyelogram, and a right retrograde pyelogram confirmed the need for a nephrectomy. The procedure and results are described here. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2395179
Stepan, E V; Ermolov, A S; Rogal', M L; Teterin, Yu S
The main principles of treatment of external postoperative pancreatic fistulas are viewed in the article. Pancreatic trauma was the reason of pancreatic fistula in 38.7% of the cases, operations because of acute pancreatitis - in 25.8%, and pancreatic pseudocyst drainage - in 35.5%. 93 patients recovered after the treatment. Complex conservative treatment of EPF allowed to close fistulas in 74.2% of the patients with normal patency of the main pancreatic duct (MPD). The usage of octreotide 600-900 mcg daily for at least 5 days to decrease pancreatic secretion was an important part of the conservative treatment. Endoscopic papillotomy was performed in patients with major duodenal papilla obstruction and interruption of transporting of pancreatic secretion to duodenum. Stent of the main pancreatic duct was indicated in patients with extended pancreatic duct stenosis to normalize transport of pancreatic secretion to duodenum. Surgical formation of anastomosis between distal part of the main pancreatic duct and gastro-intestinal tract was carried out when it was impossible to fulfill endoscopic stenting of pancreatic duct either because of its interruption and diastasis between its ends, or in the cases of unsuccessful conservative treatment of external pancreatic fistula caused by drainage of pseudocyst.
Yamazaki, Shintaro Kuramoto, Kenmei; Itoh, Yutaka; Watanabe, Yoshika; Ueda, Toshisada
Pancreas fistula is a well-known and severe complication of pancreaticoduodenectomy. It is difficult to control with conservative therapy, inducing further complications and severe morbidity. Until now, re-operation has been the only way to resolve pancreatic fistula causing complete dehiscence of the pancreatic-enteric anastomosis (complete pancreatic fistula). Percutaneous transgastric fistula drainage is one of the treatments for pancreatic fistula. This procedure allows both pancreas juice drainage and anastomosis re-construction at the same time. This is effective and minimally invasive but difficult to adapt to a long or complicated fistula. In particular, dilatation of the main pancreatic duct is indispensable. This paper reports the successful resolution of a postoperative pancreatic fistula by a two-way-approach percutaneous transgastric fistula drainage procedure. Using a snare catheter from the fistula and a flexible guidewire from the transgastric puncture needle, it can be performed either with or without main pancreatic duct dilatation.
Kwon, Se Hwan; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Park, Sun Jin; Park, Ho Chul
Gastrointestinal (GI) fistulas are frequently very serious complications that are associated with high morbidity and mortality. GI fistulas can cause a wide array of pathophysiological effects by allowing abnormal diversion of the GI contents, including digestive fluid, water, electrolytes, and nutrients, from either one intestine to another or from the intestine to the skin. As an alternative to surgery, recent technical advances in interventional radiology and percutaneous techniques have been shown as advantageous to lower the morbidity and mortality rate, and allow for superior accessibility to the fistulous tracts via the use of fistulography. In addition, new interventional management techniques continue to emerge. We describe the clinical and imaging features of GI fistulas and outline the interventional management of GI fistulas.
Arneill, Matthew; Hennessey, Derek Barry; McKay, Damian
This article reports a case of colovesical fistula presenting with epididymitis. A 75-year-old man with a recent conservatively managed localised diverticular perforation presented to hospital with acute pain and swelling of his left testicle and epididymis. On further questioning, the patient reported passing air in his urine. Urine cultures grew Enterococcus faecalis. Ultrasound scan confirmed a diagnosis of bacterial epididymitis and the patient was treated with intravenous antibiotics. Subsequent CT imaging revealed air in the bladder and a colovesical fistula. The patient went on to have Hartmann's procedure with repair of the bladder defect. This case highlights that: (1) Colovesical fistulae may rarely present with epididymitis. (2) Colovesical fistulae are the most common cause of pneumaturia.
Kwon, Se Hwan; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Park, Sun Jin; Park, Ho Chul
Gastrointestinal (GI) fistulas are frequently very serious complications that are associated with high morbidity and mortality. GI fistulas can cause a wide array of pathophysiological effects by allowing abnormal diversion of the GI contents, including digestive fluid, water, electrolytes, and nutrients, from either one intestine to another or from the intestine to the skin. As an alternative to surgery, recent technical advances in interventional radiology and percutaneous techniques have been shown as advantageous to lower the morbidity and mortality rate, and allow for superior accessibility to the fistulous tracts via the use of fistulography. In addition, new interventional management techniques continue to emerge. We describe the clinical and imaging features of GI fistulas and outline the interventional management of GI fistulas. PMID:19039271
Kirkman, Danielle; Junglee, Naushad; Mullins, Paul; Macdonald, Jamie Hugo
Health professionals should be aware of medical procedures that cause vascular access complications. This case describes a haemodialysis patient who experienced pain, swelling and bruising over a radiocephalic fistula following MRI. Exactly the same signs and symptoms were evident following a second scan performed 3 months later. Plausible explanations include a radio frequency-induced electrical current being formed at the arteriovenous fistula, or varying gradients of the MRI sequence stimulating peripheral nerves, leading to a site of increased tissue stimulation. Of note, a juxta-anastomotic venous stenosis was confirmed by fistulogram 4 days after the second scan, although whether this access failure was due to the MRI scan per se could not be ascertained. Nevertheless, these previously undocumented observations suggest that careful patient and fistula monitoring is required when completing MRI scans in those with an arteriovenous fistula. PMID:22927271
Kirkman, Danielle; Junglee, Naushad; Mullins, Paul; Macdonald, Jamie Hugo
Health professionals should be aware of medical procedures that cause vascular access complications. This case describes a haemodialysis patient who experienced pain, swelling and bruising over a radiocephalic fistula following MRI. Exactly the same signs and symptoms were evident following a second scan performed 3 months later. Plausible explanations include a radio frequency-induced electrical current being formed at the arteriovenous fistula, or varying gradients of the MRI sequence stimulating peripheral nerves, leading to a site of increased tissue stimulation. Of note, a juxta-anastomotic venous stenosis was confirmed by fistulogram 4 days after the second scan, although whether this access failure was due to the MRI scan per se could not be ascertained. Nevertheless, these previously undocumented observations suggest that careful patient and fistula monitoring is required when completing MRI scans in those with an arteriovenous fistula.
Bennani, S; Joual, A; El Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S
Our purpose was to study aetiopathogenic, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of ureterovaginal fistulas. A retrospective study concerned 17 ureterovaginal fistulas in 16 patients. The main causes were gyneacological and obstetrical procedures. The diagnosis was based on clinical considerations and intravenous pyelography in all cases. Three vesicovaginal fistulas were associated with iatrogenic ureteral lesions. Various therapeutic methods were used: psoas-bladder hitch procedure (11 cases) and Boari-Küss flap (4 cases). In two patients, fistulae healed by drainage after ureterolysis. Late radiology showed success of the procedure in 14 patients and persistance of ureteral dilatation in 2 cases treated by Boari-Küss procedure. Ureterovaginal fistulae are a relatively frequent complication of pelvic surgery. Psoas-bladder hitch is the procedure of choice in such fistulae cure and prevention is the most efficient treatment.
Dawes, J D; Watson, R T
A small series of 14 post-stapedectomy fistulae illustrates the varied aetiology. The long-term competence of the oval window seal may be ensured by making a small hole in the footplate. Contraction of ageing fibrous tissue contributes to late stapedectomy failures. Long-term follow-up is important, for any deterioration in hearing after stapedectomy may result from a perilymph leak.
Ommer, Andreas; Herold, Alexander; Berg, Eugen; Fürst, Alois; Schiedeck, Thomas; Sailer, Marco
Background: Rectovaginal fistulas are rare, and the majority is of traumatic origin. The most common causes are obstetric trauma, local infection, and rectal surgery. This guideline does not cover rectovaginal fistulas that are caused by chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was undertaken. Results: Rectovaginal fistula is diagnosed on the basis of the patient history and the clinical examination. Other pathologies should be ruled out by endoscopy, endosonography or tomography. The assessment of sphincter function is valuable for surgical planning (potential simultaneous sphincter reconstruction). Persistent rectovaginal fistulas generally require surgical treatment. Various surgical procedures have been described. The most common procedure involves a transrectal approach with endorectal suture. The transperineal approach is primarily used in case of simultaneous sphincter reconstruction. In recurrent fistulas. Closure can be achieved by the interposition of autologous tissue (Martius flap, gracilis muscle) or biologically degradable materials. In higher fistulas, abdominal approaches are used as well. Stoma creation is more frequently required in rectovaginal fistulas than in anal fistulas. The decision regarding stoma creation should be primarily based on the extent of the local defect and the resulting burden on the patient. Conclusion: In this clinical S3-Guideline, instructions for diagnosis and treatment of rectovaginal fistulas are described for the first time in Germany. Given the low evidence level, this guideline is to be considered of descriptive character only. Recommendations for diagnostics and treatment are primarily based the clinical experience of the guideline group and cannot be fully supported by the literature. PMID:23255878
Kim, Kyung-Woo; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Jung Won; Park, Jang Su; Choe, Won Joo; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Lee, Sangil
Ingestion of disk batteries may have serious complications such as esophageal burn, perforation, and tracheoesophageal fistula, particularly when the battery is caught in the esophagus. Proper placement of the tracheal tube is critical when tracheoesophageal fistula was occurred from esophageal impaction the battery. Endoscopy of upper gastrointestinal tract in infants and children is an important and effective tool for the diagnosis and treatment of foreign body ingestion. But upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in infant and children has very high risk of tracheal compression and airway compromise. We present a case of ventilatory compromise during insertion of the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in 16-month-old child with tracheoesophageal fistula secondary to disk battery ingestion.
Quencer, Keith Bertram; Arici, Melih
In the United States, more than 250,000 patients with end-stage renal disease are dialyzed through arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs). The three most common AVFs are the radiocephalic fistula, the brachiocephalic fistula, and the brachial artery-to-transposed basilic vein fistula. Although many potential access site stenoses can and do occur within any given fistula, each fistula has a characteristic site of stenosis. This article will discuss the characteristic site of stenosis for each type of fistula including the effects of stenosis at that site on fistula function, and their treatment. The characteristic sites of stenosis in AVFs used for dialysis share in common significant angulation, which likely causes stenosis by leading to turbulent flow and intimal injury. While balloon dilation is considered first-line therapy, further interventions such as stent placement or surgical revision are sometimes needed to treat these recalcitrant areas of stenosis.
Cochrane, Justin; Schlepp, Greg
Context. Colonic complications associated with acute pancreatitis have a low incidence but carry an increased risk of mortality with delayed diagnosis and treatment. Pancreatic colonic fistula is most commonly associated with walled off pancreatic necrosis or abscess formation and rarely forms spontaneously. Classic clinical manifestations for pancreatic colonic fistula include diarrhea, hematochezia, and fever. Uncommonly pancreatic colonic fistula presents as large bowel obstruction. Case. We report a case of a woman with a history of recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis who presented with large bowel obstruction secondary to pancreatic colonic fistula. Resolution of large bowel obstruction and pancreatic colonic fistula was achieved with pancreatic duct stenting. Conclusion. Pancreatic colonic fistula can present as large bowel obstruction. Patients with resolved acute pancreatitis who have radiographic evidence of splenic flexure obstruction, but without evidence of mechanical obstruction on colonoscopy, should be considered for ERCP to evaluate for PCF. PCF not associated with walled off pancreatic necrosis or peritoneal abscess can be treated conservatively with pancreatic duct stenting.
Baum, Griffin R.; Turan, Nefize; Buonanno, Ferdinando S.; Pradilla, Gustavo; Nogueira, Raul G.
Background: Superficial siderosis (SS) is the occult deposition of hemosiderin within the cerebral cortex due to repeat microhemorrhages within the central nervous system. The collection of hemosiderin within the pia and superficial cortical surface can lead to injury to the nervous tissue. The most common presentation is occult sensorineural hearing loss although many patients have been misdiagnosed with diseases such as multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis before being diagnosed with SS. Only one case report exists in the literature describing an intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) as the putative cause for SS. Case Description: We describe two cases of SS caused by a dAVF. Both patients had a supratentorial, cortical lesion supplied by the middle meningeal artery with venous drainage into the superior sagittal sinus. In both patients, symptoms improved after endovascular embolization. The similar anatomic relationship of both dAVFs reported presents an interesting question about the pathogenesis of SS. Similar to the pathologic changes seen in the formation of intracranial arterial aneurysms; it would be possible that changes in the blood vessel lining and wall might predispose a patient to chronic, microhemorrhage resulting in SS. Conclusions: We describe the second and third cases of a dAVF as the cause of SS, and the first cases of successful treatment of SS-associated dAVF with endovascular embolization. As noninvasive imaging techniques become more sensitive and easily obtained, one must consider their limitations in detecting occult intracranial vascular malformations such as dAVF as a possible etiology for SS. PMID:27127712
Zubaidi, Ahmad M
Anal fistula is a common benign condition that typically describes a miscommunication between the anorectum and the perianal skin, which may present de novo, or develop after acute anorectal abscess. Athough anal fistulae are benign, the condition can still negatively influence a patient's quality of life by causing minor pain, social hygienic embarrassment, and in severe cases, frank sepsis. Despite its long history and prevalence, anal fistula management remains one of the most challenging and controversial topics in colorectal surgery today. The end goals of treatment include draining the local infection, eradicating the fistulous tract, and minimizing recurrence and incontinence rates. The goal of this review is to ensure surgeons and physicians are aware of the different imaging and treatment choices available, and to report expected outcomes of the various surgical modalities so they may select the most suitable treatment.
Enterocutaneous fistulas (ECF) may be challenging to manage due to the large volume of fluid losses, that may result in severe dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, malnutrition and sepsis. It is imperative that this group of patients receive adequate nutrition, as malnutrition and sepsis are the leading cause of death. ECF treatment is complex and based on various assessments, treatment can be medical/conservative management or surgical. Depending on the site of the fistula and the nutritional status of the patient, clinicians have to decide whether parenteral nutrition or enteral nutrition should be established. Fistuloclysis is a relatively novel procedure in which nutrition is provided via an enteral feeding tube placed directly into the distal lumen of a high output fistula. Although fistuloclysis is not feasible for all patients with ECF, for those that are eligible, the method appears to be an acceptable and safe method of maintaining and improving nutritional status.
Kouchi, Katsunori; Takenouchi, Ayao; Matsuoka, Aki; Yabe, Kiyoaki; Korai, Mashahiro; Nakata, Chikako
In children, perianal abscesses have a good prognosis and often heal with age. However, some perianal abscesses are refractory to treatment and remain as fistulas-in-Ano. Treatment with a Surgisis Anal Fistula Plug® has been reported as a new method of treatment for fistulas. In adults, the plug has been reported to cause little pain and have a high cure rate, but there have been no reported cases of its use in children. This study was designed to analyze the efficacy of the plug for closure of refractory fistulas in children. Since the plug has not been approved as a medical device in Japan, application for its use was submitted to the ethics committee of our university, and approval was granted, marking the first use of the plug in Japan. We classified refractory fistulas as those treated for 6months or longer and remaining unhealed, even after 1year of age, despite continued conservative treatment. The plug was used in 11 refractory fistulas in 8 children. Eight of 11 fistulas (72.7%) were successfully treated. Three fistulas recurred, and fistulectomies were performed. No sequelae were observed after AFP treatment. The plug was effective even for closure of refractory fistulas without sequelae in children. Treatment Study, Level IV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100103.htm Tracheoesophageal fistula repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Esophagus Disorders Fistulas Tracheal Disorders A.D.A.M., Inc. is ...
Congenital heart defect - coronary artery fistula; Birth defect heart - coronary artery fistula ... attaches to one of the chambers of the heart (the atrium or ventricle) or another blood vessel ( ...
Bennani, S; Ait Bolbarod, A; el Mrini, M; Kadiri, R; Benjelloun, S
The authors report a case of idiopathic renal arteriovenous fistula. The diagnosis was established angiographically in a 24 year old man presenting gross hematuria. Embolization of the fistula was performed. Efficiency of this treatment was appreciated clinically and by duplex renal ultrasonography. The characteristics of renal arteriovenous fistulas are reviewed.
Sabzi, Feridoun; Faraji, Reza
The combination of a dissected ascending aortic aneurysm (AA) with multiple fistulae to the periaortic root structures is a life-threatening complication that occurs rarely after infective endocarditis of the prosthetic aortic valve. Many risk factors are potentially associated with this complication, including aortic diameter, connective tissue disease of the aortic wall, hypertension and infection. We report a rare case of dissected ascending AA with fistulae to the left atrium and pulmonary artery and a paravalvular leak in a 47-year-old woman with a history of an aortic valve replacement. The patient had presented to the Imam Ali Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran, in January 2015 with clinical features of heart failure. After initially being treated for congestive heart failure, she underwent open-heart surgery via a classic Bentall procedure and double fistula closure. She was discharged 23 days after the operation in good condition. A six-month follow-up showed normal functioning of the composite conduit prosthetic valve and no fistulae recurrence.
Sih, A M; Kopp, D M; Tang, J H; Rosenberg, N E; Chipungu, E; Harfouche, M; Moyo, M; Mwale, M; Wilkinson, J P
To compare primiparous and multiparous women who develop obstetric fistula (OF) and to assess predictors of fistula location. Cross-sectional study. Fistula Care Centre at Bwaila Hospital, Lilongwe, Malawi. Women with OF who presented between September 2011 and July 2014 with a complete obstetric history were eligible for the study. Women with OF were surveyed for their obstetric history. Women were classified as multiparous if prior vaginal or caesarean delivery was reported. The location of the fistula was determined at operation: OF involving the urethra, bladder neck, and midvagina were classified as low; OF involving the vaginal apex, cervix, uterus, and ureters were classified as high. Demographic information was compared between primiparous and multiparous women using chi-squared and Mann-Whitney U-tests. Multivariate logistic regression models were implemented to assess the relationship between variables of interest and fistula location. During the study period, 533 women presented for repair, of which 452 (84.8%) were included in the analysis. The majority (56.6%) were multiparous when the fistula formed. Multiparous women were more likely to have laboured <1 day (62.4 versus 44.5%, P < 0.001), delivered a live-born infant (26.8 versus 17.9%, P = 0.026), and have a high fistula location (37.5 versus 11.2%, P < 0.001). Multiparity [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 4.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.27-9.12)] and history of caesarean delivery (aOR = 4.11, 95% CI 2.45-6.89) were associated with development of a high fistula. Multiparity was common in our cohort, and these women were more likely to have a high fistula. Additional research is needed to understand the aetiology of high fistula including potential iatrogenic causes. Multiparity and caesarean delivery were associated with a high tract fistula in our Malawian cohort. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Correa, João A; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Pires, Adilson C; Breda, João R; Yamazaki, Yumiko R; Fioretti, Alexandre C; Valenti, Vitor E; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M; Macedo, Hugo; Colombari, Eduardo; Miranda, Fausto
An upper limb arteriovenous (AV) fistula is the access of choice for haemodialysis (HD). There have been few reports of saphenofemoral AV fistulas (SFAVF) over the last 10-20 years because of previous suggestions of poor patencies and needling difficulties. Here, we describe our clinical experience with SFAVF. SFAVFs were evaluated using the following variables: immediate results, early and late complications, intraoperative and postoperative complications (up to day 30), efficiency of the fistula after the onset of needling and complications associated to its use. Fifty-six SFAVF fistulas were created in 48 patients. Eight patients had two fistulas: 8 patent (16%), 10 transplanted (20%), 12 deaths (24%), 1 low flow (2%) and 20 thrombosis (39%) (first two months of preparation). One patient had severe hypotension during surgery, which caused thrombosis of the fistula, which was successfully thrombectomised, four thrombosed fistulae were successfully thrombectomised and revised on the first postoperative day. After 59 months of follow-up, primary patency was 44%. SFAVF is an adequate alternative for patients without the possibility for other access in the upper limbs, allowing efficient dialysis with good long-term patency with a low complication rate.
Background An upper limb arteriovenous (AV) fistula is the access of choice for haemodialysis (HD). There have been few reports of saphenofemoral AV fistulas (SFAVF) over the last 10-20 years because of previous suggestions of poor patencies and needling difficulties. Here, we describe our clinical experience with SFAVF. Methods SFAVFs were evaluated using the following variables: immediate results, early and late complications, intraoperative and postoperative complications (up to day 30), efficiency of the fistula after the onset of needling and complications associated to its use. Results Fifty-six SFAVF fistulas were created in 48 patients. Eight patients had two fistulas: 8 patent (16%), 10 transplanted (20%), 12 deaths (24%), 1 low flow (2%) and 20 thrombosis (39%) (first two months of preparation). One patient had severe hypotension during surgery, which caused thrombosis of the fistula, which was successfully thrombectomised, four thrombosed fistulae were successfully thrombectomised and revised on the first postoperative day. After 59 months of follow-up, primary patency was 44%. Conclusion SFAVF is an adequate alternative for patients without the possibility for other access in the upper limbs, allowing efficient dialysis with good long-term patency with a low complication rate. PMID:20955561
Ozkan, Aybars; Ozaydin, Ismet; Kaya, Murat; Kucuk, Adem; Katranci, Ali Osman
Patient: Female, 16 Final Diagnosis: Malrotation and cholecystoduodenal fistula Symptoms: Abdominal pain • anorexia • fever • nausea • vomiting Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Anatomical anomaly/variation Background: Cholecystoduodenal fistula (CDF) is the most common cholecystenteric fistula. It is a late complication of gallbladder disease with calculus and is mainly encountered in the elderly and females. Case Report: We report the case of a teenage patient with cholecystoduodenal fistula and malrotation. Direct plain abdominal x-ray demonstrated air in the biliary system. Computed tomography revealed CDF-associated with an anomaly of intestinal malrotation. She had gallstones (with a few stones in the gallbladder) and cholecystitis. CDF is caused by malrotation, and cholecystitis has not been reported before. In this regard our patient is the first and youngest reported case. Conclusions: We suggest that CDF is probably a consequence of malrotation. The patient’s clinical features and operative management are presented and discussed with current literature. PMID:24454977
Głuszek, Stanisław; Korczak, Maria; Kot, Marta; Matykiewicz, Jarosław; Kozieł, Dorota
Digestive system fistula originates most frequently as a complication after surgical procedures, less often occurs in the course of inflammatory diseases, but it can also result from neoplasm and injuries. THE AIM OF THE STUDY was to analyze the causes and retrospectively assess the perioperative procedures as well as the results of digestive system fistula treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Own experience in digestive system fistula treatment was presented. The subject group consisted of 32 patients treated at the General Surgery, Oncology and Endocrinology Clinical Department between 01.05.2005 and 30.04.2010 due to different digestive tract diseases. The causes of the occurrence of digestive system fistula, methods and results of treatment were analyzed. RESULTS. The analysis covered 32 patients with digestive system fistula, among them 15 men and 17 women. Average age for men was 57 years (20-78), and for women 61 years (24-88). In 11 patients idiopathic fistula causally connected with primary inflammatory disease (7 cases) and with neoplasm (4 cases) was diagnosed, in 19 patients fistula was the result of complications after surgery, in 2 - after abdominal cavity injury. Recovery from fistula was achieved in 23 patients (72%) with the use of individually planned conservative therapy (TPN, EN, antibiotics, drainage, and others) and surgery, depending on the needs of individual patient. 5 patients (16%) died, whereas in 4 left (12%) recovery wasn't achieved (fistula in palliative patients, with advanced stages of neoplasm - bronchoesophageal fistula, the recurrence of uterine carcinoma). CONCLUSIONS. Recently the results of digestive system fistula treatment showed an improvement which manifests itself in mortality decrease and shortening of fistula healing time. Yet, digestive system fistula as a serious complication still poses a very difficult surgical problem.
Gele, Abdi A; Salad, Abdulwahab M; Jimale, Liban H; Kour, Prabhjot; Austveg, Berit; Kumar, Bernadette
Obstetric fistula is treatable by surgery, although access is usually limited, particularly in the context of conflict. This study examines the profile of women attending fistula repair surgery in three hospitals in Somalia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Somalia from August to September 2016. Structured questionnaires were administered to 81 women who registered for fistula repair surgery in the Garowe, Daynile, and Kismayo General Hospitals in Somalia. Findings revealed that 70.4% of the study participants reported obstetric labor as the cause of their fistula, and 29.6% reported iatrogenic causes. Regarding the waiting time for the repair surgery, 45% waited for the surgery for over one year, while the rest received the surgery within a year. The study suggests that training for fistula surgery has to be provided for healthcare professionals in Somalia, fistula centers should be established, and access to these facilities has to be guaranteed for all patients who need these services.
Salad, Abdulwahab M.; Jimale, Liban H.; Kour, Prabhjot; Austveg, Berit; Kumar, Bernadette
Obstetric fistula is treatable by surgery, although access is usually limited, particularly in the context of conflict. This study examines the profile of women attending fistula repair surgery in three hospitals in Somalia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Somalia from August to September 2016. Structured questionnaires were administered to 81 women who registered for fistula repair surgery in the Garowe, Daynile, and Kismayo General Hospitals in Somalia. Findings revealed that 70.4% of the study participants reported obstetric labor as the cause of their fistula, and 29.6% reported iatrogenic causes. Regarding the waiting time for the repair surgery, 45% waited for the surgery for over one year, while the rest received the surgery within a year. The study suggests that training for fistula surgery has to be provided for healthcare professionals in Somalia, fistula centers should be established, and access to these facilities has to be guaranteed for all patients who need these services. PMID:28761443
Imafuku, A; Tanaka, K; Marui, Y; Sawa, N; Ubara, Y; Takaichi, K; Ishii, Y; Tomikawa, S
Colovesical fistula is a relatively rare condition that is primarily related to diverticular disease. There are few reports of colovesical fistula after renal transplantation. We report of a 53-year-old man who was diagnosed with colovesical fistula after recurrent urinary tract infection, 5 months after undergoing cadaveric renal transplantation. Laparoscopic partial resection of the sigmoid colon with the use of the Hartmann procedure was performed. Six months after that surgery, there was no evidence of recurrent urinary tract infection and the patient's renal graft function was preserved. Physicians should keep colovesical fistula in mind as a cause of recurrent urinary tract infection in renal transplant recipients, especially in those with a history of diverticular disease.
Deem, Samuel; Stone, Patrick; Schlarb, Chris
Ureteral injury following aortic surgery occurs in less than 1% of all cases. Ureteral-arterial fistulae rarely occur in the current literature and only in case reports. This case involves a suspected ureteral aortic graft fistula presenting with acute hematuria with distant history of redo aortic bifemoral graft for aortoenteric fistula. Cystoscopy with retrograde pyelogram was performed and demonstrated what appeared to be a fistula between the left ureter and the aortic graft with a proximal hydroureter and hydronephrosis. After a detailed review of the films, we diagnosed a more benign ureteral perigraft fistula. Multidisciplinary management including urology and vascular surgery suggested conservative management. However, the patient later required more definitive therapy for his illness. This case demonstrates a ureteral perigraft fistula and displays how it appears radiographically. Here we present our experience with this new radiological diagnosis.
Sih, Allison M.; Kopp, Dawn M.; Tang, Jennifer H.; Rosenberg, Nora E.; Chipungu, Ennet; Harfouche, Melike; Moyo, Margaret; Mwale, Mwawi; Wilkinson, Jeffrey P.
Objective To compare primiparous and multiparous women who develop obstetric fistula (OF) and to assess predictors of fistula location Design Cross-sectional study Setting Fistula Care Center at Bwaila Hospital, Lilongwe, Malawi Population Women with OF who presented between September 2011 and July 2014 with a complete obstetric history were eligible for the study. Methods Women with OF were surveyed for their obstetric history. Women were classified as multiparous if prior vaginal or cesarean delivery was reported. Location of fistula was determined at operation. OF involving the urethra, bladder neck, and midvagina were classified as low; OF involving the vaginal apex, cervix, uterus, and ureters were classified as high. Main Outcome Measures Demographic information was compared between primiparous and multiparous women using Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney U tests. Multivariate logistic regression models were implemented to assess the relationship between variables of interest and fistula location. Results During the study period, 533 women presented for repair, of which 452 (84.8%) were included in the analysis. The majority (56.6%) were multiparous when the fistula formed. Multiparous women were more likely to have labored less than a day (62.4% vs 44.5%, p<0.001), delivered a live-born infant (26.8% vs 17.9%, p=0.026), and have a high fistula location (37.5% vs 11.2%, p<0.001). Multiparity (aOR=4.55, 95% CI 2.27–9.12) and history of cesarean delivery (aOR=4.11, 95% CI 2.45–6.89) were associated with development of a high fistula. Conclusions Multiparity was common in our cohort, and these women were more likely to have a high fistula. Additional research is needed to understand the etiology of high fistula including potential iatrogenic causes. PMID:26853525
Guirassy, S; Diallo, I S; Bah, I; Diallo, M B; Sow, K B; Diabate, I; Kaba, A; Balde, A
The authors analyse the epidemiological and therapeutic aspects of 186 cases of urogenital fistulas and attempt to define a preventive approach to these lesions. From January 1986 to December 31, 1993, 186 patients were admitted to the urology department of Ignace Deen hospital for urogenital fistulas. Each patient was submitted to the following assessment: complete clinical examination, laboratory examination, endoscopic examination, radiological examination. A therapeutic classification was established on the basis of this assessment: Group 1: complex fistulas. Group 2: difficult fistulas. Group 3: simple fistulas. Urogenital fistulas were predominantly observed in young primiparous women living in rural zones and the principal cause was a dystocic delivery: 179 cases (96.23%), while only 7 cases (3.7%) were due to gynaecological lesions. 246 primary and secondary repair operations were performed, corresponding to an average of 1.3 operations per patient. Cure was obtained in 131 patients (70.43%) including 37.63%) in Group 1, 8.61% in Group 2 and 21.19% in Group 3. In three cases of partial success, the fistulas were closed; two patients have persistent dysuria with reduced bladder capacity and one patient suffers from dyspareunia with impossibility of coital penetration. Finally, the 49 failures (26.34%) concerned 34 type 1 fistulas; 5 type 2 fistulas and 10 type 3 fistulas. In the light of our eight-year experience, urogenital fistula still appears to be a real problem in Guinea, where it represents a public health problem for which surgical cure still raises technical difficulties. In the fight for eradication of urogenital fistula in developing countries, emphasis must be placed on prevention with a just and equitable distribution of health care personnel in rural zones which are often underprivileged: constant improvement of the road network to allow rapid transfer of cases of foetomaternal dystocia to a reference centre; improvement of health structures
Zamani, Payman; Kaufman, James; Kinlay, Scott
Arteriovenous fistulae in the arm are commonly used for hemodialysis in end-stage renal disease. Although physiological steal with reverse flow in the artery distal to the fistula is common, hand ischemia or infarction are rare. The ischemic steal syndrome (hand or forearm ischemia) is usually a result of arterial disease proximal or distal to the fistula and/or poor collateral supply to the hand. The diagnosis is primarily clinical; however, markedly reduced digital pressures and pulse volume recordings support the diagnosis. Management requires imaging for focal stenoses or disease in arteries proximal and distal to the fistula from the aorta to the hand. We present a case caused by subclavian artery occlusion that was initially missed due to focusing investigation only on the fistula. We describe the percutaneous treatments and surgical revisions that attempt to restore flow to the hand without compromising the fistula.
Sneider, Erica B; Maykel, Justin A
Benign anorectal diseases, such as anal abscesses and fistula, are commonly seen by primary care physicians, gastroenterologists, emergency physicians, general surgeons, and colorectal surgeons. It is important to have a thorough understanding of the complexity of these 2 disease processes so as to provide appropriate and timely treatment. We review the pathophysiology, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment options for both anal abscesses and fistulas.
Sandler, J T; Deitel, M
A review of records of 27 patients with duodenal fistulas admitted to St. Joseph's Health Centre in Toronto since 1969, when total parenteral nutrition (TPN) was instituted, showed that in 19 patients the fistula formed after gastric resection, pyloroplasty or transduodenal sphincteroplasty. The remaining fistulas resulted from delayed presentation of perforated duodenal ulcers, trauma suffered in motor vehicle accidents and disease in neighbouring organs. Management included early nasogastric suctioning, withholding oral intake, draining the fistula contents, protecting the skin effectively, replacing fluid and electrolytes and administering TPN to suppress secretions and to promote anabolism. In seven patients who had associated duodenal obstruction in this intensely inflamed area, a gastrojejunostomy was performed. In no instance was a direct attack made on the fistula. In 25 patients (92.6%) the fistula healed spontaneously in an average of 21 days. Two patients (7.4%) died with patent fistulas. It appears that a direct surgical attack on duodenal fistulas is rarely necessary. With appropriate management, the majority will heal spontaneously. Total parenteral nutrition is the cornerstone of therapy and gastrojejunostomy is invaluable in certain cases.
A 66 year old woman had light-headedness and ataxia which increased slowly despite tissue seal of a post-stapedectomy oval window fistula. The cause was shown to be a large acoustic neuroma, ipsilateral to the side of the fistula. The history, physical, and laboratory findings are presented.
Lee, Gilho; Hong, Jeong Hee
We describe what is to our knowledge the first case of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis combined with nephrocutaneous fistula caused by Providencia rettgeri. Surgical extirpation including nephrectomy and fistulectomy was successfully performed. The strain was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing in both renal tissue and pus culture from the fistula.
Tebeu, Pierre Marie; Fomulu, Joseph Nelson; Khaddaj, Sinan; de Bernis, Luc; Delvaux, Thérèse; Rochat, Charles Henry
Obstetric fistula is the presence of a hole between a woman's genital tract and either the urinary or the intestinal tract. Better knowledge of the risk factors for obstetric fistula could help in preventing its occurrence. The purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics of obstetric fistula patients. We conducted a search of the literature to identify all relevant articles published during the period from 1987-2008. Among the 19 selected studies, 15 were reports from sub-Saharan Africa and 4 from the Middle East. Among the reported fistula cases, 79.4% to 100% were obstetrical while the remaining cases were from other causes. Rectovaginal fistulae accounted for 1% to 8%, vesicovaginal fistulae for 79% to 100% of cases, and combined vesicovaginal and rectovaginal fistulae were reported in 1% to 23% of cases. Teenagers accounted for 8.9% to 86% of the obstetrical fistulae patients at the time of treatment. Thirty-one to 67% of these women were primiparas. Among the obstetric fistula patients, 57.6% to 94.8% of women labor at home and are secondarily transferred to health facilities. Nine to 84% percent of these women delivered at home. Many of the fistula patients were shorter than 150 cm tall (40-79.4%). The mean duration of labor among the fistula patients ranged from 2.5 to 4 days. Twenty to 95.7% of patients labored for more than 24 h. Operative delivery was eventually performed in 11% to 60% of cases. Obstetric fistula was associated with several risk factors, and they appear to be preventable. This knowledge should be used in strengthening the preventive strategy both at the health facility and at the community level.
Capes, Tracy; Ascher-Walsh, Charles; Abdoulaye, Idrissa; Brodman, Michael
Vesicovaginal fistula secondary to obstructed labor continues to be an all-too-common occurrence in underdeveloped nations throughout Africa and Asia. Vesicovaginal fistula remains largely an overlooked problem in developing nations as it affects the most marginalized members of society: young, poor, illiterate women who live in remote areas. The formation of obstetric fistula is a result of complex interactions of social, biologic, and economic influences. The key underlying causes of fistula are the combination of a lack of functional emergency obstetric care, poverty, illiteracy, and low status of women. In order to prevent fistula, some strategies include creation of governmental policy aimed toward reducing maternal mortality/morbidity and increasing availability of skilled obstetric care, as well as attempts to increase awareness about its prevention and treatment among policymakers, service providers, and communities. Whereas prevention will require the widespread development of infrastructure within these developing countries, treatment of fistula is an act which can be done "in the now." Treatment and subsequent reintegration of fistula patients requires a team of specialists including surgeons, nurses, midwives, and social workers, which is largely unavailable in developing countries. However, there is increasing support for training of fistula surgeons through standardized programs as well as establishment of rehabilitation centers in many nations. The eradication of fistula is dependent upon building programs that target both prevention and treatment.
Karp, Natalie E; Kobernik, Emily K; Berger, Mitchell B; Low, Chelsea M; Fenner, Dee E
Rectovaginal fistulas can occur from both obstetric and nonobstetric (eg, inflammatory bowel disease, iatrogenic, or traumatic) etiologies. Current data on factors contributing to rectovaginal repair success or failure are limited, making adequate patient counseling difficult. Our objective was to compare outcomes of transperineal rectovaginal fistula repair performed in a single referral center on women with obstetric and nonobstetric causes. We performed a retrospective cohort study of women who had a transperineal rectovaginal fistula repair performed by a urogynecologist at the University of Michigan from 2005 to 2015. Data were obtained by chart review and included demographics, medical comorbidities, fistula etiology, history of a prior fistula repair, failure of current repair, time to failure, and operative details. Repair failure was defined as fistula symptoms with presence of recurrent fistula on exam or imaging in the postoperative follow-up period. Comparisons between the obstetric and nonobstetric cohorts were performed using χ, Fisher exact, and Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Relative risks were calculated to identify predictors of failure. Eighty-eight women were included-53 obstetric and 35 nonobstetric fistulas. The overall fistula repair failure rate was 22.7% (n = 20). Median follow-up was 157.0 days (range, 47.5-402.0). Of all the factors, only nonobstetric etiology was significantly associated with an increased risk of repair failure (relative risk, 3.53 [range, 1.50-8.32]; P = 0.004. Nonobstetric rectovaginal fistulas have a nearly 4-fold increased risk of repair failure compared with obstetric fistulas. Our results will help surgeons adequately counsel patients on potential outcomes of surgical repair of obstetric versus nonobstetric rectovaginal fistulas.
Kumar, Nitin; Larsen, Michael C.
A gastrointestinal fistula is a common occurrence, especially after surgery. Patients who develop a fistula may have an infection, surgically altered anatomy, nutritional deficiency, or organ failure, making surgical revision more difficult. With advancements in flexible endoscopic devices and technology, new endoscopic options are available for the management of gastrointestinal fistulae. Endoscopically deployable stents, endoscopic suturing devices, through-the-scope and over-the-scope clips, sealants, and fistula plugs can be used to treat fistulae. These therapies are even more effective in combination. Despite the inherent challenges in patients with fistulae, endoscopic therapies for treatment of fistulae have demonstrated safety and efficacy, allowing many patients to avoid surgical fistula repair. In this paper, we review the emerging role of endoscopy in the management of gastrointestinal fistulae. PMID:28845140
Terzi, Cem; Egeli, Tufan; Canda, Aras E; Arslan, Naciye C
A small-bowel enteroatmospheric fistula (EAF) is an especially challenging complication for patients with open abdomens (OAs) and their surgeons. Manipulation of the bowel during treatment (e.g. dressing changes) is one of the risk factors for developing these openings between the atmosphere and the gastrointestinal tract. Unlike enterocutaneous fistulae, EAFs have neither overlying soft tissue nor a real fistula tract, which reduces the likelihood of their spontaneous closure. Surgical closure is necessary but not always easy to do in the OA environment. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been used successfully as an adjunct therapy to heal the wound around EAFs. This review discusses many aspects of managing EAFs in patients with OAs, and presents techniques that have been developed to isolate the fistula and divert effluent while applying NPWT to the surrounding wound bed.
ascending aorta and pulmonary artery) and congenital coronary artery stenosis . Most coronary artery fistulas are congenital but may also...MILITARY MEDICINE, 172, 4: xi-xii, 2007 Military Medicine, Vol. 172, 4, April 2007 Radiology Corner Case #11 Coronary Artery Fistula...man with a single episode of vague sub- sternal chest pain was referred for evaluation of possible coronary artery disease. His medical history was
Allona Almagro, A; Sanz Migueláñez, J L; Pérez Sanz, P; Pozo Mengual, B; Navío Niño, S
The urinary fistulas are not a frequent problem in our urological rutinary work, being the vesicovaginal ones the most common. However, it will be necessary to know them to be able to diagnose and treat them in the best way. In this article we classificate the different urinary fistulas (uro-gynecologicals, uro-vasculars, uro-cutaneous and entero-urinarys), explaining the possible etiologies and the correct management.
Nakazawa, Shigeaki; Uemura, Motohide; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Tsujimura, Akira; Nonomura, Norio
We report here a rare case of urethral fistula and scrotal abscess associated with colovesical fistula due to sigmoid colon cancer. An 84-year-old male was referred to our hospital complaining of macrohematuria, fecaluria, pneumaturia and micturitional pain. Computed tomography (CT) showed colovesical fistula. Other examinations, including colonoscopy and cystoscopy, did not reveal a clear cause for the colovesical fistula. Only an elevated serum level of the tumor marker CA19-9 suggested the possibility of sigmoid colon cancer. Eleven days after hospitalization, bilateral scrotal contents had swollen rapidly to the size of a goose egg. CT suggested urethral fistula with scrotal abscess formation. Drainage of scrotal abscess and colostomy were performed. Intraoperatively, the fistula of the bulbar urethra was revealed. Because increased serum CA19-9 suggested a diagnosis of sigmoid colon cancer, cystectomy and sigmoid colectomy with right nephrectomy were performed. Pathological examination revealed adenocarcinoma of sigmoid colon with bladder invasion. His condition was improved with rehabilitation 6 months after operation.
Hovde, Øistein; Lie, Øyvind Haugen; Johansson, Per Arthur; Stubhaug, Øystein; Johnson, Egil; Hofstad, Bjørn; Hauge, Truls
Esophageo-tracheal fistula is a rare condition, and in most cases such fistulas are caused by malignant disease or emergency endotracheal intubation. A case where a wrapped tablet produced a fistula between the esophagus and trachea is described. The patient is a male born in 1938 who swallowed a tablet without unwrapping it. The patient was treated with self-expanding metal stents (SEMS), but closure of the fistula was not achieved. Different examinations and treatment options are discussed. Surgical treatment for this condition has demonstrated considerable mortality and morbidity. In some cases closure of the fistula can be achieved by use of SEMS. Although we advise treatment of such cases with SEMS, in some cases treatment with stents will prove troublesome and the risk/benefit analysis will have to be reevaluated. PMID:23382643
Koshy, Chiramel George Keshava, Shyamkumar Nigudala; Surendrababu, Narayanam R. S.; Moses, Vinu; Stephen, Edwin; Agarwal, Sunil
Surgery is considered to be the treatment of choice for vascular injuries caused by trauma. However, endovascular techniques are emerging as an alternative means of treatment. In this article, we describe three patients with posttraumatic arteriovenous fistulae in different body regions that were managed using endovascular techniques. Each case had its unique set of associated problems requiring innovative methods and a multidisciplinary approach. While the short-term results are encouraging, long-term follow-up of posttraumatic arteriovenous fistulae that have been treated with endovascular techniques is still required.
Zhang, Hua; Li, Li; Sun, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Chun-Ling
A 69-year-old woman was admitted to hospital 4 times from November 2007 to June 2009. The patient had silicosis complicated by broncholithiasis, esophagobronchial fistula, and relapsed tuberculosis. She had worked as a stone crusher for 3 years and was exposed to a large amount of quartz dust. Barium esophagography, gastroesophageal endoscopy, and biopsy suggested esophageal-related chronic inflammation and ulcer, which probably caused the repeated esophagobronchial fistulas observed. Bronchoscopy revealed a free broncholithiasis in the left main bronchus. The patient was readmitted a fourth time, for the relapse of silicotuberculosis. After 9 months of antituberculous therapy, she was doing well until the recent last follow-up visit.
Wall, L Lewis
Obstetric fistula, a devastating complication of prolonged obstructed labor, was once common in the Western world but now occurs almost exclusively in resource-poor countries. Although much has been written about the surgical repair of obstetric fistulas, prevention of fistulas has garnered comparatively little attention. Because obstetric fistulas result from obstructed labor (one of the common causes of maternal death in impoverished countries), this study assesses the obstetric fistula problem using a framework originally developed to analyze the determinants of maternal mortality. The framework identifies and explicates three sets of determinants of obstetric fistulas: the general socioeconomic milieu in which such injuries occur (the status of women, their families, and their communities); intermediate factors (health, reproductive status, and use of health care resources); and the acute clinical factors that determine the ultimate outcome of any particular case of obstructed labor. Interventions most likely to work rapidly in fistula prevention are those that have a direct impact on acute clinical situations, but these interventions will only be effective when general socioeconomic and cultural conditions promote an enabling environment for health care delivery and use. Sustained efforts that impact all three levels of determining factors will be necessary to eradicate obstetric fistula.
Rodríguez Cano, Ameyalli Mariana
Enterocutaneous fistula is the most common of all intestinal fistulas. Is a condition that requires prolonged hospital stay due to complications such as electrolyte imbalance, malnutrition, metabolic disorders and sepsis. Nutritional support is an essential part of the management; it favors intestinal and immune function, promotes wound healing and decreases catabolism. Despite the recognition of the importance of nutrition support, there is no strong evidence on its comprehensive management, which can be limiting when establishing specific strategies. The metabolic imbalance that a fistula causes is unknown. For low-output fistulas, energy needs should be based on resting energy expenditure, and provide 1.0 to 1.5 g/kg/d of protein, while in high-output fistulas energy requirement may increase up to 1.5 times, and provide 1.5 to 2.5 g/kg of protein. It is suggested to provide twice the requirement of vitamins and trace elements, and between 5 and 10 times that of Vitamin C and Zinc, especially for high-output fistulas. A complete nutritional assessment, including type and location of the fistula, are factors to consider when selecting nutrition support, whether is enteral or parenteral nutrition. The enteral route should be preferred whenever possible, and combined with parenteral nutrition when the requirements cannot be met. Nutritional treatment strategies in fistulas may include the use of immunomodulators and even stress management.
Raassen, Thomas J I P; Ngongo, Carrie J; Mahendeka, Marietta M
Genitourinary fistula poses a public health challenge in areas where women have inadequate access to quality emergency obstetric care. Fistulas typically develop during prolonged, obstructed labor, but providers can also inadvertently cause a fistula when performing obstetric or gynecological surgery. This retrospective study analyzes 805 iatrogenic fistulas from a series of 5,959 women undergoing genitourinary fistula repair in 11 countries between 1994 and 2012. Injuries fall into three categories: ureteric, vault, and vesico-[utero]/-cervico-vaginal. This analysis considers the frequency and characteristics of each type of fistula and the risk factors associated with iatrogenic fistula development. In this large series, 13.2 % of genitourinary fistula repairs were for injuries caused by provider error. A range of cadres conducted procedures resulting in iatrogenic fistula. Four out of five iatrogenic fistulas developed following surgery for obstetric complications: cesarean section, ruptured uterus repair, or hysterectomy for ruptured uterus. Others developed during gynecological procedures, most commonly hysterectomy. Vesico-[utero]/-cervico-vaginal fistulas were the most common (43.6 %), followed by ureteric injuries (33.9 %) and vault fistulas (22.5 %). One quarter of women with iatrogenic fistulas had previously undergone a laparotomy, nearly always a cesarean section. Among these women, one quarter had undergone more than one previous cesarean section. Women with previous cesarean sections are at an increased risk of iatrogenic injury. Work environments must be adequate to reduce surgical error. Training must emphasize the importance of optimal surgical techniques, obstetric decision-making, and alternative ways to deliver dead babies. Iatrogenic fistulas should be recognized as a distinct genitourinary fistula category.
Wiese, Tanya A
Broncholithiasis is a rare condition in which calcified material erodes into the tracheobronchial tree. Most are caused from a fungal, nocardial, mycobacterial, or silicosis-related granulomatous lymphadenitis. Over time, the peribronchial lymph nodes become calcified; thereafter, with the normal repetitive motions of respiration, circulation, and deglutition, the calcifications erode into the lumen of the airway. This condition can be challenging to diagnose as its symptoms can mimic many more common diseases. The most common symptoms are wheezing, chronic cough, and dyspnea; thus, it was previously referred to as "stone asthma." More devastating complications can include massive hemoptysis, recurrent pneumonias, bronchiectasis, mediastinal abscess, and fistula formations. Only airways to mediastinal, esophageal, or vascular fistulas have been reported in the literature. This is the first reported case of a patient treated with electrocautery forceps, who developed a mainstem to mainstem bronchial fistula.
Shindo, Yuji; Miyatani, Hiroyuki; Uehara, Takeshi; Ikeya, Takashi; Yamanaka, Kenichi; Ikeda, Masatoshi; Tokai, Kouichi; Ushimaru, Shinya; Matsumoto, Satohiro; Asano, Takeharu; Takamatsu, Toru; Fukunishi, Masanori; Iwaki, Takaaki; Sagihara, Yoshinori; Asabe, Shinichi; Yoshida, Yukio
A 78-year-old man with hepatocellular carcinoma treated by chemoembolization and percutaneous ethanol injection was admitted to our hospital because of acute abdomen. The CT scan showed biliary fistula caused by hepatocellular carcinoma protruding from S3. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed disruption of an intrahepatic duct and the main pancreatic duct, and contrast agent leaked into the peritoneal cavity from each duct. Omental panniculitis with biliary fistula and pancreatic fistula was diagnosed. The symptoms improved by endoscopic nasobiliary drainage and endoscopic pancreatic stenting. On the 13th day after admission, we added endoscopic nasopancreatic drainage because his abdominal pain had been exacerbated by pancreatic juice leakage. Omental panniculitis by hepatocellular carcinoma complicated by biliary fistula and pancreatic fistula is extremely rare. Endoscopic transpapillary pancreaticobiliary drainage was effective for omental panniculitis in this case.
Deseyne, S; Vanhouteghem, K; Hallaert, G; Delanghe, J; Malfait, T
We describe a case of a 56-year-old woman who developed a recurrent pleural effusion after a thoracoscopic resection of an anterior bulging thoracic disc hernia (level D9-D10). Despite several evacuating pleural punctions, dyspnea reoccurred due to recurrent pleural effusion, the same side as the disc resection. Because of increasing headache after each punction, a subarachnoidal pleural fistula (SAPF) was suspected. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed features suggestive of SAPF, there was not enough evidence to justify a new thorascopy. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage into the thoracic and abdominal cavity has been described as a result of trauma or surgery. Detection of beta-trace protein (BTP, a brain-specific protein) has been described to detect CSF fistulae causing rhino- and otoliquorrhea. Similarly, BTP determination could be used to identify the presence of CSF at other anatomical sites such as the thoracic cavity. Therefore, we decided to determine the concentration of BTP in the pleural effusion of this patient. BTP was assayed using immunonephelometry. The patient's BTP pleural fluid concentration was 14·0 mg/l, which was a 25-fold increase compared with the BTP serum concentration. After insertion of a subarachnoidal lumbal catheter, a video-assisted thorascopy was performed. Leakage of liquor through the parietal pleura into the thoracic cavity was observed. The SAPF was closed using a durasis patch and DuraSeal®. Postoperatively, there was no reoccurrence of pleural fluid. SAPF has to be included to the differential diagnosis of patients with persistent pleural effusion after spinal surgery. This case illustrates the importance of BTP in diagnosing SAPF, especially in cases where major therapeutic consequences may need to be drawn.
Scotté, M; Sibert, L; Soury, P; Lebret, T; Gobet, F; Grise, P; Tenière, P
A patient presented with a reno-cutaneous fistula revealing a xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis secondary to staghorn calculus. Total nephrectomy was necessary because of renal destruction. This treatment allowed closure of the fistula and a good clinical result.
Bojakowski, Krzysztof; Góra, Rafał; Jodkowski, Grzegorz; Andziak, Piotr
Limb ischaemia caused by formation of dialysis fistula is rare but serious complication. The severity of symptoms may vary but rest pains and necrotic lesions are observed in most advance cases. In these patients different invasive procedures for treatment are performed - from simplest dialysis fistula ligation to complicated vascular reconstructions. The aim of the study was to evaluate treatment results of upper limb ischaemia triggered by dialysis fistula. We have analysed methods and results of treatment of 14 patients with symptomatic upper limb ischaemia caused by dialysis fistula treated in our department between 1st January, 2006 and 30th June, 2013. Treatment was subject to anatomical situation and clinical symptoms. In three patients the ligation of dialysis fistula was performed, four patients underwent inflow reconstruction - in one case by ligation of ligation of vein branch, in three patients by cephalic transfer of arterial anastomosis. In 2 patients hyperkinetic fistula aneurysm was excised and replaced by PTFE bypass, in three patients fistula reconstruction with DRIL method (distal revascularization - interval ligation) was performed, in one patient surgical operation of brachial artery stenosis was conducted. One patient underwent brachial artery angioplasty. Rest pains occurred in all patients (100%), regressive changes in 10 patients (71.4%). Eight patients (57.2%) had concomitant diabetes, seven (50%) ischaemic heart disease, five (35.5%) chronic lower limb ischemia and hyperparathyroidism was observed in fivepatients (35.5%). The imaging studies in all patients revealed pathological steal syndrome (stealing blood to the fistula), in majority concurrent with other pathologies - obstruction stenosis of peripheral artery, defects in blood out flow from the limb. As a result of the surgical treatment, symptoms of limb ischaemia subsided in all patients. Critical limb ischaemia caused by dialysis fistula is a dangerous complication. In most cases
Bubbers, Emily J.; Cologne, Kyle G.
Complex anal fistulas require careful evaluation. Prior to any attempts at definitive repair, the anatomy must be well defined and the sepsis resolved. Several muscle-sparing approaches to anal fistula are appropriate, and are often catered to the patient based on their presentation and previous repairs. Emerging technologies show promise for fistula repair, but lack long-term data. PMID:26929751
Rabii, Redouane; Fekak, Hamid; el Manni, Ahmed; Joual, Abdenbi; Benjelloun, Saad; el Mrini, Mohammed
In a 60-year-old man admitted for right epididymo-orchitis with scrotal fistula and urine leak via the rectum, the diagnosis of tuberculosis was based on histological examination of a tissue sample of the scrotal fistula. The fistula was successfully treated with tuberculostatic drugs and cystostomy.
Aswani, Yashant; Hira, Priya
Pancreaticopleural fistula is a rare complication of chronic pancreatitis consequent to posterior disruption of the pancreatic duct. The fistulous track ascends into the pleural cavity and gives rise to large volumes of pleural fluid. Pancreaticopleural fistula thus poses a diagnostic problem since the source of pleural fluid is extrathoracic. To further complicate the matter, abdominal pain is seldom the presenting or significant feature. The pleural effusion is typically rapidly accumulating, recurrent and exudative in nature. Pleural fluid amylase in the correct clinical setting virtually clinches the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and computed tomography may delineate the fistula and thus aid in diagnosis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography has emerged both as a diagnostic as well as therapeutic modality in select patients of pancreaticopleural fistula while magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography is the radiological investigation of choice. Besides delineating the ductal anatomy, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography can help stratify patients for appropriate management. A near normal or mildly dilated pancreatic duct responds well to chest drainage with octreotide while endoscopic stent placement benefits patients with duct disruption located in head or body of pancreas. Failure of medical or endoscopic therapy calls in for surgical intervention. Besides, a primary surgical management may be tried in patients with complete ductal obstruction, ductal disruption in tail or ductal obstruction proximal to fistula site.
Dudukgian, Haig; Abcarian, Herand
Anal fistula is among the most common illnesses affecting man. Medical literature dating back to 400 BC has discussed this problem. Various causative factors have been proposed throughout the centuries, but it appears that the majority of fistulas unrelated to specific causes (e.g. Tuberculosis, Crohn's disease) result from infection (abscess) in anal glands extending from the intersphincteric plane to various anorectal spaces. The tubular structure of an anal fistula easily yields itself to division or unroofing (fistulotomy) or excision (fistulectomy) in most cases. The problem with this single, yet effective, treatment plan is that depending on the thickness of sphincter muscle the fistula transgresses, the patient will have varying degrees of fecal incontinence from minor to total. In an attempt to preserve continence, various procedures have been proposed to deal with the fistulas. These include: (1) simple drainage (Seton); (2) closure of fistula tract using fibrin sealant or anal fistula plug; (3) closure of primary opening using endorectal or dermal flaps, and more recently; and (4) ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract (LIFT). In most complex cases (i.e. Crohn's disease), a proximal fecal diversion offers a measure of symptomatic relief. The fact remains that an "ideal" procedure for anal fistula remains elusive. The failure of each sphincter-preserving procedure (30%-50% recurrence) often results in multiple operations. In essence, the price of preservation of continence at all cost is multiple and often different operations, prolonged disability and disappointment for the patient and the surgeon. Nevertheless, the surgeon treating anal fistulas on an occasional basis should never hesitate in referring the patient to a specialist. Conversely, an expert colorectal surgeon must be familiar with many different operations in order to selectively tailor an operation to the individual patient.
Dudukgian, Haig; Abcarian, Herand
Anal fistula is among the most common illnesses affecting man. Medical literature dating back to 400 BC has discussed this problem. Various causative factors have been proposed throughout the centuries, but it appears that the majority of fistulas unrelated to specific causes (e.g. Tuberculosis, Crohn’s disease) result from infection (abscess) in anal glands extending from the intersphincteric plane to various anorectal spaces. The tubular structure of an anal fistula easily yields itself to division or unroofing (fistulotomy) or excision (fistulectomy) in most cases. The problem with this single, yet effective, treatment plan is that depending on the thickness of sphincter muscle the fistula transgresses, the patient will have varying degrees of fecal incontinence from minor to total. In an attempt to preserve continence, various procedures have been proposed to deal with the fistulas. These include: (1) simple drainage (Seton); (2) closure of fistula tract using fibrin sealant or anal fistula plug; (3) closure of primary opening using endorectal or dermal flaps, and more recently; and (4) ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract (LIFT). In most complex cases (i.e. Crohn’s disease), a proximal fecal diversion offers a measure of symptomatic relief. The fact remains that an “ideal” procedure for anal fistula remains elusive. The failure of each sphincter-preserving procedure (30%-50% recurrence) often results in multiple operations. In essence, the price of preservation of continence at all cost is multiple and often different operations, prolonged disability and disappointment for the patient and the surgeon. Nevertheless, the surgeon treating anal fistulas on an occasional basis should never hesitate in referring the patient to a specialist. Conversely, an expert colorectal surgeon must be familiar with many different operations in order to selectively tailor an operation to the individual patient. PMID:21876616
Albeyoglu, Sebnem; Aldag, Mustafa; Ciloglu, Ufuk; Sargin, Murat; Oz, Tugba Kemaloglu; Kutlu, Hakan; Dagsali, Sabri
Objective The aim of this study was to describe the demographic, clinical and anatomic characteristics of coronary arteriovenous fistulas in adult patients who underwent open cardiac surgery and to review surgical management and outcomes. Methods Twenty-one adult patients (12 female, 9 male; mean age: 56.1±7.9 years) who underwent surgical treatment for coronary arteriovenous fistulas were retrospectively included in this study. Coronary angiography, chest X-ray, electrocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography were preoperatively performed in all patients. Demographic and clinical data were also collected. Postoperative courses of all patients were monitored and postoperative complications were noted. Results A total of 25 coronary arteriovenous fistulas were detected in 21 patients; the fistulas originated mainly from left anterior descending artery (n=9, 42.8%). Four (19.4%) patients had bilateral fistulas originating from both left anterior descending and right coronary artery. The main drainage site of coronary arteriovenous fistulas was the pulmonary artery (n=18, 85.7%). Twelve (57.1%) patients had isolated coronary arteriovenous fistulas and 4 (19.4%), concomitant coronary artery disease. Twenty (95.3%) of all patients were symptomatic. Seventeen patients were operated on with and 4 without cardiopulmonary bypass. There was no mortality. Three patients had postoperative atrial fibrillation. One patient had pericardial effusion causing cardiac tamponade who underwent reoperation. Conclusion The decision of surgical management should be made on the size and the anatomical location of coronary arteriovenous fistulas and concomitant cardiac comorbidities. Surgical closure with ligation of coronary arteriovenous fistulas can be performed easily with on-pump or off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting, even in asymptomatic patients to prevent fistula related complications with very low risk of mortality and morbidity.
Gu, Guo-Li; Wang, Lin; Wei, Xue-Ming; Li, Ming; Zhang, Jie
Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is an uncommon, rapidly progressive, and potentially fatal infection of the superficial fascia and subcutaneous tissue. NF caused by an enterocutaneous fistula has special clinical characters compared with other types of NF. NF caused by enterocutaneous fistula may have more rapid progress and more severe consequences because of multiple germs infection and corrosion by digestive juices. We treated three cases of NF caused by postoperative enterocutaneous fistula since Jan 2007. We followed empirically the principle of eliminating anaerobic conditions of infection, bypassing or draining digestive juice from the fistula and changing dressings with moist exposed burn therapy impregnated with zinc/silver acetate. These three cases were eventually cured by debridement, antibiotics and wound management.
Pillinger, Toby; Abdelrahman, Mohamed; Jones, Gregory; D'Souza, Francis
A 58-year-old female presented with urosepsis and faecaluria secondary to a colovesical fistula of diverticular aetiology. A plan was made for surgical repair of the fistula. Preoperatively the patient developed a hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis, with hyperkalaemia and hyponatraemia. Renal function was normal, and a short synachten test ruled out Addison's disease. Postoperatively her acid-base physiology normalised in the absence of medical management, demonstrating that surgical intervention was responsible for resolution of the patient's metabolic acidosis. The mechanisms by which colovesical pathophysiology causes hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis are discussed. Although diverticular disease is the most common cause of colovesical fistulae, this is the first report of such fistulae causing metabolic acidosis.
de Parades, Vincent; Zeitoun, Jean-David; Bauer, Pierre; Atienza, Patrick
Cryptoglandular anal fistulae are the most frequently occurring form of perianal sepsis. Characteristically they have an endoanal primary opening, a fistula track and an abscess and/or an external purulent opening. Antibiotic therapy is not of use in initial management except in special cases. Treatment of an abscess, if present, is required urgently and when possible, consists of its incision under local anaesthesia. Treating the fistula track occurs afterwards and aims to dry up the purulent discharge and avoid recurrence of the abscess by means of surgical fistulotomy. These techniques are very effective in terms of eradication of the problem but there is sometimes a risk of anal incontinence. This explains the increasing interest in sphincter preserving techniques using the advancement of a covering flap of rectal mucosa and the injection of fibrin glue.
Korkmaz, Hakan; Saylam, Guleser; Bayir, Omer; Tatar, Emel Cadalli; Ozdek, Ali
Pharyngeal and esophageal perforations are rare during cervical spine surgery but can cause significant morbidity. Pharyngeal or eosephageal perforations can occur by several mechanisms and the management of pharyngeal or eosephageal perforation's treatment may become difficult. We report a 41-year-old paraplegic man with an interscapular pharyngocutaneous fistula secondary to cervical vertebral surgery. The diagnosis of posterior fistula was delayed for several months as it was an extremely rare complication. We explored the anterior neck and repaired the perforation on the right pyriform sinus primarily. The fistula tract on the back of the patient was completely healed and the patient started oral feeding in the second week after surgery.
Hackert, T; Büchler, M W
The occurrence of a postoperative pancreatic fistula is one of the most important complications following pancreatic resections. The frequency of this complication varies between 3 % after pancreatic head resection and up to 35 % following distal pancreatectomy. In 2005, the international definition of postoperative pancreatic fistula was standardized according to the approach of the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) including an A-C grading system of the severity. Consequently, results from different studies have become comparable and the historically reported fistula rates can be evaluated more critically. The present review summarises the currently available data on incidence, risk factors, fistula-associated complications and management of postoperative pancreatic fistula.
Nada, Fennich; Fedoua, Elouali; Ghita, Saghi; Nadia, Bouzammour; Leila, Haddour; Jamila, Zarzur; Mohamed, Cherti
Coronary artery fistula is an uncommon finding during angiographic exams. We report a case series of five patients with congenital coronary fistulas. The first patient was 56 years old and had a coronary fistula associated with a partial atrio ventricular defect, the second patient was 54 years old and had two fistulas originating from the right coronary artery with a severe atherosclerotic coronary disease, the third patient was 57 years old with a fistula originating from the circumflex artery associated with a rheumatic mitral stenosis, the fourth patient was 50 years old and had a fistulous communication between the right coronary artery and the right bronchial artery, and the last patient was 12 years old who had bilateral coronary fistulas draining into the right ventricle with an aneurismal dilatation of the coronary arteries. Angiographic aspects of coronary fistulas are various; management is controversial and depends on the presence of symptoms.
Fennich, Nada; Elouali, Fedoua; Saghi, Ghita; Bouzammour, Nadia; Haddour, Leila; Zarzur, Jamila; Cherti, Mohamed
Coronary artery fistula is an uncommon finding during angiographic exams. We report a case series of five patients with congenital coronary fistulas. The first patient was 56 years old and had a coronary fistula associated with a partial atrio ventricular defect, the second patient was 54 years old and had two fistulas originating from the right coronary artery with a severe atherosclerotic coronary disease, the third patient was 57 years old with a fistula originating from the circumflex artery associated with a rheumatic mitral stenosis, the fourth patient was 50 years old and had a fistulous communication between the right coronary artery and the right bronchial artery, and the last patient was 12 years old who had bilateral coronary fistulas draining into the right ventricle with an aneurismal dilatation of the coronary arteries. Angiographic aspects of coronary fistulas are various; management is controversial and depends on the presence of symptoms. PMID:24501660
Ouedraogo, Itengre; McConley, Regina; Payne, Christopher; Heller, Alison; Wall, L Lewis
The objective was to determine the contribution of female genital cutting to genital fistula formation in Niger from the case records of a specialist fistula hospital. A retrospective review was undertaken of the records of 360 patients seen at the Danja Fistula Center, Danja, Niger, between March 2014 and September 2016. Pertinent clinical and socio-demographic data were abstracted from the cases identified. A total of 10 fistulas resulting from gurya cutting was obtained: 9 cases of urethral loss and 1 rectovaginal fistula. In none of the cases was genital cutting performed for obstructed labor or as part of ritual coming-of-age ceremonies, but all cutting procedures were considered "therapeutic" within the local cultural context as treatment for dyspareunia, lack of interest in or unwillingness to engage in sexual intercourse, or female behavior that was deemed to be culturally inappropriate by the male spouse, parents, or in-laws. Clinical cure (fistula closed and the patient continent) was obtained in all 10 cases, although 3 women required more than one operation. Gurya cutting is an uncommon, but preventable, cause of genital fistulas in Niger. The socio-cultural context which gives rise to gurya cutting is explored in some detail.
Khallouk, A; Tazi, M. F; Elfassi, M. J; Farih, M. H
Chronic spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula is a rare renal disease. Renal replacement lipomatosis (RRL) is the result of the atrophy and destruction of renal parenchyma with massive increases in the amount of fat in the sinus and perirenal space. The 2 conditions can be associated because they may have the same etiology. Indeed, urolithiasis is the most common cause of these diseases. We report a case of chronic nephrocutaneous fistula associated with RRL due to both urolithiasis and renal tuberculosis. PMID:21234262
Khallouk, A; Tazi, M F; Elfassi, M J; Farih, M H
Chronic spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula is a rare renal disease. Renal replacement lipomatosis (RRL) is the result of the atrophy and destruction of renal parenchyma with massive increases in the amount of fat in the sinus and perirenal space. The 2 conditions can be associated because they may have the same etiology. Indeed, urolithiasis is the most common cause of these diseases. We report a case of chronic nephrocutaneous fistula associated with RRL due to both urolithiasis and renal tuberculosis.
Achneck, Hardean E; Sileshi, Bantayehu; Li, Madison; Partington, Erin J; Peterson, David A; Lawson, Jeffrey H
Since the Fistula First Initiative was formulated in 2003, providers and payers have increasingly emphasized the need to create more arteriovenous fistulae. To maximize the chances of successful fistula maturation, a thorough understanding of the biology and surgical aspects of fistula placement are essential. A functional endothelium in the target vessels is the prerequisite for the adaptive remodeling of the vessel wall, which has to take place after fistula formation. Mechanoreceptors of the endothelium sense the increase in shear stress and, through a variety of activated signaling cascades, induce the necessary changes and vasodilation of the respective vessels. The successful fistula placement starts with a thorough preoperative evaluation, which focuses on protecting the target vessels and avoiding intravenous catheters and devices. Intraoperatively, the risk of endothelial dysfunction and hyperplasia is further minimized through an atraumatic dissection with minimal manipulation of the vein and artery. The surgical technique should also focus on decreasing the vessel compliance mismatch and avoiding an inflammatory response secondary to hematoma formation. Postoperatively, the fistula must be diligently monitored for the complications of thrombosis, postoperative steal syndrome, neuropathy, aneurysm formation, infection, and high-output cardiac failure. Early recognition of a problem is the key to saving an otherwise doomed fistula. An armamentarium of percutaneous techniques is available to the access surgeon to treat the most common causes of failed access formation. However, in some cases a surgical revision of the access site through patch angioplasty, a jump graft, and graft interposition is necessary to create a fistula which can be successfully used for hemodialysis.
Willcutts, Kate; Mercer, David; Ziegler, Jane
Enteric fistulas can be classified as enterocutaneous and/or enteroatmospheric. Both are devastating complications of bowel disease, abdominal surgery, and/or open abdomen. Enteric fistulas are associated with a mortality rate varying from 1% to 33%; the main cause of death is sepsis. Coordinated and skillful efforts of an interprofessional team are required in customizing successful treatment regimens appropriate to each patient's unique clinical scenario. A 65-year-old white woman experienced an enteroatmospheric fistula patient after ventral hernia repair. Care of this patient was based on the complementary relationship between professionals from 2 disciplines: the wound and ostomy continence nurse (WOC nurse) and the nutrition support registered dietitian/nutritionist. Working together, they developed a comprehensive wound, ostomy, and nutritional plan. Initially, the patient received parenteral nutrition exclusively. After the fistula tract was clearly defined, a feeding tube was placed into the distal limb of the fistula, and she received nourishment via a fistuloclysis (ie, enteral feedings administered via the fistula). A special wound management system was created to contain fistula output while allowing feeding through the distal limb of the fistula. Enterocutaneous and enteroatmospheric fistulas originating from the small bowel present a management challenge to the entire healthcare team. WOC nurses are often called upon to meet the challenge of maintaining skin health while promoting dignity and function. Nutrition support via registered dietitian/nutritionists play a critical role in managing the nutrition regimen for these patients. In this case, the use of fistuloclysis met the patient's nutritional needs while avoiding the risks associated with parenteral nutrition.
Anorectal abscess and fistula are among the most common diseases encountered in adults. Abscess and fistula should be considered the acute and chronic phase of the same anorectal infection. Abscesses are thought to begin as an infection in the anal glands spreading into adjacent spaces and resulting in fistulas in ~40% of cases. The treatment of an anorectal abscess is early, adequate, dependent drainage. The treatment of a fistula, although surgical in all cases, is more complex due to the possibility of fecal incontinence as a result of sphincterotomy. Primary fistulotomy and cutting setons have the same incidence of fecal incontinence depending on the complexity of the fistula. So even though the aim of a surgical procedure is to cure a fistula, conservative management short of major sphincterotomy is warranted to preserve fecal incontinence. However, trading radical surgery for conservative (nonsphincter cutting) procedures such as a draining seton, fibrin sealant, anal fistula plug, endorectal advancement flap, dermal island flap, anoplasty, and LIFT (ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract) procedure all result in more recurrence/persistence requiring repeated operations in many cases. A surgeon dealing with fistulas on a regular basis must tailor various operations to the needs of the patient depending on the complexity of the fistula encountered. PMID:22379401
Andreani, S M; Dang, H H; Grondona, P; Khan, A Z; Edwards, D P
Crohn's disease is characterized by transmural bowel inflammation and a tendency to form fistulas with adjacent structures. Several different fistulas have been described: enterocutaneous, enteroenteric, enterovesical, enterovaginal, and perineal. Rectovaginal fistulas are difficult to treat despite multimodal therapy. This study was designed to review the current strategic options to best manage this condition. We reviewed the English-language literature from 1966 to 2006, using PUBMED, targeting Crohn's disease involving vagina using key words "rectovaginal fistula and CD," "anovaginal fistula and CD," "anovaginal fistula," and "rectovaginal fistula." We excluded the involvement of the vagina from a pouch after a proctectomy. A total of 776 articles were found; 206 articles were identified and judged as being relevant on the basis of title-related articles and links were reviewed. Fifty-three articles were selected after reading the abstract or full manuscript. The management of rectovaginal fistula, representing 9 percent of all fistulas, remains a challenge in the setting of Crohn's disease. Medical treatments are not favorable with low rates of long-term symptomatic control and unacceptable high rates of recurrence. Several novel and new surgical techniques have been described, and rectal advancement flap, in selected patients, seems to have the most successful results. The management of rectovaginal fistula of Crohn's origin should involve both gastroenterologists and coloproctologists, with the best surgical results being achieved in patients receiving optimum medical therapy. More focused studies targeting these patients with the use of combined medical and surgical therapy are necessary.
Lee-Elliott, Catherine; Khaw, Kok-Tee; Belli, Anna-Maria; Patel, Uday
A case is presented of an iatrogenic arteriovenous fistula developing in a renal allograft following guidewire manipulation during transplant renal artery angioplasty. Hyperdynamic flow through the fistula was causing a shunt of blood away from the renal cortex as demonstrated on sonography and scintigraphy. Selective embolization was performed, correcting the maldistribution of flow to the peripheral renal cortex. The diagnosis and difficulty in management of asymptomatic renal arteriovenous fistulae is also discussed.
... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Embolization of Brain Aneurysms and Arteriovenous Malformations/Fistulas Embolization of brain ... Brain Aneurysms and Fistulas? What is Embolization of Brain Aneurysms and Fistulas? Embolization of brain aneurysms and ...
Beksac, Kemal; Erkan, Arman; Kaynaroglu, Volkan
Internal biliary fistula is a rare complication of a common surgical disease, cholelithiasis. It is seen in 0.74% of all biliary tract surgeries and is thought to be a result of repeated inflammatory periods of the gallbladder. In this report we present a case of incomplete cholecystogastric and cholecystoduodenal fistulae in a single patient missed by ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and diagnosed intraoperatively. In the literature there is only one report of an incomplete cholecystogastric fistula. To our knowledge this is the first case of double incomplete internal biliary fistulae. PMID:26904348
Beksac, Kemal; Erkan, Arman; Kaynaroglu, Volkan
Internal biliary fistula is a rare complication of a common surgical disease, cholelithiasis. It is seen in 0.74% of all biliary tract surgeries and is thought to be a result of repeated inflammatory periods of the gallbladder. In this report we present a case of incomplete cholecystogastric and cholecystoduodenal fistulae in a single patient missed by ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and diagnosed intraoperatively. In the literature there is only one report of an incomplete cholecystogastric fistula. To our knowledge this is the first case of double incomplete internal biliary fistulae.
Sica, Giuseppe S; Di Carlo, Sara; Tema, Giorgia; Montagnese, Fabrizio; Del Vecchio Blanco, Giovanna; Fiaschetti, Valeria; Maggi, Giulia; Biancone, Livia
Anal fistulas are a common manifestation of Crohn’s disease (CD). The first manifestation of the disease is often in the peri-anal region, which can occur years before a diagnosis, particularly in CD affecting the colon and rectum. The treatment of peri-anal fistulas is difficult and always multidisciplinary. The European guidelines recommend combined surgical and medical treatment with biologic drugs to achieve best results. Several different surgical techniques are currently employed. However, at the moment, none of these techniques appear superior to the others in terms of healing rate. Surgery is always indicated to treat symptomatic, simple, low intersphincteric fistulas refractory to medical therapy and those causing disabling symptoms. Utmost attention should be paid to correcting the balance between eradication of the fistula and the preservation of fecal continence. PMID:25309057
Sica, Giuseppe S; Di Carlo, Sara; Tema, Giorgia; Montagnese, Fabrizio; Del Vecchio Blanco, Giovanna; Fiaschetti, Valeria; Maggi, Giulia; Biancone, Livia
Anal fistulas are a common manifestation of Crohn's disease (CD). The first manifestation of the disease is often in the peri-anal region, which can occur years before a diagnosis, particularly in CD affecting the colon and rectum. The treatment of peri-anal fistulas is difficult and always multidisciplinary. The European guidelines recommend combined surgical and medical treatment with biologic drugs to achieve best results. Several different surgical techniques are currently employed. However, at the moment, none of these techniques appear superior to the others in terms of healing rate. Surgery is always indicated to treat symptomatic, simple, low intersphincteric fistulas refractory to medical therapy and those causing disabling symptoms. Utmost attention should be paid to correcting the balance between eradication of the fistula and the preservation of fecal continence.
Dereje, Matifan; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinesh; Asrat, Daneil; Ayenachew, Fekade
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) causes a serious health problem and affects millions of people worldwide. Patients with obstetric fistula usually suffer from incontinence of urine and stool, which can predispose them to frequent infections of the urinary tract. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the etiologic agents, drug resistance pattern of the isolates and associated risk factor for urinary tract infection among fistula patients in Addis Ababa fistula hospital, Ethiopia. Across sectional study was conducted from February to May 2015 at Hamlin Fistula Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Socio-demographic characteristics and other UTI related risk factors were collected from study participants using structured questionnaires. The mid-stream urine was collected and cultured on Cysteine lactose electrolyte deficient agar and blood agar. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by using disc diffusion method and interpreted according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Out of 210 fistula patients investigated 169(80.5%) of the patient were younger than 25 years. Significant bacteriuria was observed in 122/210(58.1%) and 68(55.7%) of the isolates were from symptomatic cases. E.coli 65(53.7%) were the most common bacterial pathogen isolated followed by Proteus spp. 31(25.4%). Statistical Significant difference was observed with history of previous UTI (P = 0.031) and history of catheterization (P = 0.001). Gram negative bacteria isolates showed high level of resistance (>50%) to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin, while all gram positive bacteria isolated were showed low level of resistance (20-40%) to most of antibiotic tested. The overall prevalence of urinary tract infection among fistula patient is 58.1%. This study showed that the predominant pathogen of UTI were E.coli followed by Proteus spp. It also showed that amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was a drug of choice for urinary tract
Enofe, Ikponmwosa; Thacker, Ike
Dementia is a chronic loss of neurocognitive function that is progressive and irreversible. Although rare, dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) could present with a rapid decline in neurocognitive function with or without Parkinson-like symptoms. DAVFs represent a potentially treatable and reversible cause of dementia. Here, we report the case of an elderly woman diagnosed with a DAVF after presenting with new-onset seizures, deteriorating neurocognitive function, and Parkinson-like symptoms. PMID:28405088
Fievé, G; Bour, P
A 48-year-old patient who had had an aortofemoral reconstruction with a Dacron graft nine years earlier presented with intestinal bleeding. At laparotomy the cause was found to be a fistula between a proximal false aneurysm and the vermiform appendix. The patient recovered after removal of the graft and extraanatomic revascularization associated with appendectomy. Four other similar case reports have been found in the literature.
Gora, Nandkishore; Singh, Amit; Jain, Sharad; Parihar, Ummaid Singh; Bhutra, Shyam
Cholecystocolic fistula is a rare billiary-enteric fistula with variable clinical presentation. Despite modern diagnostic tool a high degree of suspicion is required to diagnose it preoperatively. These fistulae are treated by open as well as laparoscopic surgery, with no difference in intraoperative and postoperative complications. We are describing a 50-year-old female patient with the diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis with cholelithiasis, which was investigated with routine lab investigations, and abdominal ultrasonography but none of these gave us any clue to the presence of fistula, were discovered incidentally during an open surgery and were appropriately treated. PMID:24783121
Said, S.A.M.; Thiadens, A.A.H.J.; Fieren, M.J.C.H.; Meijboom, E.J.; van der Werf, T.; Bennink, G.B.W.E.
The aetiology of congenital coronary artery fistulas remains a challenging issue. Coronary arteries with an anatomically normal origin may, for obscure reasons, terminate abnormally and communicate with different single or multiple cardiac chambers or great vessels. When this occurs, the angiographic morphological appearance may vary greatly from discrete channels to plexiform network of vessels. Coronary arteriovenous fistulas (CAVFs) have neither specific signs nor pathognomonic symptoms; the spectrum of clinical features varies considerably. The clinical presentation of symptomatic cases can include angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, fatigue, dyspnoea, CHF, SBE, ventricular and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias or even sudden cardiac death. CAVFs may, however, be a coincidental finding during diagnostic coronary angiography (CAG). CAG is considered the gold standard for diagnosing and delineating the morphological anatomy and pathway of CAVFs. There are various tailored therapeutic modalities for the wide spectrum of clinical manifestations of CAVFs, including conservative pharmacological strategy, percutaneous transluminal embolisation and surgical ligation. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:25696067
Tatar, Burak; Erdemoğlu, Ebru; Soyupek, Sedat; Yalçın, Yakup; Erdemoğlu, Evrim
Vesicocutaneous fistulas are very rare pathologies in the urinary tract. We present the second case of a vesicocutaneus fistula after cesarean section, and discuss strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of this exceptional complication. A woman with a vesicocutaneous fistula after cesarean delivery was admitted and diagnostic tests including fluoroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and reconstructed MRI revealed the fistula tract and an urachal anomaly. The patient was treated through excision of the fistula tract. Laparotomy should be performed carefully, and the surgeon should be aware of the urachus. Inadvertent trauma to the urachus during laparotomy might cause serious unexpected complications. Possible etiologic factors for vesicocutaneous fistulae, prevention, and treatment methods are discussed. PMID:28913089
Horcajadas Almansa, Angel; Román Cutillas, Ana; Jorques Infante, Ana; Ruiz Gómez, José; Busquier, Heriberto
Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas are rather common in daily practice. The aim of the surgical treatment is closure of the leak, but recurrences are quite frequent. The association between spontaneous CSF fistulas and idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is not uncommon, and this is probably the cause of the low rate of success of the surgical treatment. Symptoms of IIH associated with spontaneous CSF fistula are atypical, and diagnosis is often missed. Continuous intracranial pressure monitoring is very useful in the diagnosis of chronic IIH and in patients with spontaneous CSF fistula, as it helps in making decisions on the treatment of these patients.
Benlafqih, Chakib; Léobon, Bertrand; Chabbert, Valérie; Glock, Yves
Coronary artery fistulas are rare and half of them are symptomatic. Diagnosis is confirmed by echocardiography and coronarography and can be precisely located by multislice CT-scan. We report the case of a 56-year-old female patient with congestive heart failure caused by a coronaro-cardiac fistula established between the proximal circumflex coronary artery and the right atrium. Surgical exclusion of the fistula was achieved by ligation of both extremities and a running suture on the aneurysmal vessel. Follow-up at 6 months was satisfactory with an asymptomatic patient and absence of recurrence of the fistula on echocardiography.
Liu, Jian-xun; Zhang, Xinrong
The method of treating anal fistula with YAG laser technique is described in this essay. One-hundred-twenty patients have been treated successfully with this method and no recurrence was found in our series. Anal fistula is a common disorder in the anus and rectum. The tunnel of fistula zigzags around the external or internal sphincters. If the drainage is poor, and the skin around the external opening grows rapidly, false healing may occur and cause recurrent abscess. In this case, a fistula can not be cured except by operation.
Limura, Elsa; Giordano, Pasquale
Ideal surgical treatment for anal fistula should aim to eradicate sepsis and promote healing of the tract, whilst preserving the sphincters and the mechanism of continence. For the simple and most distal fistulae, conventional surgical options such as laying open of the fistula tract seem to be relatively safe and therefore, well accepted in clinical practise. However, for the more complex fistulae where a significant proportion of the anal sphincter is involved, great concern remains about damaging the sphincter and subsequent poor functional outcome, which is quite inevitable following conventional surgical treatment. For this reason, over the last two decades, many sphincter-preserving procedures for the treatment of anal fistula have been introduced with the common goal of minimising the injury to the anal sphincters and preserving optimal function. Among them, the ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract procedure appears to be safe and effective and may be routinely considered for complex anal fistula. Another technique, the anal fistula plug, derived from porcine small intestinal submucosa, is safe but modestly effective in long-term follow-up, with success rates varying from 24%-88%. The failure rate may be due to its extrusion from the fistula tract. To obviate that, a new designed plug (GORE BioA®) was introduced, but long term data regarding its efficacy are scant. Fibrin glue showed poor and variable healing rate (14%-74%). FiLaC and video-assisted anal fistula treatment procedures, respectively using laser and electrode energy, are expensive and yet to be thoroughly assessed in clinical practise. Recently, a therapy using autologous adipose-derived stem cells has been described. Their properties of regenerating tissues and suppressing inflammatory response must be better investigated on anal fistulae, and studies remain in progress. The aim of this present article is to review the pertinent literature, describing the advantages and limitations of
Limura, Elsa; Giordano, Pasquale
Ideal surgical treatment for anal fistula should aim to eradicate sepsis and promote healing of the tract, whilst preserving the sphincters and the mechanism of continence. For the simple and most distal fistulae, conventional surgical options such as laying open of the fistula tract seem to be relatively safe and therefore, well accepted in clinical practise. However, for the more complex fistulae where a significant proportion of the anal sphincter is involved, great concern remains about damaging the sphincter and subsequent poor functional outcome, which is quite inevitable following conventional surgical treatment. For this reason, over the last two decades, many sphincter-preserving procedures for the treatment of anal fistula have been introduced with the common goal of minimising the injury to the anal sphincters and preserving optimal function. Among them, the ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract procedure appears to be safe and effective and may be routinely considered for complex anal fistula. Another technique, the anal fistula plug, derived from porcine small intestinal submucosa, is safe but modestly effective in long-term follow-up, with success rates varying from 24%-88%. The failure rate may be due to its extrusion from the fistula tract. To obviate that, a new designed plug (GORE BioA®) was introduced, but long term data regarding its efficacy are scant. Fibrin glue showed poor and variable healing rate (14%-74%). FiLaC and video-assisted anal fistula treatment procedures, respectively using laser and electrode energy, are expensive and yet to be thoroughly assessed in clinical practise. Recently, a therapy using autologous adipose-derived stem cells has been described. Their properties of regenerating tissues and suppressing inflammatory response must be better investigated on anal fistulae, and studies remain in progress. The aim of this present article is to review the pertinent literature, describing the advantages and limitations of
Background Obstetric fistula is a worldwide problem that is devastating for women in developing countries. The cardinal cause of obstetric fistula is prolonged obstructed labour and delay in seeking emergency obstetric care. Awareness about obstetric fistula is still low in developing countries. The objective was to assess the awareness about risk factors of obstetric fistulae in rural communities of Nabitovu village, Iganga district, Eastern Uganda. Methods A qualitative study using focus group discussion for males and females aged 18-49 years, to explore and gain deeper understanding of their awareness of existence, causes, clinical presentation and preventive measures for obstetric fistula. Data was analyzed by thematic analysis. Results The majority of the women and a few men were aware about obstetric fistula, though many had misconceptions regarding its causes, clinical presentation and prevention. Some wrongly attributed fistula to misuse of family planning, having sex during the menstruation period, curses by relatives, sexually transmitted infections, rape and gender-based violence. However, others attributed the fistula to delays to access medical care, induced abortions, conception at an early age, utilization of traditional birth attendants at delivery, and some complications that could occur during surgical operations for difficult deliveries. Conclusion Most of the community members interviewed were aware of the risk factors of obstetric fistula. Some respondents, predominantly men, had misconceptions/myths about risk factors of obstetric fistula as being caused by having sex during menstrual periods, poor usage of family planning, being a curse. PMID:24321441
Kasamba, Nassar; Kaye, Dan K; Mbalinda, Scovia N
Obstetric fistula is a worldwide problem that is devastating for women in developing countries. The cardinal cause of obstetric fistula is prolonged obstructed labour and delay in seeking emergency obstetric care. Awareness about obstetric fistula is still low in developing countries. The objective was to assess the awareness about risk factors of obstetric fistulae in rural communities of Nabitovu village, Iganga district, Eastern Uganda. A qualitative study using focus group discussion for males and females aged 18-49 years, to explore and gain deeper understanding of their awareness of existence, causes, clinical presentation and preventive measures for obstetric fistula. Data was analyzed by thematic analysis. The majority of the women and a few men were aware about obstetric fistula, though many had misconceptions regarding its causes, clinical presentation and prevention. Some wrongly attributed fistula to misuse of family planning, having sex during the menstruation period, curses by relatives, sexually transmitted infections, rape and gender-based violence. However, others attributed the fistula to delays to access medical care, induced abortions, conception at an early age, utilization of traditional birth attendants at delivery, and some complications that could occur during surgical operations for difficult deliveries. Most of the community members interviewed were aware of the risk factors of obstetric fistula. Some respondents, predominantly men, had misconceptions/myths about risk factors of obstetric fistula as being caused by having sex during menstrual periods, poor usage of family planning, being a curse.
McGah, Patrick; Leotta, Daniel; Beach, Kirk; Aliseda, Alberto
Arteriovenous fistulae are created surgically to provide access for dialysis in patients with renal failure. The current hypothesis is that the rapid remodeling occurring after the fistula creation is in part a process to restore the mechanical stresses to some preferred level (i.e. mechanical homeostasis). Given that nearly 50% of fistulae require an intervention after one year, understanding the altered hemodynamic stress is important in improving clinical outcomes. We perform numerical simulations of four patient-specific models of functioning fistulae reconstructed from 3D Doppler ultrasound scans. Our results show that the vessels are subjected to `normal' shear stresses away from the anastomosis; about 1 Pa in the veins and about 2.5 Pa in the arteries. However, simulations show that part of the anastomoses are consistently subjected to very high shear stress (>10Pa) over the cardiac cycle. These elevated values shear stresses are caused by the transitional flows at the anastomoses including flow separation and quasiperiodic vortex shedding. This suggests that the remodeling process lowers shear stress in the fistula but that it is limited as evidenced by the elevated shear at the anastomoses. This constant insult on the arterialized venous wall may explain the process of late fistula failure in which the dialysis access become occluded after years of use. Supported by an R21 Grant from NIDDK (DK081823).
Naranjo Gómez, Jose Manuel; Carbajo Carbajo, Miguel; Valdivia Concha, Daniel; Campo-Cañaveral de la Cruz, Jose Luis
Post-lobectomy bronchopleural fistula is a rare complication of lung resection surgery, and proper management is essential for its successful resolution. Most published papers deal with endoscopic and surgical treatment. We report our experience with conservative management. Data were collected by reviewing the clinical charts of patients diagnosed with post-lobectomy bronchopleural fistula at the University Hospitals Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander, and Puerta de Hierro, Majadahonda-Madrid, Spain, from June 2003 to December 2010. Bronchopleural fistula was diagnosed by means of endoscopic visualization. Treatment included the insertion of a thoracostomy drainage tube in the pleural cavity. In patients under mechanical ventilation, independent pulmonary ventilation was also applied. Seven cases of post-lobectomy bronchopleural fistula were collected. Three of them occurred within the first week, another three within the first month and the remaining case after 10 months. The fistula size ranged between 6 mm and complete suture dehiscence. Two patients died due to causes unrelated to the treatment. The period of time elapsed for the resolution of this complication varied between 5 and 36 days. We conclude that conservative treatment of post-lobectomy bronchopleural fistula is a safe and simple option that must be taken into account in the management of this problem. PMID:22508893
Naranjo Gómez, Jose Manuel; Carbajo Carbajo, Miguel; Valdivia Concha, Daniel; Campo-Cañaveral de la Cruz, Jose Luis
Post-lobectomy bronchopleural fistula is a rare complication of lung resection surgery, and proper management is essential for its successful resolution. Most published papers deal with endoscopic and surgical treatment. We report our experience with conservative management. Data were collected by reviewing the clinical charts of patients diagnosed with post-lobectomy bronchopleural fistula at the University Hospitals Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander, and Puerta de Hierro, Majadahonda-Madrid, Spain, from June 2003 to December 2010. Bronchopleural fistula was diagnosed by means of endoscopic visualization. Treatment included the insertion of a thoracostomy drainage tube in the pleural cavity. In patients under mechanical ventilation, independent pulmonary ventilation was also applied. Seven cases of post-lobectomy bronchopleural fistula were collected. Three of them occurred within the first week, another three within the first month and the remaining case after 10 months. The fistula size ranged between 6 mm and complete suture dehiscence. Two patients died due to causes unrelated to the treatment. The period of time elapsed for the resolution of this complication varied between 5 and 36 days. We conclude that conservative treatment of post-lobectomy bronchopleural fistula is a safe and simple option that must be taken into account in the management of this problem.
Rahmi, Gabriel; Perretta, Silvana; Pidial, Laetitia; Vanbiervliet, Geoffroy; Halvax, Peter; Legner, Andras; Lindner, Veronique; Barthet, Marc; Dallemagne, Bernard; Cellier, Christophe; Clément, Olivier
Background Fistulas after esophagectomy are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Several endoscopic treatments have been attempted, with varying success. An experimental model that could validate new approaches such as cellular therapies is highly desirable. The aim of this study was to create a chronic esophageal enterocutaneous fistula model in order to study future experimental treatment options. Methods Eight pigs (six 35-kg young German and two 50-kg adult Yucatan pigs) were used. Through a left and right cervicotomy, under endoscopic view, 1 (group A, n = 6) or 2 (group B, n = 7) plastic catheters were introduced into the esophagus 30 cm from the dental arches bilaterally and left in place for 1 month. Radiologic and endoscopic fistula tract evaluations were performed at postoperative day (POD; 30) and at sacrifice (POD 45). Results Three fistulas were excluded from the study because of early (POD 5) dislodgment of the catheter, with complete fistula closure. At catheter removal (POD 30), the external orifice was larger in group B (5.2 ± 1.1 mm vs 2.6 ± 0.4 mm) with more severe inflammation (72% vs 33%). At POD 45, the external orifice was closed in all fistulas in group A and in 1/7 in group B. At necropsy, the fistula tract was still present in all animals. Yucatan pigs showed more complex tracts, with a high level of necrosis and substantial fibrotic infiltration. Conclusions In this article, we show a reproducible, safe, and effective technique to create an esophagocutaneous fistula model in a large experimental animal.
Pingfan, Wu; Zhenge, Lei; Jian, Wu; Linlin, Chen
Dermoid cysts in the floor of the mouth with tongue fistula are unusual lesions. This study reported a case of dermoid cyst in the floor of the mouth with tongue fistula, analyzed the causes of such formation, and discussed the appropriate diagnosis and treatment methods by reviewing relevant literature.
CONDE, Lauro Massaud; TAVARES, Pedro Monnerat; QUINTES, Jorge Luiz Delduque; CHERMONT, Ronny Queiroz; PEREZ, Mario Castro Alvarez
Introduction Cholecystocolic fistula is a rare complication of gallbladder disease. Its clinical presentation is variable and nonspecific, and the diagnosis is made, mostly, incidentally during intraoperative maneuver. Cholecystectomy with closure of the fistula is considered the treatment of choice for the condition, with an increasingly reproducible tendency to the use of laparoscopy. Aim To describe the laparoscopic approach for cholecystocolic fistula and ratify its feasibility even with the unavailability of more specific instruments. Technique After dissection of the communication and section of the gallbladder fundus, the fistula is externalized by an appropriate trocar and sutured manually. Colonic segment is reintroduced into the cavity and cholecystectomy is performed avoiding the conversion procedure to open surgery. Conclusion Laparoscopy for resolution of cholecystocolic fistula isn't only feasible, but also offers a shorter stay at hospital and a milder postoperative period when compared to laparotomy. PMID:25626940
Wang, Hongwu; Li, Dongmei; Zhang, Nan; Zou, Hang; Luo, Lingfei; Ma, Hongming; Zhou, Yunzhi; Li, Jing; Liang, Sujuan
Treating airway fistulas, including esophagorespiratory fistulas (ERFs), bronchopleural fistulas (BPFs), and tracheomediastinal fistulas (TMFs), is difficult. The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and clinical efficacy of metallic covered Z-type stents (CZTS) for the treatment of airway fistulas through bronchoscopy or fluroscopy. Thirty-eight patients with fistulas between the esophagus, mediastina, and airways (32 ERFs, 5 BPFs, and 1 TMF) were retrospectively reviewed after treatment with covered metallic esophageal and airway stents. The fistulas were caused by esophageal (n=26), bronchogenic (n=11), and thyroid (n=1) carcinomas. Forty-six fistulas were found in 38 patients. The fistula size ranged from 0.5 cm to 7.0 cm. Forty airway covered metal stents (24 Y-type, 8 L-type, and 8 I-type) and 24 esophageal metal stents were placed. Complete responses to the sealing effects of fistulas were noted in 4.3% of all the fistulas, 60.9% showed complete clinical responses, 23.9% showed partial responses, and 10.9% showed no response. An effectivity rate of 89.1% was observed, and the median survival duration of all patients was 5 months. The use of CZTS appears to be safe and feasible for the palliative treatment of ERFs, BPFs, and TMFs. Airway stent placement is recommended for patients with ERF. In the event that airway stents fail, esophageal stents should be given. Airway bifurcation stents were observed to be especially suitable for the sealing of fistulas near the trachea carina.
Wilson, Sarah M.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Watt, Melissa H.; Masenga, Gileard G.
Background Obstetric fistula is a childbirth injury prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa that causes uncontrollable leaking of urine and/or feces. Research has documented the social and psychological sequelae of obstetric fistula, including mental health dysfunction and social isolation. Purpose This cross-sectional study sought to quantify the psychological symptoms and social support in obstetric fistula patients, compared with a patient population of women without obstetric fistula. Methods Participants were gynecology patients (N = 144) at the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center in Moshi, Tanzania, recruited from the Fistula Ward (n = 54) as well as gynecology outpatient clinics (n = 90). Measures included previously validated psychometric questionnaires, administered orally by Tanzanian nurses. Outcome variables were compared between obstetric fistula patients and gynecology outpatients, controlling for background demographic variables and multiple comparisons. Results Compared to gynecology outpatients, obstetric fistula patients reported significantly higher symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatic complaints, and maladaptive coping. They also reported significantly lower social support. Conclusions Obstetric fistula patients present for repair surgery with more severe psychological distress than gynecology outpatients. In order to address these mental health concerns, clinicians should engage obstetric fistula patients with targeted mental health interventions. PMID:25670025
Song, Wei-Liang; Wang, Zhen-Jun; Zheng, Yi; Yang, Xin-Qing; Peng, Ya-Ping
AIM: To investigate a new technique of the anorectal fistula treatment with acellular extracellular matrix (AEM). METHODS: Thirty patients with anorectal fistula were treated with AEM. All fistula tracts and primary openings were identified using conventional fistula probe. All tracts were curetted with curet and irrigated with hydrogen peroxide and metronidazole. The AEM was pulled into the fistula tract from secondary to primary opening. The material was secured at the level of the primary opening. The excess AEM was trimmed at skin level at the secondary opening. RESULTS: All of the 30 patients had successful closure of their fistula after a 7-14 d follow-up. The healing rate of anal fistula in treatment group was 100%. The ache time, healing time and anal deformation of treatment group were obviously superior to traditional surgical methods. CONCLUSION: Using AEM anal fistula plug in treatment that causes the anorectal fistula is safe and successful in 100% of patients. It can reduce pain, shorten disease course and protect anal function. PMID:18720541
Boedeker, Nancy C; Guzzetta, Philip; Rosenthal, Steven L; Padilla, Luis R; Murray, Suzan; Newman, Kurt
A 10-y-old ovariohysterectomized ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) was presented for exacerbation of respiratory signs. The lemur had a history of multiple examinations for various problems, including traumatic lacerations and recurrent perivulvar dermatitis. Examination revealed abnormal lung sounds and a femoral arteriovenous fistula with a palpable thrill and auscultable bruit in the right inguinal area. A diagnosis of congestive heart failure was made on the basis of exam findings, radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, and echocardiography. The lemur was maintained on furosemide until surgical ligation of the fistula was performed. Postoperative examination confirmed successful closure of the fistula and resolution of the signs of heart failure. Arteriovenous fistulas are abnormal connections between an artery and a vein that bypass the capillary bed. Large arteriovenous fistulas may result in decreased peripheral resistance and an increase in cardiac output with consequent cardiomegaly and high output heart failure. This lemur's high-flow arteriovenous fistula with secondary heart failure may have been iatrogenically induced during blood collection by prior femoral venipuncture. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of an arteriovenous fistula in a prosimian. Successful surgical correction of suspected iatrogenic femoral arteriovenous fistulas in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) and a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) have been reported previously. Arteriovenous fistula formation should be considered as a rare potential complication of venipuncture and as a treatable cause of congestive heart failure in lemurs. PMID:24672831
Boedeker, Nancy C; Guzzetta, Philip; Rosenthal, Steven L; Padilla, Luis R; Murray, Suzan; Newman, Kurt
A 10-y-old ovariohysterectomized ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) was presented for exacerbation of respiratory signs. The lemur had a history of multiple examinations for various problems, including traumatic lacerations and recurrent perivulvar dermatitis. Examination revealed abnormal lung sounds and a femoral arteriovenous fistula with a palpable thrill and auscultable bruit in the right inguinal area. A diagnosis of congestive heart failure was made on the basis of exam findings, radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, and echocardiography. The lemur was maintained on furosemide until surgical ligation of the fistula was performed. Postoperative examination confirmed successful closure of the fistula and resolution of the signs of heart failure. Arteriovenous fistulas are abnormal connections between an artery and a vein that bypass the capillary bed. Large arteriovenous fistulas may result in decreased peripheral resistance and an increase in cardiac output with consequent cardiomegaly and high output heart failure. This lemur's high-flow arteriovenous fistula with secondary heart failure may have been iatrogenically induced during blood collection by prior femoral venipuncture. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of an arteriovenous fistula in a prosimian. Successful surgical correction of suspected iatrogenic femoral arteriovenous fistulas in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) and a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) have been reported previously. Arteriovenous fistula formation should be considered as a rare potential complication of venipuncture and as a treatable cause of congestive heart failure in lemurs.
There are two forms of anal fistulas arising from its pathogenesis: the acute stage is the abscess, whereas the chronic stage is the fistula in ano. The classification of the fistula in ano is named after Parks. Pathogenesis and classification are explained. For complete cure, every abscess needs precise examination to be able to show the course and shape of the fistula. The surgical procedure depends on the fistula tract. Most fistulas can be operated by means of a fistulotomy or fistulectomy. Recovery depends on locating the total fistula tract.
Tamam, Muge; Yavuz, Hatice Sümeyye; Hacimahmutoğlu, Serafettin; Mülazimoğlu, Mehmet; Kacar, Tulay; Ozpacaci, Tevfik
Colovesical fistula is an abnormal connection between the enteric and urinary systems, usually sigmoid colon, caused by various conditions. One cause of colovesical fistula is iatrogenic injury, such as induced by inguinal hernia surgery. We present a case of colovesical fistula. A 57-year-old male was admitted to a local hospital with complaints of dysuria and pneumaturia. He had a past history of total extraperitoneal laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair operation 7 years previously for bilateral inguinal hernia. The case was assessed with radiologic and scintigraphic techniques. Radiologic techniques (plain abdominal radiography, intravenous pyelogram, ultrasound examination, double-contrast barium enema, CT, MRI) were inadequate to determine the colovesical fistula. The colovesical fistula was visualized with direct radionuclide voiding cystography as an alternative scintigraphic method.
Shawki, Sherief; Wexner, Steven D
Fistula-in-ano is the most common form of perineal sepsis. Typically, a fistula includes an internal opening, a track, and an external opening. The external opening might acutely appear following infection and/or an abscess, or more insiduously in a chronic manner. Management includes control of infection, assessment of the fistulous track in relation to the anal sphincter muscle, and finally, definitive treatment of the fistula. Fistulotomy was the most commonly used mode of management, but concerns about post-fistulotomy incontinence prompted the use of sphincter preserving techniques such as advancement flaps, fibrin glue, collagen fistula plug, ligation of the intersphincteric fistula track, and stem cells. Many descriptive and comparative studies have evaluated these different techniques with variable outcomes. The lack of consistent results, level I evidence, or long-term follow-up, as well as the heterogeneity of fistula pathology has prevented a definitive treatment algorithm. This article will review the most commonly available modalities and techniques for managing idiopathic fistula-in-ano. PMID:21876614
Shaw, J; Tunitsky-Bitton, E; Barber, M D; Jelovsek, J E
We describe the presentation, diagnosis, and management of ureterovaginal fistula over a 7-year period at a tertiary care center. A retrospective review of ureterovaginal fistula cases between 2003 and 2011 was performed. Demographic information, antecedent event, symptoms, diagnostic modalities, and management strategies were reviewed. Nineteen ureterovaginal fistulas were identified during the 7-year study period. One fistula followed a repeat cesarean section and 18 fistulas followed a hysterectomy (9 total abdominal, 6 total laparoscopic, 3 vaginal hysterectomies). Ureteral injuries were not recognized in any of the patients at the time of index surgery. Computed tomography (CT) urography was the most commonly utilized diagnostic modality (58%). Primary non-surgical management with ureteral stents was attempted and successful in 5 out of 7 cases (71%). There were 14 total surgical repairs, including 2 cases in which stents were successfully placed, but the fistula persisted, and 6 additional cases where attempted stent placement failed. Surgical repair consisted of 10 ureteroneocystostomies performed via laparotomy and 4 performed laparoscopically, 3 of which were robotically assisted. Despite being uncommon, ureterovaginal fistula should remain in the differential diagnosis of new post-operative urinary incontinence after gynecological surgery. Conservative management with ureteral stent appears to be the best initial approach in selected patients, with a success rate of 71%. Minimally invasive approaches to performing ureteroneocystostomy have high success rates, comparable to those of open surgical repair.
de Parades, V; Zeitoun, J-D; Atienza, P
Fistula arising from the glands of the anal crypts is the most common form of anoperineal sepsis. It is characterized by a primary internal orifice in the anal canal, a fistulous tract, and an abscess and/or secondary perineal orifice with purulent discharge. Antibiotics are not curative. The treatment of an abscess is urgent and consists, whenever possible, of incision and drainage under local anesthesia. Definitive treatment of the fistulous tract can await a second stage. The primary aim is to control infection without sacrificing anal continence. Fistulotomy is the basis for all treatments but the specific technique depends on the height of the fistula in relation to the sphincteric mechanism. Overall results of fistulotomy are excellent but there is some risk of anal incontinence. This explains the growing interest in sphincter sparing techniques such as the mucosal advancement flap, the injection of fibrin glue, and the plug procedure. However, results of these procedures are not yet good enough and leave much room for improvement.
Efsen, Eva; Saermark, Torben; Hansen, Alastair; Bruun, Eywin; Brynskov, Jørn
Increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -3 and -9 has been demonstrated in Crohn's disease fistulas, but it is unknown whether these enzymes are biologically active and represent a therapeutic target. Therefore, we investigated the proteolytic activity of MMPs in fistula tissue and examined the effect of inhibitors, including clinically available drugs that beside their main action also suppress MMPs. Fistula specimens were obtained by surgical excision from 22 patients with Crohn's disease and from 10 patients with fistulas resulting from other causes. Colonic endoscopic biopsies from six controls were also included. Total functional MMP activity was measured by a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based, fluorogenic MMP-substrate cleavage assay, and the specific activity of MMP-2, -3 and -9 by the MMP Biotrak Activity Assay. The MMP inhibitors comprised ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA), the synthetic broad-spectrum inhibitor, GM6001, the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, ramiprilate, and the tetracycline, doxycycline. In Crohn's disease fistulas, about 50% of the total protease activity was attributable to MMP activity. The average total MMP activity was significantly higher (about 3.5-times) in Crohn's fistulas (471 FU/μg protein, range 49-2661) compared with non-Crohn's fistulas [134 FU/μg protein, range 0-495, (p < 0.05)] and normal colon [153 FU/μg protein, range 77-243, (p < 0.01)]. MMP-3 activity was increased in Crohn's fistulas (1.4 ng/ml, range 0-9.83) compared with non-Crohn's fistulas, [0.32 ng/ml, range 0-2.66, (p < 0.02)]. The same applied to MMP-9 activity [0.64 ng/ml, range 0-5.66 and 0.17 ng/ml, range 0-1.1, respectively (p < 0.04)]. Ramiprilate significantly decreased the average total MMP activity level by 42% and suppressed the specific MMP-3 activity by 72%, which is comparable to the effect of GM6001 (87%). Moreover, MMP-9 activity was completely blunted by ramiprilate. Doxycycline had no
Dudrick, S J; Maharaj, A R; McKelvey, A A
Gastrointestinal (GI) fistulas allow abnormal diversions of GI contents, digestive juices, water, electrolytes, and nutrients from one hollow viscus to another or to the skin, potentially precipitating a wide variety of pathophysiologic effects. Mortality rates have decreased significantly during the past few decades from as high as 40% to 65% to 5.3% to 21.3% largely as a result of advances in intensive care, nutritional support, antimicrobial therapy, wound care, and operative techniques. The primary causes of death secondary to enterocutaneous fistulas have been, and continue to be, malnutrition, electrolyte imbalances, and sepsis, especially in high-output fistulas, which continue to have a mortality rate of about 35%. Priorities in the management of GI fistulas include restoration of blood volume and correction of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base imbalances; control of infection and sepsis with appropriate antibiotics and drainage of abscesses; initiation of GI tract rest including secretory inhibition and nasogastric suction; control and collection of fistula drainage with protection of the surrounding skin; and provision of optimal nutrition by total parenteral nutrition (TPN) or enteral nutrition (EN) (or both). The role of nutrition support in the management of enterocutaneous fistulas as either TPN or EN is primarily one of supportive care to prevent malnutrition, thereby obviating further deterioration of an already debilitated patient. It has been shown in several studies that TPN has substantially improved the prognosis of GI fistula patients by increasing the rate of spontaneous closure and improving the nutritional status of patients requiring repeat operations. Moreover, other studies have shown that nutritional support decreases or modifies the composition of the GI tract secretions and is thus considered to have a primary therapeutic role in the management of fistula patients. Finally, if a fistula has not closed within 30 to 40 days, or if it is
Brown, W.H.; Stothert, J.C. Jr.
Traumatic subarachnoid-pleural fistulas are rare. The authors found nine cases reported since 1959. Seven have been secondary to trauma and two following thoracotomy. One patient's death is thought to be directly related to the fistula. The diagnosis should be suspected in patients with a pleural effusion and associated vertebral trauma. The diagnosis can usually be confirmed with contrast or radioisotopic myelography. Successful closure of the fistula will usually occur spontaneously with closed tube drainage and antibiotics; occasionally, thoracotomy is necessary to close the rent in the dura.
Lundqvist, Adam; Ahlberg, Ida; Hjalte, Frida; Ekelund, Mats
Anal fistula is an abnormal tract with an external and internal opening that cause leakage, discomfort, and occasionally pain. Surgery is standard treatment, but recurrence and anal incontinence is common. The objective of the study was to analyze resource use, costs and sick leave for newly diagnosed patients with anal fistula in Sweden. The study was based on register data from linkages between Swedish population-based registers including patients treated for anal fistula in Västra Götaland County, Sweden. Health care resource use, costs and sick leave were estimated. The sample included 362 patients of which 27% had no surgery, 37% had one surgery and 36% had multiple surgeries. Patients with multiple surgeries underwent over four surgeries on average. Approximately 67% of the contacts occurred during the first year after diagnosis. Estimated mean sick leave was 10.4 full-time equivalent days per patient. Total discounted costs were €5,561 per patient where approximately 80% were direct costs. To our knowledge this is the first study of resource use, costs and sick leave related to anal fistulas. The study indicates that anal fistula is a condition that is costly for society and that the burden of anal fistula in terms of health care resources and sick leave is especially high for patients experiencing multiple surgeries. Anal fistula is a condition that is costly for society and there is an unmet need for the group of patients with multiple surgeries to find appropriate treatment interventions. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Tae-Hoon; Park, Do-Hyun; Park, Ji-Young; Lee, Suck-Ho; Chung, Il-Kwun; Kim, Hong-Soo; Park, Sang-Heum; Kim, Sun-Joo
Duodenal perforations caused by biliary prostheses are not uncommon, and they are potentially life threatening and require immediate treatment. We describe an unusual case of aortic aneurysm and rupture which occurred after retroperitoneal aortoduodenal fistula formation as a rare complication caused by biliary metallic stent-related duodenal perforation. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing a lethal complication of a bleeding, aortoduodenal fistula and caused by biliary metallic stent-induced perforation.
Devevey, Jean-Marc; Randrianantenaina, Amédée; Soubeyrand, Marie-Sophie; Justrabo, Eve; Michel, Frédéric
The authors report a case of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis presenting with nephrocutaneous fistula. This case illustrates all of the typical features of this disease: late diagnosis, non-functioning affected kidney, staghorn calculi, urinary tract anomaly, perinephritis with fistulization. The authors review the diagnostic and therapeutic modalities of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis and discuss the other aetiologies of nephrocutaneous fistula. In view of the severity of this disease and its preoperative resemblance to renal cancer, nephrectomy is often the only available treatment option.
Machado, Norman Oneil
Pancreaticopleural fistula is a rare complication of acute and chronic pancreatitis. This usually presents with chest symptoms due to pleural effusion, pleural pseudocyst, or mediastinal pseudocyst. Diagnosis requires a high index of clinical suspicion in patients who develop alcohol-induced pancreatitis and present with pleural effusion which is recurrent or persistent. Analysis of pleural fluid for raised amylase will confirm the diagnosis and investigations like CT. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ECRP) or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography (MRCP) may establish the fistulous communication between the pancreas and pleural cavity. The optimal treatment strategy has traditionally been medical management with exocrine suppression with octreotide and ERCP stenting of the fistulous pancreatic duct. Operative therapy considered in the event patient fails to respond to conservative management. There is, however, a lack of clarity regarding the management, and the literature is reviewed here to assess the present view on its pathogenesis, investigations, and management.
Antunes, Alberto A; Calado, Adriano A; Falcão, Evandro
Spontaneous renal fistula to the skin is rare. The majority of cases develop in patients with antecedents of previous renal surgery, renal trauma, renal tumors, and chronic urinary tract infection with abscess formation. We report the case of a 62-year old woman, who complained of urine leakage through the skin in the lumbar region for 2 years. She underwent a fistulography that revealed drainage of contrast agent to the collecting system and images suggesting renal lithiasis on this side. The patient underwent simple nephrectomy on this side and evolved without intercurrences in the post-operative period. Currently, the occurrence of spontaneous renal and perirenal abscesses is extremely rare, except in patients with diabetes, neoplasias and immunodepression in general.
Sharma, A K
A biliary fistula is almost invariably related to gallstone disease and commonly follows a hurried cholecystectomy by an inexperienced surgeon. This catastrophy which is largely preventable, often necessitates repeated surgical intervention and accrues an estimated 5-year mortality rate approaching 30%. Published series only show a slight increase in the incidence (one per 150-200) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The injury results from imprecise dissection and inadequate demonstration of the anatomical structures. The diagnosis is usually obvious and persistent tachycardia and hypotension inspite of an adequate intravenous infusion and a normal central venous pressure is another well known indicator of subhepatic collection of bile, which indicates an urgent ultrasonographic scanning of the upper abodmen. ERCP is a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool when the continuity of the extra-hepatic biliary system has not been disrupted. An endobiliary stent can be placed across the defect in the same sitting, to tide over the immediate crisis and perhaps treat the patient on a permanent basis. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is a non-invasive technique of outlining both the intra and extrahepatic biliary tree, which can provide a better road map of the fistula than an ERCP. The management has to be tailored to the patient's condition and the expertise available. A bilio-enteric anastomosis, performed 4 to 6 months after the initial surgery on a dilated common hepatic duct is more likely to succeed than an operation on a septic, hypoproteinemic patient with sodden, friable, non-dilated bile ducts. On the other hand, waiting for the ducts to dilate in a patient with a complete transection of the bile ducts with complete biliary diversion only leads to depletion of the bile acid pool, severe electrolyte derangement and nutritional failure, leading on to sepsis and death.
Farca, A; Moreno, M; Mundo, F; Rodríguez, G
Biliary fistulas have been managed by surgical correction with no good results. From 1986 to 1990, endoscopic therapy was attempted in 24 patients with postoperative persistent biliary-cutaneous fistulas. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography demonstrated residual biliary stones in 19 patients (79%). The mean fistula drainage was 540 ml/day, and in 75% the site of the fistula was near the cistic duct stump. Sphincterotomy with or without biliary stent placement resulted in rapid resolution of the fistula in 23 patients (95.8%). In those patients treated with biliary stents the fistula healed spectacularly in 24-72 hrs.
Zeng, Xiandong; Zhang, Yong
Anal fistula is a common disease. It is also quite difficult to be solved without recurrence or damage to the anal sphincter. Several techniques have been described for the management of anal fistula, but there is no final conclusion of their application in the treatment. This article summarizes the history of anal fistula management, the current techniques available, and describes new technologies. Internet online searches were performed from the CNKI and Wanfang databases to identify articles about anal fistula management including seton, fistulotomy, fistulectomy, LIFT operation, biomaterial treatment and new technology application. Every fistula surgery technique has its own place, so it is reasonable to give comprehensive individualized treatment to different patients, which may lead to reduced recurrence and avoidance of damage to the anal sphincter. New technologies provide promising alternatives to traditional methods of management. Surgeons still need to focus on the invention and improvement of the minimally invasive techniques. Besides, a new therapeutic idea is worth to explore that the focus of surgical treatment should be transferred to prevention of the formation of anal fistula after perianal abscess.
Violi, Vincenzo; Salvemini, Carlo; Darecchio, Antonio; Detullio, Paolo; Costi, Renato
Because pancreaticocystostomy is a method of exocrine secretion management in pancreas transplantation, a legitimate question is whether a pure pancreatic fistula could be shunted into the bladder. After duodenopancreatectomy for cancer, a pancreaticojejunostomy leakage was treated by pancreas-saving anastomosis disconnection. The resulting pure pancreaticocutaneous fistula was later diverted into the bladder using a Denver valved-pump device. Technical problems necessitated redoing the shunt using a modified technique and device. Although the system did work, catheter displacement outside the bladder finally caused device takedown and external fistula restoration. Our attempt did not succeed mostly because of our inexperience in dealing with an altogether novel issue without appropriate technology. Supposing its feasibility, a pancreatic-bladder shunt might have a role in treating pure pancreatic fistulas or creating an external fistula whenever the pancreatic remnant is unreliable for an anastomosis, or when a leaked anastomosis' disconnection is preferable to completion pancreatectomy. PMID:24833149
Rushwan, Hamid; Khaddaj, Sinan; Knight, Louise; Scott, Rachel
Obstetric fistula is a complication of childbirth that often follows obstructed labor and is almost exclusive to low-resource countries. The original Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD 1990 Study) reported an incidence of 8.68 per 100000 and a prevalence of 51.35 per 100,000 for women aged 15-44 years in low-resource regions. The most cited global prevalence estimate is 2 million women. Although the global burden of obstetric fistula remains unclear, the number of women suffering from the condition is increasing, while surgical treatment remains limited. There are few experienced fistula surgeons and past surgical training approaches have been inconsistent. The Global Competency-Based Fistula Surgery Training Manual developed by FIGO and partners contains a set curriculum and, to ensure its implementation, a global strategy and training program have been developed. This paper describes key elements of the training program and its implementation. The anticipated impact of the training program is a reduction in global morbidity caused by obstetric fistula.
Manisor, Monica; Aloraini, Ziad; Chibarro, Salvatore; Proust, Francois; Quenardelle, Véronique; Wolff, Valérie; Beaujeux, Rémy
Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) with perimedullary drainage represent a rare subtype of intracranial dAVF. Patients usually experience slowly progressive ascending myelopathy and/or lower brainstem signs. We present a case of foramen magnum dural arteriovenous fistula with an atypical clinical presentation. The patient initially presented with a generalised tonic-clonic seizure and no signs of myelopathy, followed one month later by rapidly progressive tetraplegia and respiratory insufficiency. The venous drainage of the fistula was directed both to the left temporal lobe and to the perimedullary veins (type III + V), causing venous congestion and oedema in these areas and explaining this unusual combination of symptoms. Rotational angiography and overlays with magnetic resonance imaging volumes were helpful in delineating the complex anatomy of the fistula. After endovascular embolisation, there was complete remission of venous congestion on imaging and significant clinical improvement. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a craniocervical junction fistula presenting with epilepsy. PMID:26472637
Maddah, Ghodratollah; Fattahi, Asieh Sadat; Rahnama, Ali; Jamshidi, Shirin Taraz
A uterocutaneous fistula is a rare clinical presentation that occurs following Cesarean section and other pelvic operations. There are only a few reports discussing the treatments. We describe a patient with successful surgical management and review the literature. A 25-year-old woman referred to our department 13 months after her first Cesarean section. She had a history of an abdominal mass and collection 2 months after surgery and some fistula opening with discharge from her previous incision. She had a previous surgical operation and antibiotic therapy without complete response. We performed fistulography to evaluate the tracts. In the operation — she had fistula tracts, one of which was between the uterus and skin. We debrided the necrotic tissue in the uterus, excised the fistula tracts, and drained the uterine cavity. At 8 months’ postoperative follow-up, she had no recurrence. A uterocutaneous fistula is a rare condition with many causes and needs proper investigation and timely medical and surgical management. PMID:26989289
Zanotti, Giorgio; Mitchell, John D
Empyema after anatomic lung resection is rare but causes serious morbidity, particularly if associated with a bronchopleural fistula. Careful assessment of preoperative risk factors and proper surgical technique can minimize risks. Empyema after segmentectomy or lobectomy may respond to simple drainage and antibiotics, or may require decortication with or without muscle transposition. After pneumonectomy, treatment principles include initial drainage of the intrathoracic space, closure of the fistula if present, and creation of an open thoracostomy, which is packed and later closed. Success rates can exceed 80%.
Ahmed, Ali M; Hassab, Mohamed H; Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman A; Al-Tokhais, Tariq I
The accidental ingestion of a foreign body is a common problem in children, but ingestion of magnets is rare. When multiple magnets are ingested, they may attract each other and cause pressure necrosis through the bowel walls and eventually lead to serious complications like obstruction, perforation, and fistula formation. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl with jejunocecal fistula following ingestion of 2 magnet toys; it highlights the diagnostic challenge and the need for early surgical intervention in children especially when multiple magnets are ingested.
Sahni, Vikram Kaniyur, Sunil; Malhotra, Anmol; Fan, Stanley; Blakeney, Charles; Fotheringham, Tim; Sobeh, Mohammed; Matson, Matthew
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new hydrodynamic percutaneous thrombectomy catheter in the treatment of thrombosed hemodialysis fistulas and grafts. Twenty-two patients (median age: 47 years; range: 31-79 years) underwent mechanical thrombectomy for thrombosed hemodialysis fistulas or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts. In all cases, an Oasis hydrodynamic catheter was used. Five patients had native fistulas and 17 had PTFE grafts. Six patients required repeat procedures. All patients with native fistulas and 15 of the 17 with PTFE grafts also underwent angioplasty of the venous limb following the thrombectomy. Major outcome measures included technical success, clinical success, primary and secondary patency, and complication rates. Twenty-eight procedures were performed in total. The technical success rate was 100% and 90% and clinical success was 86% and 76% for native fistulas and grafts, respectively. The primary patency at 6 months was 50% and 59% for fistulas and grafts, respectively, and the secondary patency at 6 months was 75% and 70% for fistulas and grafts, respectively. Two patients died of unrelated causes during the follow-up period. The Oasis catheter is an effective mechanical device for the percutaneous treatment of thrombosed hemodialysis access. Our initial success rate showed that the technique is safe in the treatment of both native fistulas and grafts.
Kim, Yang Soo; Kim, Joon Sung; Yu, In Hee; Jeong, Ji Young; Jung, Sung Hee; Jo, Yil Ryun
We reported a case in which a nasogastric tube was inserted into the gastrocutaneous fistula, diagnosed by abdominal computed tomography. A 78-year-old man with a history of recurrent cerebral hemorrhage had a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube due to dysphagia for 2 years. However, soft tissue infection at the gastrostomy site caused the removal of the tube. Immediately, antibiotic agents were infused. For appropriate hydration and medication, a nasogastric tube was inserted. However, there was no significant improvement of the soft tissue infection. Moreover, the amount of bloody exudate increased. Abdominal computed tomography revealed the nasogastric tube placed under the patient's skin via gastrocutaneous fistula. The nasogastric tube was removed, and an antibiotic agents were maintained. After 3 weeks, the signs of infection fully improved, and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was performed again. This case shows necessities of an appropriate interval between removal of the gastrostomy tube and insertion of a nasogastric tube, and suspicion of existence of gastrocutaneous fistula. PMID:22506228
Algaba Calderón, A; Jara Chinarro, B; Abad Fernández, A; Isidoro Navarrete, O; Ramos Martos, A; Juretschke Moragues, M A
Aortobronchial fistula is a rare but serious cause of hemoptysis. It can develop from an aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta in the context of infections or it may appear as a sequel of surgical repair of congenital heart defects. Presenting symptoms include mild bronchial hemorrhages and recurrent chest pain, culminating in a normally fatal massive hemorrhage. Diagnosis by imaging is not always conclusive and clinical suspicion based on medical history is essential. Surgical placement of an endovascular stent graft is the treatment of choice. Post-surgical prognosis is good although there is a risk of recurrence in the case of superinfection.
Backous, Douglas D.; Niparko, John K.
Perilymph fistula (PLF) is an abnormal communication between the fluid-containing spaces of the inner ear and the air-containing spaces of the temporal bone that can cause hearing loss, tinnitus, aural fullness, vertigo, and postural instability. Diagnosis of PLF and management of those with presumed PLF are discussed. (Contains extensive…
Chaitowitz, I M; Heng, R; Bell, K W
We describe a case of cystic pancreatic disease causing biliary obstruction requiring percutaneous biliary stenting. The patient subsequently re-presented with severe melaena shown to be due to a rare complication of biliary stenting with development of a porto-biliary fistula from stent erosion, successfully managed with a 'stent-within-stent'.
Backous, Douglas D.; Niparko, John K.
Perilymph fistula (PLF) is an abnormal communication between the fluid-containing spaces of the inner ear and the air-containing spaces of the temporal bone that can cause hearing loss, tinnitus, aural fullness, vertigo, and postural instability. Diagnosis of PLF and management of those with presumed PLF are discussed. (Contains extensive…
Khasgiwala, Ankit; Jangam, Sagar; Sharma, Shashi; Newaskar, Vilas
Congenital syngnathia (CS), first reported by Burket in 1936, is a rare condition, with <50 reported cases and is associated with other conditions and syndromes. CS restricts mouth opening, causing difficulty in feeding, swallowing, and respiration. This report puts forth the clinical findings and management of this challenging condition in association with tracheoesophageal fistula in a neonate. PMID:27994431
Browning, Andrew; Whiteside, Sigrid
To characterize the incidence, presentation, management, and outcomes of rectovaginal fistula (RVF) in Ethiopia. In a retrospective study, demographic and clinical data were obtained for all women with genital tract fistulas admitted to the Barhirdar Hamlin Fistula Hospital, Ethiopia, for fistula repair surgery between January 2005 and October 2008. Of 1100 cases, 1057 were suitable for analysis. Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) without RVF was present in 933 (88.3%) cases, combined VVF and RVF in 79 (7.5%), and isolated RVF in 45 (4.3%). Only 4 (0.4%) women had isolated RVFs that could be attributed to prolonged obstructed labor; the remaining 41 RVFs were due to trauma (including sexual trauma), iatrogenic causes, infection, perineal tears, or previous failed repairs. All RVFs were managed with a flap-splitting operative technique, without grafts or diverting colostomies. Overall, 120 (98.4%) of 122 RVFs repaired at the study hospital remained closed at discharge. Combined VVF and RVF was associated with a longer labor (P<0.001), more stillbirths (P=0.028), a larger and lower VVF (P<0.001 for both), and more vaginal scarring than was isolated VVF (P<0.001). An obstetric RVF represents a more severe injury process than does a VVF. RVFs rarely occur without a VVF if due to obstructed labor. However, they can be managed successfully without diverting colostomies or grafts. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lundby, Lilli; Hagen, Kikke; Christensen, Peter; Buntzen, Steen; Thorlacius-Ussing, Ole; Andersen, Jens; Krupa, Marek; Qvist, Niels
The course of the fistula tract in relation to the anal sphincter is identified by clinical examination under general anaesthesia using a fistula probe and injection of fluid into the external fistula opening. In the event of a complex fistula or in the case of fistula recurrence, this should be supplemented with an endoluminal ultrasound scan and/or an MRI scan. St. Mark's fistula chart should be used for the description. Simple fistulas are amenable to fistulotomy, whereas treatment of complex fistulas requires special expertise and management of all available treatment modalities to tailor the right operation to the individual patient. The given levels of evidence and grades of recommendations are according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine (www.cemb.net).
Wu, X W; Ren, J A; Li, J S
Intestinal fistulas are severe complications after abdominal surgical procedures. The endoscopic therapy makes it possible to close fistulas without surgical interventions. When patients achieved stabilization and had no signs of systemic sepsis or inflammation, these therapies could be conducted, which included endoscopic vacuum therapy, fibrin glue sealing, stents, fistula plug, suture, and Over The Scope Clip (OTSC). Various techniques may be combined. Endoscopy vacuum therapy could be applied to control systemic inflammation and prevent continuing septic contamination by active drainage. Endoscopic stent is placed over fistulas and gastrointestinal continuity is recovered. The glue sealing is applied for enterocutaneous fistulas, and endoscopy suture has the best results seen in fistulas <1 cm in diameter. Insertion of the fistula plug is used to facilitate fistula healing. The OTSC is effective to treat leaks with large defects. Endoscopic treatment could avoid reoperation and could be regarded as the first-line treatment for specific patients.
Rajesh, P B; Goiti, J J
Swallowing dentures and dental plates has been a cause of distress among elderly patients. Tracheo-oesophageal fistula caused by a foreign body is rare and of the cases reported in the literature only one was due to a swallowed denture which resulted in a recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy . We describe a delayed onset tracheo-oesophageal fistula due to a swallowed dental plate in a young patient.
Aydinova, P R; Aliyev, E A
Results of surgical treatment of 21 patients, suffering high transsphincteric and extrasphincteric rectal fistulas, were studied. In patients of Group I the fistula passage was closed, using fistula plug obturator; and in patients of Group II--by the same, but preprocessed by fibrin adhesive. The fistula aperture germeticity, prophylaxis of rude cicatrices development in operative wound zone, promotion of better fixation of bioplastic material were guaranteed, using fistula plug obturator with preprocessing, using fibrin adhesive.
Melo, Natalia Correa Vieira; Mundim, Juliano Sacramento; Costalonga, Elerson Carlos; Lucon, Antonio Marmo; Santello, Jose Luiz; Praxedes, Jose Nery
The Renal Arteriovenous Fistula (RAVF) is a rare and potentially reversible cause of hypertension and kidney and/or heart failure. The treatment of RAVF aims at preserving the most of the renal parenchyma and, concomitantly, eradicating the symptoms and hemodynamic effects caused by the RAVF. The present study reports three cases of RAVF, including one case of a de novo idiopathic RAVF, which presented with hypertension and kidney and/or heart failure and describes the therapeutic measures used to treat these patients as well as the outcomes.
Lee, Ji Yeoun; Son, Young-Je; Kim, Jeong Eun
Intracranial pial arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a rare cerebrovascular lesion that has only recently been recognized as a distinct pathological entity. A 41-year-old woman (Patient 1) presented with the sudden development of an altered mental state. Brain CT showed an acute subdural hematoma. A red sylvian vein was found intraoperatively. A pial AVF was revealed on postoperative angiography, and surgical disconnection of the AVF was performed. A 10-year-old boy (Patient 2) presented with a 10-day history of paraparesis and urinary incontinence. Brain, spinal MRI and angiography revealed an intracranial pial AVF and a spinal perimedullary AVF. Endovascular embolization was performed for both lesions. The AVFs were completely obliterated in both patients. On follow-up, patient 1 reported having no difficulty in performing activities of daily living. Patient 2 is currently able to walk without assistance and voids into a diaper. Intracranial pial AVF is a rare disease entity that can be treated with surgical disconnection or endovascular embolization. It is important for the appropriate treatment strategy to be selected on the basis of patientspecific and lesion-specific factors in order to achieve good outcomes.
Lin, Ting-Ting; He, Yan-Jin; Zhu, Li-Min; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Dong; Song, Guo-Xiang
To present some instruction in diagnosis and treatment of the orbital fistula by analyze the clinical manifestation. The clinical data for 37 cases with orbital fistula treated during 1980 to 2007 were analyzed retrospectively. Among 37 cases with orbital fistula, there are 21 cases caused by foreign bodies, including 17 cases by retained wooden bodies, 3 cases by iatrogenic foreign bodies and 1 case by firecrackers. There are 9 cases caused by orbital cysts, including 5 cases dermoid cysts, 3 cases epidermoid cysts and 1 case frontal mucopyocele. There are 6 cases orbital infection inflammation, including 5 cases osteomyelitis and 1 case orbital abscess. There is 1 case eosinophilic granuloma. Different etiologies have characteristic features. Medical history, fistula examinations and imaging examinations must be analyzed synthetically in order to make proper etiological diagnosis. Eradicate etiologies and resect fistula are most important. It is necessary to make an ancillary therapy, such as ENT treatment. The common etiologies of orbital fistula are retained foreign body, dermoid cysts and osteomyelitis. The pathogenesis include infective inflammation, congenital heteroplasia, operation and tumor. B-scan ultrasonography, CT, and MRI can be used for the localization and qualitation diagnosis. There are comprehensive approaches for diagnosis and management of this type of injury. In order to give an effective therapy, we must make an accurate diagnosis and analyze the features of fistula.
Goh, Liang Chye; Santhi, Kalimuthu; Arvin, Balachandran; Mohd Razif, Mohamad Yunus
An acquired persistent tracheopharyngeal fistula secondary to an infected tracheopharyngeal voice prosthesis is a common cause of recurrent aspiration pneumonia in a postlaryngectomy patient. We report a case of a successfully treated tracheopharyngeal fistula whereby both the sternocleidomastoid muscles were used as muscular flaps to close the defect and its outcome.
Edell, S.L.; Milunsky, C.; Garren, L.
The diagnosis of a cholecystocolic fistula has often presented a dilemma to the practicing physician. Routine imaging modalities to confirm this diagnosis have not proven extremely successful. The presence of a small fistulous tract from the gallbladder to the colon is often difficult to demonstrate radiographically. However, with the advent of the newer hepatobiliary radioisotopic scanning agents, the ability to visualize the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts as well as the presence of the intestinal activity of the radiotracers has improved considerably. The authors present a case of cholecystocolic fistula that was adequately demonstrated with a Tc-99m-PIPIDA hepatobiliary scan. This article is the first to report demonstration of this type of fistula with hepatobiliary scanning.
Kaplan, Julika Ayla; Kandodo, Jonathan; Sclafani, Joseph; Raine, Susan; Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer; Norris, Alison; Norris-Turner, Abigail; Chemey, Elly; Beckham, John Michael; Khan, Zara; Chunda, Reginald
Obstetric fistula is a childbirth injury caused by prolonged obstructed labor that results in destruction of the tissue wall between the vagina and bladder. Although obstetric fistula is directly caused by prolonged obstructed labor, many other factors indirectly increase fistula risk. Some research suggests that many women in rural Malawi have limited autonomy and decision-making power in their households. We hypothesize that women's limited autonomy may play a role in reinforcing childbirth practices that increase the risk of obstetric fistula in this setting by hindering access to emergency care and further prolonging obstructed labor. A medical student at Baylor College of Medicine partnered with a Malawian research assistant in July 2015 to conduct in-depth qualitative interviews in Chichewa with 25 women living within the McGuire Wellness Centre's catchment area (rural Central Lilongwe District) who had received obstetric fistula repair surgery. This study assessed whether women's limited autonomy in rural Malawi reinforces childbearing practices that increase risk of obstetric fistula. We considered four dimensions of autonomy: sexual and reproductive decision-making, decision-making related to healthcare utilization, freedom of movement, and discretion over earned income. We found that participants had limited autonomy in these domains. For example, many women felt pressured by their husbands, families, and communities to become pregnant within three months of marriage; women often needed to seek permission from their husbands before leaving their homes to visit the clinic; and women were frequently prevented from delivering at the hospital by older women in the community. Many of the obstetric fistula patients in our sample had limited autonomy in several or all of the aforementioned domains, and their limited autonomy often led both directly and indirectly to an increased risk of prolonged labor and fistula. Reducing the prevalence of fistula in Malawi
Wittschen, P; Ochs, A; Gruber, A D
An oronasal fistula is described in a 53-year-old captive hippopotamus, the animal having shown a nasal discharge, consisting mainly of food particles, during and after feeding for at least 15 years. Necropsy of the emaciated animal revealed an oronasal fistula, measuring 4.5 x 3.5 cm, adjacent to the third left molar tooth, the first and second molars being missing. The fistula was thought to have been caused by an earlier necrotizing alveolitis and osteitis. There was no evidence of rhinitis or aspiration pneumonia. Unrelated findings consisted of a follicular thyroid adenoma and generalized muscle atrophy.
Nielson, Jeffery L. Kang, Preet S.
Fistula formation between a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)and the pulmonary arterial circulation represents a rare cause of recurrent angina in patients following bypass grafting. Therapy has traditionally involved surgical ligation by open thoracotomy. We describe a case of left internal mammary artery-left upper lobe pulmonary artery fistula presenting as early recurrent angina following CABG. The fistula was embolized using platinum coils, resulting in symptomatic relief and improvement in myocardial perfusion on cardiac perfusion scintigraphy. Coil embolization should be considered a therapeutic option in patients with coronary-pulmonary steal syndrome.
Jacob, M A; Goyal, S B; Pacifico, L; Spodick, D H
Coronary artery-left ventricular (LV) fistulas are extremely rare and can cause myocardial ischemia from coronary steal. We describe an elderly woman who presented with unstable angina from multiple and extensive coronary artery-LV fistulas. She also had clinical features suggestive of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Association of coronary artery-LV fistulas with HHT has not been reported and can pose a management dilemma in view of the risks of extensive cardiopulmonary surgery and potential complications of myocardial ischemia, stroke, and brain abscess.
Urgent treatment of severe symptomatic direct carotid cavernous fistula caused by ruptured cavernous internal carotid artery aneurysm using high-flow bypass, proximal ligation, and direct distal clipping: Technical case report
Hasegawa, Hirotaka; Inoue, Tomohiro; Tamura, Akira; Saito, Isamu
Background: Direct carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) secondary to ruptured carotid cavernous aneurysms (CCAs) is rare, but patients with this condition who develop acutely worsening and severe neuro-ophthalmic symptoms require urgent treatment. Endovascular methods are the first-line option, but this modality may not be available on an urgent basis. Case Description: In this article, we report a 45-year-old female with severe direct CCF due to rupture of the CCA. She presented with intractable headache and acute worsening of double vision and visual acuity. Emergent radiographic study revealed high-flow fistula tracked from the CCA toward the contralateral cavernous sinus and drained into the engorged left superior orbital vein. To prevent permanent devastating neuro-ophthalmic damages, urgent high-flow bypass with placement of a radial artery graft was performed followed by right cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) ligation and the clipping of the ICA at the C3 portion, proximal to the ophthalmic artery. In the immediate postoperative period, her symptoms resolved and angiography confirmed patency of the high-flow bypass and complete occlusion of the CCF. Conclusion: With due consideration of strategy and techniques to secure safety, open surgical intervention with trapping and bypass is a good treatment option for direct severe CCF when the endovascular method is not available, not possible, or is unsuccessful. PMID:24818056
Chen, Qi Tack, Carl; Morcos, Morcos; Ruggiero, Mary Ann; Schlossberg, Peter; Fogel, Joshua; Weng Lijun; Farkas, Jeffrey
We present a complex case of a splanchnic arterioportal vein fistula in a patient who presented with weight loss, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and pancreatitis. We report successful use of the Guglielmi Detachable Coil (GDC) and N-butyl cyanoacrylate glue for the therapeutic embolization of the fistula between the superior mesenteric artery, the common hepatic artery, and the portal vein. On the day following the procedure, the patient reported total remission of the abdominal pain and diarrhea. These results were maintained at 3 months follow-up.
Nagatsu, Akihisa; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Tomomi; Yamashita, Kenichiro; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Abo, Daisuke; Kamiyama, Toshiya; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Todo, Satoru
Pancreatic fistula is a quite rare complication in patients who undergo living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). However, in the cases that show pancreatic fistula, the limited volume of the graft and the resultant inadequate liver function may complicate the management of the fistula. As a result, the pancreatic fistula may result in the death of the patient. We present 2 cases in which endoscopic treatment was effective against pancreatic fistulas that developed after LDLT. In case 1, a 61-year-old woman underwent LDLT for primary biliary cirrhosis. Because of a portal venous thrombus caused by a splenorenal shunt, the patient underwent portal vein reconstruction, and a splenorenal shunt was ligated on postoperative day (POD) 7. The main pancreatic duct was injured during the manipulation to achieve hemostasis, thereby necessitating open drainage. However, discharge of pancreatic fluid continued even after POD 300. Endoscopic naso-pancreatic drainage (ENPD) was performed, and this procedure resulted in a remarkable decrease in drain output. The refractory pancreatic fistula healed on day 40 after ENPD. In case 2, a 58-year-old man underwent LDLT for cirrhosis caused by the hepatitis C virus. When the portal vein was exposed during thrombectomy, the pancreatic head was injured, which led to the formation of a pancreatic fistula. Conservative therapy was ineffective; therefore, ENPD was performed. The pancreatic fistula healed on day 38 after ENPD. The findings in these 2 cases show that endoscopic drainage of the main pancreatic duct is a less invasive and effective treatment for pancreatic fistulas that develop after LDLT. PMID:21941425
Nagatsu, Akihisa; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Tomomi; Yamashita, Kenichiro; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Abo, Daisuke; Kamiyama, Toshiya; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Todo, Satoru
Pancreatic fistula is a quite rare complication in patients who undergo living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). However, in the cases that show pancreatic fistula, the limited volume of the graft and the resultant inadequate liver function may complicate the management of the fistula. As a result, the pancreatic fistula may result in the death of the patient. We present 2 cases in which endoscopic treatment was effective against pancreatic fistulas that developed after LDLT. In case 1, a 61-year-old woman underwent LDLT for primary biliary cirrhosis. Because of a portal venous thrombus caused by a splenorenal shunt, the patient underwent portal vein reconstruction, and a splenorenal shunt was ligated on postoperative day (POD) 7. The main pancreatic duct was injured during the manipulation to achieve hemostasis, thereby necessitating open drainage. However, discharge of pancreatic fluid continued even after POD 300. Endoscopic naso-pancreatic drainage (ENPD) was performed, and this procedure resulted in a remarkable decrease in drain output. The refractory pancreatic fistula healed on day 40 after ENPD. In case 2, a 58-year-old man underwent LDLT for cirrhosis caused by the hepatitis C virus. When the portal vein was exposed during thrombectomy, the pancreatic head was injured, which led to the formation of a pancreatic fistula. Conservative therapy was ineffective; therefore, ENPD was performed. The pancreatic fistula healed on day 38 after ENPD. The findings in these 2 cases show that endoscopic drainage of the main pancreatic duct is a less invasive and effective treatment for pancreatic fistulas that develop after LDLT.
Colls, P; Guyon, P; Chiche, L; Houdelette, P
The authors report a new case of isolated spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula revealed by a persisting draining sinus in the left groin. Their present causative factors are identified. The computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging actually may resolve the diagnostic dilemma and are helpful in the surgical treatment.
Franchin, Marco; Tozzi, Matteo; Piffaretti, Gabriele; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Castelli, Patrizio
Aortic aneurysm has been reported to be the dominant cause of primary iliac-enteric fistula (IEF) in >70% of cases ; other less common causes of primary IEF include peptic ulcer, primary aortitis, pancreatic pseudocyst, or neoplastic erosion into an adjacent artery [2, 3]. We describe an unusual case of IEF managed with a staged approach using an endovascular stent-graft as a 'bridge' in the emergency setting to optimize the next elective definitive excision of the lesion.
Introduction Gastrocutaneous fistulas remain an uncommon complication of upper gastrointestinal surgery. Less common but equally problematic are gastrocutaneous fistulas secondary to non-healing gastrostomies. Both are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Surgical repair remains the gold standard of care. For those unfit for surgical intervention, results from conservative management can be disappointing. We describe a case series of seven patients with gastrocutaneous fistulas who were unfit for surgical intervention. These patients were managed successfully in a minimally invasive manner using the Surgisis® (Cook Surgical, Bloomington, IN, US) anal fistula plug. Methods Between September 2008 and January 2009, seven patients with gastrocutaneous fistulas presented to Wishaw General Hospital. Four gastrocutaneous fistulas represented non-healing gastrostomies, two followed an anastomotic leak after an oesophagectomy and one following an anastomotic leak after a distal gastrectomy. All patients had poor nutritional reserve with no other identifiable reason for failure to heal. All were deemed unfit for surgical intervention. Five gastrocutaneous fistulas were closed successfully using the Surgisis® anal fistula plug positioned directly into the fistula tract under local anaesthesia and two gastrocutaneous fistulas were closed successfully using the Surgisis® anal fistula positioned endoscopically using a rendezvous technique. Results For the five patients with gastrocutaneous fistulas closed directly under local anaesthesia, oral alimentation was reinstated immediately. Fistula output ceased on day 12 with complete epithelialisation occurring at a median of day 26. For the two gastrocutaneous fistulas closed endoscopically using the rendezvous technique, oral alimentation was reinstated on day 5 with immediate cessation of fistula output. Follow-up upper gastrointestinal endoscopy confirmed re-epithelialisation at eight weeks. In none of the
Darrien, J H; Kasem, H
Gastrocutaneous fistulas remain an uncommon complication of upper gastrointestinal surgery. Less common but equally problematic are gastrocutaneous fistulas secondary to non-healing gastrostomies. Both are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Surgical repair remains the gold standard of care. For those unfit for surgical intervention, results from conservative management can be disappointing. We describe a case series of seven patients with gastrocutaneous fistulas who were unfit for surgical intervention. These patients were managed successfully in a minimally invasive manner using the Surgisis(®) (Cook Surgical, Bloomington, IN, US) anal fistula plug. Between September 2008 and January 2009, seven patients with gastrocutaneous fistulas presented to Wishaw General Hospital. Four gastrocutaneous fistulas represented non-healing gastrostomies, two followed an anastomotic leak after an oesophagectomy and one following an anastomotic leak after a distal gastrectomy. All patients had poor nutritional reserve with no other identifiable reason for failure to heal. All were deemed unfit for surgical intervention. Five gastrocutaneous fistulas were closed successfully using the Surgisis(®) anal fistula plug positioned directly into the fistula tract under local anaesthesia and two gastrocutaneous fistulas were closed successfully using the Surgisis(®) anal fistula positioned endoscopically using a rendezvous technique. For the five patients with gastrocutaneous fistulas closed directly under local anaesthesia, oral alimentation was reinstated immediately. Fistula output ceased on day 12 with complete epithelialisation occurring at a median of day 26. For the two gastrocutaneous fistulas closed endoscopically using the rendezvous technique, oral alimentation was reinstated on day 5 with immediate cessation of fistula output. Follow-up upper gastrointestinal endoscopy confirmed re-epithelialisation at eight weeks. In none of the cases has there been
Patris, Vasileios; Argiriou, Michalis; Salem, Agni-Leila; Giakoumidakis, Konstantinos; Baikoussis, Nikolaos G.; Charitos, Christos
Temporary epicardial pacing wires during open-heart surgery are routinely used both for diagnostic and treatment purposes. In complicated cases where patients are unstable or the wires are difficult to remove, the pacing wires are cut at the skin level and allowed to retract by themselves. This procedure rarely causes complications. However, there have been cases reporting that retained pacing wires are linked to the formation of sterno-bronchial fistulae, which may present a while after the date of operation and are usually infected. This review aims to study the cases presenting sterno-bronchial fistulae due to retained epicardial pacing wires and to highlight the important factors associated with these. It is important to note these complications, as fistulae may cause a variety of problems to the patient if undiagnosed and left untreated. With the aid of scans such as fistulography, fistulae can be identified and treated and will improve the patients’ health dramatically. PMID:27716700
Salim, Shihas; Ganeshram, Prasanthi; Patel, Amish Dilip; Kumar, Anita A; Vemuri, Divya; Jeyachandran, Vijay; Rajamanickam, Deepan; Shantha, Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash
In a patient undergoing regular hemodialysis through an arteriovenous fistula access, pleural effusion is a known long term complication. However, a unilateral hemothorax is relatively uncommon. Here we report a 46 year old male, end-stage renal disease patient, on maintenance hemodialysis, who presented with a giant brachiocephalic AV fistula in his left arm and progressive breathlessness. Radiological imaging revealed a left sided pleural effusion. Ultrasound guided aspiration revealed a hemorrhagic pleural fluid. A Doppler study of the fistula revealed a high velocity blood flow through the fistula, thereby establishing the cause of the unilateral hemothorax. Ligation of the fistula resulted in complete resolution of the hemothorax. The other possible causes for hemothorax in a dialysis patient are also discussed in this case report. PMID:18840271
Wall, L Lewis
The vesicovaginal fistula from prolonged obstructed labor is a condition that is no longer seen in the affluent, industrialized world, yet it continues to exist in epidemic proportions in sub-Saharan Africa, where several million women are estimated to suffer from this condition. The unremitting urinary incontinence that is produced by a fistula causes these women to become social outcasts. The problem is particularly acute in Nigeria, where the Federal Ministry of Women's Affairs estimates that there may be as many as 800,000 unrepaired fistula cases. Because of the social stigma attached to their condition, fistula victims have often been subjected to major psychosocial trauma. Finding ways to help such patients reintegrate into social networks is an important part of their treatment. When fistula patients meet one another, they realize that they are not alone in their suffering. This article describes the use of a "praise song" by a group of Nigerian fistula patients as a vehicle for building group identity as part of a "sisterhood of suffering." A transcription and translation of a Hausa praise song about vesicovaginal fistulas is presented, along with a commentary on the text that sheds new light on a problem that is unfamiliar to most Western obstetrician-gynecologists.
Dennis, Alexis C; Wilson, Sarah M; Mosha, Mary V; Masenga, Gileard G; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Terroso, Korrine E; Watt, Melissa H
Objective An obstetric fistula is a childbirth injury resulting in uncontrollable leakage of urine and/or feces and can lead to physical and psychological challenges, including social isolation. Prior to and after fistula repair surgery, social support can help a woman to reintegrate into her community. The aim of this study was to preliminarily examine the experiences of social support among Tanzanian women presenting with obstetric fistula in the periods immediately preceding obstetric fistula repair surgery and following reintegration. Patients and methods The study used a mixed-methods design to analyze cross-sectional surveys (n=59) and in-depth interviews (n=20). Results Women reported widely varying levels of social support from family members and partners, with half of the sample reporting overall high levels of social support. For women experiencing lower levels of support, fistula often exacerbated existing problems in relationships, sometimes directly causing separation or divorce. Many women were assertive and resilient with regard to advocating for their fistula care and relationship needs. Conclusion Our data suggest that while some women endure negative social experiences following an obstetric fistula and require additional resources and services, many women report high levels of social support from family members and partners, which may be harnessed to improve the holistic care for patients. PMID:27660492
Ranga, Upasana; Veeraiyan, Saveetha
Orodentocutaneous fistula is a rare entity where periapical dental abscess communicates with both oral cavity and external skin. In few cases, patients presents initially with only cutaneous manifestation with no recollectable history of dental problem. Delay in diagnosis of odontogenic cause of skin lesion makes the disease more chronic and extensive. We hereby present a case of orodentocutaneous fistula that presented with intermittently discharging skin lesion and was evaluated by using CT fistulography. PMID:25302272
Kim, Jeong Hyun
Late complications of ureteral stents are frequent, and longer indwelling times are associated with an increased frequency of complications. Although there are reports of various complications of long-term indwelling ureteral stents, a renocolic fistula secondary to a perinephric abscess resulting from an indwelling ureteral stent has not been reported. Here, we present a fatal case of a renocolic fistula secondary to a perinephric abscess caused by an encrusted forgotten double J stent in a functionally solitary kidney. PMID:19795000
Barboza Besada, Eduardo; Barboza Beraún, Aurelio; Castillo-Ángeles, Manuel; Málaga, Germán; Tan Kuong, Jesús; Valdivia Retamozo, José; Portugal Vivanco, José; Contardo Zambrano, Manuel; Montes, Martín; Kaemena, María Luisa
A 35 years old female with morbid obesity IMC 45 was referred because of a gastrobronchial fistula developed post sleeve gastrectomy initially treated with endoscopic techniques without improvement, reason why a total resection of the gastric remanent with a Roux en Y reconstruction was done as an option with successful result.
The diagnosis and treatment of carotid cavernous fistulas (CCF) is an interdisciplinary challenge for both ophthalmologists and interventional neuroradiologists. According to the clinical signs and symptoms the tentative diagnosis is made by the ophthalmologist. It is the task of the neuroradiologist to ascertain this diagnosis by intra-arterial angiography. If a fistula is suspected this invasive diagnostic procedure is indispensable, not only to establish the diagnosis but also to classify those types of fistula with an unfavourable spontaneous course possibly resulting in intracranial haemorrhage. The indication for therapy is based on the clinical symptoms and the angiographic findings. In a number of cases no therapy is required. Since a fistula may change over time, these patients have to be under close ophthalmological surveillance. In many patients a conservative therapeutic approach with manual compression of the carotid artery is sufficient as a fIrst step. Invasive treatment is performed via the endovascular approach in almost all cases. Direct CCF are predominantly treated transarterially with detachable balloons and/or coils. Recently, intracranial stents have been used increasingly. The embolisation of indirect CCF is most effective using the transvenous access with coils. There are several approaches to the cavernous sinus. The interventional occlusion of CCF is nowadays a very effective treatment associated with a comparatively high cure rate and low incidence of complications. By close cooperation between ophthalmologists and neuroradiologists the patients can be protected against visual loss, the development of a secondary glaucoma, and, most importantly, against intracranial haemorrhage.
Macedo, Maurício; Velhote, Manoel Carlos Prieto; Maschietto, Rafael Forti; Waksman, Renata Dejtiar
ABSTRACT Accidental ingestion of magnetic foreign bodies has become more common due to increased availability of objects and toys with magnetic elements. The majority of them traverse the gastrointestinal system spontaneously without complication. However, ingestion of multiple magnets may require surgical resolution. The case of an 18-month girl who developed an intestinal fistula after ingestion of two magnets is reported. PMID:23843068
Challoumas, Dimitris; Pericleous, Agamemnon; Dimitrakaki, Inetzi A.; Danelatos, Christos; Dimitrakakis, Georgios
Coronary arteriovenous fistulae are a coronary anomaly, presenting in 0.002% of the general population. Their etiology can be congenital or acquired. We present a review of recent literature related to their epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic approach, and therapeutic management. PMID:24940026
Soulsby, Ruth; Leung, Edmund; Williams, Nigel
Background Colo-duodenal fistula is a rare complication of malignant and inflammatory bowel disease. Cases with malignant colo-duodenal fistulae can present with symptoms from the primary, from the fistula or from metastatic disease. The fistula often results in diarrhoea and vomiting with dramatic weight loss. Upper abdominal pain is usually present as is general malaise both from the presence of the disease and from the metabolic sequelae it causes. The diarrhoea relates to colonic bacterial contamination of the upper intestines rather than to a pure mechanical effect. Vomiting may be faeculant or truly faecal and eructation foul smelling but in the case reports this 'classic' symptomatology was often absent despite a fistula being present and patent enough to allow barium through it. Occasionally patients will present with a gastro-intestinal bleed. Case presentation We present an unusual case of colorectal carcinoma, where a 65 year old male patient presented with diarrhoea and vomiting secondary to a malignant colo-duodenal fistula near the hepatic flexure. Adenocarcinoma was confirmed on histology from a biopsy obtained during the patient's oesophageogastroduodenoscopy, and the fistula was demonstrated in his barium enema. Staging computed tomography showed a locally advanced carcinoma of the proximal transverse colon, with a fistula to the duodenum and regional lymphadenopathy. The patient was also found to have subcutaneous metastasis. Following discussions at the multidisciplinary meeting, this patient was referred for palliation, and died within 4 months after discharge from hospital. Conclusion We present the case, discuss the management and review the literature. Colo-duodenal fistulae from colonic primaries are rare but early diagnosis may allow curative surgery. This case emphasises the importance of accurate staging and repeated clinical examination. PMID:17147825
Kizaki, Yuichiro; Nagai, Tomonori; Ohara, Ken; Gomi, Yosuke; Akahori, Taichi; Ono, Yoshihisa; Matsunaga, Shigetaka; Takai, Yasushi; Saito, Masahiro; Baba, Kazunori; Seki, Hiroyuki
While ovarian mature cystic teratomas are benign ovarian germ-cell tumors and the most common type of all ovarian tumors, the formation of fistulas into surrounding organs such as the bladder and the intestinal tract is extremely rare. This report documents a case of ovarian mature cystic teratoma with a rectal fistula, thought to be caused by local inflammation. A pelvic mass was diagnosed as an ovarian mature cystic teratoma of approximately 10 cm in diameter on transvaginal ultrasound and magnetic resonance examinations. Endoscopic examination of the lower gastrointestinal tract to investigate diarrhea revealed an ulcerative lesion with hair in the rectal wall adjacent to the ovarian cyst, and formation of a fistula from the ovarian teratoma into the rectum was suspected. Laparotomy revealed extensive inflammatory adhesions between a left ovarian tumor and the rectum. Left salpingo-oophorectomy and upper anterior resection of the rectum were performed. The final pathological diagnosis was ovarian mature cystic teratoma with no malignant findings, together with severe rectal inflammation and fistula formation with no structural disorders such as diverticulitis of the colon or malignant signs. The formation of fistulas and invasion into the neighboring organs are extremely rare complications for ovarian mature cystic teratomas. The invasion of malignant cells into neighboring organs due to malignant transformation of the tumor is reported as the cause of fistula formation into the neighboring organs. A review of 17 cases including the present case revealed that fistula formation due to malignant transformation comprised only 4 cases (23.5 %), with inflammation as the actual cause in the majority of cases (13 cases, 76.5 %). Although malignancy is the first consideration when fistula formation is observed between ovarian tumors and surrounding organs, in mature cystic teratoma, local inflammation is more likely than malignant transformation.
Safarík, L; Dvorácek, J; Matusková, D; Vítková, I; Novák, K; Zámecník, L; Paul, O
The authors present their experience with diagnosis and treatment of colovesical fistula, which had been diagnosed due to chronic recurrent urinary tract infection. The underlying cause of the fistula was previously unrecognized diverticulosis with diverticulitis (3 out of 4 cases). The fistula was diagnosed primarily by a urologist, who performed cystoscopy, which proved to be the most contributing useful examination of all. On the other hand, coloscopy did not reveal the true diagnosis any time and its value is doubtful since insufflation of the inflamed bowel may be followed by intestinal rupture into the peritoneal cavity. Treatment of the fistulae was always surgical, during resection of the involved bowel and resection of the neighboring bladder was accomplished. In all cases one-staged procedure was done with restoration of bowel continuity and suturing of the bladder. Three patients were cured, one died on the 5th day due to complicated ischaemic heart disease.
Park, Min Kyu; Chung, Yun Jin; Baek, In Yub; Kim, Hyeong Seok; Bae, Sang Soo; Lee, Su Ok; Lee, Kyoung Suk; Kwon, Jong Kyu
Biliary enteric fistula is an abnormal pathway often caused by biliary disease. It is difficult to diagnose the disease because patients have nonspecific symptoms. A 67-year-old woman presented with hematemesis and melena. She was diagnosed with Dieulafoy lesion on the gastric antrum and underwent endoscopic hemostasis using hemoclips. Follow-up upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed an abnormal opening on a previous treated site that was suggestive of biliary enteric fistula. Abdomen simple X-ray and abdominal dynamic CT scan showed pneumobilia and cholecysto-gastric fistula. The patient had cholecystectomy and wedge resection of the gastric antrum, followed by right extended hemicolectomy because of severe adhesive lesion between the gallbladder and colon. She was diagnosed with cholecysto-gastro-colic fistula postoperatively. We report on this case and give a brief review of the literatures.
Walcott, Brian P; Berkhemer, Olvert A; Leslie-Mazwi, Thabele M; Chandra, Ronil V; Ogilvy, Christopher S; Yoo, Albert J
Vertebrovertebral fistulae are rare vascular malformations that uncommonly can rupture to present clinically as intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage. We report a 69-year-old man presenting following spontaneous apoplectic collapse. Initial workup revealed diffuse, intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage and hydrocephalus. However, the etiology was not apparent on CT angiography of the head. Catheter-based angiography was performed, demonstrating a single-hole, high-flow vertebrovertebral fistula, arising from the V2 segment and decompressing into both cervical and skull base venous structures. Definitive treatment consisted of endovascular fistula obliteration with a combination of coil and liquid embolic material. The patient made a full neurological recovery. High cervical and skull base fistulae are rare causes of intracranial hemorrhage; endovascular treatment is effective at disconnection of the arteriovenous shunt.
Bissett, I P
Twenty-one patients presenting between January 1992 and January 1998 with postoperative small bowel fistula were reviewed and their management and outcome were recorded. There were six jejunal and 15 ileal fistulae. Seven fistulae were low output and 14 high output. The management principles included: (i) initial resuscitation and skin care; (ii) early surgery for sepsis, or for a high-output fistula which showed no signs of decrease by 10 days, or total wound breakdown. Surgery involved, where possible, fistula resection with double enterostomy, a feeding gastrostomy and abdominal drainage; and (iii) enteral feeding with refeeding of enterostomy output into the distal stoma if required to correct fluid and electrolyte imbalance and malnutrition. Five patients died and in the other 16 their fistulae closed and they are alive and well.
Byrnes, Jenifer N; Schmitt, Jennifer J; Faustich, Benjamin M; Mara, Kristin C; Weaver, Amy L; Chua, Heidi K; Occhino, John A
Rectovaginal fistulae (RVF) often represent surgical challenges, and treatment must be individualized. We describe outcomes after primary surgical repair stratified by fistula etiology and surgical approach. This retrospective cohort study included women who underwent surgical management of RVF at a tertiary care center between July 1, 2001 and December 31, 2013. Cases were stratified according to the following etiology: cancer (RVF-C), inflammatory bowel disease or infectious (RVF-I), and other (RVF-O). Patients with prior surgical treatment of RVF were excluded. Surgical approaches included local (seton, plug), transvaginal or endorectal, abdominal, diversion alone, or definitive (completion proctocolectomy with permanent colostomy or pelvic exenteration). Recurrence-free survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and comparisons between subgroups were evaluated based on fitting Cox proportional hazards models. Censoring occurred at last relevant clinical follow-up. Factors contributing to recurrence-free survival were evaluated including age, body mass index, smoking status, fistula etiology, ileostomy, and surgical approach. During the study period, 107 women underwent surgical repair of RVF. The most common fistula etiology was RVF-I (54.2%), followed by RVF-O (23.4%), and RVF-C (22.4%). Ninety-four women underwent fistula repair by the local (29.9%), transvaginal/endorectal (25.2%), abdominal approach (19.6%), or diversion alone (13.1%), whereas 13 underwent definitive surgery (12.2%). Recurrence-free survival was significantly different depending on surgical approach (P < 0.001), but not etiology (P = 0.71). Recurrence-free survival (95% confidence interval) at 1 year after surgery was 35.2% (21.8%-56.9%) for the local approach, 55.6% (37.0%-83.3%) for the transvaginal or endorectal approach, 95% (85.9%-100%) for the abdominal approach, and 33.3% (15%-74.2%) for those with diversion only. Recurrence rates after RVF repair are high and did not
Goss, Selena; Yang, Chun; Dudkiewicz, Michael
Most femoral artery arteriovenous fistulas occur as a result of percutaneous interventions. However, arteriovenous fistulas can occur in the setting of trauma, with resultant consequences such as heart failure, steal syndrome, or venous insufficiency. Indications for endovascular repair in this setting are limited to patients who are at too high risk for anesthesia, have a hostile groin, or would not survive significant bleeding. We report the case of a traumatic femoral arteriovenous fistula, causing severe venous insufficiency and arteriomegaly, in a 58-year-old male, with history of traumatic gunshot wound complicated by popliteal DVT. Surgical options for arteriovenous fistula include open and endovascular repair but this patient's fistula was more suitable for endovascular repair for reasons that will be discussed. PMID:28808595
Weintraub, Joshua L; Hawari, Ashraf; English, Benjamin; Mobley, David
Liver biopsy is a common study performed after hepatic transplantation. Most centers routinely perform a biopsy 1 week after surgery to evaluate for the possibility of acute rejection. Subsequent biopsies are based on clinical symptoms and routine hepatic function laboratory testing. We report the clinical presentation and treatment of a biliary-venous fistula resulting in sepsis and bilhemia (elevated serum bilirubin levels caused by a biliary-venous fistula) in a 2(1/2)-year-old patient 4 months after partial left lateral segment living related liver transplantation. This case is unusual in that the fistula is the reversal of the more common venous-biliary fistula. The fistula developed after a percutaneous liver biopsy was performed.
Tozer, P J; Rayment, N; Hart, A L; Daulatzai, N; Murugananthan, A U; Whelan, K; Phillips, R K S
The aetiology of Crohn's disease-related anal fistula remains obscure. Microbiological, genetic and immunological factors are thought to play a role but are not well understood. The microbiota within anal fistula tracts has never been examined using molecular techniques. The present study aimed to characterize the microbiota in the tracts of patients with Crohn's and idiopathic anal fistula. Samples from the fistula tract and rectum of patients with Crohn's and idiopathic anal fistula were analysed using fluorescent in situ hybridization, Gram staining and scanning electron microscopy were performed to identify and quantify the bacteria present. Fifty-one patients, including 20 with Crohn's anal fistula, 18 with idiopathic anal fistula and 13 with luminal Crohn's disease and no anal fistula, were recruited. Bacteria were not found in close association with the luminal surface of any of the anal fistula tracts. Anal fistula tracts generally do not harbour high levels of mucosa-associated microbiota. Crohn's anal fistulas do not seem to harbour specific bacteria. Alternative explanations for the persistence of anal fistula are needed. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.
Tan, K-K; Kaur, G; Byrne, C M; Young, C J; Wright, C; Solomon, M J
This study aimed to evaluate the long-term outcome of the anal fistula plug in the treatment of anal fistula of cryptoglandular origin. A review of all patients who had at least one anal fistula plug inserted from March 2007 to August 2008 was performed. Only anal fistulae of cryptoglandular origin were included. Success was defined as the closure of the external opening with no further purulent discharge or collection. Thirty anal fistula plugs were inserted in 26 patients [median age 40 (26-70) years]. Twenty-six of the fistulae were transsphincteric and three were suprasphincteric. One patient had a high intersphincteric fistula, which was the only fistula that did not have a seton inserted. The median duration between seton insertion and the plug procedure was 12 (4-28) weeks. The median length of the fistula tract was 3 (1-7.5) cm. After a median follow-up of 59 (13-97) weeks, 26 (86.7%) fistulae recurred. Of the 26 failures, the median time to failure was 8 (2-54) weeks. Subsequent surgical interventions were performed in 20 of the failures. The role of the fistula plug in the management of anal fistula of cryptoglandular origin remains debatable and warrants further evaluation. © 2013 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.
Oe, Kotaro; Araki, Tsutomu; Nakashima, Akikatsu; Tsuchiyama, Tomoya; Shirota, Yukihiro; Wakabayashi, Tokio; Sato, Katsuaki
A 78-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of fresh cerebral infarction. She had been diagnosed as having rheumatoid arthritis, but had not been treated for 50 years. She could not take in sufficient food. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed no esophageal or gastric lesions, but the procedure was difficult because of her stiff neck from severe rheumatoid degenerative changes of the cervical spine. A nasogastric (NG) tube was placed, and enteral nutrition was initiated. On the 15th day from initiation of enteral nutrition, she presented hematemesis, and suddenly went into a state of shock and died. An autopsy revealed two esophageal ulcers, one of which penetrated into the descending thoracic aorta. The patient was diagnosed with hemorrhagic shock due to aortoesophageal fistula. We suspect that the NG tube compressed the esophageal wall, and ischemia caused the ulcers.
Karthikeyan, VS; Ram, D; Ali, SM; Rajkumar, N; Balasubramaniam, G; Sanker, MS
Spontaneous choledochoduodenal fistulas (CDFs) are rare. The most common aetiology is penetrating duodenal ulcers, observed in 80% of cases. Even in areas where acid peptic disease is common, tuberculosis should be considered as a cause, especially in developing countries like India, where tuberculosis is common. The management of CDF due to acid peptic disease is predominantly surgical while healing of tuberculous CDF has been reported with antitubercular treatment. A preoperative diagnosis of tuberculous CDF by endoscopic biopsy from the duodenal ulcer or image guided fine needle aspiration if abdominal lymph nodes are present can eliminate the need for surgery and achieve a cure with antitubercular treatment. The CDF in this case was due to caseation of periduodenal lymph nodes rupturing into the duodenum and the bile duct. PMID:24417856
Calleja Kempin, Javier; Colón Rodríguez, Arturo; Machado Liendo, Pedro; Acevedo, Agustín; Martín Gil, Jorge; Sánchez Rodríguez, Teresa; Zorrilla Matilla, Laura
The main cause of morbimor-mortality after major liver surgery is the development of liver failure posthepatectomy(LFPH). Treatment must involve multiple options and will be aggressive from the beginning. We report a case of a patient with cholangiocarcinoma perihilar treated with surgery: right hepatectomy extended to sI + IVb with develop of LFPH and biliary fistula and being management successfully in a multidisciplinary way.
Surgery for an anal fistula may result in recurrence or impairment of continence. The ideal treatment for an anal fistula should be associated with low recurrence rates, minimal incontinence and good quality of life. Because of the risk of a change in continence with conventional techniques, sphincter-preserving techniques for the management complex anal fistulae have been evaluated. First, the anal fistula plug is made of lyophilized porcine intestinal submucosa. The anal fistula plug is expected to provide a collagen scaffold to promote tissue in growth and fistula healing. Another addition to the sphincter-preserving options is the ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract procedure. This technique is based on the concept of secure closure of the internal opening and concomitant removal of infected cryptoglandular tissue in the intersphincteric plane. Recently, cell therapy for an anal fistula has been described. Adipose-derived stem cells have two biologic properties, namely, ability to suppress inflammation and differentiation potential. These properties are useful for the regeneration or the repair of damaged tissues. This article discusses the rationales for, the estimated efficacies of, and the limitations of new sphincter-preserving techniques for the treatment of anal fistulae. PMID:22413076
Roush, Karen; Kurth, Ann; Hutchinson, M Katherine; Van Devanter, Nancy
Despite over 40 years of research there has been little progress in the prevention of obstetric fistula and women continue to suffer in unacceptable numbers. Gender power imbalance has consistently been shown to have serious implications for women's reproductive health and is known to persist in regions where obstetric fistula occurs. Yet, there is limited research about the role gender power imbalance plays in childbirth practices that put women at risk for obstetric fistula. This information is vital for developing effective maternal health interventions in regions affected by obstetric fistula.
Simoneau, Eve; Chughtai, Talat; Razek, Tarek; Deckelbaum, Dan L
Severe acute necrotising pancreatitis is associated with numerous local and systemic complications. Abdominal compartment syndrome requiring urgent decompressive laparotomy is a potential complication of this disease process and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We describe the case of a pancreaticoatmospheric fistula following decompressive laparotomy in a patient with severe acute necrotising pancreatitis. While this fistula was managed successfully using the current standard of care for pancreatic fistulas, the wound care for in this patient with drainage of the fistula through an open abdomen, is a significant challenge. PMID:25519860
Song, Kee Ho
Surgery for an anal fistula may result in recurrence or impairment of continence. The ideal treatment for an anal fistula should be associated with low recurrence rates, minimal incontinence and good quality of life. Because of the risk of a change in continence with conventional techniques, sphincter-preserving techniques for the management complex anal fistulae have been evaluated. First, the anal fistula plug is made of lyophilized porcine intestinal submucosa. The anal fistula plug is expected to provide a collagen scaffold to promote tissue in growth and fistula healing. Another addition to the sphincter-preserving options is the ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract procedure. This technique is based on the concept of secure closure of the internal opening and concomitant removal of infected cryptoglandular tissue in the intersphincteric plane. Recently, cell therapy for an anal fistula has been described. Adipose-derived stem cells have two biologic properties, namely, ability to suppress inflammation and differentiation potential. These properties are useful for the regeneration or the repair of damaged tissues. This article discusses the rationales for, the estimated efficacies of, and the limitations of new sphincter-preserving techniques for the treatment of anal fistulae.
Yamagami, Takuji; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Nishimura, Tsunehiko
We report a 73-year-old man with recurrent variceal bleeding due to portal hypertension caused by multiple intrahepatic arterio-portal venous fistulas, which were successfully occluded by embolization with n-butyl cyanoacrylate and micro-coils.
Bruni, R; Bartolucci, R; Biancari, F; Santoro, M
The authors report a rare case of spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula. The patient was asymptomatic and with a negative history for renal lithiasis, inflammation, trauma or tuberculosis. Radiological and echographical examinations permitted a complete study of the fistulous tract and the renal function; the staghorn calculi and pyelonephritis guided the decision to operate on the patient performing a nephrectomy and ureterectomy with a quick complete recovery. Biological test for micobacterium tuberculosis resulted positive after 60 days.
Angioli, Roberto; Penalver, Manuel; Muzii, Ludovico; Mendez, Luis; Mirhashemi, Ramin; Bellati, Filippo; Crocè, Clara; Panici, Pierluigi Benedetti
Vesicovaginal fistulas are among the most distressing complications of gynecologic and obstetric procedures. The risk of developing vesicovaginal fistula is more than 1% after radical surgery and radiotherapy for gynecologic malignancies. Management of these fistulas has been better defined and standardized over the last decade. We describe in this paper the success rate reported in the literature by treatment modality and the guidelines used at our teaching hospitals, University of Rome Campus Biomedico and University of Miami School of Medicine. In general, our preferred approach is a trans-vaginal repair. To the performance of the surgical treatment, we recommend a minimum of a 4-6 week's wait from the onset of the fistula. The vaginal repair techniques can be categorized as to those that are modifications of the Latzko procedure or a layered closure with or without a Martius flap. The most frequently used abdominal approaches are the bivalve technique or the fistula excision. Radiated fistulas usually require a more individualized management and complex surgical procedures. The rate of successful fistula repair reported in the literature varies between 70 and 100% in non-radiated patients, with similar results when a vaginal or abdominal approach is performed, the mean success rates being 91 and 97%, respectively. Fistulas in radiated patients are less frequently repaired and the success rate varies between 40 and 100%. In this setting many institutions prefer to perform a urinary diversion. In conclusion, the vaginal approach of vesicovaginal fistulas repair should be the preferred one. Transvaginal repairs achieve comparable success rates, while minimizing operative complications, hospital stay, blood loss, and post surgical pain. We recommend waiting at least 4-6 weeks prior to attempting repair of a vesicovaginal fistula. It is acceptable to repeat the repair through a vaginal approach even after a first vaginal approach failure. In the more individualized
Engstrom, Bjorn I; Grimm, Lars J; Ronald, James; Smith, Tony P; Kim, Charles Y
The appropriate management of nonmaturing arteriovenous (AV) fistulae continues to be a controversial issue. While coil embolization of accessory side-branch veins can be performed to encourage maturation of nonmaturing AV fistulae, the true efficacy and optimal patient population are not well understood. Fistulagrams performed on nonmaturing AV fistulae were retrospectively reviewed in 145 patients (86 males, median age 63 years) for the presence of accessory veins. Fistula and accessory vein measurements were obtained, as were rates of eventual fistula maturation after accessory vein coil embolization. Of 145 nonmaturing fistulae, 49 (34%) had a stenosis without any accessory veins, 76 (52%) had a stenosis and one or more accessory veins, and 20 (14%) had an accessory vein without concurrent stenosis. Eighteen AV fistulae had one or more accessory veins without coexisting stenosis. Nine fistulae had a caliber decrease immediately downstream from the accessory vein. Coil embolization of dominant accessory veins with a caliber decrease immediately downstream (n = 6) resulted in a 100% eventual fistula maturation rate versus 67% for fistulae without this configuration (n = 6, p = 0.15). Accessory vein size was not correlated with maturation rates (p = 0.51). The majority of nonmaturing fistulae with accessory veins had a coexisting stenosis. Higher maturation rates may result with selected anatomic parameters, although additional studies with more robust sample sizes are needed prior to definitive conclusions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Johansen, L.V.; Overgaard, J.; Elbrond, O.
The development of a pharyngocutaneous fistulae is a major complication after total laryngectomy. In Denmark radiotherapy is the primary treatment for all laryngeal carcinomas. Based on the experience with conventional daily irradiation, a split-course radiation schedule was introduced in 1978. The charts of 106 consecutive patients laryngectomized for recurrence in the years 1975 to 1984 were examined. Thirty-four patients developed a fistula. An evaluation of the different radiotherapy schedules used during this period allowed a dose-response curve to be constructed. It showed a pronounced increase of fistulae with high doses of radiotherapy. Split-course radiotherapy caused a rise in late complications and did not improve tumor control. Large field sizes increased the number of fistulae. High-dose fractions showed a surprisingly high incidence of late complications. Prophylactic metronidazole (introduced in 1980) resulted in a highly significant decrease in the frequency of postoperative fistulae. Patients in whom fistula formed were hospitalized for an average of 54 days, patients without, for 22 days.
Chang, Fei; Cheng, Dasheng; Qian, Mingyuan; Lu, Wei; Li, Huatao; Tang, Hongtai; Xia, Zhaofan
BACKGROUND As patients with thoracic duct injuries often suffer from severe local soft tissue defects, integrated surgical treatment is needed to achieve damage repair and wound closure. However, thoracic duct chylous fistula is rare in burn patients, although it typically involves severe soft tissue damage in the neck or chest. CASE REPORT A 32-year-old male patient fell after accidentally contacting an electric current (380 V) and knocked over a barrel of sulfuric acid. The sulfuric acid continuously poured onto his left neck and chest, causing combined electrical and sulfuric acid burn injuries to his anterior and posterior torso, and various parts of his limbs (25% of his total body surface area). During treatment, chylous fistula developed in the left clavicular region, which we diagnosed as thoracic duct chylous fistula. We used diet control, intravenous nutritional support, and continuous somatostatin to reduce the chylous fistula output, and hydrophilic silver ion-containing dressings for wound coverage. A boneless muscle flap was used to seal the left clavicular cavity, and, integrated, these led to resolution of the chylous fistula. CONCLUSIONS Patients with severe electric or chemical burns in the neck or chest may be complicated with thoracic duct injuries. Although conservative treatment can control chylous fistula, wound cavity filling using a muscle flap is an effective approach for wound healing.
Sistla, Sarath Chandra; Ramesh, Ananthakrishnan; Karthikeyan, Vilvapathy Sengutuvan; Ram, Duvuru; Ali, Sheik Manwar; Subramaniam, Raghavan Velayutham Sugi
The term gossypiboma is used to describe a mass of cotton matrix left behind in a body cavity intraoperatively. The most common site reported is the abdominal cavity. It can present with abscess, intestinal obstruction, malabsorption, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and fistulas. A 37-year-old woman presented with pain in the right hypochondrium for 2 months following open cholecystectomy. As she did not improve with proton pump inhibitors, an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) was done, which showed a possible gauze piece stained with bile in the first part of the duodenum. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) of the abdomen revealed an abnormal fistulous communication of the first part of duodenum with proximal transverse colon, with a hypodense, mottled lesion within the lumen of the proximal transverse colon plugging the fistula, suggestive of a gossypiboma. Excision of the coloduodenal fistula, primary duodenal repair, and feeding jejunostomy was done. The patient recovered well and is now tolerating normal diet. Coloduodenal fistula is usually caused by Crohn's disease, malignancy, right-sided diverticulitis, and gall stone disease. Isolated coloduodenal fistula due to gossypiboma has not been reported in the literature so far to the best of our knowledge. We report this case of coloduodenal fistula secondary to gossypiboma for its rarity and diagnostic challenge.
Niu, Yin; Li, Lin; Tang, Jun; Zhu, Gang
Multiple endovascular management of direct carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) has been widely accepted as a treatment option. Embolization of the fistula with detachable balloons or thrombogenic coil-based occlusion has been the main choice to treat direct CCF, with good safety and efficacy. This study investigated the safety and efficacy of embolization of direct CCF with the novel double-balloon technique. A retrospective review of a prospective database on cerebral vascular disease was performed. We identified a total of five patients presenting with high-flow direct CCF. All patients were managed with transarterial embolization with the novel double-balloon technique. Three of the five patients were treated with two detachable balloons, and a completely occluded fistula with preservation of the internal carotid artery was achieved. Of the remaining two patients treated with more detachable balloons, one patient achieved a perfect outcome and the other one suffered from recurrent fistula due to balloon migration 3 weeks after embolization. During a follow-up period of 12–18 months, no symptoms reoccurred in any patient. Thus, the double-balloon treatment may be a promising method for CCF complete occlusion. This novel technique may bring more benefits in the following two cases: 1). A single inflated detachable balloon fails to completely occlude the CCF, which causing the next balloon can not pass into the fistula. 2). A giant CCF needs more balloons for fistula embolization. PMID:26586136
Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Fujihara, Shintaro; Nishiyama, Noriko; Kobayashi, Mitsuyoshi; Masaki, Tsutomu; Izuishi, Kunihiko; Suzuki, Yasuyuki
Rectal perforations due to glycerin enemas (GE) typically occur when the patient is in a seated or lordotic standing position. Once the perforation occurs and peritonitis results, death is usually inevitable. We describe two cases of rectal perforation and fistula caused by a GE. An 88-year-old woman presented with a large rectal perforation and a fistula just after receiving a GE. Her case was further complicated by an abscess in the right rectal wall. The second patient was a 78-year-old woman who suffered from a rectovesical fistula after a GE. In both cases, we performed direct endoscopic abscess lavage with a saline solution and closed the fistula using an over-the-scope-clip (OTSC) procedure. These procedures resulted in dramatic improvement in both patients. Direct endoscopic lavage and OTSC closure are very useful for pararectal abscess lavage and fistula closure, respectively, in elderly patients who are in poor general condition. Our two cases are the first reports of the successful endoscopic closure of fistulae using double OTSCs after endoscopic lavage of the debris and an abscess of the rectum secondary to a GE.
Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Fujihara, Shintaro; Nishiyama, Noriko; Kobayashi, Mitsuyoshi; Masaki, Tsutomu; Izuishi, Kunihiko; Suzuki, Yasuyuki
Rectal perforations due to glycerin enemas (GE) typically occur when the patient is in a seated or lordotic standing position. Once the perforation occurs and peritonitis results, death is usually inevitable. We describe two cases of rectal perforation and fistula caused by a GE. An 88-year-old woman presented with a large rectal perforation and a fistula just after receiving a GE. Her case was further complicated by an abscess in the right rectal wall. The second patient was a 78-year-old woman who suffered from a rectovesical fistula after a GE. In both cases, we performed direct endoscopic abscess lavage with a saline solution and closed the fistula using an over-the-scope-clip (OTSC) procedure. These procedures resulted in dramatic improvement in both patients. Direct endoscopic lavage and OTSC closure are very useful for pararectal abscess lavage and fistula closure, respectively, in elderly patients who are in poor general condition. Our two cases are the first reports of the successful endoscopic closure of fistulae using double OTSCs after endoscopic lavage of the debris and an abscess of the rectum secondary to a GE. PMID:22791955
Sistla, Sarath Chandra; Ramesh, Ananthakrishnan; Karthikeyan, Vilvapathy Sengutuvan; Ram, Duvuru; Ali, Sheik Manwar; Subramaniam, Raghavan Velayutham Sugi
The term gossypiboma is used to describe a mass of cotton matrix left behind in a body cavity intraoperatively. The most common site reported is the abdominal cavity. It can present with abscess, intestinal obstruction, malabsorption, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and fistulas. A 37-year-old woman presented with pain in the right hypochondrium for 2 months following open cholecystectomy. As she did not improve with proton pump inhibitors, an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) was done, which showed a possible gauze piece stained with bile in the first part of the duodenum. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) of the abdomen revealed an abnormal fistulous communication of the first part of duodenum with proximal transverse colon, with a hypodense, mottled lesion within the lumen of the proximal transverse colon plugging the fistula, suggestive of a gossypiboma. Excision of the coloduodenal fistula, primary duodenal repair, and feeding jejunostomy was done. The patient recovered well and is now tolerating normal diet. Coloduodenal fistula is usually caused by Crohn's disease, malignancy, right-sided diverticulitis, and gall stone disease. Isolated coloduodenal fistula due to gossypiboma has not been reported in the literature so far to the best of our knowledge. We report this case of coloduodenal fistula secondary to gossypiboma for its rarity and diagnostic challenge. PMID:24670021
Drew, Laura B; Wilkinson, Jeffrey P; Nundwe, William; Moyo, Margaret; Mataya, Ronald; Mwale, Mwawi; Tang, Jennifer H
Obstetric fistula affects a woman's life physically, psychosocially, and economically. Although surgery can repair the physical damage of fistula, the devastating consequences that affect a woman's quality of life may persist when she reintegrates into her community. This qualitative study assessed long-term outcomes among women who underwent obstetric fistula repair in Malawi. We explored three domains: overall quality of life before and after repair, fertility and pregnancy outcomes after repair, and understanding of fistula. In-depth interviews were conducted in Chichewa with 20 women from seven districts across Central Malawi. All women were interviewed 1 to 2 years after surgical repair for obstetric fistula at the Fistula Care Centre in Lilongwe, Malawi. Interviews were independently coded and analyzed using content analysis. About half of women were married and nine of 20 women reported some degree of urinary incontinence. With the exception of relationship challenges, women's concerns before and after repair were different. Additionally, repair had resolved many of the concerns women had before repair. However, challenges, both directly and indirectly related to fistula, persisted. Improvements in quality of life at the individual level included feelings of freedom, confidence and personal growth, and improved income-earning ability. Interpersonal quality of life improvements included improved relationships with family and friends, reduced stigma, and increased participation with their communities. Nearly half of women desired future pregnancies, but many were uncertain about their ability to bear children and feared additional pregnancies could cause fistula recurrence. Most women were well informed about fistula development but myths about witchcraft and fear of delivery were present. Nearly all women would recommend fistula repair to other women, and many were advocates in their communities. Nearly all women believed their quality of life had improved
Figueiredo, Ana E; Viegas, Ariani; Monteiro, Mara; Poli-de-Figueiredo, Carlos E
Patients with end-stage renal failure (ESRF) undergoing haemodialysis (HD) are repeatedly exposed to stress and pain from approximately 300 punctures per year to their arteriovenous fistula (AVF). Repeated AVF punctures lead to a considerable degree of pain, due to the calibre and length of the bevel of fistula needles. Pain is a sensitive, emotional and subjective experience. The objective of this study was to measure pain associated with AVF needling. The analogue visual scale (AVS) divided into 10 equal parts (0 indicating lack of pain, and 10 unbearable pain) was used. Patients(7) perceptions were measured in three different HD sessions. Pain was considered mild during AVF needling. The buttonhole technique caused a mean degree of pain of 2.4 (+/-1.7), compared to 3.1 (+/-2.3) using the conventional ropeladder technique. Although without reaching a statistically significant difference, diminished pain was associated with the buttonhole technique.
Huang, William; Villavicencio, J Leonel; Rich, Norman M
An 18-year-old soldier had a gunshot wound to his left thigh during the Mexican Civil War (1910-1917). He presented with persistent bright red bleeding. His wound was treated by compression. A few years after the injury, he noticed a thrill, large varicose veins, limb swelling, and skin changes. A plain film showed an 8 x 10-cm midthigh mass. After a bullfighting incident, the pseudoaneurysm ruptured. Because of increased bulk and discomfort, the patient agreed 3 years later to be treated. Angiography showed a chronically obstructed femoral artery and vein. A 3000-mL hematoma was evacuated. This case illustrates the long-term sequelae of an arteriovenous fistula. This report describes a 51-year delay of treatment for causes unrelated to diagnosis. To our knowledge, this case is the longest delay in treatment of an arteriovenous fistula and its complications reported in the literature.
Zajtchuk, Rustik; Resnekov, Leon; Ranniger, Klaus; Gonzalez-Lavin, Lorenzo
A case of chronic aortic to pulmonary artery traumatic fistula is presented and the surgical repair is detailed. Closure through the aorta is recommended; this approach provides a dry operative field and avoids the need for dissection of adhesions around the fistulous tract. Fistulae of this type are not common and the pertinent literature is reviewed. Images PMID:5576540
Aarvold, Alexander; Wales, Lucy Papadakos, Nikolaos; Munneke, Graham; Loftus, Ian; Thompson, Matt
Arterio-ureteric fistulae are rare but can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We describe a novel case in which an arterio-ureteric fistula occurred as a complication following external iliac artery angioplasty and stenting, in a patient who had undergone previous pelvic surgery, radiotherapy, ureteric stenting, and urinary diversion surgery. Prompt recognition enabled successful endovascular management using a covered stent.
Gupta, N.C.; Beauvais, J. )
Coronary artery fistula is an uncommon clinical entity. The most common coronary artery fistula is from the right coronary artery to the right side of the heart, and it is less frequent to the pulmonary artery. The effect of a coronary artery fistula may be physiologically significant because of the steal phenomenon resulting in coronary ischemia. Based on published reports, it is recommended that patients with congenital coronary artery fistulas be considered candidates for elective surgical correction to prevent complications including development of congestive heart failure, angina, subacute bacterial endocarditis, myocardial infarction, and coronary aneurysm formation with rupture or embolization. A patient is presented in whom treadmill-exercise thallium imaging was effective in determining the degree of coronary steal from a coronary artery fistula, leading to successful corrective surgery.
Trigui, Walid; Le Pimpec-Barthes, Françoise; Shaker, Walid; Lang-Lazdunski, Loïc; Riquet, Marc
The simultaneous occurrence of bronchopleural fistula (BPF) and esophagopleural fistula (EPF) after pneumonectomy is very rare. We describe a 60-year-old man who developed empyema associated with bronchopleural fistula as a complication of a right pneumonectomy. Initial chest tube drainage and antibiotic therapy were ineffective. Five months later ingested food particles appeared in the drainage fluid. Esophagoscopy revealed an esophageal fistula of 10 mm in diameter. After nutritional support by feeding jejunostomy both BPF and EPF were repaired by subscapular muscle myoplasty and extensive thoracoplasty through a right thoracotomy. Endoscopic examination performed 1 month after surgery showed complete closure of both fistulas and 9 months after surgery the patient was eating and gaining weight. The patient's death was due to aspiration pneumonia of another origin.
Ito, Osamu; Nishimura, Ataru; Ishido, Katsuya; Hitotsumatsu, Tsutomu
A 61-year-old man presented with a rare case of spontaneous vertebral arteriovenous fistula manifesting as radiculopathy of the left arm. MRI demonstrated an abnormal dilated vascular space on the left ventral aspect of the spinal canal and compression of the spinal cord and subarachnoid space. MRA disclosed a single high-flow vertebral arteriovenous fistula. Angiography showed a direct high-flow fistula at the C2-3 level between the left vertebral artery and the spinal extradural veinous plexus, and an abnormal dilated left vertebral artery with "string of beads"-like feature. The fistula was successfully obliterated by coil embolization with preservation of patency of the left vertebral artery, resulting in improvement of the signs and symptoms. Retrospectively this spontaneous vertebral arteriovenous fistula was considered in association with fibromuscular dysplasia.
George, Mark L.; Carapeti, Emin A.; Schizas, Alexis M. P.; Williams, Andrew B.
Purpose This research was conducted to compare the management and the outcome of patients with colovesical fistulae of different aetiologies. Methods Retrospective data were collected from 2002 to 2012 and analyzed with SPSS ver. 17. Age, gender, aetiology, management, hospital stay, postoperative complications, and mortality were studied and compared among colovesical fistulae of different aetiologies. Results A total of 55 patients, 46 males (84%) and 9 females (16%), with a median age of 65 years (interquartile range [IQR], 48-75 years) were studied. Diverticular disease was the most common benign cause and recto-sigmoid cancer the most common malignancy. Anterior resection and bladder repair were the most frequent operations in benign cases, as was total pelvic exenteration in the malignant group. Multiple intestinal loop involvement and subsequent resection were significantly higher in those with Crohn disease than it was in patients of colovesical fistula due to all other causes collectively (60% vs. 6%, P = 0.006). Patients with malignancy had a higher postoperative complication rate than patients who did not (12 [80%] vs. 7 [32%], P = 0.0005). Pelvic collection (11, 22%) was the most frequent early complication (predominantly in the malignant group) whereas incisional hernia (8, 22%) was the most common late complication, with a predominance in the benign group. The median hospital stay was significantly prolonged in the malignant group (32 days; IQR, 17-70 days vs. 16 days; IQR, 11-25 days; P < 0.001). Conclusion Despite their having similar clinical presentation, colovesical fistulae of various aetiologies differ significantly in management and outcome. PMID:25960973
Paran, H; Neufeld, D; Kaplan, O; Klausner, J; Freund, U
Eighteen patients with postoperative fistulas of the gastrointestinal tract were treated with the somatostatin analog octreotide between November 1989 and November 1992. Fourteen patients had enterocutaneous fistulas: seven from the duodenum and seven from the ileum. Another three patients had pancreatic fistulas, and one patient had a biliary fistula. Within 24 hours of octreotide treatment, a mean reduction of 52% in the intestinal fistulas' output, 40% in the pancreatic fistulas, and 30% in the biliary fistula was noted. In the intestinal fistulas group the closure rate was 72% after a mean of 11 days. Early closure (mean 6 days) was achieved in all three pancreatic fistulas. In the patient with the biliary fistula a 30% reduction was observed twice following the administration of octreotide, and an increase occurred when it was withheld. The reduction rate of the secretions in high-output intestinal fistulas (> 500 ml/day) was higher than in the low-output fistulas (63 +/- 8% versus 39 +/- 4%, p < 0.05). Fistula output and the initial response to octreotide treatment had no value in predicting spontaneous healing. In conclusion, octreotide is a valuable tool for the conservative treatment of fistulas of the digestive tract. It is especially valuable for management of high-output enteric fistulas and pancreatic fistulas.
Kelly, J; Winter, H R
This article presents the reflections of an experienced fistula surgeon and an epidemiologist on the current knowledge base for obstetric fistula. The incidence, prevention, and management of vesico-vaginal and recto-vaginal fistula are discussed. The authors call for more randomized controlled trials to determine the effectiveness of surgical interventions for fistula repair.
Hua, Na; Wei, Lai; Jiang, Tao; Guo, Ying; Wang, Meiyi; Wang, Zhiqiang
To investigate the pathology characteristics of congenital preauricular fistula with infection, in order to reduce the recurrence rate after surgery and improve operative technique. Twenty-five patients diagnosed as congenital preauricular fistula with infection were analyzed. There were 14 patients in infection history group, 9 in infective stage group, and 2 in recurrence group respectively. The whole piece of fistula and scar tissue was completely excised during operation. The specimens were observed by naked eye and serial tissue sections were analyzed. (1) Macroscopically, in infection history group, initial morphology can be maintained near the fistula orifice, but the distal tissue was dark red scar tissue. In infective stage group, the distal tissue of the specimens was granulation tissue and cicatricial tissue. The granulation tissue was crisp and bright red. In recurrence group, multicystic lesions with severe edema was observed, with a classical dumb-bell appearence. (2) Microscopically, in infection history group and recurrence group, we can see that the distal fistula tissue was discontinuous and was separated by scar tissue. In infective stage group, we can find neo-angiogenesis and infiltration of plasma cells, lymphocytes, neutrophil between interrupted fistula tissues. (3) All patients were followed up for 6-12 month, without recurrence. The fistula tissue of congenital preauricular fistula with infection was divided by the scar tissue, and they did not communicate with each other. Complete delineation of fistula is hardly achieved by methylene blue staining. Radical excision of the fistula and scar tissue may help to avoid leaving viable squamous epithelial remnants and reduce the recurrence rate.
Furukawa, Rieko; Aihara, Toshinori; Tazuke, Yuko; Maeda, Kosaku; Kuwata, Tomoyuki
Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) is diagnosed by characteristic features on US and MRI including fetal upper airway occlusion, lung hyperinflation with an inverted diaphragm, and sometimes massive ascites and hydrops. We describe a case of CHAOS in which improvement in the fetal condition was observed on three sequential fetal MRIs. Such an improvement was thought to represent decrease in intrathoracic pressure caused by a spontaneous perforation such as a tracheoesophageal fistula. However, a fistula was not observed in the present case. Therefore, we suggest that imaging improvements in patients with CHAOS do not always correspond to the presence of a fistula and other factors might contribute to decreasing fetal intrathoracic pressure.
Fatih, Ozdemir; Adil, Baskiran; Cengiz, Ara; Mustafa, Ates; Sagir, Kahraman Ayşegul; Maras, Ozdemir Zeynep; Sezai, Yilmaz
Pancreaticoduodenectomy is considered the standard operation for periampullary tumors. Despite major advances in pancreatic surgery, pancreatic fistula is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Meticulous surgical technique and proper reconstruction of the pancreas are essential to prevent pancreatic fistula. Pancreaticogastrostomy is a safe method for reconstruction of the pancreas after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Regardless of pancreatic texture or duct diameter, the reconstruction is performed by passing full-thickness sutures through both the anterior and posterior sides of the pancreas. In this study, we report 39 cases of reconstruction with pancreaticogastrostomy after pancreaticoduodenectomy without mortality or pancreatic fistula.
The diagnosis and treatment of complex anal fistula has been a significant challenge. Unwise incision and excessive exploration will lead to the secondary branch, sinus and perforation. A simple fistula may become a surgical problem and result in disastrous consequences. Preoperative accurate diagnosis of anal fistula, including in the internal opening, primary track and location of the fistula, extensions and abscess, is important for anal fistula treatment. In the diagnosis of anal fistula, imaging examination, especially MRI plays a crucial role. Localization and demarcation of anal fistula and the relationship with sphincter are important. MRI has been an indispensable confirmatory imaging examination.
Saba, Reza Bagherzadeh; Tizmaghz, Adnan; Ajeka, Somar; Karami, Mehdi
Recurrent and complex high fistulas remain a surgical challenge. This paper reports our experience with the anal fistula plug in patients with complex fistulas. Data were collected prospectively and analyzed from consecutive patients undergoing insertion of a fistula plug from January 2011 through April 2014 at Hazrat-e-Rasoul Hospital in Tehran. We ensured that sepsis had been eradicated in all patients prior to placement of the plug. During surgery, a conical shaped collagen plug was pulled through the fistula tract. Twelve patients were included in this case study. All patients had previously undergone failed surgical therapy to cure their fistula and had previously-placed Setons. There were eight males and four females with an average age of 44 who were treated for complex fistulas. At a median time of follow-up of 22.7 months, 10 of the 12 patients had healed (83.3%). One patient developed an abscess that was noted on the sixth postoperative day, and there was one recurrence during follow-up. Fistula plugs are effective for the long-term closure of complex anal fistulas. Success of treatment with the fistula plug depends on the eradication of sepsis prior to plug placement.
Ratto, C; Litta, F; Parello, A; Donisi, L; Zaccone, G; De Simone, V
The surgical treatment of a complex anal fistula remains controversial, although 'sphincter-saving' operations are desirable. The Gore Bio-A® Fistula Plug is a new bioprosthetic plug that has been proposed for the treatment of complex anal fistula. This study reports preliminary data following implantation of this plug. Eleven patients with a complex anal fistula underwent insertion of Gore Bio-A® Fistula Plugs. The disc diameter and number of tubes in the plug were adapted to the fistula to allow accommodation of the disc into a submucosal pocket, and the excess tubes were trimmed. During the follow-up period, patients underwent clinical and physical examinations and three-dimensional endoanal ultrasound. Fistulas were high anterior transphincteric in five patients and high posterior transphincteric in six patients. All patients had a loose seton placement before plug insertion. Two, three and four tubes were inserted into the fistula plug in seven, three and one patient, respectively. The median follow-up period was 5 months. No patient reported any faecal incontinence. There was no case of early plug dislodgement. Treatment success was noted for eight (72.7%) of 11 patients at the last follow-up appointment. Implanting a Gore Bio-A® Fistula Plug is a simple, minimally invasive, safe and potentially effective procedure to treat complex anal fistula. Patient selection is fundamental for success. © 2012 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2012 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.
Saba, Reza Bagherzadeh; Tizmaghz, Adnan; Ajeka, Somar; Karami, Mehdi
Introduction Recurrent and complex high fistulas remain a surgical challenge. This paper reports our experience with the anal fistula plug in patients with complex fistulas. Methods Data were collected prospectively and analyzed from consecutive patients undergoing insertion of a fistula plug from January 2011 through April 2014 at Hazrat-e-Rasoul Hospital in Tehran. We ensured that sepsis had been eradicated in all patients prior to placement of the plug. During surgery, a conical shaped collagen plug was pulled through the fistula tract. Results Twelve patients were included in this case study. All patients had previously undergone failed surgical therapy to cure their fistula and had previously-placed Setons. There were eight males and four females with an average age of 44 who were treated for complex fistulas. At a median time of follow-up of 22.7 months, 10 of the 12 patients had healed (83.3%). One patient developed an abscess that was noted on the sixth postoperative day, and there was one recurrence during follow-up. Conclusions Fistula plugs are effective for the long-term closure of complex anal fistulas. Success of treatment with the fistula plug depends on the eradication of sepsis prior to plug placement. PMID:27280009
Wang, Dan; Chen, Juan; Zhu, Lan; Sang, Mingchen; Yu, Fan; Zhou, Qing
to demonstrate the surgical repair of rectovaginal fistula by the modified Martius procedure. step by step presentation of the procedure using video. Rectovaginal fistula (RVF) is abnormal epithelialized connections between the vagina and rectum. Causes of rectovaginal fistula include obstetrical trauma, Crohn disease, pelvic irradiation and postsurgical complications. Many surgical interventions have been developed, from laparoscopic technique to muscle transposition and even rectal resection. However, treatment of RVF is a great challenge to gynecologic surgeons as the incidence of RVF is low and there is no high evidence for best surgical approach to this disease. When a rectovaginal fistula is persistent or recurrent, the surrounding tissue is always scarred or damaged. So the interposition of a healthy and well-perfused tissue is an appropriate approach to fistula management. The modified Martius procedure using adipose tissue from the labia major places well-vascularized pedicle in the place of the RVF. Limited studies involving the procedure present favorable successful rates. Consent was obtained from the patient. The study was approved by the local Ethics Committee. In this video we describe the modified Martius procedure for management of rectovaginal fistula. We present a 26-year-old woman who suffered from rectovaginal fistula caused by obstetric trauma. She complained of passing flatus and faeces through the vagina one week after vaginal delivery. Then the clinical examination confirmed a rectovaginal fistula, 1 cm in diameter, located in the lower-third of the vagina in local hospital. The fistula was present for about 6 months which bring psychosocial dysfunction to the patient. Then she was transferred to our clinic. After examination, the anal sphincter was intact. After mechanical bowel preparation with polyethylene glycol solution, the patient was presented for surgery. The operating time is about 40 minutes. No recurrence or complications were
Ozturk, Alaattin; Atalay, Talha; Cipe, Gokhan; Luleci, Nurettin
The aim of this study is to assess the effect of ozone gas in the treatment of anorectal fistulae. The tip of a 20 G intravenous cannula was inserted from the fistula orifice. Medical ozone was introduced into the fistula. A total of 10 sessions of ozone gas insufflation was performed on alternate days. Treatment was considered to be successful if fistula discharge ceased and the outer fistula orifice closed; however, if discharge was continued or outer fistula orifice was open, the treatment considered to be failed. A total of 12 adult patients were included in the study. The fistula was closed in three patients (25 %), in nine patients (75 %) without closure. In one patient who had fistula closure, the fistula recurred after 2 months. Patients did not express any discomfort during ozone insufflation. There were no side effects or complications due to ozone insufflation. The success rate of ozone insufflation in anorectal fistulae closure is low.
Hughes, B John; Martin, Graham R; Wearn, Colin P; Reynolds, S James
A sublingual fistula is an opening through the ventral skin of the buccal cavity through which the tongue can protrude. The cause is unknown. Masked Boobies (Sula dactylatra) are the third avian species to be reported with this condition. We argue that ectoparasite infestation of hatchlings may be an initial cause.
Perilymph fistula (PLF) is defined as a leak of perilymph at the oval or round window. It excludes other conditions with “fistula” tests due to a dehiscent semi circular canal from cholesteatoma and the superior canal dehiscence syndrome. It was first recognized in the early days of stapedectomy as causing disequilibrium and balance problems before sealing of the stapedectomy with natural tissue became routine. It then became apparent that head trauma and barotraumatic trauma from flying or diving could be a cause of PLF. Descriptions of “spontaneous” PLF with no trauma history followed. A large literature on PLF from all causes accumulated. It became an almost emotional issue in Otolaryngology with “believers” and “nonbelievers.” The main criticisms are a lack of reliable symptoms and diagnostic tests and operative traps in reliably distinguishing a perilymph leak from local anaesthetic. There are extensive reviews on the whole topic, invariably conveying the authors' own experiences and their confirmed views on various aspects. However, a close examination reveals a disparity of definitions and assumptions on symptoms, particularly, vestibular. This is an intentionally provocative paper with suggestions on where some progress might be made. PMID:23724269
The key to the treatment of anal fistula lies in scavenging the infected anal gland thoroughly, which is the source of anal fistula infection. The fistula tract at the internal orifice of the anal fistula is cut 1 cm using laser with the infectious source completely degenerated and the wound gassified and scanned. The residual distal fistula softens and disappears upon the action of organic fibrinolysin.
Chen Aiping Yu Hong; Li Huimin; Xiao Xiangsheng Liu Shiyuan
Esophageal perforation caused by accidental swallowing of fish bones can lead to rare complications, such as aortoesophageal fistula accompanied by aortic pseudoaneurysm, which can be fatal if not properly handled. We report two rare cases of aortoesophageal fistula and aortic pseudoaneurysm caused by esophagus perforation after accidental swallow of fish bone; the patients also had purulent mediastinitis and esophagitis. The treatment of aortic pseudoaneurysm was successful in both cases, with one patient undergoing surgical resection and aortic neoplasty and the other patient undergoing endovascular stent graft placement. Long-term antibiotic treatment was administered to both patients after surgery. There were no postsurgical complications, and the patients recovered without incident.
Cortes, Dionisio; Martinez-Conde, Rafael; Uribarri, Agurne; Eguia del Valle, Asier; Lopez, José; Aguirre, José Manuel
Several techniques have been used to treat the oroantral fistula with similar rates of success and failure. Some of them frequently present anatomical disadvantages. They can reduce vestibular depth, cause lack of support bone, or cause fusion of the Schneiderian and mucosal membranes. In this report, we present 3 cases of orosinusal fistulas successfully treated with a simultaneous closure of the communication and sinus floor augmentation. At the same time, this technique enables the restoration of the alveolar process with enough bone volume, which facilitates later implant surgery, prosthetic rehabilitation, or even some orthodontic treatments. Copyright 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yang, Hwa-Yeon; Sun, Woo-Young; Lee, Taek-Gu
Colonic diverticulosis has continuously increased, noticeably left-sided diseases, in Korea. A colovesical fistula is an uncommon complication of diverticulitis, and its most common cause is diverticular disease. Confirmation of its presence generally depends on clinical findings, such as pneumaturia and fecaluria. The primary aim of a diagnostic workup is not to observe the fistular tract itself but to find the etiology of the disease so that an appropriate therapy can be initiated. We present here the case of a 79-year-old man complaining of pneumaturia and fecaluria. On abdomen and pelvis CT, the patient was diagnosed as having a colovesical fistula due to sigmoid diverticulitis. After division of the adhesion between the sigmoid colon and the bladder, the defect of the bladder wall was repaired by simple closure. The colonic defect was treated with a segmental resection, including the rectosigmoid junction. The patient is doing well at 6 months after the operation and shows no evidence of recurrence of the fistula. PMID:21602969
Villagrán-Cervantes, R; Rodríguez-Colorado, S; Delgado-Urdapilleta, J; Kunhardt-R, J
Evaluation of the characteristics of urogenital fistula with a retrospective study at the clinic of Urology Ginecologica in the Instituto Nacional de Perinatologia between March 1992 to June 1995, information of the location, etiopathogenesis of the disease, urinary tract infection and surgical treatment were obtained form de patients records in the clinic. The etiophatogenesis of the disease was surgical gynecological procedures in 51.1%, and obstetric cause 48.5%; the location were 14 (66.6%) vesicovaginal, 5 (23.5% 0 ureterovaginal and 2 (urethrovaginal). The abdominal approach were in 8 patients and vaginal route in 9, no surgical treatment were 2. Successfully repair fistula were in 80.9%. Urinary tract infections before treatment agreed on the obstetric etiology was 47.6%, and for surgical gynecological procedures 52.2%. There is an increase in the incident of obstetric vesicovaginal fistula, we believe it depends on the patients that we have in de Instituto Nacional de Perinatologia, most of them are obstetric patients.
Karaman, Emin; Isildak, Huseyin; Haciyev, Yusuf; Kaytaz, Asim; Enver, Ozgun
Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) are anomalous communications between the carotid arterial system and the venous cavernous sinus. They can arise because of spontaneous or trauma causes. Most caroticocavernous fistulas are of spontaneous origin and unknown etiology. Spontaneous CCF may also be associated with cavernous sinus pathology such as arteriosclerotic changes of the arterial wall, fibromuscular dysplasia, or Ehler-Danlos syndrome. Traumatic CCFs may occur after either blunt or penetrating head trauma. Their clinical presentation is related to their size and to the type of venous drainage, which can lead to a variety of symptoms, such as visual loss, proptosis, bruit, chemosis, cranial nerve impairment, intracranial hemorrhage (rare), and so on. Treatment by endovascular transarterial embolization with electrolytically detachable coils is a very effective method for CCF with good outcomes. Carotid-cavernous fistulas have been rarely reported after craniofacial surgery and are uncommon pathologies in otolaryngology practice. In this study, we report a 40-year-old woman with CCF secondary to blunt trauma of functional endoscopic sinus surgery.
Cam, Cetin; Karateke, Ates; Ozdemir, Arman; Gunes, Candemir; Celik, Cem; Guney, Buhara; Vatansever, Dogan
Evaluation of the problems encountered during a voluntarily fistula campaign in a regional hospital of Niger (Africa). Women underwent basic gynecological examination, methylene blue testing, and/or direct cystoscopy as necessary. According to their clinical condition, women were informed and surgical options offered as appropriate. Operations were performed under spinal or epidural anesthesia. Immediate postoperative outcomes were followed during the stay of the surgical team in the country. A total of 62 women were examined and 11 had causes of incontinence other than obstetric fistula. In 9.8% of the women, severe local infection precluding any surgical intervention was evident. In 58.8% of patients, the trigonal region and/or urethra were irreversibly damaged. A proportion of patients (9.8%) with large lesions and intact urethra that were offered vaginal layered closure refused the intervention. Of the women that were operated on (21.6%), six underwent vaginal layered closure with Martius fat flap and five women underwent a combined abdomino-vaginal approach. It is extremely difficult to meet the needs of this global problem with short term programs and volunteers. Directing these efforts to specialist fistula centers and creating reliable scientific evidence should be the main goal. Copyright © 2010 Taiwan Association of Obstetric & Gynecology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Golabek, Tomasz; Szymanska, Anna; Szopinski, Tomasz; Bukowczan, Jakub; Furmanek, Mariusz; Powroznik, Jan; Chlosta, Piotr
Background and Study Objectives. Enterovesical fistula (EVF) is a devastating complication of a variety of inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. Radiological imaging plays a vital role in the diagnosis of EVF and is indispensable to gastroenterologists and surgeons for choosing the correct therapeutic option. This paper provides an overview of the diagnosis of enterovesical fistulae. The treatment of fistulae is also briefly discussed. Material and Methods. We performed a literature review by searching the Medline database for articles published from its inception until September 2013 based on clinical relevance. Electronic searches were limited to the keywords: “enterovesical fistula,” “colovesical fistula” (CVF), “pelvic fistula”, and “urinary fistula”. Results. EVF is a rare pathology. Diverticulitis is the commonest aetiology. Over two-thirds of affected patients describe pathognomonic features of pneumaturia, fecaluria, and recurrent urinary tract infections. Computed tomography is the modality of choice for the diagnosis of enterovesical fistulae as not only does it detect a fistula, but it also provides information about the surrounding anatomical structures. Conclusions. In the vast majority of cases, this condition is diagnosed because of unremitting urinary symptoms after gastroenterologist follow-up procedures for a diverticulitis or bowel inflammatory disease. Computed tomography is the most sensitive test for enterovesical fistula. PMID:24348538
Aikawa, Masayasu; Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Okada, Katsuya; Akimoto, Naoe; Koyama, Isamu; Yamaguchi, Shigeki; Ikada, Yoshito
We report on a clinicopathologic study in an animal model of treatment with a new bioabsorbable polymer plug (BAPP). Over a 2-week period, 6 porcine models, which each had 4 anal fistulae, were created using Blake drains. The pigs were divided into 2 groups: the BAPP-treatment group (n = 12 fistulae) and the control group (n = 12 fistulae). Two weeks later, the pigs were humanely killed, and the perianal sites were excised and examined with gross and pathologic studies. Each fistula in the BAPP group was completely cured. In the pathologic study, the treatment sites had little disarray, few defects in the muscular layer, and small numbers of inflammatory cells. The control group had a significantly greater number of inflammatory cells and microabscesses than the BAPP group. The newly developed BAPP reduced the infection and induced good healing in anal fistulae. The BAPP may be a useful new device for the clinical treatment of anal fistulae. PMID:23701146
Venkatesan, Krishnan; Zacharakis, Evangelos; Andrich, Daniela E; Mundy, Anthony R
To characterize conservative management of urorectal fistulae (URF). URF are a recognized but rare complication of treatments for prostate and rectal cancers. URF can lead to incontinence, fecaluria, pain, urinary infection, and sepsis, and thus are usually treated surgically. We present a series of 3 patients whose complex URF were managed conservatively. Between 2004 and 2010, 43 patients were diagnosed with URF resulting from treatment for prostate or rectal cancer. All patients were evaluated and offered surgical treatment; 40 patients elected surgical therapy, and 3 patients chose conservative, nonoperative management of the URF. The primary outcome was the patient choosing or needing formal surgical URF closure. Because this was not a comparative study, no formal statistical analysis was undertaken. The 3 patients have been regularly monitored and have required symptomatic and episodic care. None, however, has opted for formal surgical fistula repair, and to date, all continue in conservative management of their URF. Spontaneous URF closure is uncommon and is unknown to occur in complex URF. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment. Patients should consider treatment options, potential outcomes, and their quality of life when choosing or not choosing treatment. The applicability and durability of conservative management of URF remains unclear. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Giordanengo, F; Boneschi, M; Miani, S; Erba, M; Beretta, L
Aortic graft fistula is a rare and life-threatening complication after aortic reconstruction. The incidence ranges from 0.5 to 4%, and even if the diagnosis and treatment is appropriate, the results of surgery are poor: mortality rate ranges from 14 to 70%. The optimal method of treatment is still controversial; prosthetic removal and extra-anatomic bypass has been advocated as the standard method, but more recently, because the high mortality rate associated with this procedure, some have prompted to recommend in situ aortic graft replacement as a more successful treatment. Personal experience with incidence (0.7%) outcome and mortality (57%) in 7 patients treated over a period of 6 years (1990-1996) is reported. Results from this group are compared with another group (6 patients) previously treated (1975-1982) for the same pathology. Our results after 10 years, show the same incidence (0.7 vs 0.6%) and an elevated and unchanged mortality (57 vs 66%). Better results in the management of aorto-enteric fistulas could be achieved with the removal of infected infrarenal aortic prosthetic grafts and in situ homografts replacement.
Bizri, A R; al-Ajam, M; Zaytoun, G; al-Kutoubi, A
A carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal arteriovenous anastomosis between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Etiologies of this condition reported in the literature so far include facial trauma, rupture of an intracavernous aneurysm of the carotid artery, Ehler-Danlos syndrome and fibromuscular dysplasia of the cerebral arteries. Such fistulae were reported as complications of rhinoplasty, transsphenoidal surgery, embolization of cavernous sinus meningioma, and rhinocerebral mucormycosis. CCF may also occur spontaneously in children or as a congenital malformation. However, to our knowledge, submucous resection of the nasal septum has not been reported before to cause direct carotid-cavernous fistula. CT and angiographic findings are presented and a review of the literature for reported causes of CCF is made as well as a brief discussion of the possible pathophysiology.
Managutti, Anil; Tiwari, Saba; Prakasam, Michael; Puthanakar, Nagaraj
A parotid fistula is a communication between the skin and a parotid duct or gland through which saliva is discharged. The most common cause of the parotid fistula is trauma. The major causes of parotid trauma in a civilian practice are penetrating injury to the parotid gland from an assault weapon or injury due to shattered glass after a motor vehicle accident. Acute suppurative parotitis can rarely produce a parotid fistula, and it will be difficult to manage successfully. In this article we have described diagnosis by fistulography, meticulous dissection, and complete excision of the fistulous tract with layered closure of the parotid fascia followed by application of a post-operative pressure bandage, use of anticholinergic agents and antibiotics contribute significantly to the successful management of this difficult clinical condition.
Teomete, Uygar; Gugol, Rubee Anne; Neville, Holly; Dandin, Ozgur; Young, Ming-Lon
Background. Acquired AVF in pediatrics are commonly caused by iatrogenic means, including arterial or venous punctures. These fistulae can cause great hemodynamic stress on the heart as soon as they are created. Case. A six-month-old 25-week gestation infant was referred for respiratory distress. Initial exam revealed tachypnea, tachycardia, and hypertension. There was a bruit noted on her left arm. An ultrasound showed an arteriovenous fistula. Its location, however, precluded intervention because of the high risk for limb-loss. An echocardiogram showed evidence of pulmonary hypertension that was treated with sildenafil and furosemide. However, no improvement was seen. On temporary manual occlusion of the fistula, the patient was noted to have increased her blood pressure and decreased her heart rate, suggesting significant hemodynamic effect of the fistula. The fistula was subsequently ligated and the patient clinically and echocardiographically improved. Conclusion. A patient in high output cardiac failure or pulmonary artery hypertension, especially prematüre patients with preexisting lung disease, should be probed for history of multiple punctures, trauma, or surgery and should have prompt evaluation for AVF. If it can be diagnosed and repaired, most of the cases have been shown to decrease the stress on the heart and reverse the pathologic hemodynamics. PMID:26885434
Teomete, Uygar; Gugol, Rubee Anne; Neville, Holly; Dandin, Ozgur; Young, Ming-Lon
Background. Acquired AVF in pediatrics are commonly caused by iatrogenic means, including arterial or venous punctures. These fistulae can cause great hemodynamic stress on the heart as soon as they are created. Case. A six-month-old 25-week gestation infant was referred for respiratory distress. Initial exam revealed tachypnea, tachycardia, and hypertension. There was a bruit noted on her left arm. An ultrasound showed an arteriovenous fistula. Its location, however, precluded intervention because of the high risk for limb-loss. An echocardiogram showed evidence of pulmonary hypertension that was treated with sildenafil and furosemide. However, no improvement was seen. On temporary manual occlusion of the fistula, the patient was noted to have increased her blood pressure and decreased her heart rate, suggesting significant hemodynamic effect of the fistula. The fistula was subsequently ligated and the patient clinically and echocardiographically improved. Conclusion. A patient in high output cardiac failure or pulmonary artery hypertension, especially prematüre patients with preexisting lung disease, should be probed for history of multiple punctures, trauma, or surgery and should have prompt evaluation for AVF. If it can be diagnosed and repaired, most of the cases have been shown to decrease the stress on the heart and reverse the pathologic hemodynamics.
Meinero, Piercarlo; Mori, Lorenzo; Gasloli, Giorgio
The surgical treatment of complex anal fistulas is very challenging because of the incidence of incontinence and recurrence after traditional approaches. Video-assisted anal fistula treatment is a novel endoscopic sphincter-saving technique. The aim of this article is to evaluate the results of treating complex anal fistulas from the inside and to focus on the rationale and the advantages of this innovative approach. This is a retrospective observational study. The study was conducted at a tertiary care public hospital in Italy. From February 2006 to February 2012, video-assisted anal fistula treatment was performed on 203 patients (124 men and 79 women; median age, 42 years; range, 21-77 years) who had complex anal fistulas. One hundred forty-nine had undergone previous anal fistula surgery. Video-assisted anal fistula treatment has 2 phases: diagnostic and operative. The fistuloscope is introduced through the external opening to identify the main tract, possible secondary tracts or abscess cavities, and the internal opening. With the use of an electrode, the fistula and its branches are destroyed under direct vision and cleaned. The internal opening is closed by a stapler or a flap. Half a milliliter of synthetic cyanoacrylate is used for suture reinforcement. Successful healing of the fistula was assessed with clinical evaluation. Continence was evaluated by using patient self-reports of the presence/absence of postdefecation soiling. Follow-up was at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 months. The 6-month cumulative probability of freedom from fistula estimated according to a Kaplan-Meier analysis is 70% (95%CI, 64%-76%). No major complications occurred. No patients reported a reduction in their postoperative continence score. The limitations of this study included potential single-institution bias, lack of anorectal manometry, and potential selection bias. Video-assisted anal fistula treatment is effective and safe for the treatment of fistula-in-ano.
Abou-Zeid, Ahmed A
Anal fistula surgery is a commonly performed procedure. The diverse anatomy of anal fistulae and their proximity to anal sphincters make accurate preoperative diagnosis essential to avoid recurrence and fecal incontinence. Despite the fact that proper preoperative diagnosis can be reached in the majority of patients by simple clinical examination, endoanal ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging, on many occasions, unexpected findings can be encountered during surgery that can make the operation difficult and correct decision-making crucial. In this article we discuss the difficulties and unexpected findings that can be encountered during anal fistula surgery and how to overcome them.
Abou-Zeid, Ahmed A
Anal fistula surgery is a commonly performed procedure. The diverse anatomy of anal fistulae and their proximity to anal sphincters make accurate preoperative diagnosis essential to avoid recurrence and fecal incontinence. Despite the fact that proper preoperative diagnosis can be reached in the majority of patients by simple clinical examination, endoanal ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging, on many occasions, unexpected findings can be encountered during surgery that can make the operation difficult and correct decision-making crucial. In this article we discuss the difficulties and unexpected findings that can be encountered during anal fistula surgery and how to overcome them. PMID:21876613
Tran, C.; Even, M.; Carbonnel, M.; Preaux, F.; Isnard, F.; Rault, A.; Rouanne, M.; Ayoubi, J. M.
We report the case of a patient who developed a vesicoovarian fistula on an endometriosis abscessed cyst. The patient presented with an advanced endometriosis stage IV complicated with a right ovarian abscessed cyst of 10 cm. A first coelioscopy with cystectomy was realized. After surgery, a voiding cystography highlighted a fistula between the ovarian abscess and the bladder. A second surgery by median laparotomy was realized with the resection of the right ovarian abscess and the resection of vesical fistula. PMID:25152819
Wright, Jeremy; Ayenachew, Fekade; Ballard, Karen D
Objective To examine the incidence and type of obstetric fistula presenting to Hamlin Fistula Ethiopia over a 4-year period. Study design This is a 4-year retrospective survey of obstetric fistula treated at three Hamlin Fistula Hospitals in Ethiopia, where approximately half of all women in the country are treated. The operation logbook was reviewed to identify all new cases of obstetric fistula presenting from 2011 to 2015. New cases of urinary fistula were classified by fistula type (high or low), age, and parity of the woman. Results In total, 2,593 new cases of urinary fistulae were identified in the study period. The number of new cases fell by 20% per year over the 4 years (P<0.001). A total of 1,845 cases (71.1%) were low (ischemic) fistulae, and 804 cases (43.6%) of these had an extreme form of low circumferential fistula. A total of 638 (24.6%) women had a high bladder fistula, which predominantly occurs following surgery, specifically cesarean section or emergency hysterectomy, and 110 (4.2%) women had a ureteric fistula. The incidence of high fistulae increased over the study period from 26.9% to 36.2% (P<0.001). A greater proportion of multiparous women had a high bladder fistula (70.3%) compared with primigravid women (29.7%) (P<0.001). Conversely, a greater proportion of primiparous women experienced a low circumferential fistulae (68.6%) compared with multiparous women (31.4%) (P<0.001). Conclusion There appears to be a decline in the number of Ethiopian women being treated for new obstetric urinary fistulae. However, the type of fistula being presented for treatment is changing, with a rise in high fistulae that very likely occurred following cesarean section and a decline in the classic low fistulae that arise following obstructed childbirth. PMID:27445505
Wilson, Sarah M; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Masenga, Gileard G; Mosha, Mary V
Objectives Obstetric fistula is a maternal injury that causes uncontrollable leaking of urine or stool, and most women who develop it live in poverty in low-income countries. Obstetric fistula is associated with high rates of stigma and psychological morbidity, but there is uncertainty about the impact of surgical treatment on psychological outcomes. The objective of this exploratory study was to examine changes in psychological symptoms following surgical fistula repair, discharge and reintegration home. Methods Women admitted for surgical repair of obstetric fistula were recruited from a Tanzanian hospital serving a rural catchment area. Psychological symptoms and social functioning were assessed prior to surgery. Approximately 3 months after discharge, a data collector visited the patients' homes to repeat psychosocial measures and assess self-reported incontinence. Baseline to follow-up differences were measured with paired t tests controlling for multiple comparisons. Associations between psychological outcomes and leaking were assessed with t tests and Pearson correlations. Results Participants (N = 28) had been living with fistula for an average of 11 years. Baseline psychological distress was high, and decreased significantly at follow-up. Participants who self-reported continued incontinence at follow-up endorsed significantly higher PTSD and depression symptoms than those who reported being cured, and severity of leaking was associated with psychological distress. Conclusions Fistula patients experience improvements in mental health at 3 months after discharge, but these improvements are curtailed when women experience residual leaking. Given the rate of stress incontinence following surgery, it is important to prepare fistula patients for the possibility of incomplete cure and help them develop appropriate coping strategies.
Background Melanoma of the anal region is a very uncommon disease, accounting for only 0.2-0.3% of all melanoma cases. Mutations of the BRAF gene are usually absent in melanomas occurring in this region as well as in other sun-protected regions. The development of a tumour in a longstanding perianal fistula is also extremely rare. More frequent is the case of a tumour presenting as a fistula, that is, the fistula being a consequence of the cancerous process, although we have found only two cases of fistula-generating melanomas reported in the literature. Case Presentation Here we report the case of a 38-year-old male who presented with a perianal fistula of four years of evolution. Histopathological examination of the fistulous tract confirmed the presence of malignant melanoma. Due to the small size and the central location of the melanoma inside the fistulous tract, we believe the melanoma reported here developed in the epithelium of the fistula once the latter was already formed. Resected sentinel lymph nodes were negative and the patient, after going through a wide local excision, remains disease-free nine years after diagnosis. DNA obtained from melanoma tissue was analysed by automated direct sequencing and the V600E (T1799A) mutation was detected in exon 15 of the BRAF gene. Conclusion Since fistulae experience persistent inflammation, the fact that this melanoma harbours a BRAF mutation strengthens the view that oxidative stress caused by inflammatory processes plays an important role in the genesis of BRAF gene mutations. PMID:21827678
Eryılmaz, Aylin; Demirci, Buket; Gunel, Ceren; Kacar Doger, Firuzan; Yukselen, Ozden; Kurt Omurlu, Imran; Basal, Yesim; Agdas, Fatih; Basak, Sema
One of the frequently encountered disorders of wound healing following laryngectomy is pharyngocutaneous fistula. However, although studies have been performed with the aim of prevention of pharyngocutaneous fistulae, there are very few studies with tissue adhesives and platelet-rich plasma. In this study, our aim was to investigate the histopathologic changes in wound healing caused by various tissue adhesives and platelet-rich plasma, together with their effects on prevention of pharyngocutaneous fistula. 40 male rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, platelet-rich plasma, fibrin tissue adhesive, protein-based albumin glutaraldehyde and synthetic tissue adhesive groups. The pharyngotomy procedure was performed and was sutured. Except the control group, tissue adhesives and platelet-rich plasma were applied. Then, the skin was sutured. On the seventh day, the rats were sacrificed. The skin was opened and pharyngotomy site was assessed in terms of fistulae. The pharyngeal suture line was evaluated histopathologically by using Ehrlich Hunt scale. Inflammatory infiltration was found to be higher in "platelet-rich plasma" group than "fibrin tissue adhesive" and "synthetic tissue adhesive" groups. The fibroblastic activity of "platelet-rich plasma", "fibrin tissue adhesive" and "protein-based albumin glutaraldehyde" groups was higher than the control group. The positive changes created by platelet-rich plasma and fibrin tissue adhesive at the histopathologic level were found together with no detected fistula. Among the study groups, there was no statistical difference for pharyngeal fistula development. This result may be obtained by the small number of animal experiments. These results shed light on the suggestion that platelet-rich plasma and fibrin tissue adhesive can be used in clinical studies to prevent pharyngocutaneous fistula. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
A Ba-Bai-Ke-Re, Ma-Mu-Ti-Jiang; Chen, Hui; Liu, Xue; Wang, Yun-Hai
AIM To establish and evaluate an experimental porcine model of fistula-in-ano. METHODS Twelve healthy pigs were randomly divided into two groups. Under general anesthesia, the experimental group underwent rubber band ligation surgery, and the control group underwent an artificial damage technique. Clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathological evaluation were performed on the 38th d and 48th d after surgery in both groups, respectively. RESULTS There were no significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in general characteristics such as body weight, gender, and the number of fistula (P > 0.05). In the experimental group, 15 fistulas were confirmed clinically, 13 complex fistulas were confirmed by MRI, and 11 complex fistulas were confirmed by histopathology. The success rate in the porcine complex fistula model establishment was 83.33%. Among the 18 fistulas in the control group, 5 fistulas were confirmed clinically, 4 complex fistulas were confirmed by MRI, and 3 fistulas were confirmed by histopathology. The success rate in the porcine fistula model establishment was 27.78%. Thus, the success rate of the rubber band ligation group was significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Rubber band ligation is a stable and reliable method to establish complex fistula-in-ano models. Large animal models of complex anal fistulas can be used for the diagnosis and treatment of anal fistulas. PMID:28348488
Khisa, Anne M; Omoni, Grace M; Nyamongo, Isaac K; Spitzer, Rachel F
Obstetric fistula classic symptoms of faecal and urinary incontinence cause women to live with social stigma, isolation, psychological trauma and lose their source of livelihoods. There is a paucity of studies on the health seeking behaviour trajectories of women with fistula illness although women live with the illness for decades before surgery. We set out to establish the complete picture of women's health seeking behaviour using qualitative research. We sought to answer the question: what patterns of health seeking do women with obstetric fistula display in their quest for healing? We used grounded theory methodology to analyse data from narratives of women during inpatient stay after fistula surgery in 3 hospitals in Kenya. Emergent themes contributed to generation of substantive theory and a conceptual framework on the health seeking behaviour of fistula patients. We recruited 121 participants aged 17 to 62 years whose treatment pathways are presented. Participants delayed health seeking, living with fistula illness after their first encounter with unresponsive hospitals. The health seeking trajectory is characterized by long episodes of staying home with illness for decades and consulting multiple actors. Staying with fistula illness entailed health seeking through seven key actions of staying home, trying home remedies, consulting with private health care providers, Non-Governmental organisations, prayer, traditional medicine and formal hospitals and clinics. Long treatment trajectories at hospital resulted from multiple hospital visits and surgeries. Seeking treatment at hospital is the most popular step for most women after recognizing fistula symptoms. We conclude that the formal health system is not responsive to women's needs during fistula illness. Women suffer an illness with a chronic trajectory and seek alternative forms of care that are not ideally placed to treat fistula illness. The results suggest that a robust health system be provided with
Léobon, Bertrand; Roux, Daniel; Mugniot, Antoine; Rousseau, Hervé; Cérene, Alain; Glock, Yves; Fournial, Gérard
Aortoesophageal and aortobronchial fistulas constitute a problem in therapy because of the high rates of morbidity and mortality associated with operation. From May 1996 to March 2000, we treated by an endovascular procedure one aortoesophageal and three aortobronchial fistulas. There was no postoperative death. We noted one peripheral vascular complication that required a surgical procedure, one postoperative confusion, and one inflammatory syndrome. In one case, because of a persistent leakage after 21 months, we had to implant a second endovascular stent graft. A few weeks later the reopening of this patient's esophageal fistula led to his death by mediastinitis 25 months after the first procedure. The few cases published seem to bear out the interest, observed in our 4 patients, of an endovascular approach to treat complex lesions such as fistulas of the thoracic aorta especially in emergency or palliative cases.
Evenson, R A; Fischer, J E
Formation of enteric fistulas frequently complicates the open abdomen in patients who have sustained traumatic injury. The post-traumatic subset of patients with enterocutaneous fistula enjoy better than average recovery. To optimize this recovery, a systematic management approach is required. Patients must first be stabilized with nutritional support, control of sepsis, and special wound management systems to prevent further deterioration of the abdominal wall. Investigation of the origin, course, and characteristics of the fistula provides information about its likelihood to close without operation. Definitive operative therapy may be necessary to resolve the fistula and close the abdominal wall. Finally, healing support includes nutritional support and physical and occupational therapies to restore patients to pre-injury states.
Gee, I; Wood, G
Case reports of transdiaphragmatic fistulas connecting subphrenic collections and empyemas are uncommon. We report the rare complication of a fistulous connection between a subphrenic collection and the bronchial tree. PMID:10770829
McDermott, R.L.; Dowling, C.M.; Alsinnawi, M.; Grainger, R.
INTRODUCTION We report the case of a 66-year-old female undergoing elective nephrectomy for a non-functioning kidney in whom an incidental renocolic fistula was detected. PRESENTATION OF CASE She presented with recurrent urinary tract infections and left flank pain. Investigations revealed a nonfunctioning left kidney with a large staghorn calculus and features suggestive of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XPG). At nephrectomy, an incidental renocolic fistula was found and excised. DISCUSSION XGP is a rare, chronic inflammatory disorder of the kidney characterized by a destructive mass invading the renal parenchyma. Renocolic fistulae complicating XGP are uncommon and not widely reported in the literature. CONCLUSION Herein, we describe a case of XGP with renocolic fistula formation, its management and a review of the literature. PMID:23291328
Biyani, C S; Torella, F; Cornford, P A; Brough, S J
This case report describes a patient with bilateral nephrocutaneous fistulae and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. Contralateral involvement of the psoas muscle is a rare occurrence and has not been previously documented.
Gupta, Akshya; Chaturvedi, Abhishek; Fultz, Patrick; Hobbs, Susan
Gastropleural fistula is a relatively rare complication that can be seen as a result of traumatic, nontraumatic, benign, and neoplastic etiologies. Most commonly, these are found in patients with diaphragmatic herniation or prior thoracic surgery. Aortoenteric fistulas are rare communications typically between the abdominal aorta and bowel. We present a rare case of an 88-year-old male who developed a gastropleural fistula with erosions into the wall of the descending thoracic aorta. Computed tomography (CT) is a leading modality in evaluation of suspected gastropleural or aortoenteric fistulas given the quick scan time and widespread availability. Prompt diagnosis is essential and requires an understanding of appropriate CT protocols and CT imaging appearance. PMID:28299235
Sirany, Anne-Marie E; Nygaard, Rachel M; Morken, Jeffrey J
The ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract procedure, a sphincter-preserving technique, aims to obtain complete, durable healing, while preserving fecal continence in the treatment of transsphincteric anal fistulas. This was a systematic review to evaluate the outcomes of the originally described (classic) ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract procedure and the identified technical variations of the procedure. PubMed, Web of Science, and the archive of Diseases of the Colon & Rectum were searched with the terms "ligation of intersphincteric fistula" and "ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract." Original, English-language studies reporting the primary healing rate for each technical variation of the ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract procedure were included. Studies were excluded when the technique used was unclear or when primary healing rate was reported in a pooled manner including outcomes from multiple technical variations of the ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract procedure. Outcomes associated with all of the technical variations of the ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract procedure were investigated. The main outcome measured was primary healing rate. Secondary outcome measures included time to healing, changes in continence, and risk factors for failure. In all, 26 studies met criteria for review, including 1 randomized controlled trial and 25 cohort/case series. Seven technical variations of the ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract procedure were identified and classified according to the surgical technique. Primary healing rates ranged from 47% to 95%. The levels of evidence available in the published works are relatively low, as indicated by the Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine evidence levels. The ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract procedure is a promising treatment option for transsphincteric fistulas, with reasonable success rates and minimal impact on continence. The
Stamos, Michael J; Snyder, Michael; Robb, Bruce W; Ky, Alex; Singer, Marc; Stewart, David B; Sonoda, Toyooki; Abcarian, Herand
Although interest in sphincter-sparing treatments for anal fistulas is increasing, few large prospective studies of these approaches have been conducted. The study assessed outcomes after implantation of a synthetic bioabsorbable anal fistula plug. A prospective, multicenter investigation was performed. The study was conducted at 11 colon and rectal centers. Ninety-three patients (71 men; mean age, 47 years) with complex cryptoglandular transsphincteric anal fistulas were enrolled. Exclusion criteria included Crohn's disease, an active infection, a multitract fistula, and an immunocompromised status. Draining setons were used at the surgeon's discretion. Patients had follow-up evaluations at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. The primary end point was healing of the fistula, defined as drainage cessation plus closure of the external opening, at 6 and 12 months. Secondary end points were fecal continence, duration of drainage from the fistula, pain, and adverse events during follow-up. Thirteen patients were lost to follow-up and 21 were withdrawn, primarily to undergo an alternative treatment. The fistula healing rates at 6 and 12 months were 41% (95% CI, 30%-52%; total n = 74) and 49% (95% CI, 38%-61%; total n = 73). Half the patients in whom a previous treatment failed had healing. By 6 months, the mean Wexner score had improved significantly (p = 0.0003). By 12 months, 93% of patients had no or minimal pain. Adverse events included 11 infections/abscesses, 2 new fistulas, and 8 total and 5 partial plug extrusions. The fistula healed in 3 patients with a partial extrusion. The study was nonrandomized and had relatively high rates of loss to follow-up. Implantation of a synthetic bioabsorbable fistula plug is a reasonably efficacious treatment for complex transsphincteric anal fistulas, especially given the simplicity and low morbidity of the procedure.
Chan, S; McCullough, J; Schizas, A; Vasas, P; Engledow, A; Windsor, A; Williams, A; Cohen, C R
Complex anal fistulas remain a challenge for the colorectal surgeon. The anal fistula plug has been developed as a simple treatment for fistula-in-ano. We present and evaluate our experience with the Surgisis anal fistula plug from two centres. Data were prospectively collected and analysed from consecutive patients undergoing insertion of a fistula plug between January 2007 and October 2009. Fistula plugs were inserted according to a standard protocol. Data collected included patient demographics, fistula characteristics and postoperative outcome. Forty-four patients underwent insertion of 62 plugs (27 males, mean age 45.6 years), 25 of whom had prior fistula surgery. Mean follow-up was 10.5 months Twenty-two patients (50%) had successful healing following the insertion of plug with an overall success rate of 23 out of 62 plugs inserted (35%). Nineteen out of 29 patients healed following first-time plug placement, whereas repeated plug placement was successful in 3 out of 15 patients (20%; p = 0.0097). There was a statistically significant difference in the healing rate between patients who had one or less operations prior to plug insertion (i.e. simple fistulas) compared with patients who needed multiple operations (18 out of 24 patients vs. 4 out of 20 patients; p = 0.0007). Success of treatment with the Surgisis anal fistula plug relies on the eradication of sepsis prior to plug placement. Plugs inserted into simple tracts have a higher success rate, and recurrent insertion of plugs following previous plug failure is less likely to be successful. We suggest the fistula plug should remain a first-line treatment for primary surgery and simple tracts.
Background A gastroesophageal anastomotic fistula remains a potentially life-threatening post-esophagectomy complication. To promote fistula closure, we developed a modified endoscopic method of trans-fistula drainage with persistent negative pressure. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of this endoscopic therapy. Methods Between June and November 2013, five male patients with post-surgical esophageal leakages who had undergone trans-fistula drainage therapy were treated with the modified endoscopic trans-fistula negative pressure drainage (E-TNPD) method. We placed a nasogastric silicone tube into the paraesophageal cavity through the fistula and accomplished drainage of the infected effusion with continuous negative pressure, resulting in shrinkage of the para-anastomotic cavity and eventual fistula closure. We withdrew the trans-fistula drainage when there were no signs of leakage, as confirmed by esophagography. Final closure was confirmed by esophagography before the patient was allowed to begin oral intake. Results E-TNPD was successful in all five patients. The median duration of drainage until tube removal was 34 days (range: 18 to 81 days). The duration for Cases 1 to 4 was 18 to 28 days. Case 5 suffered from multiple separate leaks at the anastomotic site and the gastric conduit. Complete restoration was achieved in 81 days for this patient. We found that in general, the earlier that trans-fistula drainage was established, the shorter the duration of hospitalization until complete defect closure. Conclusions E-TNPD provided reliable and convenient management of post-surgical gastroesophageal anastomotic fistula and esophageal perforation. This method promoted fistula closure and prevented unnecessary repeated endoscopic examinations, extra equipment and expense. PMID:25078091
Lee, Timmy; Barker, Jill; Allon, Michael
Although arteriovenous fistulas are considered superior to grafts, it is unknown whether that is true in the subset of patients with a previous failed fistula. For investigation of this question, a prospective vascular access database was queried retrospectively to compare the outcomes of 59 fistulas and 51 grafts that were placed in the upper arm after primary failure of an initial forearm fistula. Primary access failure was higher for subsequent fistulas than for subsequent grafts (44 versus 20%; P = 0.006). Fistulas required more interventions than grafts before their successful use (0.42 versus 0.16 per patient; P = 0.04). The time to catheter-free dialysis was longer for fistulas than for grafts (131 versus 34 d; P < 0.0001) and was associated with more episodes of bacteremia before permanent access use (1.3 versus 0.4 per patient; P = 0.003). Cumulative survival (from placement to permanent failure) was higher for fistulas than for grafts when primary failures were excluded (hazard ratio 0.51; 95% confidence interval 0.27 to 0.94; P = 0.03), but similar when primary failures were included (hazard ratio 0.99; 95% confidence interval 0.61 to 1.62; P = 0.97). Fistulas required fewer interventions to maintain long-term patency for dialysis after maturation (0.73 versus 2.38 per year; P < 0.001). In conclusion, as compared with grafts, subsequent upper arm fistulas are associated with a higher primary failure rate, more interventions to achieve maturation, longer catheter dependence, and more frequent catheter-related bacteremia. However, once the access is usable for dialysis, fistulas have superior cumulative patency than do grafts and require fewer interventions to maintain patency.
Han, J G; Yi, B Q; Wang, Z J; Zheng, Y; Cui, J J; Yu, X Q; Zhao, B C; Yang, X Q
Ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract and reinforcement with a bioprosthetic graft are two recently reported procedures that have shown promise in the treatment of anal fistula. This study was undertaken to validate combining ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract plus bioprosthetic anal fistula plug and report our preliminary results and experience. Twenty-one patients with transsphincteric anal fistula were treated with ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract plus concurrent bioprosthetic plug of the anal fistula. We evaluated healing time, fistula closure rate and postoperative anal function according to the Wexner continence score. No mortality or major complications were observed. Median operative time was 20 (range 15-40) min. After a median follow-up of 14 (range 12-15) months, the overall success rate was 95% (20/21), with a median healing time of 2 (range 2-3) weeks for external anal fistula opening and 4 (range 3-7) weeks for intersphincteric groove incision. Only 1 (5%) patient reported rare incontinence for gas postoperatively (Wexner score 1). Ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract plus a bioprosthetic anal fistula plug is an easy, safe, effective and useful alternative in the management of anal fistula. Further randomized controlled studies are necessary to better evaluate long-term results. © 2012 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2012 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.
Allen, Marshall B.; Gammal, Taher el; Ihnen, Menard; Cowan, Morgan A.
In two cases of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea in which scinticisternography failed to identify the fistulae, the tracts were demonstrated by positive contrast ventriculography. It is postulated that the fistula communicated with the ventricles but was isolated from the subarachnoid space by adhesions (demonstrated at operation in one case). There was `high pressure rhinorrhoea' in one case. The rhinorrhoea ceased after insertion of ventriculoatrial shunt. Images PMID:4538888
Cioli, V M; Gagliardi, G; Pescatori, M
Psychological stress is known to affect the immunologic system and the inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of psychological stress, anxiety, and depression in patients with anal fistula. Consecutive patients with anal fistula, hemorrhoids, and normal volunteers were studied prospectively. Stressful life events were recorded and subjects were asked to complete the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI), a depression scale, and three different reactive graphic tests (RGT). Seventy-eight fistula patients, 73 patients with grade III-IV hemorrhoids, and 37 normal volunteers were enrolled. Of the fistula patients, 65 (83 %) reported one or more stressful events in the year prior to diagnosis, compared to 16 (22 %) of the hemorrhoid patients (P = 0.001). There were no significant differences in the percentage of subjects with abnormal trait anxiety (i.e., proneness for anxiety) and depression scores between fistula patients, hemorrhoid patients, and controls. Fistula patients had significantly higher (i.e., better) scores compared to hemorrhoid patients in two of three RGT and significantly lower (i.e., worse) scores in all three RGT compared to healthy volunteers. Of 37 patients followed up for a median of 28 months (range 19-41 months) after surgery, 8 (21.6 %) had persistent or recurrent sepsis. There was no significant difference in depression, STAI, and RGT scores between patients with sepsis and patients whose fistula healed. Our results suggest that an altered emotional state plays an important role in the pathogenesis of anal fistula and underline the importance of psychological screening in patients with anorectal disorders.
Rajan, Dheeraj K
An autogenous arteriovenous fistula is considered the ideal access for hemodialysis delivery. However, surgical creation of an arteriovenous fistula is associated with less than optimal technical success, and multiple interventions are often required to assist maturation or maintain early patency. Given these shortcomings, multiple new approaches are now under investigation that possibly improve on surgical techniques and/or outcomes. Minimally invasive methods of creation with novel devices are under investigation, with preliminary published results available.
McGah, Patrick; Leotta, Daniel; Beach, Kirk; Riley, James; Aliseda, Alberto
Arteriovenous fistulae are created surgically to provide adequate access for dialysis in patients with End-Stage Renal Disease. It has long been hypothesized that the hemodynamic and mechanical forces (such as wall shear stress, wall stretch, or flow- induced wall vibrations) constitute the primary external influence on the remodeling process. Given that nearly 50% of fistulae fail after one year, understanding fistulae hemodynamics is an important step toward improving patency in the clinic. We perform numerical simulations of the flow in patient-specific models of AV fistulae reconstructed from 3D ultrasound scans with physiologically-realistic boundary conditions also obtained from Doppler ultrasound. Comparison of the flow features in different geometries and configurations e.g. end-to-side vs. side-to-side, with the in vivo longitudinal outcomes will allow us to hypothesize which flow conditions are conducive to fistulae success or failure. The flow inertia and pulsatility in the simulations (mean Re 700, max Re 2000, Wo 4) give rise to complex secondary flows and coherent vortices, further complicating the spatio- temporal variability of the wall pressure and shear stresses. Even in mature fistulae, the anastomotic regions are subjected to non-physiological shear stresses (>10.12pcPa) which may potentially lead to complications.
Fox, Audralan; Tietze, Pamela H; Ramakrishnan, Kalyanakrishnan
Anal fissures are linear splits in the anal mucosa. Acute fissures typically resolve within a few weeks; chronic fissures persist longer than 8 to 12 weeks. Most fissures are posterior and midline and are related to constipation or anal trauma. Painful defecation and rectal bleeding are common symptoms. The diagnosis typically is clinical. High-fiber diet, stool softeners, and medicated ointments relieve symptoms and speed healing of acute fissures but offer limited benefit in chronic fissures. Lateral internal sphincterotomy is the surgical management of choice for chronic and refractory acute fissures. Anorectal fistula is an abnormal tract connecting the anorectal mucosa to the exterior skin. Fistulas typically develop after rupture or drainage of a perianal abscess. Fistulas are classified as simple or complex; low or high; and intersphincteric, transsphincteric, suprasphincteric, or extrasphincteric. Inspection of the perianal area identifies the skin opening, and anoscopy visualizes internal openings. The goal of management is to obliterate the tract and openings with negligible sphincter disruption to minimize incontinence. Fistulotomy is effective for simple fistulas; patients with complex fistulas may require fistulectomy. Other procedures that are used include injection of fibrin glue or insertion of a bioprosthetic plug into the fistula opening.
Chaung, Jia Quan; Sundar, Gangadhara; Ali, Mohammad Javed
The purpose of this article is to review and summarize the etiopathogenesis, symptomatology, systemic associations, management, complications and clinical outcomes of congenital lacrimal fistulae. The authors performed an electronic database (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library) search of all articles published in English on congenital lacrimal fistulae. Congenital subsets of patients from series of mixed lacrimal fistulae were included in the review. These articles were reviewed along with their relevant cross-references. Data reviewed included demographics, presentations, investigations, management, complications and outcomes. The prevalence of congenital lacrimal fistulae is reported to be around 1 in 2000 live births. They are frequently unilateral, although familial cases tend to be bilateral. Lacrimal and systemic anomalies have been associated with lacrimal fistulae. Exact etiopathogenesis is unknown but mostly believed to be an accessory out budding from the lacrimal drainage system during embryogenesis. Treatment is indicated when significant epiphora or discharge is present and is mostly achieved by various fistulectomy techniques with or without a dacryocystorhinostomy. Congenital lacrimal fistulae are a distinct clinical entity with unique features. Surgical management can be challenging and successful outcomes are usually achieved with widely accepted protocols.
Bénateau, H; Traoré, H; Gilliot, B; Taupin, A; Ory, L; Guillou Jamard, M-R; Labbé, D; Compère, J-F
Treatment of oronasal fistulae in cleft patients remains a surgical challenge because of its high failure rate. The authors report the results of an aggressive surgical technique using the total elevation of palatal mucoperiosteum, even for small fistulae. This approach was used on twelve consecutive patients, from five to 33 years of age, presenting with a Pittsburgh classification type IV palatal fistulae. The surgical procedure was total elevation of the hard palate mucoperiosteum starting from the dental sulcus combined with sealed double layer sutures. Clinical and photographical control was made at least 6 months after to detect a possible relapse. The success rate was 100%. No relapsing fistula was observed with follow-up ranging from 6 to 36 months. This technique allows wide exposure and safe closure of the nasal layer. It is simple and leaves no raw bone surface exposed and no additional scar. The authors think it can be used in all type IV fistulae less than 1cm wide. Several other surgical techniques have been described to close palatal fistulae: local turnover flaps, pedicled flaps from adjacent oral tissue, tongue flaps, tissue expansion, and even free flaps. Obturator prostheses have also been used. The technique we report, even if more aggressive, seems to be more reliable with fewer relapse and sequelae. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Topazio, Luca; Perugia, Claudio; Finazzi-Agro, Enrico
Recto-urethral fistula is one of the most serious complications caused by high-intensity-focused ultrasound used as salvage treatment for recurrence of prostate cancer after brachytherapy or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). We report the case of a recto-urethral fistula in a 68-year-old patient, who previously had undergone radical prostatectomy and EBRT for prostate cancer (pT3 N0 Mx). The fistula was treated conservatively by an indwelling Foley catheter, without the creation of an intestinal diversion. The fistula was assessed initially by a retrograde and a CT scan of the pelvis with contrast medium and reassessed periodically by means of retrograde urethrograms. To date, 24 months after this episode, no evidence of recurrence of the fistula has been found.
Hatano, Atsushi; Rikitake, Masahiro; Komori, Manabu; Irie, Takeo; Moriyama, Hiroshi
Traumatic perilymphatic fistula due to luxation of the stapes into the vestibule caused by an earpick is an extremely rare situation. In order to treat such an injury, it is necessary to evaluate the extent of the damage and the actual condition of the middle and inner ear. However, it is difficult to obtain such precise information about the condition of the stapes prior to performing surgery. We report on a case of a traumatic perilymphatic fistula with luxation of the stapes into the vestibule that was diagnosed using multislice CT (MSCT). MSCT clearly demonstrated the presence of air in the vestibule (pneumolabyrinth), which indicated the presence of a perilymphatic fistula and the deep depression of the stapes into the vestibule. In order to seal the perilymphatic fistula and prevent middle and inner ear infection, surgery was performed on the portion of the stapes that remained in the vestibule. The patient has been free from vertigo and has exhibited some recovery of his hearing. We discuss the diagnosis along with other therapeutic problems that have been presented in the literature for traumatic perilymphatic fistula.
Yeh, Chih-Hua; Chen, Yao-Liang; Wu, Yi-Ming; Huang, Yu-Chieh; Wong, Ho-Fai
Summary Vertebro-vertebral arteriovenous fistula (VV-AVF) is a rare vascular disorder with an abnormal high-flow shunt between the extracranial vertebral artery (VA), its muscular or radicular branches and an adjacent vein. To date, there are no guidelines on the best treatment for VV-AVF. We present our experience of VV-AVF treatment with covered stents in three patients and detachable coils in two patients. One patient with fistula at the V3 segment had rapid fistula recurrence one week after covered stent treatment. The possible causes of failed treatment in this patient are discussed. The currently available treatment modalities for VV-AVF are also summarized after a literature review. At the end of this article, we propose a new concept of anatomically based approach for endovascular treatment of VV-AVF. Fistula in the V1-2 segments of vertebral artery could be treated safely and effectively by covered stent with the benefit of preserving VA patency. Embolization with variable embolizers should be considered first for fistula in the V3 segment because of the tortuous course and flexibility of the VA in this segment. PMID:25496689
Cecatto, Suzana Boltes; Monteiro-Soares, Matilde; Henriques, Teresa; Monteiro, Eurico; Moura, Carla Isabel Ferreira Pinto
Pharyngocutaneous fistula after larynx and hypopharynx cancer surgery can cause several damages. This study's aim was to derive a clinical decision rule to predict pharyngocutaneous fistula development after pharyngolaryngeal cancer surgery. A retrospective cohort study was conducted, including all patients performing total laryngectomy/pharyngolaryngectomy (n=171). Association between pertinent variables and pharyngocutaneous fistula development was assessed and a predictive model proposed. American Society of Anesthesiologists scale, chemoradiotherapy, and tracheotomy before surgery were associated with fistula in the univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, only American Society of Anesthesiologists maintained statistical significance. Using logistic regression, a predictive model including the following was derived: American Society of Anesthesiologists, alcohol, chemoradiotherapy, tracheotomy, hemoglobin and albumin pre-surgery, local extension, N-classification, and diabetes mellitus. The model's score area under the curve was 0.76 (95% CI 0.64-0.87). The high-risk group presented specificity of 93%, positive likelihood ratio of 7.10, and positive predictive value of 76%. Including the medium-low, medium-high, and high-risk groups, a sensitivity of 92%, negative likelihood ratio of 0.25, and negative predictive value of 89% were observed. A clinical decision rule was created to identify patients with high risk of pharyngocutaneous fistula development. Prognostic accuracy measures were substantial. Nevertheless, it is essential to conduct larger prospective studies for validation and refinement. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Akand, Murat; Kilic, Ozcan; Kucur, Mustafa; Kaynar, Mehmet; Goktas, Serdar
Introduction: Spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula is a rare manifestation of renal disease that can occur due to various etiologies, such as renal calculus, chronic pyelonephritis, stricture of the ureteropelvic junction, and renal tuberculosis (TB). An autonephrectomy with a nephrocutaneous fistula due to renal tuberculosis can be diagnosed quite late if it is not suspected. Case Presentation: We report a case of a spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula with tuberculous autonephrectomy. A 40-year-old white male with recurrent flank pain and intermittent purulent drainage from his right flank region for the previous 14 years was admitted to our outpatient clinic. Fistulography and computerized tomography demonstrated a 51 × 60 mm area with a soft-tissue appearance that implied autonephrectomy of the right kidney, and a fistula tract with a 9 mm diameter between the skin and the retroperitoneal space. The patient was successfully treated with nephroureterectomy and excision of the fistulous tract, followed by antituberculous treatment. The pathological examination of the surgical specimen revealed chronic atrophic pyelonephritis, calcifications, and necrotizing granulomatous inflammation suggestive of TB. Conclusions: Urogenital TB is difficult to diagnose due to the lack of specific symptoms and signs. In the case of a nonfunctioning kidney without an obvious cause and a chronic spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula, the possibility of associated renal TB should be kept in mind, especially in immunocompromised patients or in places where TB is a common health problem. PMID:27621917
Atarzadeh, Fatemeh; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Dastgheib, Ladan; Amin, Gholamreza; Jaladat, Amir Mohammad; Nimrouzi, Majid
Objective: Pemphigus is a rare autoimmune disease that may be fatal without proper medical intervention. It is a blistering disease that involves both the skin and mucus membranes, in which the most important causes of death comprise superimposed opportunistic infections and complications of long-term high-dose corticosteroid therapy or prolonged consumption of immune suppressant drugs. Skin lesions are the most important sources of infection, and any local treatment decreasing the healing time of lesions and reducing the total dosage of drugs is favorable. Materials and Methods: Here, we review the probable mechanism of action of a traditional formulary of Cassia fistula (C. fistula) fruit extract in almond oil as a new topical medication for reducing the duration of treatment of pemphigus vulgaris erosions. Results: C. fistula fruit oil has lupeol, anthraquinone compounds as rhein and flavonoids. Previous in vitro and animal studies on C. fistula fruit have demonstrated wound healing, antioxidative, anti-leukotrienes, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal effects of this plant. Conclusion: It is hypothesized that C. fistula L. can be a botanical therapeutic choice for treatment of pemphigus erosions. PMID:28348966
Truesdale, Carl M; Peterson, Ryan B; Hudgins, Patricia A; Vivas, Esther X
The case of a 17-year-old patient with progressive unilateral sensorineural hearing loss and temporal bone malformations concerning for internal auditory canal meningocele with translabyrinthine/perilabyrinthine cerebrospinal fluid fistula is presented with associated computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. As the second reported case of an unruptured internal auditory canal meningocele with translabyrinthine/perilabyrinthine fistula, the case presents several clinically relevant points for otologists, neurotologists, and neuroradiologists. Although rare, it is an additional entity to consider as a cause of unilateral sensorineural hearing loss and may pose a risk for developing meningitis and possible "gushing" of cerebrospinal fluid should surgical intervention be attempted. Laryngoscope, 126:1931-1934, 2016.
Peynircioglu, Bora; Cwikiel, Wojciech
A porto-biliary fistula causing hemobilia is a known complication of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). We present two patients with hemobilia secondary to porto-biliary fistula, treated successfully by percutaneous placement of stent-grafts. In one case, the stent-graft was placed in the bile duct, and in the other case, it was placed in the intrahepatic portal vein branch. Hemobilia stopped and there were no complications except a small area of hepatic infarction, distal to the stent-graft in the portal vein.
Raynaud, Alain; Novelli, Luigi Rovani, Xavier; Carreres, Thierry; Bourquelot, Pierre; Hermelin, Alain; Angel, C.; Beyssen, B.
Hand ischemic steal syndrome due to a forearm arteriovenous fistula is a rare occurrence. However, its frequency is increasing with the rise in numbers of elderly and diabetic patients. This complication, which is more common for proximal than for distal accesses, can be very severe and may cause loss of hand function, damage to fingers, and even amputation of fingers or the hand. Its treatment is difficult and often leads to access loss. We report here a case of severe hand ischemia related to a radiocephalic fistula successfully treated by ulnar artery dilatation.
Zarin, Mohammad; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Ahmad, Mukhtar; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Asim
Objective: To share our findings that the new treatment modality Video Assisted Anal Fistula Treatment (VAAFT) is a better alternate to the conventional treatments of Fistula in Ano in our setup with minor changes in the initial method described by Meinero. Methods: Karl Storz Video equipment including Meinero Fistuloscope was used. Key steps are visualization of the fistula tract, correct localization of the internal fistula opening under direct vision and endoscopic treatment of the fistula. This is followed by an operative phase of fulguration of the fistula tract using glycine solution mixed with manitol, curetting the tract with curette and fistula brush. Internal opening is closed with a Vicryl 1 suture. Result: Total of 40 patients were operated using VAAFT from October 2013 to March 2014. Three were re-operated. The other 37 cases were followed up at 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months. Primary healing took place in 20 (50%) cases at 6 weeks. In the remaining 17 (42.5%) cases, minor discharge occurred with itching which resolved till the next visit at 8 weeks and 12 weeks. Conclusion: As the main aim in treating fistula is proper identification of the internal opening, excision of the tract and sparing the sphincter function, VAAFT achieves all aims with additional benefits of patients’ satisfaction and negligible scaring. PMID:26649020
Verma, Ashish; Vyas, Surabhi; Patwari, Sriram; Verma, Madhvi; Srivastava, Arvind; Chandra Shukla, Ram
Vesicovaginal fistula is not uncommon in women of childbearing age, and can occur due to a multitude of causes, the chief ones being infection and neoplasia. An extensive PUBMED search yielded only a few reports describing causation of such a lesion due to traumatic urethral coitus. The classic method to demonstrate such fistulas is by direct contrast-enhanced fistulography. Herein we report a case of urethrovesicovaginal fistula with müllerian agenesis caused by traumatic urethral coitus, as demonstrated using indirect magnetic resonance fistulography. Copyright Â© 2012 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wen, Bing; Yang, Junya; Jiao, Zhouyang; Fu, Guowei; Zhao, Wenzeng
The current study describes a case of right coronary artery fistula (CAF) misdiagnosed as right atrial myxoma (RAM). A 33-year-old man presented with a 13-year history of intermittent chest pain, and aggravation for 3 days. Echocardiography revealed an occupying lesion in the right atrium producing a partial dynamic tricuspid obstruction. The initial diagnosis was RAM, which causes partial right ventricular inflow tract obstruction. During cardiopulmonary bypass surgery, a giant mass was detected in the anterior wall of the right ventricle and an abnormal vascular fistula was observed at the bottom of the mass. Successful excision of the mass and closure of the fistula completely relieved the patient's presenting symptoms. The disease was subsequently diagnosed as right CAF draining to the myocardial void. The surgical management and misdiagnosis of the case are discussed herein.
Hwang, Heewon; La, Yun Kyung; Baek, Min Seok; Baik, Kyoungwon; Suh, Sang Hyun
A 43-year-old male presented with daytime sleepiness at work and indifferent behavior like never before. Two weeks prior to hospital admission, he had episodic memory loss with well preserved remote memory. Brain MRI showed a dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) in the right lateral transverse sinus with a bilateral thalamic venous infarction. Cerebral angiography confirmed a right transverse sigmoid dural arteriovenous fistula with a feeding artery of the right occipital artery and left posterior meningeal artery. The DAVF was completely eliminated through multiple endovascular interventions. Recently, endovascular treatment has become one of the main therapeutic options to obliterate a fistulous site, which has led to a rapid diagnostic approach and management of DAVFs with high curative rates. We report a rare case of posterior fossa located at a dural arteriovenous fistula that caused rapid progressive dementia and was successfully eliminated through only endovascular treatment. PMID:28316870
Chadwick, Thomas; Katti, Ashok; Arthur, James
A rare complication of diverticular disease is the formation of fistulas, most commonly either colo-vesical or colo-vaginal. We present the unusual case of a perforated sigmoid diverticulum forming a colo-gluteal fistula and presenting initially as a gluteal abscess in an otherwise asymptomatic patient. After drainage of the gluteal abscess, the patient re-presented with faecal loss from the abscess drainage site. Imaging revealed fistulous communication between the sigmoid and the left obturator internus muscle, tracking to the gluteus maximus with associated abscess and cutaneous communication to the site of previous drainage. The patient underwent an emergency Hartmann's procedure with lay open/abscess drainage of the gluteal cavity. Post-operatively the patient experienced continuing discharge from the gluteal fistula despite repeated drainage and debridement causing considerable morbidity, inconvenience and misery. Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion when presented with a gluteal abscess and should consider the possibility of an intra-abdominal source.
Fukutome, Kenji; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Park, Hun Soo; Wada, Takeshi; Motoyama, Yasushi; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Nakase, Hiroyuki
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) resulting from a dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) are rare. A case of cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (CSDAVF) in a patient with TN that resolved immediately after transvenous embolization (TVE) is described. A 75-year-old woman presented with continuous facial pain. On time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), a CSDAVF was suspected, and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) showed a CSDAVF. The TN completely resolved immediately after TVE, with no recurrence. Follow-up MRA showed complete obliteration of the fistula 13 months after TVE. The pulsatile flow at the posteromedial part of the cavernous sinus might have compressed the upper aspect of the Gasserian ganglion, causing TN. Disappearance of pulsatile flow after TVE might result in complete resolution of TN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bonforte, Giuseppe; Zerbi, Simona; Surian, Maurizio
Dialysis access procedures and complications are important causes of morbidity and hospitalization for chronic hemodialysis patients. The number of complicated subjects on dialysis is increasing, and creating a successful native arteriovenous fistula for these patients is a challenge. The classic Brescia-Cimino fistula may not be the best first choice for a native vascular access. We describe the surgical technique of middle-arm fistula (MAF) for hemodialysis. A total of 112 surgical procedures were performed on 106 patients with primary unassisted 24- and 48-month patency rates of 93% and 83%, respectively, and a very low incidence of complications. Our approach was found to be a useful method in patients with comorbid factors.
Luber, Sarah; Alweis, Richard
A tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF), albeit rare, can be a life-threatening condition that requires prompt identification and treatment. Pulmonary contamination and restriction of proper nutrition are common, unfortunate consequences of untreated TEFs and are often the causes of mortality in this population. In our patient, a history of laryngeal malignancy along with symptoms of chest pain and cough with ingestion of liquids, even without evidence of aspiration pneumonia, appropriately prompted investigation for potential TEF. Initial imaging through barium swallow identified the TEF, and the patient underwent treatment with endoclips by endoscopy with bronchoscopic assistance. PMID:25846352
Hartin, Charles W.; Ozgediz, Doruk E.
Introduction: Most foreign bodies that a child ingests pass harmlessly through the gastrointestinal tract. However, ingesting multiple magnets places a child at risk for serious viscus injury. Case Description: A 16-y-old boy swallowed multiple magnets and presented with abdominal pain and emesis. Upon laparoscopy, the boy was found to have malrotation with volvulus caused by a cecal magnet attracted to a gastric magnet, resulting in a gastrocecal fistula. Discussion: We review the management of magnet ingestion with an emphasis on a high index of suspicion and the use of laparoscopy for diagnosis, as well as the consequences of a coexisting rotational anomaly. PMID:23484578
de Souza Lopes, Pedro Henrique; Sampaio, Diogo de Oliveira; de Souza Menezes, Bruno Luiz; do Nascimento, Daniel Ferreira; Torres, Belmino Carlos Amaral
The oroantral fistula (OAF) is an epithelialized communication between the oral cavity and the maxillary sinus. In most of the cases, this communication occurs after molars and premolars extractions, but other factors may be cause of the communication, such as trauma. This article demonstrates an alternative surgical technique illustrated with a case report in which we perform the surgical treatment of OAF with palatal flap rotation combined with the use of titanium mesh in a victim of gunshot projectile wound in oral cavity. PMID:26389042
Tian, Ying; Zhang, Zhongtao; An, Shaoxiong; Jia, Shan; Liu, Liancheng; Yu, Hongshun
To investigate the clinical efficacy of ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract (LIFT) in the treatment of simple anal fistula, including transphincteric anal fistula and insphincteric anal fistula. Clinical data of 52 patients with anal fistula receiving surgery treatment in Beijing Anorectal Hospital from January to October 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Adoption of surgical procedure was based on rectal endoluminal ultrasound and patients' decision. Patients were divided into LIFT group and seton group. The two groups were compared in terms of operation time, blood loss, postoperative pain score, incidence of urinary retention, wound healing time, cure rate, recurrence, and the anal incontinence score. There were 52 patients in the entire cohort including 28 cases of transphincteric anal fistula (14 cases of LIFT and seton placement groups) and 24 cases of intersphincteric anal fistula (12 case of LIFT and seton placement). The operation time was shorter in seton placement group in patients with two simple anal fistula [(23.9±5.0) min vs. (46.3±7.7) min, P<0.05]. LIFT postoperative pain score [(1.6±0.6) vs. (6.1±1.3)], wound healing time [(7.9±2.0) days vs. (30.0±5.1) days], postoperative hospital stay [(10.3±3.1) days vs. (20.7±7.1) days], and anal incontinence scores [(1.1±0.4) vs. (4.9±1.1)] were better than that of anal fistula seton (all P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in intraoperatie blood loss [(23.1±4.7) ml vs. (23.3±4.7) ml, P>0.05]. The cure rate of intersphincteric anal fistula was 83.3%(10/12) in LIFT group, and 100%(12/12) in the seton group. The cure rate of transphincteric anal fistula was 78.6% (11/14) in LIFT and 92.9%(13/14) in anal fistula seton group. There was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05). In the treatment of transphincteric fistula tract and intersphincteric fistula tract, LIFT procedures should be considered.
Su, Yann-Rong; Shih, I-Lun; Tai, Huai-Ching; Wei, Shu-Chen; Lin, Been-Ren; Yu, Hong-Jeng; Huang, Chao-Yuan
Crohn disease is a chronic, transmural, inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract with unknown etiology. It can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract and may cause fistula, stricture, or abscess formation with disease progression. The preoperative diagnosis and definite management of this rare complication are challenges for physicians, urologists, and surgeons. PMID:24670020
Alfonso, Kristan P; Comer, Brett T
Eustachian tube problems are relatively common complaints to otolaryngologists' offices. However, clinicians should consider other possibilities when traditional therapies fail to improve symptoms. We present a previously not described case of sphenoid-sellar fistula after transphenoidal surgery causing objective and subjective clicking. Laryngoscope, 126:E314-E316, 2016.
Acute onset of digital ischemia and infarction is an unusual complication in patients undergoing hemodialysis. This is a report of a patient on regular hemodialysis who presented with acute distal extremity ischemia, progressing to digital infarction and on evaluation was found to have thrombosis of brachial arteriovenous fistula with embolization to the distal arteries causing digital artery occlusion.
Morris, David; Ladizinsky, Daniel; Abouljoud, Marwan
Biliary cutaneous fistulas are uncommon sequelae after biliary surgery and can be a source of significant morbidity. We describe a liver recipient who developed a biliary cutaneous fistula secondary to hepatic artery thrombosis; this subsequently drained for over 7 years. Through a novel approach, using the transabdominal fistula tract as a conduit, the fistula skin opening was deepithelialized and anastomosed to a jejunal loop, internally draining the tract. For over 7 years postoperatively, this internal drainage procedure has continued to function effectively. This approach may have value in internalizing longstanding biliary cutaneous fistulas in well-selected patients in whom there is no existing biliary ductal system or the existing system anatomically does not lend itself to restoration of functional internal drainage through conventional approaches.
Inoue, Hidenori; Motohashi, Shinya; Uchiyama, Hirotomo; Akasaka, Junetsu
We report a patient who developed ileus caused by vascular stent migration into the duodenum with periprosthetic retroperitoneal abscess. The patient previously underwent removal of an infected abdominal aortic aneurysm with concomitant axillobifemoral arterial reconstruction. An occlusion of the graft leg was treated by a unilateral aortoiliac bypass where endovascular surgery with a metallic stent was later needed. The abscess and ileus were vigorously drained. Following the spontaneous evacuation of the metallic stent via the digestive tract, the abscess was completely drained and fistula closure was achieved without surgical intervention. The patient has remained healthy 6 years thereafter. PMID:28018510
Owen, HA; Buchanan, GN; Schizas, A; Cohen, R; Williams, AB
Introduction Anal fistula affects people of working age. Symptoms include abscess, pain, discharge of pus and blood. Treatment of this benign disease can affect faecal continence, which may, in turn, impair quality of life (QOL). We assessed the QOL of patients with cryptoglandular anal fistula. Methods Newly referred patients with anal fistula completed the St Mark’s Incontinence Score, which ranges from 0 (perfect continence) to 24 (totally incontinent), and Short form 36 (SF–36) questionnaire at two institutions with an interest in anal fistula. The data were examined to identify factors affecting QOL. Results Data were available for 146 patients (47 women), with a median age of 44 years (range 18–82 years) and a median continence score of 0 (range 0–23). Versus population norms, patients had an overall reduction in QOL. While those with recurrent disease had no difference on continence scores, QOL was worse on two of eight SF–36 domains (p<0.05). Patients with secondary extensions had reduced QOL in two domains (p<0.05), while urgency was associated with reduced QOL on five domains (p<0.05). Patients with loose seton had the same QOL as those without seton. No difference in urgency was found between patients with and without loose seton. In primary fistula patients, 19.4% of patients experienced urgency versus 36.3% of those with recurrent fistulas. Conclusions Patients with anal fistula had a reduced QOL, which was worse in those with recurrent disease, secondary extensions and urgency. Loose seton had no impact on QOL. PMID:27087327
Owen, H A; Buchanan, G N; Schizas, A; Cohen, R; Williams, A B
Anal fistula affects people of working age. Symptoms include abscess, pain, discharge of pus and blood. Treatment of this benign disease can affect faecal continence, which may, in turn, impair quality of life (QOL). We assessed the QOL of patients with cryptoglandular anal fistula. Newly referred patients with anal fistula completed the St Mark's Incontinence Score, which ranges from 0 (perfect continence) to 24 (totally incontinent), and Short form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire at two institutions with an interest in anal fistula. The data were examined to identify factors affecting QOL. Data were available for 146 patients (47 women), with a median age of 44 years (range 18-82 years) and a median continence score of 0 (range 0-23). Versus population norms, patients had an overall reduction in QOL. While those with recurrent disease had no difference on continence scores, QOL was worse on two of eight SF-36 domains (p<0.05). Patients with secondary extensions had reduced QOL in two domains (p<0.05), while urgency was associated with reduced QOL on five domains (p<0.05). Patients with loose seton had the same QOL as those without seton. No difference in urgency was found between patients with and without loose seton. In primary fistula patients, 19.4% of patients experienced urgency versus 36.3% of those with recurrent fistulas. Patients with anal fistula had a reduced QOL, which was worse in those with recurrent disease, secondary extensions and urgency. Loose seton had no impact on QOL.
Lehmann, J-P; Graf, W
Ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract (LIFT) is a novel sphincter-preserving technique for anal fistula. This pilot study was designed to evaluate the results in patients with a recurrent fistula. Seventeen patients [nine men; median age 49 (range, 30-76) years] with a recurrent trans-sphincteric fistula were treated with a LIFT procedure between June 2008 and February 2011. All were followed prospectively for a median of 16 (range, 5-27) weeks with clinical examination. Fifteen followed for 13.5 (range, 8-26) months by clinical examination also had three-dimensional (3D) anal ultrasound. The duration of the procedure was 35 (range, 18-70) min. One patient developed a small local haematoma and one had a subcutaneous infection, but otherwise there was no morbidity. At follow up, 11 (65%) patients had a successful closure, two (12%) had a remaining sinus and four (23%) had a persistent fistula. The incidence of persistent or recurrent fistulae at 13.5 months was six (40%) of 15 patients. No de novo faecal incontinence was reported. LIFT is a safe procedure for patients with recurrent anal fistula, with healing at short-term and medium-term follow-up comparable with or superior to that of other sphincter-preserving techniques. Larger studies with a longer follow up are needed to define the ultimate role of LIFT in patients with recurrence. © 2013 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.
Leonhardt, Henrik Mellander, Stefan; Snygg, Johan; Loenn, Lars
The objective of this study was to review the outcome of endovascular transcatheter repair of emergent arterioenteric fistulas. Cases of abdominal arterioenteric fistulas (defined as a fistula between a major artery and the small intestine or colon, thus not the esophagus or stomach), diagnosed over the 3-year period between December 2002 and December 2005 at our institution, were retrospectively reviewed. Five patients with severe enteric bleeding underwent angiography and endovascular repair. Four presented primary arterioenteric fistulas, and one presented a secondary aortoenteric fistula. All had massive persistent bleeding with hypotension despite volume substitution and transfusion by the time of endovascular management. Outcome after treatment of these patients was investigated for major procedure-related complications, recurrence, reintervention, morbidity, and mortality. Mean follow-up time was 3 months (range, 1-6 months). All massive bleeding was controlled by occlusive balloon catheters. Four fistulas were successfully sealed with stent-grafts, resulting in a technical success rate of 80%. One patient was circulatory stabilized by endovascular management but needed immediate further open surgery. There were no procedure-related major complications. Mean hospital stay after the initial endovascular intervention was 19 days. Rebleeding occurred in four patients (80%) after a free interval of 2 weeks or longer. During the follow-up period three patients needed reintervention. The in-hospital mortality was 20% and the 30-day mortality was 40%. The midterm outcome was poor, due to comorbidities or rebleeding, with a mortality of 80% within 6 months. In conclusion, endovascular repair is an efficient and safe method to stabilize patients with life-threatening bleeding arterioenteric fistulas in the emergent episode. However, in this group of patients with severe comorbidities, the risk of rebleeding is high and further intervention must be considered
Buess, G.; Schellong, H.; Kometz, B.; Gruessner, R.J.; Junginger, T.
Esophagotracheal fistula is usually a sequela of irradiation or laser treatment of advanced carcinoma of the esophagus or the tracheobronchial tree. Resection of the tumor in these cases is not possible, and palliative bypass surgery is highly risky. The peroral placement of a prosthesis is less invasive, but conventional prostheses often fail to occlude the fistula. The authors regularly use an endoscopic multiple-diameter bougie for dilation. After dilation, a specially designed prosthesis is pushed through the tumor stenosis to block the fistula. This procedure can be done without general anesthesia. The funnels of conventional prostheses cannot cover the fistula when there is either a wide, proximal esophagus above the fistula or a high fistula. To cope with this particular situation, a special fistula funnel was developed. It perfectly occludes the fistulas in all patients. Of 21 patients, 19 were discharged without further aspiration.
Lee, Hyun Koo; Hur, Jin Woo; Lee, Jong Won
Arteriovenous fistula of the scalp is relatively rare disease. We report a traumatic arteriovenous fistula of the scalp treated with complete surgical excision and review the literature with regard to etiology, pathogenesis, and management of these unusual lesions. PMID:26539278
dos Santos, Daniela; Monsignore, Lucas Moretti; Nakiri, Guilherme Seizem; Cruz, Antonio Augusto Velasco e; Colli, Benedicto Oscar; Abud, Daniel Giansante
Arteriovenous fistulae of the cavernous sinus are rare and difficult to diagnose. They are classified into dural cavernous sinus fistulae or direct carotid-cavernous fistulae. Despite the similarity of symptoms between both types, a precise diagnosis is essential since the treatment is specific for each type of fistula. Imaging findings are remarkably similar in both dural cavernous sinus fistulae and carotid-cavernous fistulae, but it is possible to differentiate one type from the other. Amongst the available imaging methods (Doppler ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and digital subtraction angiography), angiography is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis and classification of cavernous sinus arteriovenous fistulae. The present essay is aimed at didactically presenting the classification and imaging findings of cavernous sinus arteriovenous fistulae. PMID:25741093
Krishnan, Prasad; Banerjee, Tapas Kumar; Saha, Manash
Spinal arteriovenous fistulas are rare entities. They often present with congestive myelopathy but are infrequently diagnosed as the cause of the patients' symptoms. Only one such case has been described previously in Indian literature. We describe one such case who presented to us after a gap of 3 years since symptom onset and following a failed laminectomy where the cause was later diagnosed to be an intradural fistula in the filum terminale fed by the anterior spinal artery and review the available literature.
Yamamoto, Kota; Protack, Clinton D.; Tsuneki, Masayuki; Hall, Michael R.; Wong, Daniel J.; Lu, Daniel Y.; Assi, Roland; Williams, Willis T.; Sadaghianloo, Nirvana; Bai, Hualong; Miyata, Tetsuro; Madri, Joseph A.
Several models of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) have excellent patency and help in understanding the mechanisms of venous adaptation to the arterial environment. However, these models fail to exhibit either maturation failure or fail to develop stenoses, both of which are critical modes of AVF failure in human patients. We used high-resolution Doppler ultrasound to serially follow mice with AVFs created by direct 25-gauge needle puncture. By day 21, 75% of AVFs dilate, thicken, and increase flow, i.e., mature, and 25% fail due to immediate thrombosis or maturation failure. Mature AVF thicken due to increased amounts of smooth muscle cells. By day 42, 67% of mature AVFs remain patent, but 33% of AVFs fail due to perianastomotic thickening. These results show that the mouse aortocaval model has an easily detectable maturation phase in the first 21 days followed by a potential failure phase in the subsequent 21 days. This model is the first animal model of AVF to show a course that recapitulates aspects of human AVF maturation. PMID:24097429
Peri-anal fistulae are a worldwide health problem that can affect any person anywhere. Surgical management of these fistulae is not free from risks. Recurrence and fecal incontinence are the most common complications after surgery. The cumulative personal surgical experience in managing cases with anal fistulae is significantly considered as necessary for obtaining better results with minimal adverse effects after surgery. The purpose for conducting this survey is to facilitate better outcome after surgical interventions in idiopathic anal fistulae' cases.
Molendijk, Ilse; Nuij, Veerle J A A; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E; van der Woude, C Janneke
Despite potent drugs and surgical techniques, the treatment of perianal fistulizing Crohn's disease (CD) remains challenging. We assessed treatment strategies for perianal fistulizing CD and their effect on remission, response, and relapse. Patients with perianal fistulizing CD visiting the Erasmus MC between January 1, 1980 and January 1, 2000 were identified. Demographics, fistula characteristics, and received treatments aimed at the outcome of these strategies were noted. In total, 232 patients were identified (98 male; 42.2%). Median follow-up was 10.0 years (range, 0.5-37.5 yr). Complex fistulas were present in 78.0%. Medical treatment (antibiotics, steroids, immunosuppressants, and anti-tumor necrosis factor) commenced in 79.7% of the patients and in 53.2%, surgery (colectomy, fistulectomy, stoma, and rectum amputation) was performed. Simple fistulas healed more often than complex fistulas (88.2% versus 64.6%; P < 0.001). Rectum involvement was not associated with a lower remission rate, and anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy did not increase complete fistula healing rates in simple and complex fistula. Initially, healed fistulas recurred in 26.7% in case of simple fistulas and in 41.9% in case of complex fistulas (P = 0.051). Only 37.0% of the complex fistulas were in remission at the end of follow-up compared with 66.7% of the simple fistulas (P < 0.001). Only the minority of CD complex perianal fistulas were in remission after conventional treatment strategies after a median follow-up of 10 years. Simple fistulas were more likely to heal than complex fistulas, and less of these healed fistulas relapsed. However, more than 3 quarters of the patients had complex perianal fistulas.
Conces, D J; Kreipke, D L; Tarver, R D
Traumatic arteriovenous fistulas involving the superior mesenteric artery are rare. Diagnosis is most commonly made shortly after the injury. Symptoms, when present, are usually related to intestinal ischemia. Angiography has been the conventional modality used in diagnosing arteriovenous fistulas. We report a patient with a superior mesenteric artery to left renal vein fistula who presented in overt heart failure five years after a gun shot wound. The fistula was evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging.
Diallo, A B; Sy, T; Bah, M D; Diallo, T M O; Barry, M S; Bah, I; Barry, T H; Blanchot, J; Rochat, C-H; Diallo, M B
To analyze the management of obstetric vesico-vaginal fistula in the three sites of Engender Health in Guinea. It was a retrospective study of descriptive type having helped collect 450 cases of vesico-vaginal fistulas in three support sites engender health between January 2008 and December 2011. The variables studied were epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic reasons and treatment outcomes were evaluated after a decline of at least six months. The mean age of onset of the fistula was 25years, ranging from 12 to 55years and 58.8% (n=265) of patients were aged between 18 and 30years. The mean duration of fistula was 11years, ranging from 1 to 38years. Eighty-two percent (n=416) of patients were housewives and 66.4% (n=299) off school. The complex fistula with 66% (n=297) was the most frequent. The treatment consisted of a fistulorraphie after splitting vesico-vaginal in 93.3% (n=420) of cases. Therapeutic results considered after a mean of 8months have resulted in a cure in 79.3% (n=357) of cases, improvement in 4.2% (n=19) of cases and failure in 16 4% (n=74) of cases. Vesico-vaginal fistula is a major cause of maternal morbidity in Guinea. The establishment of a real health policy based on sound medical and social structures contributes to its eradication. 5. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Runström, B; Hallböök, O; Nyström, P O; Sjödahl, R; Olaison, G
To study factors that influenced healing and survival after attempted closure of enterocutaneous fistula. Retrospective analysis of prospective data concerning 101 patients operated on 132 instances for 110 enterocutaneous fistulae at two hospitals. In all, 96 (87%) of the 110 fistulae healed and 92 (91%) patients survived. A total of 9 patients with unhealed fistula died. Multivariate analysis revealed jaundice as an independent factor for both death and failed closure and operation without anastomosis as an independent positive factor for healing. Failure rate was lower after an operation with stoma without anastomosis (6 of 43, 14%) than after an operation with anastomosis (30 of 89, 34%) p = 0.0213. Of the 36 instances with unhealed fistula, 13 (36%) could be ascribed to inadvertent bowel lesions at the reconstructive operation. In addition, univariate analysis revealed that patients with previous multiple laparotomies or with multiple operations for enterocutaneous fistula healed less likely and had higher mortality. A low serum albumin, high white blood cell count, high C-reactive protein concentration, high fistula output, total parenteral nutrition, and operation for recurrent fistula were associated with death together with long operation time and operative bleeding, both indicators of surgical complexity. Over time, staged surgery avoiding anastomosis increased from 27% to 57%. Mortality decreased from 12% to 6%, and healing increased from 73% to 94%. Chronic inflammation, malnutrition, and liver failure causing an impaired healing capacity are important reasons for failure. Staged operation without primary anastomosis may allow the patient to reverse this condition and improve outcome. The high surgical complexity is a negative factor that requires careful planning of the operation.
Lavender, T; Wakasiaka, S; McGowan, L; Moraa, M; Omari, J; Khisa, W
this study aimed to gain understanding of the views of community members in relation to obstetric fistula. a qualitative, grounded theory approach was adopted. Data were collected using in-depth interviews with 45 community members. The constant comparison method enabled generation of codes and subsequent conceptualisations, from the data. participants were from communities served by two hospitals in Kenya; Kisii and Kenyatta. Interviews took place either in the home, place of work, or hospital. the core category (central concept) is 'secrecy hinders support'. This was supported by three themes: 'keeping fistula hidden', 'treatment being a lottery' and 'multiple barriers to support.' These themes represent the complexities around exposure of individual fistula sufferers and the impact that lack of information and women's status can have on treatment. Keeping fistula secret reinforces uncertainties around fistula, which in itself fuels myths and ignorance regarding causes and treatments. Lack of openness, at an individual level, prevents support being sought or offered. A multi-layered strategy is required to support women with fistula. At a societal level, the status of women in LMIC countries needs elevation to a level that provides equity in health services. At a national level, laws need to protect vulnerable women from mistreatment as a direct result of fistula. Furthermore, resources should be available to ensure provision of timely management, as part of routine services. At community level, awareness and education is required to actively engage members to support women locally. Peer support before and after fistula repair may be beneficial, but requires further research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Browning, Andrew; Allsworth, Jenifer E; Wall, L Lewis
To evaluate any association between female genital cutting and vesicovaginal fistula formation during obstructed labor. A comparison was made between 255 fistula patients who had undergone type I or type II female genital cutting and 237 patients who had not undergone such cutting. Women were operated on at the Barhirdar Hamlin Fistula Centre in Ethiopia. Data points used in the analysis included age; parity; length of labor; labor outcome (stillbirth or not); type of fistula; site, size, and scarring of fistula; outcomes of surgery (fistula closed; persistent incontinence with closed fistula; urinary retention with overflow; site, size, and scarring of any rectovaginal fistula; and operation outcomes), and specific methods used during the operation (use of a graft or not, application of a pubococcygeal or similar autologous sling, vaginoplasty, catheterization of ureters, and flap reconstruction of vagina). Primary outcomes were site of genitourinary fistula and persistent incontinence despite successful fistula closure. The only statistically significant differences between the two groups (P=.05) were a slightly greater need to place ureteral catheters at the time of surgery in women who had not undergone a genital cutting operation, a slightly higher use of a pubococcygeal sling at the time of fistula repair, and a slightly longer length of labor (by 0.3 day) in women who had undergone genital cutting. Type I and type II female genital cutting are not independent causative factors in the development of obstetric fistulae from obstructed labor.
Browning, Andrew; Allsworth, Jenifer E.; Wall, L. Lewis
Objective To evaluate any association between female genital cutting and vesicovaginal fistula formation during obstructed labor. Methods A comparison was made between 255 fistula patients who had undergone Type I or Type II female genital cutting and 237 patients who had not undergone such cutting. Women were operated on at the Barhirdar Hamlin Fistula Centre in Ethiopia. Data points used in the analysis included age, parity, length of labor, labor outcome (stillbirth or not), type of fistula, site, size and scarring of fistula, outcomes of surgery (fistula closed, persistent incontinence with closed fistula, urinary retention with overflow, site, size, and scarring of any rectovaginal fistula and operation outcomes, as well as specific methods employed during the operation (utilization of a graft or not, application of a pubococcygeal or similar autologous sling, vaginoplasty, catheterization of ureters, and flap reconstruction of vagina). Primary outcomes were site of genitourinary fistula and persistent incontinence despite successful fistula closure. Results The only statistically significant differences between the two groups (p = 0.05) was a slightly greater need to place ureteral catheters at the time of surgery in women who had not undergone a genital cutting operation, and slightly higher use of a pubococcygeal sling at the time of fistula repair and a slightly longer length of labor (by 0.3 of a day) in women who had undergone genital cutting. Conclusion Type I and Type II female genital cutting are not independent causative factors in the development of obstetric fistulas from obstructed labor. PMID:20177289
Ravi, Bala; Schiavello, Henry; Abayev, David; Kazimir, Michal
Vesicouterine fistulas usually require laparotomy for repair. A vesicouterine fistula occurring after cesarean section was successfully managed hormonally. In another case it developed in association with an intrauterine device and was repaired translaparoscopically. Laparotomy may be avoidable in the management of a vesicouterine fistula.
Ward, A S; Carty, N J
We report the case of a traumatic arteriovenous fistula of the peroneal vessels following a bone graft operation for an un-united tibial fracture. The fistula was recognised as a result of a bruit at the site of the fracture. The fistula was repaired and the fracture subsequently united.
Visscher, Arjan Paul; Felt-Bersma, Richelle J F
Endoanal ultrasound is a technique that provides imaging of the anal sphincters and its surrounding structures as well as the pelvic floor. However, endoanal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is preferred by most physicians, although costs are higher and demand easily outgrows availability. Endoanal ultrasound is an accurate imaging modality delineating anatomy of both cryptoglandular as well as Crohn perianal fistula and abscess. Endoanal ultrasound is comparable with examination under anesthesia and equally sensitive as endoanal MRI in fistula detection. When fistula tracts or abscesses are located above the puborectal muscle, an additional endoanal MRI should be performed. Preoperative imaging is advocated in recurrent cryptoglandular fistula because a more complex pattern can be expected. Endoanal ultrasound can help avoid missing tracts during surgery, lowering the chance for the fistula to persist or recur. It can easily be performed in an outpatient setting and endosonographic skills are quickly incremented. Costs are low and endoanal ultrasound has the potential to improve outcome of patients with both cryptoglandular and fistulizing Crohn disease; therefore, it values more attention.
Meyerhoff, W L
Controversy exists surrounding the diagnosis of spontaneous perilymphatic fistula. In an effort to help resolve this controversy the author conducted a review of the literature as well as a review of 212 of his patients who underwent surgical exploration for suspected perilymphatic fistula. Interpretation of the literature reviewed was hampered by the lack of a uniformly accepted definition for the word spontaneous. Dorland's Medical Dictionary defines spontaneous as that which occurs without external influence. Webster's Dictionary, on the other hand, provides a much more confining definition of the word by stating that a spontaneous event is one that occurs or is produced by its own energy. Only 58 percent of the author's 212 patients had an antecedent history of an external event that may have precipitated the suspected perilymphatic fistula (trauma, flying, diving) while almost 41 percent recalled an antecedent event of internal origin (lifting, straining, sneezing, nose blowing). If one were to support the definition of spontaneous provided by Dorland's Medical Dictionary, then the 41 percent of patients who had no antecedent history of external event would have to be considered as having spontaneous perilymphatic fistula. If, on the other hand, one were to endorse the definition of spontaneous provided by Webster's then less than 2 percent of the author's patients would have to be considered as having spontaneous perilymphatic fistula.
De Sol, Angelo; Cirocchi, Roberto; Di Patrizi, Micol Sole; Boccolini, Andrea; Barillaro, Ivan; Cacurri, Alban; Grassi, Veronica; Corsi, Alessia; Renzi, Claudio; Giuliani, Daniele; Coccetta, Marco; Avenia, Nicola
Pancreatic fistula is still one of the most serious and potential complications after D2-D3 distal and total gastrectomy (4% to 6%). Despite their importance, pancreatic fistulas still have not been uniformly defined. Amylase concentration of the drainage fluid after surgery for gastric cancer can be considered as a predictive factor of the presence of pancreatic fistula. From January 2009 to April 2013, 53 patients underwent surgery for gastric cancer. Amylase concentration in the drainage fluid was measured on the first postoperative day and if it was ≥1,000 UI, it was measured again on the third postoperative day. Pancreatic fistula occurred in four cases (7.5%). Pancreatic fistulas were classified using the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF) criteria into different grades of severity. Two fistulas were Grade A, one was Grade B, and one was Grade C. Management of drainage tubes is still crucial after gastrectomy, not only for the likelihood of anastomotic leaks but also the eventual diagnosis and management of pancreatic fistula. High amylase drainage content and then the presence of the pancreatic fistula may be due to several causes: the operation itself when it includes splenectomy or pancreatic tail-splenectomy, the extended lymphadenectomy but even the 'gently and softly' pancreatic manipulation, according literature, may be a risk factor. The authors assessed amylase concentration in the drainage fluid collected from the left subphrenic cavity on POD1 and POD3 in 53 patients who had undergone curative gastrectomy for cancer and concluded that amylase drainage content >3 times the serum amylase was a useful predictive risk factor for pancreatic fistula. Our work is an interim analysis and the aim of this study is to increase the accrual of the number of patients to have a significant number. For this reason, a protocol for a multicenter trial will be designed to verify whether the systematic measurement of amylase in drain fluid is
Ren, Jianan; Yuan, Yujie; Zhao, Yunzhao; Gu, Guosheng; Wang, Gefei; Chen, Jun; Fan, Chaogang; Wang, Xinbo; Li, Jieshou
The use of open abdomen in the management of gastrointestinal fistula complicated with severe intra-abdominal infection is uncommon. This study was designed to evaluate outcomes of our staged approach for the infected open abdomen. Patients who had gastrointestinal fistula and underwent open abdomen treatment were retrospectively reviewed. Various materials such as polypropylene mesh and a modified sandwich package were used to achieve temporary abdominal closure followed by skin grafting when the granulation bed matured. A delayed definitive operation was performed for final abdominal closure without implant of prosthetic mesh. Between 1999 and 2009, 56 (68.3%) of 82 patients survived through this treatment. Among them, 42 patients achieved final abdominal closure. Spontaneous fistula closure occurred in 16 patients with secondary fistula recorded in six patients. Besides, wound complications occurred in 13 patients with two cases for pulmonary infection. Within a 12-month follow-up period after definitive closure, no additional fistula was recorded excluding planned ventral hernia repair. Open abdomen treatment was effective for gastrointestinal fistula complicated by severe intra-abdominal infection. A delayed and deliberate operative strategy aiming at fistula excision and fascial closure, with simultaneous abdominal wall reconstruction, was required for the infected open abdomen.
Hughes, Fiona M; Kavanagh, Dara; Barry, Mary; Owens, Anthony; MacErlaine, Donal P; Malone, Dermot E
To assess the sensitivity and specificity of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of aortoenteric fistula (AEF) and to determine the most accurate CT signs of the disease. Hospital records were reviewed over a 20-year period. Twenty-three patients in whom a final diagnosis of AEF was made at laparotomy or autopsy were identified. Ten of these had CT performed. Twelve control cases were also collected. The 22 cases, (10 cases of AEF and 12 controls), were reviewed retrospectively by two independent readers, who were blinded to the clinical features and outcome. Each case was examined for six specific radiological findings. The outcome of other adopted investigative modalities was also examined. The presence of peri-aortic ectopic gas (>2 weeks following surgery) in the context of gastrointestinal (GI) blood loss was 100% specific for AEF. If AEF was considered to be present where signs of peri-aortic infection were present in a patient with GI bleeding, CT had an overall specificity of 100% (95% confidence interval = 1.0-1.0) and sensitivity of 50%. CT can rule in the diagnosis of AEF but cannot rule it out. CT is recommended as the first-line investigation in a stable patient with suspected AEF.
van Onkelen, R S; Gosselink, M P; Schouten, W R
To date fistulotomy is still the treatment of choice for patients with a transsphincteric fistula passing through the lower third of the external anal sphincter, because it is a simple, effective and safe procedure with a minimal risk of incontinence. However, data suggest that the risk of impaired continence following division of the lower third of the external anal sphincter is not insignificant, especially in female patients with an anterior fistula and patients with diminished anal sphincter function. It has been shown that ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract (LIFT) is a promising sphincter-preserving technique. Therefore, we questioned whether LIFT could replace fistulotomy in patients with a low transsphincteric fistula. A consecutive series of 22 patients with a low transsphincteric fistula of cryptoglandular origin underwent LIFT. Continence scores were determined using the Rockwood Fecal Incontinence Severity Index. Median follow-up was 19.5months. Primary healing was observed in 18 (82%) patients. In the four patients without primary healing, the transsphincteric fistula was converted into an intersphincteric fistula. These patients underwent subsequent fistulotomy with preservation of the external anal sphincter. The overall healing rate was 100%. Six months after surgery, the median incontinence score was not changed significantly. Low transsphincteric fistulae can be treated successfully by LIFT, without affecting faecal continence. Division of the lower part of the external anal sphincter is no longer necessary in the treatment of low transsphincteric fistulae, which is essential for patients with compromised anal sphincters. © 2012 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2012 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.
Choi, Ji Hye; Jeon, Byeong Geon; Choi, Sang-Gi; Han, Eon Chul; Ha, Heon-Kyun; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Choe, Eun Kyung; Moon, Sang Hui; Ryoo, Seung-Bum
Purpose A rectourethral fistula (RUF) is an uncommon complication resulting from surgery, radiation or trauma. Although various surgical procedures for the treatment of an RUF have been described, none has gained acceptance as the procedure of choice. The aim of this study was to review our experience with surgical management of RUF. Methods The outcomes of 6 male patients (mean age, 51 years) with an RUF who were operated on by a single surgeon between May 2005 and July 2012 were assessed. Results The causes of the RUF were iatrogenic in four cases (two after radiation therapy for rectal cancer, one after brachytherapy for prostate cancer, and one after surgery for a bladder stone) and traumatic in two cases. Fecal diversion was the initial treatment in five patients. In one patient, fecal diversion was performed simultaneously with definitive repair. Four patients underwent staged repair after a mean of 12 months. Rectal advancement flaps were done for simple, small fistula (n = 2), and flap interpositions (gracilis muscle flap, n = 2; omental flap, n = 1) were done for complex or recurrent fistulae. Urinary strictures and incontinence were observed in patients after gracilis muscle flap interposition, but they were resolved with simple treatments. The mean follow-up period was 28 months, and closure of the fistula was achieved in all five patients (100%) who underwent definitive repairs. The fistula persisted in one patient who refused further definitive surgery after receiving only a fecal diversion. Conclusion Depending on the severity and the recurrence status of RUF, a relatively simple rectal advancement flap repair or a more complex gracilis muscle or omental flap interposition can be used to achieve closure of the fistula. PMID:24639969
Urbanowicz, K; Malinowski, P
In the years 1985-1996 82 patients with postoperative external fistulas of gastrointestinal tract (pefgt) were treated in the Department of General Surgery of Hospital in Olsztyn. The age of the patient varied from 18 to 70 years. 37 patients were women and 45 man. Volume of excreted fluid fluctuated from 100 ml to 3000 ml per day. The most frequent cause of pefgt was dehiscence of the anastomosis of jejunum in 31 patients, and operations of complications of gastric or duodenal ulcer disease in 30 patients. 54 patients underwent medical treatment. It was based on compensation of disorders in water and electrolyte balance and acid-base equilibrium, nutritional treatment, protection of the skin, suction of the excreted fluid, controlling of foci of infection, rehabilitation. 7 patients were reoperated for the purpose of closing the fistula and 21 to drain abscess or to stop bleeding. 57 (70%) out of 82 patients recovered, 25 (30%) died. In this number 14 patients among 54 treated conservatively and 11 out from 28 operated. The most frequent cause of death was sepsis (15 patients). The conservative treatment including TPN is successful in majority of patients with pefgt and indispensable in patients treated operatively. Special attention should be given for coexisting intraperitoneal abscessa, peritonitis and sepsis.
Noh, Dongsub; Park, Chang-Kwon
Broncho-pleural fistula (BPF) and esophago-pleural fistula (EPF) after pulmonary resection are challenging to manage. BPF is controlled by irrigation and sterilization, but such therapy is not sufficient to promote closure of EPF, which usually requires surgical management. However, it is generally difficult to select an appropriate surgical method for closure of BPF and EPF. Here, we report a case of concomitant BPF and EPF after left completion pneumonectomy, in which both fistulas were closed through a right thoracotomy. PMID:27066439
Pogorelić, Zenon; Borić, Matija; Markić, Joško; Jukić, Miro; Grandić, Leo
Magnet ingestion usually does not cause serious complications, but in case of multiple magnet ingestion or ingestion of magnet with other metal it could cause intestinal obstruction, fistula formation or even perforation. We report case of intestinal obstruction and fistula formation following ingestion of 25 magnets in a 2-year-old girl. Intraoperatively omega shaped intestinal loop with fistula caused by two magnetic balls was found. Intestine trapped with magnetic balls was edematous and inflamed. Resection of intestinal segment was performed, followed by entero-enteric anastomosis. A total of 25 magnets were removed from resected intestine. Single magnet ingestion is treated as non-magnetic foreign body. Multiple magnet ingestion should be closely monitored and surgical approach could be the best option to prevent or to cure its complications.
McNab, A A
A fistula between the paranasal sinuses and the orbit as a late complication of orbital fractures is rare and may present with intermittent symptoms due to air passing into the orbit. A case note review of two patients with sino-orbital fistula is presented. Two patients, 23- and 30-year-old males, presented with intermittent symptoms of globe displacement, diplopia or discomfort months after repair of an orbital floor fracture with a synthetic orbital floor implant. The symptoms occurred after nose blowing. They were both cured by removal of the implant and partial removal of the tissue surrounding the implant. A sino-orbital fistula may complicate the otherwise routine repair of an orbital floor fracture, but may be cured by removal of the implant and part of the surrounding pseudocapsule.
Zhou, Ning; Chen, Wei-xing; Li, You-ming; Xiang, Zhun; Gao, Ping; Fang, Ying
To discuss the merits of "tubes treatment" for esophageal fistula (EF). A 66-year-old female who suffered from a bronchoesophageal and esophagothoratic fistula underwent a successful "three tubes treatment" (close chest drainage, negative pressure suction at the leak, and nasojejunal feeding tube), combination of antibiotics, antacid drugs and nutritional support. Another 55-year-old male patient developed an esophagopleural fistula (EPF) after esophageal carcinoma operation. He too was treated conservatively with the three tubes strategy as mentioned above towards a favorable outcome. The two patients recovered with the tubes treatment, felt well and became able to eat and drink, presenting no complaint. Tubes treatment is an effective basic way for EF. It may be an alternative treatment option.
Zhou, Ning; Chen, Wei-xing; Li, You-ming; Xiang, Zhun; Gao, Ping; Fang, Ying
Aim: To discuss the merits of “tubes treatment” for esophageal fistula (EF). Methods: A 66-year-old female who suffered from a bronchoesophageal and esophagothoratic fistula underwent a successful “three tubes treatment” (close chest drainage, negative pressure suction at the leak, and nasojejunal feeding tube), combination of antibiotics, antacid drugs and nutritional support. Another 55-year-old male patient developed an esophagopleural fistula (EPF) after esophageal carcinoma operation. He too was treated conservatively with the three tubes strategy as mentioned above towards a favorable outcome. Results: The two patients recovered with the tubes treatment, felt well and became able to eat and drink, presenting no complaint. Conclusion: Tubes treatment is an effective basic way for EF. It may be an alternative treatment option. PMID:17910112
The long-term survival and quality of life of patients on hemodialysis (HD) is dependant on the adequacy of dialysis via an appropriately placed vascular access. The optimal vascular access is unquestionably the autologous arteriovenous fistula (AVF), with the most common method being the conventional radio-cephalic fistula at the wrist. Recent clinical practice guidelines recommend the creation of native fistula or synthetic graft before the start of chronic HD therapy to prevent the need for complication-prone dialysis catheters. This could also have a beneficial effect on the rapidity of worsening kidney failure. A multidisciplinary approach (nephrologists, surgeons, radiologists and nurses) should improve the HD outcome by promoting the use of AVF. An important additional component of this program is the Doppler ultrasound for preoperative vascular mapping. Such an approach may be realized without unsuccessful surgical explorations, with a minimal early failure rate and a high maturation, even in patients with diabetes mellitus.
Miranda, Luiz Ec; Miranda, Ana Cg
Management of small-bowel fistulas which are in an open abdomen and have no soft tissue overlay or a fistula tract involves many complications and challenges. Controlling the local leakage of enteric contents has a central role in the success of medical treatment. There are several methods to deal with fistula discharge but unfortunately, the technical solutions only partially address such problems and a definitive management of fistula discharge still remains an insoluble challenge. We describe a simple and cheap method to control fistula leakage by using a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube.
Haq, Naveed Ul; Althaf, Mohammed Mahdi; Lee, Timmy
Early fistula failure (EFF) is a significant clinical problem causing lower rates of arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs) use in patients with ESRD on hemodialysis. The 2 main factors amenable to treatment and widely accepted to cause EFF are stenosis anywhere in the AVF circuit and/or presence of accessory vein (av). The role of stenotic lesions in causing EFF and their treatment options are relatively better defined with clear guidelines. On the other hand, assessing the significance of an av in causing EFF and the indications for its treatment seem to lack scientific recommendations based on robust clinical data. In this article, we review the pathophysiology of EFF as pertains to the presence of av's. Current recommendations for obliteration of av, the available techniques and the evidence to support current clinical practice are discussed. The possible cons of av obliteration are highlighted, while newer concepts and the need for future clinical trials are addressed.
Cherdantsev, D V; Pervova, O V; Diatlov, V Iu; Kurbanov, D Sh
Evaluation of the efficacy of sekretolitičeskoj therapy with synthetic analogue of somatostatin, a short-acting oktreotid (group 1) and extended oktreotid-depo (group 2) in 24 patients with external pancreatic fistulas after destructive pancreatitis. Results of clinical studies have shown that against the backdrop of an analogue of somatostatin-depo true healing and purulent-necrotic pancreatic external fistula occurs in less time: average 19 ± 1.8, and 16.2 ± 1.2 day observations, respectively.
Stathaki, Maria; Vamvakas, Lampros; Papadaki, Emmanouela; Papadimitraki, Elisavet; Tsaroucha, Angeliki; Karkavitsas, Nikolaos
A 70-year-old man with a history of weight loss, changes in bowel habits, and hematochezia had rectal adenocarcinoma. He was palliated with diverting colostomy, followed by radiochemotherapy. Bilateral hydronephrosis was found incidentally on lower abdominal CT scan. He underwent 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid scan prior to percutaneous nephrostomy tube placement. Apart from the renal cortex, scintigraphy showed activity in the ascending colon continuous to the activity of the bladder. This indicated urine extravasation on account of a colovesical fistula, complicating postoperative radiation treatment. Here we highlight the contribution of renal cortical scintigraphy in the detection of colovesical fistulas.
Schleich, J M; Rey, C; Gewillig, M; Bozio, A
Six cases of full spontaneous closure of congenital coronary artery fistulas, and one case of near closure, as seen by colour Doppler echocardiography, are presented. It is worth reconsidering the classical view that nearly all cases of spontaneous closure are eligible for surgical or percutaneous correction to prevent the development of significant and potentially fatal complications. As the natural course of coronary artery fistulas is still poorly defined, asymptomatic patients, especially those under 7 years old with small shunts, should be periodically followed up by echocardiography rather than be subjected to operative closure, even by catheterisation.
Qureshi, Muhammad Azhar
A rare case of spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula with renal tuberculosis is presented here. A 70 years old male with neglected stones in right kidney was investigated for discharging sinus right lumbar region of three months duration. Excretory urography revealed non-functioning right kidney and an impacted stone right upper ureter and a small stone in renal pelvis. The patient was successfully treated by nephroureterectomy and excision of the fistulous track followed by anti-tuberculous treatment. Histopathology of the specimen revealed renal tuberculosis. Though the incidence of various forms of tuberculosis is very high in this part of the world, presence of nephrocutaneous fistula is still uncommon.
Keogh, Kenneth M; Smart, Neil J
Fistula in ano is a very common presentation to colorectal clinic. Embarrassment due to the symptoms makes accurate estimations of incidence difficult. It is estimated that up to 40% of peri-anal abscess will be accompanied by or preceded by a fistula. Fistulae can be classified into simple fistulae that involve no or minimal sphincter muscle and complex, which involve significant amounts of the anal sphincter muscle, possibly with multiple tracts. For complex fistulae a seton suture is usually placed through the tract and out through the anus to form a loop allowing pockets of sepsis to drain internally and externally and a mature tract of fibrous tissue to develop. Following this period definitive fistula treatment is considered. This can involve a number of procedures that have tremendously varied success rates in the literature. The first stage of surgical treatment is often a core fistulectomy, which entails surgical removal of the tract. This may be followed by insertion of fibrin glue, a collagen plug or formation of a rotation skin flap from surrounding tissue in order to close the resultant tissue defect. All current treatments have a significant failure rate. If this wound breaks down the surgery can leave a large painful peri-anal wound that can lead to ongoing fistulation. Should this occur resiting of the seton will be required with the patient only getting back to square one after months of healing around the seton. In addition removing cores of fibrous tissue passing through the sphincter can threaten the sphincter function resulting in impaired continence. Having seen radiofrequency ablation used to close varicose veins the authors propose that one could use similar techniques to close a fibrous tract matured with a seton in order to close a fistula. The authors propose that a short length radiofrequency catheter could be used to treat fistula in ano. This would in theory be less painful with less tissue destruction. In addition there would be no
A homogeneous series of 261 post-partum urogenital fistulae treated over the last ten years in Africa by the same operator is analysed. Mostly occurring in young, primiparous women in a rural environment, the predominant cause was neglected dystocic delivery in the bush (65.5%). The fistula was traumatic in 27.9% of cases and secondary to hysterectomy in 6.8%. 247 patients underwent surgical repair. The choice of repair procedure, generally performed via the transvaginal route (92.3%), was based on the anatomical classification of the various lesions into three groups of indications: Group I: simple fistulae (98), in which surgical treatment consisted of closing the fistula orifice by simple separate suture of the bladder and vagina, generally followed by success. Group II: more difficult fistulae (109) with severe tissue damage, raising the dual problem of continence and healing and requiring the use of mattressing with a well vascularised adjacent tissue (55 cases). Group III: complicated fistulae (54) with the presence of associated lesions, often requiring multiple urological, genital and intestinal operations as well as complementary plastic techniques (31 cases): double autoplasty of the labia major (17) and adipocutaneous pedicle skin flap (14). 212 of the 261 patients (81.2%) were cured, 23 obtained partial cure (insufficient continence, amenorrhoea, vaginal sclerosis making sexual activity impossible) and there were 26 failures. Urinary diversion was the only solution in 14 patients (7.8%). The objective in surgical correction of urogenital fistulae is twofold: to obtain good quality cure (81.2%), i.e. controlled micturition and a normal, genital, conjugal and social life. overcome the limitations of palliative operations which are always poorly accepted in Africa, at the cost of repeated, staged surgery designed to simplify the lesions in the most severely damaged cases. Prevention programmes designed to eradicate urogenital fistulae, which constitutes a
Dhabalia, Jayesh V; Nelivigi, Girish G; Satia, Meena N; Kakkattil, Shal; Kumar, Vikash
Congenital urethrovaginal fistulas are rare, and all five reported cases have been associated with urogenital abnormalities. We describe a case of congenital urethrovaginal fistula with an imperforate hymen and no other urogenital abnormalities. A 25-year-old female sought medical advice regarding cyclical hematuria, dyspareunia, and infertility of four years' duration. Investigations disclosed a urethrovaginal fistula with an imperforate hymen. The patient was successfully treated with excision of the hymen and closure of the urethrovaginal fistula. In this instance, the diagnosis of congenital urethrovaginal fistula was delayed until adulthood because the presence of urinary incontinence, the usual presentation of a urethrovaginal fistula, was concealed by the imperforate hymen. We could find no previously reported case of urethrovaginal fistula with imperforate hymen.
Shams, Pari N; Selva, Dinesh
A 31-year-old man with epiphora and mucous discharge from a traumatic lacrimal fistula underwent a computed tomographic dacryocystogram, revealing a fistula extending from the anterior ethmoid air cells through the lacrimal sac to the overlying skin with coexisting nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy enabled complete marsupialization of the lacrimal sac and agger nasi air cell, removing the tract between these structures. Simultaneous probing of the common canaliculus and fistula tract under direct visualization allowed the identification of the internal fistula origin in relation to the internal ostium on the lateral sac wall. The fistula was excised with a trephine over a guide wire via an external approach. Use of the endoscopic technique for excision of acquired lacrimal fistulas may be especially helpful in cases with coexisting nasolacrimal duct obstruction where the fistula extends to the sinus cavity or suspected foreign bodies.
Bierenbroodspot, F; Van Damme, Ph A; Cruysberg, J R M
A case of a patient with a zygoma fracture in combination with a carotid-cavernous sinus fistula--an arterio-venous fistula between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus--is presented. The most frequent cause is trauma, but the carotid-cavernous sinus fistula itself may have been the cause of trauma. The patient showed complete loss of ocular motility and total monocular blindness. Treatment of the fistula with endoarterial coil embolization was followed by improvement of vision and ocular motility, until finally complete recovery of ocular functions, which is exceptional. In this case, careful analysis of the MRA's showed that the CCSF most likely developed in the posttraumatic phase.
Hong, K D; Kang, S; Kalaskar, S; Wexner, S D
Sphincter-preserving approaches to treat anal fistula do not jeopardize continence; however, healing rates are suboptimal. In this context, ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract (LIFT) can be considered promising offering high success rates and a relatively simple procedure. This review aimed to investigate the outcomes of LIFT to treat anal fistula. We conducted a systematic review of the Pubmed, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases, to retrieve all relevant scientific original articles and scientific abstracts (Web of Science) related to the LIFT procedure for anal fistula between January 2007 and March 2013. The search yielded 24 original articles including 1,110 patients; these included one randomized controlled study, three case control studies, and 20 case series. Most studies included patients with trans-sphincteric or complex fistula, not amenable to fistulotomy. During a pooled mean 10.3 months of follow-up, the mean success, incontinence, intraoperative, and postoperative complication rates were 76.4, 0, 0, and 5.5%, respectively. A sensitivity analysis showed that the impact on success in terms of follow-up duration, study size, and combining other procedures was limited. There was no association between pre-LIFT drainage seton and success of LIFT. Ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract appears to be an effective and safe treatment for trans-sphincteric or complex anal fistula. Combining other procedures and a pre-LIFT drainage seton does not seem to confer any added benefit in terms of success. However, given the lack of prospective randomized trials, interpretation of these data must be cautious. Further trials are mandatory to identify predictive factors for success, and true effectiveness of the LIFT compared to other sphincter-preserving procedures to treat anal fistula.
Muto, M; Ohtsu, A; Miyamoto, S; Muro, K; Boku, N; Ishikura, S; Satake, M; Ogino, T; Tajiri, H; Yoshida, S
It remains controversial whether chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy are/is contraindicated for esophageal carcinoma patients with malignant fistulae. In some case reports, closure of fistulae by chemotherapy or radiotherapy has been reported. The current study investigated chemoradiotherapy for these patients using various primary treatments to manage the pulmonary complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of chemoradiotherapy for patients with locally advanced esophageal carcinoma with malignant fistulae. Patients with endoscopically or radiologically confirmed fistulae were treated with concomitant chemoradiotherapy. Closure of fistulae was assessed by esophagography or endoscopy. Oral food intake also was assessed before and after treatment. Of 202 esophageal carcinoma patients treated at National Cancer Center Hospital East between July 1992 and May 1998, 24 patients (11.9%) developed malignant fistulae. Twelve patients developed fistulae before treatment and the remaining patients developed fistulae during treatment. Closure of the fistulae after chemoradiotherapy was observed in 17 of these patients (70.8%), and 16 of these 17 patients (94.1%) had oral alimentation restored after successful treatment. The median survival time from the diagnosis of the fistula for all patients with fistulae was 198 days; in the patients whose fistulae were present before chemoradiotherapy, the median survival time was 238 days. These results suggest that the presence of malignant fistulae does not contraindicate chemoradiotherapy. Once the inflammation due to the fistula has been controlled, chemoradiotherapy should be utilized because it may provide the best chance for survival and palliation of severe dysphagia. Copyright 1999 American Cancer Society.
Zohny, Samir F; El-Fattah, Mahmoud Abd; Khan, Jalaluddin A
Thrombosis of native arteriovenous (AV) fistula is an important cause of complications in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of measuring circulating fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) level and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) lactonase activity as potential predictors of native AV fistula thrombosis in chronic HD patients. This study included 83 HD patients (48 with thrombosed and 35 with non-thrombosed native AV fistulas) and 38 healthy volunteers. Serum FGF-23 level was measured using the ELISA technique, while serum PON1 lactonase activity was measured spectrophotometrically using gamma-thiobutyrolactone as a substrate. FGF-23 was significantly increased while PON1 lactonase was markedly decreased in both thrombosed and non-thrombosed HD patients compared with controls (P < 0.001). FGF-23 was elevated whereas PON1 lactonase was decreased in HD patients with thrombosed native AV fistulas compared with HD patients with non-thrombosed native AV fistulas (P = 0.001 and 0.002, respectively). A significant negative correlation was found between FGF-23 and PON1 lactonase in HD patients with thrombosed native AV fistulas (r = -0.342, P = 0.017). This study shows a potential value of FGF-23 and PON1 lactonase as predictors of native AV fistula thrombosis in HD patients.
Pu, Yu-Wei; Xing, Chun-Gen; Khan, Imran; Zhao, Kui; Zhu, Bao-Song; Wu, Yong
To evaluate the recurrence and fecal incontinence of anal fistula plug versus conventional surgical treatment for anal fistulas. This meta-analysis was carried out in the General Surgery Department of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China. We searched the Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library from June 2011 to April 2012. The literature searches were carried out using medical subject headings and free-text word: anal fistula, fibrin adhesive, fibrin sealant, and fistula plug. Two randomized controlled trials and 3 retrospective controlled studies were included. A total of 428 patients were included in our study. The recurrence rate was higher in those patients who accept fistula plug treatment (62.1% versus 47%) (p=0.004). Anal fistula plug has a moderate probability of success with little risk of incontinence, but the recurrence rate is significantly higher than the conventional surgical treatment. This treatment is minimally invasive, repeatable, and sphincter-sparing. This meta-analysis failed to find a statistically significant difference in incontinence rate between conservative treatment and conventional surgical treatment.
Liu, Hailong; Xiao, Yihua; Zhang, Yong; Pan, Zhihui; Peng, Jian; Tang, Wenxian; Li, Ajian; Zhou, Lulu; Yin, Lu; Lin, Moubin
To evaluate the preliminary efficacy of video-assisted anal fistula treatment (VAAFT) for complex anal fistula. Clinical data of 11 consecutive patients with complex anal fistula undergoing VAAFT in our department from May to July 2015 were reviewed. VAAFT was performed to manage the fistula under endoscope without cutting or resection. VAAFT was successfully performed in all the 11 patients. The internal ostium was closed using mattress suture in 10 cases, and Endo-GIA stapler in 1 case. The mean operative time was (42.0±12.4) min, mean hospital stay was (4.1±1.5) d. Complication included bleeding and perianal infection in 1 case respectively. After 1 to 3.2 months follow-up, success rate was 72.7%(8/11), and no fecal incontinence was observed. Video-assisted anal fistula treatment is an effective, safe and minimally invasive surgical procedure for complex anal fistula with preservation of anal sphincter function.
Santos, Vanessa Prado dos; Razuk, Álvaro Filho; Júnior, Valter Castelli; Caffaro, Roberto Augusto
Fistula between arteries and the gastrointestinal tract are a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding, but potentially fatal. The recognition and early treatment can modify the patient prognosis. We report a case of a patient with previous surgery for seminoma of cryptorchidic testicle, with massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding. We performed the diagnosis and surgical treatment of the fistula between left external iliac artery and sigmoid colon. The patient was successfully treated by external iliac artery ligation and left colectomy.
Moussi, A; Daldoul, S; Bourguiba, B; Othmani, D; Zaouche, A
The occurrence of enteric fistulae after wall repair using a prosthetic mesh is a serious but, fortunately, rare complication. We report the case of a 66-year-old diabetic man who presented with gas gangrene of the abdominal wall due to an intra-abdominal abscess caused by intestinal erosion six years after an incisional hernia repair using a polyester mesh. The aim of this case report is to illustrate the seriousness of enteric fistula after parietal repair using a synthetic material.
Lin, Ching-Hwung; Lo, Yuk-Keung; Lin, Yuh-Te; Li, Jie-Yuan; Lai, Ping-Hong; Gau, Yung-Yen
We report on the case of a 60-year-old man who suffered from hiccup, dysphagia and unsteady gait for three months. He was diagnosed with intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula in medulla with retrograde perimedullary vein drainage. He developed quadriplegia, persistent shock status and symptomatic bradycardia immediately after a conventional cerebral angiography study. After excluding cardiogenic, hypovolemic, anaphylactic and septic shock, central vasomotor failure caused by venous thrombosis of the lesion was considered. The patient's central vasomotor failure recovered after continuous dopamine infusion treatment for 42 days. We concluded that venous hypertension with venous thrombosis in rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), a major vasomotor center in the brainstem, was the lesion site. In our case, vasomotor dysfunction caused by an RVLM lesion related to venous thrombosis is considered as causative.
Loran, Oleg B; Veliev, Evgeny I; Sokolov, Egor A; Dadashev, Elmar O; Guspanov, Renat I
Transrectal prostate biopsy is considered a relatively safe procedure, with a quite small number of complications. We report a patient with a rectourethral fistula after a repeat transrectal prostate biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first incident in the published literature.
Pense, S C; Wood, W J; Stempel, T K; Zwemer, F L; Wachtel, T L
Acid ingestion may result in a variety of early and late complications. A patient is presented with severe sequelae from muriatic acid ingestion, including a tracheoesophageal fistula which is a previously unreported complication of acid ingestion injury. Recommendations are made for diagnosis and prevention of this potentially lethal complication.
Kochhar, Gaurav; Saha, Sudipta; Andley, Manoj; Kumar, Ashok; Saurabh, Gyan; Pusuluri, Rahul; Bhise, Vikas; Kumar, Ajay
Fistula in ano is a common disease seen in the surgical outpatient department. Many procedures are advocated for the treatment of fistula in ano. However, none of the procedures is considered the gold standard. The latest addition to the list of treatment options is video-assisted anal fistula treatment (VAAFT). It is a minimally invasive, sphincter-saving procedure with low morbidity. The aim of our study was to compare the results with a premier study done previously. The procedure involves diagnostic fistuloscopy and visualization of the internal opening, followed by fulguration of the fistulous tract and closure of the internal opening with a stapling device or suture ligation. The video equipment (Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany) was connected to an illuminating source. The study was conducted from July 2010 to March 2014. Eighty-two patients with fistula in ano were operated on with VAAFT and were followed up according to the study protocol. The recurrence rate was 15.85%, with recurrences developing in 13 cases. Postoperative pain and discomfort were minimal. VAAFT is a minimally invasive procedure performed under direct visualization. It enables visualization of the internal opening and secondary branches or abscess cavities. It is a sphincter-saving procedure and offers many advantages to patients. Our initial results with the procedure are quite encouraging.
Han, Gang; Ren, Jianan; Liu, Song; Gu, Guosheng; Ren, Huajian; Yan, Dongsheng; Chen, Jun; Wang, Gefei; Zhou, Bo; Wu, Xiuwen; Yuan, Yujie; Li, Jieshou
The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence, etiology, clinical outcomes, and prognosis of nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) in patients with enterocutaneous fistulas. We prospectively collected 226 patients with enterocutaneous fistulas. Demographics, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores, C-reactive protein, body mass index, albumin, and thyroidal hormones were evaluated for each patient. The incidence of NTIS was 57.5% in patients with enterocutaneous fistulas. Age and the APACHE II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores were significantly higher, whereas albumin was lower in the NTIS group compared with those in the euthyroid group. A decreased sum activity of deiodinases and a reduced ratio of total thyroxin/free thyroxin and total triiodothyronine/free triiodothyronine were observed in the NTIS group. Patients with NTIS suffered longer durations in the intensive care unit and higher possibilities of mechanical ventilation. The cumulative survival rate was significantly lower in the NTIS group. NTIS was common, and patients with NTIS displayed worse clinical outcome and prognosis. A hypodeiodination condition and a potential thyroid hormone-binding dysfunction may play a role in the etiology of NTIS. A low serum albumin concentration and a high APACHE II score were risk factors of NTIS in enterocutaneous fistulas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cay, Ali; Imamoğlu, Mustafa; Sarihan, Haluk; Sayil, Ozgür
The authors describe the case of a 16-month-old boy with benign duodenocolic fistula due to safety pin ingestion who presented with abdominal pain, diarrhea and weight loss. Etiology, symptomatology, diagnosis and management are discussed and the literature is reviewed. Early diagnosis and surgical management are necessary to avoid serious morbidity.
Kröpil, Feride; Raffel, Andreas M; Schauer, Matthias; Rehders, Alexander; Eisenberger, Claus F; Knoefel, Wolfram T
Rectovaginal fistulae (RVF) are a serious and debilitating problem for patients and a challenge for the treating surgeons. We present our experiences in the surgical treatment of these patients. Study population consisted of 22 consecutive patients (range 26-70 years) with RVF treated in our department between 2003 and 2009. 13 RVF were observed after colorectal or gynaecological surgery, 3 occurred after radiotherapy, 2 due to tumour infiltration, 4 because of local inflammation (3x diverticultis, 1x ulcus simplex recti). The RVF was classified in all patients before treatment as either 'low' or 'high'. Local procedures (transvaginal excision, preanal repair) as initial treatment were performed in 9 patients with low fistula. In 13 cases with high fistula an abdominal approach was performed to close the fistula. A recurrence was observed in 8/22 cases (36%), which were treated by a gracilis flap (n=2), a bulbospongiosus composite (n=1), a second abdominal approach (n=4), and a re-local excision (n=1). Ultimatively, in 19 cases the defect healed but in 3 patients the RVF persisted. Most important predictor of healing/failure is etiology followed by localization and recurrence of the RVF. Local (preanal, transvaginal) procedures are suitable for low RVF, whereas abdominal surgery is necessary in high RVF. In recurrent RVF, muscle flaps are promising procedures.
Abbas, F; Memon, A
Colovesical fistula as a sequela to long-term bladder outflow obstruction is to our knowledge a previously unreported complication. We report a case in which single stage colonic resection and anastomosis with bladder repair and transurethral resection of the prostate resolved the condition.
Cooper, S G; Richman, A H; Tager, M G
We present an unusual case of isolated nephrocutaneous fistula secondary to renal calculi with perirenal infection. The usefulness of computed tomography (CT), with its depiction of the extent of involvement and its characterization of the disease process, is described and the literature is reviewed.
Alzahrani, Musaed; Fadous, Raphaelle; Dufour, Jean-Jacque; Saliba, Issam
This study intends to identify factors that could better predict the diagnosis of perilymphatic fistula (PLF) since exploration surgery is currently the only confirmatory method. This retrospective chart review in a tertiary care center is based on all 71 available patient files operated for a suspicion of PLF between 1983 and 2012. History of predisposing factors, clinical findings and investigations were documented pre- and postoperatively. Patients were divided according to intraoperative findings into two groups: group I (fistula negative) and group II (fistula positive). In addition, group II was divided into two subgroups: patients with or without a history of stapedectomy. Both groups were demographically similar. With the exception of history of previous partial stapedectomy (p = 0.04), no statistical difference could be identified in predisposing factors and in clinical findings between the two groups. The evolution of symptoms showed an overall improvement of vestibular symptoms (91 %) and cochlear symptoms (53 %) postoperatively. Audiograms showed a significant improvement postoperatively in the pure tone audiometry and bone conduction threshold of group II while the air-bone gap and speech discrimination score did not improve. Group I did not show any significant improvement postoperatively in any audiogram parameter. This study failed to identify factors that could better predict the diagnosis of PLF. However, it shows that middle ear exploration with oval and round window obliteration is effective in PLF especially to decrease vestibular symptoms even when fistula is unidentified intraoperatively.
Pérez-de la Fuente, T.; Sandoval, E.; Alonso-Burgos, A.; García-Pardo, L.; Cárcamo, C.; Caballero, O.
Lower limb lymphorrhea secondary to a surgical procedure is a rare but difficult-to-solve complication. In lower limb, this entity is frequently associated with vascular procedures around the inguinal area. We report on a case of a knee lymphocutaneous fistula secondary to a knee revision arthroplasty. To our knowledge, no previous reports regarding this complication have been published. PMID:25580333
Bakan, Selim; Olgun, Deniz Cebi; Kandemirli, Sedat Giray; Tutar, Onur; Samanci, Cesur; Dikici, Suleyman; Simsek, Osman; Rafiee, Babak; Adaletli, Ibrahim; Mihmanli, Ismail
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is highly accurate for the depiction of both the primary tract of fistula and abscesses, in patients with perianal disease. In addition, MRI can be used to evaluate the activity of fistulas, which is a significant factor for determining the therapeutic strategy. This study aimed to determine the usefulness of diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI for assessing activity and visibility of perianal fistula. Fifty-three patients with 56 perianal fistulas were included in the current retrospective study. The T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and DWMRI were performed and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of fistulas were measured. Fistulas were classified into two groups: only perianal fistulas and fistulas accompanied by abscess. Fistulas were also classified into two groups, based on clinical findings: positive inflammatory activity (PIA) and negative inflammatory activity (NIA). Mean ADC value (mm(2)/s) of PIA group was significantly lower than that of NIA group, regarding lesions in patients with abscess-associated fistulas (1.371 × 10(-3) ± 0.168 × 10(-3) vs. 1.586 × 10(-3) ± 0.136 × 10(-3); P = 0.036). No statistically significant difference was found in mean ADC values between PIA and NIA groups, in patients with only perianal fistulas (P = 0.507). Perianal fistula visibility was greater with combined evaluation of T2WI and DWMRI than with T2WI, for two reviewers (P = 0.046 and P = 0.014). The DWMRI is a useful technique for evaluating activity of fistulas with abscess. Perianal fistula visibility is greater with combined T2WI and DWMRI than T2WI alone.
Ichinose, Maki; Sakai, Hiroaki; Miyazaki, Ikuo; Muraoka, Akihiro; Aizawa, Miyuki; Igarashi, Kaigen; Okazaki, Atsushi
This case report describes the difficult respiratory management of an esophageal cancer patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) caused by a postoperative tracheogastric roll fistula. A single-lumen tracheal tube could not seal the fistula, and therefore a double-lumen tracheal tube (DLT) for the left side was used. Although the proximal cuff of the DLT failed to seal the fistula, independent lung ventilation (ILV) improved blood gas levels. During right thoracotomy, the left lung was ventilated conventionally with 5 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), and in addition, high-frequency oscillation ventilation (HFOV) to the right lung was employed. This combination allowed the maintenance of adequate oxygenation, and the HFOV to the right lung decreased the PaCO2 level during surgery without interruption of the surgical field. These techniques provided the opportunity to successfully remove a necrotic gastric roll and achieve closure of the fistula using an intercostal muscle flap. This report documents and discusses the difficulty of performing appropriate anesthetic management of a patient with these complex complications after esophageal surgery.
Sequeira, J.C.; Weitzman, A.F.; Lee, V.W.; Grosso, D.L.
A case of post-traumatic A-V fistula was detected by radionuclide angiography. A 40-yr-old male, with a stab wound in left upper quadrant of abdomen, had undergone exploratory laparotomy that disclosed lacerations of the stomach and proximal portions of small bowel and superior mesenteric artery. The patient continued to have quaiac-positive stools postoperatively. One week later a radionuclide sequential image of the abdomen using 8 mCi of Tc-99m sulfur colloid revealed an area of increased radionuclide concentration in the left midabdomen seen only during aterial phase and not visible on the subsequent static images. The findings were confirmed to be A-V fistula by angiogram and subsequently by renal surgery. The patient had an uneventful elective closure of the fistula. The cause of quaiac-positive stool was unexplained. Eight cases of renal A-V fistula have been well demonstrated by radionuclide angiography in the literature. The authors emphasized the radionuclide angiography is a suitable screening procedure for patients with suspected traumatic vascular injury, and contrast angiography should be used for the confirmation of diagnosis.
Fernández de Sevilla, Elena; Echeverri, Juan Andrés; Boqué, Miriam; Valverde, Silvia; Ortega, Nuria; Gené, Anna; Rodríguez, Nivardo; Balibrea, José María; Armengol, Manel
Introduction Primary aorto-enteric fistula (AEF) is an uncommon life-threating condition. Only 4% of them involve the jejunum or ileum and its mortality ranges from 33 to 85%. Presentation of case A 54-year-old female was admitted to the Emergency Department with syncope and hematemesis. The esophagogastroduodenoscopy found a pulsatile vessel in the second portion of the duodenum. A computed tomography scan showed an AEF with an infrarenal aortic aneurysm and iliac artery thrombosis. During surgery, an infrarenal aortic aneurysm complicated with an aorto-jejunal fistula was found. An axilo-bifemoral bypass, open repair of the aneurysm and segmental small bowel resection with primary suture of the jejunal defect were performed. Discussion Depending on previous aortic grafting, AEF can be classified as primary or secondary. Primary AEF is usually caused by an untreated abdominal aortic aneurysm, commonly presenting an infectious etiology. The main clinical sign is a “herald” hemorrhage. The EGD is considered as the first step in diagnosing AEF. The treatment of choice for AEF is emergent surgery. Use of broad-spectrum antibiotics is mandatory in the postoperative period to avoid fistula recurrence. Conclusion AEF is a rare entity with a high mortality. High clinical suspicion is essential to make a correct diagnosis, which is crucial for the prognosis of these patients, such is the case of our patient. If hemodynamic stability is achieved, it allows to employ surgical strategies in which extra-abdominal bypass is performed before fistula is treated. PMID:25616071
Jolanta, Šumskienė; Edita, Šveikauskaitė; Jūratė, Kondrackienė; Limas, Kupčinskas
A primary aortoduodenal fistula (PADF) is a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding that is difficult to diagnose (and sometimes not diagnosed until a laparotomy.) A PADF is associated with high mortality if undiagnosed and untreated (the mortality rate of nearly 100% in the absence of a surgical intervention). While this condition is extremely rare with an incidence rate at autopsy of 0.04% to 0.07%, a secondary ADF occurs much more commonly (the post-operative incidence of 0.5% to 2.3%) and is due to prior aortic surgery and/or the placement of a synthetic aortic graft. It should be considered in any elderly patient who presents with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the context of a known abdominal aortic aneurysm or without it when no identifiable source of bleeding is found. We present an autopsy case of a 59-year-old man with no history of an abdominal aortic aneurysm who presented with intermittent massive gastrointestinal bleeding. The autopsy revealed a pinhole fistula. It was identified between an atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm and the lower horizontal part of the duodenum. Our case indicates that the aortoenteric fistula can result in fatal gastrointestinal bleeding. This case is unique in that the fistula formed as a result of a complex atherosclerotic abdominal aorta and a localized necrotizing granulomatous aortitis the etiology of which was not clear. PMID:28356804
Watanabe, Daisuke; Horiguchi, Akio; Isono, Makoto; Sinchi, Masayuki; Masunaga, Ayako; Ito, Keiichi; Asano, Tomohiko
A 64-year-old woman who has a history of congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation was admitted to our hospital with the exacerbation of exertional dyspnea and urinary retention due to severe gross hematuria. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a tumor involving the inferior and middle poles of the right kidney with no nodal involvement, or distant metastases, but that was accompanied by markedly proliferated blood vessels around the inferior vena cava and right renal vein, seemingly a result of an arteriovenous fistula. After embolization of the right renal artery, right radical nephrectomy was performed via a thoracoabdominal incision. The histological diagnosis of the tumor was clear cell renal cell carcinoma, G2 > G3, Fuhrman nuclear grade3, pT2a. Although the presence of an arteriovenous fistula was not confirmed histologically, the severely condensed proliferation of the blood vessels in the renal hilum is consistent with the diagnosis of an arteriovenous fistula accompanying renal cell carcinoma. Immediately after the operation, her symptoms of congestive heart failure, including dyspnea, subsided and her serum BNP levels and CTR value returned to normal levels. Two years after the operation, she shows no signs of recurrence or metastasis. To the best of our knowledge, there have been 25 cases of arteriovenous fistulas accompanied by renal cell carcinoma but only a few in which the symptoms were those of severe congestive heart failure. Clinicians should be aware that renal cell carcinoima could be a cause of heart failure.
Introduction Paradoxical embolism is an increasingly reported cause of arterial embolism. Several embolic sources have been described, but thrombosis of an arteriovenous fistula as a paradoxical emboligenic source has not, to the best of our knowledge, been reported. Case presentation A 50-year-old Caucasian woman received a renal graft for primary hyperoxaluria. After transplantation, she was maintained on daily hemodialysis. Thrombosis of her arteriovenous fistula occurred two weeks post-transplantation and was treated by thromboaspiration, which was partially successful. During a hemodialysis session immediately following thromboaspiration, she developed a coma with tetraplegia requiring intensive cardiorespiratory resuscitation. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed various hyperdense areas in the vertebrobasilar territory resulting from bilateral occlusion of posterior cerebral arteries. Transesophageal echocardiographic examination showed a patent foramen ovale, while pulse echography of the arteriovenous fistula revealed the persistence of extensive clots that were probably the embolic source. A paradoxical embolus through a patent foramen ovale was suggested because of the proximity of the neurological event to the thrombectomy procedure. Conclusions The risk of paradoxical embolism in a hemodialyzed patient with a patent foramen ovale deserves consideration and requires careful evaluation in situations of arteriovenous fistula thrombosis. PMID:21029407
Zeng, Mingqiang; Zeng, Fanchang; Wang, Zhao; Xue, Ruizhi; Huang, Liang; Xiang, Xuyu; Chen, Zhi; Tang, Zhengyan
To explore and summarize the reasons why urethral calculi cause a urethral fistula. We retrospectively studied 1 patient in Xiangya hospital and all relevant literature published in English between 1989 and 2015. The patients (including those reported in the literature) were characterized by age, origin, location of calculus, size of calculus, fistulous track, and etiological factors. Most of urethral calculi associated with a urethral fistula were native generated. Urethral calculi can be formed in various locations of the urethra, and the size of the calculus ranged from small (multiple) calculi to giant stones. The fistula external orifice located at the root of the penis was relatively common, and there were various etiological factors, such as urethral strictures, urethral trauma induced by long-term catheterization, lumbar fractures, and congenital anomaly factors. They were managed by the excision of the fistulous tract, retrieval of the urethral stones, and/or debridement and pus drainage operations. Some elements, such as trauma, recurrent urinary tract infections, abscess formation induced by long-term catheterization, and urethral calculus, may be the risk factors for a urethral fistula.
Kobkitsuksakul, Chai; Jiarakongmun, Pakorn; Chanthanaphak, Ekachat; Singhara Na Ayudya, Sirintara (Pongpech)
PURPOSE The classic symptoms and signs of carotid cavernous sinus fistula or cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) consist of eye redness, exophthalmos, and gaze abnormality. The angiography findings typically consist of arteriovenous shunt at cavernous sinus with ophthalmic venous drainage with or without cortical venous reflux. In rare circumstances, the shunts are localized outside the cavernous sinus, but mimic symptoms and radiography of the cavernous shunt. We would like to present the other locations of the arteriovenous shunt, which mimic the clinical presentation of carotid cavernous fistulae, and analyze venous drainages. METHODS We retrospectively examined the records of 350 patients who were given provisional diagnoses of carotid cavernous sinus fistulae or cavernous sinus dural AVF in the division of Interventional Neuroradiology, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok between 2008 and 2014. Any patient with cavernous arteriovenous shunt was excluded. RESULTS Of those 350 patients, 10 patients (2.85%) were identified as having noncavernous sinus AVF. The angiographic diagnoses consisted of three anterior condylar (hypoglossal) dural AVF, two traumatic middle meningeal AVF, one lesser sphenoid wing dural AVF, one vertebro-vertebral fistula (VVF), one intraorbital AVF, one direct dural artery to cortical vein dural AVF, and one transverse-sigmoid dural AVF. Six cases (60%) were found to have venous efferent obstruction. CONCLUSION Arteriovenous shunts mimicking the cavernous AVF are rare, with a prevalence of only 2.85% in this series. The clinical presentation mainly depends on venous outflow. The venous outlet of the arteriovenous shunts is influenced by venous afferent-efferent patterns according to the venous anatomy of the central nervous system and the skull base, as well as by architectural disturbance, specifically, obstruction of the venous outflow. PMID:27767958
Meel, Bhavesh; Chandwani, Prakash; Rao, Ravinder Singh; Vyas, Sudhir Kumar
A 55-year-old male presented with progressive dyspnea, swelling of legs and abdominal distension for past one week. Routine investigation showed presence of large pericardial effusion. Pericardiocentesis tapped a yellow colored sterile fluid with predominant polymorphs. However sequence of events following pericardiocentesis were unusual as patient developed stroke. MRI brain and CECT thorax were done. MRI brain showed small infarct and CECT showed presence of open safety pin eroding through esophagus and communicating with left atrium with thrombus and an air pocket within. Patient developed progressive encephalopathy and CT brain revealed multiple infarcts with pneumocephalus. PMID:24814125
Meel, Bhavesh; Chandwani, Prakash; Rao, Ravinder Singh; Vyas, Sudhir Kumar
A 55-year-old male presented with progressive dyspnea, swelling of legs and abdominal distension for past one week. Routine investigation showed presence of large pericardial effusion. Pericardiocentesis tapped a yellow colored sterile fluid with predominant polymorphs. However sequence of events following pericardiocentesis were unusual as patient developed stroke. MRI brain and CECT thorax were done. MRI brain showed small infarct and CECT showed presence of open safety pin eroding through esophagus and communicating with left atrium with thrombus and an air pocket within. Patient developed progressive encephalopathy and CT brain revealed multiple infarcts with pneumocephalus.
Maine, Rebecca G; Hoffman, William Y; Palacios-Martinez, Jorge H; Corlew, D Scott; Gregory, George A
International organizations have performed palatoplasties in low- and middle-income countries for decades, often working with local providers. Few studies report long-term outcomes, especially for palatal fistulas. A fistula after palatoplasty may affect speech, socialization, and nutrition. Fistula rates on surgical missions have not been compared with rates at U.S. craniofacial centers nor have the rates of the visiting and local surgeons working on missions been compared. Fistula rates for two Ecuadorian cohorts were compared with fistula rates for a craniofacial center in the United States. In Ecuador, North American surgeons repaired one cohort (n = 46) and Ecuadorians the other (n = 82) during 2000 through 2005. Ecuadorian patients were evaluated during 2007 and 2008. The center's clinical database (n = 189) provided U.S. cohort data. On missions, the fistula rates were 57 percent (95 percent CI, 46 to 68 percent) for Ecuadorian surgeons and 54 percent (95 percent CI, 39 to 69 percent) for North American surgeons. The rate was 2.6 percent (95 percent CI, 0.8 to 6.0 percent) at the U.S. craniofacial center. There was no difference between the two Ecuadorian cohorts' rates (p = 0.75), but they were significantly higher than those of the U.S. cohort (p < 0.001). Having a cleft lip together with cleft palate was associated with fistula formation, whereas surgeon nationality and older age at surgery were not. The fistula rate on Ecuadorian missions, regardless of the surgeon's nationality, was significantly higher than in the United States. Further investigation into the causes of this higher fistula rate in this population is needed. Therapeutic, III.
Benchekroun, A; el Alj, H A; el Sayegh, H; Lachkar, A; Nouini, Y; Benslimane, L; Belahnech, Z; Marzouk, M; Faik, M
The authors reports their experience of a large series of 1050 cases of vesico-vaginal fistulas recorded during 30 years and analyse their epidemiological, anatomo-clinical, and therapeutic aspects. Patients could be classified as a function of site of fistula into 3 types, according to the Benchekroun's classification: type I ureto-vaginal fistula (30%); type II cervico-vaginal fistula (22%); type III vesico-vaginal fistula (48%). Etiology was mainly obstetrical (93%). An associated lesion was detected in 10.4% of cases (uterine, ureteral and rectal). Treatment was only performed after a minimal period of three months with the following results in obstetrical vesico-vaginal fistulas. Type I fistula, using a low approach and requiring urethral refection in 100 cases, showed good results in only 60% of cases. Type II fistulae, usually treated through a low approach (80%), were treated with 80% good results. Type III fistula, were nearly always corrected (98%) after two procedures. The overall results are good in 80% of cases. The failures concerned in majority the complex vesico-vaginal fistulas type I, are treated by urinary diversion (51 Coffey, 5 Bricker) and since 1975, 73 continent ileocecal or ileal bladders using Benchekrouns' technique.
Meyer, Anais; Bouchetemblé, Pierre; Costentin, Bertrand; Dehesdin, Danièle; Lerosey, Yannick; Marie, Jean-Paul
The objective of this retrospective study was to present the authors' experience on the management of labyrinthine fistula secondary to cholesteatoma. 695 patients, who underwent tympanoplasty for cholesteatoma, in a University Hospital between 1993 and 2013 were reviewed, to select only those with labyrinthine fistulas. 42 patients (6%) had cholesteatoma complicated by fistula of the lateral semicircular canal (LSCC). The following data points were collected: symptoms, pre- and postoperative clinical signs, surgeon, CT scan diagnosis, fistula type, surgical technique, preoperative vestibular function and audiometric outcomes. Most frequent symptoms were unspecific, such as otorrhea, hearing loss and dizziness. However, preoperative high-resolution computed tomography predicted fistula in 88 %. Using the Dornhoffer and Milewski classification, 16 cases (38 %) were identified as stage 1, 22 (52 %) as stage II, and 4 (10 %) as stage III. The choice between open or closed surgical procedure was independent of the type of fistulae. The cholesteatoma matrix was completely removed from the fistula and immediately covered by autogenous material. In eight patients (19 %), the canal was drilled with a diamond burr before sealing with autologous tissue. After surgery, hearing was preserved or improved in 76 % of the patients. There was no statistically significant relationship between the extent of the labyrinthine fistula and the hearing outcome. In conclusion, a complete and nontraumatic removal of the matrix cholesteatoma over the fistula in a one-staged procedure and its sealing with bone dust and fascia temporalis, with sometimes exclusion of the LSCC, is a safe and effective procedure to treat labyrinthine fistula.
Hetts, S W; Tsai, T; Cooke, D L; Amans, M R; Settecase, F; Moftakhar, P; Dowd, C F; Higashida, R T; Lawton, M T; Halbach, V V
A minority of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas progress with time. We sought to determine features that predict progression and define outcomes of patients with progressive dural arteriovenous fistulas. We performed a retrospective imaging and clinical record review of patients with intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula evaluated at our hospital. Of 579 patients with intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas, 545 had 1 fistula (mean age, 45 ± 23 years) and 34 (5.9%) had enlarging, de novo, multiple, or recurrent fistulas (mean age, 53 ± 20 years; P = .11). Among these 34 patients, 19 had progressive dural arteriovenous fistulas with de novo fistulas or fistula enlargement with time (mean age, 36 ± 25 years; progressive group) and 15 had multiple or recurrent but nonprogressive fistulas (mean age, 57 ± 13 years; P = .0059, nonprogressive group). Whereas all 6 children had fistula progression, only 13/28 adults (P = .020) progressed. Angioarchitectural correlates to chronically elevated intracranial venous pressures, including venous sinus dilation (41% versus 7%, P = .045) and pseudophlebitic cortical venous pattern (P = .048), were more common in patients with progressive disease than in those without progression. Patients with progressive disease received more treatments than those without progression (median, 5 versus 3; P = .0068), but as a group, they did not demonstrate worse clinical outcomes (median mRS, 1 and 1; P = .39). However, 3 young patients died from intracranial venous hypertension and intracranial hemorrhage related to progression of their fistulas despite extensive endovascular, surgical, and radiosurgical treatments. Few patients with dural arteriovenous fistulas follow an aggressive, progressive clinical course despite treatment. Younger age at initial presentation and angioarchitectural correlates to venous hypertension may help identify these patients prospectively. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.
Wall, L Lewis
An obstetric fistula is a traumatic childbirth injury that occurs when labor is obstructed and delivery is delayed. Prolonged obstructed labor leads to the destruction of the tissues that normally separate the bladder from the vagina and creates a passageway (fistula) through which urine leaks continuously. Women with a fistula become social outcasts. Universal high-quality maternity care has eliminated the obstetric fistula in wealthy countries, but millions of women in resource-poor nations still experience prolonged labor and tens of thousands of new fistula sufferers are added to the millions of pre-existing cases each year. This article discusses fistula prevention in developing countries, focusing on the factors which delay treatment of prolonged labor. Obstetric fistulas can be prevented through contraception, avoiding obstructed labor, or improving outcomes for women who develop obstructed labor. Contraception is of little use to women who are already pregnant and there is no reliable screening test to predict obstruction in advance of labor. Improving the outcome of obstructed labor depends on prompt diagnosis and timely intervention (usually by cesarean section). Because obstetric fistulas are caused by tissue compression, the time interval from obstruction to delivery is critical. This time interval is often extended by delays in deciding to seek care, delays in arriving at a hospital, and delays in accessing treatment after arrival. Communities can reasonably demand that governments and healthcare institutions improve the second (transportation) and third (treatment) phases of delay. Initial delays in seeking hospital care are caused by failure to recognize that labor is prolonged, confusion concerning what should be done (often the result of competing therapeutic pathways), lack of women's agency, unfamiliarity with and fear of hospitals and the treatments they offer (especially surgery), and economic constraints on access to care. Women in resource
Background An obstetric fistula is a traumatic childbirth injury that occurs when labor is obstructed and delivery is delayed. Prolonged obstructed labor leads to the destruction of the tissues that normally separate the bladder from the vagina and creates a passageway (fistula) through which urine leaks continuously. Women with a fistula become social outcasts. Universal high-quality maternity care has eliminated the obstetric fistula in wealthy countries, but millions of women in resource-poor nations still experience prolonged labor and tens of thousands of new fistula sufferers are added to the millions of pre-existing cases each year. This article discusses fistula prevention in developing countries, focusing on the factors which delay treatment of prolonged labor. Discussion Obstetric fistulas can be prevented through contraception, avoiding obstructed labor, or improving outcomes for women who develop obstructed labor. Contraception is of little use to women who are already pregnant and there is no reliable screening test to predict obstruction in advance of labor. Improving the outcome of obstructed labor depends on prompt diagnosis and timely intervention (usually by cesarean section). Because obstetric fistulas are caused by tissue compression, the time interval from obstruction to delivery is critical. This time interval is often extended by delays in deciding to seek care, delays in arriving at a hospital, and delays in accessing treatment after arrival. Communities can reasonably demand that governments and healthcare institutions improve the second (transportation) and third (treatment) phases of delay. Initial delays in seeking hospital care are caused by failure to recognize that labor is prolonged, confusion concerning what should be done (often the result of competing therapeutic pathways), lack of women’s agency, unfamiliarity with and fear of hospitals and the treatments they offer (especially surgery), and economic constraints on access to
Romaniszyn, Michal; Walega, Piotr
The purpose of this paper is to present results of a single-center, nonrandomized, prospective study of the video-assisted anal fistula treatment (VAAFT). 68 consecutive patients with perianal fistulas were operated on using the VAAFT technique. 30 of the patients had simple fistulas, and 38 had complex fistulas. The mean follow-up time was 31 months. The overall healing rate was 54.41% (37 of the 68 patients healed with no recurrence during the follow-up period). The results varied depending on the type of fistula. The success rate for the group with simple fistulas was 73.3%, whereas it was only 39.47% for the group with complex fistulas. Female patients achieved higher healing rates for both simple (81.82% versus 68.42%) and complex fistulas (77.78% versus 27.59%). There were no major complications. The results of VAAFT vary greatly depending on the type of fistula. The procedure has some drawbacks due to the rigid construction of the fistuloscope and the diameter of the shaft. The electrocautery of the fistula tract from the inside can be insufficient to close wide tracts. However, low risk of complications permits repetition of the treatment until success is achieved. Careful selection of patients is advised.
Turk, Ayla Cagliyan; Sahin, Fusun; Ozkurt, Sultan; Tomak, Leman; Guray, Gurkan
We aimed to determine the incidence of osteoporosis in hemodialysis patients, to evaluate the differences due to arteriovenous fistula on bone mineral density (BMD) and to investigate whether usage of arm with fistula has an effect on BMD. In this cross-sectional study, 96 patients with chronic renal disease undergone to dialysis were included. Place of fistula (radial and brachial) and dominant hand were recorded. All patients were asked to complete Likert's scale in order to determine the frequency of their usage of arm with fistula. Patients were assigned in two groups: age >51 and < 50 years. Age-matched control group included 60 subjects. BMD measurements were done on lumbar vertebra, femur and both forearms. BMD measurement of proximal femur and total radius were significantly lower in patients >50 years compared to healthy controls and bone density measurement of lumbar vertebra, proximal femur, 1/3 distal and total radius were significantly lower in patients < 50 years compared to healthy controls (p < 0.05). BMD measurement was significantly lower in arms with fistula, especially with radial fistula, compared to both arms without fistula and healthy controls (p < 0.05). When all patients were evaluated, BMD scores were lowering by increasing age, duration of dialysis and fistula and decreasing usage of arm with fistula. BMD in hemodialysis patients is lower than normal population. BMD of arm with fistula is lower than arm without fistula and healthy controls. Both radial and brachial fistula affect negatively ipsilateral BMD. Movement of arm with fistula has positive effects on BMD.
Tonegatti, Luca; Scarpa, Maria-Grazia; Goruppi, Ilaria; Olenik, Damiana; Rigamonti, Waifro
A lower urinary tract fistula consist in an abnormal connection between bladder, urethra and adjacent abdominal organs or skin. There are several types of urinary fistulas in paediatric age and they may be congenital or acquired. Etiology may be due to embriological defects, infectious processes, malignant tumours, pelvic irradiation as well as complications following surgical procedures, especially postsurgical repair of hypospadia or epispadia. Clinical presentation depends on the type of fistula and diagnosis is based on signs, symptoms and radiological or endoscopic examinations. We performed PubMed research using terms such as lower urinary fistulae, urology and paediatrics and we consulted medical texts. We reviewed selected articles and used the relevant ones to perform our study concentrating on classification, diagnosis and treatment of different types of fistulas. Paediatric lower urinary fistulas are an uncommon pathology, but the knowledge of their etiology and classification is important to recognise them and lead the physician to an appropriate treatment, which is surgical in most cases.
Antonacci, Nicola; Taffurelli, Giovanni; Casadei, Riccardo; Ricci, Claudio; Monari, Francesco; Minni, Francesco
Cholecystocolonic fistulas (CCF) are rare complications of gallstones with a variable clinical presentation. Despite modern diagnostic tools, cholecystocolonic fistulas are often asymptomatic and it is difficult to diagnose them preoperatively. Biliary-enteric fistulae have been found in 0.9% of patients undergoing biliary tract surgery. The most common site of communication of the fistula is the cholecystoduodenal (70%), followed by the cholecystocolic (10-20%), and the least common is the cholecystogastric fistula. Herein, we report a case of female patient with multiple episodes of acute recurrent cholangitis due to common bile duct and gallbladder stones in which preoperative imaging studies were negative for cholecystocolonic fistula that was incidentally discovered and treated during surgery and was appropriately treated. A review of the literature is reported too.
Mendonça, Roberto Moreno; Bandeira, Rodrigo Lima; Fonseca, Fredson J S; Macedo Filho, Robson
Coronary artery fistulas are rare and are most often diagnosed by echocardiography or by cine-angiocardiography. However, the computed tomography angiography (CTA) of coronary arteries has been gaining ground. The incidence of this disease is very low, with a more frequent occurrence of fistulas originating in the right coronary artery. There is a higher incidence of coronary artery fistulas to right heart chambers, with coronary artery fistulas to the left ventricle (LV) being rare. Treatment can be surgical or percutaneous. This report describes a case of coronary fistula to left ventricle diagnosed by CT angiography of coronary arteries in a hypertensive and asymptomatic 46-year-old male, who was tested positive for ischemia in an exercise test. The CT angiography ruled out coronary obstructive disease, but it revealed a coronary fistula to the left ventricular cavity.
Stagnitti, F; Tudisco, A; Ceci, F; Nicodemi, S; Orsini, S; Avallone, M; Di Girolamo, V; Stefanelli, F; De Angelis, Francesco; Di Grazia, C; Cipriani, B; Aiuti, F; Napoleoni, A; Mosillo, R; Corelli, S; Casciaro, G; Costantino, A; Martellucci, A; Spaziani, E
The biliodigestive fistula is not a rare affection in the context of acute pathology of the gastrointestinal tract. It often affects patients between 63 and 85 years old , particularly the female sex, and the most common cause is acute or chronic cholecystolithiasis. Open issues are the delayed in the pre-operative diagnosis, and controversies exist regarding the best surgical approach. The choice of treatment options is influenced by the age of the patients and their clinical conditions and also by the presence of comorbidities and of a delayed right diagnosis. In the 1 to 3% of cases, the biliodigestive fistula presents a gallstone ileus as complication, whose diagnosis is particularly difficult for the lack of specific signs and symptoms. The contrast-enhanced CT is considered the gold standard for a specific pre-operative diagnosis, as it directly shows the fistula. Surgical treatments include one-stage procedure or two-stage procedure. Many studies seem to favor a deferred definitive procedure. The Authors describe 4 cases: in 3 cases, women between 70 and 80 years old presenting an history of recurrent cholecystitis, in 2 cases, and in 1 case presenting a bowel obstruction; in 1 case a 50-years-old man, with no significant past medical history, presenting a bowel obstruction. The Authors have performed in the 2 cases of gallstone ileus an enterolithotomy with cholecysto-duodenal fistula repair and cholecystectomy, in one-stage, and this has been possible because of the good clinical conditions of the patients and their low operative risk. In the case of fistula without the complication of gallstone ileus, the treatment approach has been cholecysto-gastric fistula closure with a gastroplastic using separate stitches and cholecystectomy, in one-stage. We are in agreement with data in the literature regarding the delay into the diagnosis of biliodigestive fistula and with the importance to suspect it or gallstone ileus presence, although the clinical
Reinisch, Alexander; Liese, Juliane; Woeste, Guido; Bechstein, Wolf; Habbe, Nils
Enteroatmospheric fistulas (EAFs) represent a challenging problem in patients with an open abdomen (OA). A retrospective, descriptive study was conducted to evaluate the effects of enteral alimentation on wound status and management and nutrition. All patients with an EAF in an OA treated between October 2012 and December 2014 at a university hospital in Germany were included without criteria for exclusions. Demographic and morbidity-related data collected included age, gender, surgeries, OA grading, body mass index (BMI), serum albumin, and serum creatinin. Underlying diseases and time between the index operation and the formation of the OA and EAFs were analyzed in relation to the initiation of enteral nutrition (EN), which can aggravate and contaminate the OA due to intestinal secretions necessary for digestion. The OA was described in size and area of the fascia defect and classified according to the Björck Scale. The number and location of the fistulas and the duration of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) were documented. Outcome parameters included fistula volume, wound management (eg, dressing change frequency, need for wound revision), feeding tolerance, systemic impact of nutrition, nutrition status at discharge, and mortality. Data were analyzed using primary descriptive statistics. The Mann-Whitney test was used to evaluate changes in fistula volume and BMI; categorical data were compared using Fisher's exact test. A P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Ten (10) patients (8 women, median age of participants 55.4 [range 44-71] years) were treated during the study time period. Seven (7) patients had the first fistula orifice in the upper jejunum (UJF); 8 had more than 1 fistula. EN was initiated with high caloric liquid nutrition and gradually increased to a 25 kcal/kg/day liquid or solid nutrition. All patients were provided NPWT at 75 mm Hg to 100 mm Hg. EN was not followed by a significant increase of median daily fistula volume
Benfield, Nerys; Young-Lin, Nichole; Kimona, Christophe; Kalisya, Luc M; Kisindja, Rogatien M
To analyze the history of women with fistula in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) to understand the determinants of fistula development. In a retrospective observational study, data were analyzed from a survey of all women who underwent surgical fistula repair at HEAL Africa Hospital, Goma, between April 1, 2009, and March 1, 2012. Characteristics and obstetric histories were obtained by self-report. The mean age of the 202 participants at treatment was 30.7 years (range 5-69). The mean duration of fistula was 45.6 months (range 0-600). In total, 171 (91.4%) fistulas were caused by obstructed labor, and 147 (86.5%) were vesicovaginal. Most women (129/175 [73.8%]) reported having received care during early labor under the supervision of a nurse or doctor in a healthcare facility. Among 176 women for whom delivery data were available, 102 (57.9%) delivered at a hospital, 42 (23.8%) at a health center, and 32 (18.2%) at home. Only 46 (26.3%) of 175 women were transferred to a higher level of care during labor. In the eastern DRC, efforts to enable transport to a healthcare facility and to encourage attended births must be accompanied by improvements in the capacity of existing facilities and in the training of staff to enable the timely diagnosis of labor abnormalities and appropriate intervention. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marquesine Paul, Gustavo; Slongo, Luiz Edison; Rocha, Luiz Carlos de Almeida
Enterocutaneous fistula is a rare complication after percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Some situations are risk factors for it to occur, such as horseshoe kidney, retrorenal colon and chronic colonic dilation by several factors, among them late postoperative time after yeyunoileal bypass in morbid obesity treatment. 35-year-old female patient with a 2.5 cm calculus in the right renal pelvis. Late postoperative time after bariatric surgery using duodenal switch technique, and 55 kg lost till present. She undergone percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) with two punctures, one in the lower calyx, lost during dilation, and other in the upper calyx through which surgery was successfully carried out. During immediate postoperative time it enteric secretions were observed through the lower chalice puncture. Once the intraperitoneal lesion was removed, decision for conservative treatment was taken with fistula drainage, broadspectrum antibiotic therapy, fasting and total parenteral nutrition. The fistula debt ceased in the 8th postoperative (PO) day, when drain and nephrostomy tube were withdrawn and patient was discharged from the hospital on 10th PO day. On ambulatory follow up the patient is in good conditions. One case of enterocutaneous fistula after PNL presented in a patient in late postoperative time after yeyunoileal bypass. She was successfully treated by conservative therapy. Several authors point to chronic colonic distention and to great loss of retroperitoneal fat as causes for the increase of inadvertent colonic punctures in percutaneous renal access. The risk of complications with enterocutaneous fistula is significantly higher during the postoperatory in patients of bariatric surgery than in others.
Wu, Ming-Bing; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Zhang, Ying-Lin; Mu, Di
Purpose Choledochoduodenal fistula (CDF) is an extremely rare condition even in the most populous nations. However, diagnostic tools are inadequate for the young surgeon to be made aware of such a rare condition before surgery. Hence, basic understanding of the epidemiology, etiology, and management for this unusual but discoverable condition are necessary and essential. Methods The exclusive case reports of CDF, which were published from 1983 to 2014 concerning mainland Chinese people, were performed to review the epidemiology, etiology, and management. Results A total of 728 cases were incorporated into this review among 48 papers. More than half of the CDF cases were female (416) with an average age of 57.3 years. CDF was usually caused by cholelithiasis (573 of 728). Epigastric pain (589 of 728) and cholangitis (395 of 728) were the most common symptoms of CDF. CDF was usually detected and confirmed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) (475 of 728) in Mainland China. The fistulas larger than 1 cm (82 of 654) were recommended for surgical biliary reconstruction. Fistulas between 0.5 cm and 1.0 cm (467 of 654) which were followed frequently by cholangitis attacks also required surgery; the rest were recommended to have stone removal and/or the application of an effective biliary drainage. Fistulas less than 0.5 cm (105 of 654) were usually received conservative therapy. Conclusion CDF should be considered in differential diagnosis of recurrent epigastric pain and cholangitis. A possible ERCP should be arranged to investigate carefully. Depending on the size of fistula and clinical presentation, different programs for CDF are indicated, ranging from drug therapy to choledochojejunostomy. PMID:26576403
Browne, Leonard D; Bashar, Khalid; Griffin, Philip; Kavanagh, Eamon G; Walsh, Stewart R; Walsh, Michael T
Non-maturation and post-maturation venous stenosis are the primary causes of failure within arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs). Although the exact mechanisms triggering failure remain unclear, abnormal hemodynamic profiles are thought to mediate vascular remodelling and can adversely impact on fistula patency. The review aims to clarify the role of shear stress on outward remodelling during maturation and evaluate the evidence supporting theories related to the localisation and development of intimal hyperplasia within AVFs. A systematic review of studies comparing remodelling data with hemodynamic data obtained from computational fluid dynamics of AVFs during and after maturation was conducted. Outward remodelling occurred to reduce or normalise the level of shear stress over time in fistulae with a large radius of curvature (curved) whereas shear stress was found to augment over time in fistulae with a small radius of curvature (straight) coinciding with minimal to no increases in lumen area. Although this review highlighted that there is a growing body of evidence suggesting low and oscillating shear stress may stimulate the initiation and development of intimal medial thickening within AVFs. Further lines of evidence are needed to support the disturbed flow theory and outward remodelling findings before surgical configurations and treatment strategies are optimised to conform to them. This review highlighted that variation between the time of analysis, classification of IH, resolution of simulations, data processing techniques and omission of various shear stress metrics prevented forming pooling of data amongst studies. Standardised measurements and data processing techniques are needed to comprehensively evaluate the relationship between shear stress and intimal medial thickening. Advances in image acquisition and flow quantifications coupled with the increasing prevalence of longitudinal studies commencing from fistula creation offer viable techniques and
Browne, Leonard D.; Bashar, Khalid; Griffin, Philip; Kavanagh, Eamon G.; Walsh, Stewart R.; Walsh, Michael T.
Introduction Non-maturation and post-maturation venous stenosis are the primary causes of failure within arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs). Although the exact mechanisms triggering failure remain unclear, abnormal hemodynamic profiles are thought to mediate vascular remodelling and can adversely impact on fistula patency. Aim The review aims to clarify the role of shear stress on outward remodelling during maturation and evaluate the evidence supporting theories related to the localisation and development of intimal hyperplasia within AVFs. Methods A systematic review of studies comparing remodelling data with hemodynamic data obtained from computational fluid dynamics of AVFs during and after maturation was conducted. Results Outward remodelling occurred to reduce or normalise the level of shear stress over time in fistulae with a large radius of curvature (curved) whereas shear stress was found to augment over time in fistulae with a small radius of curvature (straight) coinciding with minimal to no increases in lumen area. Although this review highlighted that there is a growing body of evidence suggesting low and oscillating shear stress may stimulate the initiation and development of intimal medial thickening within AVFs. Further lines of evidence are needed to support the disturbed flow theory and outward remodelling findings before surgical configurations and treatment strategies are optimised to conform to them. This review highlighted that variation between the time of analysis, classification of IH, resolution of simulations, data processing techniques and omission of various shear stress metrics prevented forming pooling of data amongst studies. Conclusion Standardised measurements and data processing techniques are needed to comprehensively evaluate the relationship between shear stress and intimal medial thickening. Advances in image acquisition and flow quantifications coupled with the increasing prevalence of longitudinal studies commencing from fistula
Bhatnagar, Ankur; Agarwal, Amit
Invasive mucormycosis is an uncommon cause of orbital exenteration. Reconstruction of an exenterated orbit is a surgical challenge. The loss of eyelids, adnexal structures, and even surrounding skin causes significant facial disfigurement. The goal for reconstruction demands a symmetrical orbital cavity with good prosthetic rehabilitation. Multiple reconstructive options in the form of skin grafts, local flaps, and free flaps are available. However, none of them provide ideal reconstruction. Our patient not only had extensive soft-tissue loss and unstable lining but also a large naso-orbital fistula. Reconstruction for this complex defect was done using an adipofascial radial artery flap which not only closed the fistula but also provided soft-tissue bulk and good skin match. Radial artery forearm flap provides a simple, stable, and good reconstructive option postorbital exenteration. PMID:28356694
Jiang, Hui-Hong; Liu, Hai-Long; Li, Zhen; Xiao, Yi-Hua; Li, A-Jian; Chang, Yi; Zhang, Yong; Lv, Liang; Lin, Mou-Bin
BACKGROUND Although many attempts have been made to advance the treatment of complex anal fistula, it continues to be a difficult surgical problem. This study aimed to describe the novel technique of video-assisted anal fistula treatment (VAAFT) and our preliminary experiences using VAAFT with patients with complex anal fistula. MATERIAL AND METHODS From May 2015 to May 2016, 52 patients with complex anal fistula were treated with VAAFT at Yangpu Hospital of Tongji University School of Medicine, and the clinical data of these patients were reviewed. RESULTS VAAFT was performed successfully in all 52 patients. The median operation time was 55 minutes. Internal openings were identified in all cases. 50 cases were closed with sutures, and 2 were closed with staplers. Complications included perianal sepsis in 3 cases and bleeding in another 3 cases. Complete healing without recurrence was achieved in 44 patients (84.6%) after 9 months of follow-up. No fecal incontinence was observed. Furthermore, a significant improvement in Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI) score was observed from preoperative baseline (mean, 85.5) to 3-month follow-up (mean, 105.4; p<0.001), and this increase was maintained at 9-months follow-up (mean, 109.6; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS VAAFT is a safe and minimally invasive technique for treating complex anal fistula with preservation of anal sphincter function.
Jiang, Hui-hong; Liu, Hai-long; Li, Zhen; Xiao, Yi-hua; Li, A-jian; Chang, Yi; Zhang, Yong; Lv, Liang; Lin, Mou-bin
Background Although many attempts have been made to advance the treatment of complex anal fistula, it continues to be a difficult surgical problem. This study aimed to describe the novel technique of video-assisted anal fistula treatment (VAAFT) and our preliminary experiences using VAAFT with patients with complex anal fistula. Material/Methods From May 2015 to May 2016, 52 patients with complex anal fistula were treated with VAAFT at Yangpu Hospital of Tongji University School of Medicine, and the clinical data of these patients were reviewed. Results VAAFT was performed successfully in all 52 patients. The median operation time was 55 minutes. Internal openings were identified in all cases. 50 cases were closed with sutures, and 2 were closed with staplers. Complications included perianal sepsis in 3 cases and bleeding in another 3 cases. Complete healing without recurrence was achieved in 44 patients (84.6%) after 9 months of follow-up. No fecal incontinence was observed. Furthermore, a significant improvement in Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI) score was observed from preoperative baseline (mean, 85.5) to 3-month follow-up (mean, 105.4; p<0.001), and this increase was maintained at 9-months follow-up (mean, 109.6; p<0.001). Conclusions VAAFT is a safe and minimally invasive technique for treating complex anal fistula with preservation of anal sphincter function. PMID:28456815
Argyrakis, Nikolaos; Matis, Georgios K.; Mpata-Tshibemba, Stephanie
A case of an iatrogenic spinal arteriovenous fistula with progressive paraplegia in a young woman is reported. The fistula was eventually created after repetitive lumbar punctures performed in the process of spinal anaesthesia. Her symptoms were progressed to paraplegia over a period of 2 years. The digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a single-hole fistula, involving the anterior spinal artery and vein. The lesion was occluded by embolization with immediate improvement. The potential mechanism is discussed. PMID:24653807
Yu, Hai-jing; Wang, Qi; Yang, Jian-min; Lian, Zhen-qiang; Zhang, An-qin; Li, Wen-ping; Xu, Juan; Zhu, Cai-xia; Gao, Hong-yi; Lai, You-xng
To study the etiology, clinical and pathologic characteristics of periductal mastitis with fistula and estimate the effect of anti-mycobacterial agents for periductal mastitis with fistula. Totally 27 patients of periductal mastitis with fistula received anti-mycobacteria drugs therapy from December 2008 to September 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. All of the patients were female. The mean age at onset was 28 years (range 15 to 40 years old). The main clinical manifestation of the 27 patients was breast fistula, including 21 patients with single fistula and 6 patients with multiple fistula. Three patients manifested with pure fistula, 14 patients with both fistula and lump, 10 patients with fistula, lump and abscess. The samples including pus or tissues of all patients were underwent bacteria culture and all patients core needle biopsy. All patients were given primary anti-mycobacteria drugs therapy, parts of patients received surgery based on the evaluation of medical treatment. The common bacteria culture of all patients failed to demonstrate any causative microorganism. Four cases were selected randomly to undergo PCR of mycobacteria, only one case was identified as Massiliense in bacteria culture of mycobacteria. Twenty-seven patients with periductal mastitis with fistula were treated with anti-mycobacterial agents (isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol or pyrazinamide of triple oral drugs) for 1 to 3 months, the fistula of all 27 patients were closed well. Sixteen patients were treated with the agents only and cured. Eleven patients received surgical treatment after treated with the medical agents. None of the patients were given mastectomy. All patients had no reccurence until now. The periductal mastitis with fistula has a closely relationship with the infection of nontuberculosis mycobacteria. Those patients could be treated with triple anti-mycobacterial agents and could also avoided mastectomy.
Garcia-Ramirez, J R; Holcombe, D J; Garcia-Gregory, J A
Posttraumatic formation of either aortico-ventricular or coronary arterio-ventricular fistulas are rare, albeit well-documented events. A case is presented involving crush injury to the chest complicated by an acute inferior wall myocardial infarction and later associated with an aortico-right ventricular fistula. Progressive right ventricular dilatation dictated subsequent surgical repair in this case, although similar fistulas without dilatation may safely be observed.
Tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) without associated esophageal atresia (EA) is a rare congenital anomaly. Diagnosis in neonatal period is usually not made and most of the patients are treated as cases of pneumonia. A case of H-type of tracheoesophageal fistula, diagnosed within 24 hours of delivery based upon choking and cyanosis on first trial of feed, is being reported. Diagnosis was confirmed with contrast esophagram. Through cervical approach fistula was repaired and baby had uneventful post operative outcome. PMID:22953298
González-Sánchez-Migallón, Elena; Aguilar-Jiménez, José; García-Marín, José Andrés; Aguayo-Albasini, José Luis
Chyle leak following axillary lymph node clearance is a rare yet important complication. The treatment of postoperative chyle fistula still remains unclear. Conservative management is the first line of treatment. It includes axillary drains on continuous suction, pressure dressings, bed rest, and nutritional modifications. The use of somatostatin analogue is well documented as a treatment for chylous fistulas after neck surgery. We present a case of chylous fistula after axillary surgery resolved with the use of octreotide.
Quiroz, Lieschen H; Shobeiri, S Abbas; Nihira, Mikio A
We present a novel technique for visualization of a urethrovaginal fistula. A 52-year-old patient presented with persistent urinary incontinence, after having three mid-urethral sling procedures performed within the past year. The diagnosis of a urethrovaginal fistula was made by endovaginal 3-D endovaginal ultrasound and confirmed intraoperatively. We have described a novel technique that may benefit patients with urethrovaginal fistulas that are difficult to visualize.
Leach, Stacey B; Fine, Deborah M; Schutrumpf, Robert J; Britt, Lisa G; Durham, H Edward; Christiansen, Kevin
An 8-year-old, castrated male Basset Hound was evaluated for congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Echocardiography and angiography demonstrated a left-to-right shunting aorticopulmonary fistula. Coil embolization of the fistula was initially successful in reducing the volume of blood flow through the vascular network. The dog was medically managed for congestive heart failure until it was euthanized 6 months after initial presentation. The physiology and treatment of centrally located arteriovenous fistulae are discussed.
Hunald, F A; Rajaonarivony, M F V; Rakotovao, M; Ravololoniaina, T; Rakoto-Ratsimba, H; Andriamanarivo, M L
Omphalomesenteric fistula is a complete persistence of the omphalomesenteric duct communicating between the umbilicus and the intestine. The presence of intestinal contents suggests the diagnosis in its typical form. We report a case of omphalomesenteric fistula in a 3-year-old boy to show that intestinal parasitic infection associated with ascariasis expulsion through the umbilicus can be the incidental finding of the omphalomesenteric fistula. This case needs no paraclinical investigation and treatment consists in partial transumbilical resection followed by umbilicus restitution.
Dember, Laura M.; Imrey, Peter B.; Beck, Gerald J.; Cheung, Alfred K.; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Huber, Thomas S.; Kusek, John W.; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir; Vazquez, Miguel A.; Alpers, Charles E.; Robbin, Michelle L.; Vita, Joseph A.; Greene, Tom; Gassman, Jennifer J.; Feldman, Harold I.
Background A large proportion of newly created arteriovenous fistulas cannot be used for dialysis because they fail to mature adequately to support the hemodialysis blood circuit. The Hemodialysis Fistula Maturation (HFM) Study was designed to elucidate clinical and biological factors associated with fistula maturation outcomes. Study Design Multicenter prospective cohort study. Setting & Participants Approximately 600 patients undergoing creation of a new hemodialysis fistula will be enrolled at 7 centers in the United States and followed up for as long as 4 years. Predictors Clinical, anatomical, biological, and process-of-care attributes identified pre-operatively, intra-operatively, or post-operatively. Outcomes The primary outcome is unassisted clinical maturation defined as successful use of the fistula for dialysis for four weeks without any maturation-enhancing procedures. Secondary outcomes include assisted clinical maturation, ultrasound-based anatomical maturation, fistula procedures, fistula abandonment, and central venous catheter use. Measurements Pre-operative ultrasound arterial and venous mapping, flow-mediated and nitroglycerin-mediated brachial artery dilation, arterial pulse wave velocity, and venous distensibility; intra-operative vein tissue collection for histopathological and molecular analyses; post-operative ultrasounds at 1 day, 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and prior to fistula intervention and initial cannulation. Results Assuming complete data, no covariate adjustment, and unassisted clinical maturation of 50%, there will be 80% power to detect ORs of 1.83 and 1.61 for dichotomous predictor variables with exposure prevalences of 20% and 50%, respectively. Limitations Exclusion of two-stage transposition fistulas limits generalizability. The requirement for study visits may result in a cohort that is healthier than the overall population of patients undergoing fistula creation. Conclusions The HFM Study will be of sufficient size and scope to 1
Kim, Doris Maria; Benndorf, Goetz; Von Moers, Arpad; Campi, Adriana; Lehmann, Thomas-Nicolas
To report the endovascular treatment of a spontaneous scalp arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in a child with Hartnup disease. A 6-year-old girl with Hartnup disease presented with recurrent attacks of intense, migraine-like, right-sided headache; a tender, pulsatile small mass was observed in the scalp. Selective digital subtraction angiography revealed a high-flow scalp AVF fed by the frontal branch of the right superficial temporal artery draining via the scalp veins. Endovascular treatment was performed by direct puncture of the distal feeding artery and injection of 2 mL of a 50% mixture of N-butyl-cyanoacrylate and Lipiodol. Serial arteriograms performed 6 months and 2 years later documented complete resolution of the lesion. The patient has had no recurrence of clinical symptoms or local signs for recanalization. Scalp AVFs may progress in size, causing significantly disabling symptoms, particularly in children. We recommend endovascular treatment at the earliest possible stage.
Katsura, Nagato; Kawai, Yasuhiro; Gomi, Takashi; Okumura, Kenji; Hoashi, Takahiko; Fukuda, Seijun; Takebayashi, Katsushi; Shimizu, Kenji; Satoh, Masugi
Following an increase in the use of the GIA stapler for treating a pancreatic stump, more techniques to prevent postoperative pancreatic juice leakage have been required. We describe one successful case using our new technique of invaginating the cut end of the pancreas into the stomach to prevent a pancreatic fistula (PF) from occurring. A 50-year-old woman with pancreatic cancer in the tail of the pancreas underwent distal pancreatectomy, causing a grade A PF. We resected the distal pancreas without additional reinforcement to invaginate the stump into the gastric posterior wall with single layer anastomosis using a 3-0 absorbable suture. The drain tubes were removed on the third postoperative day. Although a grade A PF was noted, the patient was discharged on foot on the eleventh postoperative day. Our technique may be a suitable method for patients with a pancreatic body and tail tumor. PMID:28293098
Marsdin, Emma Lucy; Kreckler, Simon; Alzein, Abdulhalim; D'Costa, Horace
Gallstones are common and largely asymptomatic, but can result in significant morbidity in a small proportion of patients. Choledochal-enteric fistulation is one such complication with an associated mortality of 15-18%. The authors present a case of an 88-year-old man admitted to the general medical ward with an acute upper gastrointestinal bleed. Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy found a large gallstone impacted in the pylorus and CT scan revealed a choledochal-duodenal fistula. At laparotomy it was found that a 6.2 cm gallstone had fistulated into D1 and the pylorus and impacted there, causing outflow obstruction - Bouveret's syndrome. A subtotal cholecystectomy was performed and the stone was removed by a separate gastrostomy. A radiological follow through study on day 14 showed contrast passing freely through the duodenum with no leak and the patient went on to make a slow, but uneventful recovery.
Objectives: A method of closing a large tracheocutaneous fistula by a combination of a palatal mucosal graft with a turnover adiposal flap is presented. Methods: Mucosa of the same size as the tracheal defect was harvested from the hard palate and grafted just caudal to the fistula. After the mucosal graft had taken, a local flap containing the mucosal graft was turned over the tracheal defect facing the mucosa inward of the tracheal lumen. The defect caused by harvesting the flap was closed horizontally. Results: The fistula was closed successfully, and 1 year after the operation, the patient had no airway compromise and the operative scar was inconspicuous. Conclusions: Although the described method is a 2-stage procedure, it can be used to simply and reliably reconstruct the mucosal layer of the tracheal lumen and overlying skin. PMID:27980701
Carrera, Louis A; Reddy, Rachita; Pamoukian, Vicken N; Michelis, Michael F; DeVita, Maria V; Rosenstock, Jordan
A 57-year-old man with chronic kidney disease stage 5 presented for ambulatory evaluation of his arteriovenous fistula. He underwent rheolytic thrombectomy with tissue plasminogen activator infusion, angioplasty, and brachial artery stenting under local sedation. His immediate postoperative course was complicated by hypotension, cardiac dysrhythmias and hyperkalemia requiring emergent hemodialysis, due to severe intravascular hemolysis. This case illustrates that mechanical thrombectomy can cause clinically significant intravascular hemolysis, thus careful postoperative monitoring is recommended.
Gandhi, Shruti P; Patel, Kajal; Sutariya, Vaibhav; Modi, Pranjal
An intrahepatic Arterioportal Fistula Refers (APF) to abnormal shunt or fistulous connection between the portal venous system and a hepatic arterial system within the liver. Here, we present a case of portal vein thrombosis with APF in post-transplant liver, developed 2 years and 6 months after transplantation. The condition was diagnosed by Triphasic CT angiography. In this case report we have discussed various causes and pathophysiology of APF with its imaging findings.
Shellenberger, M. Joshua
In a patient found to have cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis, a choledochoduodenal fistula was used to gain access to the bile duct. Due to severe stenosis and atrophy of the major papilla, cannulation was not possible. Stones were purposely impacted in the native ampulla to cause bulging and stretching of the stenosis. Once the stenosis was stretched, the bile and pancreatic duct were accessed via the native ampulla, allowing for stone removal. PMID:26958565
West, Sara; Shellenberger, M Joshua
In a patient found to have cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis, a choledochoduodenal fistula was used to gain access to the bile duct. Due to severe stenosis and atrophy of the major papilla, cannulation was not possible. Stones were purposely impacted in the native ampulla to cause bulging and stretching of the stenosis. Once the stenosis was stretched, the bile and pancreatic duct were accessed via the native ampulla, allowing for stone removal.
Skartsis, Nikolaos; Martinez, Laisel; Duque, Juan Camilo; Tabbara, Marwan; Velazquez, Omaida C; Asif, Arif; Andreopoulos, Fotios; Salman, Loay H; Vazquez-Padron, Roberto I
Stenosis of arteriovenous (A-V) fistulae secondary to neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) compromises dialysis delivery, which worsens patients' quality of life and increases medical costs associated with the maintenance of vascular accesses. In the present study, we evaluated the role of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit in A-V fistula neointima formation. Initially, c-Kit was found in the neointima and adventitia of human brachiobasilic fistulae, whereas it was barely detectable in control veins harvested at the time of access creation. Using the rat A-V fistula model to study venous vascular remodeling, we analyzed the spatial and temporal pattern of c-Kit expression in the fistula wall. Interestingly, c-Kit immunoreactivity increased with time after anastomosis, which concurred with the accumulation of cells in the venous intima. In addition, c-Kit expression in A-V fistulae was positively altered by chronic kidney failure conditions. Both blockade of c-Kit with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) and inhibition of stem cell factor production with a specific short hairpin RNA prevented NIH in the outflow vein of experimental fistulae. In agreement with these data, impaired c-Kit activity compromised the development of NIH in A-V fistulae created in c-KitW/Wv mutant mice. These results suggest that targeting of the c-Kit signaling pathway may be an effective approach to prevent postoperative NIH in A-V fistulae.
Cadeddu, F; Salis, F; Lisi, G; Ciangola, I; Milito, G
Anal fistula is a common proctological problem to both patient and physician throughout surgical history. Several surgical and sphincter-sparing approaches have been described for the management of fistula-in-ano, aimed to minimize the recurrence and to preserve the continence. We aimed to systematically review the available studies relating to the surgical management of anal fistulas. A Medline search was performed using the PubMed, Ovid, Embase, and Cochrane databases to identify articles reporting on fistula-in-ano management, aimed to find out the current techniques available, the new technologies, and their effectiveness in order to delineate a gold standard treatment algorithm. The management of low anal fistulas is usually straightforward, given that fistulotomy is quite effective, and if the fistula has been properly evaluated, continence disturbance is minimal. On the contrary, high complex fistulas are challenging, because cure and continence are directly competing priorities. Conventional fistula surgery techniques have their place, but new technologies such as fibrin glues, dermal collagen injection, the anal fistula plugs, and stem cell injection offer alternative approaches whose long-term efficacy needs to be further clarified in large long-term randomized trials.
Sugrue, Jeremy; Nordenstam, Johan; Abcarian, Herand; Bartholomew, Amelia; Schwartz, Joel L; Mellgren, Anders; Tozer, Philip J
Anal fistulas continue to be a problem for patients and surgeons alike despite scientific advances. While patient and anatomical characteristics are important to surgeons who are evaluating patients with anal fistulas, their development and persistence likely involves a multifaceted interaction of histological, microbiological, and molecular factors. Histological studies have shown that anal fistulas are variably epithelialized and are surrounded by dense collagen tissue with pockets of inflammatory cells. Yet, it remains unknown if or how histological differences impact fistula healing. The presence of a perianal abscess that contains gut flora commonly leads to the development of anal fistula. This implies a microbiological component, but bacteria are infrequently found in chronic fistulas. Recent work has shown an increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines and epithelial to mesenchymal cell transition in both cryptoglandular and Crohn's perianal fistulas. This suggests that molecular mechanisms may also play a role in both fistula development and persistence. The aim of this study was to examine the histological, microbiological, molecular, and host factors that contribute to the development and persistence of anal fistulas.
Vetto, J.T.; Culp, S.C.; Smythe, T.B.; Chang, A.E.; Sindelar, W.F.; Sugarbaker, P.H.; Heit, H.A.; Giordano, J.M.; Kozloff, L.
Fistulas from the iliac artery to the bowel constitute a condition that is often lethal. Excluding fistulas related to vascular grafts, a review of previously reported cases shows that they are most often due to atherosclerotic iliac aneurysms. Three unusual cases of this condition that occurred after high-dose pelvic irradiation for treatment of cancer are presented; in no case was recurrent tumor evident. These cases suggest that high-dose pelvic irradiation can predispose to the formation of iliac arterial-enteric fistulas, particularly if sepsis or inflammation develops. The definitive surgical management of these fistulas entails bowel resection, arterial ligation, and extra-anatomic bypass.
Sze, Tan Ling; Abdul Aziz, Yang Faridah; Abu Bakar, Norzailin; Mohd Sani, Fadhli; Oemar, Hamid
Coronary artery fistula (CAF) is a rare anomaly of the coronary artery. Patients with this condition are usually asymptomatic. However, cardiac failure may occur later in life due to progressive enlargement of the fistula. Diagnosis is traditionally made by echocardiogram and conventional angiogram. However with the advantage of new technologies such as computed tomography (CT) coronary angiography, the course and communications of these fistulae can be delineated non-invasively and with greater accuracy. We report a case of a left circumflex artery fistula to the coronary sinus which was suspected on echocardiogram and the diagnosis was clinched on ECG-gated CT. PMID:25793089
Chu, Lei; Wang, Jian-Jun; Li, Li; Tong, Xiao-Wen; Fan, Bo-Zhen; Guo, Yi; Li, Huai-Fang
Objective: To investigate the clinical efficacy of laparoscopic repair of iatrogenic vesicovaginal fistulas (VVF) and rectovaginal fistulas. Methods: Seventeen female patients with iatrogenic fistulas (11 cases of VVF and 6 cases of high rectovaginal fistulas) were included. All patients were hospitalized and underwent laparoscopic fistula repair in our hospital between 2008 and 2012. The mean age of the patients was 44.8 ± 9.1 years. The fistulas and scar tissue were completely excised by laparoscopy, orifices were tension-free closed using absorbable sutures, omental flaps were interposed between the vagina and the bladder or rectum, and drainage was kept after repair. Results: Laparoscopic repair of fistulas was successful in all 17 patients. No complication was found during or after repair. No reoperation was needed after the repair. The operative time was 80.2 ± 30.0 minutes (range 50-140 minutes). The blood loss was 229.4 ± 101.6 ml (range 100-400 ml). The double J catheters were placed in 7 patients and removed 1-2 months after repair. Eight VVF patients underwent cystoscopy 3 months after laparoscopic repair and there were no abnormal findings. The follow-up time was 17.1 ± 6.5 months (range 8-29 months). Conclusion: Laparoscopic repair of VVF and rectovaginal fistulas is a safe and an effective minimally invasive procedure for treatment of iatrogenic fistula. PMID:25932174